WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher valency retards

  1. Contribution to the study of higher valency states of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlet, Jean.

    1976-01-01

    Study of the chemistry of the higher valencies of americium in aqueous solutions and especially the autoreduction phenomenon. First a purification method of americium solutions is studied by precipitation, solvent extraction and ion exchange chromatography. Studies of higher valency states chemical properties are disturbed by the autoreduction phenomenon changing Am VI and Am V in Am III more stable. Stabilization of higher valency states, characterized by a steady concentration of Am VI in solution, can be done by complexation of Am VI and Am V ions or by a protecting effect of foreign ions. The original medium used has a complexing effect by SO 4 2- ions and a protecting effect by the system S 2 O 8 2- -Ag + consuming H 2 O 2 main reducing agent produced by water radiolysis. These effects are shown by the study of Am VI in acid and basic solutions. A mechanism of the stabilization effect is given [fr

  2. Generalized oscillator strengths for some higher valence-shell excitations of krypton atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The valence-shell excitations of krypton atom have been investigated by fast electron impact with an angle-resolved electron-energy-loss spectrometer. The generalized oscillator strengths for some higher mixed valence-shell excitations in 4d, 4f, 5p, 5d, 6s, 6p, 7s ← 4p of krypton atom have been determined. Their profiles are discussed, and the generalized oscillator strengths for the electric monopole and quadrupole excitations in 5p ← 4p are compared with the calculations of Amusia et al. (Phys. Rev. A 67 022703 (2003)). The differences between the experimental results and theoretical calculations show that more studies are needed.

  3. Generalized oscillator strengths for some higher valence-shell excitations of argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Lin-Fan; Yuan, Hui; Jiang, Wei-Chun; Zhang, Fang-Xin; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Cheng, Hua-Dong; Xu, Ke-Zun

    2007-01-01

    The valence shell excitations of argon were investigated by an angle-resolved fast-electron energy-loss spectrometer at an incident electron energy of 2500 eV, and the transition multipolarities for the excitations of 3p→3d, 4d, 5s, and 5p were elucidated with the help of the calculated intermediate coupling coefficients using the COWAN code. The generalized oscillator strengths for the excitations to 3p 5 (3d,3d ' ), 3p 5 (5p,5p ' ), and 3p 5 (5s,4d) were measured, and the profiles of these generalized oscillator strength were analyzed. Furthermore, although the present experimental positions of the maxima for the electric-monopole and electric-quadrupole excitations in 3p→5p are in agreement with the theoretical calculations [Amusia et al., Phys. Rev. A 67, 022703 (2003)], the generalized oscillator strength profiles show obvious differences. In addition, the experimental generalized oscillator strength ratios for the electric-octupole transitions in 3p→3d are different from the theoretical prediction calculated by the COWAN code

  4. Research Update: Retardation and acceleration of phase separation evaluated from observation of imbalance between structure and valence in LiFePO4/FePO4 electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Tokuda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available LiFePO4 is a potential positive electrode material for lithium ion batteries. We have experimentally observed an imbalance between the valence change of Fe ions and the structure change from the LiFePO4 phase to the FePO4 phase during delithiation by simultaneous in situ XRD and XANES measurements in an LiFePO4/FePO4 electrode. The ratio of structure change to valence change clearly indicates that the phase separation from LiFePO4 to FePO4 is suppressed at the beginning of delithiation, while it is accelerated at the latter stage, which is due to the coherent strain caused by the lattice misfit between the two phases.

  5. On γ5 in higher-order QCD calculations and the NNLO evolution of the polarized valence distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch, S.; Vogt, A.

    2015-06-01

    We discuss the prescription for the Dirac matrix γ 5 in dimensional regularization used in most second- and third-order QCD calculations of collider cross sections. We provide an alternative implementation of this approach that avoids the use of an explicit form of γ 5 and of its (anti-) commutation relations in the most important case of no more than one γ 5 in each fermion trace. This treatment is checked by computing the third-order corrections to the structure functions F 2 and g 1 in charged-current deep-inelastic scattering with axial-vector couplings to the W-bosons. We derive the so far unknown third-order helicity-difference splitting function ΔP ns (2)s that contributes to the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) evolution of the polarized valence quark distribution of the nucleon. This function is negligible at momentum fractions x>or similar 0.3 but relevant at x<<1.

  6. Levels of valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera eShuman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between the positive and the negative is fundamental in our emotional life. In appraisal theories, in particular in the component process model of emotion (Scherer, 1984, 2010, qualitatively different types of valence are proposed based on appraisals of (unpleasantness, goal obstructiveness/conduciveness, low or high power, self- (incongruence, and moral badness/goodness. This multifaceted conceptualization of valence is highly compatible with the frequent observation of mixed feelings in real life. However, it seems to contradict the one-dimensional conceptualization of valence often encountered in psychological theories, and the notion of valence as a common currency used to explain choice behavior. Here, we propose a framework to integrate the seemingly disparate conceptualizations of multifaceted valence and one-dimensional valence by suggesting that valence should be conceived at different levels, micro and macro. Micro-valences correspond to qualitatively different types of evaluations, potentially resulting in mixed feelings, whereas one-dimensional macro-valence corresponds to an integrative common currency to compare alternatives for choices. We propose that conceptualizing levels of valence may focus research attention on the mechanisms that relate valence at one level (micro to valence at another level (macro, leading to new hypotheses and addressing various concerns that have been raised about the valence concept, such as the valence-emotion relation.

  7. Levels of Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Vera; Sander, David; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2013-01-01

    The distinction between the positive and the negative is fundamental in our emotional life. In appraisal theories, in particular in the component process model of emotion (Scherer, 1984, 2010), qualitatively different types of valence are proposed based on appraisals of (un)pleasantness, goal obstructiveness/conduciveness, low or high power, self-(in)congruence, and moral badness/goodness. This multifaceted conceptualization of valence is highly compatible with the frequent observation of mixed feelings in real life. However, it seems to contradict the one-dimensional conceptualization of valence often encountered in psychological theories, and the notion of valence as a common currency used to explain choice behavior. Here, we propose a framework to integrate the seemingly disparate conceptualizations of multifaceted valence and one-dimensional valence by suggesting that valence should be conceived at different levels, micro and macro. Micro-valences correspond to qualitatively different types of evaluations, potentially resulting in mixed feelings, whereas one-dimensional macro-valence corresponds to an integrative “common currency” to compare alternatives for choices. We propose that conceptualizing levels of valence may focus research attention on the mechanisms that relate valence at one level (micro) to valence at another level (macro), leading to new hypotheses, and addressing various concerns that have been raised about the valence concept, such as the valence-emotion relation. PMID:23717292

  8. Ferromagnetic dinuclear mixed-valence Mn(II)/Mn(III) complexes: building blocks for the higher nuclearity complexes. structure, magnetic properties, and density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Mikko M; Välivaara, Juha; Mota, Antonio J; Colacio, Enrique; Lloret, Francesc; Sillanpää, Reijo

    2013-02-18

    A series of six mixed-valence Mn(II)/Mn(III) dinuclear complexes were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The reactivity of the complexes was surveyed, and structures of three additional trinuclear mixed-valence Mn(III)/Mn(II)/Mn(III) species were resolved. The magnetic properties of the complexes were studied in detail both experimentally and theoretically. All dinuclear complexes show ferromagnetic intramolecular interactions, which were justified on the basis of the electronic structures of the Mn(II) and Mn(III) ions. The large Mn(II)-O-Mn(III) bond angle and small distortion of the Mn(II) cation from the ideal square pyramidal geometry were shown to enhance the ferromagnetic interactions since these geometrical conditions seem to favor the orthogonal arrangement of the magnetic orbitals.

  9. Valencies of the lanthanides

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, David A.; Nelson, Peter G.

    2018-01-01

    The valencies of the lanthanides vary more than was once thought. In addition to valencies associated with a half-full shell, there are valencies associated with a quarter- and three-quarter-full shell. This can be explained on the basis of Slater’s theory of many-electron atoms. The same theory explains the variation in complexing constants in the trivalent state (the “tetrad effect”). Valency in metallic and organometallic compounds is also discussed.

  10. Research on flame retardation of wool fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Ichiro; Ametani, Kazuo; Sawai, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    Flame retardant, vinyl phosphonate oligomer, was uniformly impregnated in wool fibers, and by irradiating low energy electron beam or cobalt-60 gamma ray, the flame retardation of fabrics was attempted, as the results, the following knowledges were obtained. At the rate of sticking of flame retardant lower than that in cotton fabrics, sufficient flame retarding property can be given. The flame retarding property withstands 30 times of washing. The lowering of strength due to the processing hardly arose. For the flame retardation, gamma-ray was more effective than electron beam. Since the accidents of burning clothes have occurred frequently, their flame retardation has been demanded. So far the flame retardation of cotton fabrics has been advanced, but this time the research on the flame retardation of wool fabrics was carried out by the same method. The experimental method is explained. As for the performance of the processed fabrics, the rate of sticking of the flame retardant, the efficiency of utilization, the flame retarding property, the endurance in washing and the tensile and tearing strength were examined. As the oxygen index was higher, the flame retarding property was higher, and in the case of the index being more than 27, the flame retarding property is sufficient, that is, the rate of sticking of 6% in serge and 5% in muslin. (K.I.)

  11. Valency and molecular structure

    CERN Document Server

    Cartmell, E

    1977-01-01

    Valency and Molecular Structure, Fourth Edition provides a comprehensive historical background and experimental foundations of theories and methods relating to valency and molecular structures. In this edition, the chapter on Bohr theory has been removed while some sections, such as structures of crystalline solids, have been expanded. Details of structures have also been revised and extended using the best available values for bond lengths and bond angles. Recent developments are mostly noted in the chapter on complex compounds, while a new chapter has been added to serve as an introduction t

  12. Plutonium valence state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    A calculational method for ascertaining equilibrium valence state distributions of plutonium in acid solutions as a function of the plutonium oxidation number and the solution acidity is illustrated with an example. The method may be more practical for manual use than methods based upon polynomial equations. (T.G.)

  13. Supplemental Upward Lighting from Underneath to Obtain Higher Marketable Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Leaf Fresh Weight by Retarding Senescence of Outer Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Shen, Shanqi; Takagaki, Michiko; Kozai, Toyoki; Yamori, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the so-called "plant factory with artificial lighting" (PFAL) approach has been developed to provide safe and steady food production. Although PFALs can produce high-yielding and high-quality plants, the high plant density in these systems accelerates leaf senescence in the bottom (or outer) leaves owing to shading by the upper (or inner) leaves and by neighboring plants. This decreases yield and increases labor costs for trimming. Thus, the establishment of cultivation methods to retard senescence of outer leaves is an important research goal to improve PFAL yield and profitability. In the present study, we developed an LED lighting apparatus that would optimize light conditions for PFAL cultivation of a leafy vegetable. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was hydroponically grown under white, red, or blue LEDs, with light provided from above (downward), with or without supplemental upward lighting from underneath the plant. White LEDs proved more appropriate for lettuce growth than red or blue LEDs, and the supplemental lighting retarded the senescence of outer leaves and decreased waste (i.e., dead or low-quality senescent leaves), leading to an improvement of the marketable leaf fresh weight.

  14. Micro-Valences: Affective valence in neutral everyday objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eLebrecht

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Affective valence influences both our cognition and our perception of the world. Indeed, the speed and quality with which we recognize objects in a visual scene can vary dramatically depending on its affective content. However, affective processing of visual objects has been typically studied using only stimuli with strong affective valences (e.g., guns or roses. Here we explore whether affective valence must be strong or obvious to exert an effect on our perception. We conclude that the majority of objects carry some affective valence (micro-valences and, thus, nominally neutral objects are not really neutral. Functionally, the perception of valence in everyday objects facilitates perceptually-driven choice behavior, decision-making, and affective responses.

  15. Micro-Valences: Affective valence in neutral everyday objects

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie eLebrecht; Moshe eBar; Lisa F Barrett; Michael J Tarr

    2012-01-01

    Affective valence influences both our cognition and our perception of the world. Indeed, the speed and quality with which we recognize objects in a visual scene can vary dramatically depending on its affective content. However, affective processing of visual objects has been typically studied using only stimuli with strong affective valences (e.g., guns or roses). Here we explore whether affective valence must be strong or obvious to exert an effect on our perception. We conclude that the maj...

  16. Intermediate valence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsson, O.; Schoenhammer, K.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic properties of intermediate valence compounds are studied using the Anderson model. Due to the large orbital and spin degeneracy N/sub f/ of the 4f-level, 1/N/sub f/ can be treated as a small parameter. This approach provides exact T = 0 results for the Anderson impurity model in the limit N/sub f/ → ∞, and by adding 1/N/sub f/ corrections some properties can be calculated accurately even for N/sub f/ = 1 or 2. In particular valence photoemission and resonance photoemission spectroscopies are studied. A comparison of theoretical and experimental spectra provides an estimate of the parameters in the model. Core level photoemission spectra provide estimates of the coupling between the f-level and the conduction states and of the f-level occupancy. With these parameters the model gives a fair description of other electron spectroscopies. For typical parameters the model predicts two structures in the f-spectrum, namely one structure at the f-level and one at the Fermi energy. The resonance photoemission calculation gives a photon energy dependence for these two peaks in fair agreement with experiment. The peak at the Fermi energy is partly due to a narrow Kondo resonance, resulting from many-body effects and the presence of a continuous, partly filled conduction band. This resonance is related to a large density of low-lying excitations, which explains the large susceptibility and specific heat observed for these systems at low temperatures. 38 references, 11 figures, 2 tables

  17. CT findings of mentally retarded patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Akihiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Cranial CT findings were compared according to the age group in 192 mentally retarded patients aged from 15 to 59 years and in 132 control subjects. Enlargement of the ventricles, cisterns or fissures was judged. The incidence of ''enlargement'' was higher, irrespective of age, in mentally retarded group than in the control group. When the mentally retarded patients were divided into the group with pathologic symptoms and the group without them, the incidence of ''enlargement'' was higher in the former group than in the control group, but there was no significant difference between the latter group and the control group. There was no consistent relationship between the degree of mental retardation and the incidence of ''enlargement''. Many of the mentally retarded patients with pathologic symptoms tended to have a wide range of enlargement, while many of the patients without them had narrowed lateral ventricle. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. AUTISTIC FEATURES IN CHILDREN WITH MENTAL RETARDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Nilamadhab; Khanna, Rakesh; Kar, Gopal Chandra

    1997-01-01

    Most of the autistic disorder patients are also mentally retarded and many mentally retarded persons exhibit autistic symptoms. By using a standard instrument (Ritvo-Freeman Real Life Rating Scale) the autistic features of the mentally retarded children were studied. The study also examined the influence of age, sex and level of mental retardation on the occurrence of autistic symptoms. Children who came for consultation to child psychiatric unit were compared with those at a school for children with mental retardation receiving stimulation. Male children from child psychiatric unit had significantly higher scores than those from the school. Social and language impairment could be reliably identified and grouped. It was possible to diagnose the syndrome of autism in children with mental retardation in a significant number (9.6%)as compared to that was possible only clinically (1.9%). More number of children with severe/ profound mental retardation could be diagnosed as autistic. The autistic syndrome in children with mental retardation can be picked up more effectively by the use of structured instrument. PMID:21584097

  19. Valence-Dependent Belief Updating: Computational Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Kuzmanovic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available People tend to update beliefs about their future outcomes in a valence-dependent way: they are likely to incorporate good news and to neglect bad news. However, belief formation is a complex process which depends not only on motivational factors such as the desire for favorable conclusions, but also on multiple cognitive variables such as prior beliefs, knowledge about personal vulnerabilities and resources, and the size of the probabilities and estimation errors. Thus, we applied computational modeling in order to test for valence-induced biases in updating while formally controlling for relevant cognitive factors. We compared biased and unbiased Bayesian models of belief updating, and specified alternative models based on reinforcement learning. The experiment consisted of 80 trials with 80 different adverse future life events. In each trial, participants estimated the base rate of one of these events and estimated their own risk of experiencing the event before and after being confronted with the actual base rate. Belief updates corresponded to the difference between the two self-risk estimates. Valence-dependent updating was assessed by comparing trials with good news (better-than-expected base rates with trials with bad news (worse-than-expected base rates. After receiving bad relative to good news, participants' updates were smaller and deviated more strongly from rational Bayesian predictions, indicating a valence-induced bias. Model comparison revealed that the biased (i.e., optimistic Bayesian model of belief updating better accounted for data than the unbiased (i.e., rational Bayesian model, confirming that the valence of the new information influenced the amount of updating. Moreover, alternative computational modeling based on reinforcement learning demonstrated higher learning rates for good than for bad news, as well as a moderating role of personal knowledge. Finally, in this specific experimental context, the approach based on

  20. Thermal recombination: Beyond the valence quark approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, B. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Fries, R.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)]. E-mail: fries@physics.umn.edu; Bass, S.A. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2005-07-07

    Quark counting rules derived from recombination models agree well with data on hadron production at intermediate transverse momenta in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. They convey a simple picture of hadrons consisting only of valence quarks. We discuss the inclusion of higher Fock states that add sea quarks and gluons to the hadron structure. We show that, when recombination occurs from a thermal medium, hadron spectra remain unaffected by the inclusion of higher Fock states. However, the quark number scaling for elliptic flow is somewhat affected. We discuss the implications for our understanding of data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

  1. Valence effects of sorption: laboratory control of valence state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Case, F.I.

    1984-01-01

    Estimation of the rates of migration of nuclides from nuclear waste repositories required knowledge of the interaction of these nuclides with the components of the geological formations in the path of the migration. These interactions will be dependent upon the valence state and speciation of the nuclide. If the valence state is not known, then there can be little confidence in use of the data for safety analysis. An electrochemical method of valence state control was developed which makes use of a porous electrode in a flow system containing a column of the adsorbent. By use of this method and solvent extraction analyses of the valence states, a number of reactions of interest to HLW repositories were investigated. These include the reduction of Np(V) and Tc(VII) by crushed basalt and other minerals. For the reduction of Np(V) by basalt, the experiments indicate that sorption on basalt increases with pH and that most of the Np is reduced to Np(IV). The adsorbed Np(IV) is very difficult to remove from the basalt. For the experiments with Tc(VII), the results are considerably more complicated. The results of these experiments are used to assess some of the techniques and methods currently used in safety analyses of proposed HLW repositories. Perhaps the most important consideration is that predictive modeling of valence change reactions, such as the reduction of Np(V) and Tc(VII), must be used with considerable caution, and the occurrence of such reactions should be verified as best as possible with experiments using valence state control and analyses. 13 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  2. Localized description of valence fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alascio, B.; Allub, R.; Aligia, A.

    1979-07-01

    The authors set up a model for intermediate valence equivalent to the ''atomic'' limit of the Anderson Hamiltonian. Detailed analysis of this model shows that most of the essential characteristics of valence fluctuators are already present in this crudely simplified Hamiltonian. The spin-spin and the 4f charge-charge correlation functions are studied and it is shown that it is possible to define a spin fluctuation frequency ωsub(s.f.) and a charge fluctuation frequency ωsub(ch.f.).ωsub(s.f.) and ωsub(ch.f.) can differ considerably for some values of the parameters of the model. The magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat are calculated as functions of temperature and it is shown how the results simulate the behaviour found in valence fluctuators. (author)

  3. Valenced cues and contexts have different effects on event-based prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Peter; Yu, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the separate influence and joint influences on event-based prospective memory task performance due to the valence of cues and the valence of contexts. We manipulated the valence of cues and contexts with pictures from the International Affective Picture System. The participants, undergraduate students, showed higher performance when neutral compared to valenced pictures were used for cueing prospective memory. In addition, neutral pictures were more effective as cues when they occurred in a valenced context than in the context of neutral pictures, but the effectiveness of valenced cues did not vary across contexts that differed in valence. The finding of an interaction between cue and context valence indicates that their respective influence on event-based prospective memory task performance cannot be understood in isolation from each other. Our findings are not consistent with by the prevailing view which holds that the scope of attention is broadened and narrowed, respectively, by positively and negatively valenced stimuli. Instead, our findings are more supportive of the recent proposal that the scope of attention is determined by the motivational intensity associated with valenced stimuli. Consistent with this proposal, we speculate that the motivational intensity associated with different retrieval cues determines the scope of attention, that contexts with different valence values determine participants' task engagement, and that prospective memory task performance is determined jointly by attention scope and task engagement.

  4. Valenced cues and contexts have different effects on event-based prospective memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Graf

    Full Text Available This study examined the separate influence and joint influences on event-based prospective memory task performance due to the valence of cues and the valence of contexts. We manipulated the valence of cues and contexts with pictures from the International Affective Picture System. The participants, undergraduate students, showed higher performance when neutral compared to valenced pictures were used for cueing prospective memory. In addition, neutral pictures were more effective as cues when they occurred in a valenced context than in the context of neutral pictures, but the effectiveness of valenced cues did not vary across contexts that differed in valence. The finding of an interaction between cue and context valence indicates that their respective influence on event-based prospective memory task performance cannot be understood in isolation from each other. Our findings are not consistent with by the prevailing view which holds that the scope of attention is broadened and narrowed, respectively, by positively and negatively valenced stimuli. Instead, our findings are more supportive of the recent proposal that the scope of attention is determined by the motivational intensity associated with valenced stimuli. Consistent with this proposal, we speculate that the motivational intensity associated with different retrieval cues determines the scope of attention, that contexts with different valence values determine participants' task engagement, and that prospective memory task performance is determined jointly by attention scope and task engagement.

  5. Fire retardant formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions where a substrate is liable to catch fire such as bituminous products, paints, carpets or the like. The invention relates to a composition comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant such as bituminous material or paint......, carpets which substrate is mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant component. The invention relates to a fire retardant component comprising or being constituted of attapulgite, and a salt being a source of a blowing or expanding agent, where the attapulgite and the salt are electrostatically...... connected by mixing and subjecting the mixture of the two components to agitation. Also, the invention relates to compositions comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant according to claim 1 or 2, which fire retardant component...

  6. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  7. Radiation and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    A brief article discusses mental retardation in children who had been exposed to ionizing radiation in utero. The time of greatest sensitivity is between the 8th and 15th week after conception and the time of lesser sensitivity between the 16th and 25th weeks. An examination of the thresholds for exposure indicate that severe mental retardation would not result from any present environmental exposures of the public. (U.K.)

  8. Explaining the effect of event valence on unrealistic optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ron S; Brown, Mark G

    2009-05-01

    People typically exhibit 'unrealistic optimism' (UO): they believe they have a lower chance of experiencing negative events and a higher chance of experiencing positive events than does the average person. UO has been found to be greater for negative than positive events. This 'valence effect' has been explained in terms of motivational processes. An alternative explanation is provided by the 'numerosity model', which views the valence effect simply as a by-product of a tendency for likelihood estimates pertaining to the average member of a group to increase with the size of the group. Predictions made by the numerosity model were tested in two studies. In each, UO for a single event was assessed. In Study 1 (n = 115 students), valence was manipulated by framing the event either negatively or positively, and participants estimated their own likelihood and that of the average student at their university. In Study 2 (n = 139 students), valence was again manipulated and participants again estimated their own likelihood; additionally, group size was manipulated by having participants estimate the likelihood of the average student in a small, medium-sized, or large group. In each study, the valence effect was found, but was due to an effect on estimates of own likelihood, not the average person's likelihood. In Study 2, valence did not interact with group size. The findings contradict the numerosity model, but are in accord with the motivational explanation. Implications for health education are discussed.

  9. Molecular invariants: atomic group valence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundim, K.C.; Giambiagi, M.; Giambiagi, M.S. de.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular invariants may be deduced in a very compact way through Grassman algebra. In this work, a generalized valence is defined for an atomic group; it reduces to the Known expressions for the case of an atom in a molecule. It is the same of the correlations between the fluctions of the atomic charges qc and qd (C belongs to the group and D does not) around their average values. Numerical results agree with chemical expectation. (author) [pt

  10. THE VALENCE OF CORPUSCULAR PROTEINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, M H; Mover, L S

    1942-07-20

    BY THE USE OF TWO EXTREME MODELS: a hydrated sphere and an unhydrated rod the valence (net charge) of corpuscular proteins can be successfully calculated from electric mobility data by the Debye-Hückel theory (modified to include the effect of the ions in the ion atmosphere) in conjunction with the electrophoretic theory of Henry. As pointed out by Abramson, this permits a comparison with values for the valence from titration data. Electrometric titration measurements of serum albumin B (Kekwick) have been determined at several ionic strengths. These results, together with the available data in the literature for serum albumin B, egg albumin, and beta-lactoglobulin have been used to compare values for the valence calculated from measurements of titration, electrophoresis, and membrane potentials. The results indicate that the usual interpretation of titration curves is open to serious question. By extrapolation of the titration data to zero ionic strength and protein concentration, there results an "intrinsic" net charge curve describing the binding of H(+) (OH(-)) ion alone. This curve agrees closely, in each case, with values of the valence calculated from mobility data (which in turn are in close accord with those estimated from membrane potential measurements). The experimental titration curves in the presence of appreciable quantities of ions and protein deviate widely from the ideal curve. It is suggested that, under these conditions, binding of undissociated acid (base) leads to erroneous values for the net charge. This binding would not affect the electrophoretic mobility. Values of the net charge obtained by the two extreme models from electrophoretic data are in agreement within 15 to 20 per cent. The agreement between the cylindrical model and the titration data is somewhat better in each case than with the sphere; i.e., this comparison enables a choice to be made between asymmetry and hydration in the interpretation of results from sedimentation and

  11. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened as potential fire retardants for acrylic printing inks used on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants are selected according to their physical properties and their thermostabilities. A criterion for selecting a more stable fire retardant is established. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are used to determine thermostabilities. Results show that the fire retardant formulations are more thermally stable than the acrylic ink control. It is determined that an ink formulation containing a brominated phenol and carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile which has been modified with a brominated polymeric additive (BPA), yields the highest limiting oxygen index (LOI) of all the compounds tested. All of the fire-retardant formulations have a higher oxygen index than the baseline acrylic ink.

  12. Epidemiology of Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Rick

    Prevalence data on mental retardation is presented including international estimates on general prevalence, age directions, geographical variations within the United States, racial and ethnic variations, economic class distributions, family variations, and population distribution in institutions. Statistics are also provided in areas of specific…

  13. COLOUR LEARNING IN RETARDED CHILDREN*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COLOUR LEARNING IN RETARDED CHILDREN* !\\'fRS E. K~SEBOOM, Principal, ADS. LEVIN, M.B., M.R.C.P., D.C.H., Hon. Medical Officer, Hamlet B School for. Retarded Children, Johannesburg. '... silly children, with no understanding .. -'. Jeremiah 4:22. Tt has been observed' that mentally retarded children have.

  14. Experimental intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marthens, E; Harel, S; Zamenshof, S

    1975-01-01

    The effects of experimental intrauterine growth retardation on subsequent fetal development, especially with respect to brain development, were studied in a new animal model. The rabbit was chosen since it has a perinatal pattern of brain development similar to that of the human. Experimental ischemia was induced during the last trimester by ligation of spiral arterioles and the differential effects on fetal development at term (30th gestational day) are reported. Specific brain regions were examined for wet weight, total cell number (DNA) and total protein content. Highly significant decreases in all these parameters were found in both the cortex and cerebellum following experimental intrauterine growth retardation; these two organs were differentially affected. The prospects and advantages of using this animal model for the study of the postnatal "catch-up growth" are discussed.

  15. Fire and smoke retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  16. Influence of emotional valence and arousal on the spread of activation in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhean-Larose, Sandra; Leveau, Nicolas; Denhière, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Controversy still persists on whether emotional valence and arousal influence cognitive activities. Our study sought to compare how these two factors foster the spread of activation within the semantic network. In a lexical decision task, prime words were varied depending on the valence (pleasant or unpleasant) or on the level of emotional arousal (high or low). Target words were carefully selected to avoid semantic priming effects, as well as to avoid arousing specific emotions (neutral). Three SOA durations (220, 420 and 720 ms) were applied across three independent groups. Results indicate that at 220 ms, the effect of arousal is significantly higher than the effect of valence in facilitating spreading activation while at 420 ms, the effect of valence is significantly higher than the effect of arousal in facilitating spreading activation. These findings suggest that affect is a sequential process involving the successive intervention of arousal and valence.

  17. Fire-retardant foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of polyimide resins are being developed as foams with exceptional fire-retardant properties. Foams are potentially useful for seat cushions in aircraft and ground vehicles and for applications such as home furnishings and building-construction materials. Basic formulations can be modified with reinforcing fibers or fillers to produce celular materials for variety of applications. By selecting reactants, polymer structure can be modified to give foams with properties ranging from high resiliency and flexibility to brittleness and rigidity.

  18. Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of cotton textiles based on UV-curable flame retardant coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Weiyi [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Jie, Ganxin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Adaptability for Industrial Products, China National Electric Apparatus Research Institute, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Song, Lei; Hu, Shuang; Lv, Xiaoqi; Wang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2011-01-20

    The flame retardant coatings were prepared through UV-curable technique using tri(acryloyloxyethyl) phosphate (TAEP) and triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA). Results from FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that flame retardant coatings were successfully coated onto the surface of cotton fabrics. The flame retardancy of the treated fabrics was studied by Micro-scale Combustion Calorimeter (MCC) and limited oxygen index (LOI). The cottons coated flame retardant coatings had the lower peak heat release rate (PHRR), heat release capacity (HRC), total heat of combustion (THC) and higher LOI value compared with untreated cotton. The results from TGA test showed that the flame retardant coatings lowered the decomposition temperature of treated fabric. The thermal decomposition of cottons was monitored by real time FTIR analysis and thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TGA-IR). The enhanced flame retardant action might be caused by thermal decomposition of TAEP structure, producing acidic intermediates, which could react with fabrics to alter its thermal decomposition process.

  19. Valence configurations in 214Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Byrne, A.P.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Bark, R.A.; Poletti, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    Excited states of 214 Rn, up to spins of ≅ 24 ℎ have been studied using γ-ray and electron spectroscopy following the 208 Pb( 9 Be,3n) 214 Rn reaction. The level scheme (which differs substantially from earlier work) is compared with the results of a semi-empirical shell model calculation. The availability of high-spin orbitals for the four valence protons and two valence neutrons, and the effect of the attractive proton-neutron interaction, leads to the prediction of high-spin states at an unusually low excitation energy. Experimentally, the high level density leads to difficulties in the level scheme assignments at high spin. Nevertheless, configuration assignments, supported by transition strengths deduced from the measured lifetimes (in the nanosecond region) are suggested for the main yrast states. The decay properties also suggest that configuration mixing is important. The possibility of a gradual transition to octupole deformation, implied by the decay properties of the 11 - and 10 + yrast states is also discussed. (orig.)

  20. Retardo mental Mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio M. Vasconcelos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta revisão aborda as recentes descobertas da neurobiologia do retardo mental, enfatizando os novos recursos da citogenética, das técnicas moleculares e da neurorradiologia para esclarecer o diagnóstico. FONTES DE DADOS: O autor pesquisou o banco de dados MEDLINE da National Library of Medicine utilizando as palavras-chave "mental retardation", "developmental disability", "child" e "adolescent" em diferentes combinações, abrangendo o período de janeiro de 2000 a outubro de 2003. Também foram utilizados os bancos de dados das revistas científicas Pediatrics e New England Journal of Medicine através da palavra-chave "mental retardation". No total, o autor consultou cerca de 1.500 títulos de artigos e 500 resumos, e teve acesso direto a 150 artigos completos pertinentes. Quando oportuno, algumas referências dos artigos consultados também foram consideradas. O site Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man foi utilizado como fonte de informações em genética clínica. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Em outubro de 2003, o total de síndromes genéticas associadas a retardo mental chegou a 1.149. Considerando-se o conjunto das causas genéticas ou ambientais e congênitas ou adquiridas de retardo mental, a avaliação diagnóstica atual é capaz de esclarecer a etiologia em 50 a 70% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: O autor sugere uma avaliação diagnóstica do retardo mental em etapas lógicas, visando ao uso racional dos dispendiosos recursos da citogenética, biologia molecular e neuroimagem.OBJECTIVE: This paper describes recent advances in the neurobiology of mental retardation, emphasizing new diagnostic resources provided by cytogenetics, molecular testing, and neuroimaging. SOURCES OF DATA: MEDLINE (January 2000 through October 2003, using the following key words: mental retardation, developmental disability, child, and adolescent. Search of the Pediatrics and New England Journal of Medicine websites using the key word mental retardation. The

  1. Retroreflective Phase Retardation Prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    resonant cavity of a 1.064 Mm laser. This report shows that it is possible to coat the reflecting surfaces of a porro prism so that incident plane...with controlled phase retardation can be made by coating each reflecting surface of a porro prism with a single dielectric film. The amount of phase...of angle of incidence (n, < n2) S. Phase change on reflection as a function of angle of incidence (n" n ) [RL-0202-’R 6. Porro prism 7. Phase change

  2. Radiation and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    The editorial comments on a report published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima updating information on the induction of mental changes in the light of the revised and more detailed estimate of doses of radiation during pregnancies received by those exposed at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The estimated risks are little changed. The likelihood of a threshold for exposure during the 16th to 25th week is confirmed-at 700 mGy (with a lower 95% confidence interval of 200 mGy). For the more sensitive time between the eighth to 15th weeks a linear model with no threshold still gives a statistically adequate fit to the data. Now, however, if linear models are tested without the constraint of postulating a threshold of zero, fits are obtained indicating substantial thresholds below which mental retardation would not result. When data on all children are included the maximum likelihood threshold value averages about 250 mGy on the different criteria tested (with mean 95% confidence intervals of 0 and 550 mGy). Or if the analyses exclude five children with conditions that themselves sometimes cause mental retardation a threshold of about 400 mGy is indicated (with mean 95% confidence intervals of 150 and 600 mGy). (author)

  3. Valence, magnetism and conduction in the intermediate valence compounds: the case SmB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derr, J.

    2006-09-01

    In some rare earth based compounds, the 4f level is situated so close to the Fermi level that the valence of the compound can become intermediate between two integer values. The so called 'intermediate valence' compound of Samarium hexaboride (SmB 6 ) is one typical example of the exciting physics which can result from this quantum equilibrium between two valence configurations. The first configuration (Sm 2+ ) corresponds to an insulating and non magnetic state whereas the second one (Sm 3+ ) would theoretically give a magnetic and metallic ground state. This dissertation deals with the influence of pressure on this equilibrium. Specific heat measurements under pressure evidenced a new long range magnetic ordering for pressures higher than p c ∼ 10 GPa. On another hand, transport measurements measured for the first time in good conditions of hydrostatics found a reliable and reproducible critical pressure for the insulator to metal transition equal to p c . The phase diagram of SmB 6 is now well known and the observation for the first time of a magnetic anomaly in the high pressure resistivity curves certifies that the onset of the magnetic phase really coincide with the closure of the gap. This change at the critical pressure p c is discussed in a general frame taking into account the Kondo lattice temperature as a key parameter for the renormalization of the wavefunction from one integer configuration to the other whereas the valence itself is still intermediate. This general idea seems to be valid also for other systems studied in this dissertation like SmS or TmSe and could even be valid for more general cases (Ytterbium, Cerium). In the same time, resistivity measurements under uniaxial stress were undertaken. The result is a strong anisotropy effect observed on the pressure dependence of the residual resistivity in the compound SmB 6 . The comparison with the transport under hydrostatic conditions enables us to consider a new idea for the nature of the gap

  4. Simultaneous conditioning of valence and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, Bertram; Mitchell, Derek G V

    2014-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to the change in the valence of a conditioned stimulus (CS) due to its pairing with a positive or negative unconditioned stimulus (US). To the extent that core affect can be characterised by the two dimensions of valence and arousal, EC has important implications for the origin of affective responses. However, the distinction between valence and arousal is rarely considered in research on EC or conditioned responses more generally. Measuring the subjective feelings elicited by a CS, the results from two experiments showed that (1) repeated pairings of a CS with a positive or negative US of either high or low arousal led to corresponding changes in both CS valence and CS arousal, (2) changes in CS arousal, but not changes in CS valence, were significantly related to recollective memory for CS-US pairings, (3) subsequent presentations of the CS without the US reduced the conditioned valence of the CS, with conditioned arousal being less susceptible to extinction and (4) EC effects were stronger for high arousal than low arousal USs. The results indicate that the conditioning of affective responses can occur simultaneously along two independent dimensions, supporting evidence in related areas that calls for a consideration of both valence and arousal. Implications for research on EC and the acquisition of emotional dispositions are discussed.

  5. The Right Brain: Surviving Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes two studies of brain hemisphere development which indicate children retarded in the functions of one hemisphere may not be retarded in the functions of the second hemisphere. Suggests that the left hemisphere functions may inhibit some right hemisphere functions. (SL)

  6. Valence instabilities in cerium intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkman, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to study the magnetic behaviour of cerium in intermetallic compounds, that show an IV behaviour, e.g. CeSn 3 . In the progress of the investigations, it became of interest to study the effect of changes in the lattice of the IV compound by substituting La or Y for Ce, thus constituting the Cesub(1-x)Lasub(x)Sn 3 and Cesub(1-x)Ysub(x)Sn 3 quasibinary systems. A second purpose was to examine the possibility of introducing instabilities in the valency of a trivalent intermetallic cerium compound: CeIn 3 , also by La and Y-substitutions in the lattice. Measurements on the resulting Cesub(1-x)Lasub(x)In 3 and Cesub(1-x)Ysub(x)In 3 quasibinaries are described. A third purpose was to study the (gradual) transition from a trivalent cerium compound into an IV cerium compound. This was done by examining the magnetic properties of the CeInsub(x)Snsub(3-x) and CePbsub(x)Snsub(3-x) systems. Finally a new possibility was investigated: that of the occurrence of IV behaviour in CeSi 2 , CeSi, and in CeGa 2 . (Auth.)

