WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher working pressure

  1. [Shift work and night work: what effect on blood pressure?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassat, M; Wuerzner, G; Burnier, M

    2015-09-09

    Shift work has become more and more common for the last thirty years. By definition, shift work disturbs the circadian rhythm and the internal clock. Even if the pathophysiological mechanisms are not well understood, a greater cardiovascular risk has been attributed to shift work. Cross-sectional and cohort studies have identified an association between shift work and an elevated blood pressure. Shift workers also present a higher incidence of hypertension and progression than day workers. Unfortunately, the heterogeneity of the studies, the multiple confounding factors, as well as the complexity to achieve a suitable comparison group make it impossible to draw firm clinical evidence. Nevertheless, this population needs a medical follow-up focused on the cardiovascular risks and blood pressure.

  2. When Higher Working Memory Capacity Hinders Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCaro, Marci S.; Van Stockum, Charles A., Jr.; Wieth, Mareike B.

    2016-01-01

    Higher working memory capacity (WMC) improves performance on a range of cognitive and academic tasks. However, a greater ability to control attention sometimes leads individuals with higher WMC to persist in using complex, attention-demanding approaches that are suboptimal for a given task. We examined whether higher WMC would hinder insight…

  3. Work and Leisure in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is commonly described as offering combinations of work and leisure, but the implied relationship is often limited. Different conceptions of leisure, especially leisure as pleasurable experience, raise new possibilities for seeing academic activity itself as leisure in several important senses. The importance of identifying…

  4. Learning at work in Higher Vocational Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Littke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Higher vocational training (HVE is a new form of post-secondary education that was introduced in 2009 in Sweden. The aim for HVE is to address the demands of a highly skilled Swedish workforce. Compared to other forms of adult and higher education it is less institutionalized and, based on Swedish standards, gives great opportunities for the provider to decide regarding the contents and design. The purpose of this study was to analyze a the quality of the course, Learning at Work (LIA, and (b to develop instruments and indicators to explore the quality of the student learning in working life as part of HVE. The design of research instruments was based on hypotheses to uncover the background, the learning process and effect parameters In LIA offered at 12 different HVE sites in Sweden within the areas of health care, computer science, technology and business administration. The survey data of forty-two students and thirty-six workplace supervisors were analyzed. The results of the study show that the quality of the learning at work (LIA varies considerably between different programs and different students. In most programs, it has a significant development potential. A well-functioning LIA is characterized by adequate learning content, an open work climate between colleagues, accuracy and dedication, frequent supervisor feedback, and regular communication between the Program Director and the supervisors. It is important that the educational provider requires workplaces with capacity to offer the students relevant and qualified work content. LIA should offer qualified work content providing knowledge of breadth and depth. Knowledge gained from school-based training should be challenged and must achieve curriculum goals. An important finding is the lack of definitions and criteria for quality, and the risk of quality differences between educational providers. Another significant problem identified in the study is the unclear division of

  5. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamaoka, K; Yano, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the adverse effects of long working hours on the cardiovascular systems of workers in Japan, including "Karoshi" (death from overwork), have been the focus of social concern. However, conventional methods of health checkups are often unable to detect the early signs of such adverse effects. To evaluate the influence of overtime work on the cardiovascular system, we compared 24-hour blood pressure measurements among several groups of male white-collar workers. As a result, for those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24-hour average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups; for those who periodically did overtime work, the 24-hour average blood pressure and heart rate during the busy period increased. These results indicate that the burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work.

  6. Organizing the Methodology Work at Higher School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Plaksina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the methodology components of organizing the higher school training. The research and analysis of the existing methodology systems carried out by the authors reveals that their advantages and disadvantages are related to the type of the system creating element of the methodology system organizational structure. The optimal scheme of such system has been developed in the context of Vocational School Reorganization implying the specification and expansion of the set of basic design principles of any control system. Following the suggested organizational approach provides the grounds for teachers’ self development and professional growth. The methodology of the approach allows using the given structure in any higher educational institution, providing the system transition from its simple functioning to the sustainable development mode. 

  7. Job-related resources and the pressures of working life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieman, Scott

    2013-03-01

    Data from a 2011 representative sample of Canadian workers are used to test the resource versus the stress of higher status hypotheses. Drawing on the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R), the resource hypothesis predicts that job-related resources reduce job pressure. The stress of higher status hypothesis predicts that job-related resources increase job pressure. Findings tend to favor the resource hypothesis for job autonomy and schedule control, while supporting the stress of higher status for job authority and challenging work. These findings help elaborate on the "resource" concept in the JD-R model and identify unique ways that such resources might contribute to the pressures of working life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Work-Family Balance: Perspectives from Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Soma; Abhayawansa, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    The article examines different types of work-family pressures amongst people working within the Australian university sector. We were specifically interested in work-family experiences between domestic and migrant Australians. Among the major findings, domestic Australians experience greater levels of work-family imbalance across most of the…

  9. What happens at work stays at work? Workplace supervisory social interactions and blood pressure outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jennifer H K; Kelloway, E Kevin

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between workplace supervisory social interactions and blood pressure outcomes using hourly diary entries and ambulatory blood pressure data from an experience sampling study of 55 long-term care employees. After accounting for relevant cardiovascular controls, significant effects of supervisory interactions on cardiovascular reactivity and recovery were found. Multilevel analyses revealed that negatively perceived supervisory interactions predicted higher systolic blood pressure at work (B = -1.59, p pressure recovery after work (B = -14.52, p < .05, N = 33). Specifically, negatively perceived supervisory interactions at work predicted poorer cardiovascular recovery after work. Suggestions for improving practices in organizations and in experience sampling research are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. African Ancestry Is Associated with Higher Intraocular Pressure in Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, Drew; Torres, Mina; Chen, Yii-Der I; Taylor, Kent D; Rotter, Jerome I; Varma, Rohit; Gao, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor, as well as the only modifiable risk factor, for glaucoma. Racial differences have been observed in IOP measurements with individuals of African descent experiencing the highest IOP when compared with other ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between genetic ancestry and IOP in Latinos. Population-based genetic association study. A total of 3541 participants recruited from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Study participants were genotyped using the Illumina OmniExpress BeadChip (∼730K markers). We used STRUCTURE to estimate individual genetic ancestry. Simple and multiple linear regression, as well as quantile regression, analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between genetic ancestry and IOP. The relationship between genetic ancestry and IOP in Latinos. African ancestry was significantly associated with higher IOP in Latinos in our simple linear regression analysis (P = 0.002). After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, central corneal thickness, and type 2 diabetes, this association remained significant (P = 0.0005). The main association was modified by a significant interaction between African ancestry and hypertension (P = 0.037), with hypertensive individuals experiencing a greater increase in IOP with increasing African ancestry. To our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time that African ancestry and its interaction with hypertension are associated with higher IOP in Latinos. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adapting Higher Education through Changes in Academic Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, changes to academic work are a response to the massification of higher education and a changed and changing higher education context. The majority of these adjustments involve a casualisation of academic work, widely characterised as being of a de-skilling nature, alongside the emergence of new, as well as changing, roles that…

  12. Influence of subject choice, work overload and work stress on expatriate higher education teachers.

    OpenAIRE

    Naithani, Pranav

    2013-01-01

    Subject choice, work overload and work stress influence personal and professional lives of higher education teachers. Though the majority of higher education teachers in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are expatriates, yet research on expatriate higher education teachers working in the GCC countries is limited. This paper presents one part of the work life balance survey and focuses on the influence of subject choice, work overload and work stress on higher education teachers in ...

  13. Peer Pressure in Multi-Dimensional Work Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Ebeling; Gerlinde Fellner; Johannes Wahlig

    2012-01-01

    We study the influence of peer pressure in multi-dimensional work tasks theoretically and in a controlled laboratory experiment. Thereby, workers face peer pressure in only one work dimension. We find that effort provision increases in the dimension where peer pressure is introduced. However, not all of this increase translates into a productivity gain, since the effect is partly offset by a decrease of effort in the work dimension without peer pressure. Furthermore, this tradeoff is stronger...

  14. WORK BASED HIGHER LEARNING FOR THE DANISH TOURISM SECTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Klaus; Voergård-Olesen, Rikke Karen

    2012-01-01

    programs for tourism. This is the basis for reflexive analysis of how demand and supply for higher education can be aligned for the sector. The research focuses on the role of WBL as a way to meet the needs for flexible competence building. Special emphasis is put on innovation and environmental management......The paper reports on an investigation of the business needs for work based higher learning in the Danish tourism sector and the match with the supply of higher education, emphasizing opportunities and barriers for work based learning (WBL) in the Danish University System. The Danish tourism sector...... need for development through further and higher education of employees is widely recognized, while Danish higher education is challenged to develop a more demand-led approach. The research done consists of completed empirical studies and literature review on Danish tourism and Danish higher education...

  15. Employability and work-related learning activities in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnell, Marie; Kolmos, Anette

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on how academic staff perceive their roles and responsibilities regarding work-related learning, and how they approach and implement work-related learning activities in curricula across academic environments in higher education. The study is based on case studies...

  16. Impact of work pressure, work stress and work-family conflict on firefighter burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Todd D; DeJoy, David M; Dyal, Mari-Amanda Aimee; Huang, Gaojian

    2017-10-25

    Little research has explored burnout and its causes in the American fire service. Data were collected from career firefighters in the southeastern United States (n = 208) to explore these relationships. A hierarchical regression model was tested to examine predictors of burnout including sociodemographic characteristics (model 1), work pressure (model 2), work stress and work-family conflict (model 3) and interaction terms (model 4). The main findings suggest that perceived work stress and work-family conflict emerged as the significant predictors of burnout (both p < .001). Interventions and programs aimed at these predictors could potentially curtail burnout among firefighters.

  17. MODEL TESTING OF LOW PRESSURE HYDRAULIC TURBINE WITH HIGHER EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Nedbalsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A design of low pressure turbine has been developed and it is covered by an invention patent and a useful model patent. Testing of the hydraulic turbine model has been carried out when it was installed on a vertical shaft. The efficiency was equal to 76–78 % that exceeds efficiency of the known low pressure blade turbines. 

  18. Work Status, Work Satisfaction, and Blood Pressure Among Married Black and White Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauenstein, Louise S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study examined blood pressure levels of married women in relation to such work-related variables as work load, satisfaction with work, reported strain, and evaluated performance. Differences in work load were unrelated to blood pressure levels. However, currently unemployed working women had lower levels. (Author)

  19. Work to live, don’t live to work! : A cross-sectional study of the work-life balance of higher managers

    OpenAIRE

    Korpunen, Päivi; Nápravníková, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The work-life balance is currently in vogue among governments, organizations as well as researchers. Higher managers in organizations all over the world are exposed to significant pressures in their jobs, which further influence the balance between their work and private lives, job satisfaction and overall well-being. In this thesis, we apply a different perspective on the topic of work-life balance than most of the previous scientific research. We have focused on the governmental, organizati...

  20. Effect of mining thickness on abutment pressure of working face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guang-xiang; Wang Lei [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China). Academy of Energy Sources and Security

    2008-04-15

    The distribution of the abutment pressure on the advancing front and on side of the working face was analyzed. Results show that the distribution of abutment pressure correlates with the thickness of the coal seam. The size of the abutment pressure peak is inversely proportional to the first mining thickness and the distance between peak and working face is proportional to the first mining thickness; that is to say the peak intensity falls as soon as the distribution range spreads. The distribution of side abutment pressure correlates somewhat with time. 6 refs.

  1. Analysis on working pressure selection of ACME integral test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lian; Chang Huajian; Li Yuquan; Ye Zishen; Qin Benke

    2011-01-01

    An integral effects test facility, advanced core cooling mechanism experiment facility (ACME) was designed to verify the performance of the passive safety system and validate its safety analysis codes of a pressurized water reactor power plant. Three test facilities for AP1000 design were introduced and review was given. The problems resulted from the different working pressures of its test facilities were analyzed. Then a detailed description was presented on the working pressure selection of ACME facility as well as its characteristics. And the approach of establishing desired testing initial condition was discussed. The selected 9.3 MPa working pressure covered almost all important passive safety system enables the ACME to simulate the LOCAs with the same pressure and property similitude as the prototype. It's expected that the ACME design would be an advanced core cooling integral test facility design. (authors)

  2. Gender-heterogeneous working groups produce higher quality science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley G Campbell

    Full Text Available Here we present the first empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that a gender-heterogeneous problem-solving team generally produced journal articles perceived to be higher quality by peers than a team comprised of highly-performing individuals of the same gender. Although women were historically underrepresented as principal investigators of working groups, their frequency as PIs at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis is now comparable to the national frequencies in biology and they are now equally qualified, in terms of their impact on the accumulation of ecological knowledge (as measured by the h-index. While women continue to be underrepresented as working group participants, peer-reviewed publications with gender-heterogeneous authorship teams received 34% more citations than publications produced by gender-uniform authorship teams. This suggests that peers citing these publications perceive publications that also happen to have gender-heterogeneous authorship teams as higher quality than publications with gender uniform authorship teams. Promoting diversity not only promotes representation and fairness but may lead to higher quality science.

  3. Gender-heterogeneous working groups produce higher quality science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lesley G; Mehtani, Siya; Dozier, Mary E; Rinehart, Janice

    2013-01-01

    Here we present the first empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that a gender-heterogeneous problem-solving team generally produced journal articles perceived to be higher quality by peers than a team comprised of highly-performing individuals of the same gender. Although women were historically underrepresented as principal investigators of working groups, their frequency as PIs at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis is now comparable to the national frequencies in biology and they are now equally qualified, in terms of their impact on the accumulation of ecological knowledge (as measured by the h-index). While women continue to be underrepresented as working group participants, peer-reviewed publications with gender-heterogeneous authorship teams received 34% more citations than publications produced by gender-uniform authorship teams. This suggests that peers citing these publications perceive publications that also happen to have gender-heterogeneous authorship teams as higher quality than publications with gender uniform authorship teams. Promoting diversity not only promotes representation and fairness but may lead to higher quality science.

  4. Developing New Working Methods in Medium Cycle Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    and complete a higher education study, independently of the geographic, social and cultural distance from their home 2) to intensify collaboration between the university college and local enterprises. ICT-based satellites are supposed to facilitate a close collaboration with local enterprises and authorities......This paper outlines the intentions of a research and development project running from January 2011until July 2014. The project, called FlexVid, aims at developing new structures and working methods for university college education. The intentions are 1) to make it easier for students to join...... and reinforce the integration of current issues from every-day life in the enterprises into the educational programs. To do this, we need 3) to rethink the way teachers and students usually work and intensify the problem based approach in the educational programs....

  5. An Equipment to Measure the Freezing Point of Soils under Higher Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayan; Guan, Hui; Wen, Zhi; Ma, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Soil freezing point is the highest temperature at which ice can be presented in the system and soil can be referred to as frozen. The freezing temperature of soil is an important parameter for solving many practical problems in civil engineering, such as evaluation of soil freezing depth, prediction of soil heaving, force of soil suction, etc. However, as the freezing temperature is always affected by many factors like soil particle size, mineral composition, water content and the external pressure endured by soils, to measure soil freezing point is a rather difficult task until now, not to mention the soil suffering higher pressure. But recently, with the artificial freezing technology widely used in the excavation of deep underground space, the frozen wall thickness is a key factor to impact the security and stability of deep frozen wall. To determine the freeze wall thickness, the location of the freezing front must be determined firstly, which will deal with the determination of the soil freezing temperature. So how to measure the freezing temperature of soil suffering higher pressure is an important problem to be solved. This paper will introduce an equipment which was developed lately by State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering to measure the freezing-point of soils under higher pressure. The equipment is consisted of cooling and keeping temperature system, temperature sensor and data collection system. By cooling and keeping temperature system, not only can we make the higher pressure soil sample's temperature drop to a discretionary minus temperature, but also keep it and reduce the heat exchange of soil sample with the outside. The temperature sensor is the key part to our measurement, which is featured by high precision and high sensitivity, what is more important is that the temperature sensor can work in a higher pressure condition. Moreover, the major benefit of this equipment is that the soil specimen's loads can be loaded by any microcomputer

  6. Ion pressure and work function in an effusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, M.I.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between ion flow and ion pressure is examined from the point of view of the existence of a plasma in an effusion chamber. It is shown that this relationship is nonlinear, and a method is described to calculate it for specific experimental conditions. An analysis is made of the dependence of ion pressure and the work function of the inside surface of the effusion chamber on the composition of the condensed or gas phase

  7. Work Integrated Learning in Higher Education: partnerships: a continuing evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PH vd Westhuizen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the use of Work Integrated Learning (WIL in higher education and identify the role industry plays in the need for educated workers and citizens who can meet the challenges of a new world economy. WIL allows students to acquire essential practical skills through exposure to the real world. Industry has always been the strong link in this necessary and appropriate instructional component of higher education. A qualitative approach was used in this study on a sample of second level students who participated in a WIL programme at one specific service provider. WIL education in the context of this paper is defined as a unique form of education, which integrates classroom study with, planned, and supervised WIL in the private and public sector (Arnold and Nicholson, 1991; Andrisari and Nestle, 1976. This study was conducted by second year students, (n=37 finishing a 6 months WIL component in industry. The implications of these findings for career development are discussed. In recent years, there has been an increase in research that examines careers and career development in the hospitality industry (Guerrier, 1987; Riley and Turam, 1989; Baum, 1989; Williams and Hunter, 1992; Antil, 1984; Ross, 1995. Some of this research has focused on issues relating to career paths and career development (Riley and Ladkin, 1984; Ladkin and Riley, 1996. A key issue in this research has been to attempt to determine the various factors which influence length and development. This research aims to build on this and explore the student perceptions.

  8. Leadership and Presenteeism among Scientific Staff: The Role of Accumulation of Work and Time Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Carolin; Scheel, Tabea

    2017-01-01

    The present study examines the joint roles of leadership and stressors for presenteeism of scientific staff. Leaders may have an impact on employees' health, both directly through interpersonal interactions and by shaping their working conditions. In the field of science, this impact could be special because of the mentoring relationships between the employees (e.g., PhD students) and their supervisors (e.g., professors). Based on the job demands-resources framework (JD-R), we hypothesized that the pressure to be present at the workplace induced by supervisors (supervisorial pressure) is directly related to employees' presenteeism as well as indirectly via perceptions of time pressure. The conservation of resources theory (COR) states that resource loss resulting from having to deal with job demands weakens the resource pool and therefore the capacity to deal with other job demands. Thus, we hypothesized that accumulation of work moderates the relationship between supervisorial pressure and time pressure, such that the relationship is stronger when accumulation of work is high compared to if accumulation of work is low. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 212 PhD students and postdocs of 30 scientific institutions in Germany. Analysis was performed using the SPSS macro PROCESS (Hayes, 2013). Supervisorial pressure was directly associated with higher presenteeism of employees and indirectly through increased time pressure. Moreover, supervisorial pressure and accumulation of work interacted to predict time pressure, but in an unexpected way. The positive relationship between supervisorial pressure and time pressure is stronger when accumulation is low compared to if accumulation of work is high. It seems possible that job stressors do not accumulate but substitute each other. Threshold models might explain the findings. Moreover, specific patterns of interacting job demands for scientific staff should be considered in absence management.

  9. Leadership and Presenteeism among Scientific Staff: The Role of Accumulation of Work and Time Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Dietz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the joint roles of leadership and stressors for presenteeism of scientific staff. Leaders may have an impact on employees' health, both directly through interpersonal interactions and by shaping their working conditions. In the field of science, this impact could be special because of the mentoring relationships between the employees (e.g., PhD students and their supervisors (e.g., professors. Based on the job demands-resources framework (JD-R, we hypothesized that the pressure to be present at the workplace induced by supervisors (supervisorial pressure is directly related to employees' presenteeism as well as indirectly via perceptions of time pressure. The conservation of resources theory (COR states that resource loss resulting from having to deal with job demands weakens the resource pool and therefore the capacity to deal with other job demands. Thus, we hypothesized that accumulation of work moderates the relationship between supervisorial pressure and time pressure, such that the relationship is stronger when accumulation of work is high compared to if accumulation of work is low. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 212 PhD students and postdocs of 30 scientific institutions in Germany. Analysis was performed using the SPSS macro PROCESS (Hayes, 2013. Supervisorial pressure was directly associated with higher presenteeism of employees and indirectly through increased time pressure. Moreover, supervisorial pressure and accumulation of work interacted to predict time pressure, but in an unexpected way. The positive relationship between supervisorial pressure and time pressure is stronger when accumulation is low compared to if accumulation of work is high. It seems possible that job stressors do not accumulate but substitute each other. Threshold models might explain the findings. Moreover, specific patterns of interacting job demands for scientific staff should be considered in absence management.

  10. Leadership and Presenteeism among Scientific Staff: The Role of Accumulation of Work and Time Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Carolin; Scheel, Tabea

    2017-01-01

    The present study examines the joint roles of leadership and stressors for presenteeism of scientific staff. Leaders may have an impact on employees' health, both directly through interpersonal interactions and by shaping their working conditions. In the field of science, this impact could be special because of the mentoring relationships between the employees (e.g., PhD students) and their supervisors (e.g., professors). Based on the job demands-resources framework (JD-R), we hypothesized that the pressure to be present at the workplace induced by supervisors (supervisorial pressure) is directly related to employees' presenteeism as well as indirectly via perceptions of time pressure. The conservation of resources theory (COR) states that resource loss resulting from having to deal with job demands weakens the resource pool and therefore the capacity to deal with other job demands. Thus, we hypothesized that accumulation of work moderates the relationship between supervisorial pressure and time pressure, such that the relationship is stronger when accumulation of work is high compared to if accumulation of work is low. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 212 PhD students and postdocs of 30 scientific institutions in Germany. Analysis was performed using the SPSS macro PROCESS (Hayes, 2013). Supervisorial pressure was directly associated with higher presenteeism of employees and indirectly through increased time pressure. Moreover, supervisorial pressure and accumulation of work interacted to predict time pressure, but in an unexpected way. The positive relationship between supervisorial pressure and time pressure is stronger when accumulation is low compared to if accumulation of work is high. It seems possible that job stressors do not accumulate but substitute each other. Threshold models might explain the findings. Moreover, specific patterns of interacting job demands for scientific staff should be considered in absence management. PMID:29123497

  11. A Probabilistic Model of Visual Working Memory: Incorporating Higher Order Regularities into Working Memory Capacity Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2013-01-01

    When remembering a real-world scene, people encode both detailed information about specific objects and higher order information like the overall gist of the scene. However, formal models of change detection, like those used to estimate visual working memory capacity, assume observers encode only a simple memory representation that includes no…

  12. Methyl mercury, but not inorganic mercury, associated with higher blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ellen M; Herbstman, Julie B; Lin, Yu Hong; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Halden, Rolf U; Witter, Frank R; Goldman, Lynn R

    2017-04-01

    Prior studies addressing associations between mercury and blood pressure have produced inconsistent findings; some of this may result from measuring total instead of speciated mercury. This cross-sectional study of 263 pregnant women assessed total mercury, speciated mercury, selenium, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in umbilical cord blood and blood pressure during labor and delivery. Models with a) total mercury or b) methyl and inorganic mercury were evaluated. Regression models adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, prepregnancy body mass index, neighborhood income, parity, smoking, n-3 fatty acids and selenium. Geometric mean total, methyl, and inorganic mercury concentrations were 1.40µg/L (95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.52); 0.95µg/L (0.84, 1.07); and 0.13µg/L (0.10, 0.17), respectively. Elevated systolic BP, diastolic BP, and pulse pressure were found, respectively, in 11.4%, 6.8%, and 19.8% of mothers. In adjusted multivariable models, a one-tertile increase of methyl mercury was associated with 2.83mmHg (0.17, 5.50) higher systolic blood pressure and 2.99mmHg (0.91, 5.08) higher pulse pressure. In the same models, an increase of one tertile of inorganic mercury was associated with -1.18mmHg (-3.72, 1.35) lower systolic blood pressure and -2.51mmHg (-4.49, -0.53) lower pulse pressure. No associations were observed with diastolic pressure. There was a non-significant trend of higher total mercury with higher systolic blood pressure. We observed a significant association of higher methyl mercury with higher systolic and pulse pressure, yet higher inorganic mercury was significantly associated with lower pulse pressure. These results should be confirmed with larger, longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Work-Based Learning: A New Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boud, David, Ed.; Solomon, Nicky, Ed.

    This three-part book contains 16 chapters exploring work-based learning from a theoretical and case-study perspective in the United Kingdom. Part 1, Framing Work-based Learning, contains the following four chapters: "New Practices for New Times" (David Boud, Nicky Solomon, and Colin Symes); "Repositioning Universities and Work"…

  14. Perceived unfairness at work, social and personal resources, and resting blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael T

    2014-02-01

    By drawing from theoretical perspectives suggesting that unfair conditions threaten fundamental psychological needs, perceived unfairness at work was proposed and tested as a predictor of resting blood pressure. As part of the Midlife Development in the United States Biomarkers project, participants completed questionnaires measuring perceived unfairness, self-esteem and coworker support. Resting blood pressure readings were also recorded as part of a larger physical examination. Results indicate that perceived unfairness at work was associated with higher resting diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Perceived unfairness was most strongly related to diastolic and systolic blood pressure among women with low levels of coworker support. Contrary to predictions, self-esteem did not moderate the association between perceived unfairness and blood pressure. These results suggest that high blood pressure may be a mechanism linking unfairness to negative health outcomes and point to coworker support as a moderator of the perceived unfairness-blood pressure relationship among women. Further research is needed exploring the mediating mechanisms linking unfair treatment at work to blood pressure and health. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Work is Staying Alive": Aging and Sense of Work for Teachers of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Prevot Nascimento

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the face of changes in the demographic profile of Brazilian population with the increase in the number of elderly people, the subject population aging has been extensively studied by areas of Human and Health Sciences. There is still a big gap regarding to these studies in the area of administration. The goal of this article is to understand the meaning of work for elderly professor of higher education. In order to support the study, theories are redeemed about the centrality of work, aging and meaning of work, retirement and on teaching. The research is qualitative and data were collected through field research. The corpus of interviewees was composed of 16 teachers. The interviews were analyzed in depth by the method of content analysis. It could be perceived that the work for the interviewees is something very important, that retirement is unwanted and feared and that teachers feel prejudice at work because of their age. In existing gender relations in the workplace, showed the existence of prejudice is not declared by the men against the women work.

  16. [Shift Work among Men and Women on the Threshold to Higher Working Age - Working Conditions and Health Status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, C; Tisch, A; Tophoven, S

    2016-11-01

    Background: The number of older employees in shift and night work has increased significantly in recent years. Furthermore, the proportion of women in shift and night work has increased markedly. This is due to the aging workforce and the expansion of shift work in the tertiary sector. Previous research shows that shift work is often associated with health risks. Against this background, the aim of the present study is to examine the situation of working men and women on the threshold to higher working age with regard to the relationship between shift work and physical health. Methods: We employed data from the study "lidA - leben in der Arbeit" German Cohort Study on Work, Age and Health, a survey of the German baby boom cohorts born in 1959 and 1965 (n=5 637). Linear regression models are used to study the effect of shift work - with and without night work - and of further work exposures on the baby boomers' physical health status. The models control for sleep and health-related behaviour and are stratified by gender. Among women, also the scope of work was taken into account. Results: The results show that male shift workers are burdened by their on average lower occupational status and by physical exposure; female shift workers additionally suffer from high personal effort and low rewards and female part-time shift workers also from overcommitment. Conclusion: Working conditions of shift workers are strongly characterised by work stress. In order to preserve aging shift workers' work ability, some organisational measures seem necessary. In this context, occupational safety and health management as well as opportunities for recovery and encouraging leadership should be considered. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. How Universities Work: Understanding Higher Education Organization in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joseph B.; Hudson, Katherine E.; Ramirez, Gerardo Blanco

    2013-01-01

    This study explores models of educational management used in postsecondary institutions in the five northwestern provinces of the People's Republic of China (Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, and Xinjiang). As higher education in the People's Republic of China expands and undergoes significant changes, a nuanced understanding of the organizational…

  18. Modelling in Evaluating a Working Life Project in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarja, Anneli; Janhonen, Sirpa; Havukainen, Pirjo; Vesterinen, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an evaluation method based on collaboration between the higher education, a care home and university, in a R&D project. The aim of the project was to elaborate modelling as a tool of developmental evaluation for innovation and competence in project cooperation. The approach was based on activity theory. Modelling enabled a…

  19. Writing assessment in higher education: Making the framework work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callies, M.; Zaytseva, E.; Present-Thomas, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of appropriate assessment methods for academic writing skills in higher education has received increasing attention in SLA research in recent years. Despite this, there is still relatively little understanding of how academic writing skills develop at the most advanced levels of

  20. Assessment of participation in higher education team working activities

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Andrés, María Angeles; García-Casas, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Since among the competences which are most valued by engineering corporations are the ability to make decisions, the capacity for teamwork, one’s initiative and the capacity for solving problems together with an efficient communication, an experience based on active learning and team-working in which participants had to put them into practice was carried out. Before starting the experience with an active learning strategy, students had to decide on what they understood by participation i...

  1. Work Turbochargers under Reduced Pressure in the Suction Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Filippov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In case consumers have a significant need in the compressed air, the use of turbochargers is a promising direction. The turbocharger operation is largely defined by its running conditions, namely parameters of the intake air and cooling conditions.The paper presents the results of experimental studies of turbochargers type 4CI 425MX4 of series "CENTAC" manufactured by INGERSOL-RAND, which were performed under industrial conditions in a mountainous area with difficult climatic conditions. There were, essentially, no researches of running turbochargers in mountainous areas. The combination of low atmospheric pressure, high temperature of intake air, and specific cooling conditions causes abnormal mode of turbocharger operation. The results of theoretical studies of such modes are found only in N.M. Barannikov’s work while there is no mentioned empirical research at all.Experimental studies were conducted under industrial conditions in the form of passive experiment. All measurements were carried out using a standard measuring system included in the system of compressor monitor and control. During the experimental studies temperature regimes at the turbocharger stage were controlled, and turbocharger pressure ratio and weight output were determined.The results of the research can be formulated as follows:- highland conditions and seasonal variations of atmospheric air have a negative impact on the operation of the turbochargers;- specific work value as an indicator of the economical efficiency exceeds that of the nameplate by 12...21 % depending on the climatic conditions.The problem of functioning normalization of the turbochargers seems to be relevant not only for the considered type of compressor, but also for that of the less power. It is proposed to consider two ways:- installation of the fifth additional stage;- mechanical pressurization in the suction pipe by means of blowers of high power.To make final decision it is necessary to conduct

  2. Compressed-air work is entering the field of high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Péchon, J Cl; Gourdon, G

    2010-01-01

    Since 1850, compressed-air work has been used to prevent shafts or tunnels under construction from flooding. Until the 1980s, workers were digging in compressed-air environments. Since the introduction of tunnel boring machines (TBMs), very little digging under pressure is needed. However, the wearing out of cutter-head tools requires inspection and repair. Compressed-air workers enter the pressurized working chamber only occasionally to perform such repairs. Pressures between 3.5 and 4.5 bar, that stand outside a reasonable range for air breathing, were reached by 2002. Offshore deep diving technology had to be adapted to TBM work. Several sites have used mixed gases: in Japan for deep shaft sinking (4.8 bar), in The Netherlands at Western Scheldt Tunnels (6.9 bar), in Russia for St. Petersburg Metro (5.8 bar) and in the United States at Seattle (5.8 bar). Several tunnel projects are in progress that may involve higher pressures: Hallandsås (Sweden) interventions in heliox saturation up to 13 bar, and Lake Mead (U.S.) interventions to about 12 bar (2010). Research on TBMs and grouting technologies tries to reduce the requirements for hyperbaric works. Adapted international rules, expertise and services for saturation work, shuttles and trained personnel matching industrial requirements are the challenges.

  3. Abdominal Obesity Is Characterized by Higher Pulse Pressure: Possible Role of Free Triiodothyronine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Pergola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined whether obesity is characterized by higher 24 h mean pulse pressure (24 h mean SBP-24 h mean DBP and whether free thyroid hormones (FT3 and FT4 have a relationship with 24 h mean pulse pressure. Methods. A total of 231 euthyroid overweight and obese patients, 103 women and 128 men, aged 18–68 yrs, normotensive ( or with recently developed hypertension (, never treated with antihypertensive drugs, were investigated. Fasting insulin, TSH, FT3, FT4, glucose, and lipid serum concentrations were measured. Waist circumference was measured as an indirect parameter of central fat accumulation. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed. Results. 24 h mean pulse pressure (PP showed a significant positive correlation with BMI (, waist circumference (, and FT3 ( and insulin serum levels (. When a multivariate analysis was performed, and 24 h PP was considered as the dependent variable, and waist circumference, FT3, insulin, male sex, and age as independent parameters, 24 h mean PP maintained a significant association only with waist circumference ( and FT3 levels (. Conclusion. Our results suggest that FT3 per se may contribute to higher pulse pressure in obese subjects.

  4. Higher plantar pressure on the medial side in four soccer‐related movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pui‐lam; Chamari, Karim; De Wei Mao; Wisløff, Ulrik; Hong, Youlian

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the plantar pressure in four soccer‐related movements in 15 male soccer players (mean (SD) age 20.9 (1.3) years, height 173 (4) cm, weight 61.7 (3.6) kg). Design To record plantar pressure distribution, the players wore soccer boots with 12 circular studs and with an insole pressure recorder device equipped with 99 sensors. Plantar pressure was recorded in five successful trials in each of the four soccer‐related movements: running, sideward cutting, 45° cutting and landing from a vertical jump. Each footprint was divided into 10 recorded areas for analysis. Results Compared with running at 3.3 m/s, maximal speed sideward cutting and 45° cutting induced higher peak pressure (pplantar surface as compared with the lateral side. Conclusions These data suggest that the medial side of the plantar surface may be more prone to injuries, and that foot orthosis adoption, improved soccer boot design and specific muscle training could be considered to reduce pressure and the subsequent risk of injury. PMID:17178776

  5. Higher plantar pressure on the medial side in four soccer-related movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pui-lam; Chamari, Karim; Mao, De Wei; Wisløff, Ulrik; Hong, Youlian

    2007-02-01

    To measure the plantar pressure in four soccer-related movements in 15 male soccer players (mean (SD) age 20.9 (1.3) years, height 173 (4) cm, weight 61.7 (3.6) kg). To record plantar pressure distribution, the players wore soccer boots with 12 circular studs and with an insole pressure recorder device equipped with 99 sensors. Plantar pressure was recorded in five successful trials in each of the four soccer-related movements: running, sideward cutting, 45 degrees cutting and landing from a vertical jump. Each footprint was divided into 10 recorded areas for analysis. Compared with running at 3.3 m/s, maximal speed sideward cutting and 45 degrees cutting induced higher peak pressure (pplantar surface as compared with the lateral side. These data suggest that the medial side of the plantar surface may be more prone to injuries, and that foot orthosis adoption, improved soccer boot design and specific muscle training could be considered to reduce pressure and the subsequent risk of injury.

  6. Work stress, anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure, and blood-based biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Westerlund, Hugo; Goldberg, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    -based biomarkers. Linear regression analyses before and after multivariable adjustment for age, socioeconomic status, depressive symptoms, health-related behaviours, and chronic conditions showed that work stress was associated with higher BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, alanine transaminase, white......Work stress is a risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases, but few large-scale studies have examined the clinical profile of individuals with work stress. To address this limitation, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 43,593 working adults from a French population-based sample aged 18......–72 years (the CONSTANCES cohort). According to the Effort-Reward Imbalance model, work stress was defined as an imbalance between perceived high efforts and low rewards at work. A standardized health examination included measures of anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure and standard blood...

  7. The Working Principle and Use of High Pressures in the Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlović, S.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available High pressure in the food industry, as a new non-thermal method, is applied in many phases of food processing. This new non-thermal technology was developed in the 1990s. The main advantages of high-pressure processing are in the short time of processing which is between a few seconds and 30 minutes. Processing of solid or liquid food products with or without packaginghappens in the temperature interval 5 – 90 °C, and pressures 50 – 1000 MPa. The driving pressure is distributed uniformly through the whole product independently of its quantity and shape. These processing characteristics combined with improved food microbiological safety, less energy expenditure, low concentration of waste products and longer shelf life make high-pressure processing a very promising novel food technology. Combined with lower cost of treatment (but unfortunately higher initial cost of equipment compared to traditional processing technologies, it is also economically profitable. The main purpose of such treated food products are in preservation of sensory, nutritive and textural properties. As the temperature increase is very low, there are no significant changes in sensory properties, in contrast to conventional thermal processing (sterilization, pasteurization. However, with the combination of heating or cooling and high pressure, modification of existing and creation of new food products is possible. Today, high pressure is used for the treatment of meat products (inactivation of microorganisms, freezing and defrosting of foodstuffs, production of fruit juices (pasteurization, processing of oysters, modificationof milk characteristics (foaming etc. The main purpose of this work is to present the working principle and application of high pressure in the food industry.

  8. Perceived psychological pressure at work, social class, and risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, Poul; Andersen, Lars; Holtermann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Investigate if the association between perceived psychological work pressure and risk of stroke is modified by socioeconomic status.......Investigate if the association between perceived psychological work pressure and risk of stroke is modified by socioeconomic status....

  9. Higher Physical Activity Is Associated With Lower Aortic Stiffness but Not With Central Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Wiinberg, Niels

    2015-01-01

    .47; -0.03). Associations with central systolic blood pressure and central pulse pressure were not statistically significant. We observed no difference in central hemodynamics when substituting 1 hour sedentary behavior with 1 hour light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. In this relatively...... was assessed by applanation tonometry, as aortic pulse wave velocity, and central blood pressure was estimated from radial waveforms. Associations between physical activity energy expenditure and central hemodynamics were examined by linear regression. Furthermore, the consequence of substituting 1 hour...... sedentary behavior with 1 hour light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on central hemodynamics was examined. Median physical activity energy expenditure was 28.0 kJ/kg/d (IQR: 19.8; 38.7). A 10 kJ/kg/d higher energy expenditure was associated with 0.75% lower aortic pulse wave velocity (CI: -1...

  10. "Academic Strategy: The Management Revolution in American Higher Education," by George Keller (1983) Can Strategy Work in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Keller's book was one of the first works to suggest strategic approaches to the management of higher education institutions. His case study method proved popular with readers. However, the limitations of his approach to strategy grew more apparent over time, although many of his insights remain valid today.

  11. Job Pressure and SES-contingent Buffering: Resource Reinforcement, Substitution, or the Stress of Higher Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Jonathan; Schieman, Scott

    2015-06-01

    Analyses of the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce demonstrate that job pressure is associated with greater anxiety and job dissatisfaction. In this paper we ask, What conditions protect workers? The conventional buffering hypothesis in the Job-Demands Resource (JD-R) model predicts that job resources should attenuate the relationship. We test whether the conventional buffering hypothesis depends on socioeconomic status (SES). Support for conventional buffering is evident only for job dissatisfaction--and that generalizes across SES. When anxiety is assessed, however, we observe an SES contingency: Job resources attenuate the positive association between job pressure and anxiety among workers with lower SES, but exacerbate it among those with higher SES. We discuss the implications of this SES-contingent pattern for theoretical scenarios about "resource reinforcement," "resource substitution," and the "stress of higher status." Future research should consider SES indicators as potential contingencies in the relationship between job conditions and mental health. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  12. Higher ambulatory systolic blood pressure independently associated with enlarged perivascular spaces in basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuna; Yuan, Junliang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Fan, Huimin; Li, Yue; Yin, Jiangmei; Hu, Wenli

    2017-09-01

    Enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) have been identified as a marker of cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVD). Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) is the strongest predictor of hypertension-related brain damage. However, the relationship between ABP levels and EPVS is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between ABP levels and EPVS by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). We prospectively recruited inpatients for physical examinations in our hospital from May 2013 to Jun 2016. 24-hour ABPM data and cranial magnetic resonance imaging information were collected. EPVS in basal ganglia (BG) and centrum semiovale (CSO) were identified and classified into three categories by the severity. White matter hyperintensities were scored by Fazekas scale. Spearman correlation analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between ABP levels and EPVS. A total of 573 subjects were enrolled in this study. 24-hour, day and night systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels were positively related to higher numbers of EPVS in BG (24-hour SBP: r = 0.23, p blood pressure (DBP) levels increased with an increasing degree of EPVS in CSO (p = 0.04 and 0.049, respectively). But the association disappeared after adjusting for confounders. Spearman correlation analysis indicated that ABP levels were not associated with higher numbers of EPVS in CSO (p > 0.05). DBP levels were not independently associated with the severity of EPVS in BG and CSO. Higher SBP levels were independently associated with EPVS in BG, but not in CSO, which supported EPVS in BG to be a marker of CSVD. Pathogenesis of EPVS in BG and CSO might be different.

  13. Glassy selenium at high pressure: Le Chatelier's principle still works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhkin, V. V.; Tsiok, O. B.

    2017-10-01

    Selenium is the only easily vitrified elementary substance. Numerous experimental studies of glassy Se (g -Se) at high pressures show a large spread in the data on the compressibility and electrical resistivity of g -Se. Furthermore, H. Liu et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13229 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0806857105] have arrived at the surprising conclusion that the volume of glass increases during pressure-induced crystallization. We have performed high-precision measurements of the specific volume and electrical resistivity of glassy selenium (g -Se) at high hydrostatic pressures up to 9 GPa. The measured bulk modulus at normal pressure is B =(9.0 5 ±0.15 ) GPa and its pressure derivative is BP'=6.4 ±0.2 . In the pressure range P <3 GPa, glassy selenium has an anomalously large negative second derivative of the bulk modulus. The electrical resistivity of g -Se decreases almost exponentially with increasing pressure and reaches 20 Ω cm at a pressure of 8.75 GPa. The inelastic behavior and weak relaxation of the volume for g -Se begin at pressures above 3.5 GPa; the volume and logarithm of the electrical resistivity relax significantly (logarithmically with the time) at pressures above 8 GPa. Bulk measurements certainly indicate that the volume of g -Se glass in the crystallization pressure range is larger than the volumes of both appearing crystalline phases (by 2% and 4%). Therefore, the "volume expansion phenomenon" suggested in [H. Liu et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13229 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0806857105] is not observed, and the pressure-induced crystallization of glassy selenium is consistent with the laws of thermodynamics.

  14. Organizational Culture as Determinant of Knowledge Sharing Practices of Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to explore the influence of organisational culture on the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The study hypothesized the impact of various aspects of organisational culture on the knowledge sharing practices of teachers working in higher education sector. The data required for the…

  15. Work-based learning in Higher Education – impact on learning and employability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Arnoud

    2018-01-01

    The main theme: Work-based learning in higher education has been emphasised while changes at work and in society have challenged knowledge and competencies. Learning in higher education is needed to be seen differently, and more attention is paid to students’ employability and the sustainability of

  16. "Tele"working in Higher Education: What Managers Should Know "before" Developing Teleworking Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Kristin Albright

    2015-01-01

    Over the last several decades, changes in the workplace within higher education has led to the notion of teleworking: the opportunity for employees to complete work in a remote location. This article will review the various concepts of teleworking, as well as the pros, cons, and implications for the work environment within higher education.

  17. Electric field measurement in an atmospheric or higher pressure gas by coherent Raman scattering of nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tsuyohito; Kobayashi, Kazunobu; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Mueller, Sarah; Luggenhoelscher, Dirk; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of electric field measurement based on field-induced coherent Raman scattering is demonstrated for the first time in a nitrogen containing gas at atmospheric or higher pressure, including open air. The technique is especially useful for the determination of temporal and spatial profiles of the electric field in air-based microdischarges, where nitrogen is abundant. In our current experimental setup, the minimum detectable field strength in open air is about 100 V mm -1 , which is sufficiently small compared with the average field present in typical microdischarges. No further knowledge of other gas/plasma parameters such as the nitrogen density is required. (fast track communication)

  18. Confused Professionals? : Capacities to Cope with Pressures in Professional Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schott, Carina; Van Kleef, Daphne; Noordegraaf, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Public professionalism is increasingly subject to organizational and societal pressures, which has led to ambiguity concerning its nature. Professionals face conflicting situations due to potential clashes between multifaceted professional, organizational, and societal factors. This raises questions

  19. Role Stressors, Engagement and Work Behaviours: A Study of Higher Education Professional Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Tara M.; Prottas, David J.

    2017-01-01

    The study used data provided by 349 professional staff employees from 17 different US higher education institutions to assess aspects of their working conditions that could influence their own work engagement and the work-related behaviours of their colleagues. Relationships among three role stressors (role ambiguity, role conflict and role…

  20. Examining Work Engagement and Job Satisfaction of Staff Members in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, Jill; Rosser, Vicki

    2008-01-01

    Staff members are a large and growing set of employees within higher education. While their numbers are growing, they also are seeing a change in their salaries and working conditions. Given this situation, institutions are considering work engagement and job satisfaction research. The purpose of this article is to examine those work life…

  1. Motives of Volunteering and Values of Work among Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocsi, Veronika; Fényes, Hajnalka; Markos, Valéria

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the motives for voluntary work and work values in higher education contexts are examined in a cross-border region in Central Eastern Europe. Our goal is to find out what kind of relationship exists between different types of volunteering and work values among young people. In the theoretical section, we deal with the definition of…

  2. Do children who snore have a higher blood pressure than their peers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stańczyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breathing disorders during sleep in adults have an adverse influence on the circulatory system and promote the development of hypertension, among other disorders. A large number of literature data confirm the view that sleep-disordered breathing can increase the risk of the development of hypertension in childhood as well. The aim of the study was to evaluate blood pressure values in children with adenoid or tonsillar hypertrophy and sleep-related breathing disorders such as snoring or apnoea. Material and methods: Fifty-one children participated in the study (17 girls and 34 boys. Anthropometric measurements (body height and weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference and blood pressure values were analysed. The intensity of sleep-related breathing disorders was evaluated using a questionnaire administered to the children’s parents. The results obtained were compared to normative values established by a Polish population study (OLAF. Results: Children from the study group have body dimensions comparable with those of the whole children population. Blood pressure in the children from the study group is also within normal range, but in boys we found it to be slightly higher than in girls by comparing the Z-score values. Conclusions: We did not confirm the hypothesis that children who snore due to adenoid/tonsillar hypertrophy who were qualified to surgery had hypertension in comparison to the whole population of Polish children. However, it was observed that snoring had a greater impact on boys’ blood pressure.

  3. Identification of subgroups of patients with tension type headache with higher widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Benito-González, Elena; Palacios-Ceña, María; Wang, Kelun; Castaldo, Matteo; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-12-01

    Identification of subgroups of patients with different levels of sensitization and clinical features can help to identify groups at risk and the development of better therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of patients with tension type headache (TTH) with different levels of sensitization, clinical pain features, and psychological outcomes. A total of 197 individuals with TTH participated. Headache intensity, frequency, and duration and medication intake were collected with a 4-weeks diary. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed bilaterally over the temporalis muscle, C5-C6 joint, second metacarpal and tibialis anterior muscle to determine widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale assessed anxiety and depression. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory evaluated the state and trait levels of anxiety. The Headache Disability Inventory evaluated the burden of headache. Health-related quality of life was determined with the SF-36 questionnaire. Groups were considered as positive (three or more criteria) or negative (less than three criteria) on a clinical prediction rule: headache duration patients with TTH with higher sensitization, higher chronicity of headaches and worse quality of life but lower frequency and duration of headache episodes. This subgroup of individuals with TTH may need particular attention and specific therapeutic programs for avoiding potential chronification.

  4. Higher education in nursing: the faculty work process in different institutional contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Marli Leonello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the characteristics of faculty work in nursing higher education. Method An exploratory qualitative study with a theoretical-methodological framework of dialectical and historical materialism. The faculty work process was adopted as the analytical category, grounded on conceptions of work and professionalism. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 faculty members from three higher education institutions in the city of São Paulo, classified according to the typology of institutional contexts. Results The faculty members at these higher education institutions are a heterogeneous group, under different working conditions. Intensification and precarious conditions of the faculty work is common to all three contexts, although there are important distinctions in the practices related to teaching, research and extension. Conclusion Faculty professionalization can be the starting point for analyzing and coping with such a distinct reality of faculty work and practice.

  5. Do 'green' taxes work? Decoupling environmental pressures and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2005-01-01

    This essay intends to shed light on whether environmental taxation can help to decouple environmental pressures from economic growth, a policy outcome widely desired and particularly pressing in the context of climate change where radical measures are needed to curb CO2 build up....

  6. BMI mediates the association between low educational level and higher blood pressure during pregnancy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwa, Seung Chik; Fujiwara, Takeo; Hata, Akira; Arata, Naoko; Sago, Haruhiko; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2013-04-25

    Research investigating the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and blood pressure (BP) during pregnancy is limited and its underlying pathway is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the mediators of the association between educational level as an indicator of the SES and BP in early and mid-pregnancy among Japanese women. Nine hundred and twenty-three pregnant women in whom BP was measured before 16 weeks and at 20 weeks of gestation were enrolled in this study. Maternal educational levels were categorized into three groups: high (university or higher), mid (junior college), and low (junior high school, high school, or vocational training school). The low educational group had higher systolic (low vs. high, difference = 2.39 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59 to 4.19) and diastolic BP levels (low vs. high, difference = 0.74 mmHg, 95% CI: -0.52 to 1.99) in early pregnancy. However, the same associations were not found after adjustment for pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). BP reduction was observed in mid-pregnancy in all three educational groups and there was no association between educational level and pregnancy-induced hypertension. In Japanese women, the low educational group showed higher BP during pregnancy than the mid or high educational groups. Pre-pregnancy BMI mediates the association between educational level and BP.

  7. Organizational Potential of Scientific Work in the System of Neuromanagement by the Example of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaevskaya, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Neuromanagement of higher education is an effective tool for the development of higher education, professional identification of specialist, increase of the professional authority and prestige of modern scientific and research work. The target point of neuromanagement system is competitiveness of the modern university graduate whose competence…

  8. A Risky Business? Mature Working-Class Women Students and Access to Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Diane

    2003-01-01

    Examines the experiences of 12 working class women attending an Access course at an inner city further education college. Risks and costs involved in transitioning to higher education were evident in the women's narratives. Material and cultural factors inhibited their access to higher education. The desire to "give something back"…

  9. Organization of Individual Work of Students under Competence-Oriented Approach to Education in Higher School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ualiyeva, Nazym T.; Murzalinova, Alma Z.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to identify the essence, content and specifics of organization of individual work of higher school students under competence-oriented approach. The research methodology is related to the choice of competence-oriented approach to ensure transformation of individual work into individual activity in…

  10. The Use of Work-Based Learning Pedagogical Perspectives to Inform Flexible Practice within Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, Paula

    2016-01-01

    The renewed emphasis on developing flexible learning practices in higher education (HE) underscores the importance of understanding pedagogies for students who are based in the workplace or undertake significant work-related elements of study. This paper draws on research that explores how work-based learning (WBL) pedagogy operates in UK HE using…

  11. Collaborative working between Higher Education Institutions and Charitable Organisations – an innovative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Trueman, Ian; Kane, Ros; Sanderson, Sue; Nelson, David

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative Working between Higher Education Institutions and Charitable Organisations – an innovative approach. This presentation aims to help participants understand the benefits from working with third sector charitable organisations and consider some of the challenges associated with two organisations having different approaches to education provision.

  12. An Exploratory Study into Work/Family Balance within the Australian Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Soma; Kluvers, Ron; Abhayawansa, Subhash; Vranic, Vedran

    2013-01-01

    The higher education landscape is undergoing major transformation, with a significant impact on the work and family practices of academics and professional staff. The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine the extent to which (1) time-related, (2) strain-related and (3) demographical variables impact on the work/family balance of academic…

  13. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin secretion, is associated with higher glucose and insulin concentrations but not higher blood pressure in obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, C L; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn; Linneberg, A

    2014-01-01

    distribution. METHODS: In 103 obese men (mean age ± standard deviation: 49.4 ± 10.2 years) and 27 normal weight control men (mean age: 51.5 ± 8.4 years), taking no medication, we measured 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, fasting blood concentrations of copeptin, lipids, glucose and insulin, and determined body...... blood pressure (r = 0.11, P = 0.29), 24-h diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.11, P = 0.28), BMI (r = 0.09, P = 0.37), total body fatness percentage (r = 0.10, P = 0.33), android fat mass percentage (r = 0.04, P = 0.66) or serum triglyceride concentrations (r = 0.04; P = 0.68). In contrast, plasma copeptin......, and is associated with abnormalities in glucose and insulin metabolism, but not with higher blood pressure or an android fat distribution in obese men....

  14. Seizing Workplace Learning Affordances in High-Pressure Work Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnaur, Dorina

    2010-01-01

    Work in call centres is often presented as a form of unskilled labour characterized by routinization, technological surveillance and tight management control aimed at reaching intensive performance targets. Beyond delivering business objectives, this control and efficiency strategy is often held ...... by individuals with diverse life histories or ontogenies that influence their enactment of work with self-defined interests and identity formation pursuits being directed by their personal agency...

  15. Effect of working pressure and annealing temperature on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    roughness was found at higher temperatures as a result of a more heterogeneous growth and less tensions. Keywords. Barium strontium titanate; thin film; pulsed laser deposition; ferroelectric. 1. Introduction. Perovskite barium strontium titanate (BST) thin films are promising candidates for dynamic random access memory.

  16. Seizing Workplace Learning Affordances in High-Pressure Work Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnaur, Dorina

    2010-01-01

    Work in call centres is often presented as a form of unskilled labour characterized by routinization, technological surveillance and tight management control aimed at reaching intensive performance targets. Beyond delivering business objectives, this control and efficiency strategy is often held to produce counterproductive effects with regard to…

  17. Higher blood pressure among Inuit migrants in Denmark than among the Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Jørgensen, M E; Lumholt, P

    2002-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Previous studies of blood pressure among the Inuit have given inconsistent results and studies comparing Inuit migrants with those living in traditional Inuit areas are absent. The purpose of the study was to compare the blood pressure of the Inuit in Greenland with that of Inuit......) or reduced (diastolic pressure) among the better educated. The results suggest that the blood pressure of the Inuit, especially Inuit men, may be responsive to factors related to the modern Western way of life.......STUDY OBJECTIVE: Previous studies of blood pressure among the Inuit have given inconsistent results and studies comparing Inuit migrants with those living in traditional Inuit areas are absent. The purpose of the study was to compare the blood pressure of the Inuit in Greenland with that of Inuit...... adjusted blood pressures were 117/72 mm Hg in Greenland and 127/81 mm Hg among the migrants (peducation...

  18. Muscular Strength Is Associated with Higher Intraocular Pressure in Physically Active Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; García-Ramos, Amador; Cárdenas, David

    2018-02-01

    The positive association between intraocular pressure (IOP) and relative maximum force may have relevance for exercise recommendations when IOP is a concern. The relationship between exercise and IOP has been approached in several studies. However, the influence of muscle function on IOP remains underexplored. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the maximal mechanical capabilities of muscles to generate force, velocity, and power with IOP. Sixty-five physically active males participated in this cross-sectional study. Baseline IOP measures were obtained by rebound tonometry, and participants performed an incremental loading test in the ballistic bench press. Baseline IOP showed a strong positive correlation with relative maximum force (r65 = 0.85, P .05). There is a positive association between greater upper-body power and strength with higher baseline IOP, which might have important implications in the management of ocular health and especially in individuals constantly involved in resistance training programs (e.g., military personnel, weightlifters). The possible protective effect of high fitness level on the acute IOP response to strength exercise needs to be addressed in future studies.

  19. Integrating international student mobility in work-based higher education: The case of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Lukas; Powell, Justin J.W.; Fortwengel, Johann; Bernhard, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    Dual study programs are hybrid forms of work-based higher education that have expanded very rapidly in Germany—a country traditionally considered a key model in both higher education (HE) and vocational education and training (VET). The continued expansion of these hybrid programs increasingly raises questions if, how, and why they may be internationalized. Although comparative research suggests that this could be challenging due to the uniqueness of the German education and training system, ...

  20. Job demands, job resources and work engagement of academic staff in South African higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rothmann

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the work engagement of academics in selected South African higher education institutions as well as the impact of job demands and job resources on their work engagement. Stratified random samples (N = 471 were drawn from academic staff in three higher education institutions in South Africa. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES and the Job Demands-Resources Scale (JDRS were administered. The results confirmed a two-factor structure of work engagement, consisting of vigour and dedication. Six reliable factors were extracted on the JDRS, namely organisational support, growth opportunities, social support, overload, advancement and job insecurity. Job resources (including organisational support and growth opportunities predicted 26% of the variance in vigour and 38% of the variance in dedication. Job demands (overload impacted on dedication of academics at low and moderate levels of organisational support.

  1. Static pressure and temperature coefficients of working standard microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Torras Rosell, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    be a significant contribution to the uncertainty of the measurement. Determining the environmental coefficients of individual specimens of measurement microphones can be a straightforward though time-consuming procedure provided the appropriate facilities are available. An alternative is to determine them using...... coefficients. For this purpose, the environmental coefficients of some commercially available microphones have been determined experimentally, and whenever possible, compared with the coefficients determined numerically using the Boundary Element Method....... for these coefficients which are used for calibration purposes. Working standard microphones are not exempt of these influences. However, manufacturers usually provide a low frequency value of the environmental coefficient. While in some applications the influence of this coefficient may be negligible, in others it may...

  2. Perceptions of Career Development Learning and Work-Integrated Learning in Australian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlveen, Peter; Brooks, Sally; Lichtenberg, Anna; Smith, Martin; Torjul, Peter; Tyler, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a report on the perceived correspondence between career development learning and work-integrated learning programs that were delivered by career services in Australian higher education institutions. The study entailed a questionnaire survey of representatives of university career services. The questionnaire dealt with the extent to…

  3. Exploring Peer Relationships, Friendships and Group Work Dynamics in Higher Education: Applying Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamas, Christoforos

    2018-01-01

    This study primarily applied social network analysis (SNA) to explore the relationship between friendships, peer social interactions and group work dynamics within a higher education undergraduate programme in England. A critical case study design was adopted so as to allow for an in-depth exploration of the students' voice. In doing so, the views…

  4. Helicopters, Lawn Mowers or Down-to-Earth Parents? What Works Best for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Many faculty and staff working in higher education lament the increasing involvement of the parents of their college-aged students. They denigrate such individuals as "helicopter" parents, and when the contact occurs in person as opposed to through the phone or email, they call them "lawn mower" parents. The whole issue of…

  5. The Work-Related Quality of Life Scale for Higher Education Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Julian A.; Van Laar, Darren; Easton, Simon; Kinman, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that higher education employees experience comparatively high levels of job stress. A range of instruments, both generic and job-specific, has been used to measure stressors and strains in this occupational context. The Work-related Quality of Life (WRQoL) scale is a measure designed to capture perceptions of the working…

  6. Postgraduate Work-Based Learning Programmes in English Higher Education: Exploring Case Studies of Organizational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul; Preece, David

    2009-01-01

    The first part of the paper outlines and discusses the nature of work-based learning (WBL) and WBL programmes, and the overall direction of government strategy towards WBL programmes in Higher Education (HE) in England, with particular reference to postgraduate programmes, policy documents, and the WBL literature. Drawing upon case study research,…

  7. The Integrative Principle: Higher Education and Work-Based Learning in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Murray

    1995-01-01

    The United Kingdom's developing policy to integrate higher education curriculum and the demands of the workplace is explored, particularly in the context of undergraduate and graduate programs based on learning within the workplace. The policy itself, the relationship between work-based learning and conventional college instruction, and validation…

  8. Multicultural student group work in higher education: a study on challenges as perceived by students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov, V.; Brinkman, B.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Mulder, M.; Kuznetsov, A.M.; Noroozi, O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine challenges that are inherent in multicultural student group work (MCSG) in higher education and the differences between students from different cultural backgrounds in how they perceive the importance of challenges in MCSG. For this purpose, a 19-item survey was completed

  9. Web Environments for Group-Based Project Work in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andernach, J.A.; van Diepen, N.M.; Collis, Betty; Andernach, Toine

    1997-01-01

    We discuss problems confronting the use of group-based project work as an instructional strategy in higher education and describe two courses in which course-specific World Wide Web (Web) environments have evolved over a series of course sequences and are used both as tool environments for

  10. Higher blood pressure among Inuit migrants in Denmark than among the Inuit in Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerregaard, P; Jorgensen, M; Lumholt, P; Mosgaard, L; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: Previous studies of blood pressure among the Inuit have given inconsistent results and studies comparing Inuit migrants with those living in traditional Inuit areas are absent. The purpose of the study was to compare the blood pressure of the Inuit in Greenland with that of Inuit migrants in Denmark.

  11. Burnout and work engagement of academics in higher education institutions: effects of dispositional optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhuizen, Nicolene; Rothmann, Sebastiaan; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among dispositional optimism, job demands and resources, burnout, work engagement, ill health and organizational commitment of South African academic staff in higher education institutions. A cross-sectional survey design was used, with stratified random samples (N = 595) taken of academics in South African higher education institutions. The results confirmed that job demands and a lack of job resources contributed to burnout, whereas job resources contributed to work engagement. Dispositional optimism had a strong direct effect on perceptions of job resources as well as strong indirect effects (via job resources) on burnout, work engagement, ill health and organizational commitment. The results of this study extend the dual-process model of burnout and engagement by demonstrating the strong effects of dispositional optimism on the constructs in the model. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. How Work Affects Divorce: The Mediating Role of Financial and Time Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    2005-01-01

    This study examines whether the financial and time pressures associated with spouses' working lives play a role in the relation between work and divorce during the first years of marriage. Using retrospective data from the Netherlands, the results show that divorce is more likely when the husband works on average fewer hours and the wife more…

  13. Plantar pressures are higher in cases with diabetic foot ulcers compared to controls despite a longer stance phase duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Malindu E; Crowther, Robert G; Lazzarini, Peter A; Sangla, Kunwarjit S; Wearing, Scott; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2016-09-15

    Current international guidelines advocate achieving at least a 30 % reduction in maximum plantar pressure to reduce the risk of foot ulcers in people with diabetes. However, whether plantar pressures differ in cases with foot ulcers to controls without ulcers is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess if plantar pressures were higher in patients with active plantar diabetic foot ulcers (cases) compared to patients with diabetes without a foot ulcer history (diabetes controls) and people without diabetes or a foot ulcer history (healthy controls). Twenty-one cases with diabetic foot ulcers, 69 diabetes controls and 56 healthy controls were recruited for this case-control study. Plantar pressures at ten sites on both feet and stance phase duration were measured using a pre-established protocol. Primary outcomes were mean peak plantar pressure, pressure-time integral and stance phase duration. Non-parametric analyses were used with Holm's correction to correct for multiple testing. Binary logistic regression models were used to adjust outcomes for age, sex and body mass index. Median differences with 95 % confidence intervals and Cohen's d values (standardised mean difference) were reported for all significant outcomes. The majority of ulcers were located on the plantar surface of the hallux and toes. When adjusted for age, sex and body mass index, the mean peak plantar pressure and pressure-time integral of toes and the mid-foot were significantly higher in cases compared to diabetes and healthy controls (p diabetic foot ulcers despite having a longer stance phase duration which would be expected to lower plantar pressure. Whether plantar pressure changes can predict ulcer healing should be the focus of future research. These results highlight the importance of offloading feet during active ulceration in addition to before ulceration.

  14. The Maker Movement, the Promise of Higher Education, and the Future of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, Aubrey

    The 21st century will be the site of numerous changes in education systems in response to a rapidly evolving technological environment where existing skill sets and career structures may cease to exist or, at the very least, change dramatically. Likewise, the nature of work will also change to become more automated and more technologically intensive across all sectors, from food service to scientific research. Simply having technical expertise or the ability to process and retain facts will in no way guarantee success in higher education or a satisfying career. Instead, the future will value those educated in a way that encourages collaboration with technology, critical thinking, creativity, clear communication skills, and strong lifelong learning strategies. These changes pose a challenge for higher education's promise of employability and success post-graduation. Addressing how to prepare students for a technologically uncertain future is challenging. One possible model for education to prepare students for the future of work can be found within the Maker Movement. However, it is not fully understood what parts of this movement are most meaningful to implement in education more broadly, and higher education in particular. Through the qualitative analysis of nearly 160 interviews of adult makers, young makers and young makers' parents, this dissertation unpacks how makers are learning, what they are learning, and how these qualities are applicable to education goals and the future of work in the 21st century. This research demonstrates that makers are learning valuable skills to prepare them for the future of work in the 21st century. Makers are learning communication skills, technical skills in fabrication and design, and developing lifelong learning strategies that will help prepare them for life in an increasingly technologically integrated future. This work discusses what aspects of the Maker Movement are most important for integration into higher education.

  15. Development of a higher capacity, lower pressure drop steam/water separator with reduced primary-to-secondary spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruster, W.P.; Kidwell, J.H.; Eaton, A.M.; Wall, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of this development effort was to double the steam flow capacity of an existing module steam/water separator design without significantly increasing the pressure drop while simultaneously minimizing the vertical distance (spacing) between the primary and secondary separation stages. The development work included extensive air/water and steam/water testing. The steam/water tests were performed at a common pressure of 300 psia (2.1 MPa) with comparable water and steam flows

  16. A path analysis model for explaining unsafe behavior in workplaces: the effect of perceived work pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Fakhradin; Kalatpour, Omid; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Mohhamadfam, Iraj

    2018-06-01

    Unsafe behavior is closely related to occupational accidents. Work pressure is one the main factors affecting employees' behavior. The aim of the present study was to provide a path analysis model for explaining how work pressure affects safety behavior. Using a self-administered questionnaire, six variables supposed to affect safety employees' behavior were measured. The path analysis model was constructed based on several hypotheses. The goodness of fit of the model was assessed using both absolute and comparative fit indices. Work pressure was determined not to influence safety behavior directly. However, it negatively influenced other variables. Group attitude and personal attitude toward safety were the main factors mediating the effect of work pressure on safety behavior. Among the variables investigated in the present study, group attitude, personal attitude and work pressure had the strongest effects on safety behavior. Managers should consider that in order to improve employees' safety behavior, work pressure should be reduced to a reasonable level, and concurrently a supportive environment, which ensures a positive group attitude toward safety, should be provided. Replication of the study is recommended.

  17. Perceived psychological pressure at work, social class, and risk of stroke: a 30-year follow-up in Copenhagen male study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suadicani, Poul; Andersen, Lars L; Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole S; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2011-12-01

    Investigate if the association between perceived psychological work pressure and risk of stroke is modified by socioeconomic status. Thirty-year follow-up of 4943 middle-aged men without cardiovascular disease. In the higher social classes (I, II, and III), perceived regular exposure to psychological work pressure was common and a significant predictor of stroke; almost 10% of the stroke events could be attributed to this exposure in the higher social classes; among lower social classes (IV and V), perceived psychological pressure was no predictor at all. Regular psychological work pressure is a highly prevalent and independent risk factor for stroke among men in higher social classes. In contrast, no association to stroke risk was found among low social class men.

  18. Social work in a society under pressure. Keeping professional principles and standards upright.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Blok

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the content and outcome of the 5th Annual International Conference on Social Work & Social Work Education in Leeuwarden, The Netherlands on February 5, 2016. It shows how Social Work is embedded in society, and describes the pressure of contemporary (international problems on society, and the way in which authorities respond to it. The article continues with a discussion of the answers given by the 200 conference participants on the question how social workers and social work educators could cope with this pressure without denying their international professional principles and standards.

  19. Initiation of sulfonylureas versus metformin is associated with higher blood pressure at one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumie, Christianne L; Liu, Xulei; Choma, Neesha N; Greevy, Robert A; Hung, Adriana M; Grijalva, Carlos G; Griffin, Marie R

    2012-05-01

    To determine if incident oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) use was associated with 12-month systolic blood pressure (BP) and if this was mediated through body mass index (BMI) changes. A retrospective cohort of veterans with hypertension who initiated metformin (n = 2057) or sulfonylurea (n = 1494) between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2007 in the Veterans Administration Mid-South Network was assembled. Patients were included if they had complete covariates, including 12-month BP and BMI, and persisted on therapy for 12 months. Linear regression was conducted to investigate the effect of OADs on 12-month systolic BP adjusting for demographics, glycated hemoglobin, creatinine, BMI, health care utilization, and comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). A second analysis examined if these effects were mediated by BMI change. The secondary outcome was the proportion of patients who had a controlled BP (≤ 140/90 mmHg) at 12 months adjusted for baseline BP and covariates. Patients were white (82%) males (97%) with median age of 64 years (interquartile range [IQR] 57, 72), and 27% had history of CVD. Sulfonylurea users had a 1.33 mmHg (0.16, 2.50, p = 0.03) higher 12-month systolic BP than metformin users. The median change in BMI from OAD initiation to 12 months was -0.76 (IQR -1.78, 0.07) and 0.21 (IQR -0.57, 1.03) among metformin and sulfonylurea users, respectively. In a model adjusting for BMI change, the difference in 12-month systolic BP between sulfonylurea and metformin users became insignificant (0.23 (-1.00, 1.45), p = 0.72), while one BMI unit change was associated with an increase in 12-month systolic BP of 1.07 mmHg (0.74, 1.40, p metformin patients had controlled BP versus 64.2% of sulfonylurea patients (p = 0.01). Compared with metformin, sulfonylurea initiation was associated with increased systolic BP at 12 months, which appears to be mediated by the differential effects of these drugs on BMI. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Job strain associated with increases in ambulatory blood and pulse pressure during and after work hours among female hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Matt; Krause, Niklas

    2018-06-01

    Previously documented elevated hypertension rates among Las Vegas hotel room cleaners are hypothesized to be associated with job strain. Job strain was assessed by questionnaire. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was recorded among 419 female cleaners from five hotels during 18 waking hours. Multiple linear regression models assessed associations of job strain with ABP and pulse pressure for 18-h, work hours, and after work hours. Higher job strain was associated with increased 18-h systolic ABP, after work hours systolic ABP, and ambulatory pulse pressure. Dependents at home but not social support at work attenuated effects. Among hypertensive workers, job strain effects were partially buffered by anti-hypertensive medication. High job strain is positively associated with blood pressure among female hotel workers suggesting potential for primary prevention at work. Work organizational changes, stress management, and active ABP surveillance and hypertension management should be considered for integrated intervention programs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Improving employee productivity through work engagement: Evidence from higher education sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Hanaysha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Employee productivity is one of the important management topics that received significant research attentions from several scholars and considered as a primary mechanism to enhance organizational success. Knowing what are the key factors that influence productivity is vital to ensure long term performance. This study examines the effect of work engagement on employee productivity in higher education sector. To accomplish this purpose, the primary data using survey instrument were collected from a sample of 242 employees at public universities in northern Malaysia using an online survey method. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS and Structural equation modelling on AMOS. The results indicated that work engagement had significant positive effect on employee productivity. Moreover, this study provides an evidence that all of the dimensions of work engagement namely vigor, dedication, and absorption have significant positive effects on employee productivity.

  2. Consistency between analytical and finite element predictions for safety of cylindrical pressure vessels at higher temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iancu, Otto Theodor

    2014-01-01

    The prediction of the plastic collapse load of cylindrical pressure vessels is very often made by using expensive Finite Element computations. The calculation of the collapse load requires an elastic-plastic material model and the consideration of non-linear geometry effects. The plastic collapse load causes overall structural instability and cannot be determined directly from a Finite Element analysis. In the present paper the plastic collapse load for a cylindrical pressure vessel is determined by an analytical method based on a linear elastic perfectly plastic material model. When plasticity occurs the material is considered to be incompressible and the tensor of plastic strains to be parallel to the stress deviator tensor. In this case the finite stress-strain relationships of Henkel can be used for calculating the pressure for which plastic flow occurs. The analytical results are completely confirmed by Finite Element predictions. (orig.)

  3. How Work Affects Divorce : The Mediating Role of Financial and Time Pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    2005-01-01

    This study examines whether the financial and time pressures associatedwith spouses’working lives play a role in the relation between work and divorce during the first years of marriage. Using retrospective data from the Netherlands, the results show that divorce is more likely when the husband

  4. How work affects divorce. The mediating role of financial and time pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines whether the financial and time pressures associated with spouses' working lives play a role in the relation between work and divorce during the first years of marriage. Using retrospective data from the Netherlands, the results show that divorce is more likely when the husband

  5. On designing low pressure loss working spaces for a planar Stirling micromachine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachey, M.-A.; Léveillé, É.; Fréchette, L. G.; Formosa, F.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, research was undertaken with the objective to design low pressure loss working spaces for a Stirling cycle micro heat engine operating from low temperature waste heat. This planar free-piston heat engine is anticipated to operate at the kHz level with mm3 displacement. Given the resonant nature of the free-piston configuration, the complexity of its working gas’ flow geometry and its projected high operating frequency, flow analysis is relatively complex. Design considerations were thus based on fast prototyping and experimentation. Results show that geometrical features, such as a sharp 90° corner between the regenerator and working spaces, are strong contributors to pressure losses. This research culminated into a promising revised working space configuration for engine start-up, as it considerably reduced total pressure losses, more than 80% at Re = 700, from the original design.

  6. Neonatal Pneumothorax Pressures Surpass Higher Threshold in Lung Recruitment Maneuvers: An In Vivo Interventional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pizarro, Patricio; García-Fernández, Javier; Canfrán, Susana; Gilsanz, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Causing pneumothorax is one of the main concerns of lung recruitment maneuvers in pediatric patients, especially newborns. Therefore, these maneuvers are not performed routinely during anesthesia. Our objective was to determine the pressures that cause pneumothorax in healthy newborns by a prospective experimental study of 10 newborn piglets (pneumothorax. Animals under anesthesia and bilateral chest tube catheterization were randomly allocated to 2 groups: one with PEEP and fixed inspiratory driving pressure of 15 cm H2O (PEEP group) and the second one with PEEP = 0 cm H2O and non-fixed inspiratory driving pressure (zero PEEP group). In both groups, the ventilation mode was pressure-controlled, and PIP was raised at 2-min intervals, with steps of 5 cm H2O until air leak was observed through the chest tubes. The PEEP group raised PIP through 5-cm H2O PEEP increments, and the zero PEEP group raised PIP through 5-cm H2O inspiratory driving pressure increments. Pneumothorax was observed with a PIP of 90.5 ± 15.7 cm H2O with no statistically significant differences between the PEEP group (92 ± 14.8 cm H2O) and the zero PEEP group (89 ± 18.2 cm H2O). The zero PEEP group had hypotension, with a PIP of 35 cm H2O; the PEEP group had hypotension, with a PIP of 60 cm H2O (P = .01). The zero PEEP group presented bradycardia, with PIP of 40 cm H2O; the PEEP group presented bradycardia, with PIP of 70 cm H2O (P = .002). Performing recruitment maneuvers in newborns without lung disease is a safe procedure in terms of pneumothorax. Pneumothorax does not seem to occur in the clinically relevant PIPs of pneumothorax PIP in poorly compliant lungs. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  7. [The effect of work-related stress on the occurrence of increased blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaj, A; Cybulski, J; Kułakowski, P; Makowska, E; Rezler, J; Lange, J; Gorzkowska, J; Abramowski, S

    In 546 officials the arterial blood pressure was measured twice at the beginning and at the end of a working day, filling also an inquiry form. As hypertension systolic BP over 160 mm Hg (21.3 kPa) or more, and diastolic BP 96 mm Hg (12.7 kPa) or more were accepted. In 90 subjects (16.5%) above normal pressure values were found. Hypertension had been diagnosed previously in 50 subjects in this group (55.5%) but only 13 of them (26%) were treated systematically. Excessive stress of work was complained of by 62.6% of the subjects. Increased blood pressure was found significantly more frequently in the group perceiving excessive stress of work (19.9%) as compared to those not experiencing this stress (10.8%, p less than 0.1). In the group in managerial posts these proportions were 24.8% and 14.4% respectively (p less than 0.1). Blood pressure rise to abnormal levels during the working day occurred also significantly more frequently in the group experiencing it this was noted only in 1.6% of cases (p less than 0.5). The knowledge of own hypertension was very low in this group. These results indicate the necessity of increasing prophylactic measures in the form of greater frequency of control measurements of the blood pressure, better health education, and limitation of stress situations in working environment.

  8. Physical state of the second mature age men working as teachers of higher educational establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Penzie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It is presented characteristic of physical state of the second mature age men working as teachers of higher educational establishments. The experiment involved 46 teachers - men second mature age.The investigation shows that the studied people have most data of cardiovascular and respiratory system of a low level. It indicates the necessity of improvement of body’s functional systems and increasing a hypoxia tolerance level. Planning of selection of physical education means in the sphere of preventive and sanitary classes with male – teachers of higher educational establishments is substantiated. It is marked that in the system prophylactic health-improvement employments it is necessary to utillize individual approach for men with the high, middle and low level of physical preparedness. The necessity of account of motivational priorities, decisions of the personal aims and tasks, specifics of pedagogical activity, is marked, selection of facilities which have a high health effect.

  9. Curriculum Change and Climate Change: Inside outside Pressures in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Shireen J.

    2012-01-01

    In higher education today, institutions are facing a number of challenges--including the challenge to create future-proof graduates. Higher education institutions have a particular mandate to develop future leaders and decision-makers capable of understanding and providing solutions to complex, global issues. Education programmes that focus on…

  10. A quick guide to API 510 certified pressure vessel inspector syllabus example questions and worked answers

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    The API Individual Certification Programs (ICPs) are well established worldwide in the oil, gas, and petroleum industries. This Quick Guide is unique in providing simple, accessible and well-structured guidance for anyone studying the API 510 Certified Pressure Vessel Inspector syllabus by summarizing and helping them through the syllabus and providing multiple example questions and worked answers.Technical standards are referenced from the API 'body of knowledge' for the examination, i.e. API 510 Pressure vessel inspection, alteration, rerating; API 572 Pressure vessel inspection; API

  11. Swedish Work on Brittle-Fracture Problems in Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grounes, M.

    1966-03-01

    After a short review of the part of the Swedish nuclear energy program that is of interest in this context the Swedish reactor pressure vessels and the reasoning behind the choice of materials are surveyed. Problems and desirable aims for future reactors are discussed. Much work is now being done on new types of pressure vessel steels with high strength, low transition temperature and good corrosion resistance. These steels are of the martensitic austenitic type Bofors 2RMO (13 % Cr, 6 % Ni, 1. 5 % Mo) and of the ferritic martensitic austenitic type Avesta 248 SV (16 % Cr, 5 % Ni, 1 % Mo). An applied philosophy for estimating the brittle-fracture tendency of pressure vessels is described. As a criterion of this tendency we use the crack-propagation transition temperature, e. g. as measured by the Robertson isothermal crack-arrest test. An estimate of this transition temperature at the end of the reactor' s lifetime must take increases due to fabrication, welding, geometry, ageing and irradiation into account. The transition temperature vs. stress curve moves towards higher temperatures during the reactor' s lifetime. As long as this curve does not cross the reactor vessel stress vs. temperature curve the vessel is considered safe. The magnitude of the different factors influencing the final transition temperature are discussed and data for the Marviken reactor's pressure vessel are presented. At the end of the reactor's lifetime the estimated transition temperature is 115 deg C, which is below the maximum permissible value. A program for the study of strain ageing has been initiated owing to the uncertainty as to the extent of strain ageing at low strains. A study of a simple crack-arrest test, developed in Sweden, is in progress. An extensive irradiation-effects program on several steels is in progress. Results from tests on the Swedish carbon-manganese steels 2103/R3, SIS 142103 and SIS 142102, the low-alloy steels Degerfors DE-631A, Bofors NO 345 and Fortiweld

  12. Swedish Work on Brittle-Fracture Problems in Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grounes, M

    1966-03-15

    After a short review of the part of the Swedish nuclear energy program that is of interest in this context the Swedish reactor pressure vessels and the reasoning behind the choice of materials are surveyed. Problems and desirable aims for future reactors are discussed. Much work is now being done on new types of pressure vessel steels with high strength, low transition temperature and good corrosion resistance. These steels are of the martensitic austenitic type Bofors 2RMO (13 % Cr, 6 % Ni, 1. 5 % Mo) and of the ferritic martensitic austenitic type Avesta 248 SV (16 % Cr, 5 % Ni, 1 % Mo). An applied philosophy for estimating the brittle-fracture tendency of pressure vessels is described. As a criterion of this tendency we use the crack-propagation transition temperature, e. g. as measured by the Robertson isothermal crack-arrest test. An estimate of this transition temperature at the end of the reactor' s lifetime must take increases due to fabrication, welding, geometry, ageing and irradiation into account. The transition temperature vs. stress curve moves towards higher temperatures during the reactor' s lifetime. As long as this curve does not cross the reactor vessel stress vs. temperature curve the vessel is considered safe. The magnitude of the different factors influencing the final transition temperature are discussed and data for the Marviken reactor's pressure vessel are presented. At the end of the reactor's lifetime the estimated transition temperature is 115 deg C, which is below the maximum permissible value. A program for the study of strain ageing has been initiated owing to the uncertainty as to the extent of strain ageing at low strains. A study of a simple crack-arrest test, developed in Sweden, is in progress. An extensive irradiation-effects program on several steels is in progress. Results from tests on the Swedish carbon-manganese steels 2103/R3, SIS 142103 and SIS 142102, the low-alloy steels Degerfors DE-631A, Bofors NO 345 and Fortiweld

  13. Synthesis and characterization of DC magnetron sputtered ZnO thin films under high working pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezam, M.; Tabet, N.; Mekki, A.

    2010-01-01

    ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrates using direct current (dc) magnetron sputtering under high working pressures. A pure zinc target was used, and sputtering was carried out in an oxygen atmosphere. The working pressure was varied between 50 and 800 mTorr. XRD characterization showed that for a window of working pressures between 300 and 500 mTorr, the deposited films were polycrystalline, with strong preferential orientation of grains along the c-axis. The film deposited at 400 mTorr had the highest (002) peak with the largest estimated grain size. Outside this window, the crystallinity and c-orientation of grains are lost. The microstructure of the films was investigated by Atomic Force microscopy (AFM). Optical transparency of the films was about 85%. The films produced were highly resistive, which might provide new alternatives for the synthesis of ZnO thin films aimed for SAW devices.

  14. USING OF ROBOTS-MANIPULATORS IN LABORATORY WORKS IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Yehorov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Studying of technical disciplines in higher education institution as a rule consists of 2 parts – theories and practice. Practice, is a type of educational process which allows to realize theoretical knowledge to the applied sphere. In particular it allows to provide an object visually, creating its image and visually adequate perception. This work is devoted to development of laboratory base of technical college with use of robots manipulators on occupations. Its relevance is shown. The overview of modern stands is provided in different higher education institutions, the analysis of their benefits and shortcomings is this. The task of creation of the robot manipulator for sorting of objects of color is set. The robot model including an automatic management system it is developed. The sensor of color, the regulator and the executive mechanism allowing to move objects to the corresponding reservoirs is its part. Possibilities of further development of a question, in particular, creations of physical model for use are given in laboratory works.

  15. USING OF ROBOTS-MANIPULATORS IN LABORATORY WORKS IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yehorov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Studying of technical disciplines in higher education institution as a rule consists of 2 parts – theories and practice. Practice, is a type of educational process which allows to realize theoretical knowledge to the applied sphere. In particular it allows to provide an object visually, creating its image and visually adequate perception. This work is devoted to development of laboratory base of technical college with use of robots manipulators on occupations. Its relevance is shown. The overview of modern stands is provided in different higher education institutions, the analysis of their benefits and shortcomings is this. The task of creation of the robot manipulator for sorting of objects of color is set. The robot model including an automatic management system it is developed. The sensor of color, the regulator and the executive mechanism allowing to move objects to the corresponding reservoirs is its part. Possibilities of further development of a question, in particular, creations of physical model for use are given in laboratory works.

  16. Change in the work function of zirconium by oxidation at high temperatures and low oxygen pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Naito, Shizuo; Mabuchi, Mahito; Hashino, Tomoyasu

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the work function of zirconium on oxidation are measured at oxygen pressures of 3.0 x 10 -6 - 3.0 x 10 -4 Pa and at temperatures in the range 426-775 K. The work function first decreases then increases until a final saturation stage is reached. Use of secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) shows that the changes correspond to oxygen adsorption, oxide nucleation and oxide growth, respectively. The initial decrease in work function is interpreted by the incorporation of oxygen adatoms into the subsurface. The oxygen adsorption potential of zirconium is evaluated by an effective medium theory, and the physical origin of the incorporation of oxygen adatoms is discussed. The positive change in the work function caused by oxide formation and the temperature and pressure dependences of the change in the work function by oxidation are explained qualitatively. (author)

  17. Stress in highly demanding IT jobs: transformational leadership moderates the impact of time pressure on exhaustion and work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrek, Christine J; Apostel, Ella; Antoni, Conny H

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate transformational leadership as a potential moderator of the negative relationship of time pressure to work-life balance and of the positive relationship between time pressure and exhaustion. Recent research regards time pressure as a challenge stressor; while being positively related to motivation and performance, time pressure also increases employee strain and decreases well-being. Building on the Job Demand-Resources model, we hypothesize that transformational leadership moderates the relationships between time pressure and both employees' exhaustion and work-life balance such that both relationships will be weaker when transformational leadership is higher. Of seven information technology organizations in Germany, 262 employees participated in the study. Established scales for time pressure, transformational leadership, work-life balance, and exhaustion were used, all showing good internal consistencies. The results support our assumptions. Specifically, we find that under high transformational leadership the impact of time pressure on exhaustion and work-life balance was less strong. The results of this study suggest that, particularly under high time pressure, transformational leadership is an important factor for both employees' work-life balance and exhaustion. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Recovery in cold-worked alloy under pressure: example of AISI 316 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousuf, M; Sahu, P C; Raghunathan, V S; Govinda Rajan, K

    1986-06-01

    In this paper we report the behaviour of defects under high pressure in severely cold-deformed 316 stainless steel. In situ electrical resistivity measurements indicate a minimum in the reduced resistivity ratio at 2 GPa associated with a characteristic relaxation time of 500 + - 5 sec. Microhardness data on pressure-treated and recovered samples are consistent with the electrical resistivity behaviour. X-ray powder diffraction rings indicate sharpening beyond 2 GPa. The decrease in the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the strongest ring is about 2% at pressures beyond 2 GPa. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that samples pressure treated beyond 2 GPa have a polygonized dislocation structure. This is in sharp contrast to the tangled dislocation structure observed in the cold-worked samples. The experimental results suggest a recovery stage in cold-worked stainless steel at 2 GPa. We propose that the recovery process is activated through an enhanced vacancy concentration caused by deformation, a pressure-induced vacancy-dislocation interaction and consequently a pressure-assisted dislocation mobility leading to polygonization.

  19. EVALUATION OF THE BLOOD PRESSURE MEASURING KNOWLEDGE OF THE NURSES WHO ARE WORKING IN A MEDICAL FACULTY HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Kemal SAHIN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the right knowledge of blood pressure measurement of the nurses who working in clinics. Materials and Method: 103 nurses who are working in Meram Medical Faculty Hospital were included to this descriptive study. Sampling method was stratified proportional random sampling method, with strata for the number of nurses at clinics. A questionnaire, which was formed of some questions about standard measuring methods of blood pressure, was applied to the nurses. Results: It was determined that 55.3% to 98.1% of the nurses answered the most of the questions correctly. But, they gave different answers to the questions about choosing the arm for measurement, inflation level of the cuff, deflation speed and how many measurements should be done for true result. It was found that the female nurses had much more knowledge about the tension of wrapping the cuff around the arm and the correct positioning of the stethescope than the male ones. Oppositely, the male nurses had higher correct answer rate about deflation of the cuff than the female nurses. Conclusion: It was concluded that the knowledge of blood pressure measurement of the nurses was partly insufficient. Periodical educational studies should be done for the nurses to complete the blood pressure measurement knowledge of them. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(1.000: 8-18

  20. "Teamwork" or "Working as a Team"? The Theory and Practice of Top Team Working in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfield, Steve; Kennie, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the theory and practice of teamwork in "top management teams" in UK higher education institutions. It is informed by some of the key findings from a recent two-year research project sponsored by the Leadership Foundation for Higher Education that investigated the different ways in which UK higher education…

  1. Protection for work in the pressure tank of the pile G2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassany, J.Ph.; Rodier, J.

    1961-01-01

    While the pile was shut down after a three-month run at full power, the secondary circuit was cleaned and some alterations were carried out. The pile contained 100 tons of uranium, half of which made up the periphery and was irradiated uranium. The possibility of carrying on work inside the pressure tank was not considered at the time of construction. Because of the heat and the irradiation it was only possible to remain in the pressure tank for a limited period of time, and several operators received doses of the order of 1.5 rem. Cotton clothing gave satisfactory protection against contamination and was more comfortable than the vinyl equipment. The work lasted for 17 days and involved 881 incursions into the pressure tank. (author) [fr

  2. Neuropsychological factors related to returning to work in patients with higher brain dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Akiko; Hashimoto, Manabu; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Hachisuka, Kenji

    2008-12-01

    We conducted neuropsychological tests of patients with higher brain dysfunction to examine the characteristics of barriers to employment. We tested 92 patients with higher brain dysfunction (average age of 36.3 +/- 13.8 years old, ranging between 16 and 63 years old, with an average post-injury period of 35.6 +/- 67.8 months) who were hospitalized at the university hospital between February 2002 and June 2007 for further neuropsychological evaluation, conducting the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and Behavioral Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS). The outcomes after discharge were classified between competitive employment, sheltered employment and non-employment, and the three groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance and the Scheffe test. The WAIS-R subtests were mutually compared based on the standard values of significant differences described in the WAIS-R manual. Verbal performance and full scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of WAIS-R were 87.7 +/- 15.6 (mean +/- standard deviation), 78.5 +/- 18.1 and 81.0 +/- 17.2, respectively, and verbal memory, visual memory, general memory, attention/concentration and delayed recall were 74.6 +/- 20.0, 76.6 +/- 21.4, 72.0 +/- 20.4, 89.0 +/- 16.5 and 65.2 +/- 20.8, respectively. The competitive employment group showed significantly higher scores in performance IQ and full IQ on the WAIS-R and verbal memory, visual memory, general memory and delayed recall on the WMS-R and RBMT than the non-employment group. The sheltered employment group showed a significantly higher score in delayed recall than the non-employment group. No difference was observed in the FAB or BADS between the three groups. In the subtests of the WAIS-R, the score for Digit Symbol-Coding was significantly lower than almost all the other subtests. For patients with higher brain dysfunction, IQ (full

  3. The pressurized suit and some considerations leading to the development of physiologically safe working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    The safe working environment of men wearing pressurized suits in the U.K.A.E.A. is based on the results of two experimental programmes, the first investigated the respiratory hazards, the second the assessment and control of the level of thermal stress. Both are described. (author)

  4. Rising workload or rising work pressure in general practice in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.H. de; Hutten, J.B.F.; Steultjens, M.; Schellevis, F.

    2002-01-01

    Background: General practice in the Netherlands seems to be in a crisis. Worries about shortages of GP's, the first strike of general practitioners in 2001 and the rapid increase of triage systems in out of hours care are signs that work pressure and/or workload are rising. But systematic evidence

  5. The correlation between serum leptin and blood pressure after exposure to noise at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muayad S Rahma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several epidemiologic studies have reported that exposure to noise is associated with cardiovascular disease. The increased body weight is often associated with metabolic as well as increased blood pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the elevation of blood pressure and serum leptin hormones due to the effects of noise in the work place. A total of 80 volunteer males where included in this study with an age range between of 20 and 45 years, they were divided in two groups equally, the 1 st group were exposed to noise in the workplace while the 2 nd group were not. The individual noise exposure was determined by using a sound level meter. The range of noise was 80-100 dBA. Body Mass Index was also taken for each individual by a standard measure, blood pressure was measured by OMRON sphygmomanometer and serum leptin was measured through venous blood sample analysis enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Spearman rank order correlation was used to examine the correlations between Blood pressure value (Systolic, Diastolic and Leptin. All the relationships between parameters showed a positive correlation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values had a significant correlation to leptin hormone level in comparison to the control. There was a significant relation between leptin and blood pressure. leptin effects on the sympathetic nervous system may provide a partial explanation. Therefore, Leptin might have diverse cardiovascular actions.

  6. Corpuls CPR Generates Higher Mean Arterial Pressure Than LUCAS II in a Pig Model of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eichhorn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the European Resuscitation Council guidelines, the use of mechanical chest compression devices is a reasonable alternative in situations where manual chest compression is impractical or compromises provider safety. The aim of this study is to compare the performance of a recently developed chest compression device (Corpuls CPR with an established system (LUCAS II in a pig model. Methods. Pigs (n = 5/group in provoked ventricular fibrillation were left untreated for 5 minutes, after which 15 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed with chest compressions. After 15 min, defibrillation was performed every 2 min if necessary, and up to 3 doses of adrenaline were given. If there was no return of spontaneous circulation after 25 min, the experiment was terminated. Coronary perfusion pressure, carotid blood flow, end-expiratory CO2, regional oxygen saturation by near infrared spectroscopy, blood gas, and local organ perfusion with fluorescent labelled microspheres were measured at baseline and during resuscitation. Results. Animals treated with Corpuls CPR had significantly higher mean arterial pressures during resuscitation, along with a detectable trend of greater carotid blood flow and organ perfusion. Conclusion. Chest compressions with the Corpuls CPR device generated significantly higher mean arterial pressures than compressions performed with the LUCAS II device.

  7. Task demands and the pressures of everyday life: associations between cardiovascular reactivity and work blood pressure and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, A; Cropley, M; Joekes, K

    2000-01-01

    Associations between cardiovascular stress reactivity and blood pressure and heart rate recorded in everyday life were hypothesized to depend on the stressfulness of the ambulatory monitoring period relative to standardized tasks and on activity levels at the time of measurement. One hundred two female and 60 male school teachers carried out high- and low-demand tasks under standardized conditions and ambulatory monitoring during the working day. Stress ratings during the day were close to those recorded during the low-demand task. Reactions to the low-demand task were significant predictors of ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate independent of baseline, age, gender, and body mass. Associations were more consistent for ambulatory recordings taken when participants were seated than when they were standing and when the ambulatory monitoring day was considered to be as stressful as usual or more stressful than usual, and not less stressful than usual. Laboratory-field associations of cardiovascular activity depend in part on the congruence of stressfulness and physical activity level in the 2 situations.