  7. Valence evaluation with approaching or withdrawing cues: directly testing valence-arousal conflict theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Mei; Li, Ting; Li, Lin

    2017-07-19

    The valence-arousal conflict theory assumes that both valence and arousal will trigger approaching or withdrawing tendencies. It also predicts that the speed of processing emotional stimuli will depend on whether valence and arousal trigger conflicting or congruent motivational tendencies. However, most previous studies have provided evidence of the interaction between valence and arousal only, and have not provided direct proof of the interactive links between valence, arousal and motivational tendencies. The present study provides direct evidence for the relationship between approach-withdrawal tendencies and the valence-arousal conflict. In an empirical test, participants were instructed to judge the valence of emotional words after visual-spatial cues that appeared to be either approaching or withdrawing from participants. A three-way interaction (valence, arousal, and approach-withdrawal tendency) was observed such that the response time was shorter if participants responded to a negative high-arousal stimulus after a withdrawing cue, or to a positive low-arousal stimulus after an approaching cue. These findings suggest that the approach-withdrawal tendency indeed plays a crucial role in valence-arousal conflict, and that the effect depends on the congruency of valence, arousal and tendency at an early stage of processing.

  8. Ab initio valence calculations in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, D B

    1974-01-01

    Ab Initio Valence Calculations in Chemistry describes the theory and practice of ab initio valence calculations in chemistry and applies the ideas to a specific example, linear BeH2. Topics covered include the Schrödinger equation and the orbital approximation to atomic orbitals; molecular orbital and valence bond methods; practical molecular wave functions; and molecular integrals. Open shell systems, molecular symmetry, and localized descriptions of electronic structure are also discussed. This book is comprised of 13 chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the use of the Schrödinge

  9. On triangle meshes with valence dominant vertices

    KAUST Repository

    Morvan, Jean-Marie

    2018-01-01

    We study triangulations $\\cal T$ defined on a closed disc $X$ satisfying the following condition: In the interior of $X$, the valence of all vertices of $\\cal T$ except one of them (the irregular vertex) is $6$. By using a flat singular Riemannian metric adapted to $\\cal T$, we prove a uniqueness theorem when the valence of the irregular vertex is not a multiple of $6$. Moreover, for a given integer $k >1$, we exhibit non isomorphic triangulations on $X$ with the same boundary, and with a unique irregular vertex whose valence is $6k$.

  10. On triangle meshes with valence dominant vertices

    KAUST Repository

    Morvan, Jean-Marie

    2018-02-16

    We study triangulations $\\\\cal T$ defined on a closed disc $X$ satisfying the following condition: In the interior of $X$, the valence of all vertices of $\\\\cal T$ except one of them (the irregular vertex) is $6$. By using a flat singular Riemannian metric adapted to $\\\\cal T$, we prove a uniqueness theorem when the valence of the irregular vertex is not a multiple of $6$. Moreover, for a given integer $k >1$, we exhibit non isomorphic triangulations on $X$ with the same boundary, and with a unique irregular vertex whose valence is $6k$.

  11. Photoion mass spectroscopy and valence photoionization of hypoxanthine, xanthine and caffeine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feyer, Vitaliy, E-mail: vitaliy.feyer@elettra.trieste.it [Sincrotrone Trieste, in Area Science Park, I-34012 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy); Plekan, Oksana [Sincrotrone Trieste, in Area Science Park, I-34012 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy)] [Institute of Electron Physics, 21 Universitetska St., 88017 Uzhgorod (Ukraine); Richter, Robert [Sincrotrone Trieste, in Area Science Park, I-34012 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy); Coreno, Marcello [CNR-IMIP, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, CP10, I-00016 Monterotondo Scalo (Italy)] [CNR-Laboratorio Nazionale TASC-INFM, I-34012 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy); Prince, Kevin C. [Sincrotrone Trieste, in Area Science Park, I-34012 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy)] [CNR-Laboratorio Nazionale TASC-INFM, I-34012 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy)

    2009-03-30

    Photoionization mass spectra of hypoxanthine, xanthine and caffeine were measured using the photoelectron-photoion coincidence technique and noble gas resonance radiation at energies from 8.4 to 21.2 eV for ionization. The fragmentation patterns for these compounds show that hydrogen cyanide is the main neutral loss species at higher photon energies, while photoionization below 16.67 eV led predominantly to the parent ion. The valence photoelectron spectra of this family of molecules were measured over an extended energy range, including the inner C, N and O 2s valence orbitals. The observed ion fragments were related to ionization of the valence orbitals.

  12. Determining trace element in hair of children with mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhilan; Gu Bomei; Jia Meixiang

    1992-01-01

    Seven trace elements in the hair come from 29 mental retardation children and 29 normal children have been analysed by INAA and XRF. There are significant differences for Fe and Sc between the two groups. The average value of Pb in the hair of the mental retardation children is higher than that of the normal children. Although Zn is very important for children growing, there is no significant difference between two children groups

  13. Local Equilibrium and Retardation Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K; Vesselinov, Velimir V

    2018-01-01

    In modeling solute transport with mobile-immobile mass transfer (MIMT), it is common to use an advection-dispersion equation (ADE) with a retardation factor, or retarded ADE. This is commonly referred to as making the local equilibrium assumption (LEA). Assuming local equilibrium, Eulerian textbook treatments derive the retarded ADE, ostensibly exactly. However, other authors have presented rigorous mathematical derivations of the dispersive effect of MIMT, applicable even in the case of arbitrarily fast mass transfer. We resolve the apparent contradiction between these seemingly exact derivations by adopting a Lagrangian point of view. We show that local equilibrium constrains the expected time immobile, whereas the retarded ADE actually embeds a stronger, nonphysical, constraint: that all particles spend the same amount of every time increment immobile. Eulerian derivations of the retarded ADE thus silently commit the gambler's fallacy, leading them to ignore dispersion due to mass transfer that is correctly modeled by other approaches. We then present a particle tracking simulation illustrating how poor an approximation the retarded ADE may be, even when mobile and immobile plumes are continually near local equilibrium. We note that classic "LEA" (actually, retarded ADE validity) criteria test for insignificance of MIMT-driven dispersion relative to hydrodynamic dispersion, rather than for local equilibrium. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Valence nucleons in self-consistent fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Toro, M.; Lomnitz-Adler, J.

    1978-01-01

    An iterative approach to determine directly the best Hartree-Fock one-body density rho is extended by expressing rho in terms of a core and a valence part and allowing for general crossings of occupied and unoccupied levels in the valence part. Results are shown for 152 Sm and a microscopic analysis of the core structure of deformed light nuclei is carried out. (author)

  15. Theory for the mixed-valence state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    A theory is presented which explains why mixed-valence compounds behave as two component Fermi liquids, and why TmSe orders magnetically while the other known mixed-valence compounds do not. The variation of Tsub(N) and the field Hsub(T) to obtain ferromagnetic alignment with changing Tm 2+ /Tm 3+ ratio is quantitatively explained. For Tm 2+ concentration > = 0.3, TmSe is predicted to order ferromagnetically

  16. Pressure-induced valence change and moderate heavy fermion state in Eu-compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Fuminori; Okauchi, Keigo; Sato, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Ai; Akamine, Hiromu; Ashitomi, Yosuke; Hedo, Masato; Nakama, Takao; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Valenta, Jaroslav; Prchal, Jiri; Sechovský, Vladimir; Aoki, Dai; Ōnuki, Yoshichika

    2018-05-01

    A pressure-induced valence transition has attracted much attention in Eu-compounds. Among them, EuRh2Si2, EuNi2Ge2, and EuCo2Ge2 reveal the valence transition around 1, 2, and 3 GPa, respectively. We have succeeded in growing single crystals of EuT2X2 (T: transition metal, X: Si, Ge) and studied electronic properties under pressure. EuRh2Si2 indicates a first-order valence transition between 1 and 2 GPa, with a large and prominent hysteresis in the electrical resistivity. At higher pressures, the first-order valence transition changes to a cross-over regime with an intermediate valence state. Tuning of the valence state with pressure is reflected in a drastic change of the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity in EuRh2Si2 single crystals. Effect of pressure on the valence states on EuRh2Si2, EuIr2Si2, EuNi2Ge2, and EuCo2Ge2, as well as an isostructural related compound EuGa4, are reviewed.

  17. Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Despite their decreasing usage worldwide, congeners continue to accumulate in the environment, including soil, dust, food, anima...

  18. Can earthworms survive fire retardants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

  19. [Emotional valence of words in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalenques, I; Enjolras, J; Izaute, M

    2013-06-01

    Emotion recognition is a domain in which deficits have been reported in schizophrenia. A number of emotion classification studies have indicated that emotion processing deficits in schizophrenia are more pronounced for negative affects. Given the difficulty of developing material suitable for the study of these emotional deficits, it would be interesting to examine whether patients suffering from schizophrenia are responsive to positively and negatively charged emotion-related words that could be used within the context of remediation strategies. The emotional perception of words was examined in a clinical experiment involving schizophrenia patients. This emotional perception was expressed by the patients in terms of the valence associated with the words. In the present study, we investigated whether schizophrenia patients would assign the same negative and positive valences to words as healthy individuals. Twenty volunteer, clinically stable, outpatients from the Psychiatric Service of the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand were recruited. Diagnoses were based on DSM-IV criteria. Global psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS). The patients had to evaluate the emotional valence of a set of 300 words on a 5-point scale ranging from "very unpleasant" to "very pleasant". . The collected results were compared with those obtained by Bonin et al. (2003) [13] from 97 University students. Correlational analyses of the two studies revealed that the emotional valences were highly correlated, i.e. the schizophrenia patients estimated very similar emotional valences. More precisely, it was possible to examine three separate sets of 100 words each (positive words, neutral words and negative words). The positive words that were evaluated were the more positive words from the norms collected by Bonin et al. (2003) [13], and the negative words were the more negative examples taken from these norms. The neutral words

  20. Fears of institutionalized mentally retarded adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternlicht, M

    1979-01-01

    The patterns of fears of institutionalized mentally retarded adults were studied in a sample of i2 moderately retarded men and women between the ages of 21-49. The direct questioning method was employed. Two interviews were held, two weeks apart; the first interview elicited the Ss' fears, while the second concerned the fears of their friends. A total of 146 responses were obtained, and these were categorized according to the types of fears: supernatural-natural events, animals, physical injury, psychological stress, egocentric responses, and no fears. The Ss displayed a higher percentage of fears in the preoperational stage than in the concrete operational stage. In a comparison of male to female fears, only one category, that of fears of animals, reached significance. The study suggested that the same developmental trend of fears that appears in normal children appears in the retarded as well, and these fears follow Piaget's level of cognitive development, proceeding from egocentric perceptions of causality to realistic cause and effect thinking.

  1. Decoding emotional valence from electroencephalographic rhythmic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikkanat, Hande; Moriya, Hiroki; Ogawa, Takeshi; Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kawanabe, Motoaki; Hyvarinen, Aapo

    2017-07-01

    We attempt to decode emotional valence from electroencephalographic rhythmic activity in a naturalistic setting. We employ a data-driven method developed in a previous study, Spectral Linear Discriminant Analysis, to discover the relationships between the classification task and independent neuronal sources, optimally utilizing multiple frequency bands. A detailed investigation of the classifier provides insight into the neuronal sources related with emotional valence, and the individual differences of the subjects in processing emotions. Our findings show: (1) sources whose locations are similar across subjects are consistently involved in emotional responses, with the involvement of parietal sources being especially significant, and (2) even though the locations of the involved neuronal sources are consistent, subjects can display highly varying degrees of valence-related EEG activity in the sources.

  2. Emotions and false memories: valence or arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Yves; Verrier, Nadège

    2007-03-01

    The effects of mood on false memories have not been studied systematically until recently. Some results seem to indicate that negative mood may reduce false recall and thus suggest an influence of emotional valence on false memory. The present research tested the effects of both valence and arousal on recall and recognition and indicates that the effect is actually due to arousal. In fact, whether participants' mood is positive, negative, or neutral, false memories are significantly more frequent under conditions of high arousal than under conditions of low arousal.

  3. Valence electronic properties of porphyrin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenuit, G; Castellarin-Cudia, C; Plekan, O; Feyer, V; Prince, K C; Goldoni, A; Umari, P

    2010-09-28

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the valence electronic structure of porphyrin-derived molecules. The valence photoemission spectra of the free-base tetraphenylporphyrin and of the octaethylporphyrin molecule were measured using synchrotron radiation and compared with theoretical spectra calculated using the GW method and the density-functional method within the generalized gradient approximation. Only the GW results could reproduce the experimental data. We found that the contribution to the orbital energies due to electronic correlations has the same linear behavior in both molecules, with larger deviations in the vicinity of the HOMO level. This shows the importance of adequate treatment of electronic correlations in these organic systems.

  4. Moessbauer spectroscopic study on valence-detrapping and trapping of mixed-valence trinuclear iron (III, III, II) fluorine-substitute benzoate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Y.; Onaka, S.; Ogiso, R.; Takayama, T.; Takahashi, M.; Nakamoto, T.

    2012-01-01

    Four mixed-valence trinuclear iron(III, III, II) fluorine-substituted benzoate complexes were synthesized; Fe 3 O(C 6 F 5 COO) 6 (C 5 H 5 N) 3 ·CH 2 Cl 2 (1), Fe 3 O(C 6 F 5 COO) 6 (C 5 H 5 N) 3 (2), Fe 3 O(2H-C 6 F 4 COO) 6 (C 5 H 5 N) 3 (3), and Fe 3 O(4H-C 6 F 4 COO) 6 (C 5 H 5 N) 3 (4). By means of 57 Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy, valence-detrapping and trapping phenomena have been investigated for the four mixed-valence complexes. The valence state of three iron ions is trapped at lower temperatures while it is fully detrapped at higher temperatures for 1. Valence detrapping is not observed for 2, 3, and 4 even at room temperature, although Moessbauer spectra for 3 and 4 show a complicated temperature dependence. (author)

  5. Double-valence-fluctuating molecules and superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, J.E.; Scalapino, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of ''double-valence-fluctuating'' molecules, having two ground-state configurations differing by two electrons. We propose a possible realization of such a molecule, and experimental ways to look for it. We argue that a weakly coupled array of such molecules should give rise to a strong-coupling Shafroth-Blatt-Butler superconductor, with a high transition temperature

  6. NEVER forget: negative emotional valence enhances recapitulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Holly J; Kark, Sarah M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2017-07-10

    A hallmark feature of episodic memory is that of "mental time travel," whereby an individual feels they have returned to a prior moment in time. Cognitive and behavioral neuroscience methods have revealed a neurobiological counterpart: Successful retrieval often is associated with reactivation of a prior brain state. We review the emerging literature on memory reactivation and recapitulation, and we describe evidence for the effects of emotion on these processes. Based on this review, we propose a new model: Negative Emotional Valence Enhances Recapitulation (NEVER). This model diverges from existing models of emotional memory in three key ways. First, it underscores the effects of emotion during retrieval. Second, it stresses the importance of sensory processing to emotional memory. Third, it emphasizes how emotional valence - whether an event is negative or positive - affects the way that information is remembered. The model specifically proposes that, as compared to positive events, negative events both trigger increased encoding of sensory detail and elicit a closer resemblance between the sensory encoding signature and the sensory retrieval signature. The model also proposes that negative valence enhances the reactivation and storage of sensory details over offline periods, leading to a greater divergence between the sensory recapitulation of negative and positive memories over time. Importantly, the model proposes that these valence-based differences occur even when events are equated for arousal, thus rendering an exclusively arousal-based theory of emotional memory insufficient. We conclude by discussing implications of the model and suggesting directions for future research to test the tenets of the model.

  7. Reducing the negative valence of stressful memories through emotionally valenced, modality-specific tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadmor, Avia; McNally, Richard J; Engelhard, Iris M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: People who perform a cognitively demanding secondary task while recalling a distressing memory often experience the memory as less emotional, vivid, or accurate during subsequent recollections. In this experiment, we tested whether the emotional valence (positive versus

  8. Flame retardant compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, J.W.; Maringer, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation crosslinked compositions containing copolymers of ethylene and vinyl ester of a (meth) acrylate, a hydrated inorganic filler, a higher concentration of silane than employed heretofore and a lubricant of lauric acid and ethylene-bis-stearamide exhibit physical strength properties substantially similar to a chemically crosslinked counterpart. (author)

  9. Values and Moral Foundations as a Basis for Attitude toward Mentally Retarded People in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Анатольевич Сычев

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available An important factor of the successful integration of mentally retarded people is the readiness of the society to accept such people as equal members. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the attitude toward mentally retarded people depends on values and moral factors. The sample comprised 169 students of technical college and pedagogical university. The attitude toward mentally retarded people was measured using a modified version of Mental Retardation Attitude Inventory (MRAI-R by Antonak & Harth, values were tested using Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-R2 by Schwartz, and moral foundations were measured using Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ by Graham et al.. We elaborated modified Russian version of MRAI-R, showed its factor structure and good psychometric properties. The main moral factor of the attitude toward mentally retarded people was the importance of fairness: the higher it is the higher is the readiness to diminish the social distance with the mentally retarded. The importance of authority was associated with the low approval of inclusive education for the mentally retarded. The most important predictor of the attitude toward mentally retarded people was gender: girls demonstrated a more positive attitude towards the mentally retarded.

  10. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  11. Epilepsy and Comorbid Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Preventable and unpreventable causes of childhood-onset epilepsy associated with mental retardation were determined in 692 patients with epilepsy onset between 1977 and 1985 in a Nova Scotia population-based cohort studied in the Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.

  12. Mental Retardation: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, Charles M., Ed.

    A collection of writings by 17 authors, the text includes the following discussions: general principles of diagnosis and management of mental retardation, neurologic evaluation of the infant and child, psychological evaluation, educational information, and treatment of pseudoretardation, communicative disorders, and metabolic and endocrine causes.…

  13. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siamaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress

  14. Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partnership project on flame retardants in furniture seeks to update the health and environmental profiles of flame-retardant chemicals that meet fire safety standards for upholstered consumer products with polyurethane foam

  15. Veridical and False Pictorial Memory in Individuals with and without Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Michael T.; Toglia, Michael P.; Wakeford, Yvonne; Jakway, Allison; Sullivan, Kate; Hasel, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Veridical and false pictorial recognition were assessed in individuals with mental retardation; groups were matched for MA and CA. Pictures were viewed in either a generative or static format at acquisition. The individuals with mental retardation and those in the MA-matched group had higher rates of false memories for critical items and lower hit…

  16. Tracing organophosphorus and brominated flame retardants and plasticizers in an estuarine food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, S.H.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Leslie, H.A.; de Boer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Nine organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) were detected in a pelagic and benthic food web of the Western Scheldt estuary, The Netherlands. Concentrations of several PFRs were an order of magnitude higher than those of the brominated flame retardants (BFRs). However, the detection frequency of

  17. Cerium valence change in the solid solutions Ce(Rh1-xRux)Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, Oliver; Riecken, Jan F.; Winter, Florian; Poettgen, Rainer; Muenster Univ.; Abdala, Paula M.; Chevalier, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The solid solutions Ce(Rh 1-x Ru x )Sn were investigated by means of susceptibility measurements, specific heat, electrical resistivity, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and 119 Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy. Magnetic measurements as well as XAS data show a cerium valence change in dependence on the ruthenium content. Higher ruthenium content causes an increase from 3.22 to 3.45 at 300 K. Furthermore χ and χ -1 data indicate valence fluctuation for cerium as a function of temperature. For example, Ce(Rh 0.8 Ru 0.2 )Sn exhibits valence fluctuations between 3.42 and 3.32 in the temperature range of 10 to 300 K. This could be proven by using the interconfiguration fluctuation (ICF) model introduced by Sales and Wohlleben. Cerium valence change does not influence the tin atoms as proven by 119 Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy, but it influences the electrical properties. Ce(Rh 0.9 Ru 0.1 )Sn behaves like a typical valence fluctuating compound, and higher ruthenium content causes an increase of the metallic behavior. (orig.)

  18. People with Mental Retardation Are Dying, Legally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Denis; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes the institution of the death penalty for convicted criminals with mental retardation. Examples are given of cases in which juries were not told of the defendant's mental retardation before sentencing, and a list of defendants with mental retardation that have been executed since 1976 is provided. (CR)

  19. Evaluative conditioning induces changes in sound valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative Conditioning (EC has hardly been tested in the auditory domain, but it is a potentially valuable research tool. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether the affective evaluation of short environmental sounds can be changed using affective words as unconditioned stimuli (US. Congruence effects on an affective priming task (APT for conditioned sounds demonstrated successful EC. Subjective ratings for sounds paired with negative words changed accordingly. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether the acquired valence remains stable after repeated presentation of the conditioned sound without the US or whether extinction occurs. The acquired affective value remained present, albeit weaker, even after 40 extinction trials. These results warrant the use of EC to study processing of short environmental sounds with acquired valence, even if this requires repeated stimulus presentations. This paves the way for studying processing of affective environmental sounds while effectively controlling low level-stimulus properties.

  20. Isospin sum rule for nuclear photoabsorption: Effect of retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maize, M.A.; Fallieros, S.

    1987-01-01

    Motivated by the close similarity between a sum rule originally derived by Cabibbo and Radicati and a simplified version based on nonrelativistic nuclear physics in the long-wavelength limit, we have investigated the effect of retardation corrections. An account of the contributions due to higher multipolarities is presented, together with a physical interpretation of the results

  1. Human Amygdala Represents the Complete Spectrum of Subjective Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwen; Zelano, Christina; Gottfried, Jay A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the amygdala is a major locus for hedonic processing, how it encodes valence information is poorly understood. Given the hedonic potency of odor stimuli and the amygdala's anatomical proximity to the peripheral olfactory system, we combined high-resolution fMRI with pattern-based multivariate techniques to examine how valence information is encoded in the amygdala. Ten human subjects underwent fMRI scanning while smelling 9 odorants that systematically varied in perceived valence. Representational similarity analyses showed that amygdala codes the entire dimension of valence, ranging from pleasantness to unpleasantness. This unidimensional representation significantly correlated with self-reported valence ratings but not with intensity ratings. Furthermore, within-trial valence representations evolved over time, prioritizing earlier differentiation of unpleasant stimuli. Together, these findings underscore the idea that both spatial and temporal features uniquely encode pleasant and unpleasant odor valence in the amygdala. The availability of a unidimensional valence code in the amygdala, distributed in both space and time, would create greater flexibility in determining the pleasantness or unpleasantness of stimuli, providing a mechanism by which expectation, context, attention, and learning could influence affective boundaries for guiding behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our findings elucidate the mechanisms of affective processing in the amygdala by demonstrating that this brain region represents the entire valence dimension from pleasant to unpleasant. An important implication of this unidimensional valence code is that pleasant and unpleasant valence cannot coexist in the amygdale because overlap of fMRI ensemble patterns for these two valence extremes obscures their unique content. This functional architecture, whereby subjective valence maps onto a pattern continuum between pleasant and unpleasant poles, offers a robust mechanism by which context

  2. 5th International Conference on Valence Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, S

    1987-01-01

    During the Koln meeting (August 28-31, 1984), Irdia was chosen as the venue for the next International Conference on Valence Fluctuations. lhis was in recognition ard appreciation of the work done, both experimental ard theoretical, by the Irdian scientists in this area during the last decade. We decided to hold this Conference in the month of January, 1987 at Bangalore. lhe subject of Valence Fluctuations has kept itself alive ard active as it has provided many shocks ard suprises particularly among the Ce- ard U-based intermetallies. lhe richness of many interesting physical phenomena occurring in mixed valent materials, the flexibility of modifying their physical properties (by alloying, for example) ard the possibility of synthesizing a wide variety of new such materials seem to be the key factors in this regard. Barely six months before this Conference, an International Conference on Anomalous Rare Earths and Actinides (ICAREA) had been held at Grenoble (July, 1986) which also focussed on mixed valence a...

  3. Valence fluctuations between two magnetic configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzaferro, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    The subject of this work is the study of a microscopic model which describes TmSe through its most important feature, i.e.: the valence fluctuations between two magnetic configurations. Chapter I is a general review of the most important physical properties of rare-earth systems with intermediate valence (I.V.) and a general description of experimental results and theoretical models on Tm compounds. In Chapter II the Hamiltonian model is discussed and the loss of rotational invariance is also analyzed. Chapter III is devoted to the study of non-stoichiometric Tsub(x)Se compounds. It is shown that these compounds can be considered as a mixture of TmSe (I.V. system) and Tm 3+ 0.87Se. Chapter IV is devoted to the calculation of spin-and charge susceptibilities. The results obtained permit to explain the essential features of the neutron scattering spectrum in TmSe. In Chapter V, an exactly solvable periodic Hamiltonian is presented. From the experimental results, some fundamental features are deduced to describe TmSe as an intermediate valence system whose two accessible ionic configurations are magnetic (degenerated fundamental state). (M.E.L) [es

  4. Visual evoked potentials of mildly mentally retarded and control children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, T; Pietz, J; Schellberg, D; Köhler, W

    1988-10-01

    Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded from 25 10- to 13-year-old mildly mentally retarded children and compared with those from 31 control children of the same age-range. Correlations of VEPs with age were weak, but a relationship between VEPs and IQ was demonstrated for the control group. The retarded group had significantly longer latencies and higher amplitude peaks than the control group, with the differences occurring primarily over non-specific cortex and for secondary components. Analysis also showed that the retarded group were neurophysiologically heterogeneous. Since the same children had been analyzed earlier by quantitative EEG methods, comparisons are made with respect to these two methods of investigating brain function.

  5. Parental Attitude Towards Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEOKADIA WIATROWSKA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available https://doaj.org/puChild's developmental retardation is an undoubted condition for the absence of educational attainment and its unpleasant mental state. Due to the nature of multidimensional state of that, parental attitudes become relevant, as they affect the acceleration or retardation of development. Positive parental attitudes are the strong weapon for the child and his struggles on the way to an equal start and equal development opportunities. For this reason you should emphasize those factors that build the structures supporting developmental progression.An ecosystem approach to human development emphasizes each factor as relevant component for growth and expansion, without denying its own human activity and his self-determination rightblisher/metadata

  6. Emotional Valence, Arousal, and Threat Ratings of 160 Chinese Words among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Samuel M Y; Mak, Christine W Y; Yeung, Dannii; Duan, Wenjie; Tang, Sandy; Yeung, June C; Ching, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide ratings of valence/pleasantness, arousal/excitement, and threat/potential harm for 160 Chinese words. The emotional valence classification (positive, negative, or neutral) of all of the words corresponded to that of the equivalent English language words. More than 90% of the participants, junior high school students aged between 12 and 17 years, understood the words. The participants were from both mainland China and Hong Kong, thus the words can be applied to adolescents familiar with either simplified (e.g. in mainland China) or traditional Chinese (e.g. in Hong Kong) with a junior secondary school education or higher. We also established eight words with negative valence, high threat, and high arousal ratings to facilitate future research, especially on attentional and memory biases among individuals prone to anxiety. Thus, the new emotional word list provides a useful source of information for affective research in the Chinese language.

  7. Improvement of flame resistance of non-flame retardant cables by applying fire protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, Yujiro; Segoshi, Yoshinori; Jinno, Susumu; Mii, Kazuki

    2017-01-01

    The new regulatory requirements, which were put in force after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, impose the use of flame retardant cables on the plant components having safety functions for the purpose of fire protection. However, some Japanese nuclear power plants built in the early days use non-flame retardant cables that do not pass the demonstration test to check for the flame resistance. To cope with the new regulatory requirements, a fire protection measure for non-flame retardant cables was introduced to assure flame resistance of non-flame retardant cables equivalent to or higher than that of flame retardant cables. To illustrate the fire protection measure, both non-flame retardant cables and its cable tray are covered with fire protection sheet fabricated from incombustible material to form an assembly. Considering the demonstration test results, it can be concluded that flame resistance performance of non-flame retardant cables equivalent to or higher than that of flame retardant cables can be assured by forming the assembly even if an external fire outside the assembly and internal cable fire inside the assembly are assumed. This paper introduces the design of the assembly consisting of a bundle of cables and a cable tray and summarizes the results of demonstration tests. (author)

  8. Experimental Constraints on the Partitioning and Valence of V and Cr in Garnet and Coexisting Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Berthet, S.; Newville, M.

    2008-01-01

    A series of experiments with garnet and coexisting melt have been carried out across a range of oxygen fugacities (near hematite-magnetite (HM) to below the iron-wustite (IW) buffers) at 1.7 GPa to study the partitioning and valence of Cr and V in both phases. Experiments were carried out in a non end loaded piston cylinder apparatus, and the run products were analyzed with electron microprobe and xray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis at beamline 13-ID at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Lab. The valence of vanadium and chromium were determined using the position and intensity of the Ka pre-edge peaks, calibrated on a series of Cr and Vbearing standard glasses. This technique has been applied to V and Cr in glasses and V in spinels previously, and in these isotropic phases there are no orientational effects on the XANES spectra (Righter et al., 2006, Amer. Mineral. 91, 1643-1656). We also now demonstrate this to be true for V and Cr in garnet. Also, previous work has shown that V has a higher valence in the glass (or melt) than in the coexisting spinel. This is also true for V in garnet-glass pairs in this study. Vanadium valence in garnets varies from 2.7 below the IW buffer to 3.7 near HM, and for coexisting glass it varies from 3.2 to 4.3. Vanadium valence measured in some natural garnets from mantle localities indicates V in the more reduced range at 2.5. Comparisons will be made between fO2 estimated from V valence and other methods for garnet-bearing mantle samples. In contrast, Cr valence measured in garnet and coexisting glass for all experimental and natural samples is 2.9- 3.0, suggesting that the valence of Cr does not vary within either phase across a large fO2 range. These results demonstrate that while V varies from 2+ to 3+ to 4+ in garnet-melt systems, Cr does not, and this will ultimately affect the partitioning behavior of these two elements in natural systems. Garnet/melt D(Cr) are between 12 and 17 across this range

  9. Valence skipping driven superconductivity and charge Kondo effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Takashi; Hase, Izumi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Valence skipping in metallic compounds can give rise to an unconventional superconductivity. •Several elements in the periodic table show valence skipping (or valence missing), for example, Bi forms the compounds in valence states +3 and +5. •The doping of valence skipping elements will induce superconductivity and this will lead to a possibility of high temperature superconductivity. •We consider the Wolf model with negative-U impurities, and show a phase diagram including superconducting phase. •There is a high temperature region near the boundary. -- Abstract: Valence skipping in metallic compounds can give rise to an unconventional superconductivity. Several elements in the periodic table show valence skipping (or valence missing), for example, Bi forms the compounds in valence states +3 and +5. The doping of valence skipping elements will induce superconductivity and this will lead to a possibility of high temperature superconductivity. We consider the Wolf model with negative-U impurities, and show a phase diagram including superconducting phase. The superconducting state is changed into a metallic state with a local singlet as the attractive interaction |U| increases. There is a high temperature region near the boundary

  10. Valence-delocalization of the mixed-valence oxo-centered trinuclear iron propionates [FeIII2FeIIO(C2H5CO2)6(py)3[npy; n = 0, 1.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamoto, Tadahiro; Katada, Motomi; Kawata, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Susumu; Sano, Hirotoshi; Konno, Michiko

    1994-01-01

    Mixed-valence trinuclear iron propionates [Fe III 2 Fe II O(C 2 H 5 CO 2 ) 6 (py) 3 [npy, where n = 0, 1.5, were synthesized and the structure of the pyridine-solvated complex was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Moessbauer spectra of the solvated propionate complex showed a temperature-dependent mixed-valence state related to phase transitions, reaching an almost delocalized valence state at room temperature. On the other hand, the non-solvated propionate showed a remarkable change of the spectral shape related to a phase transition, remaining in a localized valence state at higher temperatures up to room temperature. (orig.)

  11. Topological Qubits from Valence Bond Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Sheng; Affleck, Ian; Raussendorf, Robert

    2018-05-01

    Topological qubits based on S U (N )-symmetric valence-bond solid models are constructed. A logical topological qubit is the ground subspace with twofold degeneracy, which is due to the spontaneous breaking of a global parity symmetry. A logical Z rotation by an angle 2 π /N , for any integer N >2 , is provided by a global twist operation, which is of a topological nature and protected by the energy gap. A general concatenation scheme with standard quantum error-correction codes is also proposed, which can lead to better codes. Generic error-correction properties of symmetry-protected topological order are also demonstrated.

  12. Valence electron momentum distributions in cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, L.; Weigold, E.; Mitroy, J.

    1982-08-01

    The valence 5s and 4d electron momentum distributions in cadmium have been measured using noncoplanar symmetric (e, 2e) electron coincidence spectroscopy at a total energy of 1200eV. They are in close agreement with Hartree-Fock momentum distributions both in shape and relative magnitudes. Some satellite lines of very low intensity have been detected. A CI calculation of the Cd ground state and several Cd + ion states has been carried out to predict cross reactions for the ground state and various satellite transitions. The predictions are in agreement with the data

  13. Reply to Isgur's comments on valence QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.F.

    2000-01-01

    With the goal of understanding the complexity of QCD and the role of symmetry in dynamics, the authors studied a field theory called Valence QCD (VQCD) in which the Z graphs are forbidden so that the Fock space is limited to the valence quarks. The authors calculated nucleon form factors, matrix elements, and hadron masses both with this theory and with quenched QCD on a set of lattices with the same gauge background. Comparing the results of the lattice calculations in these two theories, the authors drew conclusions regarding the SU(6) valence quark model and chiral symmetry. While recognizing the goal of VQCD, Nathan Isgur disagrees on some of the conclusions the authors have drawn. The foremost objection raised in section 2 is to their suggestion that the major part of the hyperfine splittings in baryons is due to Goldstone boson exchange and not one-gluon-exchange (OGE) interactions. The logic of Isgur's objection is that VQCD yields a spectroscopy vastly different from quenched QCD and therefore the structure of the hadrons (to which hyperfine splittings in a quark model are intimately tied) is also suspect so no definite conclusions are possible. To put this into perspective it should be emphasized at the outset that spectroscopy is only one aspect of hadron physics examined in section 1. The authors have studied the axial and scalar couplings of nucleon in terms of F A /D A and F S /D S , the neutron to proton magnetic moment ratio μn/μp, and various form factors. None of these results reveal any pathologies of hadron structure and turn out to be close to the SU(6) relations, as expected. In fact this is what motivated the study of valence degrees of freedom via VQCD. In section 2 the authors address specific issues related to spectroscopy in VQCD. Isgur also presented more general arguments against the idea of boson exchange as a contributor to hyperfine effects. A cornerstone of his discussion is the unifying aspect of OGE in a quark model picture. The

  14. Pressure induced valence transitions in the Anderson lattice model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard, B.H.; Coqblin, B.

    2009-01-01

    We apply the equation of motion method to the Anderson lattice model, which describes the physical properties of heavy fermion compounds. In particular, we focus here on the variation of the number of f electrons with pressure, associated to the crossover from the Kondo regime to the intermediate valence regime. We treat here the non-magnetic case and introduce an improved approximation, which consists of an alloy analogy based decoupling for the Anderson lattice model. It is implemented by partial incorporation of the spatial correlations contained in higher-order Green's functions involved in the problem that have been formerly neglected. As it has been verified in the framework of the Hubbard model, the alloy analogy avoids the breakdown of sum rules and is more appropriate to explore the asymmetric case of the periodic Anderson Hamiltonian. The densities of states for a simple cubic lattice are calculated for various values of the model parameters V, t, E f , and U.

  15. Valence photoelectron spectrum of KBr: Effects of electron correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calo, A.; Huttula, M.; Patanen, M.; Aksela, H.; Aksela, S.

    2008-01-01

    The valence photoelectron spectrum has been measured for molecular KBr. Experimental energies of the main and satellite structures have been compared with the results of ab initio calculations based on molecular orbital theory including configuration and multiconfiguration interaction approaches. Comparison between the experimental KBr spectrum and previously reported Kr valence photoelectron spectrum has also been performed in order to find out if electron correlation is of the same importance in the valence ionized state of KBr as in the corresponding state of Kr

  16. Dynamically tracking anxious individuals' affective response to valenced information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fua, Karl C; Teachman, Bethany A

    2017-09-01

    Past research has shown that an individual's feelings at any given moment reflect currently experienced stimuli as well as internal representations of similar past experiences. However, anxious individuals' affective reactions to streams of interrelated valenced information (vs. reactions to static stimuli that are arguably less ecologically valid) are rarely tracked. The present study provided a first examination of the newly developed Tracking Affect Ratings Over Time (TAROT) task to continuously assess anxious individuals' affective reactions to streams of information that systematically change valence. Undergraduate participants (N = 141) completed the TAROT task in which they listened to narratives containing positive, negative, and neutral physically- or socially-relevant events, and indicated how positive or negative they felt about the information they heard as each narrative unfolded. The present study provided preliminary evidence for the validity and reliability of the task. Within scenarios, participants higher (vs. lower) in anxiety showed many expected negative biases, reporting more negative mean ratings and overall summary ratings, changing their pattern of responding more quickly to negative events, and responding more negatively to neutral events. Furthermore, individuals higher (vs. lower) in anxiety tended to report more negative minimums during and after positive events, and less positive maximums after negative events. Together, findings indicate that positive events were less impactful for anxious individuals, whereas negative experiences had a particularly lasting impact on future affective responses. The TAROT task is able to efficiently capture a number of different cognitive biases, and may help clarify the mechanisms that underlie anxious individuals' biased negative processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Temperature effects in the valence fluctuation of europium intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, O.L.T. de; Troper, A.; Gomes, A.A.