  8. Exploring the Work/Life/Study Balance: The Experience of Higher Education Students in a Scottish Further Education College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Janet; Gayle, Vernon

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the dimensions of the work/life/study balance and its influence on student participation in higher education, through a case study of the experience of higher education students, studying both full time and part time, in a Scottish further education college. The experience of the students and the work/life/study challenges that…

  9. Factors Influencing the Organizational Stress among Teachers Working in Higher Education Sector in Kerala: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to explore the various factors that influence the organizational stress of teachers working in higher education sector in the state of Kerala. The data required for the study has been conveniently collected from 200 teachers working in higher education sector. Exploratory factor analysis revealed nine factors, which significantly…

  10. Exploring personality traits, mindfulness and sense of coherence of women working in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude-Hélène Mayer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Previous research shows that personality traits (PT, mindfulness (MI and sense of coherence (SOC are connected to psychological well-being and of importance to Human Resource Management (HRM. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to determine the relationship between PT, MI and SOC of women working in South African Higher Education Institutions (HEIs. Motivation for study: The study explores the relationships of PT, MI and SOC in women in HEIs to contribute to a deeper understanding of these relationships within the HRM context, particularly with regard to training and development in HEIs. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional, survey-based research design was used to address the research objective. Both snowball and convenience sampling were utilised to obtain the sample (n = 125. The sample was derived from the Higher Education Resource Services network. The Life Orientation Questionnaire, Freiburger MI Inventory and Big Five PT Questionnaire were utilised and showed acceptable levels of reliability. Exploratory factor analysis with either a direct oblimin or varimax rotation was used to investigate the factor structure of the questionnaires (λ < 1 were used, because one of the questionnaires had not been used in the South African context before. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, Spearman/ Pearson correlations, canonical correlations and multiple regressions were used to determine the relationship between the variables. Main findings: The results showed a significant relationship between the components PT, MI and SOC. It appears that PT plays a significant role in influencing MI and SOC. Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resource practitioners need to recognise how PT, MI and SOC interrelate and need to become aware of the impact of these positive psychological constructs on women in HEIs. Contribution: These findings contribute new knowledge that can be used to create healthy HEIs

  11. The curvilinear relationship between work pressure and momentary task performance: the role of state and trait core self-evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmans, Joeri; Debusscher, Jonas; Dóci, Edina; Spanouli, Andromachi; De Fruyt, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Whereas several studies have demonstrated that core self-evaluations (CSE)-or one's appraisals about one's own self-worth, capabilities, and competences-relate to job outcomes, less is known about the mechanisms underlying these relationships. In the present study, we address this issue by examining the role of within- and between-person variation in CSE in the relationship between work pressure and task performance. We hypothesized that (a) work pressure relates to task performance in a curvilinear way, (b) state CSE mediates the curvilinear relationship between work pressure and task performance, and (c) the relationship between work pressure and state CSE is moderated by trait CSE. Our hypotheses were tested via a 10-day daily diary study with 55 employees in which trait CSE was measured at baseline, while work pressure, task performance, and state CSE were assessed on a daily basis. Bayesian multilevel path analysis showed that work pressure affects task performance via state CSE, with state CSE increasing as long as the employee feels that (s)he is able to handle the work pressure, while it decreases when the level of work pressure exceeds the employees' coping abilities. Moreover, we found that for people low on trait CSE, the depleting effect of work pressure via state CSE happens for low levels of work pressure, while for people high in trait CSE the depleting effect is located at high levels of work pressure. Together, our findings suggest that the impact of work pressure on task performance is driven by a complex interplay of between- and within-person differences in CSE.

  12. System approach to professionally-orientation work with applicants of higher educational establishments of athletic type in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khomko I.G.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The system is grounded to professionally-orientation work with the university entrants of higher educational establishments of athletic type of Ukraine. The idea of the system is represented. Organizational measures are exposed on improvement and increase of efficiency of leadthrough to professionally-orientation works. The structural elements of the system of professional orientation are certain. Rotined their expedience in relation to a general leadthrough to professionally-orientation working as higher educational establishments of athletic type in Ukraine.

  13. Portfolio Careers and Work-Life Balance among Musicians: An Initial Study into Implications for Higher Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Adele; Smith, Gareth Dylan

    2015-01-01

    Musicians are acknowledged to lead complex working lives, often characterised as portfolio careers. The higher music education research literature has tended to focus on preparing students for rich working lives and multiple identity realisations across potential roles. Extant literature does not address the area of work-life balance, which this…

  14. Fuzzy Group Decision Making Approach for Ranking Work Stations Based on Physical Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Salmanzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Fuzzy Group Decision Making approach for ranking work stations based on physical pressure. Fuzzy group decision making approach allows experts to evaluate different ergonomic factors using linguistic terms such as very high, high, medium, low, very low, rather than precise numerical values. In this way, there is no need to measure parameters and evaluation can be easily made in a group. According to ergonomics much work contents and situations, accompanied with multiple parameters and uncertainties, fuzzy group decision making is the best way to evaluate such a chameleon of concept. A case study was down to utilize the approach and illustrate its application in ergonomic assessment and ranking the work stations based on work pressure and found that this approach provides flexibility, practicality, efficiency in making decision around ergonomics areas. The normalized defuzzification numbers which are resulted from this method are compared with result of quantitative assessment of Automotive Assembly Work Sheet auto, it’s demonstrated that the proposed method result is 10% less than Automotive Assembly Work Sheet, approximately.

  15. The plastic work required to induce the limit pressure of a plain cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.S.; Moreton, D.N.; Moffat, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    There has recently been a revival of interest in the definition of the limit and plastic loads of a structure, particularly piping components. Recent proposals have suggested definitions based upon plastic work. In order to normalise such quantities, the plastic work associated with the limit pressure of a plain cylinder may be required. Whilst no unique value for this quantity can be obtained through analysis, this article demonstrates that classical methods allow solutions to be obtained through an empirical route and through an analysis using several approximations. This latter analysis is shown to be adequate for the applications envisaged here

  16. Experimental study of pressure drop characteristics of venturi scrubber working at self-priming mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Meng; Sun Zhongning; Gu Haifeng; Guo Xueqing; Yu Yong

    2012-01-01

    The pressure drop characteristics of Venturi scrubber working at self-priming mode were studied experimentally. The test sections were smooth glass scrubbers, with air and water as the working medium. The results show that the trends of empirical formula are more consistent with that of the experimental results, but the relative error is large, up to ±50% or more. The experimental correlation is proposed based on the experimental research, and the calculated results of which can well predict the experimental data and the relative error is within ±15%. (authors)

  17. Pulmonary Artery Wedge Pressure Relative to Exercise Work Rate in Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, Sam; Wright, Stephen P; Goodman, Jack M; Sasson, Zion; Mak, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    An augmented pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) response may explain exercise intolerance in some humans. However, routine use of exercise hemodynamic testing is limited by a lack of data from normal older men and women. Our objective was to evaluate the exercise PAWP response and the potential for sexual dimorphism in healthy, nondyspneic older adults. Thirty-six healthy volunteers (18 men [54 ± 7 yr] and 18 women [58 ± 6 yr]) were studied at rest (control) and during two stages of semi-upright cycle ergometry, at heart rates of 100 bpm (light exercise) and 120 bpm (moderate exercise). Right heart catheterization was performed to measure pulmonary pressures. The PAWP response to exercise was assessed in context of exercise work rate and body size. At control, PAWP was similar between men and women. Work rates were significantly smaller in women at comparable HR (P exercise, with no further increase at moderate exercise. When indexed to work rate alone or work rate adjusted to body weight and height, the PAWP response at light and moderate exercise was significantly elevated in women compared with men (P exercise. The similar rise in the PAWP response to submaximal exercise occurs despite lower work rate in healthy older women compared with men, even when adjusted for smaller body size. It is important to consider sex in the development of normal reference ranges for exercise hemodynamic testing.

  18. Group work in higher education: a mismanaged evil or a potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theoretically speaking, group work has a wealth of potential to offer to the lecturer and the learner. The complexity of the phenomenon leaves the lecturer with no choice but to take great care in the use of group work. The fact that group work is not viewed as a mismanaged evil leaves the door open for further use of this ...

  19. Work-Life: Policy and Practice Impacting LG Faculty and Staff in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Sunny L.; Hornsby, Eunice Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The work-life policies and benefits practices of public universities and the extent to which lesbian and gay (LG) faculty, staff and families receive different work-life benefits than their heterosexual married counterparts are examined. The analysis was conducted by searching university work-life benefits websites. Major benefits for domestic…

  20. Working in a danger zone: A qualitative study of Taiwanese nurses' work experiences in a negative pressure isolation ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Ling; Chen, Kuei-Ling; Lee, Li-Hung; Yang, Cheng-I

    2016-07-01

    Hospital nurses are frontline health care workers in controlling the spread of infectious diseases. It is not known if nurses working in negative pressure isolation wards (NPIWs) are better prepared than before to safely care for patients with common infectious diseases. For this qualitative descriptive study, 10 nurses were interviewed in depth about their experiences caring for patients in an NPIW. Tape recordings were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The following 5 themes were identified: (1) complexity of patient care, (2) dissatisfaction with the quantity and quality of protective equipment, (3) shortage of nursing staff, (4) continued worries about being infected, and (5) sensitivity to self-protection. Our participants' anxiety and uncertainty about being infected in the NPIW were increased by the complexity of patients' health problems and organizational factors. To protect themselves against infection before and during patient care, participants also developed sensitivity to, concepts about, and strategies to improve self-protection. NPIW administrators should pay more attention to nurses' concerns about improving the NPIW working environment, supply good quality protective equipment, and provide appropriate psychologic support and ongoing education to ensure that nurses feel safe while working. This ongoing education should refresh and update nurses' knowledge about disease transmission, therefore decreasing unnecessary anxiety based on misunderstandings about becoming infected. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 'It's a cultural expectation...' The pressure on medical trainees to work independently in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tara J T; Regehr, Glenn; Baker, G Ross; Lingard, Lorelei A

    2009-07-01

    Medical trainees demonstrate a reluctance to ask for help unless they believe it is absolutely necessary, a situation which could impact on the safety of patients. This study aimed to develop a theoretical exploration of the pressure on medical trainees to be independent and to generate theory-based approaches to the implications for patient safety of this pressure towards independent working. In Phase 1, 88 teaching team members from internal and emergency medicine were observed during clinical activities (216 hours), and 65 participants completed brief interviews. In Phase 2, 36 in-depth interviews were conducted using video vignettes. Data collection and analysis employed grounded theory methodology. Participants conceived that the pressure towards independence in clinical work originated in trainees' desire to lay claim to the identity of a doctor (as a member of a group of autonomous high achievers), and in organisational issues such as heavy workloads and constant evaluations. The identity and organisational issues related to the pressure towards independence were explored through the lenses of established theories from education and psychology. Consideration of Lave and Wenger's situated learning theory suggests that giving attention to the 'independent doctor' ideal, through measures such as involving trainees when their supervisors ask for help, could impact the safety of teaching team practice. Amalberti et al.'s migration model explains how pressures to maximise productivity and individual gain may cause teaching teams to migrate beyond the boundaries of safe practice and suggests that managing triggers (such as workload and high-stakes evaluations) for violations of safe practice might improve safety. Implementation and evaluation of these theory-based approaches to the safety of teaching team practice would contribute to a better understanding of the links between trainee independence and patient safety.

  2. The importance of capillary density-stroke work mismatch for right ventricular adaptation to chronic pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noly, Pierre-Emmanuel; Haddad, François; Arthur-Ataam, Jennifer; Langer, Nathaniel; Dorfmüller, Peter; Loisel, Fanny; Guihaire, Julien; Decante, Benoit; Lamrani, Lilia; Fadel, Elie; Mercier, Olaf

    2017-12-01

    Mechanisms of right ventricular (RV) adaptation to chronic pressure overload are not well understood. We hypothesized that a lower capillary density (CD) to stroke work ratio would be associated with more fibrosis and RV maladaptive remodeling. We induced RV chronic pressure overload over a 20-week period in 2 piglet models of pulmonary hypertension; that is, a shunt model (n = 5) and a chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension model (n = 5). We assessed hemodynamic parameters and RV remodeling as well as RV CD, fibrosis, and angiogenic factors expression. Although RV was similarly hypertrophied in both models, maladapted RV remodeling with impaired systolic function was only seen in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension group members who had lower CD (484 ± 99 vs 1213 ± 74 cap/mm 2 ; P work ratio (0.29 ± 0.07 vs 0.82 ± 0.16; P = .02), higher myocardial fibrosis (15.4% ± 3.8% vs 8.0% ± 2.5%; P work ratio) was associated with greater degree of myocardial fibrosis and RV dysfunction and could be a promising index of RV maladaptation. Further studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modelling of the work processes high-pressure pump of common rail diesel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botwinska Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Common rail injection systems are becoming a more widely used solution in the fuel systems of modern diesel engines. The main component and the characteristic feature of the system is rail injection of the fuel under high pressure, which is passed to the injector and further to the combustion chamber. An important element in this process is the high-pressure pump, continuing adequate pressure in the rail injection system. Common rail (CR systems are being modified in order to optimise their work and virtual simulations are a useful tool in order to analyze the correctness of operation of the system while varying the parameters and settings, without any negative impact on the real object. In one particular study, a computer simulation of the pump high-pressure CR system was made in MatLab environment, based on the actual dimensions of the object – a one-cylinder diesel engine, the Farymann Diesel 18W. The resulting model consists of two parts – the first is responsible for simulating the operation of the high-pressure pump, and the second responsible for simulation of the remaining elements of the CR system. The results of this simulation produced waveforms of the following parameters: fluid flow from the manifold to the injector [m3/s], liquid flow from the manifold to the atmosphere [m3/s], and manifold pressure [Pa]. The simulation results allow for a positive verification of the model and the resulting system could become a useful element of simulation of the entire position and control algorithm.

  4. Working in Separate Silos? What Citation Patterns Reveal about Higher Education Research Internationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Higher education research is a growing, inter-disciplinary and increasingly international field of study. This article examines the citation patterns of articles published in six leading higher education journals--three published in the United States and three published elsewhere in the world--for what they reveal about the development of this…

  5. Cultures of Work-Life Balance in Higher Education: A Case of Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    In response to demographic shifts, colleges and universities implemented new policies, adopted new practices, and created professional development opportunities to gain support for work-life balance. Research on work-life balance reveals gender disparities, lack of policy usage, and a lack of cultural change with little understanding of the ways…

  6. Effect of Group Work on EFL Students' Attitudes and Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taqi, Hanan A.; Al-Nouh, Nowreyah A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of group work in classroom activities is a method used for motivating learning and increasing the idea of pleasure through learning. The current study investigates the advantages of group work in exams in the English department, in the College of Basic Education. 40 students in two classes of "The Introduction of Phonetics and…

  7. The Benefits of Working Memory Capacity on Attentional Control under Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxiao Luo; Liwei Zhang; Jin Wang

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of working memory capacity (WMC) and state anxiety (SA) on attentional control. WMC was manipulated by (a) dividing participants into low- and high-WMC groups (Experiment 1), and (b) using working memory training to improve WMC (Experiment 2). SA was manipulated by creating low- and high-SA conditions. Attentional control was evaluated by using antisaccade task. Results demonstrated that (a) higher WMC indicated better attentional control (Experi...

  8. Does Psychosocial Work Environment Factors Predict Stress and Mean Arterial Pressure in the Malaysian Industry Workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Javaid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial risks are considered as a burning issue in the Asia-Pacific region. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on health of petrochemical industry workers of Malaysia. In lieu to job demands-resources theory, significant positive associations were found between quantitative demands, work-family conflict, and job insecurity with stress, while a significant negative association of role clarity as a resource factor with stress was detected. We also found that quantitative demands were significantly associated with the mean arterial pressure (MAP. Multistage sampling procedure was used to collect study sample. Structural Equation Modeling was used to identify relationship between the endogenous and exogenous variables. Finally, the empirically tested psychosocial work environment model will further help in providing a better risk assessment in different industries and enterprises.

  9. Does Psychosocial Work Environment Factors Predict Stress and Mean Arterial Pressure in the Malaysian Industry Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Umair; Isha, Ahmad Shahrul Nizam; Sabir, Asrar Ahmed; Ghazali, Zulkipli; Nübling, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Psychosocial risks are considered as a burning issue in the Asia-Pacific region. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on health of petrochemical industry workers of Malaysia. In lieu to job demands-resources theory, significant positive associations were found between quantitative demands, work-family conflict, and job insecurity with stress, while a significant negative association of role clarity as a resource factor with stress was detected. We also found that quantitative demands were significantly associated with the mean arterial pressure (MAP). Multistage sampling procedure was used to collect study sample. Structural Equation Modeling was used to identify relationship between the endogenous and exogenous variables. Finally, the empirically tested psychosocial work environment model will further help in providing a better risk assessment in different industries and enterprises.

  10. DEVELOPMENT ACQUIREMENTS AND WORKING LIFE COLLABORATION OF INTERNATIONAL HIGHER EDUCATION STUDENTS : Case: Digital Business Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tuukkanen, Laura; Pudas, Sini

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is commissioned by Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences, Business Department. The research is a case study of an intensive study module Digital Business Development held in August 2014. The purpose of the thesis was to investigate international higher education students’ development acquirements during a three week Digital Business Development course. The research also investigated the success of partnership between Mamk, MPY and international higher education students in th...

  11. Low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations at low latitude during the passage of a higher pressure solar wind region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The passage of a higher pressure solar wind region at the Earth's orbit marked the onset of low latitude (L=1.6 fluctuations in the frequency range (0.8–5.5 mHz for both the horizontal geomagnetic field components. Spectral peaks mostly occur at the same frequencies as the spectral enhancements which appeared in the long term analysis of experimental measurements from the same station and were tentatively interpreted in terms of ground signatures of global magnetospheric modes. A comparison with simultaneous observations discussed by previous investigations allows us to conclude that the same set of frequencies is enhanced in a wide portion of the Earth's magnetosphere.

  12. Computer-mediated communication and time pressure induce higher cardiovascular responses in the preparatory and execution phases of cooperative tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Ferrer, Raquel; Serrano Rosa, Miguel Ángel; Zornoza Abad, Ana; Salvador Fernández-Montejo, Alicia

    2010-11-01

    The cardiovascular (CV) response to social challenge and stress is associated with the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. New ways of communication, time pressure and different types of information are common in our society. In this study, the cardiovascular response to two different tasks (open vs. closed information) was examined employing different communication channels (computer-mediated vs. face-to-face) and with different pace control (self vs. external). Our results indicate that there was a higher CV response in the computer-mediated condition, on the closed information task and in the externally paced condition. These role of these factors should be considered when studying the consequences of social stress and their underlying mechanisms.

  13. A comparison of work stressors in higher and lower resourced emergency medicine health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Sebastian; Lamprecht, Hein; Howlett, Michael K; Fraser, Jacqueline; Sohi, Dylan; Adisesh, Anil; Atkinson, Paul R

    2018-04-06

    CLINICIAN'S CAPSULE What is known about the topic? Emergency physicians and trainees have high rates of stress and burnout. What did this study ask? How do reported stressors for emergency physicians and trainees differ between high and low resource settings? What did this study find? Trainees in the low resource setting reported higher stressors. Trainees reported higher levels of stressors than specialists in general. Why does this study matter to clinicians? High levels of reported stressors among trainees, and in low resource settings should be acknowledged and mitigated where possible.

  14. The Rewards of Work Framework: Attracting, Retaining and Motivating Higher Education Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Gerald E.; Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The climate in higher education today is one of cutbacks, setbacks and fiscal struggles. One of the first areas in which a college or university, indeed any business, looks to make adjustments in times of financial difficulty is in compensation and benefit programs. Conversely, employees today value compensation and benefit programs to a greater…

  15. Making Learning and Web 2.0 Technologies Work for Higher Learning Institutions in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwoga, Edda

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the extent to which learning and Web 2.0 technologies are utilised to support learning and teaching in Africa's higher learning institutions, with a specific focus on Tanzania's public universities. Design/methodology/approach: A combination of content analysis and semi-structured interviews was used to collect…

  16. Understanding the Work-Life Experiences and Goals of Women Middle Managers in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankinson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Middle managers in higher education hold diverse titles and perform a variety of roles. Women represent a large portion of this midlevel management, but there is limited research exploring their experiences. As a result, little is known about women middle managers' career trajectories and what effect their experiences have on their future career…

  17. Precarity in the Ivory Cage: Neoliberalism and Casualisation of Work in the Irish Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Aline; O'Keefe, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The higher education sector in Ireland has undergone major changes under the effect of neoliberalism including severe budget cuts, transfer of research funding to external agencies, reduction in permanent contracts and increased reliance on part-time, temporary staff for teaching and research roles. The neoliberalisation of the university, as in…

  18. Funding Systems and their Effects on Higher Education Systems. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehl, Franz; Reisinger, Sabine; Kalatschan, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This international study focuses on the funding systems in the area of higher education in the following countries: Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Norway, Portugal and Slovak Republic. Each individual country study was designed and conducted within an overall common framework by a project partner from the respective…

  19. The Demise of Higher Education Performance Funding Systems in Three States. CCRC Working Paper No.17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kevin J.; Natow, Rebecca S.

    2009-01-01

    Performance funding in higher education ties state funding directly to institutional performance on specific indicators, such as rates of retention, graduation, and job placement. One of the great puzzles about performance funding is that it has been both popular and unstable. Between 1979 and 2007, 26 states enacted it, but 14 of those states…

  20. The Supply of and Demand for Charitable Donations to Higher Education. NBER Working Paper No. 18389

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeffrey R.; Dimmock, Stephen G.; Weisbenner, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Charitable donations are an important revenue source for many institutions of higher education. We explore how donations respond to economic and financial market shocks, accounting for both supply and demand channels through which these shocks operate. In panel data with fixed effects to control for unobservable differences across universities, we…

  1. Breadth vs. Depth: The Timing of Specialization in Higher Education. NBER Working Paper No. 15943

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Ofer

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the tradeoff between early and late specialization in the context of higher education. While some educational systems require students to specialize early by choosing a major field of study prior to entering university, others allow students to postpone this choice. I develop a model in which individuals, by taking courses in…

  2. The Educational Work and Life Project Professional college student. A necessary relationship in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraida Garbizo Flores Montes de Oca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The new tendencies of the superior Cuban education, require of an educational renewing practice after contributing to the integral formation of the graduate future university, by achieving it harmonize the formation of sk ills and attitudes habits knowledges and the construction of a project of professional life sustained in values. In this sense the academic year constitutes the cell of the educational work to this level. Therefore at present it works try to get evaluate the necessary question between the educational labor and the project of professional life of the university student, with emphasis in the |protagónico| role of the social actors of the educational process.

  3. Low job control is associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in men with mildly elevated blood pressure: the Rosai Karoshi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Tomomi; Munakata, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Job strain is a risk factor for hypertension, but it is not fully understood if components of job strain, or job demand or job control per se could be related to blood pressure (BP), and if so, whether the relationship differs between normotension and mildly elevated BP. We examined resting BP, and job stress components in 113 Japanese male hospital clerks (38.1 ± 4.4 yr). Subjects were classified into normotensive (NT) (<130/85 mmHg, n=83) and mildly elevated BP (ME) (≥130/85 mmHg) groups. Diastolic BP (DBP) showed a significant interaction between group and job control level (p=0.013). Subjects with low job control demonstrated higher DBP than those with high job control (89.1 ± 2.1 vs. 82.3 ± 2.3 mmHg, p=0.042) in ME group even after adjustments for covariates while DBP did not differ between low and high job control subjects in NT group. Systolic BP (SBP) did not differ between high and low job control subjects in both groups. Neither SBP nor DBP differed between high and low demand groups in either group. Among job strain components, job control may be independently related to BP in Japanese male workers with mildly elevated BP.

  4. Oncologist burnout and compassion fatigue: investigating time pressure at work as a predictor and the mediating role of work-family conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Sibyl; Wallace, Jean E

    2017-09-11

    Oncologists are at high risk of poor mental health. Prior research has focused on burnout, and has identified heavy workload as a key predictor. Compassion fatigue among physicians has generally received less attention, although medical specialties such as oncology may be especially at risk of compassion fatigue. We contribute to research by identifying predictors of both burnout and compassion fatigue among oncologists. In doing so, we distinguish between quantitative workload (e.g., work hours) and subjective work pressure, and test whether work-family conflict mediates the relationships between work pressure and burnout or compassion fatigue. In a cross-sectional study, oncologists from across Canada (n = 312) completed questionnaires assessing burnout, compassion fatigue, workload, time pressure at work, work-family conflict, and other personal, family, and occupational characteristics. Analyses use Ordinary Least Squares regression. Subjective time pressure at work is a key predictor of both burnout and compassion fatigue. Our results also show that work-family conflict fully mediates these relationships. Overall, the models explain more of the variation in burnout as compared to compassion fatigue. Our study highlights the need to consider oncologists' subjective time pressure, in addition to quantitative workload, in interventions to improve mental health. The findings also highlight a need to better understand additional predictors of compassion fatigue.

  5. Work-related teaching and learning methods to foster generic skills in Higher Education. An Italian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Frison

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of modernisation of higher education systems in Europe, universities are invited to go beyond a knowledge-based perspective focused on disciplinary approaches and to be more concentrated on encouraging generic skills to deal with today’s complex and unpredictable career paths. The literature about Work-Related Learning and Work-Integrated Learning offers evidence to research regarding contributions of work-related experiences to the development of generic skills. The first part of the article presents a literature review carried out following the matching among three main keywords: work-related learning, generic skills, and higher education. Resources focused on the integration/teaching of generic skills in formal curriculum or in co-curriculum work-related activities and they were collected in order to explore the link between work-related learning in higher education and the development of generic skills. The focus is to identify valuable considerations to improve teaching strategies and methods. The second part presents an Italian work-related experience developed within the course of “Organizational Intervention Research Methods,” which involved 22 master’s degree students. The work-related assignment will be described in addition to the content analysis process of the 22 collected texts and the findings about the development of generic skills.

  6. The Role of Flexible Work in the Transition from Higher Education into the Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Try, Sverre

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the Norwegian Graduate Survey from 1985 to 1999, the study investigates Norwegian graduate students' entry into the labour market. The study finds that more than half of the employed graduates enter the work force via a flexible job, that is either a temporary or a part-time job, and the proportion has increased during the period.…

  7. Socioeconomic Status, Higher-Level Mathematics Courses, Absenteeism, and Student Mobility as Indicators of Work Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folds, Lea D.; Tanner, C. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations among socioeconomic status, highest-level mathematics course, absenteeism, student mobility and measures of work readiness of high school seniors in Georgia. Study participants were 476 high school seniors in one Georgia county. The full regression model explained 27.5% of the variance in…

  8. Industrial Work Placement in Higher Education: A Study of Civil Engineering Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Stuart; Murray, Mike; Gilmour, Bob; Brown, Linda

    2018-01-01

    For civil engineering undergraduates, short-term industrial work placement provides an invaluable learning experience. Notwithstanding the near-universal endorsement of short-term placement programmes, the resulting experience is rarely articulated through the student voice. This article provides an analysis of 174 questionnaires returned by…

  9. More Is Generally Better: Higher Working Memory Capacity Does Not Impair Perceptual Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Michael L.; Newell, Ben R.; Dunn, John C.

    2017-01-01

    It is sometimes supposed that category learning involves competing explicit and procedural systems, with only the former reliant on working memory capacity (WMC). In 2 experiments participants were trained for 3 blocks on both filtering (often said to be learned explicitly) and condensation (often said to be learned procedurally) category…

  10. The Maker Movement, the Promise of Higher Education, and the Future of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, Aubrey

    2017-01-01

    The 21st century will be the site of numerous changes in education systems in response to a rapidly evolving technological environment where existing skill sets and career structures may cease to exist or, at the very least, change dramatically. Likewise, the nature of work will also change to become more automated and more technologically…

  11. Making User-Generated Content Communities Work in Higher Education - The Importance of Setting Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vom Brocke, Jan; White, Cynthia; Walker, Ute; Vom Brocke, Christina

    The concept of User-Generated Content (UGC) offers impressive potential for innovative learning and teaching scenarios in higher education. Examples like Wikipedia and Facebook illustrate the enormous effects of multiple users world-wide contributing to a pool of shared resources, such as videos and pictures and also lexicographical descriptions. Apart from single examples, however, the systematic use of these virtual technologies in higher education still needs further exploration. Only few examples display the successful application of UGC Communities at university scenarios. We argue that a major reason for this can be seen in the fact that the organizational dimension of setting up UGC Communities has widely been neglected so far. In particular, we indicate the need for incentive setting to actively involve students and achieve specific pedagogical objectives. We base our study on organizational theories and derive strategies for incentive setting that have been applied in a practical e-Learning scenario involving students from Germany and New Zealand.

  12. Pressure pain threshold and β-endorphins plasma level are higher in lean polycystic ovary syndrome women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Milewicz, Tomasz; Mrozińska, Sandra; Rogatko, Iwona; Sztefko, Krystyna; Majewska, Renata

    2017-12-01

    Despite some evidence that indicates that the evolution of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is related to the activity of the endogenous opioid system, and that concentration of plasma β-endorphin levels can increase pain threshold, there are no studies which evaluate pressure pain threshold in the PCOS women population. In 48 lean women with PCOS and 38 lean women without this disorder plasma β-endorphins and PPT were measured. The β-endorphins level was higher in the PCOS group compared to the controls (15.28±2.49 pg/mL vs. 6.33±1.71 pg/mL, PPCOS group PPTs measured on deltoid and trapezius muscles were higher compared to the controls (9.33±1.3 kg/cm² vs. 5.19±0.57 kg/cm², PPCOS group. Increase in β-endorphin level of 1 pg/mL was associated with increase of PPT value on deltoid muscle of 0.23 kg/cm² (R=0.632, P=0.011) and of 0.18 kg/cm² on trapezius muscle (R=0.588, P=0.037). There were no correlations between testosterone level and PPT in PCOS group. β-endorphin serum level as well as PPT are higher in lean PCOS group than in controls. We found correlations between β-endorphin levels and PPT in the PCOS group. It may suggest the role of endogenous opioids in the pathogenesis of PCOS and also that the increases in circulating plasma β-endorphins concentration can increases PPT in this group.

  13. Work wellness of academic staff in South African higher education institutions / Emmerentia Nicolene Barkhuizen

    OpenAIRE

    Barkhuizen, Emmerentia Nicolene

    2005-01-01

    Academia is a demanding profession, as evidenced by a body of research that documents the debilitating impact of occupational stress and burnout on the personal and professional welfare of academics. In particular, high levels of these pathological phenomena, left unchecked, undermine the quality, productivity and creativity of the academics' work in addition to their health, well-being and morale. Despite these indicators of "weaknesses" and "malfunctioning", academics know th...

  14. [Associations of the work duration, sleep duration and number of holidays with an exaggerated blood pressure response during an exercise stress test among workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michishita, Ryoma; Ohta, Masanori; Ikeda, Masaharu; Jiang, Ying; Yamato, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that an exaggerated systolic blood pressure (ESBP) response during exercise, even if resting blood pressure is normal, is associated with an increased risk of future hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was designed to investigate the relationships of work duration, sleep duration and number of holidays with blood pressure response during an exercise stress test among normotensive workers. The subjects were 362 normotensive workers (79 males and 283 females; age, 49.1 years). A multi-stage graded submaximal exercise stress test was performed on each subject using an electric bicycle ergometer. The workload was increased every 3 minutes, and blood pressure was measured at rest and during the last 1 minute of each stage. In this study, an ESBP response during exercise was defined according to the criteria of the Framingham Study (peak systolic blood pressure ≥210 mmHg in males, or ≥190 mmHg in females). Working environments, work duration, sleep duration, number of holidays, and physical activity during commuting and work, and leisure time exercise duration were evaluated using a questionnaire. An ESBP response during exercise was observed in 94 (26.0%) workers. The adjusted odds ratio for the prevalence of an ESBP response during exercise was found to be significantly higher with an increase in work duration, decreases in sleep duration and number of holidays (pwork duration with lowest sleep duration and number of holidays groups had significantly higher adjusted odds ratio for the prevalence of an ESBP response during exercise than the lowest work duration with highest sleep duration and number of holidays groups (pwork duration, short sleep duration and small number of holidays.

  15. The Problem-Oriented Project Work (PPL) Alternative in Self-Diected Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Siig; Heilesen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This chapter introduces an approach to higher education developed and practiced over four decades at Roskilde University in Denmark. Known as the Roskilde Model, the approach is characterized by (1) a special type of self-directed learning (SDL), named “problem-oriented project learning” (PPL); (2......) a way of organizing undergraduate education into broad interdisciplinary programs; and (3) an interdisciplinary profile where double-major graduate programs allow students to design their own academic and professional profiles. The chapter first explains similarities and differences between PPL and some...

  16. Higher Education Faculty in Mexico and the United States: Characteristics and Policy Issues. Understanding the Differences: A Working Paper Series on Higher Education in the U. S. and Mexico. Working Paper Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Cheryl D.; Sanchez, Maria Dolores Soler

    This working paper analyzes higher education faculty characteristics in Mexico and the United States. The first section describes and compares Mexican and U.S. faculty characteristics and conditions, including total number of faculty, student-teacher ratios, full- versus part-time status, rank, tenure, average salaries, gender and ethnicity, and…

  17. Do Astronauts have a Higher Rate of Orthopedic Shoulder Conditions than a Cohort of Working Professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Young, Millenia; Wear, Mary L.; Tarver, W. J.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Occupational surveillance of astronaut shoulder injuries began with operational concerns at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training. NASA has implemented several occupational health initiatives during the past 20 years to decrease the number and severity of injuries, but the individual success rate is unknown. Orthopedic shoulder injury and surgery rates were calculated, but classifying the rates as normal, high or low was highly dependent on the comparison group. The purpose of this study was to identify a population of working professionals and compare orthopedic shoulder consultation and surgery rates.

  18. Work status as a predictor of academic performance in the field of distance higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Welman

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the academic success of 13 590 Technikon SA students and the importance of their "work status" (employed/unemployed in light of the co-operative education philosophy of technikons. The data was collected by means of the students’ registration records, and analysed using a CHAID-analysis. The results indicated that the variable "work status" features second last on the list of nine successful variables for predicting academic performance. Generally, it would appear that the employment practice for technikon students is not as important a requirement for academic success as the co-operative education philosophy would like it to be. Opsomming Hierdie artikel lewer verslag oor die akademiese sukses van 13 590 Technikon SA studente en die belangrikheid van hul “werkstatus” (werkend/werkloos in die lig van die koöperatiewe onderwysfilosofie van technikons. Die inligting wat deur middel van die studente se registrasierekords ingesamel is, is ontleed met ‘n CHAID-ontleding. Die resultate toon dat die veranderlike “werkstatus” tweede laaste op die lys van nege veranderlikes voorkom wat akademiese verrigting voorspel. Oor die algemeen blyk dit dat die indiensnemingpraktyk van technikonstudente nie so ‘n belangrike vereiste vir akademiese sukses is as wat die koöperatiewe onderwysfilosofie dit sou wou hê nie.

  19. Relevant teaching in higher education: an exercise from complexity theory in the social work profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Molina Correa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The requirements of our globalized world and the advancement of the teaching science show didactics as a fundamental category defined as the scientific discipline with principles, laws, theoretical and methodological frameworks, creatively modeling the pedagogical intervention in the academic environment.The implementation of the research "Teaching focused on the development of superior thinking and meaningful learning in students of first semester of Social Work Program", set the goal: Qualify the personal life and student projects from the acknowledgement of potentials of the subjects, for the development of competences meaningful to life. This is a research experience that has been developed since 2009 at Simon Bolivar University in the District of Barranquilla.The didactics was based on the development of superior thinking cognitive-process-centered, for the processing of information, creativity, readings of the reality of contexts, expounded/voiced subjectivities of life projects of students, the incorporation of TIC, in order to approach a humanizing and contextualized pedagogical practice. The critical theory was used in this research as a part of its epistemological basis for understanding and building a new academic scenario.The methodology used is the action with techniques such as mind mapping, dialogues, and stories of life, field works, and contents analysis, among others. The data analysis was guided by the hermeneutics as a possibility for the understanding and interpretation of the events that occurred in the classroom.

  20. Nothing for Money and Your Work for Free: Internships and the Marketing of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Einstein

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available American universities have significantly increased their marketing expenditures over the last decade. The high cost of education, reductions in government funding, and precipitous declines in the traditional college-aged population (18-21 year olds are some of the key factors forcing universities to be more aggressive with the promotional techniques they use to attract prospective students. In this competitive marketplace, schools promote the attributes they believe will be most compelling to high schoolers and their parents, including academics, sports, campus life, and careers. Tied into this last factor is the promotion of internship opportunities. While some of these hands-on experiences lead to jobs, there are no guarantees that attending college and engaging in an internship will translate into full-time employment. Using content analysis and auto-ethnography, I examine how universities use internships to market higher education, and argue that this is a particularly pernicious practice within the area of media studies.

  1. Peer mentored teams to support undergraduate group work in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinderey, Lynn Elizabeth

    This research starts with a set of practical research questions to investigate a problem which occurs in some computing undergraduate modules that use group work as part of the learning and assessment strategy. In this study final year students with experience in information systems project work and trained in team processes met with small groups of first year computing students with the aim of turning the first year project group into a team. This study seeks to explore the experience of the final year students as they take on the role of peer tutor looking at the problems they perceive within the first year teams and the skills and knowledge they use to help them. The study includes the recruitment and training of final year students (n=9) and allocation to first year teams. The final year students acted as co-researchers and team leaders in L4 Information Systems project work and recorded their thoughts and observations in a diary during the first semester of 2008/9 academic year. Diary data was supplemented by interview data from a sample of final year students (n=4). The sample was selected based on the richness of the data provided in the diaries and the number of meetings held with their teams. Rich data and thick descriptions were essential for a phenomenological examination of the experience of the final year students. A number of findings emerged. A critical approach to analysis revealed ongoing conflicts occurred across cultural divides within the first year teams that final year leaders did not articulate or appear fully aware of. This had important implications for individual team members. Other findings which relate to issues of changing levels of motivation in the teams over the ten weeks, roles adopted by the leaders, ability to systematize the project or team processes and the ability to reflect on unsuccessful strategies also had implications for peer mentoring training and support. The picture that emerged from the data suggested that lack of

  2. Effect of biomaterials and working pressure of a briquetting machine on physical characteristics and energy consumption of briquette production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedziółka Ignacy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the influence of biomaterials and working pressure of a briquetting machine on physical characteristics and energy consumption of briquette production. The following types of biomaterials were used in the study: rape, oat and maize straw. Hydraulic piston briquetting machine JUNIOR manufactured by Deta Polska was used for briquetting. During the briquetting process, the working pressures of briquetting machine were 20, 26 and 32 MPa. Depending on the type of biomaterial used and the assumed working pressure of briquetting machine, produced briquettes differed in terms of both their physical characteristics and energy consumption. Based on the analysis of the obtained results, it was found that physical characteristics and energy consumption during briquette production were influenced by such factors as the type of compacted material, its fragmentation as well as granulometric composition and working pressure of the briquetting machine used.

  3. FEATURES OF THE INDEPENDENT WORK OF STUDENTS OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CORRESPONDENCE FORM OF TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Dyvak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of introduction of information and communication technologies in educational process of higher educational institutions in the conditions of implementation of the correspondence form of training. Examples of the use of information and communication technologies in educational process of higher educational institutions, in particular in the preparation of specialists in pedagogics of higher school in the conditions of the correspondence form of training are presented. Discussed the basic didactic principles of distance and traditional forms of education. The theoretical substantiation of a choice of a virtual learning environment compass for the needs of training of specialists in pedagogics of higher school is presented. Determined the location of independent work of students in the educational process of higher education. Outputed the main functional modules of modern management systems of distance learning.

  4. Mechanical solution of the maximum point of dynamic abutment pressure under deep long-wall working face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, F.; Ma, Q. [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Tai' an (China). College of Resource and Environmental Engineering

    2002-06-01

    The paper studies the dynamic relationship between abutment pressure and overburden collapse precess with advancing of working face. The result shows that the abutment pressure reaches its maximum value when the working face dimension is 1.27 times of the mining depth. This result confirms the statistical result from the strata movement surveys that overburden reaches its full movement stage when extracting dimension reaches 1.2 1.4 times of the mining depth. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  5. A generic approach does not work : Disciplinary differences as explanation for study progress in higher professional education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphorst, J. C.; Hofman, W. H. A.; Jansen, E. P. W. A.; Terlouw, C.

    2012-01-01

    A generic approach does not work. Disciplinary differences as explanation for study progress in higher professional education. We combine concepts of Tinto's theory on student departure and Becher's theory on disciplinary tribes for explaining study progress in universities. We collected data with

  6. Expatriate Academic Staff in the United Arab Emirates: The Nature of Their Work Experiences in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ann E.; Chapman, David W.; Farah, Samar; Wilson, Elisabeth; Ridge, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    As many countries expand their higher education systems, they must attract, support, and retain qualified academic staff. This paper focuses on the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as a case study of a nation drawing on large numbers of mostly expatriate faculty working in short-term academic appointments. The paper begins by considering the national…

  7. How We Define the Nature and Essence of Our Work in Higher Education for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Eunsook; Houck, Linda

    This reflective paper attempts to share and bring an emerging postmodern constructive understanding to how higher education agents define the concept of holistic work in a way that is different from the traditionally categorized notions of teaching, research, and service. Through detailed descriptions, two teacher educators (from the School of…

  8. The Web as process tool and product environment for group-based project work in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Andernach, Toine; van Diepen, N.M.; Maurer, Hermann

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses problems confronting the use of group-based project work as an instructional strategy in higher education, and describes two technical courses (i.e., courses in online learning and applications of business information technology) at the University of Twente (Netherlands) in

  9. The Role of Ethnic Culture in Work-Family Balance among Armenian Women in Leadership Positions in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Hasmig

    2012-01-01

    In contemporary society women leaders in education have struggled to balance work and family. While some women have succeeded in finding that balance, many others are still struggling. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of three Armenian women in senior-level leadership positions in higher education in the United…

  10. Reading Comprehension, Working Memory and Higher-Level Language Skills in Children with SLI and/or Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Au, Terry K.-F.; McBride, Catherine; Ng, Ashley K.-H.; Yip, Lesley P.-W.; Lam, Catherine C.-C.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined (1) whether working memory and higher-level languages skills--inferencing and comprehension monitoring--accounted for individual differences among Chinese children in Chinese reading comprehension, after controlling for age, Chinese word reading and oral language skills, and (2) whether children with specific language…

  11. [Effects of noninvasive proportional assist vs pressure support ventilation on respiratory work in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with hypercapnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J H; Luo, Q; Zhang, H J; Chen, R C

    2017-06-12

    Objective: To investigate the effect of noninvasive proportional assist ventilation (PAV) on respiratory work in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) patients, in comparison to noninvasive pressure support ventilation(PSV). Methods: Ten severe COPD patients with hypercapnia during acute exacerbation were examined. The baseline inspiratory pressure of PSV (PS) and the assistance level of PAV(PA) were titrated by patients' tolerance. In addition to the baseline PS and PA, an additional decrease by 25% (PS-=75% PS, PA-=75% PA) or increase by 25% (PS+ =125% PS, PA+ =125% PA) of the assist level were applied to the patients. After the assessment of unassisted spontaneous breathing (SB), the patient was placed on the 6 levels of noninvasive-PSV and noninvasive-PAV in random sequence. Each level lasted at least 20 minutes. Respiratory rate (RR), tidal volume (Vt), and respiratory work(Wex, Wip and Wv) were measured. Asynchrony index (AI) was calculated. Results: During ventilation, Vt was significantly higher with each assist level than with SB. The Vt was significant increased with PS+ than with PA+ . An increase in expiratory work(Wex) and decrease in inspiratory work(Wip) were observed respectively, with the increasing assist level. The inspiratory muscles assessed by Wip were more unloaded at PS compared with PA [PS: (1.59±1.27) J/min vs PA: (4.99±3.48) J/min P increased with the increasing assist level of PSV [PS-: (0.46±0.57)%, PS: (1.36±1.24)% PS+ : (5.26±4.77)]. No asynchrony events were observed at PA- and PA. "Runaway" (expiratory asynchrony) was observed during PA+ [AI: (2.62±2.72)%]. Conclusions: Noninvasive-PAV can increase the Vt and decrease the Wip of the COPD patients with hypercapnia and avoid the over-assistance. The "Runaway" will occur at assist level higher than that set by tolerance. Physiological data can monitor the patient's responses and the ventilator-patient interaction, which may provide objective criteria for ventilator setting.

  12. Conflicts at work are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Kostev, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Only few authors have analyzed the impact of workplace conflicts and the resulting stress on the risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. The goal of this study was to analyze the association between workplace conflicts and cardiovascular disorders in patients treated by German general practitioners. Methods: Patients with an initial documentation of a workplace conflict experience between 2005 and 2014 were identified in 699 general practitioner practices (index date). We included only those who were between the ages of 18 and 65 years, had a follow-up time of at least 180 days after the index date, and had not been diagnosed with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, coronary heart diseases, or stroke prior to the documentation of the workplace mobbing. In total, the study population consisted of 7,374 patients who experienced conflicts and 7,374 controls for analysis. The main outcome measure was the incidence of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and stroke correlated with workplace conflict experiences. Results: After a maximum of five years of follow-up, 2.9% of individuals who experienced workplace conflict were affected by cardiovascular diseases, while only 1.4% were affected in the control group (p-value <0.001). Workplace conflict was associated with a 1.63-fold increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Finally, the impact of workplace conflict was higher for myocardial infarction (OR=2.03) than for angina pectoris (OR=1.79) and stroke (OR=1.56). Conclusions: Overall, we found a significant association between workplace conflicts and cardiovascular disorders. PMID:28496397

  13. Conflicts at work are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob, Louis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Only few authors have analyzed the impact of workplace conflicts and the resulting stress on the risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. The goal of this study was to analyze the association between workplace conflicts and cardiovascular disorders in patients treated by German general practitioners. Methods: Patients with an initial documentation of a workplace conflict experience between 2005 and 2014 were identified in 699 general practitioner practices (index date. We included only those who were between the ages of 18 and 65 years, had a follow-up time of at least 180 days after the index date, and had not been diagnosed with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, coronary heart diseases, or stroke prior to the documentation of the workplace mobbing. In total, the study population consisted of 7,374 patients who experienced conflicts and 7,374 controls for analysis. The main outcome measure was the incidence of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and stroke correlated with workplace conflict experiences. Results: After a maximum of five years of follow-up, 2.9% of individuals who experienced workplace conflict were affected by cardiovascular diseases, while only 1.4% were affected in the control group Workplace conflict was associated with a 1.63-fold increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Finally, the impact of workplace conflict was higher for myocardial infarction (OR=2.03 than for angina pectoris (OR=1.79 and stroke (OR=1.56. Conclusions: Overall, we found a significant association between workplace conflicts and cardiovascular disorders.