    1978-03-01

    A previously reported model for valence fluctuations in europium compound in order to account for thermal occupation effect. Experimental results are critically discussed and new experiments are suggested

  18. Positive valence music restores executive control over sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Carryl L; Lewis, Bridget A

    2017-01-01

    Music sometimes improves performance in sustained attention tasks. But the type of music employed in previous investigations has varied considerably, which can account for equivocal results. Progress has been hampered by lack of a systematic database of music varying in key characteristics like tempo and valence. The aims of this study were to establish a database of popular music varying along the dimensions of tempo and valence and to examine the impact of music varying along these dimensions on restoring attentional resources following performance of a sustained attention to response task (SART) vigil. Sixty-nine participants rated popular musical selections that varied in valence and tempo to establish a database of four musical types: fast tempo positive valence, fast tempo negative valence, slow tempo positive valence, and slow tempo negative valence. A second group of 89 participants performed two blocks of the SART task interspersed with either no break or a rest break consisting of 1 of the 4 types of music or silence. Presenting positive valence music (particularly of slow tempo) during an intermission between two successive blocks of the SART significantly decreased miss rates relative to negative valence music or silence. Results support an attentional restoration theory of the impact of music on sustained attention, rather than arousal theory and demonstrate a means of restoring sustained attention. Further, the results establish the validity of a music database that will facilitate further investigations of the impact of music on performance.

  19. Mental Retardation; Its Social Context and Social Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Bernard

    Concerned with mental retardation as a social product, the following topics are discussed: mental retardation as a social phenomenon, the concept of the retarded as surplus population, labeling and incompetence in relation to life chances, mental retardation as deviance and as incompetence, and findings on the prevalence of retardation in the…

  20. The self-esteem and anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban, Fatma; Arıkan, Duygu

    2013-11-01

    The study was carried out with the aim of determining the factors affecting and to evaluate anxiety situations and self-esteem of children with and without mentally retarded siblings. The sampling included 227 healthy children: 108 of them have mental retarded sibling and 119 of them do not have mental retarded sibling. The context of this study consisted of 15-18 year of age healthy children with mentally retarded siblings and 15-18 year of aged healthy children having at least one sibling between the dates February 15(st) and June 26(st) 2010. Personal Information Form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Trait Anxiety Scale were used. It was found out that trait anxiety of 17-18 aged of children with mental retarded sibling (47.04 ± 7.3) was higher than that of the children without mental retarded siblings (44.05 ± 11.23) (P self-esteem of children with mentally retarded sibling was not affected from the handicap of their siblings (P > 0.05). Trait anxiety score averages of children with mentally retarded sibling and experience some difficulties due to his or her siblings's handicap (47.00 ± 7.76) were found higher than those of those of the children without any problem with the environment (42.61 ± 7.48) (P self-esteem in both groups were not significant different, score of trait anxiety for children with mentally disabled siblings was higher in comparison. It was concluded that anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings increased as self-esteem of these children decreased.

  1. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  2. Seniority Number in Valence Bond Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Zhou, Chen; Wu, Wei

    2015-09-08

    In this work, a hierarchy of valence bond (VB) methods based on the concept of seniority number, defined as the number of singly occupied orbitals in a determinant or an orbital configuration, is proposed and applied to the studies of the potential energy curves (PECs) of H8, N2, and C2 molecules. It is found that the seniority-based VB expansion converges more rapidly toward the full configuration interaction (FCI) or complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) limit and produces more accurate PECs with smaller nonparallelity errors than its molecular orbital (MO) theory-based analogue. Test results reveal that the nonorthogonal orbital-based VB theory provides a reverse but more efficient way to truncate the complete active Hilbert space by seniority numbers.

  3. Orthognathic surgery for mentally retarded patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, A. G.; Tuinzing, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    The surgical treatment of mentally retarded children for esthetic reasons is discussed. In mentally retarded adults a facial deformity can give rise to functional problems; in some cases a facial deformity can stigmatize the mental state. In selected cases orthognathic surgery may offer a solution

  4. Body Awareness in Children with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Johan; Dedroog, Inge

    2009-01-01

    The body awareness of 124 toddlers with mental retardation and of 124 children developing normally matched to them on age and gender was examined. Twenty-nine of the children with mental retardation were diagnosed as Down syndrome (DS). The "Pointing and Naming" Test of Berges and Lezine [Berges, J., & Lezine, I. (1978). "Test d'imitation de…

  5. Political Philosophy and the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanovich, Keith E.

    The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically…

  6. Noncitizen: Plight of the Mentally Retarded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarnulis, Ed

    1974-01-01

    Mentally retarded citizens have been denied their human and civil rights, not only by the public, but by professionals--including social workers. The author claims that most programs for the mentally retarded are, at best, dehumanizing. Professionals have an ethical obligation to refuse to refer children to such programs. (Author)

  7. Sustained Attention of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Allison, Pamela

    1988-01-01

    The sustained attention of 23 young adults with mild mental retardation and nonretarded subjects was assessed. Findings suggested that the sustained attention of the retarded differs from that of the nonretarded on those vigilance tasks that place demands on memory abilities. (Author/DB)

  8. The Mentally Retarded Offender and Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamour, Miles; West, Bernadette

    The booklet provides an overview of the issues involved in correctional rehabilitation for the mentally retarded offender. Reviewed are clinical and legal definitions of criminal behavior and retardation, and discussed are such issues as law enforcement and court proceedings problems, pros and cons of special facilities, labeling, normalization,…

  9. Probing Transient Valence Orbital Changes with Picosecond Valence-to-Core X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    March, Anne Marie; Assefa, Tadesse A.; Boemer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    We probe the dynamics of valence electrons in photoexcited [Fe(terpy)2]2+ in solution to gain deeper insight into the Fe ligand bond changes. We use hard X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), which combines element specificity and high penetration with sensitivity to orbital structure, making...... valence orbitals to the nascent core-hole. Vtc-XES offers particular insight into the molecular orbitals directly involved in the light-driven dynamics; a change in the metal ligand orbital overlap results in an intensity reduction and a blue energy shift in agreement with our theoretical calculations...... and more subtle features at the highest energies reflect changes in the frontier orbital populations....

  10. CASE REPORT OF A MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilka GALEVSKA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mental retardation is a complex individual and social problem. According to WHO, around 1-3 % of world population are mentally retarded people and the percentage between school children is around 2 %.The development of a mentally retarded child depends on factors related to the disability itself, all the limitations and characteristics which results from that. But, physical, psychical, educational and social development of a mentally retarded child, also, depend on other conditions, such as the family and the wider environment, their reactions, attitudes, awareness and sensitivity for special needs of the child, as well as their preparedness and possibilities to respond.At the same time, it is necessary that the mentally retarded child is detected and diagnosed in time, as well as the early start of an adequate treatment.

  11. Prediction of valence and arousal from music features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Brinker, A.C.; Van Dinther, C.H.B.A.; Skowronek, J.

    2011-01-01

    Mood is an important attribute of music and knowledge on mood can beused as a basic ingredient in music recommender and retrieval systems. Moods are assumed to be dominantly determined by two dimensions:valence and arousal. An experiment was conducted to attain data forsong-based ratings of valence

  12. Semiempirical search for oxide superconductors based on bond valence sums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, S.; Fukushima, N.; Niu, H.; Ando, K.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships between crystal structures and electronic states of layered transition-metal oxides are analyzed in the light of bond valence sums. Correlations between the superconducting transition temperature T c and the bond-valence-sum parameters are investigated for the high-T c cuprate compounds. Possibility of making nonsuperconducting oxides superconducting is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Investigating Valence and Autonomy in Children's Relationships with Imaginary Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Melissa A.; Pierucci, Jillian M.; Gilpin, Ansley Tullos

    2013-01-01

    Little research has explored valence and autonomy in children's imaginary relationships. In the present study, a new interview (modeled after an existing measure for real relationships) was designed to elicit descriptions of both positive and negative interactions with imaginary companions and to provide a measure of relationship valence and…

  14. Architectural Representation of Valence in the Limbic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namburi, Praneeth; Al-Hasani, Ream; Calhoon, Gwendolyn G; Bruchas, Michael R; Tye, Kay M

    2016-01-01

    In order to thrive, animals must be able to recognize aversive and appetitive stimuli within the environment and subsequently initiate appropriate behavioral responses. This assignment of positive or negative valence to a stimulus is a key feature of emotional processing, the neural substrates of which have been a topic of study for several decades. Until recently, the result of this work has been the identification of specific brain regions, such as the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), as important to valence encoding. The advent of modern tools in neuroscience has allowed further dissection of these regions to identify specific populations of neurons signaling the valence of environmental stimuli. In this review, we focus upon recent work examining the mechanisms of valence encoding, and provide a model for the systematic investigation of valence within anatomically-, genetically-, and functionally defined populations of neurons. PMID:26647973

  15. Growth patterns in children with intrauterine growth retardation and their correlation to neurocognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Toledano-Alhadef, Hagit; Leitner, Yael; Geva, Ronny; Eshel, Rina; Harel, Shaul

    2009-07-01

    The relationship between somatic growth and neurocognitive outcome was studied in a cohort of 136 children with intrauterine growth retardation. The children were followed up from birth to 9 to 10 years of age by annual measurements of growth parameters, neurodevelopmental evaluations, and IQ. The rate of catch-up for height between 1 and 2 years of age was significantly higher than the catch-up for weight (P importance for prediction of subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome in children with intrauterine growth retardation.

  16. The measurement of retardation in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantchev, N; Widlöcher, D J

    1998-01-01

    The description of clinical features helps to distinguish between depressive illness and nondepressive psychic pain and enables the clinician to decide whether prescription of an antidepressant is beneficial. Psychomotor retardation is probably a central feature of depression, and this review discusses the methods available for measuring it. The Salpêtrière Retardation Rating Scale (SRRS) specifically measures psychomotor retardation; the scale and applications are described. Means of measuring motor and speech activity and an experimental approach for understanding the process underlying psychomotor retardation are reviewed. Comparison of the SRRS and other rating scale scores demonstrates that retardation is related to depression severity and therapeutic change and is a good criterion for prediction of therapeutic effect. The SRRS has been used to show that selective antidepressants target specific clinical dimensions of depression depending on the patient subgroup treated. Measures of motor and speech activity are sensitive to therapeutic response. Choice Reaction Time and Simple Reaction Time tasks are particularly suited for examining psychomotor retardation because they test the decision process while avoiding motivation and attention interference. Psychomotor retardation is a constant and probably central feature of depression. Means available for measuring it can be used to assess the effects of antidepressants on specific clinical dimensions.

  17. SLEEP DISORDERS IN MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kelmanson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of the association between sleep disturbances and mental retardation in children. Attention is paid to the instant connection between sleep neurophysiology and intellectual progress, as well as between sleep disorders and the pathogenesis of mental retardation in children. The data on characteristic forms of sleep disturbances, including bed-time resistance, frequent night awakenings, parasomnias, abnormal sleep structure, and notably reduced REM-sleep proportion are provided. The potential role of abnormal melatonin production in the origins of sleep disturbances in children with mental retardation is discussed. Certain approaches to pharmacological and non-pharmacological corrections of sleep disorders are outlined.

  18. Looking behaviour and preference for artworks: the role of emotional valence and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreplin, Ute; Thoma, Volker; Rodway, Paul

    2014-10-01

    The position of an item influences its evaluation, with research consistently finding that items occupying central locations are preferred and have a higher subjective value. The current study investigated whether this centre-stage effect (CSE) is a result of bottom-up gaze allocation to the central item, and whether it is affected by item valence. Participants (n=50) were presented with three images of artistic paintings in a row and asked to choose the image they preferred. Eye movements were recorded for a subset of participants (n=22). On each trial the three artworks were either similar but different, or were identical and with positive valence, or were identical and with negative valence. The results showed a centre-stage effect, with artworks in the centre of the row preferred, but only when they were identical and of positive valence. Significantly greater gaze allocation to the central and left artwork was not mirrored by equivalent increases in preference choices. Regression analyses showed that when the artworks were positive and identical the participants' last fixation predicted preference for the central art-work, whereas the fixation duration predicted preference if the images were different. Overall the result showed that item valence, rather than level of gaze allocation, influences the CSE, which is incompatible with the bottom-up gaze explanation. We propose that the centre stage heuristic, which specifies that the best items are in the middle, is able to explain these findings and the centre-stage effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Emotion and language: Valence and arousal affect word recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysbaert, Marc; Warriner, Amy Beth

    2014-01-01

    Emotion influences most aspects of cognition and behavior, but emotional factors are conspicuously absent from current models of word recognition. The influence of emotion on word recognition has mostly been reported in prior studies on the automatic vigilance for negative stimuli, but the precise nature of this relationship is unclear. Various models of automatic vigilance have claimed that the effect of valence on response times is categorical, an inverted-U, or interactive with arousal. The present study used a sample of 12,658 words, and included many lexical and semantic control factors, to determine the precise nature of the effects of arousal and valence on word recognition. Converging empirical patterns observed in word-level and trial-level data from lexical decision and naming indicate that valence and arousal exert independent monotonic effects: Negative words are recognized more slowly than positive words, and arousing words are recognized more slowly than calming words. Valence explained about 2% of the variance in word recognition latencies, whereas the effect of arousal was smaller. Valence and arousal do not interact, but both interact with word frequency, such that valence and arousal exert larger effects among low-frequency words than among high-frequency words. These results necessitate a new model of affective word processing whereby the degree of negativity monotonically and independently predicts the speed of responding. This research also demonstrates that incorporating emotional factors, especially valence, improves the performance of models of word recognition. PMID:24490848

  20. Spin and spinless conductivity in polypyrrole. Evidence for mixed-valence conduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotti, G.; Schiavon, G. (Ist. di Polarografia ed Elettrochimica Preparativa, Padova (Italy))

    In situ conductivity of polypyrrole (as tosylate) as a function of oxidative doping level attains a maximum at three-quarters the total oxidation charge and the relevant in situ ESR signal corresponds to an equal concentration of spin-carrying (polaron) and spinless (bipolaron) species. Results are explained on the basis of mixed-valence conduction. Bipolaron conduction, taking the place of polaron-bipolaron conductivity at higher oxidation levels, accounts for persisting conductivity in the high-oxidation state.

  1. Education of Mentally Retarded Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Jelenc

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult education of people with severe, modest and profound mental retardation got only recently an important place in the special education theory and practice. It could be established that in this area both in the intentional as well as in the contentual field the meaningfull shift has been achieved. Today we are talking about authonomy and rights of these people to taking part in a decission-making about the way of their living, but on the other  side the fast development and changes in society are again and again compelling this people to the decisions which they are not able to put into effect and which are burdening them and making them dependent of others. This could partly be prevented by continuing education as it is also true for them that in the stage of initial education they cannot subdue everything what they would need later in their life. Next to the findings of the foreign experts this has been confirmed as well in the first our investigations in this area. Some of the findings will be presented in our paper.

  2. A, a Brominated Flame Retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Takeshita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA, a brominated flame retardant, has been found to exacerbate pneumonia in respiratory syncytial virus- (RSV- infected mice. We examined the effect of Brazilian propolis (AF-08 on the exacerbation of RSV infection by TBBPA exposure in mice. Mice were fed a powdered diet mixed with 1% TBBPA alone, 0.02% AF-08 alone, or 1% TBBPA and 0.02% AF-08 for four weeks and then intranasally infected with RSV. TBBPA exposure increased the pulmonary virus titer and level of IFN-γ, a representative marker of pneumonia due to RSV infection, in the lungs of infected mice without toxicity. AF-08 was significantly effective in reducing the virus titers and IFN-γ level increased by TBBPA exposure. Also, AF-08 significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the lungs of RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure, but Th2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10 levels were not evidently increased. Neither TBBPA exposure nor AF-08 treatment affected the anti-RSV antibody production in RSV-infected mice. In flow cytometry analysis, AF-08 seemed to be effective in reducing the ratio of pulmonary CD8a+ cells in RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure. TBBPA and AF-08 did not exhibit anti-RSV activity in vitro. Thus, AF-08 probably ameliorated pneumonia exacerbated by TBBPA exposure in RSV-infected mice by limiting excess cellular immune responses.

  3. Intersite interactions and susceptibility in mixed valence systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaoqian Wang; Gao Lin; Bingjian Ni; Fusui Liu.

    1985-10-01

    This paper considers the effect of intersite processes on the susceptibility in mixed valence system. The method of thermodynamical perturbation used in this paper can also be generalized to study other properties of mixed valence system. The general formula of partition function of two-site interactions for the mixed valence system is given. The numerical calculations show that the intersite interaction is large enough to explain the minimum of susceptibility discovered in experiments. The different types of our theoretical curves predict that the susceptibility should exhibit a rich variety of behaviour at low temperature for various materials. (author)

  4. Valence bond model potential energy surface for H4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, D.M.; Brown, N.J.

    1980-01-01

    Potential energy surfaces for the H 4 system are derived using the valence bond procedure. An ab initio evaluation of the valence bond energy expression is described and some of its numerical properties are given. Next, four semiempirical evaluations of the valence bond energy are defined and parametrized to yield reasonable agreement with various ab initio calculations of H 4 energies. Characteristics of these four H 4 surfaces are described by means of tabulated energy minima and equipotential contour maps for selected geometrical arrangements of the four nuclei

  5. The Political Values of Mentally Retarded Citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barbara B.; Klein, Nancy K.

    1980-01-01

    The findings indicated that the retarded are affected by the process of political socialization much like their nonretarded peers. In forming a ranking of goal-values, age and socioeconomic status outweighed differences in cognitive ability. (Author/DLS)

  6. Nanocellular foam with solid flame retardant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Kelly-Rowley, Anne M.; Bunker, Shana P.; Costeux, Stephane

    2017-11-21

    Prepare nanofoam by (a) providing an aqueous solution of a flame retardant dissolved in an aqueous solvent, wherein the flame retardant is a solid at 23.degree. C. and 101 kiloPascals pressure when in neat form; (b) providing a fluid polymer composition selected from a solution of polymer dissolved in a water-miscible solvent or a latex of polymer particles in a continuous aqueous phase; (c) mixing the aqueous solution of flame retardant with the fluid polymer composition to form a mixture; (d) removing water and, if present, solvent from the mixture to produce a polymeric composition having less than 74 weight-percent flame retardant based on total polymeric composition weight; (e) compound the polymeric composition with a matrix polymer to form a matrix polymer composition; and (f) foam the matrix polymer composition into nanofoam having a porosity of at least 60 percent.

  7. Plasma-enhanced synthesis of green flame retardant cellulosic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totolin, Vladimir

    The natural fiber-containing fabrics and composites are more environmentally friendly, and are used in transportation (automobiles, aerospace), military applications, construction industries (ceiling paneling, partition boards), consumer products, etc. Therefore, the flammability characteristics of the composites based on polymers and natural fibers play an important role. This dissertation presents the development of plasma assisted - green flame retardant coatings for cellulosic substrates. The overall objective of this work was to generate durable flame retardant treatment on cellulosic materials. In the first approach sodium silicate layers were pre-deposited onto clean cotton substrates and cross linked using low pressure, non-equilibrium oxygen plasma. A statistical design of experiments was used to optimize the plasma parameters. The modified cotton samples were tested for flammability using an automatic 45° angle flammability test chamber. Aging tests were conducted to evaluate the coating resistance during the accelerated laundry technique. The samples revealed a high flame retardant behavior and good thermal stability proved by thermo-gravimetric analysis. In the second approach flame retardant cellulosic materials have been produced using a silicon dioxide (SiO2) network coating. SiO 2 network armor was prepared through hydrolysis and condensation of the precursor tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), prior coating the substrates, and was cross linked on the surface of the substrates using atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) technique. Due to protection effects of the SiO2 network armor, the cellulosic based fibers exhibit enhanced thermal properties and improved flame retardancy. In the third approach, the TEOS/APP treatments were extended to linen fabrics. The thermal analysis showed a higher char content and a strong endothermic process of the treated samples compared with control ones, indicating a good thermal stability. Also, the surface analysis proved

  8. Mental Retardation, Poverty and Community Based Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar Helander

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A person with moderate mental retardation would, in a western country, be "diagnosed" early on in life. Consequently, such a child is likely to be sent for special education. Given the high level of job requirements, such a person is unlikely to be employed in the open market later in life. Mental retardation is one of the most frequent disabilities in most studies, mental retardation is found in about three percent of the population. Persons even with mild mental retardation have very large difficulties finding employment and are for this reason often deprived of opportunities for suitable and productive income generation this is why most stay poor. But disability does not only cause poverty poverty itself causes disability. This study follows an analysis, based on a review of the Swedish programme for mental retardation during the period 1930-2000. It is concluded that in Sweden a very large proportion of mild and moderate mental retardation has been eliminated though the combination of poverty alleviation with a community-based rehabilitation programme. For these situations a pro-active programme analysing and meeting the needs of the target groups should be useful as a means to achieve poverty alleviation.

  9. Effect of valence on the electromigration in silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Doan

    1970-01-01

    It is shown that the apparent effective valence Z B ** of a solute deduced from experiments differs from the true effective valence Z B * defined in the atomic models by a corrective term due to the 'vacancy flow effect'. The experimental results suggest that this corrective term is very important and that it is negative for transition elements; this hypothesis is confirmed for the case of iron in a copper matrix. For the elements to the right of silver in the periodic table, where the correction can be neglected, the effective valence of the solute varies linearly with z (z + 1), z being the difference between the valency of the solute and the solvent; in contrast, the further the solute is from the solvent in the periodic table the more nearly the electronic structure of the ion at the saddle point resembles that of the ion at the equilibrium position. (author) [fr

  10. Hole energy and momentum distributions in valence bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, G. van der.

    1982-01-01

    In order to understand the electrical and magnetic properties of solids, the knowledge of the density of states and the dispersion relation of the valence bands is indispensable. This thesis offers some alternative methods to obtain information about the nature of the valence band. Part A deals with the energy distribution of the photoelectrons. A simple model, which explains the core hole satellite structure in compounds with large correlation effects between the valence band holes and the created photo-hole, is outlined. CuCl, CuX 2 (X = F Cl and Br) are studied, by photoemission and Auger electron spectroscopies in determining the valence band properties. Part B deals with the simultaneous measurement of the energy and the wave vector of the emitted electrons. A practical example is given for the determination of the dispersion relation in copper. The measurements of a surface resonance band and the distribution of the secondary electrons are also reported. (Auth.)

  11. Modulation of motor-meaning congruity effects for valenced words

    OpenAIRE

    Brookshire, Geoffrey; Ivry, Richard; Casasanto, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which emotionally valenced words automatically cue spatio-motor representations. Participants made speeded button presses, moving their hand upward or downward while viewing words with positive or negative valence. Only the color of the words was relevant to the response; on target trials, there was no requirement to read the words or process their meaning. In Experiment 1, upward responses were faster for positive words, and downward for negative words. This eff...

  12. Cadmium zinc telluride as a mid-infrared variable retarder

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, William; Taherion, Saeid; Kumar, F. Joseph; Giles, David; Hore, Dennis

    2018-04-01

    The electro-optic behavior of cadmium zinc telluride is examined in the mid-infrared region between 3 and 11 μm, for applied DC field strengths of up to 106 V/m. The measurements performed here include full characterization of the polarization state of the transmitted light by means of the Stokes vector. We demonstrate the suitability of this material for DC variable retarder applications such as those achieved by quarter- or half-wave retardation. A comparison of two different metallic coatings for electrodes, gold and indium, reveals important differences in performance that are attributed to the homogeneity of the field through the bulk of the crystal. We illustrate that, in the case of both metals, the same electro-optic coefficients are measured, but regions of higher and lower retardation result in significant depolarization in the case of gold. Such depolarization may adversely affect the contrast ratio in a light valve, or increase the voltage necessary for the operation of an arbitrary polarization state generator.

  13. Flame retardants: Dust - And not food - Might be the risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, J; Ballesteros-Gómez, A; Leslie, H A; Brandsma, S H; Leonards, P E G

    2016-05-01

    Flame retardants (FRs) are used to delay ignition of materials such as furniture and electric and electronic instruments. Many FRs are persistent and end up in the environment. Environmental studies on flame retardants (FRs) took off in the late 1990s. Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) appeared to be bioaccumulative and were found in many organisms all over the world. When PBDEs were banned or their production voluntarily terminated, alternatives appeared on the market that often had similar properties or were of more concern due to their toxicity such as halogenated phosphorus-based FRs. Here we show that in spite of the ban on PBDEs more brominated FRs are being produced, an increasing number of other FRs is being applied and FR levels in our homes are much higher than in the outdoor environment. While nowadays we live in better isolated houses and sit in front of the computer or television, on flame retarded upholstery, we are at risk due to the toxic effects of a suite of FRs. The high exposure to these substances indoors calls for better risk assessments that include mixture effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Valence, arousal and cognitive control: A voluntary task switching study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle eDemanet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the interplay between arousal, valence and cognitive control. To this end, we investigated how arousal and valence associated with affective stimuli influenced cognitive flexibility when switching between tasks voluntarily. Three hypotheses were tested. First, a valence hypothesis that states that the positive valence of affective stimuli will facilitate both global and task-switching performance because of increased cognitive flexibility. Second, an arousal hypothesis that states that arousal, and not valence, will specifically impair task-switching performance by strengthening the previously executed task-set. Third, an attention hypothesis that states that both cognitive and emotional control ask for limited attentional resources, and predicts that arousal will impair both global and task-switching performance. The results showed that arousal affected task-switching but not global performance, possibly by phasic modulations of the noradrenergic system that reinforces the previously executed task. In addition, positive valence only affected global performance but not task-switching performance, possibly by phasic modulations of dopamine that stimulates the general ability to perform in a multitasking environment.

  15. Emotional valence and the free-energy principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffily, Mateus; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    The free-energy principle has recently been proposed as a unified Bayesian account of perception, learning and action. Despite the inextricable link between emotion and cognition, emotion has not yet been formulated under this framework. A core concept that permeates many perspectives on emotion is valence, which broadly refers to the positive and negative character of emotion or some of its aspects. In the present paper, we propose a definition of emotional valence in terms of the negative rate of change of free-energy over time. If the second time-derivative of free-energy is taken into account, the dynamics of basic forms of emotion such as happiness, unhappiness, hope, fear, disappointment and relief can be explained. In this formulation, an important function of emotional valence turns out to regulate the learning rate of the causes of sensory inputs. When sensations increasingly violate the agent's expectations, valence is negative and increases the learning rate. Conversely, when sensations increasingly fulfil the agent's expectations, valence is positive and decreases the learning rate. This dynamic interaction between emotional valence and learning rate highlights the crucial role played by emotions in biological agents' adaptation to unexpected changes in their world.

  16. Emotional valence and the free-energy principle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Joffily

    Full Text Available The free-energy principle has recently been proposed as a unified Bayesian account of perception, learning and action. Despite the inextricable link between emotion and cognition, emotion has not yet been formulated under this framework. A core concept that permeates many perspectives on emotion is valence, which broadly refers to the positive and negative character of emotion or some of its aspects. In the present paper, we propose a definition of emotional valence in terms of the negative rate of change of free-energy over time. If the second time-derivative of free-energy is taken into account, the dynamics of basic forms of emotion such as happiness, unhappiness, hope, fear, disappointment and relief can be explained. In this formulation, an important function of emotional valence turns out to regulate the learning rate of the causes of sensory inputs. When sensations increasingly violate the agent's expectations, valence is negative and increases the learning rate. Conversely, when sensations increasingly fulfil the agent's expectations, valence is positive and decreases the learning rate. This dynamic interaction between emotional valence and learning rate highlights the crucial role played by emotions in biological agents' adaptation to unexpected changes in their world.

  17. Unexplained mental retardation: is brain MRI useful?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decobert, Fabrice; Merzoug, Valerie; Kalifa, Gabriel; Adamsbaum, Catherine [Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, Department of Radiology, 75674 Paris Cedex 14 (France); Grabar, Sophie [Cochin Hospital, Department of Biostatistics and Medical Information, Paris (France); Ponsot, Gerard [Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, Department of Neuropaediatrics, Paris (France); Des Portes, Vincent [Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, Department of Neuropaediatrics, Paris (France); Debrousse Hospital, Department of Neuropaediatrics, Lyon (France)

    2005-06-01

    Mental retardation (MR), defined as an IQ below 70, is a frequent cause of consultation in paediatrics. To evaluate the yield of brain MRI in the diagnostic work-up of unexplained MR in children. Patients and methods: The MRI features and clinical data of 100 patients (age 1-18 years) affected with non-progressive MR of unknown origin were compared to an age-matched control group (n=100). Two radiologists conducted an independent review of the MRI scans. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed a higher incidence of brain anomalies in the MR group than in the control group (53 vs 17, OR=5.7 [2.9-11.1]), for signal abnormalities within the periventricular white matter (OR=20.3 [2.6-155.3]), lateral ventricular dilatation (OR=15.6 [2.0-124]), mild corpus callosum abnormalities (shortness, atrophy) (OR=6.8 [1.8-25.6]) and subtle cerebellar abnormalities, including fissure enlargement (OR=5.2 [1.1-26.2]). The diagnostic value of MRI abnormalities was considered good in 5% of patients (Alexander disease n=1, diffuse cortical malformation n=1, leukomalacia n=1, vermian agenesis n=1, commissural agenesis n=1), and weak in 48% of patients, in whom non-specific abnormalities did not lead to a diagnosis. Some clinical features resulted in a significantly higher percentage of abnormal MRI scans: abnormal neurological examination (82% vs 47%, P=0.008), abnormal skull circumference (66% vs 49%, P=0.04). Motor delay was associated with cerebellar abnormalities (P=0.01). (orig.)

  18. Unexplained mental retardation: is brain MRI useful?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decobert, Fabrice; Merzoug, Valerie; Kalifa, Gabriel; Adamsbaum, Catherine; Grabar, Sophie; Ponsot, Gerard; Des Portes, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    Mental retardation (MR), defined as an IQ below 70, is a frequent cause of consultation in paediatrics. To evaluate the yield of brain MRI in the diagnostic work-up of unexplained MR in children. Patients and methods: The MRI features and clinical data of 100 patients (age 1-18 years) affected with non-progressive MR of unknown origin were compared to an age-matched control group (n=100). Two radiologists conducted an independent review of the MRI scans. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed a higher incidence of brain anomalies in the MR group than in the control group (53 vs 17, OR=5.7 [2.9-11.1]), for signal abnormalities within the periventricular white matter (OR=20.3 [2.6-155.3]), lateral ventricular dilatation (OR=15.6 [2.0-124]), mild corpus callosum abnormalities (shortness, atrophy) (OR=6.8 [1.8-25.6]) and subtle cerebellar abnormalities, including fissure enlargement (OR=5.2 [1.1-26.2]). The diagnostic value of MRI abnormalities was considered good in 5% of patients (Alexander disease n=1, diffuse cortical malformation n=1, leukomalacia n=1, vermian agenesis n=1, commissural agenesis n=1), and weak in 48% of patients, in whom non-specific abnormalities did not lead to a diagnosis. Some clinical features resulted in a significantly higher percentage of abnormal MRI scans: abnormal neurological examination (82% vs 47%, P=0.008), abnormal skull circumference (66% vs 49%, P=0.04). Motor delay was associated with cerebellar abnormalities (P=0.01). (orig.)

  19. Humans rely on the same rules to assess emotional valence and intensity in conspecific and dog vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragó, Tamás; Andics, Attila; Devecseri, Viktor; Kis, Anna; Gácsi, Márta; Miklósi, Adám

    2014-01-01

    Humans excel at assessing conspecific emotional valence and intensity, based solely on non-verbal vocal bursts that are also common in other mammals. It is not known, however, whether human listeners rely on similar acoustic cues to assess emotional content in conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations, and which acoustical parameters affect their performance. Here, for the first time, we directly compared the emotional valence and intensity perception of dog and human non-verbal vocalizations. We revealed similar relationships between acoustic features and emotional valence and intensity ratings of human and dog vocalizations: those with shorter call lengths were rated as more positive, whereas those with a higher pitch were rated as more intense. Our findings demonstrate that humans rate conspecific emotional vocalizations along basic acoustic rules, and that they apply similar rules when processing dog vocal expressions. This suggests that humans may utilize similar mental mechanisms for recognizing human and heterospecific vocal emotions.

  20. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures

  1. Differentiation of retarded integrals and the divergence theorem for retarded functions with discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstock, F.I.; Lim, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    Theorems expressing the time derivatives of retarded volume and surface integrals are presented as well as the Gauss divergence theorem for retarded functions with discontinuities. These theorems greatly facilitate the analysis of gravitational radiation from the motion of disjoint matter distributions in general relativity and could find useful application in other branches of physics

  2. Valence effects on adsorption: a preliminary assessment of the effects on valence state control on sorption measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Case, F.; Shiao, S.Y.; Palmer, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Electrochemical arguments are advanced to illustrate that what is usually measured in practice is a mixed potential determined by the kinetics of the electrode processes occurring at the indicator electrode. Valence states can be altered electrochemically or by use of added chemical reagents, including redox couples which can hold the potential to relatively specific potentials. The disadvantage of added chemical reagents is that they may alter the characteristics of the sorption reactions by interaction with the sorbent. Electrochemical methods are versatile and do not add reagents, but in some caes the nuclide can adsorb on the electrode itself. A description is given of the application of the electrochemical method of valence control to determination of sorption of Np(V) on alumina. Valence state control and analysis can be used to study possible redox reactions on materials which might be used as backfill materials. A description is given of survey experiments with a number of sulfides and iron-containing materials. Valence state analysis is used on the initial solutions and leachate from acid leaches of the sorbent after the sorption experiment to help determine whether valence state change is occurring. The preliminary results indicate that on the sulfides tested, sorption occurs both with and without valence state change

  3. Mental retardation after prenatal exposure. Re-analysis indicated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, W.

    2000-01-01

    The current risk assessment for severe mental retardation after prenatal exposure to the A-bomb radiation is based on 21 cases exposed to more than 0.005 Gy, of which 17 were exposed in the most sensitive period 8-15 weeks p.c. The latest analysis, applying the best fitting model, indicates a threshold with a lower 95% bound of 0.06-0.31 Gy, depending on whether 2 cases with Down's syndrome are included or not. The authors have interpreted this as suggesting a threshold in the low-dose region. In the dose group 0.10-0.49 Gy, except one case with Down's syndrome there is only one other case, exposed 8 weeks p.c. to 0.14 Gy. However, in a RERF report (TR 13-91) concerning brain abnormalities detected by MRI in retarded persons, the same case is described. According to this report he was actually exposed to 0.86 Gy. The distance was 1060 m, and his mother exhibited severe epilation. These details indicate that the higher dose is correct and the lower dose is erroneous. In a small material the misclassification of one case has a deep influence on the result of the data analysis. Reclassification of this case will lead to a considerable change in the estimated threshold, notably in the 95% lower bound of the threshold. There will be no indication of severe retardation after less than 0.5 Gy even in the most sensitive period. This does not preclude a milder effect on intelligence from lower doses. The fraction of severe retardation after exposure to 1 Sv in the period 8-15 weeks p.c. has been estimated at 40%. The effect on intelligence score has been estimated at 30 IQ units per Sv in the same period. These estimates have been combined in ICRP 60 to create a model, based on a presumed normal distribution of IQ scores, according to which the final outcome for an individual is determined by his expected IQ without exposure. Thus the dose required to make an otherwise normal individual retarded would be high, while a much lower dose would be enough to bring an individual

  4. Acid-base synergistic flame retardant wood pulp paper with high thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Liu, Yuansen; Xu, Changan; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Qi

    2017-12-15

    Acid-catalytic degradation caused by acid source flame retardants is the main reason for a decline in thermal stability of flame-retarded lignocellulosic materials. In the present research, a guanidine phosphate (GP)/borax (BX) flame retardant system based on acid-base synergistic interaction was designed and used in wood pulp paper (WPP) to solve this problem. Results showed that the treated WPP obtained good flame retardancy with a limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of 35.7%. As a basic flame retardant, borax could chemically combine with the acids released by guanidine phosphate, thus decreasing the acidity of the system in the initial heating stage. In this way, acid-catalytic degradation is greatly retarded on the lignocelluloses to improve thermal stability (the temperature of maximum degradation peak from 286°C to 314°C). Meanwhile, borax was also advantageous to form a denser and firmer condensed phase through reinforcement of the acid-base reaction product, borophosphates, allowing it to provide a protective barrier with higher quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Role of Social Awareness in the Employment Success of Adolescents with Mild Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rhonda S.; Rojewski, Jay W.