  14. Modelling flow and work hardening behaviour of cold worked Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube material in the temperature range of 30–600 oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dureja, A.K.; Sinha, S.K.; Pawaskar, D.N.; Seshu, P.; Chakravartty, J.K.; Sinha, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Under a postulated accident scenario of loss of cooling medium in an Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR), temperature of the pressure tubes can rise and lead to large deformations. In order to investigate the modes of deformation of pressure tube – calandria tube assembly, material property data defining the flow behaviour over a temperature range from room temperature (RT) to 800 o C are needed. It is of practical importance to formulate mathematical equations to describe the stress–strain relationships of a material for a variety of reasons, such as the analysis of forming operations and the assessment of component's performance in service. A number of constitutive relations of empirical nature have been proposed and they have been found very suitable to describe the behaviour of a material. Although these relations are of empirical nature, various metallurgical factors appear to decide applicability of each of these relations. For example, grain size influences mainly the friction stress while the strain hardening is governed by dislocation density. In a recent work, tensile deformation behaviour of pressure tube material of IPHWR has been carried out over a range of temperature and strain rates (Dureja et al., 2011). It has been found that the strength parameters (yield and ultimate tensile strength) vary along the length of the tube with higher strength at the trailing end as compared to the leading end. This stems from cooling of the billet during the extrusion process which results in the variation of microstructure, texture and dislocation density from the leading to the trailing end. In addition, the variation in metallurgical parameters is also expected to influence the work hardening behaviour, which is known to control the plastic instability (related to uniform strain). In the present investigation, the tensile flow and work-hardening behaviour of a cold worked Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube material of IPHWRs has been studied over the

  15. Is ovarian hyperstimulation associated with higher blood pressure in 4-year-old IVF offspring? Part I: multivariable regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seggers, Jorien; Haadsma, Maaike L; La Bastide-Van Gemert, Sacha; Heineman, Maas Jan; Middelburg, Karin J; Roseboom, Tessa J; Schendelaar, Pamela; Van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-03-01

    Does ovarian hyperstimulation, the in vitro procedure, or a combination of these two negatively influence blood pressure (BP) and anthropometrics of 4-year-old children born following IVF? Higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) percentiles were found in 4-year-old children born following conventional IVF with ovarian hyperstimulation compared with children born following IVF without ovarian hyperstimulation. Increasing evidence suggests that IVF, which has an increased incidence of preterm birth and low birthweight, is associated with higher BP and altered body fat distribution in offspring but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We performed a prospective, assessor-blinded follow-up study in which 194 children were assessed. The attrition rate up until the 4-year-old assessment was 10%. We measured BP and anthropometrics of 4-year-old singletons born following conventional IVF with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH-IVF, n = 63), or born following modified natural cycle IV (MNC-IVF, n = 52), or born to subfertile couples who conceived naturally (Sub-NC, n = 79). Both IVF and ICSI were performed. Primary outcome measures were the SBP percentiles and diastolic BP (DBP) percentiles. Anthropometric measures included triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness. Several multivariable regression analyses were applied in order to correct for subsets of confounders. The value 'B' is the unstandardized regression coefficient. SBP percentiles were significantly lower in the MNC-IVF group (mean 59, SD 24) than in the COH-IVF (mean 68, SD 22) and Sub-NC groups (mean 70, SD 16). The difference in SBP between COH-IVF and MNC-IVF remained significant after correction for current, early life and parental characteristics (B: 14.09; 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.39-22.79), whereas the difference between MNC-IVF and Sub-NC did not. DBP percentiles did not differ between groups. After correction for early life factors, subscapular skinfold thickness was thicker in the

  16. Age hardening of cold-worked Zr-2.5 wt% Nb pressure tube alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, R.; Singh, R.N.; Dey, G.K.; Sinha, T.K.

    1992-01-01

    Specimens for hardness and tensile tests, machined from a cold-worked zirconium-2.5% niobium pressure tube, with their axes parallel to longitudinal and transverse directions, were aged for 1 hr. at 300-500 C. The age hardening behaviour was monitored by mechanical tests, electron-microscopy and x-ray diffraction. In addition a few studies were carried on longitudinal tension specimens subjected to prolonged ageing (100-1000 hrs) at 300 C. It was observed that the short-term (1 hour) thermal ageing of this material at 300-400 C caused an increase in both strength and hardness without affecting ductility. It appears that the observed age-hardening is due to precipitation hardening by a niobium-rich phase and softening by recovery of cold-work and that the phenomenon is influenced by crystallographic texture. Further it was noted that a prolonged ageing at 300 C upto 1000 hrs, did not cause any appreciable changes in strength and ductility of the material compared to those obtained by 1 hour ageing at the same temperature. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Oscillatory lower body negative pressure impairs working memory task-related functional hyperemia in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Sana; Medow, Marvin S; Visintainer, Paul; Terilli, Courtney; Stewart, Julian M

    2017-04-01

    Neurovascular coupling (NVC) describes the link between an increase in task-related neural activity and increased cerebral blood flow denoted "functional hyperemia." We previously showed induced cerebral blood flow oscillations suppressed functional hyperemia; conversely functional hyperemia also suppressed cerebral blood flow oscillations. We used lower body negative pressure (OLBNP) oscillations to force oscillations in middle cerebral artery cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv). Here, we used N-back testing, an intellectual memory challenge as a neural activation task, to test the hypothesis that OLBNP-induced oscillatory cerebral blood flow can reduce functional hyperemia and NVC produced by a working memory task and can interfere with working memory. We used OLBNP (-30 mmHg) at 0.03, 0.05, and 0.10 Hz and measured spectral power of CBFv at all frequencies. Neither OLBNP nor N-back, alone or combined, affected hemodynamic parameters. 2-Back power and OLBNP individually were compared with 2-back power during OLBNP. 2-Back alone produced a narrow band increase in oscillatory arterial pressure (OAP) and oscillatory cerebral blood flow power centered at 0.0083 Hz. Functional hyperemia in response to 2-back was reduced to near baseline and 2-back memory performance was decreased by 0.03-, 0.05-, and 0.10-Hz OLBNP. OLBNP alone produced increased oscillatory power at frequencies of oscillation not suppressed by added 2-back. However, 2-back preceding OLBNP suppressed OLBNP power. OLBNP-driven oscillatory CBFv blunts NVC and memory performance, while memory task reciprocally interfered with forced CBFv oscillations. This shows that induced cerebral blood flow oscillations suppress functional hyperemia and functional hyperemia suppresses cerebral blood flow oscillations. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that induced cerebral blood flow oscillations suppress functional hyperemia produced by a working memory task as well as memory task performance. We conclude that oscillatory

  18. The Benefits of Working Memory Capacity on Attentional Control under Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Liwei; Wang, Jin

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of working memory capacity (WMC) and state anxiety (SA) on attentional control. WMC was manipulated by (a) dividing participants into low- and high-WMC groups (Experiment 1), and (b) using working memory training to improve WMC (Experiment 2). SA was manipulated by creating low- and high-SA conditions. Attentional control was evaluated by using antisaccade task. Results demonstrated that (a) higher WMC indicated better attentional control (Experiments 1 and 2); (b) the effects of SA on attentional control were inconsistent because SA impaired attentional control in Experiment 1, but favored attentional control in Experiment 2; and (c) the interaction of SA and WMC was not significant (Experiments 1 and 2). This study directly manipulated WMC by working memory training, which provided more reliable evidence for controlled attention view of WMC and new supportive evidence for working memory training (i.e., far transfer effect on attentional control). And the refinement of the relationship between anxiety and attentional control proposed by Attentional Control Theory was also discussed.

  19. The Benefits of Working Memory Capacity on Attentional Control under Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Luo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the effects of working memory capacity (WMC and state anxiety (SA on attentional control. WMC was manipulated by (a dividing participants into low- and high-WMC groups (Experiment 1, and (b using working memory training to improve WMC (Experiment 2. SA was manipulated by creating low- and high-SA conditions. Attentional control was evaluated by using antisaccade task. Results demonstrated that (a higher WMC indicated better attentional control (Experiments 1 and 2; (b the effects of SA on attentional control were inconsistent because SA impaired attentional control in Experiment 1, but favored attentional control in Experiment 2; and (c the interaction of SA and WMC was not significant (Experiments 1 and 2. This study directly manipulated WMC by working memory training, which provided more reliable evidence for controlled attention view of WMC and new supportive evidence for working memory training (i.e., far transfer effect on attentional control. And the refinement of the relationship between anxiety and attentional control proposed by Attentional Control Theory was also discussed.

  20. Blade Surface Pressure Distributions in a Rocket Engine Turbine: Experimental Work With On-Blade Pressure Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Susan T.; Zoladz, Thomas F.; Griffin, Lisa W.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Understanding the unsteady aspects of turbine rotor flowfields is critical to successful future turbine designs. A technology program was conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to increase the understanding of unsteady environments for rocket engine turbines. The experimental program involved instrumenting turbine rotor blades with surface-mounted high frequency response pressure transducers. The turbine model was then tested to measure the unsteady pressures on the rotor blades. The data obtained from the experimental program is unique in three respects. First, much more unsteady data was obtained (several minutes per set point) than has been possible in the past. Also, two independent unsteady data acquisition systems and fundamental signal processing approaches were used. Finally, an extensive steady performance database existed for the turbine model. This allowed an evaluation of the effect of the on-blade instrumentation on the turbine's performance. This unique data set, the lessons learned for acquiring this type of data, and the improvements made to the data analysis and prediction tools will contribute to future turbine programs such as those for reusable launch vehicles.

  1. Work values and career anchors: the perspective of students of higher education in classroom methods and distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tais de Andrade

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study takes into account the factors that interfere with career decisions from the internal demands of individuals, represented by the work values. Investigated university students’ perspective on work values and career anchors. For this, we used a survey along the 958 undergraduate students of face and distance higher education institutions in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul. The data collection instrument was developed from the Work Values Scale Revised developed by Porto and Pilati (2010 and the Inventory of Career Anchors proposed by Schein (1993; 1996. As for the results, there were significant differences between the perceptions of the two methods of teaching, but the hierarchy assigned to the values and anchors in both was similar, which shows certain pattern of agreement as to the perception of importance attached to each dimension studied.

  2. Work Pressure and Safety Behaviors among Health Workers in Ghana: The Moderating Role of Management Commitment to Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Amponsah-Tawaih, Kwesi; Adu, Michael Appiah

    2016-01-01

    Background: safety and healthy working environment has received numerous research attention over the years. Majority of these researches seem to have been conducted in the construction industry, with little attention in the health sector. Nonetheless, there are couple of studies conducted in Africa that suggest pressure in hospitals. Therefore the aim of the study was to examine how pressure influence safety behavior in the hospitals. With reference to the relevance of safety behavior in prim...

  3. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 °C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 °C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 °C to 255 °C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Chae Hoon, E-mail: chsohn@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 deg. C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 deg. C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 deg. C to 255 deg. C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor.

  5. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 deg. C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 deg. C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 deg. C to 255 deg. C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor.

  6. The Working Principle and Use of High Pressures in the Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Karlović, S.; Brnčić, M.; Ježek, D.; Tripalo, B.; Bosiljkov, T.

    2010-01-01

    High pressure in the food industry, as a new non-thermal method, is applied in many phases of food processing. This new non-thermal technology was developed in the 1990s. The main advantages of high-pressure processing are in the short time of processing which is between a few seconds and 30 minutes. Processing of solid or liquid food products with or without packaginghappens in the temperature interval 5 – 90 °C, and pressures 50 – 1000 MPa. The driving pressure is distributed uniformly thro...

  7. Study of pressure-volume relationships and higher derivatives of bulk modulus based on generalized equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwah, S.S.; Shrivastava, H.C.; Singh, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    We have generalized the pressure-volume (P-V) relationships using simple polynomial and logarithmic expansions so as to make them consistent with the infinite pressure extrapolation according to the model of Stacey. The formulations are used to evaluate P-V relationships and pressure derivatives of bulk modulus upto third order (K', K'' and K''') for the earth core material taking input parameters based on the seismological data. The results based on the equations of state (EOS) generalized in the present study are found to yield good agreement with the Stacey EOS. The generalized logarithmic EOS due to Poirier and Tarantola deviates substantially from the seismic values for P, K and K'. The generalized Rydberg EOS gives almost identical results with the Birch-Murnaghan third-order EOS. Both of them yield deviations from the seismic data, which are in opposite direction as compared to those found from the generalized Poirier-Tarantola logarithmic EOS

  8. Status and Plans for work on pressure tube creep at AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickel, Grant A.

    2013-01-01

    AECL research goals: • Develop empirical models to: – regress out operating conditions/extrinsic factors – rank relative strain behavior of measured in-service pressure tubes; • Correlate the ranked strains to manufacturing variables and the microstructure to: – Develop mechanistic insights – Optimize manufacturing/microstructure for improved pressure tube performance

  9. Road to the Future. General Aspects of Brazilian Higher Education and a Brief Comparison with Other Educational Modes. Yale Higher Education Research Group Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simao, Jose Veiga

    After a brief explanation of the economic and social background of Brazil, its educational system is described and the prospects for higher education there are explored. Like most nations, Brazil's higher education system is unique and adapted to its own needs. Its system bears similarities to both European and American traditions. In the near…

  10. Numerical investigations on pressurized AL-composite vessel response to hypervelocity impacts: Comparison between experimental works and a numerical code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mespoulet Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of pressurized composite-Al vessels to hypervelocity impact of aluminum spheres have been numerically investigated to evaluate the influence of initial pressure on the vulnerability of these vessels. Investigated tanks are carbon-fiber overwrapped prestressed Al vessels. Explored internal air pressure ranges from 1 bar to 300 bar and impact velocity are around 4400 m/s. Data obtained from experiments (Xray radiographies, particle velocity measurement and post-mortem vessels have been compared to numerical results given from LS-DYNA ALE-Lagrange-SPH full coupling models. Simulations exhibit an under estimation in term of debris cloud evolution and shock wave propagation in pressurized air but main modes of damage/rupture on the vessels given by simulations are coherent with post-mortem recovered vessels from experiments. First results of this numerical work are promising and further simulation investigations with additional experimental data will be done to increase the reliability of the simulation model. The final aim of this crossed work is to numerically explore a wide range of impact conditions (impact angle, projectile weight, impact velocity, initial pressure that cannot be explore experimentally. Those whole results will define a rule of thumbs for the definition of a vulnerability analytical model for a given pressurized vessel.

  11. Performance-based contracting in home-care work in The Netherlands: professionalism under pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomkens, Rosanne; Hoogenboom, Marcel; Knijn, Trudie

    2016-07-01

    Our aim was to improve the understanding of the relationships between performance-based contracting, management supportiveness and professionalism in home care. Using path analysis, this article explores the relationships between home-care workers' perceptions of management support, implementation of performance-based contracting (i.e. use of strict time registration rules and cost-efficiency measures) and autonomy and intrinsic job satisfaction. We hypothesised that: use of strict time registration rules and cost-efficiency measures relates to lower levels of autonomy and intrinsic job satisfaction (H1); there is an indirect relationship between use of strict time registration rules and use of cost-efficiency measures and intrinsic job satisfaction via autonomy (H2); higher levels of management support relate to the use of looser time registration rules and less use of cost-efficiency measures (H3); and higher levels of management support relate to higher levels of autonomy and intrinsic job satisfaction (H4). We used data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010 of a sample of Dutch home-care workers (N = 156, response rate = 34%). Overall, our study suggests that the consequences of performance-based contracting for professionalism are ambiguous. More specifically, using strict time registration rules is related to lower levels of autonomy, whereas using cost-efficiency measures does not seem to affect autonomy (H1). Performance-based contracting has no consequences for the level of fulfilment home-care workers find in their job, as neither of the two contracting dimensions measured was directly or indirectly related to intrinsic job satisfaction (H1, H2). The role of managers must be taken into account when studying performance-based contracting, because perceived higher management support is related to managers' less frequent use of both strict time registration rules and of cost-efficiency measures (H3). The insight we gained into the importance of

  12. A pressure ulcer prevention programme specially designed for nursing homes: does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Enid W-Y; Lau, Ada T-Y; Lee, Rainbow L-P; Kwan, Rick Y-C

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a pressure ulcer prevention programme for nursing homes to ascertain the feasibility of its implementation, impact on care staff and outcomes for pressure ulcer knowledge and skills and pressure ulcer reduction. No pressure ulcer prevention protocol for long-term care settings has been established to date. The first author of this study thus developed a pressure ulcer prevention programme for nursing homes. A quasi-experimental pretest and post-test design was adopted. Forty-one non-licensed care providers and eleven nurses from a government-subsidised nursing home voluntarily participated in the study. Knowledge and skills of the non-licensed care providers were assessed before, immediately after and six weeks after the training course, and pressure ulcer prevalence and incidence were recorded before and during the protocol implementation. At the end of the programme implementation, focus group interviews with the subjects were conducted to explore their views on the programme. A statistically significant improvement in knowledge and skills scores amongst non-licensed care providers was noted. Pressure ulcer prevalence and incidence rates dropped from 9-2·5% and 2·5-0·8%, respectively, after programme implementation. The focus group findings indicated that the programme enhanced the motivation of non-licensed care providers to improve their performance of pressure ulcer prevention care and increased communication and cooperation amongst care staff, but use of the modified Braden scale was considered by nurses to increase their workload. A pressure ulcer prevention programme for nursing homes, which was feasible and acceptable, with positive impact and outcome in a nursing home was empirically developed. The study findings can be employed to modify the programme and its outcomes for an evaluation of effectiveness of the programme through a randomised controlled trial. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Investigation of holder pressure and size effects in micro deep drawing of rectangular work pieces driven by piezoelectric actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzahed, Iman; Mashhadi, Mahmoud Mosavi; Sereshk, Mohammad Reza Vaziri

    2017-02-01

    Micro forming is a manufacturing process to fabricate micro parts with high quality and a cost effective manner. Deep drawing could be a favorable method for production of complicated parts in macro and micro sizes. In this paper piezoelectric actuator is used as a novel approach in the field of micro manufacturing. Also, in current work, investigations are conducted with four rectangular punches and blanks with various thicknesses. Blank holder pressure effects on thickness distributions, punch force, and springback are studied. According to the results of this work, increasing of blank holder pressure in scaled deep drawing, in contrast to thickness of drawn part, leads to decrease in the punch forces and springback. Furthermore, it is shown that in micro deep drawing, the effects of holder pressure on mentioned parameters can be ignored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors influencing the intention to use social media for work-related purposes at a South African higher education institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel Cilliers

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The rapid development of information communication technology (ICT has changed much of contemporary society. ICT’s influence extends to the working context with ramifications not only for employees but also for the entire organisation. Research purpose: The primary purpose of this research was to investigate the behavioural intention of a sample of employees at a traditional higher education institution to make use of social media within the workplace. Motivation for the study: Social media has become a common tool within society for communication and networking purposes. An understanding of the factors that influence behavioural intention to use social media within the workplace can assist the organisation to better manage social media usage within the workplace. Research design, approach and method: The research adopted the positivism paradigm with a quantitative research approach. The data were analysed making use of exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. A traditional higher education institution was chosen as the research site for the study, relying on a convenience sample (n = 134 and data gathered using the work-related social media scale and behavioural intention to use scale. Main findings: Although most employees make use of social media for problem-solving and communication purposes already in the workplace, organisations should allow their employees to help manage their reputation on social media. Practical and managerial implications: An understanding of the factors that influence behavioural intention to use social media within the workplace can serve as a useful precursor for both employee and organisational-specific interventions. This study has specific relevance to the use of ICT platforms, such as social media, in traditional higher education institutions in South Africa. The study’s results are therefore useful to both employees as end-users and managers as drivers of such interventions

  15. Neutron irradiation effects in reactor pressure vessel steels and weldments. Working document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In this report, background and contemporary views on specially identified areas of the subject are considered as self-contained chapters, written by experts. A separate abstract was prepared for the introduction and for each of the eleven chapters, which are: 1. Reactor Pressure Vessel Design, 2. Reactor Pressure Materials, 3. WWER Pressure Vessels, 4. Determination of Mechanical Properties, 5. Neutron Exposure, 6. Methodology of Irradiation Experiments, 7. Effect of Irradiation on Mechanical Properties, 8. Mechanisms of Irradiation Embrittlement, 9. Modelling of Irradiation Damage, 10. Annealing of Irradiation Damage, 11. Safety Assessment using Surveillance Programmes and Data Bases

  16. Everyone is working together to ease the pressures in A&E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Mark

    2015-01-27

    Nurse consultant Janet Youd, chair of the RCN Emergency Care Association, says nurses struggling to cope with unprecedented pressures in A&E departments should be awarded an extra half day's annual leave (Online News January 8).

  17. Blood pressure monitoring: theory and practice. European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Blood Pressure Monitoring and Cardiovascular Variability Teaching Course Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, George S; Palatini, Paolo; Asmar, Roland; Bilo, Grzegorz; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Head, Geoff; Kario, Kazuomi; Mihailidou, Anastasia; Wang, Jiguang; Mancia, Giuseppe; O'Brien, Eoin; Parati, Gianfranco

    2018-02-01

    The European Society of Hypertension (ESH) Working Group on Blood Pressure (BP) Monitoring and Cardiovascular Variability organized a Teaching Course on 'Blood Pressure Monitoring: Theory and Practice' during the 2017 ESH Meeting in Milan, Italy. This course performed by 11 international BP monitoring experts covered key topics of BP monitoring, including office BP measurement, ambulatory BP monitoring, home BP monitoring, ambulatory versus home BP, white-coat and masked hypertension, cuff use, and BP variability. This article presents a summary of the proceedings of the ESH BP Monitoring Teaching Course, including essential information, practical issues, and recommendations on the clinical application of BP monitoring methods, aiming to the optimal management of patients with suspected or diagnosed hypertension.

  18. Design and construction of a prestressed concrete pressure vessel for a working pressure of 69N/mm2 (10,000 p.s.i)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, P.

    1977-01-01

    Construction is nearing completion of a pressure vessel with a chamber 9.15 m (30 ft.) high and 3.05 m (10 ft.) internal diameter for hydraulic tests on marine components up to 69 N/mm 2 (10,000 p.s.i.) working pressure. The chamber comprises a steel cylinder, with independent end plates contained within a prestressed concrete structure. The cylinder is constructed in two halves, each consisting of three forged rings, 170 mm thick, shrink-fitted onto a 90 mm thick liner. It rests on a 100 mm thick bottom plate, provided with a band of hard-facing overlay on which the cylinder slides in response to changes of test medium pressure. Models to be tested within the chamber are hung from a removeable 150 mm thick top plate. A central elliptical hatch provides access into the chamber. Special sealing assemblies are fitted at the junction of the cylinder sections and between the cylinder and end plates. These seals are capable of accepting radial expansion of the cylinder and corresponding vertical movements at the upper seal arising from elastic movements of the enclosing structure. The top plate is restrained by a wire-wound prestressed concrete closure plug, itself located by twelve bifurcated inclined steel struts which transfer the load on the top plate into the concrete structure. The struts are retractable to allow removal of the closure plug and top plate. The enclosing concrete structure is 25 m (82 ft.) high and 11 m (36 ft.) diameter. It is vertically prestressed by 180 no. 540 Tonne tendons and circumferentially prestressed by 5 mm wire laid under tension in pre-cast concrete channels by the Taylor Woodrow Wire-Winding System. The structure was analysed, using limit state principles, by computerised elastic and non-elastic dynamic relaxation techniques. The results were evaluated against triaxial stress criteria established from relevant research work and experience obtained from nuclear prestressed concrete pressure vessels

  19. Highway proximity and black carbon from cookstoves as a risk factor for higher blood pressure in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Schauer, James J; Huang, Wei; Wang, Yuqin; Ezzati, Majid

    2014-09-09

    Air pollution in China and other parts of Asia poses large health risks and is an important contributor to global climate change. Almost half of Chinese homes use biomass and coal fuels for cooking and heating. China's economic growth and infrastructure development has led to increased emissions from coal-fired power plants and an expanding fleet of motor vehicles. Black carbon (BC) from incomplete biomass and fossil fuel combustion is the most strongly light-absorbing component of particulate matter (PM) air pollution and the second most important climate-forcing human emission. PM composition and sources may also be related to its human health impact. We enrolled 280 women living in a rural area of northwestern Yunnan where biomass fuels are commonly used. We measured their blood pressure, distance from major traffic routes, and daily exposure to BC (pyrolytic biomass combustion), water-soluble organic aerosol (organic aerosol from biomass combustion), and, in a subset, hopane markers (motor vehicle emissions) in winter and summer. BC had the strongest association with systolic blood pressure (SBP) (4.3 mmHg; P water-soluble organic mass. The effect of BC on SBP was almost three times greater in women living near the highway [6.2 mmHg; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.6 to 8.9 vs. 2.6 mmHg; 95% CI, 0.1 to 5.2]. Our findings suggest that BC from combustion emissions is more strongly associated with blood pressure than PM mass, and that BC's health effects may be larger among women living near a highway and with greater exposure to motor vehicle emissions.

  20. Working gas temperature and pressure changes for microscale thermal creep-driven flow caused by discontinuous wall temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yen-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Microscale temperature gradient-driven (thermal creep/transpiration) gas flows have attracted significant interest during the past decade. For free molecular and transitional conditions, applying temperature gradients to a flow channel's walls induces the thermal creep effect. This results in a working gas flowing through the channel from cold to hot, which is generally accompanied by a rising pressure from cold to hot in the channel. Working gas temperature and pressure distributions can vary significantly, depending on a flow channel's configuration and wall temperature distribution. Understanding working gas temperature excursions, both increases and decreases, is essential to ensure the effective use of thermal creep flows in microscale applications. In this study, the characterizations of working gas temperature variations, due to both temperature discontinuities and more gradual changes, on a variety of flow channel walls, were systematically investigated using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. A micro/meso-scale pump, the Knudsen compressor, was chosen to illustrate the importance of controlling working gas temperature in thermal creep-driven flows. Gas pressure and temperature variations, through several Knudsen compressor stage configurations, were studied to determine the most advantageous flow phenomena for the efficient operation of Knudsen compressors.

  1. CONFERENCE NOTE: Comité Consultatif pour la Masse et les grandeurs apparentées (CCM), High Pressure and Medium Pressure Working Groups, Second International Seminar on Pressure Metrology from 1 kPa to 1 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The seminar will be held from 2 to 4 June 1993, preceding the next meeting of the CCM, at the Laboratoire National d'Essais (LNE), 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris, France. Scope of the Seminar The purpose of the seminar is to review the state of the art of pressure measurements in the 1 kPa to 1 GPa range and to present original and innovative contributions from standards laboratories and industry. Main Topics The seminar will be organized in six sessions as follows: Liquid-column manometers Piston gauge pressure standards Properties of liquids and gases relevant to pressure metrology Pressure transducers and transfer standards Pressure standard comparison (methods and results) Dynamic pressure measurements. Each topic will be introduced by a review paper presented by a session chairman. A final session, coordinated by Dr G F Molinar (IMGC), Chairman of the CCM High Pressure Working Group, and Dr P Stuart (NPL), Chairman of the CCM Medium Pressure Working Group, will deal with: Actual limits of accuracy of static pressure measurements in fluid media Fundamental problems in pressure metrology between I kPa and 1 GPa. Call for Papers Papers should be prepared for oral presentation and will be refereed by the session chairmen. The Proceedings will be published as a special issue of Metrologia. Papers should be written according to the instructions for authors printed on the inside back cover of this journal. A one-page abstract should be sent to Dr Molinar at the IMGC, to arrive before 31 January 1993. A participation fee of 900 FFr (175 US) will be charged. This will cover general expenses and a copy of the Proceedings. Hotel reservations, meals and transport are not included. Organizers For further information please contact: 1993 CCM Pressure Seminar, Dr G F Molinar, Istituto di Metrologia "G Colonnetti", Strada delle Cacce 73, 1-10135 Torino, Italy telephone (39) 11 39771; telex 212209 IMGCTO-I; fax (39) 11 346761. Contact at the LNE: J C Legras, telephone (33

  2. Highly ionized physical vapor deposition plasma source working at very low pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranak, V.; Herrendorf, A.-P.; Drache, S.; Cada, M.; Hubicka, Z.; Tichy, M.; Hippler, R.

    2012-04-01

    Highly ionized discharge for physical vapor deposition at very low pressure is presented in the paper. The discharge is generated by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) which assists with ignition of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge. The magnetron gun (with Ti target) was built into the single-turn coil RF electrode of the ECWR facility. ECWR assistance provides pre-ionization effect which allows significant reduction of pressure during HiPIMS operation down to p = 0.05 Pa; this is nearly more than an order of magnitude lower than at typical pressure ranges of HiPIMS discharges. We can confirm that nearly all sputtered particles are ionized (only Ti+ and Ti++ peaks are observed in the mass scan spectra). This corresponds well with high plasma density ne ˜ 1018 m-3, measured during the HiPIMS pulse.

  3. Highly ionized physical vapor deposition plasma source working at very low pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranak, V.; Herrendorf, A.-P.; Drache, S.; Hippler, R.; Cada, M.; Hubicka, Z.; Tichy, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highly ionized discharge for physical vapor deposition at very low pressure is presented in the paper. The discharge is generated by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) which assists with ignition of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge. The magnetron gun (with Ti target) was built into the single-turn coil RF electrode of the ECWR facility. ECWR assistance provides pre-ionization effect which allows significant reduction of pressure during HiPIMS operation down to p = 0.05 Pa; this is nearly more than an order of magnitude lower than at typical pressure ranges of HiPIMS discharges. We can confirm that nearly all sputtered particles are ionized (only Ti + and Ti ++ peaks are observed in the mass scan spectra). This corresponds well with high plasma density n e ∼ 10 18 m -3 , measured during the HiPIMS pulse.

  4. Pressure redistribution devices: what works, at what cost and what's next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses the development and usage of pressure redistribution devices (PRDs) and their impact on the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers within the NHS. The article outlines the history of the development of these devices and discusses the reasons for a lack of substantial evidence in support of the use of these devices, their impact on the NHS on cost and perceived outcome. The article describes the typical usage profile in a 500 bed NHS hospital and concludes with a view as to how that may change in the future. Copyright © 2013 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A REVIEW OF THE PRACTICE OF WORK-BASED LEARNING (WBL AT HIGHER EDUCATION LEVEL IN THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Talbot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to review the practice of work-based learning (WBL, based on the experience of higher education institutions in the United Kingdom.Methods. The methods of system and comparative analysis, synthesis and generalization are used.Results. The background and development of WBL is given; the importance and value of this form of education in the modern, rapidly changing society is shown. The main characteristics are selected and basic aspects of WBL programs profitable different from traditional university programs are designated: relevance to real production processes; student centricity; flexibility of content which is built proceeding from interests of an employer and a student; high extent of integration of various disciplines and fields of knowledge; recognition of the prior certified and independent training; optimization of time expenditure; possibility of the choice of the place of training, its sequence, schedule of control actions, and other advantages. Options of a program implementation of WBL, complexity of their implementation and methods of their overcoming are described. A few critical remarks concerning WBL programs are also presented.Scientific novelty. For the first time the analytical review of WBL practice at a higher education level, which is widespread in English-speaking countries over the last 25 years, is presented in the Russian scientific literature in education.Practical significance. The materials provided in the article can be useful to heads and teachers of institutions of higher education; methodologists of structures of vocational preparation and advanced training of personnel of high technology productions; the employers heading large-scale industries and interested in upgrading of employees’ educational level.

  6. New Work Demands in Higher Education. A Study of the Relationship between Excessive Workload, Coping Strategies and Subsequent Health among Academic Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Marika; Astvik, Wanja; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the work conditions in higher education work settings, the academic staff's strategies for handling excessive workload and impact on well-being and work-life balance. The results show that there is a risk that staff in academic work places will start using compensatory coping strategies to deal with…

  7. A Common Allele in FGF21 Associated with Sugar Intake Is Associated with Body Shape, Lower Total Body-Fat Percentage, and Higher Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Frayling

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a hormone that has insulin-sensitizing properties. Some trials of FGF21 analogs show weight loss and lipid-lowering effects. Recent studies have shown that a common allele in the FGF21 gene alters the balance of macronutrients consumed, but there was little evidence of an effect on metabolic traits. We studied a common FGF21 allele (A:rs838133 in 451,099 people from the UK Biobank study, aiming to use the human allele to inform potential adverse and beneficial effects of targeting FGF21. We replicated the association between the A allele and higher percentage carbohydrate intake. We then showed that this allele is more strongly associated with higher blood pressure and waist-hip ratio, despite an association with lower total body-fat percentage, than it is with BMI or type 2 diabetes. These human phenotypes of variation in the FGF21 gene will inform research into FGF21’s mechanisms and therapeutic potential. : Drugs targeting the hormone FGF21 may have beneficial health effects. Variations in human DNA in the FGF21 gene provide an indication of what those effects may be. Here, we show that variation in the FGF21 gene is associated with higher blood pressure and altered body shape, despite lower total body-fat percentage. Keywords: FGF21, BMI, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, body fat, allele, genetic variant, UK Biobank

  8. The influence of work- and home-related stress on the levels and diurnal variation of ambulatory blood pressure and neurohumoral factors in employed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, Kazuomi; James, Gary D; Marion, RoseMerie; Ahmed, Mustafa; Pickering, Thomas G

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of self-reported perceived stress at work and home on the levels, variation and co-variation of ambulatory blood pressure (BP), pulse rate (PR) and urinary catecholamine, cortisol, and aldosterone excretion measured at work, home and during sleep in women employed outside the home. The subjects of the study were 134 women (mean age 34.4 +/- 9.6 years, range 18 to 64 years) who were employed in managerial, technical or clerical positions at the same work place. Perceived stress at work and home was self-reported on a scale from 0 (low) to 10 (high). BP, PR and the urinary rates of excretion of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and aldosterone were averaged in the daily work environment from 11 AM to 3 PM, in the daily home environment from approximately 6 PM to 10 PM, and during sleep from approximately 10 PM to 6 AM the following morning. The results showed that systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) and the rates of urinary catecholamine, cortisol, and aldosterone excretion measured in the work environment were significantly higher than corresponding measurements taken in the home environment. SBP measured at work was also positively correlated with the difference in perceived stress between work and home (p home environment were positively correlated with stress at home. When the subjects were divided into groups based on whether the work or home environment was perceived to be most stressful, women reporting greater stress at work (n=85) had higher work SBP (p work DBP (p home environment to be more stressful (n=34). There were no differences in the urinary hormonal excretion rates between these perceived-stress groups. Among women with greater perceived stress at home, the home-stress score was positively correlated with sleep SBP level (r = 0.310, p home pulse rate ( r= 0.414, p work stress may increase ambulatory BP levels throughout the day, while home stress may induce additional sympathetic

  9. Validation of work pressure and associated factors influencing hospital nurse turnover: a cross-sectional investigation in Shaanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiyun; Lv, Jingwen; Zhou, Xi; Liu, Huitong; Mi, Baibing

    2017-02-03

    Nurses' turnover is a major contributor to nursing shortages, strongly influenced by nurses' intentions to leave. Several factors influencing the turnover intention have been well identified in Western countries and large cities in China. However, whether these factors also contribute to nurses' work stress in Midwest China are still unclear. The main purpose of this study was to examine the work pressure and associated factors influencing the nurses' intent to leave. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey with multistage sampling was conducted by recruiting 800 employed registered nurses with >1 year of work experience. Chi-square test and multi-factor logistic regression were applied to attain the relative comparisons. Sub-group analysis was conducted to explore the different turnover intention patterns in different age groups. The turnover intention was classified as strong/very-strong (19%), weak (62%), and very-weak (19%). Among the factors influencing the nurses' desire to leave the profession, work pressure was the most prominent. The predominantly associated factors contributing the work stress were age, experience, and workload. However, the scale of income did not affect the intent to leave decision. Pediatrics was identified to be the highest tormented department with a significant (P stress, age, job duty, and career commitment in Shaanxi Province. The intent to leave is dynamically multifactorial, and effective managements and supportive strategies are needed to reduce the nurses work stress accordingly.

  10. Work of breathing using different interfaces in spontaneous positive pressure ventilation: helmet, face-mask, and endotracheal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Shinya; Otaki, Kei; Yashima, Nozomi; Kurota, Misato; Matsushita, Sachiko; Kumasaka, Airi; Kurihara, Hutaba; Kawamae, Kaneyuki

    2016-08-01

    Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) using a helmet is expected to cause inspiratory trigger delay due to the large collapsible and compliant chamber. We compared the work of breathing (WOB) of NPPV using a helmet or a full face-mask with that of invasive ventilation by tracheal intubation. We used a lung model capable of simulating spontaneous breathing (LUNGOO; Air Water Inc., Japan). LUNGOO was set at compliance (C) = 50 mL/cmH2O and resistance (R) = 5 cmH2O/L/s for normal lung simulation, C = 20 mL/cmH2O and R = 5 cmH2O/L/s for restrictive lung, and C = 50 mL/cmH2O and R = 20 cmH2O/L/s for obstructive lung. Muscle pressure was fixed at 25 cmH2O and respiratory rate at 20 bpm. Pressure support ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure were performed with each interface placed on a dummy head made of reinforced plastic that was connected to LUNGOO. We tested the inspiratory WOB difference between the interfaces with various combinations of ventilator settings (positive end-expiratory pressure 5 cmH2O; pressure support 0, 5, and 10 cmH2O). In the normal lung and restrictive lung models, WOB decreased more with the face-mask than the helmet, especially when accompanied by the level of pressure support. In the obstructive lung model, WOB with the helmet decreased compared with the other two interfaces. In the mixed lung model, there were no significant differences in WOB between the three interfaces. NPPV using a helmet is more effective than the other interfaces for WOB in obstructive lung disease.

  11. Higher risks when working unusual times? A cross-validation of the effects on safety, health, and work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greubel, Jana; Arlinghaus, Anna; Nachreiner, Friedhelm; Lombardi, David A

    2016-11-01

    Replication and cross-validation of results on health and safety risks of work at unusual times. Data from two independent surveys (European Working Conditions Surveys 2005 and 2010; EU 2005: n = 23,934 and EU 2010: n = 35,187) were used to examine the relative risks of working at unusual times (evenings, Saturdays, and Sundays) on work-life balance, work-related health complaints, and occupational accidents using logistic regression while controlling for potential confounders such as demographics, work load, and shift work. For the EU 2005 survey, evening work was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor work-life balance (OR 1.69) and work-related health complaints (OR 1.14), Saturday work with poor work-life balance (OR 1.49) and occupational accidents (OR 1.34), and Sunday work with poor work-life balance (OR 1.15) and work-related health complaints (OR 1.17). For EU 2010, evening work was associated with poor work-life balance (OR 1.51) and work-related health complaints (OR 1.12), Saturday work with poor work-life balance (OR 1.60) and occupational accidents (OR 1.19) but a decrease in risk for work-related health complaints (OR 0.86) and Sunday work with work-related health complaints (OR 1.13). Risk estimates in both samples yielded largely similar results with comparable ORs and overlapping confidence intervals. Work at unusual times constitutes a considerable risk to social participation and health and showed structurally consistent effects over time and across samples.

  12. Ninth regular meeting of the International Working Group on Reliability of Reactor Pressure Components, Vienna, 18-20 October 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The 9th regular meeting of the International Working Group on Reliability of Pressure Components took place from 18-20 October 1988 at the Agency's Headquarters. The meeting was attended by 25 representatives from 19 Member States and International Organizations. The agenda of the meeting included overviews of the national activities in the field of pressure retaining components of PWRs, review of the past IWGRRPC activities and updating of the working plan for years 1989-1992. A great deal of attention was paid to the involvement of the IWGRRPC in the Agency's programme on nuclear power plant ageing and life extension. Members of the IWGRRPC reviewed the long term plan of the activities and proposed a provisional list and scope of the IAEA Specialists' Meetings planned for the period 1989-1992. Seventeen papers were presented at the meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Steel, specially for the fabrication of welded structure working under pressure in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolbenko, E.T.; Astafiev, A.A.; Kark, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of metallurgy. Steels have found an increasing number of applications in mechanical constructions, and notably in the construction of materials for the production of energy and for the fabrication of welded structures operating under pressure at temperatures as high as 450 0 C. A possible application is the pressurized vessels of nuclear facilities. The steels of interest contain carbon, silicon, manganese, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, aluminium, nitrogen, phosphorus and iron, but are characterized by the fact that they also contain arsenic, tin and calcium. The sum of the weighted percentages of nickel and manganese and the weighted percentage of phosphorous are related as follows: (Ni + Mn) . P [fr

  14. Digital imaging with a pressurized Xenon filled MWPC working at a high data rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; Del Guerra, A.; Massai, M.M.; Torquati, M.R.; Franchi, M.; Perri, G.

    1984-01-01

    A multiwire proportional chamber based detection system for medical imaging is presented. The system consists of a pressurized xenon filled MWPC and of a monochromatic fluorescent, X-ray source using a conventional diagnostic tube with various target filter combinations. The main performance of the system are: 10% efficiency, 30% energy resolution 500 micro m spatial resolution, +-5 uniformity. The preliminary results of the application of this system to bone densitometry are presented

  15. Digital imaging with a pressurized xenon filled MWPC working at a high data rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellazzini, R; Brez, A; Del Guerra, A; Massai, M M; Torquati, M R; Franchi, M; Perri, G

    1985-12-15

    A MWPC based detection system for medical imaging is presented. The system consists of a pressurized Xenon filled MWPC and of a monochromatic, fluorescent, X-ray source using a conventional diagnostic tube with various target/filter combinations. The main performance of the system are: 10% efficiency, 30% energy resolution, 500 m spatial resolution, +-5 uniformity. The preliminary results of the application of this system to bone densitometry are presented. (orig.).

  16. Digital imaging with a pressurized xenon filled MWPC working at a high data rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellazzini, R; Brez, A; Del Guerra, A; Massai, M M; Torquati, M R [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy)); Franchi, M; Perri, G [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1984-12-15

    A MWPC based detection system for medical imaging is presented. The system consists of a pressurized Xenon filled MWPC and of a monochromatic, fluorescent, X-ray source using a conventional diagnostic tube with various target/filter combinations. The main performance of the system are: 10% efficiency, 30% energy resolution, 500 ..mu..m spatial resolution, +-5 uniformity. The preliminary results of the application of this system to bone densitometry are presented.

  17. Seventh regular meeting of the International Working Group on Reliability of Reactor Pressure Components, Vienna, 3-5 September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    The seventh regular meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Reliability of Reactor Pressure Components was held at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna from 3 to 5 September 1985. The representatives of Member States and of the Commission of the European Communities reported the status of the research programmes in this field (12 presentations). A separate abstract was prepared for each of the presentations

  18. Effects of work stress on ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijkotte, T. G.; van Doornen, L. J.; de Geus, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    Work stress has repeatedly been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. This study tested whether this relationship could be explained by exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to work or impaired recovery in leisure time. Vagal tone was assessed as a possible determinant of

  19. Highly ionized physical vapor deposition plasma source working at very low pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straňák, V.; Herrendorf, A.-P.; Drache, S.; Čada, Martin; Hubička, Zdeněk; Tichý, M.; Hippler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 14 (2012), "141604-1"-"141604-3" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010517; GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/0386; GA ČR GAP108/12/1941 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : magnetron * ECWR * low-pressure * sputtering * plasma diagnostics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.794, year: 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3699229

  20. International workshop on WWER-440 reactor pressure vessel embrittlement and annealing. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop was essentially to discuss the WWER 440 model 230 reactor pressure vessel integrity in terms of the measures already taken, current activities and future plans. The meeting was arranged in two parts, namely, the Scientific programme followed by the consideration, review and revision of the IAEA Consultancy report on RPV Embrittlement and Annealing. This particular report covers the first part of the meeting i.e., the Scientific Programme, in the form of proceedings of the meeting, while the re-drafted Consultancy report will be issued later. The meeting was attended by sixty-six representatives from thirteen countries. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Does Psychosocial Work Environment Factors Predict Stress and Mean Arterial Pressure in the Malaysian Industry Workers?

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, Muhammad Umair; Isha, Ahmad Shahrul Nizam; Sabir, Asrar Ahmed; Ghazali, Zulkipli; Nübling, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Psychosocial risks are considered as a burning issue in the Asia-Pacific region. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on health of petrochemical industry workers of Malaysia. In lieu to job demands-resources theory, significant positive associations were found between quantitative demands, work-family conflict, and job insecurity with stress, while a significant negative association of role clarity as a resource factor with stress was de...

  2. Chest compression with a higher level of pressure support ventilation: effects on secretion removal, hemodynamics, and respiratory mechanics in patients on mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner da Silva Naue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of chest compression accompanied by a 10-cmH2O increase in baseline inspiratory pressure on pressure support ventilation, in comparison with that of aspiration alone, in removing secretions, normalizing hemodynamics, and improving respiratory mechanics in patients on mechanical ventilation. METHODS: This was a randomized crossover clinical trial involving patients on mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h in the ICU of the Porto Alegre Hospital de Clínicas, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were randomized to receive aspiration alone (control group or compression accompanied by a 10-cmH2O increase in baseline inspiratory pressure on pressure support ventilation (intervention group. We measured hemodynamic parameters, respiratory mechanics parameters, and the amount of secretions collected. RESULTS: We included 34 patients. The mean age was 64.2 ± 14.6 years. In comparison with the control group, the intervention group showed a higher median amount of secretions collected (1.9 g vs. 2.3 g; p = 0.004, a greater increase in mean expiratory tidal volume (16 ± 69 mL vs. 56 ± 69 mL; p = 0.018, and a greater increase in mean dynamic compliance (0.1 ± 4.9 cmH2O vs. 2.8 ± 4.5 cmH2O; p = 0.005. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, chest compression accompanied by an increase in pressure support significantly increased the amount of secretions removed, the expiratory tidal volume, and dynamic compliance. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT01155648 [http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/

  3. Physical fitness and perceived psychological pressure at work: 30-year ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen Male Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Investigate if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality from regular psychological work pressure.......Investigate if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality from regular psychological work pressure....

  4. The Effect of Work Boots on Knee Mechanics and the Center of Pressure at the Knee During Static Kneeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Liana; Kingston, David; Chong, Helen; Acker, Stacey

    2015-10-01

    Occupational kneeling is associated with an increased risk for the development of knee osteoarthritis. Previous work studying occupational kneeling has neglected to account for the fact that in many industrial settings, workers are required to wear steel-toe work boots. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of work boot wear on the center of pressure location of the ground reaction force, knee joint angle, and magnitude of the ground reaction force in a kneeling posture. Fifteen healthy males were fit with 3D motion capture markers and knelt statically over a force plate embedded in the floor. Using the tibial tuberosity as the point of reference, the center of pressure in shod condition was shifted significantly medially (on average 0.009 m [P = .005]) compared with the barefoot condition. The knee was significantly less internally rotated (shod: -12.5° vs. barefoot: -17.4° [P = .009]) and the anterior/posterior shear force was significantly greater in the shod condition (shod: 6.0% body weight vs. barefoot: 1.5% body weight [P = .002]). Therefore, wearing work boots alters the kneeling posture compared with barefoot kneeling, potentially loading different surfaces of the knee, as well as altering knee joint moments.

  5. Trends in International Trade in Higher Education: Implications and Options for Developing Countries. Education Working Paper Series, Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Sajitha

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trends, underlying factors and implications of the trade in higher education services. The term "trade in higher education" refers to the purchase of higher education services from a foreign country using domestic resources. The objectives of this paper are to provide policy makers in developing countries, World Bank staff,…

  6. Implementation and translation: from European standards and guidelines for quality assurance to education quality work in higher education institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerheijden, Donald F.; Kohoutek, Jan; Eggins, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG for short) have been part of the regulative infrastructure of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) since 2005 (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, 2009).

  7. Private Higher Education Penetration into a Mature Education Market: The New Zealand Experience. PROPHE Working Paper #6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    Since 1989, when it became legally possible for private higher education to operate in New Zealand, the sector has grown to become a significant part of the country's higher education system. We explore the private penetration, trace the changes that have occurred in private higher education, and evaluate the sector's position in New Zealand…

  8. Working Long Hours is Associated with Higher Prevalence of Diabetes in Urban Male Chinese Workers: The Rosai Karoshi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayama, Jun; Li, Jue; Munakata, Masanori

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between number of weekly working hours and the prevalence of diabetes in the urban Chinese population. Data regarding anthropometric measurements, fasting blood glucose level and number of hours worked per week were collected from 2228 workers in Shanghai, China (Mage  = 44 years; 64% men). Participants were divided into three groups according to the number of hours worked per week (worked ≥55 h per week compared with those who worked working long hours could be a risk factor for diabetes in Chinese male workers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Heavy physical work under time pressure: the garbage collection service--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camada, Ilza Mitsuko de Oliveira; Pataro, Silvana Maria Santos; Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The increased generation of garbage has become a problem in large cities, with greater demand for collection services. The collector is subjected to high workload. This study describes the work in garbage collection service, highlighting the requirements of time, resulting in physical and psychosocial demands to collectors. Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA) - a method focused on the study of work in real situations was used. Initially, technical visits, global observations and unstructured interviews with different subjects of a garbage collection company were conducted. The following step of the systematic observations was accompanied by interviews conducted during the execution of tasks, inquiring about the actions taken, and also interviews about the actions, but conducted after the development of the tasks, photographic records and audiovisual recordings, of workers from two garbage collection teams. Contradictions between the prescribed work and activities (actual work) were identified, as well as the variability present in this process, and strategies adopted by these workers to regulate the workload. It was concluded that the insufficiency of means and the organizational structure of management ensue a situation where the collection process is maintained at the expense of hyper-requesting these workers, both physically and psychosocially.

  10. Pressure-Volume Work Exercises Illustrating the First and Second Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, William G.; Moran, Bill

    1979-01-01

    Presented are two problem exercises involving rapid compression and expansion of ideal gases which illustrate the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The first problem involves the conversion of gravitational energy into heat through mechanical work. The second involves the mutual interaction of two gases through an adiabatic piston. (BT)

  11. Glucose changes and working memory in individuals with type 1 diabetes during air pressure changes simulating skydiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Mohammad; Westman, Anton; Lindberg, Ann; de Lacerda, Cecilia; Jendle, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Several countries restrict individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) from skydiving because of concerns over possible alterations in consciousness. To our knowledge, glucose levels and working memory in individuals with T1DM during skydiving have not been assessed earlier. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in glucose levels and working memory in selected subjects with T1DM compared with control subjects without diabetes mellitus (DM) during ambient air pressure changes as those anticipated during standard skydiving. Six subjects with T1DM and six controls were included. Using a hypobaric chamber, the ambient air pressure was changed to simulate a standard skydive from 4,000 m (13,000 feet) above mean sea level. The procedure was repeated six times to mimic a day of skydiving activity with a median of 8.7 h/day (5(th), 95(th) percentile: 8.1, 9.8 h). All subjects carried a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). Capillary glucose tests were taken in order to calibrate the CGM. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation, heart rate, and working memory, evaluated through digit span, were monitored regularly. No subject experienced documented symptomatic hypoglycemia with impaired working memory during the simulations. One asymptomatic hypoglycemia episode with a plasma glucose level of glucose levels. Interstitial glucose levels of memory between the T1DM patients and the controls. This study of interstitial glucose levels and working memory could not show the activity-specific risk factor (i.e., repetitive rapid-onset hypobaric hypoxia exposures) to be a greater safety concern for selected subjects with T1DM compared with subjects without DM during a simulated day of skydiving. Further studies are needed to clarify the suitability of subjects with T1DM to participate in this air sport.

  12. Who influences white working-class boys’ higher education decision-making process? the role of social networks

    OpenAIRE

    McLellan, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The study illuminates the influence of social networks on the HE decision-making process of white working-class boys. The impact of gender, race and social class social characteristics on white working-class boys HE decision-making is assessed. In addition, how white working-class boys define and discuss the membership of their social network, together with the phenomenon of social network influence on white working-class boys’ decision-making about HE at Key Stage 4.The expansive literature ...

  13. Innovative Work Behavior: To What Extent and How Can HRM Practices Contribute to Higher Levels of Innovation Within SMEs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bücker, J.J.L.E.; Horst, E. van der; Mura, L.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, the influence of HR practices and more specifically the Ned Herrmanns development tool HBDI on the development of innovative work behavior (IWB) is described. Innovative work behavior today is important for organizations to stay in a competitive position. Also for small and

  14. Osmolyte depletion viewed in terms of the dividing membrane and its work of expansion against osmotic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Seishi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2017-12-01

    How osmolytes enhance the folding, binding, and self-assembly of biological macromolecules at a microscopic scale has long been a matter of debate. Ambiguities persist on the key interpretive concepts, such as the "effective membrane" (which marks the boundary of the volume from which osmolytes are excluded) and the "free energy of exclusion" of osmolytes from biomolecular surfaces. In this paper, we formulate these elusive concepts based upon chemical thermodynamics and rigorous statistical thermodynamics (the Kirkwood-Buff theory). Positioning of the membrane at the osmotic dividing surface is crucial in order not to affect the thermodynamics of solvation. The notion of the free energy (work) of excluding osmolytes is refined to the expansion work against the osmotic pressure, which indeed describes the change of solvation free energy at dilute osmolyte concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Methodology for pressurized thermal shock evaluation. Proceedings of the IAEA specialists meeting. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The meeting was held within the scope of activities of the International Working Group, recognizing that the importance of the PTS phenomena and advances in the subject require regular information exchange in this field. The purpose of the meeting was to provide an opportunity to exchange information as well as new results in research and development, concentrating on the total PTS calculation and including PTS evaluation and application in RPV life time and integrity assessment. The papers presented at the meeting covered problems of thermohydraulics, RPV temperature-stress fields calculations, fracture mechanics approach to integrity assessment as well as discussions on PTS modeling, general procedures for RPV life assessment and mitigation methods other than RPV annealing. Refs, figs, tabs

  16. Methodology for pressurized thermal shock evaluation. Proceedings of the IAEA specialists meeting. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The meeting was held within the scope of activities of the International Working Group, recognizing that the importance of the PTS phenomena and advances in the subject require regular information exchange in this field. The purpose of the meeting was to provide an opportunity to exchange information as well as new results in research and development, concentrating on the total PTS calculation and including PTS evaluation and application in RPV life time and integrity assessment. The papers presented at the meeting covered problems of thermohydraulics, RPV temperature-stress fields calculations, fracture mechanics approach to integrity assessment as well as discussions on PTS modeling, general procedures for RPV life assessment and mitigation methods other than RPV annealing. Refs, figs, tabs.

  17. A Paleolithic diet confers higher insulin sensitivity, lower C-reactive protein and lower blood pressure than a cereal-based diet in domestic pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugander Martin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Paleolithic diet has been suggested to be more in concordance with human evolutionary legacy than a cereal based diet. This might explain the lower incidence among hunter-gatherers of diseases of affluence such as type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to experimentally study the long-term effect of a Paleolithic diet on risk factors for these diseases in domestic pigs. We examined glucose tolerance, post-challenge insulin response, plasma C-reactive protein and blood pressure after 15 months on Paleolithic diet in comparison with a cereal based swine feed. Methods Upon weaning twenty-four piglets were randomly allocated either to cereal based swine feed (Cereal group or cereal free Paleolithic diet consisting of vegetables, fruit, meat and a small amount of tubers (Paleolithic group. At 17 months of age an intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed and pancreas specimens were collected for immunohistochemistry. Group comparisons of continuous variables were made by use of the t-test. P Results At the end of the study the Paleolithic group weighed 22% less and had 43% lower subcutaneous fat thickness at mid sternum. No significant difference was seen in fasting glucose between groups. Dynamic insulin sensitivity was significantly higher (p = 0.004 and the insulin response was significantly lower in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.001. The geometric mean of C-reactive protein was 82% lower (p = 0.0007 and intra-arterial diastolic blood pressure was 13% lower in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.007. In evaluations of multivariate correlations, diet emerged as the strongest explanatory variable for the variations in dynamic insulin sensitivity, insulin response, C-reactive protein and diastolic blood pressure when compared to other relevant variables such as weight and subcutaneous fat thickness at mid sternum. There was no obvious immunohistochemical difference in pancreatic islets

  18. Burnout, work engagement and sense of coherence in female academics in higher-education institutions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adéle Bezuidenhout

    2010-11-01

    Research purpose: This research was conducted from a salutogenic paradigm, seeking to find ways of avoiding the negative consequences of burnout and contributing towards the positive experience of work engagement for the female academic. The research also explored the effect of the individual academic’s sense of coherence (SOC on her experience of burnout and work engagement. Research design, approach and method: The research was quantitative in nature. A psychometric instrument was sent to all the permanently employed female academics at Unisa and Tshwane University of Technology (TUT, measuring their levels of burnout, work engagement and SOC. The completed questionnaires were statistically analysed. Main findings: The findings included average levels of burnout, with definite signs that the experience of burnout is on the increase. The cynicism sub-dimension of burnout showed increased levels, work engagement scores were just above average and SOC scores were low. Practical/managerial implications: This article offers a psychological interpretation of the variables in the target group. The article contributes towards the body of research studies conducted from a positive psychological paradigm and, specifically, on the female gender. Contribution/value-add: The main recommendations are that university management needs to take cognisance of the alarming symptoms of burnout present in the population under discussion. Strategies are recommended to address these and to nurture work engagement.

  19. Trust and Work Place Spirituality on Knowledge Sharing Behaviour: Perspective from Non-Academic Staff of Higher Learning Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Osmangani, Aahad M; Daud, Nuraihan Mat; Chowdhury, Abdul Hannan; Hassan, Hasliza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This empirical research aims to add value in the existing research on knowledge sharing, investigate the antecedents of knowledge-sharing behaviour by embedding trust and workplace spirituality variable on non-academic staff from higher learning institution in Malaysia. The role of trust, perceived risk and workplace spirituality towards…

  20. The Triple Shift: Student-Mothers, Identity Work and Engagement with Low-Status Vocationally Related Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses a piece of qualitative research that examined the narratives that a group of learners articulated when they discussed their experiences of studying on a relatively low-status, vocationally related higher education programme. These students were school-based teaching assistants who were undertaking foundation degree study at a…

  1. Minding the Gap? Young People's Accounts of Taking a Gap Year as a Form of Identity Work in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A Gap Year is a break in an educational career, principally taken between leaving school and beginning university. Previous research on the Gap Year has suggested it is a form of social class positioning or forum for undertaking transitions in identity during young adulthood. This paper extends this research into the context of higher education…

  2. Chasing a Moving Target: Perceptions of Work Readiness and Graduate Capabilities in Music Higher Research Degree Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Scott; Grant, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Recent efforts to increase workplace readiness in university students have largely centred on undergraduates, with comparatively few strategies or studies focusing on higher research degree candidates. In the discipline of music, a wide diversity of possible career paths combined with rapidly changing career opportunities makes workplace readiness…

  3. The Current Provision for Further and Higher Education in Wales. Coombe Lodge Working Paper. Information Bank Number 1627.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, D. T.

    Provision for postsecondary higher education in Wales, the nature of the Welsh system, and future concerns are discussed. The roles of the Welsh Office and the Welsh Joint Education Committee contrast greatly with central organizations in England. There is one university in Wales, comprising seven constituent colleges. Additional institutions in…

  4. Adding Academics to the Work/Family Puzzle: Graduate Student Parents in Higher Education and Student Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2015-01-01

    Based on interviews with 18 parents who were enrolled in higher education and student affairs master's programs and also employed on college and university campuses, this article explores the ways that student parents navigate their academic, familial, and professional responsibilities. Using role conflict theory as a theoretical guide, this study…

  5. House Price Growth When Children Are Teenagers: A Path to Higher Earnings? Working Paper No. 14-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Daniel; Luengo-Prado, María José

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether a rise in house prices that occurs immediately prior to children entering college has an impact on their earnings as adults. Higher house prices provide homeowners with additional funds to invest in their children's human capital. The results show that a 1 percentage point increase in house prices, when children are 17…

  6. Making College Worth It: A Review of Research on the Returns to Higher Education. NBER Working Paper 19053

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, Philip; Petronijevic, Uros

    2013-01-01

    Recent stories of soaring student debt levels and under-placed college graduates have caused some to question whether a college education is still a sound investment. In this paper, we review the literature on the returns to higher education in an attempt to determine who benefits from college. Despite the tremendous heterogeneity across potential…

  7. "Monkey in a Cage": The Complicated Loyalties of Mid-Level Academic Women Working in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongalis-Macrow, Athena

    2012-01-01

    Loyalty raises a dilemma for women's career progression and leadership because it signals confidence in the organisation, despite the ongoing constraints that organisations present for women and their leadership aspirations. The research investigates women's loyalty in the context of higher education. Focussing on a select group of mid-level…

  8. Low Levels of Usual Physical Activity Are Associated with Higher 24 h Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Teixeira Neto Zucatti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between usual physical activity and 24 h blood pressure (BP profile in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. This is a cross-sectional study of 151 participants with type 2 DM. Usual physical activity was assessed by step counting and self-reported questionnaire. BP was measured in office and by 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM; 24 h, daytime and nighttime. Mean participant age was 61.1 ± 8.4 years, 64% was women, and mean duration of diabetes was 14.3 ± 8.5 years. Ninety-two percent of participants had hypertension, and office BP was 138 ± 18/78 ± 10 mmHg. Inverse correlations were observed between step count and 24 h BP (systolic, r=−0.186; p=0.022, daytime BP (systolic, r=−0.198; p=0.015, and nighttime BP (pulse pressure, r=−0.190; p=0.019. People were categorized into tertiles of daily step count, and the 1st tertile had higher 24 h systolic BP, daytime systolic BP, daytime mean BP, and daytime systolic BP load than those in the other tertiles, even after adjusting for age and HbA1c. Participants with type 2 DM and low levels of physical activity exhibit higher 24 h and daytime systolic ambulatory BP values as compared with those who performed more steps per day, even after adjustments for confounding factors.

  9. The Contemporary Academic: Orientation towards Research Work and Researcher Identity of Higher Education Lecturers in the Health Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Pete; Smith, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Internationally, the increasing emphasis in universities on the quality of teaching, on student employability and on a corporate approach to entrepreneurial income generation has created a tension around the primacy afforded to published research outputs as a focus for academic work and status. In this study, a framework for academic socialisation…

  10. Blood Pressure, Sleep Quality and Fatigue in Shift Working Police Officers: Effects of a Twelve Hour Roster System on Cardiovascular and Sleep Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaymen L. Elliott

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Police officers have been reported to exhibit a high incidence of pathologies, which present prematurely in an otherwise healthy population. Shift work has also been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and sleep disorders, attributable to its propensity for circadian rhythm dysfunction. However, contention exists as to whether shift work has a direct effect upon blood pressure (BP regulation. Methods: This cross-sectional study sought to determine changes in BP and associations with the overall sleep quality and fatigue in 206 general duties police officers (n = 140 males of the New South Wales Police Force in Australia. The subjects’ BP was assessed before and after their twelve hour shift, during which time they also completed the Lifestyle Appraisal Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Results: Poor sleep quality (PSQI and fatigue severity (FSS were found to predominate in the sample (69% and 51% respectively. Although there was no change in BP for male participants, female officers’ systolic blood pressure (SBP was found to increase significantly across the shift (p < 0.001, but with no change found in females’ diastolic blood pressure (DBP. Finally, higher pre and post-shift SBP (r = −0.26, p = 0.001; r = −0.25, p = 0.001, respectively and DBP (r = −0.26, p = 0.001; r = −0.26, p = 0.001, respectively were significantly correlated with lower FSS scores after accounting for age, waist-hip ratio and lifestyle risk factors. Conclusions: Based on these preliminary findings, there was a significant increase in SBP of female police officers after shift work, while BP and fatigue levels in all police officers were strongly related. Moreover, the predominating poor sleep quality and impact of fatigue in this sample remain a concern. Further research is required to ensure the physiological welfare of police officers, while strategies

  11. [Caught between economic pressure and work-life balance--perspectives on emigration of German health professionals to Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A E; Klambauer, E

    2014-05-01

    Given the increasing lack of medical doctors in Germany, this study aimed to investigate the professional situation and the push and pull factors of German medical specialists working in Austrian hospitals. This explorative study is based on semi-structured interviews with 14 specialists working in Austria, who completed their education partly or fully in Germany. The material has been interpreted using qualitative content analysis. Better work-life balance, higher quality of life and more favourable working conditions represent major reasons for German specialists to stay in Austria. Moreover, the higher density of medical doctors in Austrian hospitals can have an impact on the distribution of responsibilities among health-care personnel, and on hospital performance. In the light of recent reforms in the German health-care system, the study underlines the importance of qualitative factors for the satisfaction of German medical doctors. These factors should be further analysed in order to avoid a brain drain of high-qualified health care staff in the future. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Academic Work—Faster, Higher, Further? On the (Missing Proportion of Work to Spare Time in the (Cultural Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Dressel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We make the practices of the academic production of knowledge a subject of critical discussion by focusing on the world of academic work and the academics themselves. Based on interviews with academics in the field of cultural sciences we conclude that with regard to their daily routines, their annual schedules, and their life-courses the so-called private life (family life, leisure time etc. becomes dominated by the social and cultural logics of the working sphere. Although it might appear exaggerated, we will refer to the humanities as a "total institution" which entails social, physical, and mental costs for its "inmates" as well as for those who never managed to become "inmates" (in spite of their efforts and those who don’t belong to the institution any more. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801385

  13. SNPDL work in support of collaborative programmes to study fatigue crack propagation in light water reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMinn, A.

    1981-07-01

    Work performed at Springfields Nuclear Power Development Laboratories (SNL) in support of United Kingdom and international cooperative groups is described. For the UK collaborative group crack growth tests have been performed on A533-B pressure vessel steel in air at 1 Hz, and in a simulated PWR environment at 1 Hz and 0.0167 Hz, all tests being at a stress ratio (R) of 0.7. Tests were performed at SNL at ambient temperature and pressure. The results showed that enhancements in crack growth rates were obtained because of the aqueous environment and the lower cyclic frequency. Good inter-laboratory agreement was obtained for the air test, indicating that there was little variation in the mechanical control between laboratories. There was also good agreement between the results from laboratories where tests were performed under high temperature wet conditions at 1 Hz. SNL room temperature data demonstrated an effect of temperature, as the crack growth rates found were up to a factor of four lower than the high temperature data. Although crack growth could be maintained at 0.0167 Hz and low cyclic stress intensity levels at ambient temperature, this was not found to be possible by the laboratories performing the test at 288 0 C. The first international 'round robin' test at R = 0.2 and 0.0167 Hz (1 cycle/min) in an aqueous environment gave a significant amount of scatter in the results. (author)

  14. The hard fall effect: high working memory capacity leads to a higher, but less robust short-term memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassin, Noémylle; Gonthier, Corentin; Guerraz, Michel; Roulin, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Participants with a high working memory span tend to perform better than low spans in a variety of tasks. However, their performance is paradoxically more impaired when they have to perform two tasks at once, a phenomenon that could be labeled the "hard fall effect." The present study tested whether this effect exists in a short-term memory task, and investigated the proposal that the effect is due to high spans using efficient facilitative strategies under simple task conditions. Ninety-eight participants performed a spatial short-term memory task under simple and dual task conditions; stimuli presentation times either allowed for the use of complex facilitative strategies or not. High spans outperformed low spans only under simple task conditions when presentation times allowed for the use of facilitative strategies. These results indicate that the hard fall effect exists on a short-term memory task and may be caused by individual differences in strategy use.

  15. All in a day’s work ... or, ELF in a day’s work: meeting the changing needs of learners and users of English in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pullin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available English as a lingua franca (ELF has been described as “… the fastest-growing and at the same time the least recognised function of English in the world.” (Mauranen 2009. As a shared language used between speakers who do not have the same lingua cultural backgrounds, English has been the global language of business for some time (Charles 2008 and is increasingly used in academia, not only as the lingua franca of research, but also for teaching and administrative work. As a field of research, ELF focuses on language use in context, notably showing how flexible users of ELF are in negotiating meaning and achieving understanding, despite differences in cultural and linguistic backgrounds (Firth 1996, 2008. Yet, using English as a lingua franca can present challenges, and the research findings have implications not only for users of English in a range of contexts, but also for teachers and learners of English. The focus of this article is on the effect of change with regard to English on curriculum development and syllabus design at the University of Zurich and Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich Language Center. Drawing on Richards (2001, curriculum development refers here to an overall process of educational planning and implementation, comprising needs analysis, situation analysis, setting of aims and learning outcomes, course design, delivery and assessment. These elements are seen as a “network of interacting systems.” (Richards 2001:41. Syllabus design, on the other hand, deals with the specific content covered in a given course.

  16. [Cardiovascular hyperreactivity to physical stress predicts high blood pressure in working populations: 4 years follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana López, Sandra; Perdomo Hernández, María del Carmen; Montero Díaz, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is a disease, and as well as a risk factor for other diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular hyperreactivity (CVHR) is a predictor for this disease. The aim of this study was to demonstrate if CVHR to physical stress predicts HBP in working populations. A four year (2008-2012) cohort study was conducted on two population groups: CVHR (48), and normal cardiovascular reactivity (40) after applying the Sustained Weight test. A survival analysis was used to predict HBP, and the χ(2) test and hazard ratio, with a confidence interval of 95%, were used for the statistical analysis. The CVHR is a predictor of HBP, determined by the Sustained Weight test. The working populations can be stratified according to cardiovascular reactivity in order to introduce preventive health actions on the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors of future hypertensives in the workplace. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Shift working in the Chilean Andes (> 3,600 m) and its influence on erythropoietin and the low-pressure system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunga, H C; Röcker, L; Behn, C; Hildebrandt, W; Koralewski, E; Rich, I; Schobersberger, W; Kirsch, K

    1996-08-01

    It was hypothesized that, in shift workers with a history of intermittent hypoxic stress (working 10 days at > 3,600 m, then resting for 4 days at sea level) for > 5 yr, the initial erythropoietin (EPO) response and the changes in central venous pressure (CVP) are different from those in Caucasian lowlanders. We studied the kitchen personnel (n = 11) of a mine (3,600 m) and a group of Caucasian lowlanders (n = 5). Blood samples were taken, and CVP was determined several times before, during, and after a typical shift. At baseline data collection (BDC) before transition, the shift workers had EPO concentrations of 5.2 +/- 2.4 mU/ml, which increased at altitude (P < 0.01) and returned to BDC values on the recovery (day 16). The Caucasians showed the same time course. Serum transferrin receptor concentrations did not change in either group. CVP values were generally higher in the shift workers than in the Caucasians. In conclusion, the hypothesis that the initial EPO response to a hypoxic stimulus is altered in these shift workers has to be refuted. Higher hemoglobin concentrations and/or CVP values in shift workers might be responsible for the rather low EPO concentrations in shift workers at BDC.

  18. The Organizational-Legal Peculiarities of Application of the Remote Labor Mode and Flexible Working Hours of Scientific Workers at Higher Education Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lytovchenko Iryna V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the main organizational-legal peculiarities of application of the remote labor mode, establishing and accounting the flexible working hours of scientific workers at higher educational institutions and scientific institutes. In the course of research the organizational-legal peculiarities of application of the remote labor mode and flexible working hours of the scientific workers at higher education institutions were analyzed. The article suggests their integration into the activities of higher education institution with the purpose of efficient distribution of their working time, provided that the tasks set are fully executed in a timely manner. As the basic means of control of measurement of results of scientific activity it is suggested to use acts of executed works and other absolute indicators (quantity of the processed scientific sources, quantity of the written pages of scientific papers etc.. The prospective direction of further research is development of practical recommendations on the use of special reports and indicators with an assessment of their impact on the results of activities of scientific workers at higher education institutions.

  19. Understanding the Relative Contributions of Lower-Level Word Processes, Higher-Level Processes, and Working Memory to Reading Comprehension Performance in Proficient Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Although a considerable amount of evidence has been amassed regarding the contributions of lower-level word processes, higher-level processes, and working memory to reading comprehension, little is known about the relationships among these sources of individual differences or their relative contributions to reading comprehension performance. This…

  20. A Winding Road--Professional Trajectories from Higher Education to Working Life: A Case Study of Political Science and Psychology Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Sofia; Dahlgren, Madeleine Abrandt; Dahlgren, Lars Owe

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative and longitudinal study focuses on graduate employment and the development of graduate employment paths. The aim of this article is to explore the present professional trajectory from higher education to working life, with particular reference to graduates from two different study programmes at Linkoping University in Sweden:…

  1. A new methodological approach to assess cardiac work by pressure-volume and stress-length relations in patients with aortic valve stenosis and dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, P; Rupp, H; Rominger, M B; Klose, K J; Maisch, B

    2008-01-01

    In experimental animals, cardiac work is derived from pressure-volume area and analyzed further using stress-length relations. Lack of methods for determining accurately myocardial mass has until now prevented the use of stress-length relations in patients. We hypothesized, therefore, that not only pressure-volume loops but also stress-length diagrams can be derived from cardiac volume and cardiac mass as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and invasively measured pressure. Left ventricular (LV) volume and myocardial mass were assessed in seven patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS), eight with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and eight controls using electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated CMR. LV pressure was measured invasively. Pressure-volume curves were calculated based on ECG triggering. Stroke work was assessed as area within the pressure-volume loop. LV wall stress was calculated using a thick-wall sphere model. Similarly, stress-length loops were calculated to quantify stress-length-based work. Taking the LV geometry into account, the normalization with regard to ventricular circumference resulted in "myocardial work." Patients with AS (valve area 0.73+/-0.18 cm(2)) exhibited an increased LV myocardial mass when compared with controls (Pwork of AS was unchanged when compared with controls (0.539+/-0.272 vs 0.621+/-0.138 Nm, not significant), whereas DCM exhibited a significant depression (0.367+/-0.157 Nm, Pwork was significantly reduced in both AS and DCM when compared with controls (129.8+/-69.6, 200.6+/-80.1, 332.2+/-89.6 Nm/m(2), Pmethodological approach of using CMR and invasive pressure measurement. Myocardial work was reduced in patients with DCM and noteworthy also in AS, while stroke work was reduced in DCM only. Most likely, deterioration of myocardial work is crucial for the prognosis. It is suggested to include these basic physiological procedures in the clinical assessment of the pump function of the heart.

  2. Quantitative texture determination in pressure tube (Zr-2.5 Wt% Nb alloy) material as a function of cold work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.K.; Tewari, R.; Srivastava, D.; De, P.K.; Banerjee, S.; Kiran Kumar, M.; Samajdar, I.

    2003-06-01

    The texture studies on the pressure tube Zr-2.5 Nb alloy have mainly been confined to the determination of the basal pole distribution along certain direction or the inverse pole presentation in the material. This information though useful does not provide an insight into micro-textural development upon cold working. In the present study, complete bulk as well as micro texture development as a function of cold work has been obtained by determining orientation distribution function. In this work, two distinct starting microstructures of Zr-2.5 wt% Nb have been used -(a) single-phase α(hcp) martensitic structure and (b) two-phase, β(bcc) + α, Widmanstaetten structure. In the second case, the α phase was present in lamellar morphology and β stringers were sandwiched between these a lamella. In some instances single-phase α were present. However, both microstructures had similar starting crystallographic texture. Samples were deformed by unidirectional and cross rolling at room temperature. In the two-phase structure the changes in the bulk texture on cold rolling was found to be insignificant, while in the single-phase material noticeable textural changes were observed. Taylor type deformation texture models predicted textural changes in single-phase structure but failed to predict the observed lack of textural development in the two-phase material. Microtexture observations showed that a plates remained approximately single crystalline after cold rolling, while the β matrix underwent significant orientational changes. Based on microstructural and microtextural observations, a simple model is proposed in which the plastic flow is mainly confined to the β matrix within which the α plates are subjected to in-plane rigid body rotation. The model explains the observed lack of textural developments in the two-phase structure. (author)

  3. Older age, higher perceived disability and depressive symptoms predict the amount and severity of work-related difficulties in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Schiavolin, Silvia; Brambilla, Laura; Brenna, Greta; Confalonieri, Paolo Agostino; Cortese, Francesca; Frangiamore, Rita; Leonardi, Matilde; Mantegazza, Renato Emilio; Moscatelli, Marco; Ponzio, Michela; Torri Clerici, Valentina; Zaratin, Paola; De Torres, Laura

    2018-04-16

    This cross-sectional study aims to identify the predictors of work-related difficulties in a sample of employed persons with multiple sclerosis as addressed with the Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of work difficulties: predictors included demographic variables (age, formal education), disease duration and severity, perceived disability and psychological variables (cognitive dysfunction, depression and anxiety). The targets were the questionnaire's overall score and its six subscales. A total of 177 participants (108 females, aged 21-63) were recruited. Age, perceived disability and depression were direct and significant predictors of the questionnaire total score, and the final model explained 43.7% of its variation. The models built on the questionnaire's subscales show that perceived disability and depression were direct and significant predictors of most of its subscales. Our results show that, among patients with multiple sclerosis, those who were older, with higher perceived disability and higher depression symptoms have more and more severe work-related difficulties. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties can be fruitfully exploited to plan tailored actions to limit the likelihood of near-future job loss in persons of working age with multiple sclerosis. Implications for rehabilitation Difficulties with work are common among people with multiple sclerosis and are usually addressed in terms of unemployment or job loss. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties is a disease-specific questionnaire developed to address the amount and severity of work-related difficulties. We found that work-related difficulties were associated to older age, higher perceived disability and depressive symptoms. Mental health issues and perceived disability should be consistently included in future research targeting work-related difficulties.

  4. CDC Vital Signs–Blood Pressure Medicines Don’t Work If People Don’t Take Them

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-13

    Blood pressure medicines don’t work if people don’t take them. Learn how health care systems can work with patients to make taking medicines easier.  Created: 9/13/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/13/2016.

  5. Blood Pressure Medicines Don’t Work If People Don’t Take Them PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Blood pressure medicines don’t work if people don’t take them. Learn how health care systems can work with patients to make taking medicines easier.

  6. Variation of Pressure with Depth of Water: Working with High-Tech and Low-Cost Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornek, Funda; Zziwa, Byansi Jude; Taganahan, Teresita D.

    2013-01-01

    When you dive underwater, you feel the pressure on your ears and, as you dive deeper, more pressure is felt. This article presents an activity that teachers might find useful for demonstrating the relationship between water depth and pressure. (Contains 5 figures and 1 table.)

  7. Increased vapor pressure deficit due to higher temperature leads to greater transpiration and faster mortality during drought for tree seedlings common to the forest-grassland ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Rodney E; Wilson, Stuart M; Zou, Chris B; Hennessey, Thomas C

    2013-10-01

    Tree species growing along the forest-grassland ecotone are near the moisture limit of their range. Small increases in temperature can increase vapor pressure deficit (VPD) which may increase tree water use and potentially hasten mortality during severe drought. We tested a 40% increase in VPD due to an increase in growing temperature from 30 to 33°C (constant dewpoint 21°C) on seedlings of 10 tree species common to the forest-grassland ecotone in the southern Great Plains, USA. Measurement at 33 vs 30°C during reciprocal leaf gas exchange measurements, that is, measurement of all seedlings at both growing temperatures, increased transpiration for seedlings grown at 30°C by 40% and 20% for seedlings grown at 33°C. Higher initial transpiration of seedlings in the 33°C growing temperature treatment resulted in more negative xylem water potentials and fewer days until transpiration decreased after watering was withheld. The seedlings grown at 33°C died 13% (average 2 d) sooner than seedlings grown at 30°C during terminal drought. If temperature and severity of droughts increase in the future, the forest-grassland ecotone could shift because low seedling survival rate may not sufficiently support forest regeneration and migration. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Stability of ferritic steel to higher doses: Survey of reactor pressure vessel steel data and comparison with candidate materials for future nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blagoeva, D.T.; Debarberis, L.; Jong, M.; Pierick, P. ten

    2014-01-01

    This paper is illustrating the potential of the well-known low alloyed clean steels, extensively used for the current light water Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV) steels, for a likely use as a structural material also for the new generation nuclear systems. This option would provide, especially for large components, affordable, easily accessible and a technically more convenient solution in terms of manufacturing and joining techniques. A comprehensive comparison between several sets of surveillance and research data available for a number of RPV clean steels for doses up to 1.5 dpa, and up to 12 dpa for 9%Cr steels, is carried out in order to evaluate radiation stability of the currently used RPV clean steels even at higher doses. Based on the numerous data available, positive preliminary conclusions are drawn regarding the eventual use of clean RPV steels for the massive structural components of the new reactor systems. - Highlights: • Common embrittlement trend between RPV and advanced steels till intermediate doses. • For doses >1.5 dpa, damage rate saturation tendency is observed for RPV steels. • RPV steels might be conveniently utilised also outside their foreseen dose range

  9. Women’s higher likelihood of disability pension: the role of health, family and work. A 5–7 years follow-up of the Hordaland Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Women’s higher risk of disability pension compared with men is found in countries with high female work participation and universal welfare schemes. The aim of the study was to examine the extent to which self-perceived health, family situation and work factors explain women’s higher risk of disability pension. We also explored how these factors influenced the gender difference across educational strata. Methods The population-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) was conducted in 1997–99 and included inhabitants born in 1953–57 in Hordaland County, Norway. The current study included 5,959 men and 6,306 women in paid work with valid information on education and self-perceived health. Follow-up data on disability pension, for a period of 5–7 years, was obtained by linking the health survey to a national registry of disability pension. Cox regression analyses were employed. Results During the follow-up period 99 (1.7%) men and 230 (3.6%) women were awarded disability pension, giving a twofold risk of disability pension for women compared with men. Except for a moderate impact of self-perceived health, adjustment for family situation and work factors did not influence the gender difference in risk. Repeating the analyses in strata of education, the gender difference in risk of disability pension among the highly educated was fully explained by self-perceived health and work factors. In the lower strata of education there remained a substantial unexplained gender difference in risk. Conclusions In a Norwegian cohort of middle-aged men and women, self-perceived health, family situation and work factors could not explain women’s higher likelihood of disability pension. However, analyses stratified by educational level indicate that mechanisms behind the gender gap in disability pension differ by educational levels. Recognizing the heterogeneity within gender may contribute to a deeper understanding of women’s higher risk of disability pension. PMID

  10. Women's higher likelihood of disability pension: the role of health, family and work. A 5-7 years follow-up of the Hordaland Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukenes, Inger; Gjesdal, Sturla; Rortveit, Guri; Riise, Trond; Maeland, John Gunnar

    2012-08-31

    Women's higher risk of disability pension compared with men is found in countries with high female work participation and universal welfare schemes. The aim of the study was to examine the extent to which self-perceived health, family situation and work factors explain women's higher risk of disability pension. We also explored how these factors influenced the gender difference across educational strata. The population-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) was conducted in 1997-99 and included inhabitants born in 1953-57 in Hordaland County, Norway. The current study included 5,959 men and 6,306 women in paid work with valid information on education and self-perceived health. Follow-up data on disability pension, for a period of 5-7 years, was obtained by linking the health survey to a national registry of disability pension. Cox regression analyses were employed. During the follow-up period 99 (1.7%) men and 230 (3.6%) women were awarded disability pension, giving a twofold risk of disability pension for women compared with men. Except for a moderate impact of self-perceived health, adjustment for family situation and work factors did not influence the gender difference in risk. Repeating the analyses in strata of education, the gender difference in risk of disability pension among the highly educated was fully explained by self-perceived health and work factors. In the lower strata of education there remained a substantial unexplained gender difference in risk. In a Norwegian cohort of middle-aged men and women, self-perceived health, family situation and work factors could not explain women's higher likelihood of disability pension. However, analyses stratified by educational level indicate that mechanisms behind the gender gap in disability pension differ by educational levels. Recognizing the heterogeneity within gender may contribute to a deeper understanding of women's higher risk of disability pension.

  11. Why employees with higher challenging appraisals style are more affectively engaged at work? The role of challenging stressors: a moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Huei; Wu, Chia-Huei; Chen, Mei-Yen; Chen, Lung Hung

    2014-10-01

    Challenging stressors have been positively linked to various work outcomes. However, the role of individual differences in stress appraisal in shaping the function of challenging stressors and work outcomes has been rarely discussed. Drawing on the individual differences perspective, the authors propose that employees higher in challenge appraisal are more likely to have challenging stressors and are more responsive to such stressors to have a higher positive affect at work. Results obtained from 117 employees supported the hypotheses. The results indicated that challenge appraisal is positively related to challenging stressors. In addition, challenging stressors has a positive association with positive affect at work when challenge appraisal is high but has a null association when challenge appraisal is low. The findings suggest that challenging stressors does not necessarily bring positive work outcomes as suggested in past studies and highlight the importance of considering dispositional tendency in stress appraisal when looking into the function of challenging stressors and work outcomes. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. Work-related self-efficacy as a moderator of the impact of a worksite stress management training intervention: Intrinsic work motivation as a higher order condition of effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Joda; Bond, Frank W; Flaxman, Paul E

    2017-01-01

    Employees with low levels of work-related self-efficacy may stand to benefit more from a worksite stress management training (SMT) intervention. However, this low work-related self-efficacy/enhanced SMT benefits effect may be conditional on employees also having high levels of intrinsic work motivation. In the present study, we examined this proposition by testing three-way, or higher order, interaction effects. One hundred and fifty-three U.K. government employees were randomly assigned to a SMT intervention group (n = 68), or to a waiting list control group (n = 85). The SMT group received three half-day training sessions spread over two and a half months. Findings indicated that there were significant overall reductions in psychological strain, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in the SMT group, in comparison to the control group. Furthermore, there were significant higher order Group (SMT vs. control) × Time 1 Work-Related Self-Efficacy × Time 1 Intrinsic Work Motivation interactions, such that reductions in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization at certain time points were experienced only by those who had low baseline levels of work-related self-efficacy and high baseline levels of intrinsic work motivation. Implications for work-related self-efficacy theory and research and SMT research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Parental body mass index and blood pressure are associated with higher body mass index and blood pressure in their adult offspring: a cross-sectional study in a resource-limited setting in northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Sal Y Rosas, Víctor G; Sacksteder, Katherine A; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Cárdenas, María K; Gilman, Robert H; Miranda, J Jaime

    2018-05-01

    High body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) are major contributors to the high burden of non-communicable diseases in adulthood. Individual high-risk and population approaches for prevention require newer strategies to target these risk factors and focusing on the family to introduce prevention initiatives appears as a promising scenario. Characterisation of the relationship between BMI and BP among the adult members of a given family merits evaluation. We conducted a secondary analysis of an implementation study in Tumbes, Peru, benefiting from data derived from families with at least one adult offspring. The exposures of interest were the BMI, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) of the mother and father. The outcomes were the BMI, SBP and DBP of the offspring. Mixed-effects linear regression models were conducted. The mean age of the offspring, mothers and fathers was 29 (SD: 9.5), 54 (SD: 11.8) and 59 (SD: 11.6) years, respectively. Father's BMI was associated with a quarter-point increase in offspring BMI, regardless of the sex of the offspring. Mother's BMI had a similar effect on the BMI of her sons, but had no significant effect on her daughters'. Mother's SBP was associated with almost one-tenth of mmHg increase in the SBP of the adult offspring. There was no evidence of an association for DBP. In families with adult members, the higher the parents' BMI and SBP, the higher their adult offspring's levels will be. © 2018 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effect of cold work hardening on stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels in primary water of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raquet, O.; Herms, E.; Vaillant, F.; Couvant, T.; Boursier, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A R and D program is carried out in CEA and EDF laboratories to investigate separately the effects of factors which could contribute to IASCC mechanism. In the framework of this study, the influence of cold work on SCC of ASSs in primary water is studied to supply additional knowledge concerning the contribution of radiation hardening on IASCC of ASSs. Solution annealed ASSs, essentially of type AISI 304(L) and AISI 316(L), are generally considered very resistant to SCC in nominal primary water. However, Constant Extension Rate Tests (CERTs), performed on cold pressed humped specimens in nominal primary water at 360 deg. C, reveal that these materials can exhibit a high SCC susceptibility: deepest cracks reach 1 mm (mean crack growth rate about 1 μm.h -1 ) and propagation is mainly intergranular for 304L and mainly transgranular for 316L. Indeed, work hardening in conjunction with high localized deformation can promote SCC. The influence of the nature of the cold work (shot peening, reaming, cold rolling, counter sinking, fatigue work hardening and tensile deformation) is investigated by means of screening CERTs performed with smooth specimens in 304L at 360 deg. C. For a given cold work hardening level, the susceptibility to crack initiation strongly depends on the cold working process, and no propagation is observed for a hardness level lower than 300 ±10 HV(0.49N). The propagation of cracks is observed only for dynamic loadings like CERT, traction/relaxation tests and crack growth rate tests performed with CT specimens under trapezoidal loading. Although crack initiation is observed for constant load and constant deformation tests, crack propagation do not seem to occur under these mechanical solicitations for 17000 hours of testing, even for hardness levels higher than 450 HV(0.49N). The mean crack growth rate increases when the hardness increases. An important R and D program is in progress to complement these results and to develop a SCC model for ASSs in

  15. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure at a higher rate improve oxygenation in the early period after cardiac surgery--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urell, Charlotte; Emtner, Margareta; Hedenström, Hans; Tenling, Arne; Breidenskog, Marie; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2011-07-01

    In addition to early mobilisation, a variety of breathing exercises are used to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery. The optimal duration of the treatment is not well evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 30 versus 10 deep breaths hourly, while awake, with positive expiratory pressure on oxygenation and pulmonary function the first days after cardiac surgery. A total of 181 patients, undergoing cardiac surgery, were randomised into a treatment group, performing 30 deep breaths hourly the first postoperative days, or into a control group performing 10 deep breaths hourly. The main outcome measurement arterial blood gases and the secondary outcome pulmonary function, evaluated with spirometry, were determined on the second postoperative day. Preoperatively, both study groups were similar in terms of age, SpO(2), forced expiratory volume in 1s and New York Heart Association classification. On the second postoperative day, arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) was 8.9 ± 1.7 kPa in the treatment group and 8.1 ± 1.4 kPa in the control group (p = 0.004). Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) was 92.7 ± 3.7% in the treatment group and 91.1 ± 3.8% in the control group (p = 0.016). There were no differences in measured lung function between the groups or in compliance to the breathing exercises. Compliance was 65% of possible breathing sessions. A significantly increased oxygenation was found in patients performing 30 deep breaths the first two postoperative days compared with control patients performing 10 deep breaths hourly. These results support the implementation of a higher rate of deep breathing exercises in the initial phase after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective intraoperative ventilation with higher versus lower levels of positive end-expiratory pressure in obese patients (PROBESE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, T; Teichmann, R; Kiss, T; Bobek, I; Canet, J; Cinnella, G; De Baerdemaeker, L; Gregoretti, C; Hedenstierna, G; Hemmes, S N; Hiesmayr, M; Hollmann, M W; Jaber, S; Laffey, J G; Licker, M J; Markstaller, K; Matot, I; Müller, G; Mills, G H; Mulier, J P; Putensen, C; Rossaint, R; Schmitt, J; Senturk, M; Serpa Neto, A; Severgnini, P; Sprung, J; Vidal Melo, M F; Wrigge, H; Schultz, M J; Pelosi, P; Gama de Abreu, M

    2017-04-28

    Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) increase the morbidity and mortality of surgery in obese patients. High levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with lung recruitment maneuvers may improve intraoperative respiratory function, but they can also compromise hemodynamics, and the effects on PPCs are uncertain. We hypothesized that intraoperative mechanical ventilation using high PEEP with periodic recruitment maneuvers, as compared with low PEEP without recruitment maneuvers, prevents PPCs in obese patients. The PRotective Ventilation with Higher versus Lower PEEP during General Anesthesia for Surgery in OBESE Patients (PROBESE) study is a multicenter, two-arm, international randomized controlled trial. In total, 2013 obese patients with body mass index ≥35 kg/m 2 scheduled for at least 2 h of surgery under general anesthesia and at intermediate to high risk for PPCs will be included. Patients are ventilated intraoperatively with a low tidal volume of 7 ml/kg (predicted body weight) and randomly assigned to PEEP of 12 cmH 2 O with lung recruitment maneuvers (high PEEP) or PEEP of 4 cmH 2 O without recruitment maneuvers (low PEEP). The occurrence of PPCs will be recorded as collapsed composite of single adverse pulmonary events and represents the primary endpoint. To our knowledge, the PROBESE trial is the first multicenter, international randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of two different levels of intraoperative PEEP during protective low tidal volume ventilation on PPCs in obese patients. The results of the PROBESE trial will support anesthesiologists in their decision to choose a certain PEEP level during general anesthesia for surgery in obese patients in an attempt to prevent PPCs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02148692. Registered on 23 May 2014; last updated 7 June 2016.

  17. Methodology and technology for peripheral and central blood pressure and blood pressure variability measurement: current status and future directions - Position statement of the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on blood pressure monitoring and cardiovascular variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, George S; Parati, Gianfranco; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Achimastos, Apostolos; Andreadis, Emanouel; Asmar, Roland; Avolio, Alberto; Benetos, Athanase; Bilo, Grzegorz; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Castiglioni, Paolo; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Dolan, Eamon; Head, Geoffrey; Imai, Yutaka; Kario, Kazuomi; Kollias, Anastasios; Kotsis, Vasilis; Manios, Efstathios; McManus, Richard; Mengden, Thomas; Mihailidou, Anastasia; Myers, Martin; Niiranen, Teemu; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Omboni, Stefano; Padfield, Paul; Palatini, Paolo; Papaioannou, Theodore; Protogerou, Athanasios; Redon, Josep; Verdecchia, Paolo; Wang, Jiguang; Zanchetti, Alberto; Mancia, Giuseppe; O'Brien, Eoin

    2016-09-01

    Office blood pressure measurement has been the basis for hypertension evaluation for almost a century. However, the evaluation of blood pressure out of the office using ambulatory or self-home monitoring is now strongly recommended for the accurate diagnosis in many, if not all, cases with suspected hypertension. Moreover, there is evidence that the variability of blood pressure might offer prognostic information that is independent of the average blood pressure level. Recently, advancement in technology has provided noninvasive evaluation of central (aortic) blood pressure, which might have attributes that are additive to the conventional brachial blood pressure measurement. This position statement, developed by international experts, deals with key research and practical issues in regard to peripheral blood pressure measurement (office, home, and ambulatory), blood pressure variability, and central blood pressure measurement. The objective is to present current achievements, identify gaps in knowledge and issues concerning clinical application, and present relevant research questions and directions to investigators and manufacturers for future research and development (primary goal).