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the role of three social-awareness components (sensitivity, insight, and communication) in the employment success of 125 adolescents with mild mental retardation. Results found that all three social-awareness measures were higher for adolescents who rated higher in work performance, particularly awareness of social…

  6. [Clinical features of strabismus in psychomotor retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Cabello, Belina; Arroyo-Yllanes, María Estela; Pérez-Pérez, José Fernando; Fonte-Vázquez, Anselmo

    2016-01-01

    In psychomotor retardation there is an abnormal development of mental, sensory and motor skills associated with ocular manifestations. There are biological and psychosocial risk factors that predispose an individual to neurological damage. From 50% to 80% of patients with strabismus retardation have special features that differentiate it from the rest of strabismus in healthy patients. To determine the most common type of strabismus in patients with psychomotor retardation and their clinical features. Patients with psychomotor retardation and strabismus were included. An ophthalmological examination was performed, as well as an evaluation of the characteristics of strabismus, including perinatal and post-natal history. Esotropia was the most frequent squint with 65.3%, followed by exotropia with 32.7%. The variability in the squint magnitude was 60% in both types, and 6 patients had dissociated vertical deviation. Most of the patients started to present strabismus since they were born. The most frequent perinatal risk factors were threatened miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, foetal distress, and hypoxia. Esotropia is the most common type of strabismus in psychomotor retardation. The variability of squint magnitude is a characteristic in these patients. The moderate variability is the most frequent in both esotropia and exotropia. The most common refractive error is hyperopic astigmatism in esotropia and the myopic kind in exotropia. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Pollution of Lake Mjoesa by brominated flame retardants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlabach, M.; Gundersen, H.; Mariussen, E. [NILU, Kjeller (Norway); Fjeld, E.; Breivik, E. [NIVA, Oslo (Norway); Kjellberg, G. [NIVA, Hamar (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    The worldwide use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is extensive and there are significant release of these components to the environment. The last twenty years the levels of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in biota have increased, and in some areas the levels are comparable or even higher to what is reported for the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). This study was focused on the pollution of PBDEs in Lake Mjoesa, where unusually high concentrations have been found in fish. The objective of this part of the survey was to make a broader documentation of the PBDE levels in sediments and fish, and to localize areas with point sources of PBDEs.

  8. Cognitive Retardation in a Patient with Preservation of Psychomotor Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Willison

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient (R.S. who after a bout of probable TB exhibited an unusual pattern of response retardation, although given time he was able to score at a satisfactory level. He was strikingly slow to initiate speaking and to carry out higher level cognitive tasks, at a time when he could complete a variety of psychomotor activities at normal speed. He showed many similarities with patients previously described as having subcortical dementia. The selective preservation of psychomotor responding in the context of his gross bradyphrenia, however, was unexpected.

  9. Flame-retardant carbon nanotube films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janas, Dawid; Rdest, Monika; Koziol, Krzysztof K. K.

    2017-07-01

    We have demonstrated fire-retardancy properties of a polymer matrix-free CNT film for the first time. As compared with classical fire-retardant materials such as Kevlar, Twaron or Nomex, the CNT film showed a spectrum of advantages. The material is lightweight, flexible and well-adherent to even the most complicated shapes. The results have showed that by using CNTs for fire-retardancy we can extend the operational time almost two-fold, what makes CNTs a much better protection than the solutions employed nowadays. We believe that among other great properties of CNT, their macroscopic assemblies such as CNT films show significant potential for becoming a fire protective coating, which exhibits high performance in not sustaining fire.

  10. Enhanced conflict-driven cognitive control by emotional arousal, not by valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qinghong; Qi, Senqing; Li, Miaoyun; Yao, Shuxia; Ding, Cody; Yang, Dong

    2017-09-01

    Emotion is widely agreed to have two dimensions, valence and arousal. Few studies have explored the effect of emotion on conflict adaptation by considering both of these, which could have dissociate influence. The present study aimed to fill the gap as to whether emotional valence and arousal would exert dissociable influence on conflict adaptation. In the experiments, we included positive, neutral, and negative conditions, with comparable arousal between positive and negative conditions. Both positive and negative conditions have higher arousal than neutral ones. In Experiment 1, by using a two-colour-word Flanker task, we found that conflict adaptation was enhanced in both positive and negative contexts compared to a neutral context. Furthermore, this effect still existed when controlling stimulus-response repetitions in Experiment 2, which used a four-colour-word Flanker task. The findings suggest emotional arousal enhances conflict adaptation, regardless of emotional valence. Thus, future studies should consider emotional arousal when studying the effect of emotion on conflict adaptation. Moreover, the unique role of the emotional context in conflict-driven cognitive control is emphasised.

  11. Neural mechanisms underlying valence inferences to sound: The role of the right angular gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Fernando; Cross, Ian; Hawkins, Sarah; Gonzalez, Nadia; Docampo, Jorge; Bruno, Claudio; Stamatakis, Emmanuel Andreas

    2017-07-28

    We frequently infer others' intentions based on non-verbal auditory cues. Although the brain underpinnings of social cognition have been extensively studied, no empirical work has yet examined the impact of musical structure manipulation on the neural processing of emotional valence during mental state inferences. We used a novel sound-based theory-of-mind paradigm in which participants categorized stimuli of different sensory dissonance level in terms of positive/negative valence. Whilst consistent with previous studies which propose facilitated encoding of consonances, our results demonstrated that distinct levels of consonance/dissonance elicited differential influences on the right angular gyrus, an area implicated in mental state attribution and attention reorienting processes. Functional and effective connectivity analyses further showed that consonances modulated a specific inhibitory interaction from associative memory to mental state attribution substrates. Following evidence suggesting that individuals with autism may process social affective cues differently, we assessed the relationship between participants' task performance and self-reported autistic traits in clinically typical adults. Higher scores on the social cognition scales of the AQ were associated with deficits in recognising positive valence in consonant sound cues. These findings are discussed with respect to Bayesian perspectives on autistic perception, which highlight a functional failure to optimize precision in relation to prior beliefs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The mechanism of valence-space metaphors: ERP evidence for affective word processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiushu; Wang, Ruiming; Chang, Song

    2014-01-01

    Embodied cognition contends that the representation and processing of concepts involve perceptual, somatosensory, motoric, and other physical re-experiencing information. In this view, affective concepts are also grounded in physical information. For instance, people often say "feeling down" or "cheer up" in daily life. These phrases use spatial information to understand affective concepts. This process is referred to as valence-space metaphor. Valence-space metaphors refer to the employment of spatial information (lower/higher space) to elaborate affective concepts (negative/positive concepts). Previous studies have demonstrated that processing affective words affects performance on a spatial detection task. However, the mechanism(s) behind this effect remain unclear. In the current study, we hypothesized that processing affective words might produce spatial information. Consequently, spatial information would affect the following spatial cue detection/discrimination task. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to remember an affective word. Then, they completed a spatial cue detection task while event-related potentials were recorded. The results indicated that the top cues induced enhanced amplitude of P200 component while participants kept positive words relative to negative words in mind. On the contrary, the bottom cues induced enhanced P200 amplitudes while participants kept negative words relative to positive words in mind. In Experiment 2, we conducted a behavioral experiment that employed a similar paradigm to Experiment 1, but used arrows instead of dots to test the attentional nature of the valence-space metaphor. We found a similar facilitation effect as found in Experiment 1. Positive words facilitated the discrimination of upper arrows, whereas negative words facilitated the discrimination of lower arrows. In summary, affective words might activate spatial information and cause participants to allocate their attention to corresponding locations

  13. The Mechanism of Valence-Space Metaphors: ERP Evidence for Affective Word Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiushu; Wang, Ruiming; Chang, Song

    2014-01-01

    Embodied cognition contends that the representation and processing of concepts involve perceptual, somatosensory, motoric, and other physical re-experiencing information. In this view, affective concepts are also grounded in physical information. For instance, people often say “feeling down” or “cheer up” in daily life. These phrases use spatial information to understand affective concepts. This process is referred to as valence-space metaphor. Valence-space metaphors refer to the employment of spatial information (lower/higher space) to elaborate affective concepts (negative/positive concepts). Previous studies have demonstrated that processing affective words affects performance on a spatial detection task. However, the mechanism(s) behind this effect remain unclear. In the current study, we hypothesized that processing affective words might produce spatial information. Consequently, spatial information would affect the following spatial cue detection/discrimination task. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to remember an affective word. Then, they completed a spatial cue detection task while event-related potentials were recorded. The results indicated that the top cues induced enhanced amplitude of P200 component while participants kept positive words relative to negative words in mind. On the contrary, the bottom cues induced enhanced P200 amplitudes while participants kept negative words relative to positive words in mind. In Experiment 2, we conducted a behavioral experiment that employed a similar paradigm to Experiment 1, but used arrows instead of dots to test the attentional nature of the valence-space metaphor. We found a similar facilitation effect as found in Experiment 1. Positive words facilitated the discrimination of upper arrows, whereas negative words facilitated the discrimination of lower arrows. In summary, affective words might activate spatial information and cause participants to allocate their attention to corresponding

  14. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John A; Leclerc, Christina M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The acoustic correlates of valence depend on emotion family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyk, Michel; Brown, Steven

    2014-07-01

    The voice expresses a wide range of emotions through modulations of acoustic parameters such as frequency and amplitude. Although the acoustics of individual emotions are well understood, attempts to describe the acoustic correlates of broad emotional categories such as valence have yielded mixed results. In the present study, we analyzed the acoustics of emotional valence for different families of emotion. We divided emotional vocalizations into "motivational," "moral," and "aesthetic" families as defined by the OCC (Ortony, Clore, and Collins) model of emotion. Subjects viewed emotional scenarios and were cued to vocalize congruent exclamations in response to them, for example, "Yay!" and "Damn!". Positive valence was weakly associated with high-pitched and loud vocalizations. However, valence interacted with emotion family for both pitch and amplitude. A general acoustic code for valence does not hold across families of emotion, whereas family-specific codes provide a more accurate description of vocal emotions. These findings are consolidated into a set of "rules of expression" relating vocal dimensions to emotion dimensions. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Space-Valence Priming with Subliminal and Supraliminal Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich eAnsorge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To date it is unclear whether (1 awareness-independent non-evaluative semantic processes influence affective semantics and whether (2 awareness-independent affective semantics influence non-evaluative semantic processing. In the current study, we investigated these questions with the help of subliminal (masked primes and visible targets in a space-valence across-category congruence effect. In line with (1, we found that subliminal space prime words influenced valence classification of supraliminal target words (Experiment 1: Classifications were faster with a congruent prime (e.g., the prime ‘up’ before the target ‘happy’ than with an incongruent prime (e.g., the prime ‘up’ before the target ‘sad’. In contrast to (2, no influence of subliminal valence primes on the classification of supraliminal space targets into up- and down-words was found (Experiment 2. Control conditions showed that standard masked response-priming effects were found with both subliminal prime types, and that an across-category congruence effect was also found with supraliminal valence primes and spatial target words. The final Experiment 3 confirmed that the across-category congruence effect indeed reflected priming of target categorization of a relevant meaning category. Together, the data jointly confirmed prediction (1 that awareness-independent non-evaluative semantic priming influences valence judgments.

  17. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Christina M.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources. PMID:24493837

  18. Social learning modulates the lateralization of emotional valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Lavidor, Michal; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

    2008-08-01

    Although neuropsychological studies of lateralization of emotion have emphasized valence (positive vs. negative) or type (basic vs. complex) dimensions, the interaction between the two dimensions has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that recognition of basic emotions is processed preferentially by the right prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas recognition of complex social emotions is processed preferentially by the left PFC. Experiment 1 assessed the ability of healthy controls and patients with right and left PFC lesions to recognize basic and complex emotions. Experiment 2 modeled the patient's data of Experiment 1 on healthy participants under lateralized displays of the emotional stimuli. Both experiments support the Type as well as the Valence Hypotheses. However, our findings indicate that the Valence Hypothesis holds for basic but less so for complex emotions. It is suggested that, since social learning overrules the basic preference of valence in the hemispheres, the processing of complex emotions in the hemispheres is less affected by valence.

  19. Flexible PVC flame retarded with expandable graphite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, WW

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available this outstanding fire resistance. Thus flame-retardant (FR) and smoke-suppressant (SS) additives must be incorporated in order to meet product test specifications such as oxygen index, heat release rate, smoke evolution, or the extent of burning [1]. Levchik... plot for the composites fabricated in this work. For a material to be effectively flame retarded both the fire load and the fire growth index should assume low values. Figure 11 shows a dramatic decrease for all the EG composites relative to the neat...

  20. Valence-to-core-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Eleanor R.; Pollock, Christopher J.; Bendix, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can provide detailed insight into the electronic and geometric structures of transition-metal active sites in metalloproteins and chemical catalysts. However, standard XAS spectra inherently represent an average contribution from the entire coordination...... environment with limited ligand selectivity. To address this limitation, we have investigated the enhancement of XAS features using valence-to-core (VtC)-detected XAS, whereby XAS spectra are measured by monitoring fluorescence from valence-to-core X-ray emission (VtC XES) events. VtC emission corresponds...... to transitions from filled ligand orbitals to the metal 1s core hole, with distinct energetic shifts for ligands of differing ionization potentials. VtC-detected XAS data were obtained from multiple valence emission features for a series of well-characterized Mn model compounds; taken together, these data...

  1. Conduction Mechanism of Valence Change Resistive Switching Memory: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Wah Lim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistive switching effect in transition metal oxide (TMO based material is often associated with the valence change mechanism (VCM. Typical modeling of valence change resistive switching memory consists of three closely related phenomena, i.e., conductive filament (CF geometry evolution, conduction mechanism and temperature dynamic evolution. It is widely agreed that the electrochemical reduction-oxidation (redox process and oxygen vacancies migration plays an essential role in the CF forming and rupture process. However, the conduction mechanism of resistive switching memory varies considerably depending on the material used in the dielectric layer and selection of electrodes. Among the popular observations are the Poole-Frenkel emission, Schottky emission, space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC, trap-assisted tunneling (TAT and hopping conduction. In this article, we will conduct a survey on several published valence change resistive switching memories with a particular interest in the I-V characteristic and the corresponding conduction mechanism.

  2. RKKY interaction in mixed valence system and heavy fermion superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusui Liu; Gao Lin; Lin Zonghan

    1985-11-01

    The 1-D RKKY interaction of mixed valence system is given by using the thermodynamic perturbation theory. The numerical comparisons of 1-D and 3-D RKKY interaction between systems with localized magnetic moments of mixed valence and non-mixed valence show that the former is much stronger than the latter. From some analyses we propose that the heavy Fermion superconductivity comes from the RKKY interaction between two local f electrons which hop off the impurity site to become two continuum electrons. The source of the two impurity electrons hopping is the Coulomb interaction. It is also emphasized that the RKKY interaction does not disappear for the Kondo lattice, when the temperature is less than the Kondo temperature. (author)

  3. Direct double photoionization of the valence shell of Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrini, F.; Malegat, L.; Selles, P.; Kazansky, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The hyperspherical R-matrix method with semiclassical outgoing waves is used to study the direct double photoionization (DPI) of the valence shell of the lightest alkaline earth-metal Be. The absolute fully integrated, singly, doubly, and triply differential cross sections obtained are compared with the single set of measurements available and with recent calculations based on the convergent close coupling and time-dependent close coupling methods. The level of agreement between all these data is very encouraging. A comparison is also made between the DPI of He and the direct DPI of the valence shell of Be. It confirms that the electron-electron correlations are stronger in the valence 2s shell of Be than in the 1s shell of He, thus contributing to a desirable clarification

  4. Field-induced valence transition in rare-earth system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhaya, A.; Ghatak, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic field-induced valence transition in rare-earth compound has been examined based on a pseudospin S=1 Ising model proposed earlier for valence transition. The model includes finite mixing between two pertinent ionic configurations (magnetic and non-magnetic) separated by an energy gap and with intersite interaction between rare-earth ions. Using the mean field approximation the magnetic behaviour and the critical field (H c ) for transition are obtained as a function of energy gap and temperature. The phase boundary defined in terms of reduced field H c /H co and reduced temperature T/T v (T v being valence transition temperature in absence of field) is nearly independent of energy gap. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental observation in Yb- and Eu-compounds

  5. A facilitative effect of negative affective valence on working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Fumiko; Kikuchi, Tadashi; Olofsson, Ulrich

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that negatively valenced information impaired working memory performance due to an attention-capturing effect. The present study examined whether negative valence could also facilitate working memory. Affective words (negative, neutral, positive) were used as retro-cues in a working memory task that required participants to remember colors at different spatial locations on a computer screen. Following the cue, a target detection task was used to either shift attention to a different location or keep attention at the same location as the retro-cue. Finally, participants were required to discriminate the cued color from a set of distractors. It was found that negative cues yielded shorter response times (RTs) in the attention-shift condition and longer RTs in the attention-stay condition, compared with neutral and positive cues. The results suggest that negative affective valence may enhance working memory performance (RTs), provided that attention can be disengaged.

  6. Valence QCD: Connecting QCD to the quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.F.; Dong, S.J.; Draper, T.; Sloan, J.; Leinweber, D.; Woloshyn, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    A valence QCD theory is developed to study the valence quark properties of hadrons. To keep only the valence degrees of freedom, the pair creation through the Z graphs is deleted in the connected insertions, whereas the sea quarks are eliminated in the disconnected insertions. This is achieved with a new 'valence QCD' Lagrangian where the action in the time direction is modified so that the particle and antiparticle decouple. It is shown in this valence version of QCD that the ratios of isovector to isoscalar matrix elements (e.g., F A /D A and F S /D S ratios) in the nucleon reproduce the SU(6) quark model predictions in a lattice QCD calculation. We also consider how the hadron masses are affected on the lattice and discover new insights into the origin of dynamical mass generation. It is found that, within statistical errors, the nucleon and the Δ become degenerate for the quark masses we have studied (ranging from 1 to 4 times the strange mass). The π and ρ become nearly degenerate in this range. It is shown that valence QCD has the C, P, T symmetries. The lattice version is reflection positive. It also has the vector and axial symmetries. The latter leads to a modified partially conserved axial Ward identity. As a result, the theory has a U(2N F ) symmetry in the particle-antiparticle space. Through lattice simulation, it appears that this is dynamically broken down to U q (N F )xU bar q (N F ). Furthermore, the lattice simulation reveals spin degeneracy in the hadron masses and various matrix elements. This leads to an approximate U q (2N F )xU bar q (2N F ) symmetry which is the basis for the valence quark model. In addition, we find that the masses of N, Δ,ρ,π,a 1 , and a 0 all drop precipitously compared to their counterparts in the quenched QCD calculation. This is interpreted as due to the disappearance of the 'constituent' quark mass which is dynamically generated through tadpole diagrams. The origin of the hyperfine splitting in the baryon is

  7. Spin Dynamics and Magnetic Ordering in Mixed Valence Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, S. M.; Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Axe, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    . 0 meV at the transition to the alpha phase. The temperature independence of the susceptibility within the gamma phase cannot be simply reconciled with the temperature dependence of the valence within the gamma phase. TmSe is shown to order in a type I antiferromagnetic structure below T//N similar 3....... 2 K. The magnetic phase diagram is understood as a successive domain reorientation and a metamagnetic phase transition for T less than 3 K with increasing field. The mixed valence nature manifests itself in a reduced moment and a markedly altered crystal field. Another sample of TmSe with a lattice...

  8. Brominated flame retardants and endocrine disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.; Becher, G.; Berg, van den M.; Boer, de J.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental point of view, an increasing important group of organohalogen compounds are the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which are widely used in polymers and textiles and applied in construction materials, furniture, and electronic equipment. BFRs with the highest production volume

  9. Brominated flame retardants and endocrine disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Joseph G.; Becher, Georg; Van Den Berg, Martin; Leonards, Pim E G

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental point of view, an increasing important group of organo-halogen compounds are the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which are widely used in polymers and textiles and applied in construction materials, furniture, and electronic equipment. BFRs with the highest production

  10. Retarded hippocampal development following prenatal exposure to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Rats in Group A showed no implantation, rats in Group B had abortion on the 7th day after administration, and rats in Group C gave birth with their litters showing retarded hippocampus development and neural degeneration and rats in Group D (control) showed normal development. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of ...

  11. International Directory of Mental Retardation Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybwad, Rosemary F., Ed.

    The directory lists and describes governmental and voluntary agencies, research, and other resources in the field of mental retardation in foreign countries. The first section, on international organizations, gives names, addresses, names of directors, and one or more paragraphs of description for the United Nations and its specialized agencies,…

  12. Improving Outcomes for Workers with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornes, Sandra; Rocco, Tonette S.; Rosenberg, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This research presents an analysis of factors predicting job retention, job satisfaction, and job performance of workers with mental retardation. The findings highlight self-determination as a critical skill in predicting the three important employee outcomes. The study examined a hypothesized job retention model and the outcome of the three…

  13. Euthanasia and Mental Retardation: Suggesting the Unthinkable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Russell

    1989-01-01

    The article examines current opinions toward euthanasia of persons with mental retardation in light of the history of public and professional attitudes. It also discusses the rejection of euthanasia on moral and religious grounds, and notes the use of lifelong incarceration, based on eugenics principles, to accomplish similar ends. (DB)

  14. Opitz C syndrome: Trigonocephaly, mental retardation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe a 4-year-old female child with a dysmorphic and neurological syndrome of trigonocephaly, mental and psychomotor retardation and dysmorphic facial ... The patient had important cerebral anomalies with diffuse alterations in white matter that caused developmental delay with verbal and nonverbal disabilities ...

  15. Puberty in the Girl Who is Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattullo, Ann

    Designed to help mothers of mentally retarded girls deal with the problems and concerns of puberty, the booklet provides information on physical and emotional changes, menstruation, masturbation, heterosexual behavior, contraception, protection against sexual aggression, the possibilities of marriage, and additional sources of information.…

  16. Skin mastocytosis, hearing loss and mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R. C.; Beemer, F. A.

    1992-01-01

    A girl with skin mastocytosis, hearing loss, microcephaly, mild dysmorphic features and severe mental retardation is described. The symptoms of the child resemble those reported in 1990 by Wolach et al. in another patient sufficiently to suspect the same entity in both. Inheritance may be autosomal

  17. Computer Needs of Severely Mentally Retarded Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Kelly

    1982-01-01

    The article reviews technology applicable for use by severely mentally retarded learners. Descriptions are given of assistive devices (including communication aids), controls and interfaces (such as single switch access to standard software), and software (including games to teach cause and effect and simple matching and counting). (CL)

  18. Recent Developments in Organophosphorus Flame Retardants Containing P-C Bond and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Wendels

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus compounds containing P-C bonds are increasingly developed as flame retardant additives due to their excellent thermal and hydrolytic stability and ease of synthesis. The latest development (since 2010 in organophosphorus flame retardants containing P-C bonds summarized in this review. In this review, we have broadly classified such phosphorus compounds based on the carbon unit linked to the phosphorus atom i.e., could be a part of either an aliphatic or an aromatic unit. We have only considered those published literature where a P-C bond was created as a part of synthetic strategy to make either an intermediate or a final organophosphorus compound with an aim to use it as a flame retardant. General synthetic strategies to create P-C bonds are briefly discussed. Most popular synthetic strategies used for developing P-C containing phosphorus based flame retardants include Michael addition, Michaelis–Arbuzov, Friedels–Crafts and Grignard reactions. In general, most flame retardant derivatives discussed in this review have been prepared via a one- to two-step synthetic strategy with relatively high yields greater than 80%. Specific examples of P-C containing flame retardants synthesized via suitable synthetic strategy and their applications on various polymer systems are described in detail. Aliphatic phosphorus compounds being liquids or low melting solids are generally applied in polymers via coatings (cellulose or are incorporated in the bulk of the polymers (epoxy, polyurethanes during their polymerization as reactive or non-reactive additives. Substituents on the P atoms and the chemistry of the polymer matrix greatly influence the flame retardant behavior of these compounds (condensed phase vs. the gas phase. Recently, aromatic DOPO based phosphinate flame retardants have been developed with relatively higher thermal stabilities (>250 °C. Such compounds have potential as flame retardants for high temperature processable

  19. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  20. Nonretarded and Mentally Retarded Children's Control over Syntax Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeavey, Breda C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Ten nonretarded preschoolers and 10 mildly mentally retarded children (mean age 8 years) were compared for control over various syntactic structures. The retarded children evidenced difficulties similar to those of younger nonretarded children. (Author/SB)

  1. Effectiveness of Flame Retardants in TufFoam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelow, Alexis Elizabeth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Nissen, April [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Massey, Lee Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    An investigation of polyurethane foam filled with known flame retardant fillers including hydroxides, melamine, phosphate-containing compounds, and melamine phosphates was carried out to produce a low-cost material with high flame retardant efficiency. The impact of flame retardant fillers on the physical properties such a s composite foam density, glass transition temperature, storage modulus, and thermal expansion of composite foams was investigated with the goal of synthesizing a robust rigid foam with excellent flame retardant properties.

  2. Caring for children with mental retardation: The experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caring for children with mental retardation at home requires great patience and understanding. Mothers often experience difficulties adjusting to the fact that their children are mentally retarded and that it cannot be cured. This study investigated the experiences of mothers caring for children with mental retardation.

  3. Anxious-retarded depression: relation to family history of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Remco F. P.; Zwinderman, Koos H.; Goekoop, Jaap G.

    2004-01-01

    Anxious-retarded depression is a two-dimensionally defined subcategory of depression based on high scores for both anxiety and retardation. The anxious-retarded subcategory is related to melancholia as defined by DSM-IV. Patients with this diagnosis exhibit elevated plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP)

  4. Recycling of plastic waste: Screening for brominated flame retardants (BFRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Granby, K; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2017-11-01

    Flame retardants are chemicals vital for reducing risks of fire and preventing human casualties and property losses. Due to the abundance, low cost and high performance of bromine, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have had a significant share of the market for years. Physical stability on the other hand, has resulted in dispersion and accumulation of selected BFRs in the environment and receiving biota. A wide range of plastic products may contain BFRs. This affects the quality of waste plastics as secondary resource: material recycling may potentially reintroduce the BFRs into new plastic product cycles and lead to increased exposure levels, e.g. through use of plastic packaging materials. To provide quantitative and qualitative data on presence of BFRs in plastics, we analysed bromophenols (tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), dibromophenols (2,4- and 2,6-DBP) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP)), hexabromocyclododecane stereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD), as well as selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in samples of household waste plastics, virgin and recycled plastics. A considerable number of samples contained BFRs, with highest concentrations associated with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS, up to 26,000,000ngTBBPA/g) and polystyrene (PS, up to 330,000ng∑HBCD/g). Abundancy in low concentrations of some BFRs in plastic samples suggested either unintended addition in plastic products or degradation of higher molecular weight BFRs. The presence of currently restricted flame retardants (PBDEs and HBCD) identified in the plastic samples illustrates that circular material flows may be contaminated for extended periods. The screening clearly showed a need for improved documentation and monitoring of the presence of BFRs in plastic waste routed to recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mn valence state and electrode performance of perovskite-type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    increase in the oxidation state of Mn ions was due to the formation of Mn4+ ions and oxygen vacancies. The addition of Cu ions to LSM systems could lead to enhanced electrode performance for oxygen reduction reactions originating from the change in valence of Mn ions. Keywords. Cu-doped LSM; electrical conductivity; ...

  6. Valence instabilities as a source of actinide system inconsistencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandenaw, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    Light actinide elements alone, and in some of their alloys, may exist as a static or dynamic mixture of two configurations. Such a state can explain both a resistivity maximum and lack of magnetic order observed in so many actinide materials, and still be compatible with the existence of f-electrons in narrow bands. Impurity elements may stabilize slightly different intermediate valence states in U, Np, and Pu, thus contributing to inconsistencies in published results. The physical property behavior of mixed-valence, rare-earth compounds is very much like that observed in development of antiphase (martensitic) structures. Martensitic transformations in U, Np, and Pu, from high-temperature b. c. c. to alpha phase, may be a way of ordering an alloy-like metal of mixed or intermediate valence. The relative stability of each phase structure may depend upon its electron-valence ratio. A Hubbard model for electron correlations in a narrow energy band has been invoked in most recent theories for explaining light actinide behavior. Such a model may also be applicable to crystal symmetry changes in martensitic transformations in actinides

  7. Emotional Valence and Arousal Effects on Memory and Hemispheric Asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mneimne, Malek; Powers, Alice S.; Walton, Kate E.; Kosson, David S.; Fonda, Samantha; Simonetti, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictions based upon the right hemisphere (RH) model, the valence-arousal model, and a recently proposed integrated model (Killgore & Yurgelun-Todd, 2007) of emotion processing by testing immediate recall and recognition memory for positive, negative, and neutral verbal stimuli among 35 right-handed women. Building upon…

  8. Nuclear masses and the number of valence nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza-Temis, J.; Frank, A.; Hirsch, J.G.; Lopez Vieyra, J.C.; Morales, I.; Barea, J.; Van Isacker, P.; Velazquez, V.

    2008-01-01

    An improved version of the liquid drop model is presented. The addition of two terms, linear and quadratic in the total number of valence nucleons (particles or holes), improves the description of atomic masses, which can be fitted with an r.m.s. error of 1.2 MeV. Predictions are analysed an compared with those of established models

  9. Optical verification of the valence band structure of cadmium arsenide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelten, M.J.; Es, van C.M.; Blom, F.A.P.; Jongeneelen, J.W.F.

    1980-01-01

    Optical absorption measurements were performed on thin single crystalline samples of Cd3As2 at temperatures of 300 K and 10 K. At low temperature the interband absorption coefficient shows clearly two steps due to direct transitions from the heavy hole and light hole valence bands to the conduction

  10. Vection Modulates Emotional Valence of Autobiographical Episodic Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, Takeharu; Kawabe, Takahiro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Sunaga, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether illusory self-motion perception ("vection") induced by viewing upward and downward grating motion stimuli can alter the emotional valence of recollected autobiographical episodic memories. We found that participants recollected positive episodes more often while perceiving upward vection. However, when we tested a small moving…

  11. Valence mixing in YbCuAl: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattens, W.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of the valence state of Yb in the intermetallic compound YbCuAl. Both macroscopic physical properties (magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, thermal expansion, electric resistivity) and microscopic physical properties (neutron inelastic scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance) are determined. The results are compared with a local Fermi liquid theory. (G.T.H.)

  12. Effective valence as the control parameter of the superconducting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One approach to investigating the superconductivity in the ironbased materials is understanding the chemical and structural parameters that can be used to tune their remarkably high Tc. In this paper, we have demonstrated that the effective valence of iron can be used as the control parameter to tune the Tc of this family of ...

  13. Voice and Valency in San Luis Potosi Huasteco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Ledo Yanez, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of the system of transitivity, voice and valency alternations in Huasteco of San Luis Potosi (Mayan) within a functional-typological framework. The study is based on spoken discourse and elicited data collected in the municipalities of Aquismon and Tancanhuitz de Santos in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. The…

  14. verbal extensions: valency decreasing extensions in the basà ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finance

    London: Hodder. Education. Imoh, P.M., 2013. Verbal extensions: Valency increasing operations in Basà verbal system. Paper presented at the West African Languages Congress (WALC) and 26th Annual. Conference of the Linguistic Association of Nigeria (26th CLAN), 29th July to 2nd August. 2013, University of Ibadan, ...

  15. Effect of retardation on the reflectance properties of the metallic Fibonacci quasi-superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Weiguo; Yao Hesheng; Xu Xiang

    1989-12-01

    Based on the hydrodynamic model theory and the transfer matrix method, we have re-examined the reflection properties by taking account of the retardation effect to the system of the metallic Fibonacci quasi-superlattice. For the normal incident S-polarized Soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet, we find that the self-similar reflecting spectrum will be restrained with the increasing of the retardation, but for the higher frequency region or at the smaller grazing angle, the self similarity will still exist for the lower generation quasi-superlattice. (author). 19 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  16. Dementia and Depression in Elders with Mental Retardation: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Dennis C.; Wadsworth, John S.

    1990-01-01

    This article investigates cognitive decline and depressive symptomatology among older adults with mental retardation. A pilot study of assessment instruments is reported. Findings reveal that decreasing cognitive ability is associated with higher rates of observed depression and reported behavioral problems. Cognitive decline was associated with…

  17. Brothers and Sisters of Adults with Mental Retardation: Gendered Nature of the Sibling Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2000-01-01

    Differences and similarities between 245 brothers and sisters of adults with mental retardation in the sibling relationship were examined. Sisters scored higher in the caregiving, companionship, and positive affect aspects of the sibling relationship. Sibling involvement increased over time, but was dependent upon changes in maternal health.…

  18. Equally unequal: gender discrimination in the workplace among adults with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, Elona; Wolfson, Hagit; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira

    2003-01-01

    Gender discrimination in the work place has been widely reported. Women are usually discriminated against both with respect to level of occupation and salary. The current study explored the correlation between gender and employment among adults with mental retardation, specifically, whether gender discrimination in the work place is as prominent among people with mental retardation as in the general population. Level of occupation and salary earned were studied in 227 adults with mild and moderate mental retardation residing in institutions, hostels, and sheltered homes in Israel. The findings suggest a correlation between gender and employment similar to that in the general population. Women were found to be employed mainly in sheltered workshops and lower levels of occupation, and to earn significantly less than the men. However, closer examination of each work place revealed that within each level of occupation there were no significant gender differences in salary. The finding suggests that while women with mental retardation earn lower salaries than men, this is mainly the result of their lower level of occupation. Rehabilitation efforts should therefore be directed toward ensuring higher levels of occupation as well as community employment among women with mental retardation.

  19. (99)Tc(VII) Retardation, Reduction, and Redox Rate Scaling in Naturally Reduced Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chongxuan; Kukkadapu, Ravi K; McKinley, James P; Zachara, John; Plymale, Andrew E; Miller, Micah D; Varga, Tamas; Resch, Charles T

    2015-11-17

    An experimental and modeling study was conducted to investigate pertechnetate (Tc(VII)O4(-)) retardation, reduction, and rate scaling in three sediments from Ringold formation at U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site, where (99)Tc is a major contaminant in groundwater. Tc(VII) was reduced in all the sediments in both batch reactors and diffusion columns, with a faster rate in a sediment containing a higher concentration of HCl-extractable Fe(II). Tc(VII) migration in the diffusion columns was reductively retarded with retardation degrees correlated with Tc(VII) reduction rates. The reduction rates were faster in the diffusion columns than those in the batch reactors, apparently influenced by the spatial distribution of redox-reactive minerals along transport paths that supplied Tc(VII). X-ray computed tomography and autoradiography were performed to identify the spatial locations of Tc(VII) reduction and transport paths in the sediments, and results generally confirmed the newly found behavior of reaction rate changes from batch to column. The results from this study implied that Tc(VII) migration can be reductively retarded at Hanford site with a retardation degree dependent on reactive Fe(II) content and its distribution in sediments. This study also demonstrated that an effective reaction rate may be faster in transport systems than that in well-mixed reactors.

  20. Preparation, characterization of microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate and its flame retardancy in polyurethane composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Ming-Yuan; Chen, Wei-Jen [Department of Aviation Mechanical Engineering, China University of Science and Technology, Hsinchu County, 303, Taiwan (China); Kuan, Chen-Feng; Kuan, Hsu-Chiang [Department of Computer Application Engineering, Far East University, Tainan, 744, Taiwan (China); Yang, Jia-Ming [Green Flame Retardant Material Research Laboratory, Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hung-Kuang University, Taichung, 433, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Chin-Lung, E-mail: dragon@sunrise.hk.edu.tw [Green Flame Retardant Material Research Laboratory, Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hung-Kuang University, Taichung, 433, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-15

    In this study, a novel microencapsulated flame retardant containing ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and an 4,4′-oxydianiline-formaldehyde (OF) resin as the core and shell material was synthesized using in situ polymerization technology. The structure and performance of OF microencapsulated APP (OFAPP) were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The thermal properties of OFAPP were systematically analyzed through thermogravimetric analysis. Flame retardancy tests, such as limiting oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94, were conducted to evaluate the effect of varying the composition of APP and OFAPP in silanol-terminated polyurethane (Si-PU) composites. The results indicated that the microencapsulation of APP with the OF resin resulted in improved hydrophobicity. The results also revealed that the flame retardancy of the Si-PU/OFAPP composite (LOI = 37%) was higher than that of the Si-PU/APP composite (LOI = 23%) at the same additive loading. - Highlights: • A novel microencapsulated flame retardant was synthesized using in situ polymerization technology. • The microencapsulation of ammonium polyphosphate with the polymer resin resulted in improved hydrophobicity. • Polyurethane composites have excellent thermal stability and flame retardance.

  1. Preparation, characterization of microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate and its flame retardancy in polyurethane composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Ming-Yuan; Chen, Wei-Jen; Kuan, Chen-Feng; Kuan, Hsu-Chiang; Yang, Jia-Ming; Chiang, Chin-Lung

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel microencapsulated flame retardant containing ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and an 4,4′-oxydianiline-formaldehyde (OF) resin as the core and shell material was synthesized using in situ polymerization technology. The structure and performance of OF microencapsulated APP (OFAPP) were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The thermal properties of OFAPP were systematically analyzed through thermogravimetric analysis. Flame retardancy tests, such as limiting oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94, were conducted to evaluate the effect of varying the composition of APP and OFAPP in silanol-terminated polyurethane (Si-PU) composites. The results indicated that the microencapsulation of APP with the OF resin resulted in improved hydrophobicity. The results also revealed that the flame retardancy of the Si-PU/OFAPP composite (LOI = 37%) was higher than that of the Si-PU/APP composite (LOI = 23%) at the same additive loading. - Highlights: • A novel microencapsulated flame retardant was synthesized using in situ polymerization technology. • The microencapsulation of ammonium polyphosphate with the polymer resin resulted in improved hydrophobicity. • Polyurethane composites have excellent thermal stability and flame retardance.