  18. Balancing Work and Family: A Panel Analysis of the Impact of Part-Time Work on the Experience of Time Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurijssen, Ilse; Glorieux, Ignace

    2013-01-01

    In this article we consider the consequences of work-family reconciliation, in terms of the extent to which the adjustment of the labour market career to family demands (by women) contributes to a better work-life balance. Using the Flemish SONAR-data, we analyse how changes in work and family conditions between the age of 26 and 29 are related to…

  19. A study on the delayed hydride cracking mechanism in cold worked Zr-2.5Nb, heat treated Zr-2.5Nb and zircaloy-2 pressure tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kwang Sik

    1992-02-15

    Cold worked Zr-2.5Nb, heat treated Zr-2.5Nb and Zircaloy-2 pressure tubes were hydrided to the hydrogen concentration of 68 ppm, 49 ppm and 242-411 ppm, respectively, and compact tension specimens were machined from the hydrided materials. The crack growth rate by delayed hydride cracking was measured by potential drop method at various temperatures on the above mentioned three types of specimens. The activation energy obtained were 43 KJ/mol for cold worked Zr-2.5Nb and 37 KJ/mol for heat treated Zr-2.5Nb, which were in good agreements with that of Coleman (1977), while they were lower than the activation energy of 65.5 KJ/mol obtained by Simpson-puls (1979) and 71.5 KJ/mol by Ambler (1984). The DHC growth rate in Zircaloy-2 were about one fifth of that of Zr-2.5Nb, which is due to the texture and material strength effects. Striations which indicate stepwise DHC growth were observed at fracture surface by scanning electron microscope and unsymmetric crack tunnellings were also observed, which seems to be due to the difference in hydrogen diffusion rate caused by the difference in stress fields between inner and outer surface. The comparison of test results with the DHC growth rate calculated by Simpson-puls model showed good agreement at high temperatures, whereas at the lower temperatures the crack growth rates were 2.5 times higher than the calculated values.

  20. A study on the delayed hydride cracking mechanism in cold worked Zr-2.5Nb, heat treated Zr-2.5Nb and zircaloy-2 pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kwang Sik

    1992-02-01

    Cold worked Zr-2.5Nb, heat treated Zr-2.5Nb and Zircaloy-2 pressure tubes were hydrided to the hydrogen concentration of 68 ppm, 49 ppm and 242-411 ppm, respectively, and compact tension specimens were machined from the hydrided materials. The crack growth rate by delayed hydride cracking was measured by potential drop method at various temperatures on the above mentioned three types of specimens. The activation energy obtained were 43 KJ/mol for cold worked Zr-2.5Nb and 37 KJ/mol for heat treated Zr-2.5Nb, which were in good agreements with that of Coleman (1977), while they were lower than the activation energy of 65.5 KJ/mol obtained by Simpson-puls (1979) and 71.5 KJ/mol by Ambler (1984). The DHC growth rate in Zircaloy-2 were about one fifth of that of Zr-2.5Nb, which is due to the texture and material strength effects. Striations which indicate stepwise DHC growth were observed at fracture surface by scanning electron microscope and unsymmetric crack tunnellings were also observed, which seems to be due to the difference in hydrogen diffusion rate caused by the difference in stress fields between inner and outer surface. The comparison of test results with the DHC growth rate calculated by Simpson-puls model showed good agreement at high temperatures, whereas at the lower temperatures the crack growth rates were 2.5 times higher than the calculated values

  1. Blood Pressure Medicines Don’t Work If People Don’t Take Them PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-13

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the September 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Blood pressure medicines don’t work if people don’t take them. Learn how health care systems can work with patients to make taking medicines easier.  Created: 9/13/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/13/2016.

  2. Slit-burst testing of cold-worked Zr-2.5 wt.% Nb pressure tubing for CANDU-PHW reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.J.S.; Barrie, J.N.; Zink, R.J.

    1978-12-01

    This report documents the available data on critical crack length of cold-worked Zr-2.5 wt.% Nb pressure tubing in CANDU reactors. In particular, it includes data for tubing removed from the Pickering 3 and 4 reactors. (author)

  3. The influence of low job control on ambulatory blood pressure and perceived stress over the working day in men and women from the Whitehall II cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steptoe, A.; Willemsen, A.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Work stress contributes to risk of coronary heart disease and hypertension. This study tested the influence of job control on ambulatory blood pressure, and ratings of perceived stress and happiness in men and women systematically sampled by socio-economic status from the Whitehall II

  4. The educative labor in the political and ideological work from teaching in Higher Education as a part of the teaching professional culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesa Natacha Rodríguez Pérez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The search of alternatives to organize and improve the formation process in higher education through the unbreakable fusion between instruction and education constitutes a challenge in the professional culture of university teachers. It is worthy if you bet for a constant interaction among teachers. Taking into consideration this aspiration, the present work, by the scientific way, contributes to the socialization of experiences from the pedagogical staff. Due to this, the authors of the investigation propose: to design a system of budgets for the achievement of the educative labor and the political and ideological work as part of the professional culture. The investigation carried out was sustained on the integral character that primes in this determination, due to its aim it must be directed towards the progress of dimensions: educative, instructive, and developing, necessary to the students’ integral formation.

  5. Is the blood pressure of people from African origin adults in the UK higher or lower than that in European origin white people? A review of cross-sectional data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Bhopal, Raj

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to review published evidence on whether blood pressure (BP) levels and the prevalence of hypertension are higher in adult populations of African descent living in the UK as compared to the white population. A systematic literature review was carried out using MEDLINE

  6. Higher Urinary Heavy Metal, Phthalate, and Arsenic but Not Parabens Concentrations in People with High Blood Pressure, U.S. NHANES, 2011–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Shiue

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Link between environmental chemicals and human health has emerged but not been completely examined in risk factors. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of different sets of urinary environmental chemical concentrations and risk of high blood pressure (BP in a national, population-based study. Data were retrieved from United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011–2012 including demographics, BP readings, and urinary environmental chemical concentrations. Analyses included chi-square test, t-test and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling. After full adjustment (adjusting for urinary creatinine, age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index, urinary cesium (OR 1.56, 95%CI 1.11–2.20, P = 0.014, molybden (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.06–2.01, P = 0.023, manganese (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.09–1.86, P = 0.012, lead (OR 1.58, 95%CI 1.28–1.96, P < 0.001, tin (OR 1.44, 95%CI 1.25–1.66, P < 0.001, antimony (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.10–1.77, P = 0.010, and tungsten (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.25–1.77, P < 0.001 concentrations were observed to be associated with high BP. People with higher urinary mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.00–1.62, P = 0.006, mono-n-butyl phthalate (OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.13–1.62, P = 0.002, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.05–1.49, P = 0.014, mono-n-methyl phthalate (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.07–1.48, P = 0.007, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.07–1.48, P = 0.009, and monobenzyl phthalate (OR 1.40, 95%CI 1.15–1.69, P = 0.002 tended to have high BP as well. However, there are no clear associations between environmental parabens and high BP, nor between pesticides and high BP. In addition, trimethylarsine oxide (OR 2.47, 95%CI 1.27–4.81, P = 0.011 and dimethylarsonic acid concentrations (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.12–1.79, P = 0.006 were seen to be associated with high BP. In sum, urinary heavy metal, phthalate, and arsenic concentrations were associated with high BP, although the

  7. Development of working methods used inside reactor pressure vessel at Oskarshamn from the radiation protection point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solstrand, C.

    2005-01-01

    When performing maintenance and repair work in the beginning of 1970's conventional work tools and working methods mostly were used. The focus was on how to protect workers sufficiently in a proper way to keep the doses ALARA. During the last years the focus has turned more towards construction of special work tools in order to minimise personnel doses without any special arrangements for radiation shielding. Three examples will be presented to show that the optimisation of radiation protection can lead to the development of work tools and working methods, reducing the doses, time and money. (author)

  8. Work-related stress in midlife is associated with higher number of mobility limitation in older age-results from the FLAME study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Jenni; Hinrichs, Timo; Törmäkangas, Timo; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; von Bonsdorff, Monika E; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Klockars, Matti; Seitsamo, Jorma; Ilmarinen, Juhani; Rantanen, Taina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether work-related stress symptoms in midlife are associated with a number of mobility limitations during three decades from midlife to late life. Data for the study come from the Finnish Longitudinal Study of Municipal Employees (FLAME). The study includes a total of 5429 public sector employees aged 44-58 years at baseline who had information available on work-related stress symptoms in 1981 and 1985 and mobility limitation score during the subsequent 28-year follow-up. Four midlife work-related stress profiles were identified: negative reactions to work and depressiveness, perceived decrease in cognition, sleep disturbances, and somatic symptoms. People with a high number of stress symptoms in 1981 and 1985 were categorized as having constant stress. The number of self-reported mobility limitations was computed based on an eight-item list of mobility tasks presented to the participants in 1992, 1997, and 2009. Data were analyzed using joint Poisson regression models. The study showed that depending on the stress profile, persons suffering from constant stress in midlife had a higher risk of 30-70 % for having one more mobility limitation during the following 28 years compared to persons without stress after adjusting for mortality, several lifestyle factors, and chronic conditions. A less pronounced risk increase (20-40 %) was observed for persons with occasional symptoms. The study suggests that effective interventions aiming to reduce work-related stress should focus on both primary and secondary prevention.

  9. Flow behaviour of autoclaved, 20% cold worked, Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tube material in the temperature range of room temperature to 800 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dureja, A.K.; Sinha, S.K.; Srivastava, Ankit; Sinha, R.K.; Chakravartty, J.K.; Seshu, P.; Pawaskar, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    Pressure tube material of Indian Heavy Water Reactors is 20% cold-worked and stress relieved Zr-2.5Nb alloy. Inherent variability in the process parameters during the fabrication stages of pressure tube and also along the length of component have their effect on micro-structural and texture properties of the material, which in turn affect its strength parameters (yield strength and ultimate tensile strength) and flow characteristics. Data of tensile tests carried out in the temperature range from room temperature to 800 deg. C using the samples taken out from a single pressure tube have been used to develop correlations for characterizing the strength parameters' variation as a function of axial location along length of the tube and the test temperature. Applicability of Ramberg-Osgood, Holloman and Voce's correlations for defining the post yield behaviour of the material has been investigated. Effect of strain rate change on the deformation behaviour has also been studied.

  10. Effect of working pressure on corrosion behavior of nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, N W; Liu, E

    2011-06-01

    Nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon thin films were deposited on highly conductive p-silicon(100) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering deposition system by varying working pressure in the deposition chamber. The bonding structure, adhesion strength, surface roughness and corrosion behavior of the films were investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, micro-scratch test, atomic force microscopy and potentiodynamic polarization test. A 0.6 M NaCl electrolytic solution was used for the corrosion tests. The optimum corrosion resistance of the films was found at a working pressure of 7 mTorr at which a good balance between the kinetics of the sputtered ions and the surface mobility of the adatoms promoted a microstructure of the films with fewer porosities.

  11. Study of working pressure on the optoelectrical properties of Al–Y codoped ZnO thin-film deposited using DC magnetron sputtering for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Feng-Hao; Wang, Na-Fu; Tsai, Yu-Zen; Chuang, Ming-Chieh; Cheng, Yu-Song; Houng, Mau-Phon

    2013-01-01

    Low cost transparent conductive Al–Y codoped ZnO (AZOY) thin-films were prepared on a glass substrate using a DC magnetron sputtering technique with various working pressures in the range of 5–13 mTorr. The relationship among the structural, electrical, and optical properties of sputtered AZOY films was studied as a function of working pressure. The XRD measurements show that the crystallinity of the films degraded as the working gas pressure increased. The AZOY thin-film deposited at a working pressure of 5 mTorr exhibited the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.3 × 10 −4 Ω cm, carrier mobility of 30 cm 2 /V s, highest carrier concentration of 4.9 × 10 20 cm −3 , and high transmittance in the visible region (400–800 nm) of approximately 90%. Compared with Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films deposited using DC or RF magnetron sputtering methods, a high carrier mobility was observed in our AZOY thin-films. This result can be used to effectively decrease the absorption of near infrared-rays in solar cell applications. The mechanisms are attributed to the larger transition energy between Ar atoms and sputtering particles and the size compensation of the dopants. Finally, the optimal quality AZOY thin-film was used as an emitter layer (or window layer) to form AZOY/n-Si heterojunction solar cells, which exhibited a stable conversion efficiency (η) of 9.4% under an AM1.5 illumination condition.

  12. Study of working pressure on the optoelectrical properties of Al–Y codoped ZnO thin-film deposited using DC magnetron sputtering for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Feng-Hao [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Dasyue Road, East District, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China); Wang, Na-Fu; Tsai, Yu-Zen; Chuang, Ming-Chieh; Cheng, Yu-Song [Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840 Chengcing Road, Niaosong District, Kaohsiung City 833, Taiwan (China); Houng, Mau-Phon, E-mail: mphoung@eembox.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Dasyue Road, East District, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China)

    2013-09-01

    Low cost transparent conductive Al–Y codoped ZnO (AZOY) thin-films were prepared on a glass substrate using a DC magnetron sputtering technique with various working pressures in the range of 5–13 mTorr. The relationship among the structural, electrical, and optical properties of sputtered AZOY films was studied as a function of working pressure. The XRD measurements show that the crystallinity of the films degraded as the working gas pressure increased. The AZOY thin-film deposited at a working pressure of 5 mTorr exhibited the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.3 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm, carrier mobility of 30 cm{sup 2}/V s, highest carrier concentration of 4.9 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, and high transmittance in the visible region (400–800 nm) of approximately 90%. Compared with Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films deposited using DC or RF magnetron sputtering methods, a high carrier mobility was observed in our AZOY thin-films. This result can be used to effectively decrease the absorption of near infrared-rays in solar cell applications. The mechanisms are attributed to the larger transition energy between Ar atoms and sputtering particles and the size compensation of the dopants. Finally, the optimal quality AZOY thin-film was used as an emitter layer (or window layer) to form AZOY/n-Si heterojunction solar cells, which exhibited a stable conversion efficiency (η) of 9.4% under an AM1.5 illumination condition.

  13. Effect of substrate roughness and working pressure on photocatalyst of N-doped TiOx films prepared by reactive sputtering with air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seon-Hong; Yamasue, Eiji; Okumura, Hideyuki; Ishihara, Keiichi N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of substrate roughness and working pressure on the physical properties and the photocatalytic properties of the N-doped TiO x films are investigated. • Surface roughness of glass substrate has little influence on the film properties, but significant influence on the photocatalytic ability. • Working pressure has little influence on the produced phases and the atomic bonding configurations, but significant influence on the atomic concentration of the N-doped TiO x film. • High photocatalysis of N-doped TiO x film requires the permissible range of the N doping concentration which shows the interstitial complex N doping states in TiO 2 . - Abstract: N-doped TiO x films on the glass substrate were prepared by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron reactive sputtering of Ti target in a mixed gas of argon and dry air. The effect of substrate roughness and working pressure on the physical properties and the photocatalytic properties of the N-doped TiO x films was investigated. The surface roughness of glass substrate has little influence on the film properties such as produced phases, lattice parameters, introduced nitrogen contents, and atomic bonding configurations, but significant influence on the surface roughness of film resulting in the variation of the photocatalytic ability. The working pressure has little influence on the produced phases and the atomic bonding configurations, but significant influence on the atomic concentration of the N-doped TiO x film, resulting in the large variation of optical, structural, and photocatalytic properties. It is suggested that the high photocatalysis of N-doped TiO x film requires a certain range of the N doping concentration which shows the interstitial complex N doping states in TiO 2

  14. Comparison of Reef Fish Survey Data Gathered by Open and Closed Circuit SCUBA Divers Reveals Differences in Areas With Higher Fishing Pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Gray

    Full Text Available Visual survey by divers using open-circuit (OC SCUBA is the most widely used approach to survey coral reef fishes. Therefore, it is important to quantify sources of bias in OC surveys, such as the possibility that avoidance of OC divers by fishes can lead to undercounting in areas where targeted species have come to associate divers with a risk of being speared. One potential way to reduce diver avoidance is to utilize closed circuit rebreathers (CCRs, which do not produce the noise and bubbles that are a major source of disturbance associated with OC diving. For this study, we conducted 66 paired OC and CCR fish surveys in the Main Hawaiian Islands at locations with relatively high, moderate, and light fishing pressure. We found no significant differences in biomass estimates between OC and CCR surveys when data were pooled across all sites, however there were differences at the most heavily fished location, Oahu. There, biomass estimates from OC divers were significantly lower for several targeted fish groups, including surgeonfishes, targeted wrasses, and snappers, as well as for all targeted fishes combined, with mean OC biomass between 32 and 68% of mean CCR biomass. There were no clear differences between OC and CCR biomass estimates for these groups at sites with moderate or low fishing pressure, or at any location for other targeted fish groups, including groupers, parrotfishes, and goatfishes. Bias associated with avoidance of OC divers at heavily fished locations could be substantially reduced, or at least calibrated for, by utilization of CCR. In addition to being affected by fishing pressure, the extent to which avoidance of OC divers is problematic for visual surveys varies greatly among taxa, and is likely to be highly influenced by the survey methodology and dimensions used.

  15. Understanding significant processes during work environment interventions to alleviate time pressure and associated sick leave of home care workers--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gunn Robstad; Westgaard, Rolf H

    2013-11-15

    Ergonomic and work stress interventions rarely show long-term positive effect. The municipality participating in this study received orders from the Norwegian Labour Inspectorate due to an identified unhealthy level of time pressure, and responded by effectuating several work environment interventions. The study aim is to identify critical factors in the interaction between work environment interventions and independent rationalization measures in order to understand a potential negative interfering effect from concurrent rationalizations on a comprehensive work environment intervention. The study, using a historic prospective mixed-method design, comprised 6 home care units in a municipality in Norway (138 respondents, response rate 76.2%; 17 informants). The study included quantitative estimations, register data of sick leave, a time line of significant events and changes, and qualitative descriptions of employee appraisals of their work situation gathered through semi-structured interviews and open survey responses. The work environment interventions were in general regarded as positive by the home care workers. However, all units were simultaneously subjected to substantial contextual instability, involving new work programs, new technology, restructurings, unit mergers, and management replacements, perceived by the home care workers to be major sources of stress. Findings suggest that concurrent changes induced through rationalization resulted in negative exposure effects that negated positive work environment intervention effects, causing an overall deteriorated work situation for the home care workers. Establishment and active utilization of communication channels from workers to managers are recommended in order to increase awareness of putative harmful and interruptive effects of rationalization measures.

  16. Maternal fish oil supplementation during lactation is associated with reduced height at 13 years of age and higher blood pressure in boys only

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Eriksen, S E; Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    2016-01-01

    between boys and girls. Mother-infant pairs (n 103) completed a randomised controlled trial with FO (1·5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA) or olive oil (OO) supplements during the first 4 months of lactation; forty-seven mother-infant pairs with high fish intake were followed-up for 4 months as the reference group. We also......Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) in infancy may have long-term effects on lifestyle disease risk. The present follow-up study investigated whether maternal fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affected growth and blood pressure in adolescents and whether the effects differed...

  17. Higher dopamine release induced by less rather than more preferred reward during a working memory task in the primate prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Tohru; Hikosaka, Kazuo; Honda, Yoshiko; Kojima, Takashi; Watanabe, Masataka

    2014-06-01

    An optimal level of dopamine (DA) in the mammalian prefrontal cortex (PFC) is critical for higher cognitive control of behavior. Too much or too little DA in the PFC induces impairment in working memory (WM) task performance. PFC DA is also concerned with motivation. When reward is anticipated and/or delivered, an increase in PFC DA release is observed. In the primate, more preferred reward induces enhanced WM-related neuronal activity in the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC). We hypothesized that there would be more DA release in the primate DLPFC when more preferred, as compared with less preferred, reward is delivered during a WM task. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found higher DA release in the DLPFC when less rather than more preferred reward was used during a WM task, while unpredictable free reward delivery induced an increase in DLPFC DA release irrespective of the difference in the incentive value of the reward. Behaviorally, the monkey was more motivated with preferred than with less preferred reward, although it performed the task almost without error irrespective of the difference in the reward. Considering that mild stress induces an increase in DA release in the mammalian PFC, performing a WM task for less preferred reward could have been mildly stressful, and this mild stress may have induced more DLPFC DA release in the present study. The higher DA release in the DLPFC with less preferred reward may be beneficial for monkeys to cope with mildly stressful and unfavorable situations to achieve proficient WM task performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A longitudinal study of higher-order thinking skills: working memory and fluid reasoning in childhood enhance complex problem solving in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students’ CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence. PMID:26283992

  19. A longitudinal study of higher-order thinking skills: working memory and fluid reasoning in childhood enhance complex problem solving in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students' CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence.

  20. Choosing an Oronasal Mask to Deliver Continuous Positive Airway Pressure May Cause More Upper Airway Obstruction or Lead to Higher Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Requirements than a Nasal Mask in Some Patients: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Justin R; Aiyappan, Vinod; Mercer, Jeremy; Catcheside, Peter G; Chai-Coetzer, Ching Li; McEvoy, R Doug; Antic, Nick

    2016-09-15

    The choice of mask interface used with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy can affect the control of upper airway obstruction (UAO) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We describe a case series of four patients with paradoxical worsening of UAO with an oronasal mask and the effect of changing to a nasal mask. We retrospectively reviewed the case histories of 4 patients and recorded patient demographics, in-laboratory and ambulatory CPAP titration data, CPAP therapy data, type of mask interface used and potential confounding factors. The 4 cases (mean ± SD: age = 59 ± 16 y; BMI = 30.5 ± 4.5 kg/m(2)) had a high residual apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) (43 ± 14.2 events/h) and high CPAP pressure requirements (14.9 ± 6.6 cmH2O) with an oronasal mask. Changing to a nasal mask allowed adequate control of UAO with a significant reduction in the average residual AHI (3.1 ± 1.5 events/h). In two of the four cases, it was demonstrated that control of UAO was obtained at a much lower CPAP pressure compared to the oronasal mask (Case one = 17.5 cmH2O vs 12cmH2O; Case two = 17.9 cmH2O vs 7.8 cmH2O). Other potential confounding factors were unchanged. There are various physiological observations that may explain these findings but it is uncertain which individuals are susceptible to these mechanisms. If patients have OSA incompletely controlled by CPAP with evidence of residual UAO and/or are requiring surprisingly high CPAP pressure to control OSA with an oronasal mask, the choice of mask should be reviewed and consideration be given to a trial of a nasal mask. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1209. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  1. Family life under pressure? Parents' paid work and the quantity and quality of parent-child and family time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, A.

    2010-01-01

    Even though family life and paid work are often considered as difficult to reconcile, prior research found that family time is relatively unaffected by the demands paid work imposes upon employed parents. This dissertation investigates this puzzling finding by exploring how parents protect family

  2. Degrees of Integrity: The Threat of Corruption in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David W.; Lindner, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is the focus of growing international concern among governments, educators, students, and other stakeholders. Those working in higher education institutions now face a unique convergence of pressures that is creating a heightened threat to the integrity of the higher education enterprise worldwide. This paper draws…

  3. Biofeedback effectiveness to reduce upper limb muscle activity during computer work is muscle specific and time pressure dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Pernille; Søgaard, Karen; Blangsted, Anne Katrine

    2011-01-01

    trapezius (TRA) can reduce bilateral TRA activity but not extensor digitorum communis (EDC) activity; (2) biofeedback from EDC can reduce activity in EDC but not in TRA; (3) biofeedback is more effective in no time constraint than in the time constraint working condition. Eleven healthy women performed......Continuous electromyographic (EMG) activity level is considered a risk factor in developing muscle disorders. EMG biofeedback is known to be useful in reducing EMG activity in working muscles during computer work. The purpose was to test the following hypotheses: (1) unilateral biofeedback from...... computer work during two different working conditions (time constraint/no time constraint) while receiving biofeedback. Biofeedback was given from right TRA or EDC through two modes (visual/auditory) by the use of EMG or mechanomyography as biofeedback source. During control sessions (no biofeedback), EMG...

  4. Lung recruitability is better estimated according to the Berlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome at standard 5 cm H2O rather than higher positive end-expiratory pressure: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caironi, Pietro; Carlesso, Eleonora; Cressoni, Massimo; Chiumello, Davide; Moerer, Onner; Chiurazzi, Chiara; Brioni, Matteo; Bottino, Nicola; Lazzerini, Marco; Bugedo, Guillermo; Quintel, Michael; Ranieri, V Marco; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    The Berlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome has introduced three classes of severity according to PaO2/FIO2 thresholds. The level of positive end-expiratory pressure applied may greatly affect PaO2/FIO2, thereby masking acute respiratory distress syndrome severity, which should reflect the underlying lung injury (lung edema and recruitability). We hypothesized that the assessment of acute respiratory distress syndrome severity at standardized low positive end-expiratory pressure may improve the association between the underlying lung injury, as detected by CT, and PaO2/FIO2-derived severity. Retrospective analysis. Four university hospitals (Italy, Germany, and Chile). One hundred forty-eight patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome according to the American-European Consensus Conference criteria. Patients underwent a three-step ventilator protocol (at clinical, 5 cm H2O, or 15 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure). Whole-lung CT scans were obtained at 5 and 45 cm H2O airway pressure. Nine patients did not fulfill acute respiratory distress syndrome criteria of the novel Berlin definition. Patients were then classified according to PaO2/FIO2 assessed at clinical, 5 cm H2O, or 15 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure. At clinical positive end-expiratory pressure (11±3 cm H2O), patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome had a greater lung tissue weight and recruitability than patients with mild or moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (pBerlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome assessed at 5 cm H2O allows a better evaluation of lung recruitability and edema than at higher positive end-expiratory pressure clinically set.

  5. Development of Deterministic and Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics Analysis Code PROFAS-RV for Reactor Pressure Vessel - Progress of the Work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Bong Sang [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, a deterministic/probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis program for reactor pressure vessel, PROFAS-RV, is developed. This program can evaluate failure probability of RPV using recent radiation embrittlement model of 10CFR50.61a and stress intensity factor calculation method of RCC-MRx code as well as the required basic functions of PFM program. Applications of some new radiation embrittlement model, material database, calculation method of stress intensity factors, and others which can improve fracture mechanics assessment of RPV are introduced. The purpose of this study is to develop a probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis program for RPV considering above modification and application of newly developed models and calculation methods. In this paper, it deals with the development progress of the PFM analysis program for RPV, PROFAS-RV. The PROFAS-RV is being tested with other codes, and it is expected to revise and upgrade by reflecting the latest model and calculation method continuously. These efforts can minimize the uncertainty of the integrity evaluation for the reactor pressure vessel.

  6. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  7. Unethical and Deadly Symbiosis in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumbley, D. Larry; Flinn, Ronald; Reichelt, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    As administrators are pressured to increase retention rates in accounting departments, and higher education in general, a deadly symbiosis is occurring. Most students and parents only wish for high grades, so year after year many educators engage in unethical grade inflation and course work deflation. Since administrators use the students to audit…

  8. Duration of works, flight hours, and blood pressure related to noise-induced hearing loss among Indonesian Air Force helicopter pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholidah Hanum

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicopter pilots exposed to high intensity noise and other risk factors had increased risk to be noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. Therefore, it is beneficial to study several risk factors related to NIHL. This study was a nested case-control. Data was extracted from available medical records among helicopter pilots who performed routine aerophysiology training indoctrination (ILA during 1980 through March 2004 at Saryanto Institute for Aviation and Aerospace Medicine (Lakespra, Jakarta. Case was those who had audiogram with a notch of 40 dB or more and of 4000 Hertz on one site or bilateral ears. A case was matched by two controls who free from NIHL up to 2004. All risk factors for cases and controls were counted as of reference date of cases diagnosed. There were 187 medical records available for this study. A number of 32 cases and 64 controls were identified. The final model reveals that NIHL was related to total duration of works, flight hours, and blood pressure. Those who had 500 hours or more than less 500 hours had a moderate increased risk for 2.5 to be NIHL [Adjusted odds ratio (ORa= 2.50; 95% confidence intervals (CI = 0.66-9.29; p = 0.180]. Those who had total duration works 11-24 years had a moderate increased to be NIHL for 2.7 times (ORa = 2.71; 95% CI=0.90-8.10; p = 0.075. Furthermore, prehypertension and hypertension stage 1 subjects than normal blood pressure had moderate trend increased risk to be NIHL. In conclusion total flight hours for 500 hours or more, total duration works 11-24 years, or prehypertension and hypertension stage 1 increased risk NIHL. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:185-90 Keywords: noise induced hearing loss, flight hours, working duration, blood pressure

  9. Efeito de estresse ambiental sobre a pressão arterial de trabalhadores Effect of environmental stress on blood pressure during the working journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Rocha

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o comportamento de pressão arterial (PA e a freqüência cardíaca (Fc de indivíduos ao longo da jornada de trabalho em dois ambientes com estresses ambientais distintos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 46 funcionários, trabalhadores de uma indústria processadora de madeira, de Botucatu, SP, sendo 27 funcionários da linha de produção (esforço físico moderado-intenso, altas temperaturas e elevados níveis de ruído (G1, e 19 da administração (sem esforço físico, salas aclimatadas, baixos níveis de ruído (G2. Todos foram submetidos a avaliação antropométrica da composição corporal (obesidade e adiposidade e bioquímica do sangue (lipidemia e, adicionalmente, o registro da PA e da Fc em três momentos do turno de serviço: início, meio e fim. RESULTADOS: Houve semelhança na variação da PA entre G1 e G2, mas com maiores elevações de PA e Fc em G1. Os resultados mostraram grande variabilidade na resposta da PA, levando à subdivisão dos grupos G1 e G2 em respondedores (GR, aumento maior de 10% na PA média e não respondedores (GN. Os subgrupos GR e GN apresentaram semelhanças nos padrões antropométrico e bioquímico diferindo apenas na resposta pressórica e no caso do GR1 na história familiar de hipertensão. Comparando os subgrupos GR1 e GR2, foi constatado que os primeiros apresentaram maiores variações de PA e Fc que os segundos. CONCLUSÕES: A variação individual da resposta pressórica e da Fc conforme o tipo de estresse ambiental indica ser este um fator adicional a ser considerado na avaliação da pressão arterial e, talvez, na gênese da hipertensão arterial de operários.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR behavior in individuals during the working journey in two environments with different work stressors. METHODS: The study comprised 46 male individuals working in a wood processing factory in Botucatu, Brazil. Twenty seven (27.4±5.4 yrs, mean±SD worked in the

  10. Effects of working gas pressure on zirconium dioxide thin film prepared by pulsed plasma deposition: roughness, wettability, friction and wear characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni, M; Marchiori, G; Gambardella, A; Boi, M; Bianchi, M; Russo, A; Visani, A; Marcacci, M; Pavan, P G; Lopomo, N F

    2017-08-01

    In joint arthroplasty one of the main issues related to the failure of prosthetic implants is due to the wear of the ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) component. Surface treatments and coatings have been recognized as enhancing methods, able to improve the tribological properties of the implants. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to fabricate yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings on a metal (AISI 316-L) substrate by means of Pulsed Electron Deposition, in order to improve the tribological behavior of the polymer-metal coupling, by reducing the initial wear of the UHMWPE component. In order to optimize the coating characteristics, the effects of working gas pressure on both its morphological and tribological properties were analyzed. Morphological characterization of the films was evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Coating wettability was also estimated by contact angle (CA) measurement. Tribological performance (coupling friction and wear of UHMWPE) was evaluated by using a ball-on-disc tribometer during highly-stressing tests in dry and lubricated (i.e. NaCl and serum) conditions; friction and wear were specifically evaluated at the initial sliding distances - to highlight the main effect of coating morphology - and after 100m - where the influence of the intrinsic materials properties prevails. AFM analysis highlighted that the working pressure heavily affected the morphological characteristics of the realized films. The wettability of the coating at the highest and lowest deposition pressures (CA ~ 60°, closed to substrate value) decreased for intermediate pressures, reaching a maximum CA of ~ 90°. Regarding tribological tests, a strong correlation was found in the initial steps between friction coefficient and wettability, which decreased as the distance increased. Concerning UHMWPE wear associated to coated counterpart, at 100m a reduction rate of about 7% in dry, 12% in NaCl and 5% in

  11. Flexible Polydimethylsiloxane Foams Decorated with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Enable Unprecedented Detection of Ultralow Strain and Pressure Coupled with a Large Working Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglio, Rossella; Mariani, Stefano; Robbiano, Valentina; Strambini, Lucanos; Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2018-04-25

    Low-cost piezoresistive strain/pressure sensors with large working range, at the same time able to reliably detect ultralow strain (≤0.1%) and pressure (≤1 Pa), are one of the challenges that have still to be overcome for flexible piezoresistive materials toward personalized health-monitoring applications. In this work, we report on unprecedented, simultaneous detection of ultrasmall strain (0.1%, i.e., 10 μm displacement over 10 mm) and subtle pressure (20 Pa, i.e., a force of only 2 mN over an area of 1 cm 2 ) in compression mode, coupled with a large working range (i.e., up to 60% for strain-6 mm in displacement-and 50 kPa for pressure) using piezoresistive, flexible three-dimensional (3D) macroporous polydimethylsiloxane (pPDMS) foams decorated with pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). pPDMS/CNT foams with pore size up to 500 μm (i.e., twice the size of those of commonly used foams, at least) and porosity of 77%, decorated with a nanostructured surface network of CNTs at densities ranging from 7.5 to 37 mg/cm 3 are prepared using a low-cost and scalable process, through replica molding of sacrificial sugar templates and subsequent drop-casting of CNT ink. A thorough characterization shows that piezoresistive properties of the foams can be finely tuned by controlling the CNT density and reach an optimum at a CNT density of 25 mg/cm 3 , for which a maximum change of the material resistivity (e.g., ρ 0 /ρ 50 = 4 at 50% strain) is achieved under compression. Further static and dynamic characterization of the pPDMS/CNT foams with 25 mg/cm 3 of CNTs highlights that detection limits for strain and pressure are 0.03% (3 μm displacement over 10 mm) and 6 Pa (0.6 mN over an area of 1 cm 2 ), respectively; moreover, good stability and limited hysteresis are apparent by cycling the foams with 255 compression-release cycles over the strain range of 0-60%, at different strain rates up to 10 mm/min. Our results on piezoresistive, flexible pPDMS/CNT foams

  12. Lower Protein-to-Carbohydrate Ratio in Maternal Diet is Associated with Higher Childhood Systolic Blood Pressure up to Age Four Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Blumfield

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prenatal environment can influence development of offspring blood pressure (BP, which tracks into adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether maternal pregnancy dietary intake is associated with the development of child BP up to age four years. Data are from 129 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Women and Their Children’s Health study. Maternal diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire at 18 to 24 weeks and 36 to 40 weeks, with a reference period of the previous three months. Child systolic and diastolic BP were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months, using an automated BP monitor. Using mixed-model regression analyses adjusted for childhood growth indices, pregnancy intakes of percentage of energy (E% polyunsaturated fat (β coefficient 0.73; 95% CI 0.003, 1.45; p = 0.045, E% omega-6 fatty acids (β coefficient 0.89; 95% CI 0.09, 1.69; p = 0.03 and protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C ratio (β coefficient −14.14; 95% CI −27.68, −0.60; p = 0.04 were associated with child systolic BP trajectory up to 4 years. Child systolic BP was greatest at low proportions of dietary protein (<16% of energy and high carbohydrate (>40% of energy intakes. There may be an ideal maternal macronutrient ratio associated with optimal infant BP. Maternal diet, which is potentially modifiable, may play an important role in influencing offspring risk of future hypertension.

  13. Cavity Pressure Behaviour in Micro Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C.A.; Dimov, S.S.; Scholz, S.

    2010-01-01

    as well as with the filling of the cavity by the polymer melt. In this paper, two parameters derived from cavity pressure over time (i.e. pressure work). The influence of four µIM parameters (melt temperature, mould temperature, injection speed, aand packing pressure) on the two pressure-related outputs...... has been investigated by moulding a micro fluidic component on three different polymers (PP, ABS, PC) using the design of experiment approach. Similar trends such as the effects of a higher injection speed in decreasing the pressure work and of a lower temperature in decreasing pressure rate have been......Process monitoring of micro injection moulding (µIM) is of crusial importance to analyse the effect of different parameter settings on the process and to assess its quality. Quality factors related to cavity pressure can provide useful information directly connected with the dyanmics of the process...

  14. Cross-Border Higher Education for Labor Market Needs: Mobility of Public-Funded Malaysian Students to Japan over Years. JICA-RI Working Paper. No. 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Yoshiko; Yuki, Takako; Hong, Yeeyoung

    2011-01-01

    As globalization and the knowledge economy spreads, the demand for highly skilled workers has increased and developing countries are engaged in cross-border higher education to develop high level human resources for their nations. Using data on a cross-border higher education program between Malaysia and Japan, namely the Higher Education Loan…

  15. Work of breathing during lung-protective ventilation in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a comparison between volume and pressure-regulated breathing modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallet, Richard H; Campbell, Andre R; Dicker, Rochelle A; Katz, Jeffrey A; Mackersie, Robert C

    2005-12-01

    Pressure-control ventilation (PCV) and pressure-regulated volume-control (PRVC) ventilation are used during lung-protective ventilation because the high, variable, peak inspiratory flow rate (V (I)) may reduce patient work of breathing (WOB) more than the fixed V (I) of volume-control ventilation (VCV). Patient-triggered breaths during PCV and PRVC may result in excessive tidal volume (V(T)) delivery unless the inspiratory pressure is reduced, which in turn may decrease the peak V (I). We tested whether PCV and PRVC reduce WOB better than VCV with a high, fixed peak V (I) (75 L/min) while also maintaining a low V(T) target. Fourteen nonconsecutive patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome were studied prospectively, using a random presentation of ventilator modes in a crossover, repeated-measures design. A target V(T) of 6.4 + 0.5 mL/kg was set during VCV and PRVC. During PCV the inspiratory pressure was set to achieve the same V(T). WOB and other variables were measured with a pulmonary mechanics monitor (Bicore CP-100). There was a nonsignificant trend toward higher WOB (in J/L) during PCV (1.27 + 0.58 J/L) and PRVC (1.35 + 0.60 J/L), compared to VCV (1.09 + 0.59 J/L). While mean V(T) was not statistically different between modes, in 40% of patients, V(T) markedly exceeded the lung-protective ventilation target during PRVC and PCV. During lung-protective ventilation, PCV and PRVC offer no advantage in reducing WOB, compared to VCV with a high flow rate, and in some patients did not allow control of V(T) to be as precise.

  16. Occupational health risk of working in garages: comparative study on blood pressure and hematological parameters between garage workers and Haramaya University community, Harar, eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataro, Zerihun; Geremew, Abraham; Urgessa, Fekadu

    2018-01-01

    Occupational exposure to chemicals in garages causes a wide range of biological effects, depending upon the level and duration of exposure. In Ethiopia, there have been few studies conducted to assess the exposure of garage workers to chemicals. Preceding studies have not explored the effect of working in garage on blood pressure and hematological parameters. Therefore, this study aimed to assess differences in blood pressure and hematological parameters among garage workers compared to the Haramaya University community, Harar, eastern Ethiopia. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Harar town, eastern Ethiopia. Thirty garage workers were selected and compared with 30 age- and sex-matched controls comprising of teachers and students. Demographic and occupational data were collected by using a structured questionnaire by a trained data collector. Blood pressure was measured using sphygmomanometry. Hematological parameters were measured with an automated hematology analyzer. Data were analyzed using Stata version 13. The majority of the garage workers did not implement effective preventive or control measures for workplace chemical exposure. Statistically significant increases were found in systolic (128.67±18.14 vs 106.33 ±9.27 mmHg, P workers compared to the control group. On the other hand, statistically significant decreases were found in red blood cells (5.13±0.38 vs 5.46±0.36×10 12 cells/L, P =0.0006), hemoglobin (14.89±0.71 vs 15.45±0.87 g/dL, P =0.0062), hematocrit (43.98%±1.99% vs 46.4%3±2.32%, P workers compared to the control group. There were significant differences in blood pressure and hematological parameters between garage workers and the control group. Therefore, appropriate and effective safety measures need to be taken by the workers to prevent possible chemical exposure during routine tasks.

  17. Effect of surface cold work on corrosion of Alloy 690TT in high temperature high pressure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Han, E.-H.; Ke, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the effect of surface cold work on corrosion of Alloy 690TT. The Alloy 690TT was mechanical ground and electro polished respectively and immersed in primary water at DO = 2 ppm and DH = 2.5ppm respectively. The microstructure of surface and the compositions and morphology of the surface film on Alloy 690TT after immersion test were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and focused ion beam (FIB). The results showed that feather-like oxide with decorated polyhedral oxide formed on ground surface and needle-like oxide with decorated polyhedral oxide formed on electro-polished surface. (author)

  18. Protection for work in the pressure tank of the pile G2; Protection des travaux dans le caisson de la pile G2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany, J Ph; Rodier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Service de Protection contre les Radiations, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    While the pile was shut down after a three-month run at full power, the secondary circuit was cleaned and some alterations were carried out. The pile contained 100 tons of uranium, half of which made up the periphery and was irradiated uranium. The possibility of carrying on work inside the pressure tank was not considered at the time of construction. Because of the heat and the irradiation it was only possible to remain in the pressure tank for a limited period of time, and several operators received doses of the order of 1.5 rem. Cotton clothing gave satisfactory protection against contamination and was more comfortable than the vinyl equipment. The work lasted for 17 days and involved 881 incursions into the pressure tank. (author) [French] Un nettoyage et des modifications ont ete realises dans le circuit secondaire pendant l'arret de la pile apres un fonctionnement de trois mois a pleine puissance. La pile contenait 100 tonnes d'uranium dont la moitie, composant la peripherie, etait de l'uranium irradie. La possibilite d'entreprendre un travail a l'interieur du caisson n'avait pas ete envisage lors de la construction. Le temps de sejour dans le caisson etait a la fois limite par l'irradiation et la chaleur, plusieurs operateurs, ont integre une dose de l'ordre de 1,5 rem. Les vetements de coton ont apporte une protection contre la contamination satisfaisante et un confort relatif par rapport aux equipements de vinyle. L'intervention a dure 17 jours, a comporte 881 entrees dans le caisson. (auteur)

  19. Precursor Evolution and Stress Corrosion Cracking Initiation of Cold-Worked Alloy 690 in Simulated Pressurized Water Reactor Primary Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Ziqing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 622 Horn Rapids Road, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352.; Toloczko, Mychailo [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 622 Horn Rapids Road, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352.; Kruska, Karen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 622 Horn Rapids Road, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352.; Bruemmer, Stephen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 622 Horn Rapids Road, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352.

    2017-05-22

    Stress corrosion crack initiation of two thermally-treated, cold-worked (CW) alloy 690 (UNS N06690) materials was investigated in 360oC simulated PWR primary water using constant load tensile (CLT) tests and blunt notch compact tension (BNCT) tests equipped with direct current potential drop (DCPD) for in-situ detection of cracking. SCC initiation was not detected by DCPD for either the 21% or 31%CW CLT specimens loaded at their yield stress after ~9,220 hours, however intergranular (IG) precursor damage and isolated surface cracks were observed on the specimens. The two 31%CW BNCT specimens loaded at moderate stress intensity after several cyclic loading ramps showed DCPD-indicated crack initiation after 10,400 hours of exposure at constant stress intensity, which was resulted from significant growth of IG cracks. The 21%CW BNCT specimens only exhibited isolated small IG surface cracks and showed no apparent DCPD change throughout the test. Post-test cross-section examinations revealed many grain boundary (GB) nano-cavities in the bulk of all the CLT and BNCT specimens particularly for the 31%CW materials. Cavities were also found along GBs extending to the surface suggesting an important role in crack nucleation. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of GB cavities and discusses their effects on crack initiation in CW alloy 690.

  20. Pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    Strain gauges pressure transducers types are presented. Models, characteristics and calibration procedures were also analysed. Initially, a theoretical study was accomplished to evaluate metallic alloys behavior on sensing elements manufacturing, and diaphragm was used as deflecting elements. Electrical models for potenciometric transducers were proposed at the beginning and subsequently comproved according our experiments. Concerning bridge transducers, existing models confirmed the conditions of linearity and sensitivity related to the electrical signal. All the work done was of help on the calibration field and pressure measurements employing unbounded strain gauge pressure transducers

  1. "I Am Working-Class": Subjective Self-Definition as a Missing Measure of Social Class and Socioeconomic Status in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark; Denson, Nida; Kilpatrick, Sue; Matthews, Kelly E.; Stehlik, Tom; Zyngier, David

    2014-01-01

    This review provides a critical appraisal of the measurement of students' social class and socioeconomic status (SES) in the context of widening higher education participation. Most assessments of social class and SES in higher education have focused on objective measurements based on the income, occupation, and education of students'…

  2. Employability: A Contemporary Review for Higher Education Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Lynlea; Shacklock, Kate; Marchant, Teresa

    2018-01-01

    Higher education institutions are under pressure to produce employable graduates who are required to contribute to the sustainability of strong economic growth and development. As such, the onus is on the higher education sector to present graduates to the labour market who are both work ready and have attained employability. This article…

  3. Increased risk of long-term sickness absence, lower rate of return to work, and higher risk of unemployment and disability pensioning for thyroid patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexo, M A; Watt, T; Pedersen, J

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Little is known about how thyroid diseases affect work ability. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of work disability for patients with thyroid disease compared with the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In a longitudinal register study, ...

  4. When high pressure, system constraints, and a social justice mission collide: A socio-structural analysis of emergency department social work services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Megan; Cristofalo, Margaret; Dotolo, Danae; Torres, Nicole; Lahdya, Alexandra; Ho, Leyna; Vogel, Mia; Forrester, Mollie; Conley, Bonnie; Fouts, Susan

    2017-04-01

    The emergency department (ED) can be a critical intervention point for many patients with multifaceted needs. Social workers have long been part of interdisciplinary ED teams. This study aimed to contribute to the limited understanding of social worker-patient interactions and factors influencing social work services in this setting. This paper reports a qualitative content analysis of social work medical record notes (N = 1509) of services provided to trauma patients in an urban, public, level 1 trauma center and an in-depth analysis of semi-structured interviews with ED social workers (N = 10). Eight major social work roles were identified: investigator, gatekeeper, resource broker, care coordinator, problem solver, crisis manager, advocate, discharge planner. Analyses revealed a complex interplay between ED social work services and multi-layered contexts. Using a social-ecological framework, we identified the interactions between micro or individual level factors, mezzo or local system level factors and macro environmental and systemic factors that play a role in ED interactions and patient services. Macro-level contextual influences were socio-structural forces including socioeconomic barriers to health, social hierarchies that reflected power differentials between providers and patients, and distrust or bias. Mezzo-level forces were limited resources, lack of healthcare system coordination, a challenging hierarchy within the medical model and the pressure to discharge patients quickly. Micro-level factors included characteristics of patients and social workers, complexity of patient stressors, empathic strain, lack of closure and compassion. All of these forces were at play in patient-social worker interactions and impacted service provision. Social workers were at times able to successfully navigate these forces, yet at other times these challenges were insurmountable. A conceptual model of ED social work and the influences on the patient-social worker

  5. Preparative engineering on the Tomari Nuclear Power Station Unit 3. In-site measurement on wave pressure working to new type bank protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yoriaki; Hoshi, Hideki; Amano, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    The Tomari Nuclear Power Station Unit 3 is planned to construct it at sea-side area adjacent to southern-east portion of Unit 1 and 2, and has been carried out its preparative engineerings such as bank protection with about 670 m in length, its development, and so on, corresponding to it. Among them, as type of landfill for protection of important construction at its background the Amahata covered-block type bank protection developed by a series of hydrologic tests was adopted. This engineering was begun on March, 2001, and most of establishment on the landfill bank protection was finished on June, 2003. Then, an in-situ measurement aiming to obtain actual testing data and so on of wave pressure at this type of bank protection, was planned, to carry out its measurement at winter (October, 2002 to February, 2003) showing the highest wave at this sea area. Here were reported on relationship between incident wave and wave pressure feature working at new type bank protection together with describing on outlines of the in-situ measurement. (G.K.)