  2. Bond-Valence Constraints on Liquid Water Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickmore, Barry R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Brown, I. David; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2009-01-01

    The recent controversy about the structure of liquid water pits a new model involving water molecules in relatively stable rings-and-chains structures against the standard model that posits water molecules in distorted tetrahedral coordination. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations 'both classical and ab initio' almost uniformly support the standard model, but since none of them can yet reproduce all the anomalous properties of water, they leave room for doubt. We argue that it is possible to evaluate these simulations by testing them against their adherence to the bond-valence model, a well known, and quantitatively accurate, empirical summary of the behavior of atoms in the bonded networks of inorganic solids. Here we use the results of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of ice, water, and several solvated aqueous species to show that the valence sum rule (the first axiom of the bond-valence model,) is followed in both solid and liquid bond networks. We then test MD simulations of water, employing several popular potential models, against this criterion and the experimental O-O radial distribution function. It appears that most of those tested cannot satisfy both criteria well, except TIP4P and TIP5P. If the valence sum rule really can be applied to simulated liquid structures, then it follows that the bonding behaviors of atoms in liquids are in some ways identical to those in solids. We support this interpretation by showing that the simulations produce O-H-O geometries completely consistent with the range of geometries available in solids, and the distributions of instantaneous valence sums reaching the atoms in both the ice and liquid water simulations are essentially identical. Taken together, this is powerful evidence in favor of the standard distorted tetrahedral model of liquid water structure

  3. Optimal Design of an Achromatic Angle-Insensitive Phase Retarder Used in MWIR Imaging Polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo-Guo, Kang; Qiao-Feng, Tan; Guo-Fan, Jin

    2009-01-01

    Dielectric gratings with period in the range from λ/10 to λ/4 with λ being the illumination wavelength not only exclude higher order diffractions but also exhibit strong dispersion of effective indices which are proportional to the wavelength. Moreover, they are insensitive to the incident angle of the illumination wave. With these features, we can design a true zero-order achromatic and angle-insensitive phase retarder which can be used as the polarization state analyzer in middle wave infrared (MWIR) imaging polarimetry. A design method using effective medium theory is described, and the performance of the designed phase retarder is evaluated by rigorous coupled wave analysis theory. The calculation results demonstrate that the retardance deviates from 45° by < ±1.6° within a field of view ±10° over the MWIR bandwidth (3–5 μm). (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  4. Recurrent deletion of ZNF630 at Xp11.23 is not associated with mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lugtenberg, Dorien; Zangrande-Vieira, Luiz; Kirchhoff, Maria

    2010-01-01

    that the deletions resulted from non-allelic homologous recombination. In 2,121 healthy male controls, 10 ZNF630 deletions were identified. In total, there was a 1.6-fold higher frequency of this deletion in males with mental retardation as compared to controls, but this increase was not statistically significant (P......ZNF630 is a member of the primate-specific Xp11 zinc finger gene cluster that consists of six closely related genes, of which ZNF41, ZNF81, and ZNF674 have been shown to be involved in mental retardation. This suggests that mutations of ZNF630 might influence cognitive function. Here, we detected...... 12 ZNF630 deletions in a total of 1,562 male patients with mental retardation from Brazil, USA, Australia, and Europe. The breakpoints were analyzed in 10 families, and in all cases they were located within two segmental duplications that share more than 99% sequence identity, indicating...

  5. Interpersonal Communication of Children with Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyah Nur'aini Hanun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tunagrahita were a terminology to called the children with mentally retarded conditions. This conditions caused these children having difficulties at least on four areas, related with attention, memory, language, and academics. The research problem is how interpersonal communication tunagrahita in Dormitory Extraordinary Education Foundation (YPLB Cipaganti Bandung. This research’s aim is to seek the interpersonal communication phenomenon of children with mentally retarded in YPLB Cipaganti Dormitory. The research method which were used is the qualitative method with communication Ethnography approach and Symbolic Interactionism theory to have comprehensive descriptions about life reality of mentally retarded’s children in YPLB Cipaganti Dormitory. Data obtained by participation observer, unstructured interviews, and documentary study. The result showed that interpersonal interactions are done with each child boarding and with the management of the hostel, is a series of unique events and interpersonal communication with a distinctive circular process that takes place continuously.

  6. Electrophoretic Retardation of Colloidal Particles in Nonpolar Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Strubbe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have measured the electrophoretic mobility of single, optically trapped colloidal particles, while gradually depleting the co-ions and counterions in the liquid around the particle by applying a dc voltage. This is achieved in a nonpolar liquid, where charged reverse micelles act as co-ions and counterions. By increasing the dc voltage, the mobility first increases when the concentrations of co-ions and counterions near the particle start to decrease. At sufficiently high dc voltage (around 2 V, the mobility reaches a saturation value when the co-ions and counterions are fully separated. The increase in mobility is larger when the equilibrium ionic strength is higher. The dependence of the experimental data on the equilibrium ionic strength and on the applied voltage is in good agreement with the standard theory of electrophoretic retardation, assuming that the bare particle charge remains constant. This method is useful for studying the electrophoretic retardation effect and charging mechanisms for nonpolar colloids, and it sheds light on previously unexplained particle acceleration in electronic ink devices.

  7. Flame retardancy of highly filled polyamide 6/clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, Aravind; Yu Zhongzhen; Mai Yiuwing; Liu Songlin

    2007-01-01

    To obtain an in-depth physical knowledge of the protective barrier stability and uniformity under fire conditions, we prepared highly filled polyamide 6/organoclay nanocomposites and characterized their thermal and flammability properties. The objectives were to identify a critical composition that is needed to form a stable char with no apertures or cracks and to gain a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of flame retardancy. It was shown that there is no need for higher percentages of clay and even smaller amounts of clay (<10 wt%) should be enough to achieve good fire performance. Factors such as incoherency, poor stability and non-uniformity of the char or the presence of large cracks and formation of island-like structures were insignificant in slowing down the heat release and mass loss rates. Nevertheless, there was no stage during the flammability test where the fire completely extinguished even when the protective layer was stable and free from major cracks/apertures. Based on these results, new insights and approaches to process better flame retardant polymer nanocomposites are discussed

  8. Psychomotor Retardation in untreated depressed elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Lia Beheydt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR is one of the core features in depression according to 17 DSM V1, but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study 18 investigating psychomotor retardation in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant 19 effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic 20 medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched 21 control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical 22 depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, 23 clinical ratings of psychomotor retardation and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. 24 Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method (GLM multivariate analysis of variance to 25 compare the clinical, cognitive and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients 26 performed worse on all clinical, cognitive and psychomotor retardation measures. Both groups 27 showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger 28 for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: due to the restrictive 29 inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a 30 medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric 31 patients was found,. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive 32 load, it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression.

  9. Oral Rehabilitation and Management of Mentally Retarded

    OpenAIRE

    Solanki, Jitender; Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physic...

  10. Inherited retarded eruption in the permanent dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, P; Kotsaki, A

    1997-01-01

    The term retarded eruption, may be used in cases where eruption is inhibited, causing an interruption in the coordination of tooth formation and tooth eruption. The phenomenon may be local or general, and several etiological factors for retarded eruption have been listed, comprising a lack of space, ankylosis, cysts, supernumerary teeth, hormone and vitamin deficiencies and several developmental disturbances and syndromes. The present paper describes several cases of retarded eruption where no factors other than inheritance have been evident. So far 14 cases have been evaluated, 9 boys and 5 girls. In addition several cases have been registered among parents and grandparents of the probands. Typical features are: retarded eruption, defined as more than 3 SD beyond mean eruption figures, comprises all teeth in the permanent dentition, and in 5 cases also second primary molars. The chronology of tooth formation are within normal limits. Consequently the teeth finish development still laying deeply buried in the jaws, often in aberrant positions and with curves or hooks on the roots. When the teeth finally get the "signal" for eruption, 5-15 years beyond normal eruption time, they move rather quickly into right positions, despite the long eruption paths and the hooked roots. Permanent teeth without, as well as with predecessors, are affected. Extraction of predecessors does not seem to provoke eruption. The main features in management are to take care of the primary teeth, to improve-esthetics, and offer surgery and orthodontics when needed. Analyses of pedigrees indicates that the genetic transmittance may be autosomal dominant as both sexes are affected, about half of the siblings show the trait, and the trait shows continuity through generations.

  11. Approach and withdrawal tendencies during written word processing: effects of task, emotional valence and emotional arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Citron, Francesca Maria Marina; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behaviour (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implic...

  12. Flame Retardant Polyamide Fibres: The Challenge of Minimising Flame Retardant Additive Contents with Added Nanoclays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Horrocks

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work shows that halogen-free, flame retarded polyamide 6 (PA6, fabrics may be produced in which component fibres still have acceptable tensile properties and low levels (preferably ≤10 wt % of additives by incorporating a nanoclay along with two types of flame retardant formulations. The latter include (i aluminium diethyl phosphinate (AlPi at 10 wt %, known to work principally in the vapour phase and (ii ammonium sulphamate (AS/dipentaerythritol (DP system present at 2.5 and 1 wt % respectively, believed to be condense phase active. The nanoclay chosen is an organically modified montmorillonite clay, Cloisite 25A. The effect of each additive system is analysed in terms of its ability to maximise both filament tensile properties relative to 100% PA6 and flame retardant behaviour of knitted fabrics in a vertical orientation. None of the AlPi-containing formulations achieved self-extinguishability, although the presence of nanoclay promoted lower burning and melt dripping rates. The AS/DP-containing formulations with total flame retardant levels of 5.5 wt % or less showed far superior properties and with nanoclay, showed fabric extinction times ≤ 39 s and reduced melt dripping. The tensile and flammability results, supported by thermogravimetric analysis, have been interpreted in terms of the mechanism of action of each flame retardant/nanoclay type.

  13. Affective Norms for Italian Words in Older Adults: Age Differences in Ratings of Valence, Arousal and Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Beth; Ambrosini, Ettore; Mammarella, Nicola; Montefinese, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In line with the dimensional theory of emotional space, we developed affective norms for words rated in terms of valence, arousal and dominance in a group of older adults to complete the adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for Italian and to aid research on aging. Here, as in the original Italian ANEW database, participants evaluated valence, arousal, and dominance by means of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in a paper-and-pencil procedure. We observed high split-half reliabilities within the older sample and high correlations with the affective ratings of previous research, especially for valence, suggesting that there is large agreement among older adults within and across-languages. More importantly, we found high correlations between younger and older adults, showing that our data are generalizable across different ages. However, despite this across-ages accord, we obtained age-related differences on three affective dimensions for a great number of words. In particular, older adults rated as more arousing and more unpleasant a number of words that younger adults rated as moderately unpleasant and arousing in our previous affective norms. Moreover, older participants rated negative stimuli as more arousing and positive stimuli as less arousing than younger participants, thus leading to a less-curved distribution of ratings in the valence by arousal space. We also found more extreme ratings for older adults for the relationship between dominance and arousal: older adults gave lower dominance and higher arousal ratings for words rated by younger adults with middle dominance and arousal values. Together, these results suggest that our affective norms are reliable and can be confidently used to select words matched for the affective dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance across younger and older participants for future research in aging.

  14. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children's memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can…

  15. Valence-Specific Laterality Effects in Vocal Emotion: Interactions with Stimulus Type, Blocking and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepman, Astrid; Rodway, Paul; Geddes, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Valence-specific laterality effects have been frequently obtained in facial emotion perception but not in vocal emotion perception. We report a dichotic listening study further examining whether valence-specific laterality effects generalise to vocal emotions. Based on previous literature, we tested whether valence-specific laterality effects were…

  16. Work Valence as a Predictor of Academic Achievement in the Family Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik; Ferrari, Lea; Nota, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study asserts a theoretical model of academic and work socialization within the family setting. The presumed associations between parents' work valences, children's work valences and valence perceptions, and children's academic interest and achievement are tested. The results suggest that children's perceptions of parents mediate the…

  17. The influence of image valence on visual attention and perception of risk in drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M P; Chapman, P; Bailey, K

    2014-12-01

    Currently there is little research into the relationship between emotion and driving in the context of advertising and distraction. Research that has looked into this also has methodological limitations that could be affecting the results rather than emotional processing (Trick et al., 2012). The current study investigated the relationship between image valence and risk perception, eye movements and physiological reactions. Participants watched hazard perception clips which had emotional images from the international affective picture system overlaid onto them. They rated how hazardous or safe they felt, whilst eye movements, galvanic skin response and heart rate were recorded. Results suggested that participants were more aware of potential hazards when a neutral image had been shown, in comparison to positive and negative valenced images; that is, participants showed higher subjective ratings of risk, larger physiological responses and marginally longer fixation durations when viewing a hazard after a neutral image, but this effect was attenuated after emotional images. It appears that emotional images reduce sensitivity to potential hazards, and we suggest that future studies could apply these findings to higher fidelity paradigms such as driving simulators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Theoretical calculations of valence states in Fe-Mo compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, F; Navarro, O; Noverola, H; Suárez, J R; Avignon, M

    2014-01-01

    The half-metallic ferromagnetic double perovskite compound Sr 2 FeMoO 6 is considered as an important material for spintronic applications. It appears to be fundamental to understand the role of electronic parameters controlling the half-metallic ground state. Fe-Mo double perovskites usually present some degree of Fe/Mo disorder which generally increases with doping. In this work, we study the valence states of Fe-Mo cations in the off-stoichiometric system Sr 2 Fe 1+x Mo 1−x O 6 (−1 ≤ x ≤ 1/3) with disorder. Our results for Fe and Mo valence states are obtained using the Green functions and the renormalization perturbation expansion method. The model is based on a correlated electron picture with localized Fe-spins and conduction Mo-electrons interacting with the local spins via a double-exchange-type mechanism

  19. Theory of Valence Transitions in Ytterbium and Europium Intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatic, V.; Freericks, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    The exact solution of the multi-component Falicov-Kimball model in infinite-dimensions is presented and used to discuss a new fixed point of valence fluctuating intermetallics with Yb and Eu ions. In these compounds, temperature, external magnetic field, pressure, or chemical pressure induce a transition between a metallic state with the f-ions in a mixed-valent (non-magnetic) configuration and a semi-metallic state with the f-ions in an integral-valence (paramagnetic) configuration. The zero-field transition occurs at the temperature T V , while the zero-temperature transition sets in at the critical field H c . We present the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of the model for an arbitrary concentration of d- and f -electrons. For large U, we find a MI transition, triggered by the temperature or field- induced change in the f-occupancy. (author)

  20. The chemical bond in inorganic chemistry the bond valence model

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I David

    2016-01-01

    The bond valence model is a version of the ionic model in which the chemical constraints are expressed in terms of localized chemical bonds formed by the valence charge of the atoms. Theorems derived from the properties of the electrostatic flux predict the rules obeyed by both ionic and covalent bonds. They make quantitative predictions of coordination number, crystal structure, bond lengths and bond angles. Bond stability depends on the matching of the bonding strengths of the atoms, while the conflicting requirements of chemistry and space lead to the structural instabilities responsible for the unusual physical properties displayed by some materials. The model has applications in many fields ranging from mineralogy to molecular biology.

  1. Bond charge approximation for valence electron density in elemental semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashenov, V.K.; Gorbachov, V.E.; Marvakov, D.I.

    1985-07-01

    The spatial valence electron distribution in silicon and diamond is calculated in adiabatic bond charge approximation at zero temperature when bond charges have the Gaussian shape and their tensor character is taken into account. An agreement between theory and experiment has been achieved. For this purpose Xia's ionic pseudopotentials and Schulze-Unger's dielectric function are used. By two additional parameters Asub(B) and Zsub(B)sup(') we describe the spatial extent of the bond charge and local-field corrections, respectively. The parameter Zsub(B)sup(') accounts for the ratio between the Coulomb and exchange correlation interactions of the valence electrons and its silicon and diamond values have different signs. (author)

  2. Valence control of cobalt oxide thin films by annealing atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shijing; Zhang Boping; Zhao Cuihua; Li Songjie; Zhang Meixia; Yan Liping

    2011-01-01

    The cobalt oxide (CoO and Co 3 O 4 ) thin films were successfully prepared using a spin-coating technique by a chemical solution method with CH 3 OCH 2 CH 2 OH and Co(NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O as starting materials. The grayish cobalt oxide films had uniform crystalline grains with less than 50 nm in diameter. The phase structure is able to tailor by controlling the annealing atmosphere and temperature, in which Co 3 O 4 thin film was obtained by annealing in air at 300-600, and N 2 at 300, and transferred to CoO thin film by raising annealing temperature in N 2 . The fitted X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of the Co2p electrons are distinguishable from different valence states of cobalt oxide especially for their satellite structure. The valence control of cobalt oxide thin films by annealing atmosphere contributes to the tailored optical absorption property.

  3. Spin dynamics and magnetic ordering in mixed valence systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.M.; Moller, H.B.; Axe, J.D.; Birgeneau, R.J.; Bucher, E.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron scattering measurements are reported on the mixed valence compounds Ce/sub 1-x/Th/sub x/ and TmSe. The Chi''(Q,ω) as derived from the inelastic spectra of Ce 0 . 74 Th 0 . 26 shows a peak in the γ phase near 20.0 meV and shifts abruptly to greater than 70.0 meV at the transition to the α phase. The temperature independence of the susceptibility within the γ phase cannot be simply reconciled with the temperature dependence of the valence within the γ phase. TmSe is shown to order in a type I antiferromagnetic structure below T/sub N/ approx. 3.2 K. The magnetic phase diagram is understood as a successive domain reorientation and a metamagnetic phase transition for T 3+ orders in a type II structure but never achieves long range order

  4. The olfactory tubercle encodes odor valence in behaving mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A; Tylicki, Kate A; Christian, Diana L; Wesson, Daniel W

    2015-03-18

    Sensory information acquires meaning to adaptively guide behaviors. Despite odors mediating a number of vital behaviors, the components of the olfactory system responsible for assigning meaning to odors remain unclear. The olfactory tubercle (OT), a ventral striatum structure that receives monosynaptic input from the olfactory bulb, is uniquely positioned to transform odor information into behaviorally relevant neural codes. No information is available, however, on the coding of odors among OT neurons in behaving animals. In recordings from mice engaged in an odor discrimination task, we report that the firing rate of OT neurons robustly and flexibly encodes the valence of conditioned odors over identity, with rewarded odors evoking greater firing rates. This coding of rewarded odors occurs before behavioral decisions and represents subsequent behavioral responses. We predict that the OT is an essential region whereby odor valence is encoded in the mammalian brain to guide goal-directed behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354515-13$15.00/0.

  5. Clustering of low-valence particles: structure and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Olga; Alberts, Jonathan; Munro, Edwin; Lenne, Pierre-François

    2014-08-01

    We compute the structure and kinetics of two systems of low-valence particles with three or six freely oriented bonds in two dimensions. The structure of clusters formed by trivalent particles is complex with loops and holes, while hexavalent particles self-organize into regular and compact structures. We identify the elementary structures which compose the clusters of trivalent particles. At initial stages of clustering, the clusters of trivalent particles grow with a power-law time dependence. Yet at longer times fusion and fission of clusters equilibrates and clusters form a heterogeneous phase with polydispersed sizes. These results emphasize the role of valence in the kinetics and stability of finite-size clusters.

  6. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, John A.; Leclerc, Christina M.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of v...

  7. Magnetic excitations in intermediate valence semiconductors with singlet ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikoin, K.A.; Mishchenko, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    The explanation of the origin inelastic peaks in magnetic neutron scattering spectra of the mixed-valent semiconductor SmB 6 is proposed. It is shown that the excitonic theory of intermediate valence state not only gives the value of the peak frequency but also explains the unusual angular dependence of intensity of inelastic magnetic scattering and describes the dispersion of magnetic excitations in good agreement with experiment

  8. Continuum-limit scaling of overlap fermions as valence quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichy, Krzysztof; Herdoiza, Gregorio; Jansen, Karl

    2009-10-01

    We present the results of a mixed action approach, employing dynamical twisted mass fermions in the sea sector and overlap valence fermions, with the aim of testing the continuum limit scaling behaviour of physical quantities, taking the pion decay constant as an example. To render the computations practical, we impose for this purpose a fixed finite volume with lattice size L∼1.3 fm. We also briefly review the techniques we have used to deal with overlap fermions. (orig.)

  9. Few-valence-particle excitations around doubly magic 132Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, P.J.; Zhang, C.T.; Bhattacharyya, P.

    1996-01-01

    Prompt γ-ray cascades in neutron-rich nuclei around doubly-magic 132 Sn have been studied using a 248 Cm fission source. Yrast states located in the N = 82 isotones 134 Te and 135 I are interpreted as valence proton and neutron particle-hole core excitations with the help of shell model calculations employing empirical nucleon-nucleon interactions from both 132 Sn and 208 Pb regions

  10. Magnetic re-entrance in intermediate valence compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allub, R.; Machiavelli, O.; Balseiro, C.; Alascio, B.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility is explored of magnetic re-entrance in intermediate valence compounds. Using a simplified Anderson-Lattice model the pressure-temperature magnetic phase diagram is obtained. This diagram shows that for some value of the microscopic parameters the temperature induced two transitions (non-magnetic to magnetically ordered to paramagnetic). The magnetization and the average occupation number of the localized state are calculated. Estimations of the observability of the effect in systems like CeAl 2 are made. (author)

  11. Feedback Valence Affects Auditory Perceptual Learning Independently of Feedback Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R.; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they were doing equally well, while 10% positive or 90% negative feedback informed them they were doing equally badly. In all conditions the feedback was random in relation to the listeners’ responses (because the task was to discriminate three identical tones), yet both the valence (negative vs. positive) and the probability of feedback (10% vs. 90%) affected learning. Feedback that informed listeners they were doing badly resulted in better post-training performance than feedback that informed them they were doing well, independent of valence. In addition, positive feedback during training resulted in better post-training performance than negative feedback, but only positive feedback indicating listeners were doing badly on the task resulted in learning. As we have previously speculated, feedback that better reflected the difficulty of the task was more effective in driving learning than feedback that suggested performance was better than it should have been given perceived task difficulty. But contrary to expectations, positive feedback was more effective than negative feedback in driving learning. Feedback thus had two separable effects on learning: feedback valence affected motivation on a subjectively difficult task, and learning occurred only when feedback probability reflected the subjective difficulty. To optimize learning, training programs need to take into consideration both feedback valence and probability. PMID:25946173

  12. Human Amygdala Tracks a Feature-Based Valence Signal Embedded within the Facial Expression of Surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M Justin; Mattek, Alison M; Bennett, Randi H; Solomon, Kimberly M; Shin, Jin; Whalen, Paul J

    2017-09-27

    Human amygdala function has been traditionally associated with processing the affective valence (negative vs positive) of an emotionally charged event, especially those that signal fear or threat. However, this account of human amygdala function can be explained by alternative views, which posit that the amygdala might be tuned to either (1) general emotional arousal (activation vs deactivation) or (2) specific emotion categories (fear vs happy). Delineating the pure effects of valence independent of arousal or emotion category is a challenging task, given that these variables naturally covary under many circumstances. To circumvent this issue and test the sensitivity of the human amygdala to valence values specifically, we measured the dimension of valence within the single facial expression category of surprise. Given the inherent valence ambiguity of this category, we show that surprised expression exemplars are attributed valence and arousal values that are uniquely and naturally uncorrelated. We then present fMRI data from both sexes, showing that the amygdala tracks these consensus valence values. Finally, we provide evidence that these valence values are linked to specific visual features of the mouth region, isolating the signal by which the amygdala detects this valence information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There is an open question as to whether human amygdala function tracks the valence value of cues in the environment, as opposed to either a more general emotional arousal value or a more specific emotion category distinction. Here, we demonstrate the utility of surprised facial expressions because exemplars within this emotion category take on valence values spanning the dimension of bipolar valence (positive to negative) at a consistent level of emotional arousal. Functional neuroimaging data showed that amygdala responses tracked the valence of surprised facial expressions, unconfounded by arousal. Furthermore, a machine learning classifier identified

  13. Optoelectronic properties of valence-state-controlled amorphous niobium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozato, Takaki; Katase, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Katayama, Shota; Matsushima, Koichi; Itagaki, Naho; Yoshida, Hisao; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2016-06-01

    In order to understand the optoelectronic properties of amorphous niobium oxide (a-NbO x ), we have investigated the valence states, local structures, electrical resistivity, and optical absorption of a-NbO x thin films with various oxygen contents. It was found that the valence states of Nb ion in a-NbO x films can be controlled from 5+  to 4+  by reducing oxygen pressure during film deposition at room temperature, together with changing the oxide-ion arrangement around Nb ion from Nb2O5-like to NbO2-like local structure. As a result, a four orders of magnitude reduction in the electrical resistivity of a-NbO x films was observed with decreasing oxygen content, due to the carrier generation caused by the appearance and increase of an oxygen-vacancy-related subgap state working as an electron donor. The tunable optoelectronic properties of a-NbO x films by valence-state-control with oxygen-vacancy formation will be useful for potential flexible optoelectronic device applications.

  14. Basic features of the pion valence-quark distribution function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Lei [CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Mezrag, Cédric; Moutarde, Hervé [Centre de Saclay, IRFU/Service de Physique Nucléaire, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Roberts, Craig D. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, Huelva E-21071 (Spain); Tandy, Peter C. [Center for Nuclear Research, Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 (United States)

    2014-10-07

    The impulse-approximation expression used hitherto to define the pion's valence-quark distribution function is flawed because it omits contributions from the gluons which bind quarks into the pion. A corrected leading-order expression produces the model-independent result that quarks dressed via the rainbow–ladder truncation, or any practical analogue, carry all the pion's light-front momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale. Corrections to the leading contribution may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea-quarks. Working with available empirical information, we use an algebraic model to express the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison with experiment that allows us to highlight the basic features of the pion's measurable valence-quark distribution, q{sup π}(x); namely, at a characteristic hadronic scale, q{sup π}(x)∼(1−x){sup 2} for x≳0.85; and the valence-quarks carry approximately two-thirds of the pion's light-front momentum.

  15. Automated Construction of Molecular Active Spaces from Atomic Valence Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayfutyarova, Elvira R; Sun, Qiming; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Knizia, Gerald

    2017-09-12

    We introduce the atomic valence active space (AVAS), a simple and well-defined automated technique for constructing active orbital spaces for use in multiconfiguration and multireference (MR) electronic structure calculations. Concretely, the technique constructs active molecular orbitals capable of describing all relevant electronic configurations emerging from a targeted set of atomic valence orbitals (e.g., the metal d orbitals in a coordination complex). This is achieved via a linear transformation of the occupied and unoccupied orbital spaces from an easily obtainable single-reference wave function (such as from a Hartree-Fock or Kohn-Sham calculations) based on projectors to targeted atomic valence orbitals. We discuss the premises, theory, and implementation of the idea, and several of its variations are tested. To investigate the performance and accuracy, we calculate the excitation energies for various transition-metal complexes in typical application scenarios. Additionally, we follow the homolytic bond breaking process of a Fenton reaction along its reaction coordinate. While the described AVAS technique is not a universal solution to the active space problem, its premises are fulfilled in many application scenarios of transition-metal chemistry and bond dissociation processes. In these cases the technique makes MR calculations easier to execute, easier to reproduce by any user, and simplifies the determination of the appropriate size of the active space required for accurate results.

  16. Spectroscopic determination of valence band parameters in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.; Lough, B.C.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The general form of the Hamiltonian for an electron or hole in a semiconductor has been given by Luttinger. The valence band is characterised by three parameters - γ 1 , γ 2 , γ 3 -now commonly known as the Luttinger parameters. Despite many investigations there is still considerable uncertainty regarding the Luttinger parameters of InP. The situation has been reviewed by Hackenberg et al. These authors themselves sought to determine the Luttinger parameters by hot-electron luminescence and discovered that many Luttinger parameter triplets were consistent with their data. We employ a spectroscopic approach to estimating valence-band parameters in InP. Calculations have been made for both the unperturbed energy levels and the energy levels in a magnetic field of acceptor impurities in semiconductors characterised by different Luttinger parameters. We compare our recent experimental data for the transitions associated with the Zn acceptor impurity in InP in magnetic fields up to 30 T to determine the most appropriate set of valence-band parameters for InP

  17. Chromium valences in ureilite olivine and implications for ureilite petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Sutton, S. R.; Wirick, S.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Ureilites are a group of ultramafic achondrites commonly thought to be residues of partial melting on a carbon-rich asteroid. They show a large variation in FeO content (olivine Fo values ranging from ∼74 to 95) that cannot be due to igneous fractionation and suggests instead variation in oxidation state. The presence of chromite in only a few of the most ferroan (Fo 75-76) samples appears to support such a model. MicroXANES analyses were used in this study to determine the valence states of Cr (previously unknown) in olivine cores of 11 main group ureilites. The goal of this work was to use a method that is independent of Fo to determine the oxidation conditions under which ureilites formed, in order to evaluate whether the ureilite FeO-variation is correlated with oxidation state, and whether it is nebular or planetary in origin. Two of the analyzed samples, LEW 88774 (Fo 74.2) and NWA 766 (Fo 76.7) contain primary chromite; two others, LAP 03587 (Fo 74.4) and CMS 04048 (Fo 76.2) contain sub-micrometer-sized exsolutions of chromite + Ca-rich pyroxene in olivine; and one, EET 96328 (Fo 85.2) contains an unusual chromite grain of uncertain origin. No chromite has been observed in the remaining six samples (Fo 77.4-92.3). Chromium in olivine in all eleven samples was found to be dominated by the divalent species, with valences ranging from 2.10 ± 0.02 (1σ) to 2.46 ± 0.04. The non-chromite-bearing ureilites have the most reduced Cr, with a weighted mean valence of 2.12 ± 0.01, i.e., Cr2+/Cr3+ = 7.33. All low-Fo chromite-bearing ureilites have more oxidized Cr, with valences ranging from 2.22 ± 0.03 to 2.46 ± 0.04. EET 96328, whose chromite grain we interpret as a late-crystallizing phase, yielded a reduced Cr valence of 2.15 ± 0.07, similar to the non-chromite-bearing samples. Based on the measured Cr valences, magmatic (1200-1300 °C) oxygen fugacities (fO2) of the non-chromite-bearing samples were estimated to be in the range IW-1.9 to IW-2.8 (assuming

  18. Measurement of valence band structure in arbitrary dielectric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Choi, Eun H.

    2012-01-01

    A new way of measuring the band structure of various dielectric materials using the secondary electron emission from Auger neutralization of ions is introduced. The first example of this measurement scheme is the magnesium oxide (MgO) films with respect to the application of the films in the display industries. The density of state in the valence bands of MgO film and MgO film with a functional layer (FL) deposited over a dielectric surface reveals that the density peak of film with a FL is considerably less than that of film, thereby indicating a better performance of MgO film with functional layer in display devices. The second example of the measurement is the boron-zinc oxide (BZO) films with respect to the application of the films to the development of solar cells. The measurement of density of state in BZO film suggests that a high concentration of boron impurity in BZO films may enhance the transition of electrons and holes through the band gap from the valence to the conduction band in zinc oxide crystals; thereby improving the conductivity of the film. Secondary electron emission by the Auger neutralization of ions is highly instrumental for the determination of the density of states in the valence band of dielectric materials.

  19. Chemical alternatives assessment: the case of flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    Decisions on chemical substitution are made rapidly and by many stakeholders; these decisions may have a direct impact on consumer exposures, and, when a hazard exists, to consumer risks. Flame retardants (FRs) represent particular challenges, including very high production volumes, designed-in persistence, and often direct consumer exposure. Newer FR products, as with other industrial chemicals, typically lack data on hazard and exposure, and in many cases even basic information on structure and use in products is unknown. Chemical alternatives assessment (CAA) provides a hazard-focused approach to distinguishing between possible substitutions; variations on this process are used by several government and numerous corporate entities. By grouping chemicals according to functional use, some information on exposure potential can be inferred, allowing for decisions based on those hazard properties that are most distinguishing. This approach can help prevent the "regrettable substitution" of one chemical with another of equal, or even higher, risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Growth hormone in intra-uterine growth retarded newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Sajita; Sridhar, M G; Bhat, Vishnu; Chaturvedula, Latha

    2007-11-01

    To study growth hormone levels in IUGR and healthy controls and its association with birth weight and ponderal index. We studied 50 Intra uterine growth retarded (IUGR) and 50 healthy newborns born at term by vaginal delivery in JIPMER, Pondicherry, India. Cord blood was collected at the time of delivery for measurement of growth hormone. When compared with healthy newborns, IUGR newborns had higher growth hormone levels (mean +/- SD, 23.5 +/- 15.6 vs 16.2 +/- 7.61 ngm/ml, P = 0.019). A negative correlation was identified between growth hormone levels and birth weight (r2 = - 0.22, P = 0.03) and ponderal index (r2 = - 0.36, P = 0.008). Correlation of growth hormone levels was much more confident with ponderal index than with birth weight. At birth IUGR infants display increased growth hormone levels which correlate with ponderal index much more confidently than with birth weight.

  1. Magneto-optical studies of valence instability in europium and terbium phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Lucas C.V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, -SP (Brazil); Hölsä, Jorma [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, -SP (Brazil); Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf) (Finland); University of the Free State, Department of Physics, Bloemfontein (South Africa); Brito, Hermi F. [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, -SP (Brazil); Maryško, Miroslav [Institute of Physics, The Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnická 10, CZ-162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Matos, Jivaldo R. [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, -SP (Brazil); Paturi, Petriina [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Rodrigues, Rodrigo V. [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, -SP (Brazil); Lastusaari, Mika, E-mail: miklas@utu.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf) (Finland)

    2016-02-15

    The impurities and dopants' inappropriate valences may deteriorate the performance of luminescent materials, cause waste of the precious rare earth (R) material and thus incur financial losses. The usual methods to detect the valence of rare earths; XPS, Mössbauer and XANES spectroscopies, are not sensitive enough for low concentrations and the EPR methods are not very suitable for powders. In this work, the comparison between the theoretical and experimental temperature-dependent paramagnetic susceptibilities was used to obtain quantitatively the concentrations of the impurity valence in Eu{sub 2}O{sub 2}S and Tb{sub 2}O{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, both containing nominally only R{sup 3+}. Minute (ppm level) Eu{sup 2+} impurities could be analyzed because of the huge difference in the paramagnetic susceptibility between Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} at low temperatures. However, temperatures below 50 K are then needed whilst the Tb{sup IV} impurity in a Tb{sup 3+} matrix can be observed already at higher temperatures. The latter method based on comparing the slopes of the Tb{sup 3+}/Tb{sup IV} paramagnetic susceptibility vs temperature curves for the Tb{sup 3+}/Tb{sup IV} couple is less sensitive than for the Eu{sup 2+}/Eu{sup 3+} one. Finally, the host independent temperature evolution of the paramagnetic susceptibility was calculated for Gd{sup 3+} (or Eu{sup 2+} or Tb{sup IV}) to yield a simple analytical expression to be used universally. - Highlights: • Wave functions for Eu{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} with crystal field effect calculated for oxysulfide/sulfate. • Paramagnetic susceptibility between 4 and 300 K simulated for 4f{sup 6/7/8} configurations. • Amount of valence impurities (Eu{sup 2+} and Tb{sup IV}) evaluated from susceptibility data. • Waste of raw materials and loss of luminescence intensity of phosphors can be avoided.

  2. Excitations of one-valence-proton, one-valence-neutron nucleus {sup 210}Bi from cold-neutron capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieplicka-Oryńczak, N. [INFN sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Kraków (Poland); Fornal, B.; Szpak, B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Kraków (Poland); Leoni, S.; Bottoni, S. [INFN sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Bazzacco, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell’Università, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Mutti, P.; Soldner, T. [Institute Laue-Langevin, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Bocchi, G. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); France, G. de [GANIL, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); Simpson, G. [LPSC, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, F-38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Ur, C. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Urban, W. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoża 69, 02-681, Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    The low-spin structure of one-proton, one-neutron {sup 210}Bi nucleus was investigated in cold-neutron capture reaction on {sup 209}Bi. The γ-coincidence measurements were performed with use of EXILL array consisted of 16 HPGe detectors. The experimental results were compared to shell-model calculations involving valence particles excitations. The {sup 210}Bi nucleus offers the potential to test the effective proton-neutron interactions because most of the states should arise from the proton-neutron excitations. Additionally, it was discovered that a few states should come from the couplings of valence particles to the 3{sup −} octupole vibration in {sup 208}Pb which provides also the possibility of testing the calculations involving the core excitations.

  3. Retardo del crecimiento intrauterino Intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cuartas Calle

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available

    El crecimiento fetal anormal es un aspecto de gran interés en la obstetricia actual y un dilema clínico relativamente frecuente. La falla del crecimiento sigue siendo un enigma a pesar de los adelantos que ha habido en su conocimiento: el diagnóstico temprano y preciso del retardo del crecimiento puede aminorar la incidencia de complicaciones y muerte en fetos con este problema. Por ello es necesario mejorar las técnicas para identificar esta entidad y asegurar una atención apropiada durante el embarazo y el parto. En este artículo se resumen datos acerca de la definición del retardo del crecimiento fetal, su fisiopatología, clasificación, etiología, diagnóstico y manejo.

    Abnormal fetal growth is a very important aspect In present-day obstetrics and a frequent clinical dilemma. Fetal failure to grow continues to be puzzling, despite advances in its knowledge; early and precise diagnosis of growth retardation can diminish the incidence of complications and death of fetuses with this problem. It becomes therefore necessary, in the presence of growth retardation, to improve diagnostic techniques and assure proper attention during pregnancy and delivery. Information is summarized in this review on the definition, pathophysiology, classification, etiology, diagnosis and handling of fetal growth retardation.

  4. Investigation of pressure retarded osmosis power production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taousanidis Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A major source of energy exists where there is mixing between aqueous solutions of different salinities. This energy source is particularly concentrated where fresh water rivers flow on to the ocean. The power, represented by the osmotic pressure difference between fresh water and salt water, may be called salinity gradient power. In this study the pressure retarded osmosis method for the extraction of salinity gradients’ energy is investigated, main problems and difficulties are pointed out and finally the whole subject is justified with experimental results.

  5. Valence and the development of immediate and long-term false memory illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Candel, Ingrid; Otgaar, Henry; Malone, Catherine; Wimmer, Marina C

    2010-01-01

    Across five experiments we examined the role of valence in children's and adults' true and false memories. Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm and either neutral or negative-emotional lists, both adults' (Experiment 1) and children's (Experiment 2) true recall and recognition was better for neutral than negative items, and although false recall was also higher for neutral items, false recognition was higher for negative items. The last three experiments examined adults' (Experiment 3) and children's (Experiments 4 and 5) 1-week long-term recognition of neutral and negative-emotional information. The results replicated the immediate recall and recognition findings from the first two experiments. More important, these experiments showed that although true recognition decreased over the 1-week interval, false recognition of neutral items remained unchanged whereas false recognition of negative-emotional items increased. These findings are discussed in terms of theories of emotion and memory as well as their forensic implications.

  6. Characteristics of Those Persons with Mental Retardation Registered with the Mental Retardation Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Errol; Ng, Pin Chee

    1983-01-01

    The paper discusses an analysis of a computerized data bank on the mentally retarded population in Victoria, Australia. Prevalence rates, severity of handicap, age, sex, and residence type are reviewed and implications for community vocational and residential services for adults are noted. (CL)

  7. Distal joint contractures, mental retardation, characteristic face and growth retardation: Chitayat syndrome revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortmann, S.B.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Schwahn, B.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Morava, E.

    2007-01-01

    We report on a patient with congenital distal limb contractures, characteristic face, prominent metopic sutures, narrow forehead, severe psychomotor and growth retardation, white matter lesions and failure to thrive. The child has many overlapping features with those reported previously by Chitayat.

  8. Dysmorphology and mental retardation: molecular cytogenetic studies in dysmorphic mentally retarded patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buggenhout, G.J.C.M. van; Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van; Mieloo, H.; Syrrou, M.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Brunner, H.G.; Fryns, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    In an institutionalised population of 471 mentally retarded adult residents (436 males and 35 females), 18 patients (16 males and 2 females) with dysmorphic features were selected to perform FISH studies by using subtelomeric probes to discover cryptic terminal deletions or duplications,

  9. Stress and emotional valence effects on children's versus adolescents' true and false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quas, Jodi A; Rush, Elizabeth B; Yim, Ilona S; Edelstein, Robin S; Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in understanding how stress influences memory accuracy and errors, particularly in children, methodological limitations have made it difficult to examine the effects of stress independent of the effects of the emotional valence of to-be-remembered information in developmental populations. In this study, we manipulated stress levels in 7-8- and 12-14-year-olds and then exposed them to negative, neutral, and positive word lists. Shortly afterward, we tested their recognition memory for the words and false memory for non-presented but related words. Adolescents in the high-stress condition were more accurate than those in the low-stress condition, while children's accuracy did not differ across stress conditions. Also, among adolescents, accuracy and errors were higher for the negative than positive words, while in children, word valence was unrelated to accuracy. Finally, increases in children's and adolescents' cortisol responses, especially in the high-stress condition, were related to greater accuracy but not false memories and only for positive emotional words. Findings suggest that stress at encoding, as well as the emotional content of to-be-remembered information, may influence memory in different ways across development, highlighting the need for greater complexity in existing models of true and false memory formation.

  10. Lateralized goal framing: How health messages are influenced by valence and contextual/analytic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Michael; Seta, John J

    2016-05-01

    The effectiveness of health messages has been shown to vary due to the positive or negative framing of information, often known as goal framing. In two experiments we altered, the strength of the goal framing manipulation by selectively activating the processing style of the left or right hemisphere (RH). In Experiment 1, we found support for the contextual/analytic perspective; a significant goal framing effect was observed when the contextual processing style of the RH - but not the analytic processing style of the left hemisphere (LH) - was initially activated. In Experiment 2, support for the valence hypothesis was found when a message that had a higher level of personal involvement was used than that in Experiment 1. When the LH was initially activated, there was an advantage for the gain- vs. loss-framed message; however, an opposite pattern - an advantage for the loss-framed message - was obtained when the RH was activated. These are the first framing results that support the valence hypothesis. We discuss the theoretical and applied implications of these experiments.

  11. Empirical valence bond models for reactive potential energy surfaces: a parallel multilevel genetic program approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Michael A; Coker, David F

    2011-07-28

    We describe a new method for constructing empirical valence bond potential energy surfaces using a parallel multilevel genetic program (PMLGP). Genetic programs can be used to perform an efficient search through function space and parameter space to find the best functions and sets of parameters that fit energies obtained by ab initio electronic structure calculations. Building on the traditional genetic program approach, the PMLGP utilizes a hierarchy of genetic programming on two different levels. The lower level genetic programs are used to optimize coevolving populations in parallel while the higher level genetic program (HLGP) is used to optimize the genetic operator probabilities of the lower level genetic programs. The HLGP allows the algorithm to dynamically learn the mutation or combination of mutations that most effectively increase the fitness of the populations, causing a significant increase in the algorithm's accuracy and efficiency. The algorithm's accuracy and efficiency is tested against a standard parallel genetic program with a variety of one-dimensional test cases. Subsequently, the PMLGP is utilized to obtain an accurate empirical valence bond model for proton transfer in 3-hydroxy-gamma-pyrone in gas phase and protic solvent. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  12. Crack retardation by load reduction during fatigue crack propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Nam, Ki Woo; Ahn, Seok Hwan; Do, Jae Yoon

    2003-01-01

    Fracture life and crack retardation behavior were examined experimentally using CT specimens of aluminum alloy 5083. Crack retardation life and fracture life were a wide difference between 0.8 and 0.6 in proportion to ratio of load reduction. The wheeler model retardation parameter was used successfully to predict crack growth behavior. By using a crack propagation rule, prediction of fracture life can be evaluated quantitatively. A statistical approach based on Weibull distribution was applied to the test data to evaluate the dispersion in the retardation life and fracture life by the change of load reduction

  13. POLYAMIDE 6 WITH A FLAME RETARDANT ENCAPSULATED BY POLYAMIDE 66: FLAME RETARDATION, THERMO-DECOMPOSITION AND THE POTENTIAL MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-cheng Xiong; Li Chen; Bin Zhao; De-yi Wang; Yu-zhong Wang

    2012-01-01

    A novel encapsulated flame retardant containing phosphorus-nitrogen (MSMM-Al-P) was prepared by encapsulating with polyamide 66 (PA66-MSMM-Al-P) for the flame retardation of polyamide 6 (PA6).The structure and thermal properties of PA66-MSMM-Al-P were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.The flammability of PA6 containing' flame retardants (MSMMAl-P and PA66-MSMM-Al-P) was investigated by the limiting oxygen index test,vertical burning test and cone calorimeter.The flame retardancy and cone calorimetric analyses suggested a synergistic effect between PA66 and MSMM-Al-P in the flame-retardant PA6.Thermal stability of the flame-retardant PA6 was also investigated.

  14. Social support of mentally retarded persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Zwolinska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work is to assess the relationship between the environment and mentally retarded persons. Material and methods: Information referring to social support of mentally retarded persons is a source material collected on the base of the data included in the Polish and foreign literature. The issues under discussion related to the following problems: social integration of persons with intellectual disabilities in a family and local environment, social functioning of people with mild intellectual disability, social rehabilitation of people with moderate, severe and profound intellectual disability and specific contact with people with disabilities. Results: For a person with an intellectual disability, the family is the source of acquisition of basic social skills that give him the opportunity for further development and performing certain social roles in a sense of safety. Full acceptance of the intellectually disabled, may dismiss their sense of shame and fear, and instill the satisfaction of belonging to a social community. Conclusions: Full social acceptance of people with intellectual disabilities is the basis for their assimilation and social functioning.

  15. TNF promoter polymorphisms and modulation of growth retardation and disease severity in pediatric Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Arie; Shamir, Raanan; Wine, Eytan; Weiss, Batya; Karban, Amir; Shaoul, Ron R; Reif, Shimon S; Yakir, Benjamin; Friedlander, Marcello; Kaniel, Yael; Leshinsky-Silver, Esther

    2005-07-01

    Delayed growth is common in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). Multiple factors have been shown to affect growth in this situation, the most prominent being the presence and severity of inflammation and inadequate nutritional intake. Inflammation, anorexia, and weight loss are all manifestations of circulating TNF-alpha, which is elevated in CD. The ability to secrete TNF-alpha may be affected by polymorphisms in the TNF-alpha promoter. The aim of our study was to determine whether growth retardation and disease severity in pediatric onset CD are affected by TNF promoter genotype. Genotyping for TNF-alpha and NOD2/CARD15 single nucleotide polymorphisms was performed in 87 patients with detailed growth records. Parameters including disease location and disease severity were recorded, and the effect of these polymorphisms on Z-scores for height and weight at disease onset and during follow-up were analyzed. Lower age of onset was linked to more height retardation, while the presence of colonic disease and the absence of ileal disease were more likely to predict the absence of growth retardation. The presence of two polymorphisms thought to decrease circulating TNF-alpha was associated with higher mean Z-scores for height and a trend toward less growth retardation. Two other polymorphisms were modestly associated with disease severity. Polymorphisms in the TNF-alpha promoter may independently modulate growth and disease severity in pediatric onset CD. The effect of these polymorphisms does not appear to be mediated via weight loss, and is relatively modest.

  16. Diagnostic Criteria for Transient Myocardial Ischemia in Newborn Infants with Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umida F. Nasirova, PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic and hemodynamic disturbances in newborns with intrauterine growth retardation resulting from the transferred intrauterine hypoxia, lead to the development of transient myocardial ischemia. Study included 158 newborn infants with intrauterine growth retardation, 83% of which have the asymmetric and 17% - the symmetric form of IUGR, revealed differences in heart rate due to higher dispersion parameters of cardiac rhythm. It was determined that in infants with intrauterine growth retardation heart rate, respiratory rate accelerated and blood pressure increased in compare with the newborns in the control group. According to the ECG examination results, were revealed the signs of focal changes of ST-T, accompanied by inversion of the ST-T segment below the isoline, which accompanied with the positive and peaked T waves, considered as myocardial ischemia. In infants with intrauterine growth retardation, survived after perinatal damage of the central nervous system, the prolongation of the QRST interval was noted in compare with the control group newborns, which could be an indicator of conjunction of hypoxic and ischemic changes in the myocardium. Clinical manifestations of transient myocardial ischemia followed by pale skin, acrocyanosis, and perioral cyanosis against dullness of heart sounds. Obtained results deepened an understanding of posthypoxic myocardial dysfunction, which is characterized by cardiac rhythm and conductivity disturbances, as well as changes in ventricular complex, and causing the need for electrocardiographic screening in the neonatal period

  17. Determination of valence band parameters in ZnTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, D.; Noethe, A.; Reimann, K. (Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst. - Lehrstuhl 2)

    1984-10-01

    The fine structure of the 2P exciton in ZnTe is studied by two-photon-absorption. The energy splitting into four states, caused by the envelope-hole coupling, allows the determination of the Luttinger parameters ..gamma../sub 2/ and ..gamma../sub 3/, which describe the complex valence band. ..gamma../sub 2/ = 0.8 and ..gamma../sub 3/ = 1.7 are obtained. These values are compared to results of other experiments mainly on 1S excitons.

  18. Kondo and mixed-valence regimes in multilevel quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovskiy, A. L.; Ulloa, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the dependence of the ground state of a multilevel quantum dot on the coupling to an external fermionic system and on the interactions in the dot. As the coupling to the external system increases, the rearrangement of the effective energy levels in the dot signals the transition from the Kondo regime to a mixed-valence (MV) regime. The MV regime in a two-level dot is characterized by an intrinsic mixing of the levels in the dot, resulting in nonperturbative subtunneling and supertunneling phenomena that strongly influence the Kondo effect

  19. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... from them may not be service-connected. However, disability resulting from a mental disorder that is...

  20. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fatigue crack can be effectively retarded by heating a spot near the crack tip under nil remote stress condition. The subcritical spot heating at a proper position modifies the crack growth behaviour in a way, more or less, similar to specimen subjected to overload spike. It is observed that the extent of crack growth retardation ...

  1. Piagetian Object Permanence in Severely Mentally Retarded Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Beverly; And Others

    The measurability of sensorimotor development in 60 severely retarded, institutionalized adults was studied, using the Piagetian concept of object permanence in a delayed recall paradigm that involved special apparatus. Results suggested, among other things, that severely retarded, institutionalized adults learn most efficiently when trained with…

  2. Sex between persons with 'mental retardation': an ethical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiecker, B.; Steutel, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Is sex between people with "mental retardation" morally permissible and, if at all, under what conditions? This paper tries to answer this question, but only with regard to sex between biologically mature individuals with mild or moderate mental retardation. First, the concepts of "sexual activity"

  3. Growth retardation in children injected with 224Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiess, H.; Mays, C.W.; Spiess-Paulus, E.

    1986-01-01

    We have obtained the adult heights of 133 patients formerly injected with 224 Ra as juveniles. 224 Ra induced growth retardation was greatest in children injected at young ages and increased with dose. The growth retardation was well represented as a 2% decrease in potential growth post irradiation per 100 rads of calculated average skeletal dose. (orig.)

  4. Decision Making in Leisure. Empowerment for People with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Charles C.; Mahon, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    People with mental retardation have been overlooked in recreation/leisure and decision making, which are integral to full community participation. They must be provided with leisure education and decision-making skills. The article describes the Decision Making in Leisure model, explaining its use with individuals with mental retardation. (SM)

  5. Brominated flame retardants: occurrence, dietary intake and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter-Sorkina R de; Bakker MI; Wolterink G; Zeijlmaker MJ; SIR

    2006-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants have entered the human food chain. For the time being the occurrence of these chemicals in Dutch food does not pose a human health risk. However, this might easily change at increasing contents of flame retardants in Dutch food. The monitoring of brominated flame

  6. Psychiatric Illness in Mentally Retarded Adolescents: Clinical Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele

    1998-01-01

    Describes the clinical features of the most important psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded adolescents: mood disorders, psychotic disorders, severe behavioral disorders, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit The impact of mental retardation on personality development is confirmed by the high psychopathological…

  7. Flame retardants: Dust - and not food - might be the risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Ballesteros-Gomez, A.M.; Leslie, H.A.; Brandsma, S.H.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2016-01-01

    Flame retardants (FRs) are used to delay ignition of materials such as furniture and electric and electronic instruments. Many FRs are persistent and end up in the environment. Environmental studies on flame retardants (FRs) took off in the late 1990s. Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) appeared

  8. Fire-retardant-treated strandboard : properties and fire performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold Winandy; Qingwen Wang; Robert H. White

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a series of single-layer, randomly oriented strandboard panels made with one resin type, a single resin loading level, and four fire-retardant-treatment levels. The fire retardant (FR) evaluated was a pH-buffered combination of boric acid and organic phosphate. Siberian larch strands were separated into five batches. One batch of strands served as...

  9. Perceptual-Motor Attributes of Mentally Retarded Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cratty, Bryant J.

    To evaluate six perceptual-motor attributes of trainable and educable mentally retarded children, a battery of tests was constructed which included body perception, gross agility, balance, locomotor ability, throwing, and tracking; 83 retarded subjects provided reliability data, and their scores, with those of 120 additional subjects, provided…

  10. Labeling, Rehearsal, and Short-Term Memory in Retarded Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, John W.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A short-term memory task was used to explore the effects of verbal labeling and rehearsal on serial-position recall in mildly retarded 9-to 11-year-old children. Results support the view that verbal skills affect recall in mildly retarded children similarly to normal children. (Author/SDH)

  11. Theories on Criminality and Mental Retardation Project CAMIO, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    This historical review of theories on criminality and mental retardation is part of Project CAMIO (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the mentally retarded (MR) and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which affect the prosecution and…

  12. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  13. Life cycle assessment of flame retardants in an electronics application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, Niels; Krop, Hildo; van Ewijk, Harry; Leonards, Pim E.G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Flame retardants are added to plastics and textiles to save lives. However, certain brominated flame retardants (BFRs) form an environmental hazard and should be replaced by less harmful alternatives. In the recently completed European research project ENFIRO, we examined which alternatives

  14. Trace element analysis of hair of mentally retarded children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, H.P.S.; Lal, G.; Sidhu, N.P.S.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    Unlike previously reported, Zn and Se levels were found to be the same in the hair of mentally retarded children and controls. Non-essential toxic Ag concentration was low whereas that of Hg, Au and Sc rather high in mentally retarded children. (author) 4 refs

  15. Iconic Memory Deficit of Mildly Mentally Retarded Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, Henry A.; Mosley, James L.

    1987-01-01

    Ten mildly retarded young adult males and nonretarded subjects matched for chronological age or mental age were required to recognize both verbal and nonverbal stimuli presented tachistoscopically. Results of a backward visual masking paradigm varying stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) indicated the retarded subjects performed poorer at the longest…

  16. Cognitive Representation of Motion in Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Frances A.; Wyatt, Beverly S.; Dulaney, Cynthia L.

    1998-01-01

    Fifteen adolescents with and 15 without mental retardation were compared on their tendency to show the representational momentum effect when viewing a stimulus array that implied motion. Participants with mental retardation showed the representational momentum effects as did the others, although the magnitude of the memory shift was smaller.…

  17. Adoptive and Birth Family Adjustment to Rearing Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidden, Laraine Masters; Bush, Beverly A.

    The study identified 81 families who adopted children with mental retardation or at risk for mental retardation, and compared them with 61 matched families with similar birth children. For birth families, the initial diagnosis was a time of crisis, with high depression scores, while scores at follow-up (an average of 5.3 years later) indicated no…

  18. Neural activity, neural connectivity, and the processing of emotionally valenced information in older adults: links with life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Robert J; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Schulz, Marc S

    2011-09-01

    This study examines whether differences in late-life well-being are linked to how older adults encode emotionally valenced information. Using fMRI with 39 older adults varying in life satisfaction, we examined how viewing positive and negative images would affect activation and connectivity of an emotion-processing network. Participants engaged most regions within this network more robustly for positive than for negative images, but within the PFC this effect was moderated by life satisfaction, with individuals higher in satisfaction showing lower levels of activity during the processing of positive images. Participants high in satisfaction showed stronger correlations among network regions-particularly between the amygdala and other emotion processing regions-when viewing positive, as compared with negative, images. Participants low in satisfaction showed no valence effect. Findings suggest that late-life satisfaction is linked with how emotion-processing regions are engaged and connected during processing of valenced information. This first demonstration of a link between neural recruitment and late-life well-being suggests that differences in neural network activation and connectivity may account for the preferential encoding of positive information seen in some older adults.

  19. A mentally retarded patient with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, K; Khoo, Em

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most incapacitating forms of mental disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. It typically starts in adolescence or early adulthood and can be life-long. It is more common in people with learning disabilities than in the general population. Its prodromal features include depression, anxiety, suspiciousness, social isolation and bizarre behaviour. It may result in significant functional, social and economic impairments. The care of patients with schizophrenia places a considerable burden on all carers including patient's family, health and social services. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions. In this case report we describe a thirteen-year-old patient with schizophrenia who has a background history of mental retardation.

  20. A MENTALLY RETARDED PATIENT WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHOO EM

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most incapacitating forms of mental disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. It typically starts in adolescence or early adulthood and can be life-long. It is more common in people with learning disabilities than in the general population. Its prodromal features include depression, anxiety, suspiciousness, social isolation and bizarre behaviour. It may result in significant functional, social and economic impairments. The care of patients with schizophrenia places a considerable burden on all carers including patient’s family, health and social services. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions. In this case report we describe a thirteen-year-old patient with schizophrenia who has a background history of mental retardation.

  1. Relativistic quarkonium model with retardation effect, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1990-01-01

    A new relativistic two-body equation is proposed which has the charge-conjugation symmetry. The renormalization of the wave function at the origin (WFO) is done by incorporating the corresponding vertex equation. By using this model, the heavy-quarkonium phenomenology is developed putting emphasis on the short-distance interaction. The typical scale of the distance restricting the applicability of the ladder model for the mass spectra is found to be 0.13 fm: By assuming the equivalent high-momentum cutoff for the gluonic correction, good results are obtained for the charmonium masses. The improved fine-splittings of the bb-bar states are obtained by inclusion of the retardation. Leptonic decay rates are predicted by assuming the renormalized WFO reduced by another high-momentum cutoff. (author)

  2. Adsorption and Retardation of PFASs in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Yan, N.; Fu, X.; Carroll, K. C.; Holguin, F. O. O.; Brusseau, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Per- and poly-fluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging contaminants of concern that are present in the subsurface at numerous military and industrial facilities. Knowledge of the retention behavior of these compounds in the subsurface environment is critical for effective risk characterization and remediation. The objective of this research is to investigate the role of adsorption at the air-water interface on PFAS retention in vadose-zone systems. Surface tensions were measured for select PFAS to determine interfacial adsorption coefficients. Column experiments were conducted to characterize retardation and transport under saturated and unsaturated flow conditions. The impact of soil properties and groundwater constituents on surface tension, solid-phase adsorption, and interfacial adsorption was investigated.

  3. Processing negative valence of word pairs that include a positive word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkes, Oksana; Mashal, Nira

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that cognitive performance is interrupted by negative relative to neutral or positive stimuli. We examined whether negative valence affects performance at the word or phrase level. Participants performed a semantic decision task on word pairs that included either a negative or a positive target word. In Experiment 1, the valence of the target word was congruent with the overall valence conveyed by the word pair (e.g., fat kid). As expected, response times were slower in the negative condition relative to the positive condition. Experiment 2 included target words that were incongruent with the overall valence of the word pair (e.g., fat salary). Response times were longer for word pairs whose overall valence was negative relative to positive, even though these word pairs included a positive word. Our findings support the Cognitive Primacy Hypothesis, according to which emotional valence is extracted after conceptual processing is complete.

  4. Virtual Distance and Soundstage, and their Impacts on Experienced Emotional Valence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Justin

    2015-01-01

    stimuli should cause stronger valenced responses in the nearfield than at a distance. Thus, music experienced as being negatively valenced at a distance should be more negatively valenced in nearfield, and music that is experienced as having a positive valence at a distance should be more positively......Research from animal ethology and affective neuroscience suggest that a listener’s perceived distance from a signal source can alter their experienced emotional valence of the music. Furthermore, appraisal theories of emotion suggest that emotionally valenced responses will diverge according...... to the type of emotion presented. For these exploratory investigations, subjects listen to selected musical excerpts on speakers in combination with a tactile transducer attached to their chair. The listening sessions are recorded on EEG supported by subject feedback responses. My hypothesis is that musical...

  5. Referential first mention in narratives by mildly mentally retarded adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, K T; Sabsay, S

    1987-01-01

    Referential first mentions in narrative reports of a short film by 40 mildly mentally retarded adults and 20 nonretarded adults were compared. The mentally retarded sample included equal numbers of male and female, and black and white speakers. The mentally retarded speakers made significantly fewer first mentions and significantly more errors in the form of the first mentions than did nonretarded speakers. A pattern of better performance by black males than by other mentally retarded speakers was found. It is suggested that task difficulty and incomplete mastery of the use of definite and indefinite forms for encoding old and new information, rather than some global type of egocentrism, accounted for the poorer performance by mentally retarded speakers.

  6. Visuospatial asymmetries and emotional valence influence mental time travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicole A; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2018-06-01

    Spatial information is tightly intertwined with temporal and valence-based information. Namely, "past" is represented on the left, and "future" on the right, along a horizontal mental timeline. Similarly, right is associated with positive, whereas left is negative. We developed a novel task to examine the effects of emotional valence and temporal distance on mental representations of time. We compared positivity biases, where positive events are positioned closer to now, and right hemisphere emotion biases, where negative events are positioned to the left. When the entire life span was used, a positivity bias emerged; positive events were closer to now. When timeline length was reduced, positivity and right hemisphere emotion biases were consistent for past events. In contrast, positive and negative events were equidistant from now in the future condition, suggesting positivity and right hemisphere emotion biases opposed one another, leading events to be positioned at a similar distance. We then reversed the timeline by moving past to the right and future to the left. Positivity biases in the past condition were eliminated, and negative events were placed slightly closer to now in the future condition. We conclude that an underlying left-to-right mental representation of time is necessary for positivity biases to emerge for past events; however, our mental representations of future events are inconsistent with positivity biases. These findings point to an important difference in the way in which we represent the past and the future on our mental timeline. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The effects of colour and valence on news evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Kai; Grümmer, Melanie; Kießler, Antje; Neuß, Celina; Schröter, Franziska

    2017-12-01

    Research across different fields of psychology has reported effects of colour cues on a variety of cognitive processes. Especially, the colour red has been shown to have striking influences. In the context of media reception, however, colour effects have been widely neglected so far. This study made a first step in this direction by investigating the effects of the colour red (compared with blue and grey) on the way news articles are evaluated. Two types of news were framed by a coloured border while the valence of the news content additionally varied. Based on 369 participants who read and evaluated the news articles online, we observed effects for colour cues and news valence in the absence of an interaction effect, indicating that the colour red induced approach motivation. However, only the contrast between red and grey reached statistical significance, indicating that chromatic and achromatic colours may differ in their perceived visual saliency. Overall, these results provide an important complement to previous studies and have practical implications for media researchers and producers. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Neutron scattering studies of mixed-valence semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignot, J M [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Alekseev, P A [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering experiments on the mixed-valence (MV) compounds SmB{sub 6} are reported. The inelastic magnetic response of SmB{sub 6} at T = 2 K, measured on a double-isotope single crystal,displays a strongly damped peak at 35 meV corresponding to the inter multiplet transition of Sm{sup 2+}. At lower energies ( h.{omega} {approx_equal} 14 meV), a narrow magnetic excitation is observed, with remarkable scattering-vector and temperature dependences of its intensity. This novel feature is discussed in terms of recent theoretical works describing the formation of an anisotropic local bound state in semiconducting MV materials. If the average samarium valence is decreased by substituting La for Sm, a peak is found to appear at high energies. The elastic magnetic form factor of SmB{sub 6} was determined using polarised neutrons and no significant difference is observed in its Q-dependence with respect to that of pure divalent samarium. This surprising behaviour is constant with previous measurements on the gold (high-pressure) phase of SmS. The above results are compared to those already reported for other MV materials. In particular existing information for TmSe is supplemented by recent inelastic scattering measurements carried out on a large stoichiometric single crystal. (author). 44 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Relative Contribution of Odour Intensity and Valence to Moral Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetto, Cinzia; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida; Parma, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Meta-analytic evidence showed that the chemical senses affect moral decisions. However, how odours impact on morality is currently unclear. Through a set of three studies, we assess whether and how odour intensity biases moral choices (Study 1a), its psychophysiological responses (Study 1b), as well as the behavioural and psychophysiological effects of odour valence on moral choices (Study 2). Study 1a suggests that the presence of an odour plays a role in shaping moral choice. Study 1b reveals that of two iso-pleasant versions of the same neutral odour, only the one presented sub-threshold (vs. supra-threshold) favours deontological moral choices, those based on the principle of not harming others even when such harm provides benefits. As expected, this odour intensity effect is tracked by skin conductance responses, whereas no difference in cardiac activity - proxy for the valence dimension - is revealed. Study 2 suggests that the same neutral odour presented sub-threshold increases deontological choices even when compared to iso-intense ambiguous odour, perceived as pleasant or unpleasant by half of the participants, respectively. Skin conductance responses, as expected, track odour pleasantness, but cardiac activity fails to do so. Results are discussed in the context of mechanisms alternative to disgust induction underlying moral choices.

  10. Affective picture modulation: valence, arousal, attention allocation and motivational significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jorge; Carvalho, Sandra; Galdo-Alvarez, Santiago; Alves, Jorge; Sampaio, Adriana; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2012-03-01

    The present study analyses the modulatory effects of affective pictures in the early posterior negativity (EPN), the late positive potential (LPP) and the human startle response on both the peripheral (eye blink EMG) and central neurophysiological levels (Probe P3), during passive affective pictures viewing. The affective pictures categories were balanced in terms of valence (pleasant; unpleasant) and arousal (high; low). The data shows that EPN may be sensitive to specific stimulus characteristics (affective relevant pictures versus neutral pictures) associated with early stages of attentional processing. In later stages, the heightened attentional resource allocation as well as the motivated significance of the affective stimuli was found to elicit enhanced amplitudes of slow wave processes thought to be related to enhanced encoding, namely LPP,. Although pleasant low arousing pictures were effective in engaging the resources involved in the slow wave processes, the highly arousing affective stimuli (pleasant and unpleasant) were found to produce the largest enhancement of the LPP, suggesting that high arousing stimuli may are associated with increased motivational significance. Additionally the response to high arousing stimuli may be suggestive of increased motivational attention, given the heightened attentional allocation, as expressed in the P3 probe, especially for the pleasant pictures. The hedonic valence may then serve as a mediator of the attentional inhibition to the affective priming, potentiating or inhibiting a shift towards defensive activation, as measured by the startle reflex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relaxation and cross section effects in valence band photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFeely, F.R.

    1976-09-01

    Various problems relating to the interpretation of valence band x-ray photoemission (XPS) spectra of solids are discussed. The experiments and calculations reported herein deal with the following questions: (1) To what extent do many-body effects manifest themselves in an XPS valence band spectrum, and thus invalidate a direct comparison between the photoemission energy distribution, I(E), and the density of states, N(E), calculated on the basis of ground-state one-electron theory. (2) The effect of the binding-energy-dependent photoemission cross section on I(E) at XPS energies. (3) In favorable cases indicated by (1) and (2) we examine the effect of the interaction of the crystal field with the apparent spin-orbit splittings of core levels observed in XPS spectra. (4) The use of tight binding band structure calculations to parameterize the electronic band structure from XPS and other data is described. (5) The use of high energy angle-resolved photoemission on oriented single crystals to gain orbital symmetry information is discussed. (6) The evolution of the shape of the photoemission energy distribution (of polycrystalline Cu) as a function of photon energy from 50 less than or equal h ω less than or equal 175 is discussed

  12. Valence force fields and the lattice dynamics of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, R.; Mani, K.K.; Singh, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    The lattice dynamics of beryllium oxide have been studied using a rigid-ion model, with short-range forces represented by a valence force field. Various existing calculations on group-IV elements using such a field have been examined as a prelude to transference of force constants from diamond to beryllium oxide. The effects of ionicity on the force constants have been included in the form of scale factors. It is shown that no satisfactory fit to the long-wavelength data on BeO can be found with transferred force constants. However, adequate least-squares fits can be found both with four- and six-parameter valence force fields, the discrepancy with experiment being large only for one optical mode at the Brillouin-zone center. Dispersion curves along Δ and Σ are presented and are in fair agreement with experiment, deviations arising essentially from the quality of the fit to the long-wavelength data. The bond-bending interactions are found to play a significant role and arguments have been presented to show that the inclusion of further angle-angle interactions would yield a very satisfactory picture of the dynamics

  13. Solvent extraction of irradiated neptunium targets. I. Valence stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.H.; Thompson, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    Solvent extraction of 237 Np and 238 Pu from irradiated neptunium is being investigated as a possible replacement for the currently used anion exchange process at the Savannah River Plant. Solvent extraction would reduce separations costs and waste volume and increase the production rate. The major difficulty in solvent extraction processing is maintaining neptunium and plutonium in the extractable IV or VI valence states during initial extraction. This study investigated the stability of these states. Results show that: The extractable M(IV) valence states of neptunium and plutonium are mutually unstable in plant dissolver solution (2 g/l 237 Np, 0.4 g/l 238 Pu, 1.2M Al 3+ , 4.6M NO 3 - , and 1M H + ). The reaction rates producing inextractable species from extractable M(IV) or M(VI) are fast enough that greater than or equal to 99.9 percent extractable species in 237 Np-- 238 Pu mixtures cannot be maintained for a practicable processing period

  14. Valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohani, H. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, P. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Goyal, R.; Awana, V.P.S. [National Physical Laboratory(CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sekhar, B.R., E-mail: sekhar@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • VB Photoemission study and DFT calculations on Pd based ternary superconductors are presented. • Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} shows a temperature dependent pseudogap. • VB spectral features of ternary superconductors are correlated to their structural geometry. - Abstract: We present a comparative study of the valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5}, Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}Te{sub 6} using experimental photoemission spectroscopy and density functional based theoretical calculations. We observe a qualitatively similarity between valence band (VB) spectra of Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6}. Further, we find a pseudogap feature in Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} at low temperature, unlike other two compounds. We have correlated the structural geometry with the differences in VB spectra of these compounds. The different atomic packing in these compounds could vary the strength of inter-orbital hybridization among various atoms which leads to difference in their electronic structure as clearly observed in our DOS calculations.

  15. Valence holes observed in nanodiamonds dispersed in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Tristan; Pflüger, Mika; Tolksdorf, Daniel; Xiao, Jie; Aziz, Emad F.

    2015-02-01

    Colloidal dispersion is essential for most nanodiamond applications, but its influence on nanodiamond electronic properties remains unknown. Here we have probed the electronic structure of oxidized detonation nanodiamonds dispersed in water by using soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies at the carbon and oxygen K edges. Upon dispersion in water, the π* transitions from sp2-hybridized carbon disappear, and holes in the valence band are observed.Colloidal dispersion is essential for most nanodiamond applications, but its influence on nanodiamond electronic properties remains unknown. Here we have probed the electronic structure of oxidized detonation nanodiamonds dispersed in water by using soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies at the carbon and oxygen K edges. Upon dispersion in water, the π* transitions from sp2-hybridized carbon disappear, and holes in the valence band are observed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental methods, details on XAS/XES normalization and background correction procedures. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06639a

  16. Valence control of cobalt oxide thin films by annealing atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shijing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang Boping, E-mail: bpzhang@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao Cuihua; Li Songjie; Zhang Meixia; Yan Liping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-02-01

    The cobalt oxide (CoO and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) thin films were successfully prepared using a spin-coating technique by a chemical solution method with CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH and Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O as starting materials. The grayish cobalt oxide films had uniform crystalline grains with less than 50 nm in diameter. The phase structure is able to tailor by controlling the annealing atmosphere and temperature, in which Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin film was obtained by annealing in air at 300-600, and N{sub 2} at 300, and transferred to CoO thin film by raising annealing temperature in N{sub 2}. The fitted X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of the Co2p electrons are distinguishable from different valence states of cobalt oxide especially for their satellite structure. The valence control of cobalt oxide thin films by annealing atmosphere contributes to the tailored optical absorption property.

  17. Pion and kaon valence-quark parton quasidistributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu-Sheng; Chang, Lei; Roberts, Craig D.; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2018-05-01

    Algebraic Ansätze for the Poincaré-covariant Bethe-Salpeter wave functions of the pion and kaon are used to calculate their light-front wave functions, parton distribution amplitudes, parton quasidistribution amplitudes, valence parton distribution functions, and parton quasidistribution functions (PqDFs). The light-front wave functions are broad, concave functions, and the scale of flavor-symmetry violation in the kaon is roughly 15%, being set by the ratio of emergent masses in the s - and u -quark sectors. Parton quasidistribution amplitudes computed with longitudinal momentum Pz=1.75 GeV provide a semiquantitatively accurate representation of the objective parton distribution amplitude, but even with Pz=3 GeV , they cannot provide information about this amplitude's end point behavior. On the valence-quark domain, similar outcomes characterize PqDFs. In this connection, however, the ratio of kaon-to-pion u -quark PqDFs is found to provide a good approximation to the true parton distribution function ratio on 0.4 ≲x ≲0.8 , suggesting that with existing resources computations of ratios of parton quasidistributions can yield results that support empirical comparison.

  18. Thermal and Flame Retardant Properties of Shaped Polypropylene Fibers Containing Modified-Thai Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prahsarn Chureerat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetraphenyl phosphonium-modified organoclay (TPP-Mt was prepared by modifying montmorillonite-rich Thai bentonite via ion exchange. TGA results revealed that TPP-Mt possessed high thermal stability, where degradation occurred at a temperature range of 418-576°C. The obtained TPP-Mt/PP nanocomposites exhibited degradation at higher temperatures than PP (410-420°C vs. 403°C. Fibers of different cross-sectional shapes (circular, circular hollow, and cross containing 1, 2 and 3%wt TPP-Mt were prepared and characterized. Nonwovens of 3%wt TPPMt/PP fibers were fabricated for flame retardant test. From results, nonwovens of TPP-Mt/PP fibers exhibited self-extinguishing characteristic and the areas of burning were less than that of PP nonwoven (14.5-31.6% vs. 95.6%. Nonwovens of cross-shaped fibers showed the best flame retardant property, followed by those of circular hollow and circular fibers. The flame retardant properties observed in nonwovens were explained due to the inter-fiber spaces between cross-shaped fibers and center hole in circular hollow fibers, which could trap initiating radicals inside, thus reducing flame propagation. In addition, large surface area in cross-shaped fibers could help in increasing the flame retardant effectiveness due to more exposure of TPP-Mt particles to the flame. Knowledge obtained in this study offered an approach to produce flame retardant nonwovens via a combination of modified organolcay and fiber shape.

  19. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children’s memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can be manipulated factorially. False memories increased with age for unpresented semantic associates of word lists, and net accuracy (the ratio of true...