  6. Training Higher Education Teachers for Instructional Design of Competency-based Education: Product-oriented versus Process-oriented Worked Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogveld, Bert; Paas, Fred; Jochems, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Teachers involved in the development of competency-based higher education (CBE) are expected to fulfil a new role of instructional designer. As a consequence, they are confronted with the problem to translate abstract new curriculum principles into concrete learning tasks. Recent studies have shown

  7. The Hidden Benefits of Part-Time Higher Education Study to Working Practices: Is There a Case for Making Them More Visible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Claire; Little, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Within the UK, part-time study is now seen as important in meeting wider government objectives for higher education (HE) and for sustainable economic growth through skills development. Yet, measures to capture the impact of HE may not be wholly appropriate to part-time study. In particular, the continuing focus on tangible, economic measures may…

  8. Higher Education in the Republic of Yemen: The University of Sana'a. Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Papers Series. Education and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaratnam, Viswanathan; Regel, Omporn L.

    This analytical report reviews higher education in Yemen, specifically at Yemen's national university, the University of Sana'a. It finds that university enrollment has been increasing very rapidly from 17,000 students in 1987 to a projected enrollment of 79,000 students by 2000. This explosive growth has resulted in overcrowded classrooms,…

  9. Enrollment Trends in the South. A Report to the 22nd SREB Legislative Work Conference "The Changing Face of Higher Education".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    Higher Education is charged by its critics with increased irrelevance and continuing inflexibility. Defenders of tradition, on the other hand, often see the university as a shambles of innovation and disorder. The perspective offered by the graphic tables in this document of enrollment trends and patterns over several decades offers some middle…

  10. The Impacts of State Performance Funding Systems on Higher Education Institutions: Research Literature Review and Policy Recommendations. CCRC Working Paper No. 37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kevin J.; Reddy, Vikash

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades policymakers have been seeking new ways to secure improved performance from higher education institutions. One popular approach has been performance funding, which involves use of a formula to tie funding to institutional performance on specified indicators. This report reviews findings from studies on performance…

  11. The Predictive Value of Job Demands and Resources on the Meaning of Work and Organisational Commitment across Different Age Groups in the Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthun, Kirsti Sarheim; Innstrand, Siw Tone

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the predictive value of job demands and resources on the meaning of work and organisational commitment across three age groups; young workers (age group of workers (30-49 years) and older workers (>50 years). Data were collected from a survey conducted among university employees (N = 3,066).…

  12. Educational Credentials in Australia: Average Positional Value in Decline. Centre for the Study of Higher Education Research Working Papers, 93.4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    Since the 1960s there has been a major expansion in the number of people in Australia holding post school educational credentials and the proportion of the full time work force with those credentials. The penalties of not holding credentials, in terms of the incidence and duration of unemployment, are increasingly severe. At the same time, there…

  13. How Do You Take Time? Work-Life Balance Policies versus Neoliberal, Social and Cultural Incentive Mechanisms in Icelandic Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, Thomas Brorsen; Pétursdóttir, Gyða Margrét; Einarsdóttir, Þorgerður

    2017-01-01

    It is suggested that the realization of work-life balance policies at the University of Iceland is compromised by an emphasis on neoliberal notions of growth and performance measurements in the form of new public management strategies. This is sustained by overt and covert incentive mechanisms, which in turn create a range of different gendered…

  14. Cosmic censorship in higher dimensions. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, Ashutosh; Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2005-01-01

    Generalizing earlier results on dust collapse in higher dimensions, we show here that cosmic censorship can be restored in some classes of gravitational collapse models with tangential pressure present, if we take the spacetime dimension to be N≥6. This is under conditions to be motivated physically, such as smoothness of initial data from which the collapse develops. The models considered here with nonzero pressure include the Einstein cluster spacetimes which have been earlier studied extensively. Our work provides a step towards an understanding of the cosmic censorship conjecture and the necessary conditions for its validity

  15. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  16. La evaluación de la participación en equipos de trabajo universitarios (Assessment of participation in higher education team working activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángeles Andreu-Andrés

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTeniendo en cuenta que entre las competencias más valoradas por las empresas de ingeniería destacan la habilidad para tomar decisiones, la capacidad de trabajo en equipo, la iniciativa y la capacidad para resolver problemas junto a una comunicación eficiente, se ha llevado a cabo una experiencia basada en el aprendizaje activo y el trabajo en equipo en el que los participantes han necesitado ponerlas en práctica. Antes de iniciar la experiencia con la metodología activa han tenido que definir lo que entienden por participación en una multitarea grupal y decidir la manera de evaluar la suya propia y la de sus compañeros, una vez concluida la experiencia de trabajo en equipo; el trabajo aporta la rúbrica diseñada y probada por los estudiantes participantes en este estudio para medirla. El análisis cuantitativo de las puntuaciones muestra la no existencia de diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las puntuaciones de autoevaluación y evaluación entre pares excepto en el tiempo dedicado a preparar la resolución de la multitarea de trabajo en equipo.(Since among the competences which are most valued by engineering corporations are the ability to make decisions, the capacity for teamwork, one’s initiative and the capacity for solving problems together with an efficient communication, an experience based on active learning and team-working in which participants had to put them into practice was carried out. Before starting the experience with an active learning strategy, students had to decide on what they understood by participation in multi-task teamwork and the way to assess it in order to self-assess their own participation and evaluate their peers’ after the team-working experience; this study includes the rubric designed and tested by the participants to measure it. A quantitative analysis of the grades indicated that there were no significant differences between self and peer assessment marks except with

  17. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  18. Corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry at reduced pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabrizchi, Mahmoud; Rouholahnejad, Fereshteh

    2004-01-01

    Ion mobility spectrometers (IMSs) normally operate at ambient pressure. In this work an IMS cell has been designed and constructed to allow the pressure to be reduced inside the IMS cell. In this cell, corona discharge was employed as the ionization source. Reducing pressure affected both the discharge and the performance of the IMS. The discharge current was observed to increase with reducing pressure while the ignition potential decreased. The ion current received at the collector plate was also increased about 50 times when the pressure was reduced from ambient pressure to 15 Torr. The higher ion current can lead to an extended dynamic range. IMS spectra were recorded at various pressures and the results show that the drift times shift perfectly linear with pressure. This suggests that unlike temperature, pressure correction for ion mobility spectra is as simple as multiplying the drift times by a factor of 760/P

  19. Tarefas repetitivas sob pressão temporal: os distúrbios musculoesqueléticos e o trabalho industrial Repetitive tasks under time pressure: the musculoskeletal disorders and the industrial work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Pereira Fernandes

    2010-05-01

    disturbances that required worker regulation on tasks development were recorded. This study allowed identifying variabilities of work process and of tasks development, and to put into evidence the extra demands and changeable tasks processes that require workers' regulation. In that situation, higher cognitive and physical demands are resulted from time pressure. The inadequate work conditions associated to time pressure and a work organization with low control generate a situation in which the task development is just possible under workers' body overload.

  20. Evaluation of the impact of atmospheric pressure in different seasons on blood pressure in patients with arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Marek; Cieślik-Guerra, Urszula I; Kotas, Rafał; Mazur, Piotr; Marańda, Witold; Piotrowicz, Maciej; Sakowicz, Bartosz; Napieralski, Andrzej; Trzos, Ewa; Uznańska-Loch, Barbara; Rechciński, Tomasz; Kurpesa, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure is the most objective weather factor because regardless of if outdoors or indoors it affects all objects in the same way. The majority of previous studies have used the average daily values of atmospheric pressure in a bioclimatic analysis and have found no correlation with blood pressure changes. The main objective of our research was to assess the relationship between atmospheric pressure recorded with a frequency of 1 measurement per minute and the results of 24-h blood pressure monitoring in patients with treated hypertension in different seasons in the moderate climate of the City of Łódź (Poland). The study group consisted of 1662 patients, divided into 2 equal groups (due to a lower and higher average value of atmospheric pressure). Comparisons between blood pressure values in the 2 groups were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. We observed a significant difference in blood pressure recorded during the lower and higher range of atmospheric pressure: on the days of the spring months systolic (p = 0.043) and diastolic (p = 0.005) blood pressure, and at nights of the winter months systolic blood pressure (p = 0.013). A significant inverse relationship between atmospheric pressure and blood pressure during the spring days and, only for systolic blood pressure, during winter nights was observed. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5):783-792. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  2. Pressure Safety Orientation Live #769

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, George [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-17

    Pressure Safety Orientation (course #769) introduces workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to the Laboratory Pressure Safety Program and to pressure-related hazards. This course also affords a hands-on exercise involving the assembly of a simple pressure system. This course is required for all LANL personnel who work on or near pressure systems and are exposed to pressure-related hazards. These personnel include pressure-system engineers, designers, fabricators, installers, operators, inspectors, maintainers, and others who work with pressurized fluids and may be exposed to pressure-related hazards.

  3. Performance Characterization of Solid Oxide Cells Under High Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Bonaccorso, Alfredo Damiano; Graves, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    on partial pressures (oxygen, steam and hydrogen) were affected by increasing the pressure. In electrolysis mode at low current density, the performance improvement was counteracted by the increase in open circuit voltage, but it has to be borne in mind that the pressurized gas contains higher molar free......In this work, recent pressurized test results of a planar Ni- YSZ (YSZ: Yttria stabilized Zirconia) supported solid oxide cell are presented. Measurements were performed at 800 C in both fuel cell and electrolysis mode at different pressures. A comparison of the electrochemical performance...... of the cell at 1 and 3 bar shows a significant and equal performance gain at higher pressure in both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that the serial resistance was not affected by the operation pressure; all the other processes that are dependent...

  4. Study on passive earth pressure acting on the embedment of an earth retaining wall for braced excavation work in cohesive soil; Nenseido jiban ni okeru kussaku dodomeheki neirebu no judo doatsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. [Pacific Consultants K.K., Tokyo (Japan); Hirashima, K. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-15

    Passive earth pressure exerts a great influence on the stress and deformation of earth retaining walls in braced excavation. To calculate this pressure, conventional ultimate earth pressure equation, or Rankine-Resals and Coulomb`s equation, are currently applied respectively to cohesive and sandy soil. However, these intentional equation to determine passive earth pressure do not adequately take into account the excavation width during work and the shearing resistance on the earth retaining wall surface. This paper deals with cohesive soil only, deriving a calculation equation for passive earth pressure, which takes into account excavation width and the shearing resistance of the earth retaining wall surface. Then, constants in this equation are determined using the calculation results obtained from the finite element method with blasts-plastic elements. The calculation results are also compared with measured values in the model test in order to check the applicability of the calculation equation for passive earth pressure thus obtained. Finally, this paper proposes a practicable calculation equation for passive earth pressure. 13 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Pressure dependence of conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracewell, B.L.; Hochheimer, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objectives of this work were to attempt the following: (1) Measure the pressure dependence of the electrical conductivity of several quasi-one-dimensional, charge-density-wave solids, including measurements along various crystal directions. (2) Measure photocurrents in selected MX solids at ambient and elevated pressures. (3) Measure the resonance Raman spectra for selected MX solids as a function of pressure

  6. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR CALCULATION OF MINIMUM PRESSURE PERTAINING TO DESTRUCTION OF SURFACE CORROSION LAYER DUE TO IMPACT OF WORKING LIQUID REVERSIVE STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kachanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to balance of external and internal force capacities a variation quasistatic problem has been solved in the paper. The problem allows to determine optimum values of α and β angles in the accepted field of sliding lines when destruction pressure takes on a minimum value pmin. It has been ascertained that the minimum pressure pmin which is necessary for destruction of a corrosion layer is registered at stream compression coefficient λ = 0,063 and the pressure is equal to 8-17 MPa for the investigated speed range v = 80-140 m/s.

  7. Working toward Transformational Leadership in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kathleen E.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that, before colleges and universities can develop leaders, they must develop a coherent vision of what leadership is. Uses a historian's concept of transformational leadership to explore the various dimensions of leadership, such as its moral dimension. Outlines reasons for instituting and transforming leadership development programs. (RJM)

  8. Dependence of the constitution, microstructure and electrochemical behaviour of magnetron sputtered Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O thin film cathodes for lithium-ion batteries on the working gas pressure and annealing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strafela, Marc; Fischer, Julian; Leiste, Harald; Rinke, Monika; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Seifert, Hans Juergen; Ulrich, Sven; Music, Denis; Chang, Keke; Schneider, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Li(Ni 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 )O 2 as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries shows good thermal stability, high reversible capacity (290 mAh g -1 ), good rate capability and better results in terms of environmental friendliness. In this paper thin film cathodes in the material system Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O were deposited onto silicon and stainless steel substrates, by non-reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering from a ceramic Li 1.18 (Ni 0.39 Mn 0.19 Co 0.35 )O 1.97 target at various argon working gas pressures between 0.2 Pa and 20 Pa. A comprehensive study on the composition and microstructure was carried out. The results showed that the elemental composition varies depending on argon working gas pressure. The elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy in combination with carrier gas hot extraction. The films showed different grain orientations depending argon working gas pressures. The degree of cation order in the lattice structure of the films deposited at 0.5 Pa and 7 Pa argon working gas pressure, was increased by annealing in an argon/oxygen atmosphere at different pressures for one hour. The microstructure of the films varies with annealing gas pressure and is characterized using X-ray diffraction and unpolarized micro-Raman spectroscopy at room temperature. Electrochemical characterization of as-deposited and annealed films was carried out by galvanostatic cycling in Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O half-cells against metallic lithium. Correlations between process parameters, constitution, microstructure and electrochemical behaviour are discussed in detail.

  9. Dependence of the constitution, microstructure and electrochemical behaviour of magnetron sputtered Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O thin film cathodes for lithium-ion batteries on the working gas pressure and annealing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strafela, Marc; Fischer, Julian; Leiste, Harald; Rinke, Monika; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Seifert, Hans Juergen; Ulrich, Sven [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials (IAM); Music, Denis; Chang, Keke; Schneider, Jochen [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Materials Chemistry

    2017-11-15

    Li(Ni{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3})O{sub 2} as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries shows good thermal stability, high reversible capacity (290 mAh g{sup -1}), good rate capability and better results in terms of environmental friendliness. In this paper thin film cathodes in the material system Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O were deposited onto silicon and stainless steel substrates, by non-reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering from a ceramic Li{sub 1.18}(Ni{sub 0.39}Mn{sub 0.19}Co{sub 0.35})O{sub 1.97} target at various argon working gas pressures between 0.2 Pa and 20 Pa. A comprehensive study on the composition and microstructure was carried out. The results showed that the elemental composition varies depending on argon working gas pressure. The elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy in combination with carrier gas hot extraction. The films showed different grain orientations depending argon working gas pressures. The degree of cation order in the lattice structure of the films deposited at 0.5 Pa and 7 Pa argon working gas pressure, was increased by annealing in an argon/oxygen atmosphere at different pressures for one hour. The microstructure of the films varies with annealing gas pressure and is characterized using X-ray diffraction and unpolarized micro-Raman spectroscopy at room temperature. Electrochemical characterization of as-deposited and annealed films was carried out by galvanostatic cycling in Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O half-cells against metallic lithium. Correlations between process parameters, constitution, microstructure and electrochemical behaviour are discussed in detail.

  10. A precarização do trabalho docente nas instituições de ensino superior do Brasil nesses últimos 25 anos The precarization of the teaching work in higher education institutions in Brazil over the last 25 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio de Pádua Bosi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a precarização do trabalho docente nas instituições de ensino superior (IES do Brasil, no período de 1980 a 2005. Tomando como referência o processo de mercantilização da educação superior, busco identificar e problematizar os principais aspectos da precarização do trabalho docente: (a o crescimento da força de trabalho docente ocorrido, principalmente, no setor privado e em novas universidades estaduais, em que as condições de trabalho e de contrato existentes geralmente são precárias; (b a mercantilização das atividades de ensino, pesquisa e extensão nas IES públicas; e (c a adoção de critérios exclusivamente quantitativistas para a avaliação da produção do trabalho docente e suas conseqüências.This article brings a discussion about the precarization of the teaching work in higher education institutions in Brazil from 1980 to 2005. Taking the commercialization process in higher education as a reference, I try to identify and question about the main aspects of the teaching work precarization: (a the growth of the teaching work force, mainly in the private field and at new state universities, where the present working conditions are generally precarious; (b the commercialization of education, research and extension activities at public higher education institutions; and (c the adoption of exclusively quantitative criteria for evaluating teaching work production and its consequences.

  11. News from the Library: A new key reference work for the engineer: ASME's Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code at the CERN Library

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2011-01-01

    The Library is aiming at offering a range of constantly updated reference books, to cover all areas of CERN activity. A recent addition to our collections strengthens our offer in the Engineering field.   The CERN Library now holds a copy of the complete ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 2010 edition. This code establishes rules of safety governing the design, fabrication, and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels, and nuclear power plant components during construction. This document is considered worldwide as a reference for mechanical design and is therefore important for the CERN community. The Code published by ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) is kept current by the Boiler and Pressure Committee, a volunteer group of more than 950 engineers worldwide. The Committee meets regularly to consider requests for interpretations, revision, and to develop new rules. The CERN Library receives updates and includes them in the volumes until the next edition, which is expected to ...

  12. Physical, psychosocial, and individual risk factors for neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness in the muscles among workers performing monotonous, repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JH; Kaergaard, A.; Frost, P.

    2002-01-01

    factors versus individual factors in the etiology of pain in the neck and/or shoulders. METHODS: Study participants were 3123 workers from 19 plants. Physical risk factors were evaluated via video observations, and psychosocial risk factors were assessed with the job content questionnaire. Other...... procedures included symptom survey, clinical examination, and assessment of health-related quality of life (SF-36). The main outcome variable, neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness, was defined on the basis of subjective pain score and pressure tenderness in muscles of the neck/shoulder region. RESULTS......STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of individual characteristics and physical and psychosocial workplace factors on neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness in the muscles. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Controversy prevails about the importance of workplace...

  13. Perfil de tradutores-intérpretes de Libras (TILS que atuam no ensino superior no Brasil Profile of brazilian sign language translators/interpreters (BSLIS working in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Broglia Feitosa de Lacerda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho traz resultados de uma investigação mais ampla junto a tradutores intérpretes de Língua Brasileira de Sinais (TILS que atuam no Ensino Superior (ES. Destaca o perfil de profissionais que hoje exercem este trabalho na academia, mostrando um pouco as diversas realidades de diferentes regiões em que atuam, faixa etária, formação, como começaram ou se tornaram TILS, como iniciaram seus trabalhos nas Instituições de Ensino Superior (IES, dentre outras. Nesse contexto, destacam-se principalmente aspectos de suas formações e práticas. A investigação se baseou em entrevistas e os resultados variam bastante, demonstrando que há diferentes perfis e especificidades nos processos de escolha para atuarem nesta profissão como intérpretes. Pensando no atual contexto universitário brasileiro e na atual política educacional que defende a inclusão da pessoa com deficiência frequentando cursos superiores, e neste caso, estudantes surdos, cabe destacar que esta inclusão demanda a presença de um profissional para mediar as relações de comunicação entre surdos e ouvintes, favorecendo sua construção de conhecimento no espaço educacional. Entre os profissionais que atuam na efetivação de práticas de educação inclusiva encontram-se os TILS, o que é previsto pelo Decreto 5.626, responsável pela acessibilidade linguística dos alunos surdos que frequentam parte da Educação Básica e Ensino Superior, interpretando do Português para a LIBRAS e vice-versa. Conhecer melhor os caminhos e o perfil dos TILS e a sua atuação no ES, pode contribuir para a reflexão acerca das necessidades de formação deste profissional para atuar no processo de inclusão bilíngue de estudantes surdos em nível superior.This article presents results from a broader study with LIBRAS - Brazilian Sign Language translators/interpreters (BSLIs that work in Higher Education (HE. The study highlights the profile of professionals who work in

  14. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  15. A Comparison between the Effects of Aerobic Dance Training on Mini-Trampoline and Hard Wooden Surface on Bone Resorption, Health-Related Physical Fitness, Balance, and Foot Plantar Pressure in Thai Working Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkeaw, Wittawat; Kritpet, Thanomwong; Bunyaratavej, Narong

    2015-09-01

    To compare the effects of aerobic dance training on mini-trampoline and hard wooden surface on bone resorption, health-related physical fitness, balance, and foot plantar pressure in Thai working women. Sixty-three volunteered females aged 35-45 years old participated in the study and were divided into 3 groups: A) aerobic dance on mini-trampoline (21 females), B) aerobic dance on hard wooden surface (21 females), and C) control group (21 females). All subjects in the aerobic dance groups wore heart rate monitors during exercise. Aerobic dance worked out 3 times a week, 40 minutes a day for 12 weeks. The intensity was set at 60-80% of the maximum heart rate. The control group engaged in routine physical activity. The collected data were bone formation (N-terminal propeptine of procollagen type I: P1NP) bone resorption (Telopeptide cross linked: β-CrossLaps) health-related physical fitness, balance, and foot plantar pressure. The obtained data from pre- and post trainings were compared and analyzed by paired samples t-test and one way analysis of covariance. The significant difference was at 0.05 level. After the 12-week training, the biochemical bone markers of both mini-trampoline and hard wooden surface aerobic dance training subjects decreased in bone resorption (β-CrossLaps) but increased in boneformation (P1NP). Health-related physical fitness, balance, and foot plantar pressure were not only better when comparing to the pre-test result but also significantly different when comparing to the control group (p trampoline showed that leg muscular strength, balance and foot plantar pressure were significantly better than the aerobic dance on hard wooden surface (p trampoline and hard wooden surface had positive effects on biochemical bone markers. However, the aerobic dance on mini-trampoline had more leg muscular strength and balance including less foot plantar pressure. It is considered to be an appropriate exercise programs in working women.

  16. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that each pressure vessel, including each volume tank, cylinder and PVHO, and each pressure piping... tests conducted in accordance with this section shall be either hydrostatic tests or pneumatic tests. (1... times the maximum allowable working pressure. (2) When a pneumatic test is conducted on a pressure...

  17. On the pressure dependence of the fragility of glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlus, S; Paluch, M; Ziolo, J [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Roland, C M [Naval Research Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Code 6120, Washington, DC 20375-5342 (United States)

    2009-08-19

    This work was motivated by ostensibly contradictory results from different groups regarding the effect of pressure on the fragility of glycerol. We present new experimental data for an intermediate pressure regime showing that the fragility increases with pressure up to about 1.8 GPa, becoming invariant at higher pressures. There is no discrepancy among the various literature data taken in toto. The behavior of glycerol is quite distinct from that of normal liquids, a result of its substantial hydrogen bonding. (fast track communication)

  18. On-line testing of nuclear plant temperature and pressure instrumentation and other critical plant equipment. IAEA regional workshop. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    Under European regional TC project RER/4/011, IAEA and VUJE Training centre organized a workshop on On-line Testing of Nuclear Power Plant Temperature and Pressure Instrumentation and Other Critical Plant Equipment in Trnava, Slovak Republic, from 25 to 29 May 1998. The objective of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in NPP instrumentation, cover typical instrumentation problems and solutions, describe technical and regulatory requirements for verifying the performance of nuclear power plant instrumentation, describe new methods developed and applied in NPPs for on-line verification and performance of instrumentation and present new techniques using existing instrumentation to identify the on-set problems in the plant electrical, mechanical and thermal hydraulic systems. Particular emphasis was placed on temperature measurements by Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) and thermocouples and pressure measurements using motion-balanced and forced-balanced pressure transmitters. This proceedings includes papers presented by the invited speakers and the participants each with an abstract as wells as a summary of the Round-Table discussions Refs, figs, tabs

  19. On-line testing of nuclear plant temperature and pressure instrumentation and other critical plant equipment. IAEA regional workshop. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Under European regional TC project RER/4/011, IAEA and VUJE Training centre organized a workshop on On-line Testing of Nuclear Power Plant Temperature and Pressure Instrumentation and Other Critical Plant Equipment in Trnava, Slovak Republic, from 25 to 29 May 1998. The objective of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in NPP instrumentation, cover typical instrumentation problems and solutions, describe technical and regulatory requirements for verifying the performance of nuclear power plant instrumentation, describe new methods developed and applied in NPPs for on-line verification and performance of instrumentation and present new techniques using existing instrumentation to identify the on-set problems in the plant electrical, mechanical and thermal hydraulic systems. Particular emphasis was placed on temperature measurements by Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) and thermocouples and pressure measurements using motion-balanced and forced-balanced pressure transmitters. This proceedings includes papers presented by the invited speakers and the participants each with an abstract as wells as a summary of the Round-Table discussions

  20. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  1. Higher English for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann; Mitchell, John

    2015-01-01

    A brand new edition of the former Higher English: Close Reading , completely revised and updated for the new Higher element (Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation) - worth 30% of marks in the final exam!. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. Written by two highly experienced authors this book shows you how to practice for the Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation section of the new Higher English exam. This book introduces the terms and concepts that lie behind success and offers guidance on the interpretation of questions and targeting answer

  2. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan

    is about constructing a more inclusive understanding of quality in higher education through combining the macro, meso and micro levels, i.e. from the perspectives of national policy, higher education institutions as organizations in society, individual teaching staff and students. It covers both......Quality in higher education was not invented in recent decades – universities have always possessed mechanisms for assuring the quality of their work. The rising concern over quality is closely related to the changes in higher education and its social context. Among others, the most conspicuous...... changes are the massive expansion, diversification and increased cost in higher education, and new mechanisms of accountability initiated by the state. With these changes the traditional internally enacted academic quality-keeping has been given an important external dimension – quality assurance, which...

  3. Higher Education in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2015-01-01

    Higher education systems around the world have been undergoing fundamental changes through the last 50 years from more narrow self-sustaining universities for the elite and into mass universities, where new groups of students have been recruited and the number of students enrolled has increased...... an impact on the educational systems in Scandinavia, and what possible futures can be envisioned?...... dramatically. In adjusting to the role of being a mass educational institution, universities have been challenged on how to cope with external pressures, such as forces of globalization and international markets, increased national and international competition for students and research grants, increased...

  4. An electrokinetic pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Duckjong

    2008-01-01

    A new concept for a micro pressure sensor is demonstrated. The pressure difference between the inlet and the outlet of glass nanochannels is obtained by measuring the electrokinetically generated electric potential. To demonstrate the proposed concept, experimental investigations are performed for 100 nm wide nanochannels with sodium chloride solutions having various concentrations. The proposed pressure sensor is able to measure the pressure difference within a 10% deviation from linearity. The sensitivity of the electrokinetic pressure sensor with 10 −5 M sodium chloride solution is 18.5 µV Pa −1 , which is one order of magnitude higher than that of typical diaphragm-based pressure sensors. A numerical model is presented for investigating the effects of the concentration and the channel width on the sensitivity of the electrokinetic pressure sensor. Numerical results show that the sensitivity increases as the concentration decreases and the channel width increases

  5. Exploring Higher Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Willis M.

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that the social studies reform movement includes a call for the de-emphasis of rote memory and more attention to the development of higher-order thinking skills. Discusses the "thinking tasks" concept derived from the work of Hilda Taba and asserts that the tasks can be used with almost any social studies topic. (CFR)

  6. Mechanical, Thermal, and Electrical Energy Storage in a Single Working Body: Electrification and Thermal Effects upon Pressure-Induced Water Intrusion-Extrusion in Nanoporous Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosu, Yaroslav; Mierzwa, Michał; Eroshenko, Valentine A; Pawlus, Sebastian; Chorażewski, Mirosław; Nedelec, Jean-Marie; Grolier, Jean-Pierre E

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the first experimental evidence of pronounced electrification effects upon reversible cycle of forced water intrusion-extrusion in nanoporous hydrophobic materials. Recorded generation of electricity combined with high-pressure calorimetric measurements improves the energy balance of {nanoporous solid + nonwetting liquid} systems by compensating mechanical and thermal energy hysteresis in the cycle. Revealed phenomena provide a novel way of "mechanical to electrical" and/or "thermal to electrical" energy transformation with unprecedented efficiency and additionally open a perspective to increase the efficiency of numerous energy applications based on such systems taking advantage of electricity generation during operational cycle.

  7. Superconductivity at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, N B; Ginzburg, N I

    1969-07-01

    Work published during the last 3 or 4 yrs concerning the effect of pressure on superconductivity is reviewed. Superconducting modifications of Si, Ge, Sb, Te, Se, P and Ce. Change of Fermi surface under pressure for nontransition metals. First experiments on the influence of pressure on the tunneling effect in superconductors provide new information on the nature of the change in phonon and electron energy spectra of metals under hydrostatic compression. 78 references.

  8. Energy harvesting from hydraulic pressure fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunefare, K A; Skow, E A; Erturk, A; Savor, J; Verma, N; Cacan, M R

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art hydraulic hose and piping systems employ integral sensor nodes for structural health monitoring to avoid catastrophic failures. Energy harvesting in hydraulic systems could enable self-powered wireless sensor nodes for applications such as energy-autonomous structural health monitoring and prognosis. Hydraulic systems inherently have a high energy intensity associated with the mean pressure and flow. Accompanying the mean pressure is the dynamic pressure ripple, which is caused by the action of pumps and actuators. Pressure ripple is a deterministic source with a periodic time-domain behavior conducive to energy harvesting. An energy harvester prototype was designed for generating low-power electricity from pressure ripples. The prototype employed an axially-poled off-the-shelf piezoelectric stack. A housing isolated the stack from the hydraulic fluid while maintaining a mechanical coupling allowing for dynamic-pressure-induced deflection of the stack. The prototype exhibited an off-resonance energy harvesting problem since the fundamental resonance of the piezoelectric stack was much higher than the frequency content of the pressure ripple. The prototype was designed to provide a suitable power output for powering sensors with a maximum output of 1.2 mW. This work also presents electromechanical model simulations and experimental characterization of the piezoelectric power output from the pressure ripple in terms of the force transmitted into the harvester. (paper)

  9. Under pressure, out of control, or home alone? Reviewing research and policy debates on the occupational health and safety effects of outsourcing and home-based work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Michael; Bohle, Philip

    2008-01-01

    The practice of outsourcing or subcontracting of work has grown rapidly in most countries over the past two decades. Outsourcing, de-institutionalization, and a range of other practices have also resulted in a growth of home-based work. Home-based workers, even when not part of a subcontracting process, operate in an isolated situation remote from their employer and other workers. Do such work arrangements expose workers to greater risk of injury, illness, or assault? The authors reviewed international studies of the occupational health and safety (OHS) effects of subcontracting and home-based work undertaken over the past 20 years. Of the 25 studies analyzed, 92 percent found poorer OHS outcomes. The studies were examined for clues about the reasons for these negative outcomes. The authors also identified similarities and differences between subcontracting and home-based work. Despite the evidence of poor OHS outcomes, research into outsourcing has stalled in recent years. With notable exceptions, governments have taken little account of findings on these work arrangements in their laws and policies, in part because neoliberal ideas dominate national and global policy agendas. The authors examine policy challenges and regulatory responses and make suggestions for future research and policy interventions.

  10. Pressure-assisted thermal sterilization of soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibeshi, Kidane; Farid, Mohammed M.

    2010-12-01

    The overall efficiency of an existing scale-up pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) unit was investigated with regards to inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores suspended in pumpkin soup. The PATS unit is a double pipe heat exchanger in which the soup is pumped into its inner high pressure tube and constrained by two high pressure valves, while steam is continuously passed through the annular region to heat the content. The technology is based on pressure generation by thermal expansion of the liquid in an enclosure. In this work, the addition of an air line to push the treated liquid food out of the existing PATS unit has improved the overall quality of the treated samples, as evidenced by achieving higher log reduction of the spores. Compared with thermal processing, the application of PATS shows the potential for lowering the thermal treatment temperature, offering improved food quality.

  11. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    A high-strength, low-weight pressure vessel dome was designed specifically to house a high-pressure [2,000 psi (approx. = 13.8 MPa)] electrolyzer. In operation, the dome is filled with an inert gas pressurized to roughly 100 psi (approx. = 690 kPa) above the high, balanced pressure product oxygen and hydrogen gas streams. The inert gas acts to reduce the clamping load on electrolyzer stack tie bolts since the dome pressure acting axially inward helps offset the outward axial forces from the stack gas pressure. Likewise, radial and circumferential stresses on electrolyzer frames are minimized. Because the dome is operated at a higher pressure than the electrolyzer product gas, any external electrolyzer leak prevents oxygen or hydrogen from leaking into the dome. Instead the affected stack gas stream pressure rises detectably, thereby enabling a system shutdown. All electrical and fluid connections to the stack are made inside the pressure dome and require special plumbing and electrical dome interfaces for this to be accomplished. Further benefits of the dome are that it can act as a containment shield in the unlikely event of a catastrophic failure. Studies indicate that, for a given active area (and hence, cell ID), frame outside diameter must become ever larger to support stresses at higher operating pressures. This can lead to a large footprint and increased costs associated with thicker and/or larger diameter end-plates, tie-rods, and the frames themselves. One solution is to employ rings that fit snugly around the frame. This complicates stack assembly and is sometimes difficult to achieve in practice, as its success is strongly dependent on frame and ring tolerances, gas pressure, and operating temperature. A pressure dome permits an otherwise low-pressure stack to operate at higher pressures without growing the electrolyzer hardware. The pressure dome consists of two machined segments. An O-ring is placed in an O-ring groove in the flange of the bottom

  12. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  13. African Americans and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? African Americans in the U.S. have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) than ...

  14. Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Work Stress, Negative Work-Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, W Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C

    2009-07-01

    The current study examined associations over an 18-month period between maternal work stressors, negative work-family spillover, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 414 employed mothers with young children living in six predominantly nonmetropolitan counties in the Eastern United States. Results from a one-group mediation model revealed that a less flexible work environment and greater work pressure predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms, and further, that these associations were mediated by perceptions of negative work-family spillover. Additionally, results from a two-group mediation model suggested that work pressure predicted greater perceptions of spillover only for mothers employed full-time. Findings suggest the need for policies that reduce levels of work stress and help mothers manage their work and family responsibilities.

  15. Shared Leadership Transforms Higher Education IT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duin, Ann Hill; Cawley, Steve; Gulachek, Bernard; O'Sullivan, Douglas M.; Wollner, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Globalization, immersive research and learning environments, unlimited access to information and analytics, and fiscal realities continue to impact higher education--and higher education IT. Although IT organizations face immense pressure to meet significantly greater expectations at significantly less cost, with such pressure comes the…

  16. Pressure locking test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

  17. Pressure locking test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, open-quotes Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.close quotes Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; we will publish the results of our thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions

  18. Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They commonly ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which are ...

  19. Intracranial Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Radojicic, Aleksandra; Moudrous, Walid

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a new method of noninvasive intracranial pressure (nICP) measurement with conventional lumbar puncture (LP) opening pressure. METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study, patients undergoing LP for diagnostic purposes underwent intracranial pressure measurements with HeadSen...

  20. Pressure Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Monfre, Jill M.

    2016-01-01

    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers, which affect up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease.

  1. A precarização do trabalho docente no Ensino Superior: dos impasses às possibilidades de mudanças The precariousness of teachers' work in the Higher Education: from impasses to the possibilities of change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Daniela Medeiros dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar o impacto do sistema de acumulação flexível e das concepções neoliberais no trabalho docente, aprofundando o estudo sobre a (resignificação dos papéis sociais de professor construídos/negociados nas relações que se instauram na docência do Ensino Superior. Para efetivar esse estudo, foram realizadas observações em uma universidade particular situada em um município da região de Campinas. As análises do material empírico, a partir dos pressupostos teórico-metodológicos de Antunes e Vygotsky, mostraram que nos conflitos e tensões da cotidianidade do trabalho docente emergem complexos movimentos de fuga, mas também de enfrentamento e ruptura, que promovem o dissenso resgatando o compromisso social coletivo e o devido reconhecimento dos direitos fundamentais de todo e qualquer ser humano à cidadania.This article aims to examine the impact of the system of flexible accumulation and neoliberal ideas in the teachers' work deepening the study about the (resignification of the social roles of teachers constructed/negotiated in relations which are established in the teaching of Higher Education. To carry out this study, observations were made at a private university located in a municipality in the region of Campinas. The analyses of empirical material from the theoretical and methodological assumptions by Antunes and Vygotsky showed that in the conflicts and tensions of the routine of teachers' work complex movements of escape emerge, but also of confrontation and disruption, advancing the dissent, rescuing the collective social commitment and rightful recognition of the fundamental rights of every human being to their citizenship.

  2. Comparison of exercise blood pressure measured by technician and an automated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gregory, J A; Jackson, A S; Studeville, J; Squires, W G; Owen, C A

    1984-05-01

    We evaluated the automated system Blood Pressure Measuring System (BPMS) developed by NASA on 277 adult males who elected to have a treadmill test as part of their annual physical. The BPMS uses acoustic transduction with a computer-assisted ECG gating to detect nonsynchronous noise. The BPMS readings were compared to pressures simultaneously measured by trained technicians. For all stages of work, BPMS readings were higher for systolic and lower for diastolic than technician readings. At peak stages of work, BPMS systolic pressures were about 20 mmHg higher than technician readings. Within each 3-min workstage, BPMS readings were found to be more inconsistent than technician readings. The standard errors of measurement for BPMS were from two to three times higher than technician values. These data showed automated blood pressure readings were significantly different than technician values and subject to more random fluctuations. These findings demonstrate the need to view exercise blood pressure measured by automated systems with caution.

  3. Pulse Pressure: An Indicator of Heart Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure should also be considered alongside pulse pressure values. Higher systolic and diastolic pairs imply higher risk than ... endorse any of the third party products and services advertised. Advertising ... Education and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical ...

  4. Relationships between fluid pressure and capillary pressure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the Bower's and Gardner's technique of velocity-to fluid pressure gradient methods were applied on seismic reflection data in order to predict fluid pressure of an X- oil field in Niger Delta Basin. Results show significant deflection common with fluid pressure zones . With average connate water saturation Swc ...

  5. EFFECT OF INJECTOR OPENING PRESSURE ON PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION OF LPG - METHYL ESTER OF MAHUA OIL DUAL FUEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapilan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of variables, which affect the performance and emission of dual fuel engine is injection pressure. Hence in the present work, effect of Injector opening pressure on the performance of the engine was studied.  A four stroke single cylinder engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode. Three injector opening pressures (180 bar, 200 bar and 220 bar were considered for the present work. Methyl ester of mahua oil was used as pilot fuel and LPG was used as primary fuel.    From the test results, it was observed that the injector opening pressure of 200 bar results in higher brake thermal efficiency. The higher injector opening pressure results in better atomization and peneatration of methyl ester of mahua oil. The exhaust emissions such as Smoke, unburnt hydro carbon and carbon monoxide of 200 bar is lower than other pressures.

  6. Upgrading of existing NPPs with 440 and 1000 MW WWER type pressurized water reactors for severe external loading conditions. Proceedings. Working material. V. 1, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy, A; Gurpinar, A [eds.; International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Nuclear Installation Safety, Vienna (Austria)

    1993-07-01

    The Seminar was intended to provide the opportunity for the exchange of updated information concerning the state-of-the-art related to structural safety of the WWER 440 and 1000 MW nuclear power plants operating or under construction in the Russian Federation and several Eastern European countries. Codes and standards, design assumptions, seismic upgrading and requalification activities, recent verification by experimental methods as well as the corresponding reanalysis and reevaluation procedures were included in the scope. Also presented and discussed were the results of recent studies of typical structures and components under seismic loading. The Seminar was divided into five working sessions. Each session consisted of several presentations by invited speakers and extensive discussions. The topic of discussions involved the following: standards used during design phase, input load definitions and criteria, evaluation of as-built conditions and walk down information, site-specific dynamic response of structures based on recent studies and evaluation of results, capacity evaluations of components and systems based on updated acceptance criteria and strengthening concepts, functional qualification of active mechanical and electrical components and systems.

  7. Upgrading of existing NPPs with 440 and 1000 MW WWER type pressurized water reactors for severe external loading conditions. Proceedings. Working material. V. 1, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, A.; Gurpinar, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Seminar was intended to provide the opportunity for the exchange of updated information concerning the state-of-the-art related to structural safety of the WWER 440 and 1000 MW nuclear power plants operating or under construction in the Russian Federation and several Eastern European countries. Codes and standards, design assumptions, seismic upgrading and requalification activities, recent verification by experimental methods as well as the corresponding reanalysis and reevaluation procedures were included in the scope. Also presented and discussed were the results of recent studies of typical structures and components under seismic loading. The Seminar was divided into five working sessions. Each session consisted of several presentations by invited speakers and extensive discussions. The topic of discussions involved the following: standards used during design phase, input load definitions and criteria, evaluation of as-built conditions and walk down information, site-specific dynamic response of structures based on recent studies and evaluation of results, capacity evaluations of components and systems based on updated acceptance criteria and strengthening concepts, functional qualification of active mechanical and electrical components and systems

  8. High resolution MRI for preoperative work-up of neonates with an anorectal malformation: a direct comparison with distal pressure colostography/fistulography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomeer, Maarten G. [Erasmus MC, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Devos, Annick; Lequin, Maarten; Graaf, Nanko de; Meradji, Morteza [Erasmus MC, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Meeussen, Conny J.H.M.; Blaauw, Ivo de; Sloots, Cornelius E.J. [Erasmus MC, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-12-15

    To compare MRI and colostography/fistulography in neonates with anorectal malformations (ARM), using surgery as reference standard. Thirty-three neonates (22 boys) with ARM were included. All patients underwent both preoperative high-resolution MRI (without sedation or contrast instillation) and colostography/fistulography. The Krickenbeck classification was used to classify anorectal malformations, and the level of the rectal ending in relation to the levator muscle was evaluated. Subjects included nine patients with a bulbar recto-urethral fistula, six with a prostatic recto-urethral fistula, five with a vestibular fistula, five with a cloacal malformation, four without fistula, one with a H-type fistula, one with anal stenosis, one with a rectoperineal fistula and one with a bladderneck fistula. MRI and colostography/fistulography predicted anatomy in 88 % (29/33) and 61 % (20/33) of cases, respectively (p = 0.012). The distal end of the rectal pouch was correctly predicted in 88 % (29/33) and 67 % (22/33) of cases, respectively (p = 0.065). The length of the common channel in cloacal malformation was predicted with MRI in all (100 %, 5/5) and in 80 % of cases (4/5) with colostography/fistulography. Two bowel perforations occurred during colostography/fistulography. MRI provides the most accurate evaluation of ARM and should be considered a serious alternative to colostography/fistulography during preoperative work-up. (orig.)

  9. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  10. Microbiological methane production at elevated pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.; Maerkl, H.

    1994-01-01

    Taking the fermentation of waste water from the production of baker's yest as an example, experimental and theoretical examinations of a qualitative and quantitative listing of the effects of pressure on the microbiological methane production are presented. As the waste water used for the experiments was very rich in sulphates, the influence of the hydrogen sulphide constituted from those played a particularly important role. Experiments showed that the essential influence of pressure is constituted by the increased solubility of the produced gases. The increased quantities of dissolved carbon dioxide in particular result in a lowering of the pH-value with increasing pressure. The gas composition changes at the same time. The higher the pressure the higher also the portion of methane contained in the biogas but the lower the portions of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. Experimental findings could be represented comparatively well by a mathematical model. This points at the fact that the physical and chemical working mechanisms were grasped correctly by the model. The mathematical description helped much to increase the understanding of the physical and chemical working mechanisms in biogas reactors. This understanding makes it possible for the developer as well as for the operator of biogas installations to control the process by constructive measures and mearuses concerning operation technology. (orig.) [de

  11. Foundamental characteristics of layered pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaki, Yoshikazu; Fugino, Masayuki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Takeshi

    1978-01-01

    Pressure vessels become larger and the working pressure become higher with the remarkable development of petroleum, chemical, thermal power generation and atomic energy industries. Multi-layered pressure vessels can be manufactured cheaply without large installations, and large wall thickness can be made, therefore they are suitable for large pressure vessels. The stress and deformation behaviors of such vessels are very complex because of the effect of frictional force working between layers. In this study, the phenomena arising in multiple layers and the difference as compared with single wall were studied fundamentally as one step for analyzing multi-layered pressure vessels as a whole. Finite element technique was employed as the analyzing method, and the behavior of multiple layers was analyzed, regarding it as multiple contact problem. The behavior of multiple layers seems to appear conspicuously in case of bending load, therefore the basic characteristics regarding bending were examined. The evaluation of interfacial stiffness was carried out by experiment. The computer program for analyzing multiple contact problem was developed. In order to examine the validity of the program, comparison with the analytical solution heretofore and the result of calculation by finite element technique was carried out. Moreover, the experimental proof with multi-layered models was made. The frictional force between layers hardly contributes to the stiffness. (Kako, I.)

  12. High-pressure tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    Some solutions to problems of compressing and containing tritium gas to 200 MPa at 700 0 K are discussed. The principal emphasis is on commercial compressors and high-pressure equipment that can be easily modified by the researcher for safe use with tritium. Experience with metal bellows and diaphragm compressors has been favorable. Selection of materials, fittings, and gauges for high-pressure tritium work is also reviewed briefly

  13. Higher engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    John Bird

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics principles required at higher engineering levelJohn Bird's approach to mathematics, based on numerous worked examples and interactive problems, is ideal for vocational students that require an advanced textbook.Theory is kept to a minimum, with the emphasis firmly placed on problem-solving skills, making this a thoroughly practical introduction to the advanced mathematics engineering that students need to master. The extensive and thorough topic coverage makes this an ideal text for upper level vocational courses. Now in

  14. Performance characterization of solid oxide cells under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Bonaccorso, Alfredo Damiano; Graves, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    in both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode. In electrolysis mode at low current density, the performance improvement was counteracted by the increase in open circuit voltage, but it has to be born in mind that the pressurised gas contains higher molar free energy. Operating at high current density...... hydrocarbon fuels, which is normally performed at high pressure to achieve a high yield. Operation of SOECs at elevated pressure will therefore facilitate integration with the downstream fuel synthesis and is furthermore advantageous as it increases the cell performance. In this work, recent pressurised test...... results of a planar Ni-YSZ (YSZ: Yttria stabilized Zirconia) supported solid oxide cell are presented. The test was performed at 800 °C at pressures up to 15 bar. A comparison of the electrochemical performance of the cell at 1 and 3 bar shows a significant and equal performance gain at higher pressure...