  20. In-medium pion valence distributions in a light-front model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, J.P.B.C. de, E-mail: joao.mello@cruzeirodosul.edu.br [Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computacional – LFTC, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 01506-000 São Paulo (Brazil); Tsushima, K. [Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computacional – LFTC, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 01506-000 São Paulo (Brazil); Ahmed, I. [Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computacional – LFTC, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 01506-000 São Paulo (Brazil); National Center for Physics, Quaidi-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2017-03-10

    Pion valence distributions in nuclear medium and vacuum are studied in a light-front constituent quark model. The in-medium input for studying the pion properties is calculated by the quark-meson coupling model. We find that the in-medium pion valence distribution, as well as the in-medium pion valence wave function, are substantially modified at normal nuclear matter density, due to the reduction in the pion decay constant.

  1. Identification of the flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ethane in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Björklund, Jonas; Fridén, Ulrika

    2004-06-15

    The brominated flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ethane, DeBDethane, is marketed as an alternative to decabromodiphenyl ether, BDE209. There are currently no data available about the presence of DeBDethane in the environment. In this study, DeBDethane was positively identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and quantified by low-resolution mass spectrometry with electron capture negative ionization in sewage sludge, sediment, and indoor air. It was found in 25 of the 50 Swedish sewage treatment plants investigated, with estimated levels up to about 100 ng/g dry weight. The concentration of DeBDethane in sediment from Western Scheldt in The Netherlands was 24 ng/g dry weight, and in an air sample from a Swedish electronics dismantling facility it was 0.6 ng/m3. DeBDethane was also found together with nonabromodiphenyl ethanes in water piping insulation. All samples contained BDE209 in higher concentrations as compared to DeBDethane (DeBDethane/BDE209 ratios ranging from 0.02 to 0.7), probably reflecting the higher and longer usage of BDE209. There is an ongoing risk assessment within the European Union regarding BDE209. Since DeBDethane has similar applications, it is important to investigate its environmental behavior before using it to replace BDE209.

  2. A functionalized surface modification with vanadium nanoparticles of various valences against implant-associated bloodstream infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Jiaxing Wang,1,* Huaijuan Zhou,2,* Geyong Guo,1 Tao Cheng,1 Xiaochun Peng,1 Xin Mao,1 Jinhua Li,2–4 Xianlong Zhang1 1Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 3Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 4University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Bloodstream infection, especially with implants involved, is an often life-threatening condition with high mortality rates, imposing a heavy burden on patients and medical systems. Herein, we firstly deposited homogeneous vanadium metal, V2O3, VO2, and V2O5 nanofilms on quartz glass by magnetron sputtering. Using these platforms, we further investigated the potential antimicrobial efficiency of these nano-VOx films and the interactions of human erythrocytes and bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with our samples in a novel cell–bacteria coculture model. It was demonstrated that these nano-VOx precipitated favorable antibacterial activity on both bacteria, especially on S. aureus, and this effect increased with higher vanadium valence. A possible mechanism accountable for these results might be elevated levels of vanadium-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species. More importantly, based on hemolysis assays, our nano-VOx films were found to be able to kill prokaryotic cells but were not toxic to mammalian cells, holding the potential for the prevention of implant-related hematogenous infections. As far as we know, this is the first report wherein such nano-VOx films have assisted human erythrocytes to combat bacteria in a valence-dependent manner. Additionally, vanadium

  3. Evaluation of Inheritance Pattern in Mentally Retarded Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Behnaz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mental retardation is one of the most important problems of general health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate inheritance pattern of mentally retarded patients in Yazd city. Methods: In a descriptive cross- sectional study, all medical records and pedigrees of 320 mentally retarded children whose parents had referred for genetic consultation to the Welfare center of Yazd city were reviewed. Results: Of the total, 62.8% of the parents had consanguineous marriage. Mean inbreeding coefficient of offsprings was 0.0713 in third degree related parents versus 0.0156 in non-related parents. Mental retardation was seen in 43.4% of first– degree relatives of children (6.6% of parents and 36.8% of siblings, respectively. Frequency of mental retardation did not differ significantly in both sexes. Pedigree showed inheritance pattern in 43.4% of patients (autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant and x-linked inheritance pattern were seen in 33.75%, 6.9% and 2.8%, respectively, while 37% of patients had no definite inheritance pattern. Abnormal karyotype were seen in 19.4% of patients, 28 of whom(8.75% of all patients had Down syndrome. The prevalence of autosomal recessive inheritance in patients with consanguineous marriages and non family marriages was 62.8 % and 10%, respectively (P=0. 002. Conclusion: Since multiple cases of mental retardation were seen in families and rate of consanguineous marriage was more in parents of mentally retarded children, genetic counseling in consanguinity marriages and families of mentally retarded children can prevent incidence of mental retardation in these families.

  4. Valence framing of political preferences and resistance to persuasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žeželj Iris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the "valence framing effect": an assumption that negatively conceptualized attitudes (as opposing the non-preferred alternative are more resistant to later persuasion attempts. In the experiment we created choice between two political candidates and experimental subjects were led to conceptualize their political preferences in one of two possible ways: either as supporting the preferred candidate or as opposing the non-preferred candidate. The data indicate that negative preferences show less overall change when exposed to counterarguments. This finding can be incorporated in two theoretical frameworks: dual process theories of attitude change (Elaboration likelihood model and descriptive decision making theories (Prospect theory. Results are discussed for their implications for the efficacy of political communication. .

  5. Aging and long-term memory for emotionally valenced events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Carolyn W; Safer, Martin A

    2013-06-01

    In 2008, 1103 ardent Boston Red Sox fans answered questions about their team's 2003 loss and 2004 win in baseball championship games with archrival New York Yankees. Contrary to predictions based on socioemotional selectivity theory, there were no significant interactions of age and event valence for accuracy in remembering event details, or for self-reported subjective vividness and rehearsal of the memories. Fans 65 years and older tended to remember feeling only sad about the 2003 loss, whereas fans 25 years and under tended to remember feeling both sad and angry. Individuals may remember emotional feelings based on remembered goals about an event. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Isotopic exchange in mixed valence compounds in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Valverde, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    This work aims at the determination of isotopic exchange kinetics and mechanism in two mixed valence compounds: Cs 10 (Sbsup(V)Cl 6 ) (Sbsup(III)Cl 6 ) 3 and Tl 3 sup(I)(Tlsup(III)Cl 6 ). The synthesis of the first compound is very difficult because in most of the cases mixtures of chloroantimoniates are obtained. Exchange in Tl 4 Cl 6 labelled on Tlsup(III) is studied in detail by radiochemical analysis and physical techniques: ionic conductivity and positon annihilation. Cation vacancies are easily created in the lattice with formation enthalpy of 0.35 eV and migration enthalpy of 0.52 eV. Isochronic and isothermal exchange curves are described by a kinetic based on species diffusion. Models are given. Exchange is increased by grinding probably because extrinseque defects are introduced [fr

  7. Overlap valence quarks on an twisted mass sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, K. [Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Drach, V.; Garcia-Ramos, E.; Herdoiza, G.; Jansen, K. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC

    2010-12-15

    We present the results of an investigation of a mixed action approach of overlap valence and maximally twisted mass sea quarks. Employing a particular matching condition on the pion mass, we analyze the continuum limit scaling of the pion decay constant and the role of chiral zero modes of the overlap operator in this process. We employ gauge field configurations generated by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration with linear lattice size L ranging from 1.3 to 1.9 fm. The continuum limit is taken at a fixed value of L=1.3 fm, employing three values of the lattice spacing and two values of the pion mass constructed from sea quarks only. (orig.)

  8. Spectroscopy of 211Rn approaching the valence limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, P.M.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Kibedi, T.; Fabricius, B.; Baxter, A.M.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Poletti, A.R.; Schiffer, K.J.

    1993-02-01

    High spin states in 211 Rn were populated using the reaction 198 Pt( 18 O,5n) at 96 MeV. The decay was studied using γ-ray and electron spectroscopy. The known level scheme is extended up to a spin of greater than 69/2 and many non-yrast states are added. Semi-empirical shell model calculations and the properties of related states in 210 Rn and 212 Rn are used to assign configurations to some of the non-yrast states. The properties of the high spin states observed are compared to the predictions of the Multi-Particle Octupole Coupling model and the semi-empirical shell model. The maximum reasonable spin available from the valence particles and holes is 77/2 and states are observed to near this limit. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs

  9. A role of valence particles number equal to 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Kumar, S.; Hasan, Z.; Kumar, D.; Pradeep; Koranga, B.S.; Kumar, S.; Negi, D.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of the N p N n parametrization was first demonstrated by Casten in connection with the role of the proton-neutron interaction in the growth of deformation away from shell closures, and there have subsequently been many developments in this theme. The symbols N p and N n are number of valence particles/holes of protons and neutrons, respectively (where nucleons are counted as holes beyond the middle of a major shell). The observables which reflect collective structure in the deformed mass region for even-even nuclei such as E(2 + ), R 4/2 ≡ E(4 + )/E(2 + ) and B(E2) have behaved smoothly with N p N n

  10. Valence electronic structure of tantalum carbide and nitride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; ChangZeng

    2007-01-01

    The valence electronic structures of tantalum carbide (TaC) and tantalum nitride (TaN) are studied by using the empirical electronic theory (EET). The results reveal that the bonds of these compounds have covalent, metallic and ionic characters. For a quantitative analysis of the relative strength of these components, their ionicities have been calculated by implanting the results of EET to the PVL model. It has been found that the ionicity of tantalum carbide is smaller than that of tantalum nitride. The EET results also reveal that the covalent electronic number of the strongest bond in the former is larger than that of the latter. All these suggest that the covalent bond of TaC is stronger than that of TaN, which coincides to that deduced from the first-principles method.……

  11. Valence electronic structure of tantalum carbide and nitride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The valence electronic structures of tantalum carbide (TaC) and tantalum nitride (TaN) are studied by using the empirical electronic theory (EET). The results reveal that the bonds of these compounds have covalent, metallic and ionic characters. For a quantitative analysis of the relative strength of these components, their ionicities have been calculated by implanting the results of EET to the PVL model. It has been found that the ionicity of tantalum carbide is smaller than that of tantalum nitride. The EET results also reveal that the covalent electronic number of the strongest bond in the former is larger than that of the latter. All these suggest that the covalent bond of TaC is stronger than that of TaN, which coincides to that deduced from the first-principles method.

  12. Spectroscopy of 211Rn approaching the valence limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, P.M.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Byrne, A.P.; Kibedi, T.; Fabricus, B.; Baxter, A.M.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Poletti, A.R.; Schiffer, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    High-spin states in 211 Rn were populated using the reaction 198 Pt( 18 O, 5n) at 96 MeV. Their decay was studied using γ-ray and electron spectroscopy. The known level scheme is extended up to a spin of greater than 69/2 and many non-yrast states are added. Semi-empirical shell-model calculations and the properties of related states in 210 Rn and 212 Rn are used to assign configurations to some of the non-yrast states. The properties of the high-spin states observed are compared to the predictions of the multi-particle octupole-coupling model and the semi-empirical shell model. The maximum reasonable spin available from the valence particles and holes in 77/2 and states are observed to near this limit. (orig.)

  13. Processing Metaphors in the Elderly: Does Valence Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartczak Marlena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Much evidence from theory and research points towards difficulties in processing metaphors by elderly people. These difficulties are usually associated with working memory and inhibitory control deficits observed in this age group, as these very functions play a crucial part in efficient metaphor processing. However, results of research on understanding metaphorical content by elderly people are inconclusive. The following article reviews studies showing that metaphor processing relies on a set of complex variables, which might explain the inconclusiveness of previous results. Though we acknowledge the role of interindividual factors (differences in cognitive functioning among the elderly, we focus on the properties of the metaphor stimuli themselves, especially those of conventionalization and valence, as they might influence the processing of verbal metaphors by people in older age groups.

  14. Time flies with music whatever its emotional valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Bigand, Emmanuel; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José Lino Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task to investigate whether music affects time estimation differently from a matched auditory neutral stimulus, and whether the emotional valence of the musical stimuli (i.e., sad vs. happy music) modulates this effect. The results showed that, compared to sine wave control music, music presented in a major (happy) or a minor (sad) key shifted the bisection function toward the right, thus increasing the bisection point value (point of subjective equality). This indicates that the duration of a melody is judged shorter than that of a non-melodic control stimulus, thus confirming that "time flies" when we listen to music. Nevertheless, sensitivity to time was similar for all the auditory stimuli. Furthermore, the temporal bisection functions did not differ as a function of musical mode. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanostructured high valence silver oxide produced by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellasega, D.; Facibeni, A.; Di Fonzo, F.; Russo, V.; Conti, C.; Ducati, C.; Casari, C.S.; Li Bassi, A.; Bottani, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    Among silver oxides, Ag 4 O 4 , i.e. high valence Ag(I)Ag(III) oxide, is interesting for applications in high energy batteries and for the development of antimicrobial coatings. We here show that ns UV pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in an oxygen containing atmosphere allows the synthesis of pure Ag 4 O 4 nanocrystalline thin films, permitting at the same time to control the morphology of the material at the sub-micrometer scale. Ag 4 O 4 films with a crystalline domain size of the order of tens of nm can be deposited provided the deposition pressure is above a threshold (roughly 4 Pa pure O 2 or 20 Pa synthetic air). The formation of this particular high valence silver oxide is explained in terms of the reactions occurring during the expansion of the ablated species in the reactive atmosphere. In particular, expansion of the PLD plasma plume is accompanied by formation of low stability Ag-O dimers and atomic oxygen, providing reactive species at the substrate where the film grows. Evidence of reactive collisions in the expanding ablation plume is obtained by analysis of the plume visible shape in inert and reactive atmospheres. In addition, we show how the dimensionless deposition parameter L, relating the target-to-substrate distance to the ablation plume maximum expansion length, can be used to classify different growth regimes. It is thus possible to vary the stoichiometry and the morphology of the films, from compact and columnar to foam-like, by controlling both the gas pressure and the target-to-substrate distance

  16. Short Jute Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Nonhalogenated Fire Retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk. Sharfuddin Chestee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Short jute fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP composites were prepared using a single screw extrusion moulding. Jute fiber content in the composites is optimized with the extent of mechanical properties, and composites with 20% jute show higher mechanical properties. Dissimilar concentrations of several fire retardants (FRs, such as magnesium oxide (MO, aluminum oxide (AO, and phosphoric acid (PA, were used in the composites. The addition of MO, AO, and PA improved the fire retardancy properties (ignition time, flame height, and total firing time of the composites. Ignition time for 30% MO, flame height for 30% PA, and total firing time for 20% MO content composites showed good results which were 8 sec, 1 inch, and 268 sec, respectively. Mechanical properties (tensile strength, tensile modulus, bending strength, bending modulus, and elongation at break, degradation properties (soil test, weathering test, and percentage of weight loss, and water uptake were studied.

  17. Mixed valence and metamagnetism in a metal flux grown compound Eu2Pt3Si5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Sumanta; Subbarao, Udumula; Joseph, Boby; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2015-01-01

    A new compound Eu 2 Pt 3 Si 5 with plate shaped morphology has been grown from excess In flux. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic U 2 Co 3 Si 5 structure type, Ibam space group and the lattice parameters are a=10.007(2) Å, b=11.666(2) Å and c=6.0011(12) Å. The crystal structure of this compound can be conceived as inter-twinned chains of [Pt 2 Si 2 ] and [PtSi 3 ] tetrahedra connected along [100] direction to give rise to a complex three dimensional [Pt 3 Si 5 ] network. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility data suggests that Eu 2 Pt 3 Si 5 undergoes a strong antiferromagnetic ordering (T N =19 K) followed by a weak ferromagnetic transition (T C =5.5 K). The effective magnetic moment/Eu obtained from susceptibility data is 6.78 μ B accounts mixed valent Eu with almost 85% divalent Eu, which is supported by X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy. The compound undergoes a metamagnetic transition under applied magnetic field through a probable spin flop mechanism. - Graphical abstract: Eu 2 Pt 3 Si 5 , a new member in the U 2 Co 3 Si 5 (Ibam) family undergoes metamagnetic transition at high magnetic field and Eu is in mixed valence state. - Highlights: • A new compound Eu 2 Pt 3 Si 5 has been synthesized using indium as an inactive metal flux. • The compound undergoes metamagnetic transition at higher field. • Eu in this compound resides in a mixed valence state

  18. Synergistic Effect of Nanosilica Aerogel with Phosphorus Flame Retardants on Improving Flame Retardancy and Leaching Resistance of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilica (Nano-SiO2 sol fabricated by a sol-gel process was introduced into wood modification with phosphorus flame retardants to improve the flame retardancy and leaching resistance of wood. The obtained materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, cone calorimetric (CONE, and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The residual rate of flame retardants before and after leaching was determinated by a leaching resistance. The results showed that the phosphorus flame retardants and SiO2 sol could reside in the poplar wood and are widely distributed in the vessels, pits, wood timber, and the spaces between wood cells of poplar substrate. TGA and CONE results indicated that the introduction of nano-SiO2 aerogel with phosphorus flame retardants had a significantly synergistic effect on improving the flame retardancy and inhibiting the release of smoke and toxic gases. In addition, the leaching resistance test, combined with infrared analysis and EDS analysis, confirmed that the phosphorus flame retardants were able to be fixed by SiO2 aerogel in the wood.

  19. Plasma diagnostics with a retarding potential analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jack, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    The plasma rocket is located at NASA Johnson Space Center. To produce a thrust in space, an inert gas is ionized into a plasma and heated in the linear section of a tokamak fusion device. The magnetic field used to contain the plasma has a magnitude of 2--10 kGauss. The plasma plume has a variable thrust and specific impulse. A high temperature retarding potential analyzer (RPA) is being developed to characterize the plasma in the plume and at the edge of the magnetically contained plasma. The RPA measures the energy and density of ions or electrons entering into its solid angle of collection. An oscilloscope displays the ion flux versus the collected current. All measurements are made relative to the facility ground. Testing of this device involves the determination of its output parameters, sensitivity, and responses to a wide range of energies and densities. Each grid will be tested individually by changing only its voltage and observing the output from the RPA. To verify that the RPA is providing proper output, it is compared to the output from a Langmuir or Faraday probe

  20. Alpha thalassaemia-mental retardation, X linked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbons Richard

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract X-linked alpha thalassaemia mental retardation (ATR-X syndrome in males is associated with profound developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, genital abnormalities and alpha thalassaemia. Female carriers are usually physically and intellectually normal. So far, 168 patients have been reported. Language is usually very limited. Seizures occur in about one third of the cases. While many patients are affectionate with their caregivers, some exhibit autistic-like behaviour. Patients present with facial hypotonia and a characteristic mouth. Genital abnormalities are observed in 80% of children and range from undescended testes to ambiguous genitalia. Alpha-thalassaemia is not always present. This syndrome is X-linked recessive and results from mutations in the ATRX gene. This gene encodes the widely expressed ATRX protein. ATRX mutations cause diverse changes in the pattern of DNA methylation at heterochromatic loci but it is not yet known whether this is responsible for the clinical phenotype. The diagnosis can be established by detection of alpha thalassaemia, identification of ATRX gene mutations, ATRX protein studies and X-inactivation studies. Genetic counselling can be offered to families. Management is multidisciplinary: young children must be carefully monitored for gastro-oesophageal reflux as it may cause death. A number of individuals with ATR-X are fit and well in their 30s and 40s.

  1. The needs of the retarded adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, W E

    1979-11-01

    This article deals primarily with the needs of people with a degree of mental retardation, from mild to moderately severe, who are able to live approximately normal lives with assistance by counselling, advice and family help.It has been found that they do much better living in the community, mixing with normal people, but also with access to the company of persons similarly affected. With adequate advice and counselling, they can become self-sustaining in a number of ways, such as self care, living in their own homes or in small groups, and working either in sheltered employment or in the labor force. Their needs, like those of all others, range from the material such as shelter, food, clothing, possessions, transportation, health care, through the pyschological such as self fulfillment, recreation and enjoyment, love, affection and sex, and social such as legal protection and responsibility. With appropriate arrangements, these needs can be better met in community living, probably at less cost than if they were living in the traditional large institutions. Continued training and rehabilitative measures can often improve their abilities to an astonishing degree. They are rarely unteachable.

  2. Oral rehabilitation and management of mentally retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Jitender; Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physical or mental may lead to deterioration in self-care, and oral care state have a low priority. Risk factors are inter-related and are often barriers to oral health. With advancements in today's world sufficient information and support is available for each and every individual to lead a healthy life which include the access to the oral health care. Factors such as fear, anxiety and dental phobia plays a vital role in acceptance of dental care and also the delaying of dental care. Lack of knowledge of oral and dental disease, awareness or oral need, oral side-effects of medication and organization of dental services are highlighted in the literature. All health personnel should receive training to support the concept of primary oral health care. Training about dealing with such mentally handicapped people should be addressed urgently among the health professionals.

  3. Radionuclide transport and retardation in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, E.N.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; DeVilliers, S.J.; Erdal, B.R.; Lawrence, F.O.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1980-01-01

    Batch measurements provide an understanding of which experimental variables are important. For example, sorption ratios vary little with particle size (and surface area); however, groundwater composition and rock composition are quite important. A general correlation has been identified between mineralogy (major phases) and degree of sorption for strontium, cesium, and barium. Although these are approximate, a more detailed analysis may be possible as more samples are studied and the data base increased. Data from crushed tuff columns indicate that, except in simple cases where sorption coefficients are relatively low, and ion-exchange equilibria not only exist but are the dominant mechanism for removal of radioisotopes from solution, the simple relation between the sorption ratio R/sub d/ (or K/sub d/) and the relative velocity of radionuclides with respect to groundwater velocity may be insufficient to permit accurate modeling of the retardation of radionuclides. Additional work on whole core columns and larger blocks of intact material is required to better understand radionuclide sorption and transport through rock

  4. Some plant extracts retarde nitrification in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul–Mehdi S. AL-ANSARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of 17 plant materials on nitrification inhibition of urea- N in soil as compared with chemical inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD. Plant materials used in study were collected from different areas of Basrah province, south of Iraq. Aqueous extracts were prepared at ratio of 1:10 (plant material: water and added at conc. of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 ml g– 1 soil to loamy sand soil. DCD was added to soil at rate of 50 µg g-1 soil . Soil received urea at rate of 1000 µg N g-1 soil. Treated soils were incubated at 30 OC for 40 days. Results showed that application of all plant extracts, except those of casuarina, date palm and eucalyptus to soil retarded nitrification in soil. Caper, Sowthistle ,bladygrass and pomegranate extracts showed highest inhibition percentage (51, 42, 40 and 40 %, respectively and were found to be more effective than DCD (33 %. Highest inhibition was achieved by using those extracts at conc. of 0.1 ml g-1 soil after 10 days of incubation . Data also revealed that treated soil with these plant extracts significantly increased amount of NH4+–N and decreased amount of NO3-–N accumulation in soil compared with DCD and control treatments. Results of the study suggested a possibility of using aqueous extracts of some studied plants as potent nitrification inhibitor in soil.

  5. Effect of electron beam irradiation and microencapsulation on the flame retardancy of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer materials during hot water ageing test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Haibo; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Bibo; Yu, Bin; Shi, Yongqian; Song, Lei; Kundu, Chanchal Kumar; Tao, Youji; Jie, Ganxin; Feng, Hao; Hu, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (MCAPP) in combination with polyester polyurethane (TPU) was used to flame retardant ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA). The EVA composites with different irradiation doses were immersed in hot water (80 °C) to accelerate ageing process. The microencapsulation and irradiation dose ensured positive impacts on the properties of the EVA composites in terms of better dimensional stability and flame retardant performance. The microencapsulation of APP could lower its solubility in water and the higher irradiation dose led to the more MCAPP immobilized in three dimensional crosslinked structure of the EVA matrix which could jointly enhance the flame retardant and electrical insulation properties of the EVA composites. So, the EVA composites with 180 kGy irradiation dose exhibited better dimensional stability than the EVA composites with 120 kGy due to the higher crosslinking degree. Moreover, the higher irradiation dose lead to the more MCAPP immobilizated in crosslinked three-dimensional structure of EVA, enhancing the flame retardancy and electrical insulation properties of the EVA composites. After ageing test in hot water at 80 °C for 2 weeks, the EVA/TPU/MCAPP composite with 180 kGy could still maintain the UL-94 V-0 rating and the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value was as high as 30%. This investigation indicated the flame retardant EVA cable containing MCAPP could achieve stable properties and lower electrical fire hazard risk during long-term hot water ageing test. - Highlights: • Microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate is prepared by successive sol-gel process. • The higher irradiation dose induces the better dimensional stability for EVA system. • The higher irradiation, the more MCAPP immobilized in EVA crosslinked structure. • The higher irradiation dose enhances the flame retardancy of EVA composites. • The microencapsulated composites demonstrate stable flame retardancy in ageing test.

  6. Interpersonal Valence Dimensions as Discriminators of Communication Contexts: An Empirical Assessment of Dyadic Linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, John P.; And Others

    The capability of 14 interpersonal dimensions to predict dyadic communication contexts was investigated in this study. Friend, acquaintance, co-worker, and family contexts were examined. The interpersonal valence construct, based on a coactive or mutual-causal paradigm, encompasses traditional source-valence components (credibility, power,…

  7. Dissociable modulation of overt visual attention in valence and arousal revealed by topology of scan path.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguang Ni

    Full Text Available Emotional stimuli have evolutionary significance for the survival of organisms; therefore, they are attention-grabbing and are processed preferentially. The neural underpinnings of two principle emotional dimensions in affective space, valence (degree of pleasantness and arousal (intensity of evoked emotion, have been shown to be dissociable in the olfactory, gustatory and memory systems. However, the separable roles of valence and arousal in scene perception are poorly understood. In this study, we asked how these two emotional dimensions modulate overt visual attention. Twenty-two healthy volunteers freely viewed images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS that were graded for affective levels of valence and arousal (high, medium, and low. Subjects' heads were immobilized and eye movements were recorded by camera to track overt shifts of visual attention. Algebraic graph-based approaches were introduced to model scan paths as weighted undirected path graphs, generating global topology metrics that characterize the algebraic connectivity of scan paths. Our data suggest that human subjects show different scanning patterns to stimuli with different affective ratings. Valence salient stimuli (with neutral arousal elicited faster and larger shifts of attention, while arousal salient stimuli (with neutral valence elicited local scanning, dense attention allocation and deep processing. Furthermore, our model revealed that the modulatory effect of valence was linearly related to the valence level, whereas the relation between the modulatory effect and the level of arousal was nonlinear. Hence, visual attention seems to be modulated by mechanisms that are separate for valence and arousal.

  8. Pressure and irradiation effects on transport properties of samarium compounds with instable valence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morillo, J.

    1981-01-01

    Electron transport properties in samarium compounds with instable valence are studied in this thesis: from SmS in its integer valence phases at common pressure to SmB 6 compound IV at common pressure through SmSsub(1-x)Psub(x) (x 6 is presented [fr

  9. Identifying Facial Emotions: Valence Specific Effects and an Exploration of the Effects of Viewer Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansari, Ashok; Rodway, Paul; Goncalves, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    The valence hypothesis suggests that the right hemisphere is specialised for negative emotions and the left hemisphere is specialised for positive emotions (Silberman & Weingartner, 1986). It is unclear to what extent valence-specific effects in facial emotion perception depend upon the gender of the perceiver. To explore this question 46…

  10. Topologically distinct classes of valence-bond solid states with their parent Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Honghao; Zhang Guangming; Xiang Tao; Liu Zhengxin; Ng Taikai

    2009-01-01

    We present a general method to construct one-dimensional translationally invariant valence-bond solid states with a built-in Lie group G and derive their matrix product representations. The general strategies to find their parent Hamiltonians are provided so that the valence-bond solid states are their unique ground states. For quantum integer-spin-S chains, we discuss two topologically distinct classes of valence-bond solid states: one consists of two virtual SU(2) spin-J variables in each site and another is formed by using two SO(2S+1) spinors. Among them, a spin-1 fermionic valence-bond solid state, its parent Hamiltonian, and its properties are discussed in detail. Moreover, two types of valence-bond solid states with SO(5) symmetries are further generalized and their respective properties are analyzed as well.

  11. Valency stabilization of Polyvalent Iron Ions in Solution By some Organic additives during Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, M.F.; Abdel Hamid, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Valency stabilization of polyvalent ions in gamma irradiated aqueous solutions is sometimes necessary for the success of some chemical operations. In some previous publications valency stabilization of some polyvalent ions in solution upon gamma irradiation was achieved by using additives capable of interacting with the oxidizing or reducing species formed by water radiolysis in the medium. The results showed that the duration of valency stabilization depends on the concentration of the additives used.In the present work, a series of some organic additives has been used to investigate their capability in inducing valency stabilization of polyvalent iron ions when subjected to extended gamma irradiation periods. The results showed that the efficiency of valency stabilization depends on the amount and chemical structure of the organic additive used

  12. Assessing and Increasing Descriptive Communication Skills in Retarded Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Thomas M.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to review the impact of recent developments in research methodology with specific reference to the assessment and habilitation of communication problems in retarded children. (Author)

  13. Horticultural Careers for Persons with Mental Retardation. Expanding Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehart-Bennett, Mary E.; Relf, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Horticulture careers provide therapeutic, rewarding employment for persons with mental retardation. Rehabilitation experts should become aware of the potential employment opportunities in horticulture so that individuals with disabilities can receive the training and job placement support they need. (Author)

  14. Persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity of halogen-free flame retardants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaijers, S.L.; Kong, D; Hendriks, H.S.; de Wit, C.A.; Cousins, I.T.; Westerink, R.H.S.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.; de Voogt, P.; Parsons, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Polymers are synthetic organic materials that have a high carbon and hydrogen content, which renders them readily combustible. When used in buildings, electrical appliances, furniture, textiles, transportation, mining, and in many other applications, polymers have to fulfill flame retardancy

  15. Organophosphorous flame retardants in biota from Svalbard, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallanger, I.G.; Sagerup, K.; Evenset, A.; Kovacs, K.M.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Fuglei, E.; Routti, H.; Aars, J.; Strom, H.; Lydersen, C.; Gabrielsen, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Eight arctic species, including fish, birds and mammals, from diverse habitats (marine and terrestrial) within the Svalbard Archipelago, Norway, were screened for 14 organophosphorus flame retardant (PFR) compounds. Ten PFRs were detected: tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP),

  16. Psychosocial Impacts of Mentally Retarded Children on Parents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychosocial Impacts of Mentally Retarded Children on Parents in Sudan. ... the age, number of handicapped children in the family as well as the degree of mental ... Results and discussion: The parents reported different psychological effects ...

  17. Etiological Study of Mental Retardation in Budapest, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizel, A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The first complex etiological study of mental retardation in Budapest was carried out with 1,364 children ages 7 to 14 years. Results are compared with findings from previous surveys in the United States and the United Kingdom. (Author)

  18. [Associated factors in newborns with intrauterine growth retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Chagoyán, Oscar C; Vega-Franco, Leopoldo

    2008-01-01

    To identify the risk factors implicated in the intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) of neonates born in a social security institution. Case controls design study in 376 neonates: 188 with IUGR (weight RCIU in the population.

  19. Tourette syndrome, growth retardation, and platyspondyly: an entity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, Frederike Y.; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.

    2002-01-01

    A 14-year-old male is described with Tourette syndrome, platyspondyly, a marked delay in bone age, growth retardation that is more expressed in the limbs and talipes equinovarus. This appears to be a new entity

  20. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Department of Metallurgical Engineering, *Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics, ... growth retardation increases with increasing level of overload as well as with ..... Suresh S 1996 Fatigue of materials (Cambridge: Cambridge.

  1. Crusted piloleiomyoma with mental retardation: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamboj Sangeeta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Piloleiomyoma is an uncommon benign smooth muscle neoplasm arising from arrector pili muscle. It is clinically defined by the presence of solitary or multiple reddish brown, dome-shaped, smooth papules or nodules, ranging in size from a few millimeters to a centimeter. The patients are otherwise healthy; but mental retardation developing in some patients with multiple Piloleiomyomas has been emerging as an intriguing matter for analysis by the scientists. In this case report, a mentally retarded patient with Piloleiomyoma is described, who, besides the characteristic smooth and dome-shaped lesions on the anterolateral aspect of the dorsum of the right foot, had developed crusting on one of the largest lesions. The histopathological features were consistent with Piloleiomyoma. The occurrence of Piloleiomyoma in a mentally retarded child and its unusual crusted nature has been rarely reported. The association between Piloleiomyoma and mental retardation is further stressed in this case report.

  2. The Overjustification Effect in Retarded Children: Durability and Generalizability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Lee; Prior, Margot

    1982-01-01

    Generalizability and durability of the overjustification effect (on decline in intrinsic motivation due to the lack of rewards in behavior modification programs) were examined in 35 normal preschool children and 17 mental age-matched retarded children. (Author/SW)

  3. Aryl Polyphosphonates: Useful Halogen-Free Flame Retardants for Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aryl polyphosphonates (ArPPN have been demonstrated to function in wide applications as flame retardants for different polymer materials, including thermosets, polycarbonate, polyesters and polyamides, particularly due to their satisfactory thermal stability compared to aliphatic flame retardants, and to their desirable flow behavior observed during the processing of polymeric materials. This paper provides a brief overview of the main developments in ArPPN and their derivatives for flame-retarding polymeric materials, primarily based on the authors’ research work and the literature published over the last two decades. The synthetic chemistry of these compounds is discussed along with their thermal stabilities and flame-retardant properties. The possible mechanisms of ArPPN and their derivatives containing hetero elements, which exhibit a synergistic effect with phosphorus, are also discussed.

  4. Acquired alopecia, mental retardation, short stature, microcephaly, and optic atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R. C.; Renckens-Wennen, E. G.

    1990-01-01

    We report on a female patient who had acquired total alopecia, short stature, microcephaly, optic atrophy, severe myopia, and mental retardation. A survey of published reports failed to show an identical patient, despite various similar cases

  5. Halogenated flame retardants in the Great Lakes environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, Marta; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-07-21

    Flame retardants are widely used industrial chemicals that are added to polymers, such as polyurethane foam, to prevent them from rapidly burning if exposed to a small flame or a smoldering cigarette. Flame retardants, especially brominated flame retardants, are added to many polymeric products at percent levels and are present in most upholstered furniture and mattresses. Most of these chemicals are so-called "additive" flame retardants and are not chemically bound to the polymer; thus, they migrate from the polymeric materials into the environment and into people. As a result, some of these chemicals have become widespread pollutants, which is a concern given their possible adverse health effects. Perhaps because of their environmental ubiquity, the most heavily used group of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), was withdrawn from production and use during the 2004-2013 period. This led to an increasing demand for other flame retardants, including other brominated aromatics and organophosphate esters. Although little is known about the use or production volumes of these newer flame retardants, it is evident that some of these chemicals are also becoming pervasive in the environment and in humans. In this Account, we describe our research on the occurrence of halogenated and organophosphate flame retardants in the environment, with a specific focus on the Great Lakes region. This Account starts with a short introduction to the first generation of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated biphenyls, and then presents our measurements of their replacement, the PBDEs. We summarize our data on PBDE levels in babies, bald eagles, and in air. Once these compounds came off the market, we began to measure several of the newer flame retardants in air collected on the shores of the Great Lakes once every 12 days. These new measurements focus on a tetrabrominated benzoate, a tetrabrominated phthalate, a hexabrominated diphenoxyethane

  6. Fish energy budget under ocean warming and flame retardant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Patrícia; Figueiredo, Cátia; Baptista, Miguel; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Camacho, Carolina; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Valente, Luísa M P; Marques, António; Rosa, Rui

    2018-07-01

    Climate change and chemical contamination are global environmental threats of growing concern for the scientific community and regulatory authorities. Yet, the impacts and interactions of both stressors (particularly ocean warming and emerging chemical contaminants) on physiological responses of marine organisms remain unclear and still require further understanding. Within this context, the main goal of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effects of warming (+ 5 °C) and accumulation of a polybrominated diphenyl ether congener (BDE-209, brominated flame retardant) through dietary exposure on energy budget of the juvenile white seabream (Diplodus sargus). Specifically, growth (G), routine metabolism (R), excretion (faecal, F and nitrogenous losses, U) and food consumption (C) were calculated to obtain the energy budget. The results demonstrated that the energy proportion spent for G dominated the mode of the energy allocation of juvenile white seabream (56.0-67.8%), especially under the combined effect of warming plus BDE-209 exposure. Under all treatments, the energy channelled for R varied around 26% and a much smaller percentage was channelled for excretion (F: 4.3-16.0% and U: 2.3-3.3%). An opposite trend to G was observed to F, where the highest percentage (16.0 ± 0.9%) was found under control temperature and BDE-209 exposure via diet. In general, the parameters were significantly affected by increased temperature and flame retardant exposure, where higher levels occurred for: i) wet weight, relative growth rate, protein and ash contents under warming conditions, ii) only for O:N ratio under BDE-209 exposure via diet, and iii) for feed efficiency, ammonia excretion rate, routine metabolic rate and assimilation efficiency under the combination of both stressors. On the other hand, decreased viscerosomatic index was observed under warming and lower fat content was observed under the combined effect of both stressors. Overall, under future

  7. Martian ionosphere as observed by the Viking retarding potential analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.B.; Sanatani, S.; Zuccaro, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The retarding potential analyzers on the Viking landers obtained the first in situ measurements of ions from another planetary ionosphere. Mars has an F 1 ionosphere layer with a peak ion concentration of approximately 10 5 cm -3 just below 130-km altitude, of which approx.90% are O 2 + and 10% CO 2 + . At higher altitudes, O + ions were detected with peak concentration near 225 km of less than 10 3 cm -3 . Viking 1 measured ion temperatures of approximately 150 0 K near the F 1 peak increasing to an apparent exospheric temperature of 210 0 K near 175 km. Above this altitude, departures from thermal equilibrium with the neutral gas occur, and T 1 increases rapidly to >1000 0 K at 250 km. An equatorward horizontal ion velocity of the order of 100--200 m/s was observed near 200 km and near the F 1 peak, with a minimum velocity at intermediate heights. Both landers entered the F 1 layer at a solar zenith angle near 44 0 , though the local times of the Viking 1 and 2 entries were 16:13 and 9:49 LT, respectively. On Viking 2, considerably more structure was observed in the height profiles of ionospheric quantities, although they were similar in shape to the Viking 1 profiles

  8. Development of highly fire-retardant irradiated polyolefin cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Keiji; Inui, Toshifumi; Uda, Ikujiro (Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1982-12-01

    In recent years, motors, automobiles, heaters, etc., have been made into light weight and compact form in view of labour-saving and energy-saving. For this purpose, the wires for the electrical appliances used for these equipment are required to reduce insulation thickness and to improve heat resistance. On the other hand, the requirement for fire-retardant property has become severer than before from the viewpoint of safety. As an insulation for the wires which meets such requirement, the polyolefin cross-linked by irradiation was investigated, and the heat-resistant, highly fire-retardant, polyolefin-insulated wires have been developed, which have passed vertical combustion test (VW-1) and have the insulation thickness of 0.4 mm (voltage rating 300V) and UL standard 125 deg C and 150 deg C grades. Fire-retardant polyolefin resin is normally obtained by adding halogen series flame retarders. The selection of flame retarders requires the investigation on high thermal stability, high flame retardation, no impedance to cross-linking, and good dispersion into polymers. The evaluation of heat resistance performed on two points, thermal aging and thermal deformation. The use of oxidation inhibitors is indispensable to improve the anti-thermal aging capability, but it is important to balance the requirements well by combining oxidation inhibitors, considering thermal deformation, colouring and discolouration. By comparative test with silicone rubber, cross-linked polyethylene and cross-linked PVC-insulated wires, the characteristics of highly fire-retardant wires, insulated with polyethylene cross-linked by irradiation, are described about the fire retardation, thermal deformation, thermal aging resistance, electrical characteristics and oil resistance.