  15. Quality Management in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The thesis deals with quality management theory as an important part of management science. The primary objective of this work is an identification, formulation and analysis of such managerial issues in quality of higher education, which either are not known, or whose resolution is not considered fully sufficient. The thesis contains a bibliography of more than 200 related scientific works and presents selected issues of quality management in higher education, such as quality perception or it...

  16. Active carbon supported molybdenum carbides for higher alcohols synthesis from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao; Chiarello, Gian Luca; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt

    This work provides an investigation of the high pressure CO hydrogenation to higher alcohols on K2CO3 promoted active carbon supported molybdenum carbide. Both activity and selectivity to alcohols over supported molybdenum carbides increased significantly compared to bulk carbides in literatures...

  17. High Pressure/Temperature Metal Silicate Partitioning of Tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofner, G. A.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Campbell, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of chemical elements during metal/silicate segregation and their resulting distribution in Earth's mantle and core provide insight into core formation processes. Experimental determination of partition coefficients allows calculations of element distributions that can be compared to accepted values of element abundances in the silicate (mantle) and metallic (core) portions of the Earth. Tungsten (W) is a moderately siderophile element and thus preferentially partitions into metal versus silicate under many planetary conditions. The partitioning behavior has been shown to vary with temperature, silicate composition, oxygen fugacity, and pressure. Most of the previous work on W partitioning has been conducted at 1-bar conditions or at relatively low pressures, i.e. pressure. Predictions based on extrapolation of existing data and parameterizations suggest an increased pressured dependence on metal/ silicate partitioning of W at higher pressures 5. However, the dependence on pressure is not as well constrained as T, fO2, and silicate composition. This poses a problem because proposed equilibration pressures for core formation range from 27 to 50 GPa, falling well outside the experimental range, therefore requiring exptrapolation of a parametereized model. Higher pressure data are needed to improve our understanding of W partitioning at these more extreme conditions.

  18. Reconfiguring the Higher Education Value Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Virendra; Pathak, Kavita

    2010-01-01

    Forces of demand and supply are changing the dynamics of the higher education market. Transformation of institutions of higher learning into competitive enterprise is underway. Higher education institutions are seemingly under intense pressure to create value and focus their efforts and scarce funds on activities that drive up value for their…

  19. Human gallbladder pressure and volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borly, L; Højgaard, L; Grønvall, S

    1996-01-01

    volume with only slight changes in intraluminal pressure (n = 4). Except for the zero drift, this piece of equipment seemed to fulfil the requirements of being able to measure pressure in the GB. In vivo measurements showed a good clinical reproducibility of the method, and also that respiration...... influenced by respiration (n = 8) and the pressure seems to be higher in the sitting position than in the supine position (n = 5). Cystic duct opening pressure was 10.4, 11.2 and 16.8 mmHg (n = 3). Pressure-volume responses showed that the GB up to a certain volume could accommodate increases in intraluminal...... and patient posture influenced the pressure measurements. Further, a GB pressure-volume relationship was demonstrated, and the possibility of a cystic duct opening pressure was described....

  20. Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for: Teens Dealing With Bullying Emotional Intelligence Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Coping With Stressful Situations Prom Pressure What Stresses You Out About School? Virginity: A Very Personal Decision Stress & Coping Center ...

  1. Medial shoe-ground pressure and specific running injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brund, René B K; Rasmussen, Sten; Nielsen, Rasmus O

    2017-01-01

    pressure. Foot balance was categorized into those which presented a higher lateral shod pressure (LP) than medial pressure, and those which presented a higher medial shod pressure (MP) than lateral pressure during the stance phase. A time-to-event model was used to compare differences in incidence between...

  2. On Time Performance Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda; Wichner, David; Jakey, Abegael

    2013-01-01

    Within many operations, the pressures for on-time performance are high. Each month, on-time statistics are reported to the Department of Transportation and made public. There is a natural tendency for employees under pressure to do their best to meet these objectives. As a result, pressure to get the job done within the allotted time may cause personnel to deviate from procedures and policies. Additionally, inadequate or unavailable resources may drive employees to work around standard processes that are seen as barriers. However, bypassing practices to enable on-time performance may affect more than the statistics. ASRS reports often highlight on-time performance pressures which may result in impact across all workgroups in an attempt to achieve on-time performance. Reporters often provide in-depth insights into their experiences which can be used by industry to identify and focus on the implementation of systemic fixes.

  3. Choking under monitoring pressure: being watched by the experimenter reduces executive attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belletier, Clément; Davranche, Karen; Tellier, Idriss S; Dumas, Florence; Vidal, Franck; Hasbroucq, Thierry; Huguet, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    Performing more poorly given one's skill level ("choking") is likely in situations that offer an incentive if a certain outcome is achieved (outcome pressure) or when one is being watched by others-especially when one's performance is being evaluated (monitoring pressure). According to the choking literature, outcome pressure is associated with reduced executive control of attention, whereas monitoring pressure is associated with increased, yet counterproductive, attention to skill processes. Here, we show the first evidence that monitoring pressure-being watched by the experimenter-may lead individuals with higher working memory to choke on a classic measure of executive control-just the task effect thought to result from outcome pressure. Not only does this finding help refine our understanding of the processes underlying choking under monitoring pressure, but it also leads to a new look at classic audience effects, with an important implication for experimental psychology.

  4. Data Of Daily Blood Pressure Monitoring In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Rebrov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present work is to study the frequency of hypertension and the peculiarity of 24-hour blood pressure monitoring in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We studied 584 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Daily blood pressure monitoring was carried out in 46 patients with arthritis and 18 patients with essential hypertension. Frequency of hypertension was higher in patients with arthritis then in general population. Elevation of systolic blood pressure, heart rate and arterial blood pressure adequate decrease at night were developed to associate with advance of the disease.

  5. Higher education in the era of globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Kalim

    2014-01-01

    The article will analyse the impact of globalisation on higher education. Some have argued that globalisation will\\ud provide equal opportunities. While others claim that globalisation would mean the McDonaldisation of the university and\\ud also worldwide inequality. The current pressure on higher education mainly due to neoliberal globalisation has increased\\ud the role for private sector in higher education. The paper examines the realities of globalisation in higher education to\\ud highlig...

  6. Electrical properties of pressure quenched silicon by thermal spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, S.Y.; Gambino, R.J.; Sampath, S.; Herman, H.

    2007-01-01

    High velocity thermal spray deposition of polycrystalline silicon film onto single crystal substrates, yields metastable high pressure forms of silicon in nanocrystalline form within the deposit. The phases observed in the deposit include hexagonal diamond-Si, R-8, BC-8 and Si-IX. The peculiar attribute of this transformation is that it occurs only on orientation silicon substrate. The silicon deposits containing the high pressure phases display a substantially higher electrical conductivity. The resistivity profile of the silicon deposit containing shock induced metastable silicon phases identified by X-ray diffraction patterns. The density of the pressure induced polymorphic silicon is higher at deposit/substrate interface. A modified two-layer model is presented to explain the resistivity of the deposit impacted by the pressure induced polymorphic silicon generated by the thermal spraying process. The pressure quenched silicon deposits on the p - silicon substrate, with or without metastable phases, display the barrier potential of about 0.72 eV. The measured hall mobility value of pressure quenched silicon deposits is in the range of polycrystalline silicon. The significance of this work lies in the fact that the versatility of thermal spray may enable applications of these high pressure forms of silicon

  7. Getting the Most from Working with Higher Education: A Review of Methods Used within a Participatory Design Activity Involving KS3 Special School Pupils and Undergraduate and Post-Graduate Industrial Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, George Edward; Newton, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides education-based researchers and practitioners with the preferred research and design methods used by Higher Education Institute (HEI) students and Key Stage 3 (KS3) pupils applied within a participatory approach to a design activity. The outcomes were that both pupils and students found informal (unstructured) interview to be…

  8. Pressure Injury Knowledge in Critical Care Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donna M; Neelon, Lisa; Kish-Smith, Kathleen; Whitney, Laura; Burant, Christopher J

    The purpose of this study was to identify pressure injury knowledge in critical care nurses related to prevention and staging following multimodal education initiatives. Postintervention descriptive study. The sample comprised 32 RNs employed in medical intensive care/coronary intensive care or surgical intensive care units. The study setting was a 237-bed Veterans Affairs acute care hospital in the Midwestern United States. Critical care RNs were asked to participate in this project over a 3-week period following a multimodal 2-year education initiative. Nurses completed the paper version of the 72-item Pieper-Zulkowski Pressure Ulcer Knowledge Test (PZ-PUKT) to determine pressure injury knowledge level. Calculated mean cumulative scores and subscores for items related to prevention and staging, respectively. Pearson correlations were used to examine associations between nursing staff characteristics and the PZ-PUKT prevention and staging scores. The cumulative score on the PZ-PUKT was 51.66 (72%); nurses with 5 to 10 years' experience had a higher mean score than nurses with experiences of 20 years or more (mean ± SD = 54.25 ± 4.37 vs 49.5 ± 7.12), but the difference was not statistically significant. Nurses scored higher on the staging system-related items as compared to the prevention-related items (81% vs 70%). Nurses achieved higher staging subscale scores if they were younger (r =-0.41, P < .05), had less experience (r =-0.43, P < .05), and if they worked in the medical intensive care unit (r = 0.37, P < .05). Study findings indicate gaps in knowledge related to pressure injury practice; participants had greater knowledge of staging rather than prevention. Cumulative and subscale findings can be used to direct educational efforts needed to improve and maintain an effective pressure injury prevention program.

  9. Pressure-Application Device for Testing Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A portable pressure-application device has been designed and built for use in testing and calibrating piezoelectric pressure transducers in the field. The device generates pressure pulses of known amplitude. A pressure pulse (in contradistinction to a steady pressure) is needed because in the presence of a steady pressure, the electrical output of a piezoelectric pressure transducer decays rapidly with time. The device includes a stainless- steel compressed-air-storage cylinder of 500 cu cm volume. A manual hand pump with check valves and a pressure gauge are located at one end of the cylinder. A three-way solenoid valve that controls the release of pressurized air is located at the other end of the cylinder. Power for the device is provided by a 3.7-V cordless-telephone battery. The valve is controlled by means of a pushbutton switch, which activates a 5 V to +/-15 V DC-to-DC converter that powers the solenoid. The outlet of the solenoid valve is connected to the pressure transducer to be tested. Before the solenoid is energized, the transducer to be tested is at atmospheric pressure. When the solenoid is actuated by the push button, pressurized air from inside the cylinder is applied to the transducer. Once the pushbutton is released, the cylinder pressure is removed from the transducer and the pressurized air applied to the transducer is vented, bringing the transducer back to atmospheric pressure. Before this device was used for actual calibration, its accuracy was checked with a NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) traceable calibrator and commercially calibrated pressure transducers. This work was done by Wanda Solano of Stennis Space Center and Greg Richardson of Lockheed Martin Corp.

  10. Pedagogies of Partnership: What Works. A Report on the Findings of the Higher Education Academy Funded Project Examining How Partnership-Based Pedagogies Impact on Student Learning at the University of Lincoln

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Karin; Horsley, Reece; Hagyard, Andy; Derricott, Dan

    2015-01-01

    "Pedagogies of partnership: What works?" seeks to identify whether the student learning experience is enhanced or in any way made different through the implementation of teaching and learning that is explicitly intended to foster partnership. The value of student-staff partnerships and student engagement is recognised nationally and in…

  11. Working hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stix, G.

    1988-01-01

    The author says ''barehand'' methods, where specially trained utility workers are called in conductive suits to equalize voltage over their bodies, to maintain high-voltage transmission lines are on the rise. Utilities are building lines at higher voltages and selling more power to other utilities, making it highly inconvenient to take the lines out of service. However, some unions view the barehand work with less than enthusiasm. Touching lines energized at hundreds of thousands of volts demands flawless equipment and rigid work procedures followed to the letter. Some local unions contend that adequate safety procedures and training, and appropriate penalties for workplace negligence, should be in place before utilities may do barehand work. The author discusses some of the methods of barehand work and the equipment used, i.e. steel-mesh lineman's suit, bucket truck's boom, helicopters, and robots

  12. Krypton oxides under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Lata, Pawel M

    2016-02-02

    Under high pressure, krypton, one of the most inert elements is predicted to become sufficiently reactive to form a new class of krypton compounds; krypton oxides. Using modern ab-initio evolutionary algorithms in combination with Density Functional Theory, we predict the existence of several thermodynamically stable Kr/O species at elevated pressures. In particular, our calculations indicate that at approx. 300 GPa the monoxide, KrO, should form spontaneously and remain thermo- and dynamically stable with respect to constituent elements and higher oxides. The monoxide is predicted to form non-molecular crystals with short Kr-O contacts, typical for genuine chemical bonds.

  13. Phase transformations in Higher Manganese Silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allam, A. [MADIREL, UMR 7246 CNRS - Universite Aix-Marseille, av Normandie-Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); IM2NP, UMR 7334 CNRS - Universite Aix-Marseille, av Normandie-Niemen, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Boulet, P. [MADIREL, UMR 7246 CNRS - Universite Aix-Marseille, av Normandie-Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Nunes, C.A. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais (DEMAR), Escola de Engenharia de Lorena (EEL), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Caixa Postal 116, 12600-970 Lorena, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sopousek, J.; Broz, P. [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kolarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Masaryk University, Central European Institute of Technology, CEITEC, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Record, M.-C., E-mail: m-c.record@univ-cezanne.fr [IM2NP, UMR 7334 CNRS - Universite Aix-Marseille, av Normandie-Niemen, Case 142, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2013-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase transitions of the Higher Manganese Silicides were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were characterised by XRD, DTA and DSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn{sub 27}Si{sub 47} is the stable phase at room temperature and under atmospheric pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At around 800 Degree-Sign C, Mn{sub 27}Si{sub 47} is transformed into Mn{sub 15}Si{sub 26}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase transition is of a second order. - Abstract: This work is an investigation of the phase transformations of the Higher Manganese Silicides in the temperature range [100-1200 Degree-Sign C]. Several complementary experimental techniques were used, namely in situ X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The evolution of both the lattice parameters and the thermal expansion coefficients was determined from in situ XRD measurements. The stability of the samples was investigated by thermal analysis (DTA) and Cp measurements (DSC). This study shows that Mn{sub 27}Si{sub 47} which is the stable phase at room temperature and under atmospheric pressure undergoes a phase transformation at around 800 Degree-Sign C. Mn{sub 27}Si{sub 47} is transformed into Mn{sub 15}Si{sub 26}. This phase transformation seems to be of a second order one. Indeed it was not evidenced by DTA and by contrast it appears on the Cp curve.

  14. Gravastars with higher dimensional spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shounak; Ray, Saibal; Rahaman, Farook; Guha, B. K.

    2018-07-01

    We present a new model of gravastar in the higher dimensional Einsteinian spacetime including Einstein's cosmological constant Λ. Following Mazur and Mottola (2001, 2004) we design the star with three specific regions, as follows: (I) Interior region, (II) Intermediate thin spherical shell and (III) Exterior region. The pressure within the interior region is equal to the negative matter density which provides a repulsive force over the shell. This thin shell is formed by ultra relativistic plasma, where the pressure is directly proportional to the matter-energy density which does counter balance the repulsive force from the interior whereas the exterior region is completely vacuum assumed to be de Sitter spacetime which can be described by the generalized Schwarzschild solution. With this specification we find out a set of exact non-singular and stable solutions of the gravastar which seems physically very interesting and reasonable.

  15. Redesigning Higher Education: Embracing a New Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2014-01-01

    Higher education is under enormous pressure to transform itself and embrace a new paradigm. Operating under an outdated model that no longer aligns with the realities of modern society, institutions of higher education are recognizing the need to drastically remake themselves or possibly cease to exist. This article explores the current landscape…

  16. A Paraconsistent Higher Order Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    of paraconsistent logics in knowledge-based systems, logical semantics of natural language, etc. Higher order logics have the advantages of being expressive and with several automated theorem provers available. Also the type system can be helpful. We present a concise description of a paraconsistent higher order...... of the logic is examined by a case study in the domain of medicine. Thus we try to build a bridge between the HOL and MVL communities. A sequent calculus is proposed based on recent work by Muskens. Many non-classical logics are, at the propositional level, funny toys which work quite good, but when one wants...

  17. Influence of lifestyle, coping, and job stress on blood pressure in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, T L; Beilin, L J; Knuiman, M W

    1997-01-01

    We designed this study to clarify the role of work stress on long-term blood pressure control and in particular to investigate whether perceived work stress directly affected resting blood pressure levels or whether there were indirect effects mediated by coping mechanisms and lifestyle. Men (n = 337) and women (n = 317) working in a government tax office completed questionnaires for assessment of work-related stress, coping strategies, and lifestyle. Seven resting blood pressure measurements were recorded serially on each of two occasions a week apart. Men had higher blood pressures (119.6/68.6 versus 110.9/65.6 mm Hg) than women; they used more "maladaptive" coping strategies, drank more alcohol, and ate less healthily but exercised more than women. There were no direct associations between measures of work stress and blood pressure. In univariate and regression analyses, both body mass index and lifestyle factors in the form of alcohol consumption, exercise, and diet were related to blood pressure in men and women. Various "adaptive" or "maladaptive" coping mechanisms were identified and independently related to both job stress and blood pressure levels. Women were more likely to use "healthier" or adaptive coping mechanisms than men. Thus, work stress per se had no direct effect on blood pressure, but the ways that individuals reported coping with stress were significantly related to blood pressure, with blood pressure elevation effects appearing to be mediated largely by dietary and drinking habits and physical inactivity. The results point to the need to target individual coping strategies and lifestyle as much as the working environment in workplace cardiovascular health promotion programs.

  18. Teaching at higher levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    , textbooks and technology applications, the improvement of delivery methods and work on curriculum and assessment practice. In addition, around half of the funding total will be set aside to widen participation for all students who can benefit from higher education, with assistance to ensure that those students succeed.

  19. Higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Igusa, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The book is devoted to the theory of topological higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion in K-theory. The author defines the higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion based on Volodin's K-theory and Borel's regulator map. He describes its properties and generalizations and studies the relation between the higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion and other torsions used in K-theory: Whitehead torsion and Ray-Singer torsion. He also presents methods of computing higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion, illustrates them with numerous examples, and describes various applications of higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion, particularly for the study of homology of mapping class groups. Packed with up-to-date information, the book provides a unique research and reference tool for specialists working in algebraic topology and K-theory.

  20. Subjective time pressure: general or domain specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Sibyl

    2014-09-01

    Chronic time pressure has been identified as a pervasive societal problem, exacerbated by high demands of the labor market and the home. Yet time pressure has not been disaggregated and examined separately across home and work contexts, leaving many unanswered questions regarding the sources and potentially stressful consequences of time pressure. Using data collected in the United States General Social Survey waves 2002 and 2004, this study disaggregates time pressure into the domains of home and work, and asks whether considering time pressures within distinct work and home contexts reveals distinct predictors or associations with stress. Findings show that both predictors and stress associations differ across work and home pressures, revealing both methodological and theoretical implications for the study of time pressure and work and family life more generally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Catholic Higher Education as Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the work of Anthony J. Gittins to reframe our understanding of Catholic higher education as mission. The broad adoption of this framework would require a common intellectual foundation, the possibility of which is dismissed by many. An accessible ontology is implied, however, in the existential analysis and theology of Karl…

  2. On the pressure drop in Plate Heat Exchangers used as desorbers in absorption chillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Hernando, N.; Almendros-Ibanez, J.A.; Ruiz, G.; Vega, M. de

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the pressure drop in Plate Heat Exchangers (PHE) in the boiling temperature of LiBr-H 2 O and NH 3 -H 2 O solutions is studied. For the NH 3 -H 2 O solution, the pressure drop-temperature saturation relationship estates that high pressure drops can be allowed in the solution with negligible changes in the saturation temperature, and in the PHE performance. Besides, in the case of the LiBr-H 2 O solution, as the working pressure is usually very low, the analysis of the pressure drop must be taken as a main limiting parameter for the use of Plate Heat Exchangers as vapour generators. In this case, the pressure drop may considerably change the boiling temperature of the solution entering the heat exchanger and therefore a higher heating fluid temperature may be required. A guideline to design these systems is proposed.

  3. On the pressure drop in Plate Heat Exchangers used as desorbers in absorption chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Hernando, N.; de Vega, M. [Energy System Engineering (ISE), Departamento de Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Almendros-Ibanez, J.A. [Escuela de Ingenieros Industriales de Albacete, Departamento de Mecanica Aplicada e Ingenieria de Proyectos, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Renewable Energy Research Institute, c/de la Investigacion s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Ruiz, G. [Energy Efficiency and Renewables Department, Tecnicas Reunidas S.A., C/Arapiles No. 13, 10a, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    The influence of the pressure drop in Plate Heat Exchangers (PHE) in the boiling temperature of LiBr-H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O solutions is studied. For the NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O solution, the pressure drop-temperature saturation relationship estates that high pressure drops can be allowed in the solution with negligible changes in the saturation temperature, and in the PHE performance. Besides, in the case of the LiBr-H{sub 2}O solution, as the working pressure is usually very low, the analysis of the pressure drop must be taken as a main limiting parameter for the use of Plate Heat Exchangers as vapour generators. In this case, the pressure drop may considerably change the boiling temperature of the solution entering the heat exchanger and therefore a higher heating fluid temperature may be required. A guideline to design these systems is proposed. (author)

  4. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  5. Pressure Ulcer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    compared with soap and water to reduce the incidence of grade 1 or 2 pressure ulcers in persons with urinary and fecal incontinence. Conclusions There is moderate quality evidence that an alternative foam mattress is effective in preventing the development of pressure ulcers compared with a standard hospital foam mattress. However, overall there remains a paucity of moderate or higher quality evidence in the literature to support many of the preventive interventions. Until better quality evidence is available, pressure ulcer preventive care must be guided by expert opinion for those interventions where low or very low quality evidence supports the effectiveness of such interventions. Abbreviations CI Confidence interval GRADE Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation ICU Intensive care unit MAS Medical Advisory Secretariat NPUAP National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel RAS Risk assessment scale RCT Randomized controlled trial RNAO Registered Nurses Association of Ontario RR Relative risk RRR Relative risk reduction PMID:23074524

  6. Globalisation and Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marginson, Simon; van der Wende, Marijk

    2007-01-01

    Economic and cultural globalisation has ushered in a new era in higher education. Higher education was always more internationally open than most sectors because of its immersion in knowledge, which never showed much respect for juridical boundaries. In global knowledge economies, higher education

  7. Low-pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Richard [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Kniep, Jay [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Hao, Pingjiao [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Chan, Chi Cheng [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Nguyen, Vincent [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Huang, Ivy [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Amo, Karl [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Freeman, Brice [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Fulton, Don [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Ly, Jennifer [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Lipscomb, Glenn [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Lou, Yuecun [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Gogar, Ravikumar [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States)

    2015-01-29

    This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

  8. Back to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The economic downturn hit working America particularly hard, as agricultural, automotive, manufacturing, and retail jobs in many corners of the country all but evaporated. Consumers continue to cut back, and jobless rates in many states have eclipsed levels not seen in decades. Out of work and under pressure, many Americans are turning to the…

  9. Pressure sores and hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, S; Heinert, G; Parker, M J

    2008-02-01

    Development of pressure sores during hospital admission causes morbidity and distress to the patient, increases strain on nursing resources, delaying discharge and possibly increasing mortality. A hip fracture in elderly patients is a known high-risk factor for development of pressure sores. We aimed to determine the current incidence of pressure sores and identify those factors which were associated with an increased risk of pressure sores. We retrospectively analysed prospectively collected data of 4654 consecutive patients admitted to a single unit. One hundred and seventy-eight (3.8%) of our patients developed pressure sores. Patient factors that increased the risk of pressure sores were increased age, diabetes mellitus, a lower mental test score, a lower mobility score, a higher ASA score, lower admission haemoglobin and an intra-operative drop in blood pressure. The risk was higher in patients with an extracapsular neck of femur fracture and patients with an increased time interval between admission to hospital and surgery. Our studies indicate that while co-morbidities constitute a substantial risk in an elderly population, the increase in incidence of pressure sores can be reduced by minimising delays to surgery.

  10. Optimal Admission to Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    This paper constructs higher education admission rules that maximise graduation rates and thus increase the skill level of the work force. An application shows that students with a low level in mathematics in secondary school ought to find it easier to be admitted to an economics programme than...... to law or psychology programmes, even though economics is the most difficult programme from which to graduate without a strong background in mathematics. Indirect gains from optimal admission include the potential of making whole cohorts of students more able to graduate with a higher education degree....

  11. Comparison of the Net Work Output between Stirling and Ericsson Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F. Costa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare Stirling and Ericsson cycles to determine which engine produces greater net work output for various situations. Both cycles are for external heat engines that utilize regenerators, where the difference is the nature of the regeneration process, which is constant volume for Stirling and constant pressure for Ericsson. This difference alters the performance characteristics of the two engines drastically, and our comparison reveals which one produces greater net work output based on the thermodynamic parameters. The net work output equations are derived and analysed for three different scenarios: (i equal mass and temperature limits; (ii equal mass and pressure or volume; and (iii equal temperature and pressure or volume limits. The comparison is performed by calculating when both cycles produce equal net work output and then analysing which one produces greater net work output based on how the parameters are varied. In general, the results demonstrate that Stirling engines produce more net work output at higher pressures and lower volumes, and Ericsson engines produce more net work output at lower pressures and higher volumes. For certain scenarios, threshold values are calculated to illustrate precisely when one cycle produces more net work output than the other. This paper can be used to inform the design of the engines and to determine when a Stirling or Ericsson engine should be selected for a particular application.

  12. Higher Education--The Flexible Employment Sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill; Ridgley, Clare; Spurgeon, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Explored the extent to which policies and practices promoting work-life balance (family friendly policies) have been taken up within the English higher education sector. Responses from 50 higher education institutions show that flexible working practices are more widespread than the formal policies of institutions would suggest. (SLD)

  13. Towards Deeper Comprehension in Higher Engineering Education: "Method of Cornerstones"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Aki; Tarhasaari, Timo; Kettunen, Lauri; Mikkonen, Risto; Kinnari-Korpela, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    During the current millennium, universities have faced a new kind of problem: there is not enough higher learning in higher education. Driving forces have mainly been economical, since financial pressure and effort for increasing efficiency have given rise to growing amount of accessed and graduated students. In addition, a pressure for…

  14. Pressure dependence of the spark constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, H; Radtke, R; Deparade, W [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronenphysik

    1978-02-21

    The author's theory on the development of LTE plasmas in low-inductance spark discharges has proved to be a useful tool in predicting the electric behaviour of such sparks. Their earlier experimental work was restricted to only one initial pressure, and in this paper they extend the examined pressure range to obtain some general conclusions on the pressure dependence of the spark behaviour.

  15. Hydrostatic Paradox: Experimental Verification of Pressure Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodejška, C.; Ganci, S.; Ríha, J.; Sedlácková, H.

    2017-01-01

    This work is focused on the experimental verification of the balance between the atmospheric pressure acting on the sheet of paper, which encloses the cylinder completely or partially filled with water from below, where the hydrostatic pressure of the water column acts against the atmospheric pressure. First of all this paper solves a theoretical…

  16. Smart blood pressure holter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, İlhan

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a wireless blood pressure holter that can be used with smart mobile devices was developed. The developed blood pressure holter consists of two parts, which are a smart mobile device and a cuff. The smart mobile device is used as a recording, control and display device through a developed interface, while the cuff was designed to take measurements from the arm. Resistor-Capacitor (RC) and digital filters were used on the cuff that communicates with the smart mobile device via Bluetooth. The blood pressure was estimated using the Simple Hill Climbing Algorithm (HCA). It is possible to measure instantaneous or programmable blood pressure and heart rate values at certain intervals using this holter. The test was conducted with 30 individuals at different ages with the guidance of a specialist health personnel. The results showed that an accuracy at 93.89% and 91.95% rates could be obtained for systolic and diastolic pressure values, respectively, when compared with those obtained using a traditional sphygmomanometer. The accuracy level for the heart rate was measured as 97.66%. Furthermore, this device was tested day and night in the holter mode in terms of working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The test results were evaluated separately in terms of measurement accuracy, working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The measurement accuracy for systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate values was obtained as 93.89%, 91.95% and 97.66%, respectively. The maximum number of measurements which can be conducted with four 1000 mA alkaline batteries at 20 min intervals was found approximately 79 (little more than 24 h). In addition, it was determined that the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results were automatically achieved through the features in the interface developed for the

  17. Making 'what works' work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    2017-01-01

    and a mattress. As such, the paper shows how DR, as an evidence-based method, is established through concrete relations, rather than abstracted and universal principals. It argues that these relations stabilising DR are never enacted once and for all, but require continual work to be held together as a method...... that ‘works’....

  18. Higher Education and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger

    2018-01-01

    After climate change, rising economic inequality is the greatest challenge facing the advanced Western societies. Higher education has traditionally been seen as a means to greater equality through its role in promoting social mobility. But with increased marketisation higher education now not only reflects the forces making for greater inequality…

  19. Higher Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  20. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  1. Happiness in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwick, Alex; Cannizzaro, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms happiness and satisfaction interchangeably as if one were…

  2. Gender and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  3. Internal pressure and solubility parameter as a function of pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdier, Sylvain Charles Roland; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to measure the solubility parameter of a complex mixture, such as a crude oil, especially as a function of pressure. Thus, its definition is explained, as well as the main approximations generally used in literature. Then, the internal pressure is investigated, since...... pure compounds (four hydrocarbons and I alcohol) were investigated at 303.15 K and up to 30 MPa, as well as a dead crude oil. The "physical" solubility parameter is slightly increasing with pressure (up to 0.8 MPa1/2 for cyclohexane) and, at 0.1 MPa, the difference with literature data is less than 1...

  4. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  5. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  6. The Truth behind Higher Education Disclosure Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Kevin; Kelly, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing that higher education is a market driven by consumer choice and reluctant to regulate college behavior directly, state and federal policymakers have created a host of college information disclosure and reporting requirements. Armed with better data, the theory goes, students and parents will vote with their wallets, putting pressure on…

  7. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  8. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest at night and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low ... low blood pressure. Medications that can cause low blood pressure Some medications can cause low blood pressure, including: ...

  9. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  10. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a pressure sore required? play_arrow How long is the typical healing time for a pressure ... arrow Why do some pressure sores take so long to heal? play_arrow Can a pressure sore ...

  11. Ubiquitous Working: Do Work Versus Non-work Environments Affect Decision-Making and Concentration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin P. Burmeister

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available New communication technologies and mobile devices have enabled knowledge workers to work independently of location and in more than one fixed environment (ubiquitous working. Previous research shows that physical environments can influence cognition and work performance. We manipulated environment (i.e., a virtual office as a typical work environment compared to a virtual garden as a non-work environment and time pressure (i.e., inducing time pressure vs. no time pressure in order to investigate whether the environment influences decision-making and concentration. N = 109 students participated in this laboratory experiment. We posited (a that a work environment would activate a work-related schema which in turn would enhance concentration performance and make decisions more risky compared to non-work environments and (b that the environmental effect is more pronounced if time pressure is present compared to conditions where no time pressure is present. We found modest hypothesis-confirming main effects of environment on decision-making and concentration but no interaction effect with time pressure. As we used an innovative methodology that entails several limitations, future research is needed to give insights into the process and to investigate whether results hold true for all types of work settings, work demands, or work activities.

  12. Ubiquitous Working: Do Work Versus Non-work Environments Affect Decision-Making and Concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Carolin P; Moskaliuk, Johannes; Cress, Ulrike

    2018-01-01

    New communication technologies and mobile devices have enabled knowledge workers to work independently of location and in more than one fixed environment (ubiquitous working). Previous research shows that physical environments can influence cognition and work performance. We manipulated environment (i.e., a virtual office as a typical work environment compared to a virtual garden as a non-work environment ) and time pressure (i.e., inducing time pressure vs. no time pressure ) in order to investigate whether the environment influences decision-making and concentration. N = 109 students participated in this laboratory experiment. We posited (a) that a work environment would activate a work-related schema which in turn would enhance concentration performance and make decisions more risky compared to non-work environments and (b) that the environmental effect is more pronounced if time pressure is present compared to conditions where no time pressure is present. We found modest hypothesis-confirming main effects of environment on decision-making and concentration but no interaction effect with time pressure. As we used an innovative methodology that entails several limitations, future research is needed to give insights into the process and to investigate whether results hold true for all types of work settings, work demands, or work activities.

  13. Thirteen years of exploitation with constant oilfield pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dontov-Danu, Gh

    1966-12-01

    The paper describes a restoring and maintaining reservoir pressure by gas injection in two blocks of the Dacian stratum at Buscani. At the beginning of gas injection, the wells produced in gas lift and the crude oil flows were markedly decreasing. After about 6 months of injection the reservoir pressure has been restored, the wells flowed. This system allows constant crude oil flows for long periods. The oilfield recovery factor until December 31, 1965, is 51% i.e. by 150% higher than expected in the case of an exploitation without gas injection. This increase represents the extra crude oil and gasoline production obtained as a result of the application of the reservoir pressure maintenance process. The average consumption of working agent has been of 382 cu m gas per ton of additionally extracted crude oil.

  14. Ultrasound enhanced plasma surface modification at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Norrman, Kion

    and the material surface, and thus many reactive species generated in the plasma can reach the surface before inactivated, and be efficiently utilized for surface modification. In the present work polyester plates are treated using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and a gliding arc at atmospheric pressure......Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high-power ultrasonic irradiation onto the treating surface. It is because ultrasonic waves with a sound pressure level (SPL) above approximately 140 dB can reduce the thickness of a boundary gas layer between the plasma...... irradiation, the water contact angle dropped markedly, and tended to decrease furthermore at higher power. The ultrasonic irradiation during the plasma treatment consistently improved the wettability. Oxygen containing polar functional groups were introduced at the surface by the plasma treatment...

  15. Teacher Role Stress, Higher Order Needs and Work Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Sharon; Woosley, Sherry A.

    2000-01-01

    Using a sample of 371 elementary and secondary teachers, this study examined whether three role stresses (role ambiguity, conflict, and overload) are related to two individually and organizationally related values and how teachers moderated stresses. Organizational commitment is affected by role stress. Teaming might increase role ambiguity.…

  16. Institutional Barriers to Diversity Change Work in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig M. Elliott

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available While the concepts related to diversity and inclusion are commonly found as part of universities’ mission and vision, implementing these concepts into practice can present a challenge. This study identified discrepancies between concepts and practice of diversity and inclusion at a multidisciplinary health sciences university. The results indicated that participants experienced inclusion along a range of engagement. Hispanic/Latino students, faculty, and staff as well as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer students and staff experienced disparaging behavior on a regular basis at the University, which contributed to fear. The results demonstrate barriers to the inclusion efforts and indicate that the university must bridge the gap between diversity concepts and practice.

  17. Higher Education: A Time for Triage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-10-01

    discretionary control over a dwindling portion of the state budget. Unfortunately, higher education often finds itself included in that ever-shrinking part of the budget. To keep businesses globally competitive there will be great pressure against raising corporate taxes. These pressures combined with the federal deficit and the growth in entitlements leave little hope for an infusion of the kinds of new public funds that have fueled previous changes in higher education. Some institutions have succeeded in deriving new resources through the establishment of public-private partnerships and vigorous fund raising, activities that have not played a significant role in funding public education in the past. Monies from private sources now account for more than 50% of the budget components in the case of some of the more successful state university initiatives. Successes of this kind raise some interesting questions. For example, how will the evolution of fiscal interactions with the state be affected? How will faculty work loads and compensation patterns be affected? It has become increasingly clear that a number of major issues need attention if we are to engage effectively in triage as a process to maximize what can--and should--be saved in higher education. The following list summarizes discussions that have appeared in a variety of disparate publications. Establish and prioritize the institution's educational goals. Establish value and reward systems for students and faculty that are consistent with the priority goals. Develop leverage and constraint mechanisms to effect change and improve student orientation to the new priorities. Establish a relationship between the price and cost of education and access to it, perhaps incorporating some sort of internal subsidy system. Develop a relationship between the demonstration of public accountability through the reallocation of resources and the measurement of tangible outcomes that justifies enhanced public and private investment

  18. Planning for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Caj-Gunnar

    1984-01-01

    Decision processes for strategic planning for higher education institutions are outlined using these parameters: institutional goals and power structure, organizational climate, leadership attitudes, specific problem type, and problem-solving conditions and alternatives. (MSE)

  19. Advert for higher education

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Provozin; А.S. Teletov

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the features advertising higher education institution. The analysis results of marketing research students for their choice of institutions and further study. Principles of the advertising campaign on three levels: the university, the faculty, the separate department.

  20. On higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt

  1. Higher Spins & Strings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The conjectured relation between higher spin theories on anti de-Sitter (AdS) spaces and weakly coupled conformal field theories is reviewed. I shall then outline the evidence in favour of a concrete duality of this kind, relating a specific higher spin theory on AdS3 to a family of 2d minimal model CFTs. Finally, I shall explain how this relation fits into the framework of the familiar stringy AdS/CFT correspondence.

  2. Experimental investigation of undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape super-pressure balloon designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    Excess in skin material of a pneumatic envelope beyond what is required for minimum enclosure of a gas bubble is a necessary but by no means sufficient condition for the existence of multiple equilibrium configurations for that pneumatic envelope. The very design of structurally efficient super-pressure balloons of the pumpkin shape type requires such excess. Undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape balloons have been observed on experimental pumpkin shape balloons. These configurations contain regions with stress levels far higher than those predicted for the cyclically symmetric design configuration under maximum pressurization. Successful designs of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons do not allow such undesired stable equilibria under full pressurization. This work documents efforts made so far and describes efforts still underway by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office to arrive on guidance on the design of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons that guarantee full and proper deployment.

  3. Experimental Comparison Of Working Fluids For Organic Rankine Cycle With Single-Screw Expander

    OpenAIRE

    Gusev, Sergei; Ziviani, Davide; Bell, Ian; De Paepe, Michel; van den Broek, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the behavior of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) fed by a heat source with adaptable temperature and mass flow. For a suitable choice of working fluid, the setting of its evaporation pressure is crucial for the performance of an ORC installation. The higher the evaporation pressure, the higher the cycle efficiency on the one hand, but the lower the energy recovered from the heat source due to a higher outlet temperature on the other hand. An optimum has to be found to achie...

  4. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  5. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  6. High Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of AdsorbateStructure and Mobility during Catalytic Reactions: Novel Design of anUltra High Pressure, High Temperature Scanning Tunneling MicroscopeSystem for Probing Catalytic Conversions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, David Chi-Wai [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-05-16

    The aim of the work presented therein is to take advantage of scanning tunneling microscope’s (STM) capability for operation under a variety of environments under real time and at atomic resolution to monitor adsorbate structures and mobility under high pressures, as well as to design a new generation of STM systems that allow imaging in situ at both higher pressures (35 atm) and temperatures (350 °C).

  7. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  8. INTERNATIONALIZATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Crisan-Mitra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization of higher education is one of the key trends of development. There are several approaches on how to achieve competitiveness and performance in higher education and international academic mobility; students’ exchange programs, partnerships are some of the aspects that can play a significant role in this process. This paper wants to point out the student’s perception regarding two main directions: one about the master students’ expectation regarding how an internationalized master should be organized and should function, and second the degree of satisfaction of the beneficiaries of internationalized master programs from Babe-Bolyai University. This article is based on an empirical qualitative research that was implemented to students of an internationalized master from the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. This research can be considered a useful example for those preoccupied to increase the quality of higher education and conclusions drawn have relevance both theoretically and especially practically.

  9. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan; Zhao, Yingsheng; Du, Xiangyun

    . This transformation involves a broad scale of change at individual level, organizational level, and societal level. In this change process in higher education, staff development remains one of the key elements for university innovation and at the same time demands a systematic and holistic approach.......This paper starts with a critical approach to reflect on the current practice of quality assessment and assurance in higher education. This is followed by a proposal that in response to the global challenges for improving the quality of higher education, universities should take active actions...... of change by improving the quality of teaching and learning. From a constructivist perspective of understanding education and learning, this paper also discusses why and how universities should give more weight to learning and change the traditional role of teaching to an innovative approach of facilitation...

  10. Academic Work and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Reading current accounts of higher education demonstrates the flux and damage of rapid neoliberal changes to the type and conduct of academic work. Opening the Times Higher Education magazine on the 28 April 2011 shows articles about cuts in staffing and undergraduate provision in England, concerns about the quality of for-profit higher education…

  11. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Grønholdt, Lars

    2005-01-01

    leaders of higher education institutions to set strategic directions and support their decisions in an effort to create even better study programmes with a better reputation. Finally, managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.Keywords: Reputation, image, corporate identity......The purpose of this paper is to develop a reputation model for higher education programmes, provide empirical evidence for the model and illustrate its application by using Copenhagen Business School (CBS) as the recurrent case. The developed model is a cause-and-effect model linking image...

  12. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plewa, Carolin; Ho, Joanne; Conduit, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    Reputation is critical for institutions wishing to attract and retain students in today's competitive higher education setting. Drawing on the resource based view and configuration theory, this research proposes that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) need to understand not only the impact...... of independent resources but of resource configurations when seeking to achieve a strong, positive reputation. Utilizing fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), the paper provides insight into different configurations of resources that HEIs can utilize to build their reputation within their domestic...

  13. Navigating in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Hanne Balsby; Reimer, David; Keiding, Tina Bering

    Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur, Informati......Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur...

  14. WHn under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Ashcroft, N W; Labet, Vanessa; Hoffmann, Roald; Strobel, Timothy A

    2012-01-01

    An initial observation of the formation of WH under pressure from W gaskets surrounding hydrogen in diamond anvil cells led to a theoretical study of tungsten hydride phases. At P = 1 atm no stoichiometry is found to be stable with respect to separation into the elements, but as the pressure is raised WH n (n = 1-6, 8) stoichiometries are metastable or stable. WH and WH 4 are calculated to be stable at P > 15 GPa, WH 2 becomes stable at P > 100 GPa and WH 6 at P > 150 GPa. In agreement with experiment, the structure computed for WH is anti-NiAs. WH 2 shares with WH a hexagonal arrangement of tungsten atoms, with hydrogen atoms occupying octahedral and tetrahedral holes. For WH 4 the W atoms are in a distorted fcc arrangement. As the number of hydrogens rises, the coordination of W by H increases correspondingly, leading to a twelve-coordinated W in WH 6 . In WH 8 H 2 units also develop. All of the hydrides considered should be metallic at high pressure, though the Fermi levels of WH 4 and WH 6 lie in a deep pseudogap. Prodded by these theoretical studies, experiments were then undertaken to seek phases other than WH, exploring a variety of experimental conditions that would favor further reaction. Though a better preparation and characterization of WH resulted, no higher hydrides have as yet been found. (paper)

  15. Assessment of building maintenance management practices of higher education institutions in Niger State - Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofide Blessing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions face immediate pressure to preserve existing building facilities within the campuses and enhance the capacity of their higher education system to address growing demands of an increasing influx of students and academic activities. There is no doubt that dilapidated and unhealthy buildings in a decaying environment depresses the quality of life and contributes in some measure to antisocial behaviours. The buildings of higher education institutions in Nigeria only receive top management attention when there is a problem. Hence, the paper assessed the building maintenance management practices of 6 higher institutions available (2 universities, 2 polytechnics and 2 colleges of education in Niger State. This was done by interviewing the Directors of Works of the 6 institutions using a structured interview method. The study revealed that there was no maintenance manual in any of the Works Department of the higher education institution, no user satisfaction survey has ever been conducted and none of the institutions had a computerised maintenance management system (CMMS in place. In addition to these, corrective maintenance was mostly adopted and there was inadequate staffing of the field operatives. All these shortcomings might be responsible for the backlog of maintenance work experienced in the institutions studied. A proactive maintenance system should be put in place, CMMS should be adopted to enhance effective maintenance work, and top management should be enlightened on the imperative of maintenance among other issues competing for funds within the institutions and be more flexible in allocation of resources to enhance maintenance works.

  16. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Jammali-Blasi, Asmara; Bell-Syer, Sally E M; Dumville, Jo C; Middleton, Victoria; Cullum, Nicky

    2015-09-03

    , although two trials indicated that foam overlays caused adverse skin changes. Meta-analysis of three trials suggest that Australian standard medical sheepskins prevent pressure ulcers (RR 0.56 95% CI 0.32 to 0.97).  People at high risk of developing pressure ulcers should use higher-specification foam mattresses rather than standard hospital foam mattresses. The relative merits of higher-specification constant low-pressure and alternating-pressure support surfaces for preventing pressure ulcers are unclear, but alternating-pressure mattresses may be more cost effective than alternating-pressure overlays in a UK context. Medical grade sheepskins are associated with a decrease in pressure ulcer development. Organisations might consider the use of some forms of pressure relief for high risk patients in the operating theatre.

  17. Prevalence of high blood pressure subtypes and its associations with BMI in Chinese children: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yide; Dong, Bin; Wang, Shuo; Dong, Yanhui; Zou, Zhiyong; Fu, Lianguo; Ma, Jun

    2017-06-26

    Data on prevalence and characteristics of different high blood pressure subtypes are lacking among Chinese children. Regarding the mechanistic differences between isolated systolic high blood pressure and isolated diastolic high blood pressure and their different impact on end organ diseases, it is necessary to examine the prevalence of different high blood pressure subtypes in Chinese children and explore their associations with adiposity. Data were derived from the baseline data of a multi-centered cluster randomized controlled trial involving participants from China. High blood pressure was defined according to age-, gender- and height-specific 95th percentile developed by the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group. Body mass index was used to classify underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. The prevalence of HBP was 10.2% and 8.9% for boys and girls, respectively. Isolated systolic high blood pressure is the dominant high blood pressure subtype among Chinese boys aged 6-17 years and girls aged 12-17 years, while isolated diastolic high blood pressure was the most common high blood pressure subtype in girls aged 6-11 years. In boys, the status of overweight doubled the risk of isolated systolic high blood pressure (95% CI, 1.73, 2.31; P high blood pressure and adiposity. The distribution of high blood pressure subtypes in boys differed from those in girls, and boys with adiposity showed a higher risk of high blood pressure than their female counterpart. Difference in strength of association between isolated diastolic high blood pressure and isolated systolic high blood pressure with body mass index was also found. These results may aid current strategies for preventing and controlling pediatric hypertension.

  18. Line pressure effects on differential pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, G.G.; Evans, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of differential pressure transducers in experimental pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems was evaluated. Transient differential pressure measurements made using a simple calibration proportionality relating differential pressure to output voltage could have large measurement uncertainties. A more sophisticated calibration equation was derived to incorporate the effects of zero shifts and sensitivity shifts as pressure in the pressure sensing line changes with time. A comparison made between the original calibration proportionality equation and the derived compensation equation indicates that potential measurement uncertainties can be reduced

  19. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must be po...

  20. Inflation from higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.

    1987-01-01

    We argue that an inflationary phase in the very early universe is related to the transition from a higher dimensional to a four-dimensional universe. We present details of a previously considered model which gives sufficient inflation without fine tuning of parameters. (orig.)