  9. Studies on flame retardancy of radiation crosslinked PE foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huili; Yao Zhanhai; Xu Jun

    1996-01-01

    CPE, DBDPO and Sb 2 O 3 were used as flame-retardant of PE foam. Effect of CPE on PE foam under radiation and it's flame-retardancy were studied. The result showed that CPE can enhance radiation cross-linking of PE, and trinary of addition being made of CPE, DBDPO and Sb 2 O 3 made oxygen index of PE foam achieve over 30, and self-extinguish, it did not influence manufacture and mechanical properties of PE foam

  10. A Case with Mental Retardation, Gynecomastia and Dysmorphic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The 17 years old boy was diagnosed as Borjeson Forsmann Lehmann Syndrome who was referred to our Genetic Diagnosis Center for his dysmorphic features, obesity, gynecomasty and mental retardation . There are so many diseases in differantial diagnosis of obesity and mental retardation that BFLS is a rare one of them. We aimed to discuss the findings of the patient clinically diagnosed as BFLS within the scope of literature. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(1: 60-63

  11. A Case with Mental Retardation, Gynecomastia and Dysmorphic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The 17 years old boy was diagnosed as Borjeson Forsmann Lehmann Syndrome who was referred to our Genetic Diagnosis Center for his dysmorphic features, obesity, gynecomasty and mental retardation . There are so many diseases in differantial diagnosis of obesity and mental retardation that BFLS is a rare one of them. We aimed to discuss the findings of the patient clinically diagnosed as BFLS within the scope of literature. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(1.000: 60-63

  12. Retarded Boson–Fermion interaction in atomic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    The retardation effect arises from the finite speed of light, and the fact that a virtual photon is always in transit. By separating the center of mass motion, a wave equa- tion that looks like the effective equation for only one spin-1/2 fermion is derived in §3. The retardation ef- fect can now be calculated to all orders. Separation ...

  13. Electronic properties and bonding in Zr Hx thin films investigated by valence-band x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Martin; Schmidt, Susann; Hultman, Lars; Högberg, Hans

    2017-11-01

    The electronic structure and chemical bonding in reactively magnetron sputtered Zr Hx (x =0.15 , 0.30, 1.16) thin films with oxygen content as low as 0.2 at.% are investigated by 4d valence band, shallow 4p core-level, and 3d core-level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. With increasing hydrogen content, we observe significant reduction of the 4d valence states close to the Fermi level as a result of redistribution of intensity toward the H 1s-Zr 4d hybridization region at ˜6 eV below the Fermi level. For low hydrogen content (x =0.15 , 0.30), the films consist of a superposition of hexagonal closest-packed metal (α phase) and understoichiometric δ -Zr Hx (Ca F2 -type structure) phases, while for x =1.16 , the films form single-phase Zr Hx that largely resembles that of stoichiometric δ -Zr H2 phase. We show that the cubic δ -Zr Hx phase is metastable as thin film up to x =1.16 , while for higher H contents the structure is predicted to be tetragonally distorted. For the investigated Zr H1.16 film, we find chemical shifts of 0.68 and 0.51 eV toward higher binding energies for the Zr 4 p3 /2 and 3 d5 /2 peak positions, respectively. Compared to the Zr metal binding energies of 27.26 and 178.87 eV, this signifies a charge transfer from Zr to H atoms. The change in the electronic structure, spectral line shapes, and chemical shifts as a function of hydrogen content is discussed in relation to the charge transfer from Zr to H that affects the conductivity by charge redistribution in the valence band.

  14. Cultural similarities and differences in the perception of emotional valence and intensity: a comparison of Americans and Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuoying; Ho, Samuel M Y; Bonanno, George A

    2013-01-01

    Despite being challenged for their ecological validity, studies of emotion perception have often relied on static, posed expressions. One of the key reasons is that dynamic, spontaneous expressions are difficult to control because of the existence of display rules and frequent co-occurrence of non-emotion related facial movements. The present study investigated cross-cultural patterns in the perception of emotion using an expressive regulation paradigm for generating facial expressions. The paradigm largely balances out the competing concerns for ecological and internal validity. Americans and Hong Kong Chinese (expressors) were presented with positively and negatively valenced pictures and were asked to enhance, suppress, or naturally display their facial expressions according to their subjective emotions. Videos of naturalistic and dynamic expressions of emotions were rated by Americans and Hong Kong Chinese (judges) for valence and intensity. The 2 cultures agreed on the valence and relative intensity of emotion expressions, but cultural differences were observed in absolute intensity ratings. The differences varied between positive and negative expressions. With positive expressions, ratings were higher when there was a cultural match between the expressor and the judge and when the expression was enhanced by the expressor. With negative expressions, Chinese judges gave higher ratings than their American counterparts for Chinese expressions under all 3 expressive conditions, and the discrepancy increased with expression intensity; no cultural differences were observed when American expressions were judged. The results were discussed with respect to the "decoding rules" and "same-culture advantage" approaches of emotion perception and a negativity bias in the Chinese collective culture.

  15. Development of flame retardant, radiation resistant insulating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, M.

    1984-01-01

    On the cables used for nuclear power stations, in particular those ranked as IE class, flame retardation test, simulated LOCA environment test, radiation resistance test and so on are imposed. The results of the evaluation of performance by these tests largely depend on the insulating materials mainly made of polymers. Ethylene propylene copolymer rubber has been widely used as cable insulator because of its electrical characteristics, workability, economy and relatively good radiation resistance, but it is combustible, therefore, in the practical use, it is necessary to make it fire resistant. The author et al. have advanced the research on the molecular design of new fire retarding materials, and successfully developed acenaphthylene bromide condensate, which is not only fire resistant but also effective for improving radiation resistance. The condition of flame retardant, radiation resistant auxiliary agents is explained, and there are additive type and reaction type in fire retarding materials. The synthesis of acenaphthylene bromide condensate and its effect of giving flame retardant and radiation resistant properties are reported. The characteristics of the cables insulated with the flame retardant ethylene propylene rubber containing acenaphthylene bromide condensate were tested, and the results are shown. (Kako, I.).

  16. Autism and Mental Retardation of Young Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN ZHANG; CHENG-YE JI

    2005-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence and rehabilitation status of autism and mental retardation in China. Methods Screening test and clinical assessment were conducted for the diagnosis of autism and mental retardation. The assessment included investigation of the histories of medical conditions and development of these two disorders, utilization and needs for the rehabilitation service, and related intellectual and behavioral appraisal. Results Among the 7345 children investigated, the prevalence of autism disorder was 1.10 cases per 1000 children aged 2-6 years (95% CI=0.34 to 2.54), and the prevalence of mental retardation was 10.76 cases per 1000 children (95% CI=8.40 to 13.12). All the children suffering from autistic disorder were intellectually disabled, whereas 31.0% of the non-autism mental retardates had other disabilities. The medical conditions prior to birth and perinatal period were important potential factors for autism. Half of the autistic children and 84% of the children with non-autism mental retardation had never received any rehabilitative service. Conclusions The prevalence of autistic disorder in children aged 2-6 years in Tianjin is rather high. It is urgent to improve the status of the autistic and intelligently disabled young children in China. In order to upgrade the level of early diagnostic and improve the intervention to autism and mental retardation, public awareness and training courses should be heightened.

  17. Mental retardation and prenatal methylmercury toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trasande, L.; Schechter, C.B.; Haynes, K.A.; Landrigan, P.J. [CUNY Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Community & Preventative Medicine

    2006-03-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a developmental neurotoxicant; exposure results principally from consumption of seafood contaminated by mercury (Hg). In this analysis, the burden of mental retardation (MR) associated with methylmercury exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort is estimated, and the portion of this burden attributable to mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants is identified. The aggregate loss in cognition associated with MeHg exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort was estimated using two previously published dose-response models that relate increases in cord blood Hg concentrations with decrements in IQ. MeHg exposure was assumed not to be correlated with native cognitive ability. Previously published estimates were used to estimate economic costs of MR caused by MeHg. Downward shifts in IQ resulting from prenatal exposure to MeHg of anthropogenic origin are associated with 1,566 excess cases of MR annually (range: 376-14,293). This represents 3.2% of MR cases in the US (range: 0.8%-29.2%). The MR costs associated with decreases in IQ in these children amount to $2.0 billion/year (range: $0.5-17.9 billion). Hg from American power plants accounts for 231 of the excess MR cases year (range: 28-2,109), or 0.5% (range: 0.06%-4.3%) of all MR. These cases cost $289 million (range: $35 million-2.6 billion). Toxic injury to the fetal brain caused by Hg emitted from coal-fired power plants exacts a significant human and economic toll on American children.

  18. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  19. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to yalella azteca (Saussure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1997-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca Saussure (an amphipod) exposed in soft and hard waters to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two foam suppressants (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). The chemicals were slightly to moderately toxic to amphipods. The most toxic chemical to amphipods in soft and hard water was Phos-Chek WD-881 (96-h mean lethal concentration [LC50] equal to 10 mg/L and 22 mg/L, respectively), and the least toxic chemical to amphipods in soft water was Fire-Trol GTS-R (96-h LC50 equal to 127 mg/L) and in hard water was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-h LC50 equal to 535 mg/L). Concentrations of ammonia in tests with the three fire retardants and both water types were greater than reported LC50 values and probably were the major toxic component. Estimated un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the LC50 were frequently less than the reported LC50 ammonia concentrations for amphipods. The three fire retardants were more toxic in soft water than in hard water even though ammonia and un-ionized ammonia concentrations were higher in hard water tests than in soft water tests. The accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect aquatic invertebrates, thereby disrupting ecosystem function.

  20. Game System for Rehabilitation Based on Kinect is Effective for Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinect has already been widely used in the area of retardation, and this study is to evaluate whether the Game System for Rehabilitation based on Kinect is effective for children with mental retardation. The subjects in this paper are 112 children with mental retardation in Zhejiang province of China. The Game System for Rehabilitation based on Kinect was applied to assist the rehabilitation of children. Before the training, the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI was used to evaluate abilities of children, including self-care, mobility, and social function. And after having been trained for a month, the abilities of these children were evaluated again by PEDI. The results in this paper is that, after the application of Game System for Rehabilitation based on Kinect, the PEDI score of children is significantly higher than the score before training. And it can be concluded that the Game System for Rehabilitation based on Kinect can significantly improve self-care, mobility, and social function of children with MR.

  1. Structure–property relationships of synthetic organophosphorus flame retardant oligomers by thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Zhiman; Wang, Xin; Tang, Gang; Song, Lei; Hu, Yuan; Yuen, Richard K.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Oligomers with different chemical components in molecular chains were synthesized. • FP-3 containing three IFR components possessed high thermal stability. • FP-3 possessed lowest flammability. • FP-3 exhibited a synergistic interaction between gas and condensed phase. - Abstract: A series of flame retardant oligomers with different chemical components in molecular chains, designated as FP-1, FP-2 and FP-3, respectively, were successfully synthesized using solution polycondensation and well characterized. The thermal properties and flammability of these oligomers were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC). The results demonstrated that FP-3 had the lowest flammability in terms of the lowest maximum mass loss rate, and FP-1 possessed the highest thermal stability and char yield, due to its higher stable hexatomic ring structure of piperazine compared with the linear alkane chain structure of neopentyl glycol. The gases evolved during decomposition were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared coupled with the thermogravimetric analyzer (TG–IR) technique. The char residues of the flame retardant oligomers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that FP-3 exhibited a synergistic interaction between the gas phase and condensation phase, increasing its flame retardancy

  2. Lying about the valence of affective pictures: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatia M C Lee

    Full Text Available The neural correlates of lying about affective information were studied using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI methodology. Specifically, 13 healthy right-handed Chinese men were instructed to lie about the valence, positive or negative, of pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS while their brain activity was scanned by a 3T Philip Achieva scanner. The key finding is that the neural activity associated with deception is valence-related. Comparing to telling the truth, deception about the valence of the affectively positive pictures was associated with activity in the inferior frontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, precuneus, and middle temporal regions. Lying about the valence of the affectively negative pictures, on the other hand, was associated with activity in the orbital and medial frontal regions. While a clear valence-related effect on deception was observed, common neural regions were also recruited for the process of deception about the valence of the affective pictures. These regions included the lateral prefrontal and inferior parietal regions. Activity in these regions has been widely reported in fMRI studies on deception using affectively-neutral stimuli. The findings of this study reveal the effect of valence on the neural activity associated with deception. Furthermore, the data also help to illustrate the complexity of the neural mechanisms underlying deception.

  3. Valence Scaling of Dynamic Facial Expressions Is Altered in High-Functioning Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An FMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahko, Jukka S.; Paakki, Jyri-Johan; Starck, Tuomo H.; Nikkinen, Juha; Pauls, David L.; Katsyri, Jari V.; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira M.; Carter, Alice S.; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja K.; Remes, Jukka J.; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna A.; Sams, Mikko E.; Bolte, Sven; Ebeling, Hanna E.; Moilanen, Irma K.; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2012-01-01

    FMRI was performed with the dynamic facial expressions fear and happiness. This was done to detect differences in valence processing between 25 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and 27 typically developing controls. Valence scaling was abnormal in ASDs. Positive valence induces lower deactivation and abnormally strong activity in ASD…

  4. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  5. The Polarised Valence Quark Distribution from semi-inclusive DIS

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, M.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Arbuzov, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernet, C.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.P.; Chapiro, A.; Chiosso, M.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Costa, S.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dafni, T.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; De Masi, R.; Dedek, N.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Dinkelbach, A.M.; Donskov, S.V.; Dorofeev, V.A.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Falaleev, V.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorin, A.M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grajek, O.A.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hannappel, J.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hermann, R.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; von Hodenberg, M.; Horikawa, N.; Horikawa, S.; d'Hose, N.; Ilgner, C.; Ioukaev, A.I.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Janata, A.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Jouravlev, N.I.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Komissarov, E.V.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korentchenko, A.S.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Koutchinski, N.A.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kral, A.; Kravchuk, N.P.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Ladygin, M.E.; Lamanna, M.; Le Goff, J.M.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Ludwig, I.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Maximov, A.N.; Meyer, W.; Mielech, A.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nahle, O.; Nassalski, J.; Neliba, S.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.P.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nikolaev, K.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Procureur, S.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Reggiani, D.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rozhdestvensky, A.M.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmitt, L.; Schonmeier, P.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Siebert, H.W.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stinzing, F.; Stolarski, M.; Sugonyaev, V.P.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Tchalishev, V.V.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Venugopal, G.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Vossen, A.; Webb, R.; Weise, E.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wirth, S.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhao, J.; Ziegler, R.; Zvyagin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The semi-inclusive difference asymmetry A^{h+ - h-} for hadrons of opposite charge has been measured by the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The data were collected in the years 2002-2004 using a 160 GeV polarised muon beam scattered off a large polarised 6-LiD target and cover the range 0.006 < x < 0.7 and 1 < Q^2 < 100 (GeV/c)^2. In leading order QCD (LO) the asymmetry A_d^{h+ - h-} measures the valence quark polarisation and provides an evaluation of the first moment of Delta u_v + Delta d_v which is found to be equal to 0.40 +- 0.07 (stat.) +- 0.05 (syst.) over the measured range of x at Q^2 = 10 (GeV/c)^2. When combined with the first moment of g_1^d previously measured on the same data, this result favours a non-symmetric polarisation of light quarks Delta u-bar = -Delta d-bar at a confidence level of two standard deviations, in contrast to the often assumed symmetric scenario Delta u-bar = Delta d-bar = Delta s-bar = Delta s.

  6. A model on valence state evaluation of TRU nuclides in reprocessing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Gunzo; Fujine, Sachio; Yoshida, Zenko; Maeda, Mitsuru; Motoyama, Satoshi.

    1998-02-01

    A mathematical model was developed to evaluate the valence state of TRU nuclides in reprocessing process solutions. The model consists of mass balance equations, Nernst equations, reaction rate equations and electrically neutrality equations. The model is applicable for the valence state evaluation of TRU nuclides in both steady state and transient state conditions in redox equilibrium. The valence state which is difficult to measure under high radiation and multi component conditions is calculated by the model using experimentally measured data for the TRU nuclide concentrations, nitric acid and redox reagent concentrations, electrode potential and solution temperature. (author)

  7. CzEngVallex: a Bilingual Czech-English Valency Lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urešová Zdeňka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new bilingual Czech-English verbal valency lexicon (called CzEng-Vallex representing a relatively large empirical database. It includes 20,835 aligned valency frame pairs (i.e., verb senses which are translations of each other and their aligned arguments. This new lexicon uses data from the Prague Czech-English Dependency Treebank and also takes advantage of the existing valency lexicons for both languages: the PDT-Vallex for Czech and the EngVallex for English. The CzEngVallex is available for browsing as well as for download in the LINDAT/CLARIN repository.

  8. Valency state changes in lanthanide-contained systems under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaraman, A

    1980-08-01

    Changes in valency state induced by pressure in samarium sulphide SmS remind one of alchemy, as the mat black initial substance shines golden after the electron transition. The alchemist's dream is of course not realized, however the compound does exhibit an unusually interesting behaviour in the new state. The valency state of samarium as newly appeared fluctuated very rapidly between two electron configurations. Manipulation of the valency state by pressure or chemical substitution can basically change the physical properties of systems containing lanthanides. The phenomena are described and discussed in the following survey.

  9. Accurate Valence Ionization Energies from Kohn-Sham Eigenvalues with the Help of Potential Adjustors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierbach, Adrian; Neiss, Christian; Gallandi, Lukas; Marom, Noa; Körzdörfer, Thomas; Görling, Andreas

    2017-10-10

    An accurate yet computationally very efficient and formally well justified approach to calculate molecular ionization potentials is presented and tested. The first as well as higher ionization potentials are obtained as the negatives of the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues of the neutral molecule after adjusting the eigenvalues by a recently [ Görling Phys. Rev. B 2015 , 91 , 245120 ] introduced potential adjustor for exchange-correlation potentials. Technically the method is very simple. Besides a Kohn-Sham calculation of the neutral molecule, only a second Kohn-Sham calculation of the cation is required. The eigenvalue spectrum of the neutral molecule is shifted such that the negative of the eigenvalue of the highest occupied molecular orbital equals the energy difference of the total electronic energies of the cation minus the neutral molecule. For the first ionization potential this simply amounts to a ΔSCF calculation. Then, the higher ionization potentials are obtained as the negatives of the correspondingly shifted Kohn-Sham eigenvalues. Importantly, this shift of the Kohn-Sham eigenvalue spectrum is not just ad hoc. In fact, it is formally necessary for the physically correct energetic adjustment of the eigenvalue spectrum as it results from ensemble density-functional theory. An analogous approach for electron affinities is equally well obtained and justified. To illustrate the practical benefits of the approach, we calculate the valence ionization energies of test sets of small- and medium-sized molecules and photoelectron spectra of medium-sized electron acceptor molecules using a typical semilocal (PBE) and two typical global hybrid functionals (B3LYP and PBE0). The potential adjusted B3LYP and PBE0 eigenvalues yield valence ionization potentials that are in very good agreement with experimental values, reaching an accuracy that is as good as the best G 0 W 0 methods, however, at much lower computational costs. The potential adjusted PBE eigenvalues result in

  10. Potential human exposure to halogenated flame-retardants in elevated surface dust and floor dust in an academic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allgood, Jaime M.; Jimah, Tamara; McClaskey, Carolyn M.; La Guardia, Mark J.; Hammel, Stephanie C.; Zeineddine, Maryam M.; Tang, Ian W.; Runnerstrom, Miryha G.; Ogunseitan, Oladele A.

    2017-01-01

    Most households and workplaces all over the world possess furnishings and electronics, all of which contain potentially toxic flame retardant chemicals to prevent fire hazards. Indoor dust is a recognized repository of these types of chemicals including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and non-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (non-PBDEs). However, no previous U.S. studies have differentiated concentrations from elevated surface dust (ESD) and floor dust (FD) within and across microenvironments. We address this information gap by measuring twenty-two flame-retardant chemicals in dust on elevated surfaces (ESD; n=10) and floors (FD; n=10) from rooms on a California campus that contain various concentrations of electronic products. We hypothesized a difference in chemical concentrations in ESD and FD. Secondarily, we examined whether or not this difference persisted: (a) across the studied microenvironments and (b) in rooms with various concentrations of electronics. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test demonstrated that the ESD was statistically significantly higher than FD for BDE-47 (p=0.01), BDE-99 (p=0.01), BDE-100 (p=0.01), BDE-153 (p=0.02), BDE-154 (p=0.02), and 3 non-PBDEs including EH-TBB (p=0.02), BEH-TEBP (p=0.05), and TDCIPP (p=0.03). These results suggest different levels and kinds of exposures to flame-retardant chemicals for individuals spending time in the sampled locations depending on the position of accumulated dust. Therefore, further research is needed to estimate human exposure to flame retardant chemicals based on how much time and where in the room individuals spend their time. Such sub-location estimates will likely differ from assessments that assume continuous unidimensional exposure, with implications for improved understanding of potential health impacts of flame retardant chemicals. - Highlights: • Brominated flame retardants used in electronic products accumulate in room dust • Various chemical moieties of flame retardants leach

  11. Potential human exposure to halogenated flame-retardants in elevated surface dust and floor dust in an academic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, Jaime M.; Jimah, Tamara [Department of Population Health & Disease Prevention, Program in Public Health, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3957 (United States); McClaskey, Carolyn M. [Department of Cognitive Sciences, School of Social Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-5100 (United States); La Guardia, Mark J. [Department of Aquatic Health Sciences, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Hammel, Stephanie C.; Zeineddine, Maryam M.; Tang, Ian W.; Runnerstrom, Miryha G. [Department of Population Health & Disease Prevention, Program in Public Health, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3957 (United States); Ogunseitan, Oladele A., E-mail: Oladele.Ogunseitan@uci.edu [Department of Population Health & Disease Prevention, Program in Public Health, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3957 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Most households and workplaces all over the world possess furnishings and electronics, all of which contain potentially toxic flame retardant chemicals to prevent fire hazards. Indoor dust is a recognized repository of these types of chemicals including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and non-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (non-PBDEs). However, no previous U.S. studies have differentiated concentrations from elevated surface dust (ESD) and floor dust (FD) within and across microenvironments. We address this information gap by measuring twenty-two flame-retardant chemicals in dust on elevated surfaces (ESD; n=10) and floors (FD; n=10) from rooms on a California campus that contain various concentrations of electronic products. We hypothesized a difference in chemical concentrations in ESD and FD. Secondarily, we examined whether or not this difference persisted: (a) across the studied microenvironments and (b) in rooms with various concentrations of electronics. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test demonstrated that the ESD was statistically significantly higher than FD for BDE-47 (p=0.01), BDE-99 (p=0.01), BDE-100 (p=0.01), BDE-153 (p=0.02), BDE-154 (p=0.02), and 3 non-PBDEs including EH-TBB (p=0.02), BEH-TEBP (p=0.05), and TDCIPP (p=0.03). These results suggest different levels and kinds of exposures to flame-retardant chemicals for individuals spending time in the sampled locations depending on the position of accumulated dust. Therefore, further research is needed to estimate human exposure to flame retardant chemicals based on how much time and where in the room individuals spend their time. Such sub-location estimates will likely differ from assessments that assume continuous unidimensional exposure, with implications for improved understanding of potential health impacts of flame retardant chemicals. - Highlights: • Brominated flame retardants used in electronic products accumulate in room dust • Various chemical moieties of flame retardants leach

  12. Flame Retardant Effect of Nano Fillers on Polydimethylsiloxane Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdale, Pravin; Salimpour, Samera; Islam, Md Hujjatul; Cuttica, Fabio; Hernandez, Francisco C Robles; Tagliaferro, Alberto; Frache, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane has exceptional fire retardancy characteristics, which make it a popular polymer in flame retardancy applications. Flame retardancy of polydimethylsiloxane with different nano fillers was studied. Polydimethylsiloxane composite fire property varies because of the shape, size, density, and chemical nature of nano fillers. In house made carbon and bismuth oxide nano fillers were used in polydimethylsiloxane composite. Carbon from biochar (carbonised bamboo) and a carbon by-product (carbon soot) were selected. For comparative study of nano fillers, standard commercial multiwall carbon nano tubes (functionalised, graphitised and pristine) as nano fillers were selected. Nano fillers in polydimethylsiloxane positively affects their fire retardant properties such as total smoke release, peak heat release rate, and time to ignition. Charring and surface ceramization are the main reasons for such improvement. Nano fillers in polydimethylsiloxane may affect the thermal mobility of polymer chains, which can directly affect the time to ignition. The study concludes that the addition of pristine multiwall carbon nano tubes and bismuth oxide nano particles as filler in polydimethylsiloxane composite improves the fire retardant property.

  13. The RRP Project: investigating radionuclide retardation in the host rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.R.; Frieg, B.; Ota, K.; Bossart, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Radionuclide Retardation Project (RRP), which is a joint Nagra/PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp.) project, has two components: the first (the Excavation Project, EP) looks at the behaviour of radionuclides which are so strongly retarded in the experimental shear zone that they cannot pass through the zones in experimentally reasonable times. In order to determine where radionuclide retardation has occurred in the pore space, as well as the flowpath geometry in the shear zone, the entire injection zone has to be excavated and taken back to the laboratory for analysis of the sites of retardation of the radionuclides. This approach has the advantage of allowing a detailed 3D description of the experimental shear zone. The aim of the second component of the project (Connected Porosities, CP) is to examine the fate of those radionuclides which diffuse out of the main water-conducting features in the shear zone and into the pore spaces of the rock matrix, where they become trapped. This represents a potentially significant retardation mechanism in a repository host rock. (author) 8 figs., refs

  14. The valence of photonabsorptiondensitometry at the view of bone density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, P.; Uhlir, H.; Willvonseder, R.

    1977-01-01

    Senile osteoporosis itself is asymptomatic unless pain is induced by the static insufficiency of the skeleton, in long lasting disease. Conventional procedures for early diagnosis and control of patients are invasive and therefore not suitable for routine purposes. The efficiency of sodiumfluorid for the treatment of senile osteoporosis after a minimum of 12 months has been established by invasive methods. It is the purpose of this study, to examine the value of photoabsorption-densitometry with double-isotope-methode (125-J, 241-Am) for the evaluation of a therapeutic effect in this disorder. 7 patients with clinical and radiological evidence of senile osteoporosis (6 female, 1 male patient with ages of 56 to 87 years) underwent regular follow-up examinations for one year while on a regimen of 25 mg sodiumfluorid, as retard, twice daily. The bone mineral content registered 1 cm proximal of the proc. styloideus ulnaris (representative for the trabecular bone) and 8 cm proximal from the proc. styloideus ulnaris of the right forearm (representative for cortical bone) was not statistically different from the measurements registered prior to the study. However, the bone mineral content registered in both regions increased significantly, after 12 months treatment (p < 0,05). This indicates that the assessment of bone mineral content by photonabsorptiondensitometry is a valuable method for therapeutic control of this disorder. The method is recommended as a routine procedure for the early diagnosis and for follow up of sodiumfluorid therapy in geriatric patients. (Author)

  15. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  16. Thermal Stability, Combustion Behavior, and Mechanical Property in a Flame-Retardant Polypropylene System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to comprehensively improve the strength, toughness, flame retardancy, smoke suppression, and thermal stability of polypropylene (PP, layered double hydroxide (LDH Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH was synthesized by a coprecipitation method coupled with the microwave-hydrothermal treatment. The X-ray diffraction (XRD, morphology, mechanical, thermal, and fire properties for PP composites containing 1 wt %–20 wt % Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH were investigated. The cone calorimeter tests confirm that the peak heat release rate (pk–HRR of PP–20%LDH was decreased to 500 kW/m2 from the 1057 kW/m2 of PP. The pk–HRR, average mass loss rate (AMLR and effective heat of combustion (EHC analysis indicates that the condensed phase fire retardant mechanism of Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH in the composites. The production rate and mean release yield of CO for composites gradually decrease as Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH increases in the PP matrix. Thermal analysis indicates that the decomposition temperature for PP–5%LDH and PP–10%LDH is 34 °C higher than that of the pure PP. The mechanical tests reveal that the tensile strength of PP–1%LDH is 7.9 MPa higher than that of the pure PP. Furthermore, the elongation at break of PP–10%LDH is 361% higher than PP. In this work, the synthetic LDH Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH can be used as a flame retardant, smoke suppressant, thermal stabilizer, reinforcing, and toughening agent of PP products.

  17. Valence, arousal, and task effects in emotional prosody processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke ePaulmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that emotional prosody processing is a highly rapid and complex process. In particular, it has been shown that different basic emotions can be differentiated in an early event-related brain potential (ERP component, the P200. Often, the P200 is followed by later long lasting ERPs such as the late positive complex (LPC. The current experiment set out to explore in how far emotionality and arousal can modulate these previously reported ERP components. In addition, we also investigated the influence of task demands (implicit vs. explicit evaluation of stimuli. Participants listened to pseudo-sentences (sentences with no lexical content spoken in six different emotions or in a neutral tone of voice while they either rated the arousal level of the speaker or their own arousal level. Results confirm that different emotional intonations can first be differentiated in the P200 component, reflecting a first emotional encoding of the stimulus possibly including a valence tagging process. A marginal significant arousal effect was also found in this time-window with high arousing stimuli eliciting a stronger P200 than low arousing stimuli. The P200 component was followed by a long lasting positive ERP between 400 and 750 ms. In this late time-window, both emotion and arousal effects were found. No effects of task were observed in either time-window. Taken together, results suggest that emotion relevant details are robustly decoded during early processing and late processing stages while arousal information is only reliably taken into consideration at a later stage of processing.

  18. Overlap valence quarks on a twisted mass sea. A case study for mixed action lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichy, Krzysztof; Herdoiza, Gregorio; UAM/CSIC Univ. Autonoma de Madrid

    2012-11-01

    We discuss a Lattice QCD mixed action investigation employing Wilson maximally twisted mass sea and overlap valence fermions. Using four values of the lattice spacing, we demonstrate that the overlap Dirac operator assumes a point-like locality in the continuum limit. We also show that by adopting suitable matching conditions for the sea and valence theories a consistent continuum limit for the pion decay constant and light baryon masses can be obtained. Finally, we confront results for sea-valence mixed meson masses and the valence scalar correlator with corresponding expressions of chiral perturbation theory. This allows us to extract low energy constants of mixed action chiral perturbation which characterize the strength of unitarity violations in our mixed action setup.

  19. Overlap valence quarks on a twisted mass sea. A case study for mixed action lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Drach, Vincent; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Garcia-Ramos, Elena [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Herdoiza, Gregorio [UAM/CSIC Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; UAM/CSIC Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2012-11-15

    We discuss a Lattice QCD mixed action investigation employing Wilson maximally twisted mass sea and overlap valence fermions. Using four values of the lattice spacing, we demonstrate that the overlap Dirac operator assumes a point-like locality in the continuum limit. We also show that by adopting suitable matching conditions for the sea and valence theories a consistent continuum limit for the pion decay constant and light baryon masses can be obtained. Finally, we confront results for sea-valence mixed meson masses and the valence scalar correlator with corresponding expressions of chiral perturbation theory. This allows us to extract low energy constants of mixed action chiral perturbation which characterize the strength of unitarity violations in our mixed action setup.

  20. Valence band structure of binary chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors by high-resolution XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyukhin, S.; Golovchak, R.; Kovalskiy, A.; Shpotyuk, O.; Jain, H.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to study regularities in the formation of valence band electronic structure in binary As x Se 100−x , As x S 100−x , Ge x Se 100−x and Ge x S 100−x chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors. It is shown that the highest occupied energetic states in the valence band of these materials are formed by lone pair electrons of chalcogen atoms, which play dominant role in the formation of valence band electronic structure of chalcogen-rich glasses. A well-expressed contribution from chalcogen bonding p electrons and more deep s orbitals are also recorded in the experimental valence band XPS spectra. Compositional dependences of the observed bands are qualitatively analyzed from structural and compositional points of view.

  1. Valence band structure of binary chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors by high-resolution XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyukhin, S., E-mail: sergkoz@igic.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Science, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Golovchak, R. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Kovalskiy, A. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States); Shpotyuk, O. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Jain, H. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2011-04-15

    High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to study regularities in the formation of valence band electronic structure in binary As{sub x}Se{sub 100-x}, As{sub x}S{sub 100-x}, Ge{sub x}Se{sub 100-x} and Ge{sub x}S{sub 100-x} chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors. It is shown that the highest occupied energetic states in the valence band of these materials are formed by lone pair electrons of chalcogen atoms, which play dominant role in the formation of valence band electronic structure of chalcogen-rich glasses. A well-expressed contribution from chalcogen bonding p electrons and more deep s orbitals are also recorded in the experimental valence band XPS spectra. Compositional dependences of the observed bands are qualitatively analyzed from structural and compositional points of view.

  2. Studies on compensating valency substituted BaTi (Mnx/2Nbx/2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Studies on compensating valency substituted BaTi(1-)Mn/2Nb/2O3 ceramics ... Annealing is observed to improve quality factor `' of the materials with a ... material engineering efforts are required to improve the material properties.

  3. Changing the conversation: the influence of emotions on conversational valence and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Hanneke; van den Putte, Bas; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2014-10-01

    Health campaign effects may be improved by taking interpersonal communication processes into account. The current study, which employed an experimental, pretest-posttest, randomized exposure design (N = 208), investigated whether the emotions induced by anti-alcohol messages influence conversational valence about alcohol and subsequent persuasion outcomes. The study produced three main findings. First, an increase in the emotion fear induced a negative conversational valence about alcohol. Second, fear was most strongly induced by a disgusting message, whereas a humorous appeal induced the least fear. Third, a negative conversational valence elicited healthier binge drinking attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and behaviors. Thus, health campaign planners and health researchers should pay special attention to the emotional characteristics of health messages and should focus on inducing a healthy conversational valence.

  4. High energy pp and anti-pp elastic scattering in nucleon valence core model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.M.; Fearnley, T.

    1986-01-01

    Connection between the valence core model and the effective QCD models of nucleon structure is pointed out. Also, implication of recent anti-pp differential cross section measurements at 53 GeV on our previous calculations is discussed

  5. Size-dependent valence change in small Pr, Nd, and Sm clusters isolated in solid Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luebcke, M.; Sonntag, B.; Niemann, W.; Rabe, P.

    1986-01-01

    The L/sub III/ absorption thresholds of Pr, Nd, and Sm clusters isolated in solid Ar are marked by prominent white lines. The lines ascribed to divalent and trivalent rare-earth metals are well separated in energy. From the relative intensities of these lines an average valence of the rare-earth atoms in the cluster has been determined. For dimers and trimers the average valence is close to 2, the value for free atoms. For clusters consisting of more than 20 atoms the average valence approaches 3, the value for bulk metals. In between the valence changes abruptly, indicating the existence of a critical cluster size of approximately 5 atoms for Pr and Nd and of 13 atoms for Sm

  6. Human health risk associated with brominated flame-retardants (BFRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyche, Jan L; Rosseland, Carola; Berge, Gunnar; Polder, Anuschka

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this review are to assess the human exposure and human and experimental evidence for adverse effects of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) with specific focus on intake from seafood. The leakage of BFRs from consumer products leads to exposure of humans from fetal life to adulthood. Fish and fish products contain the highest levels of BFRs and dominate the dietary intake of frequent fish eaters in Europe, while meat, followed by seafood and dairy products accounted for the highest US dietary intake. House dust is also reported as an important source of exposure for children as well as adults. The levels of BFRs in the general North American populations are higher than those in Europe and Japan and the highest levels are detected in infants and toddlers. The daily intake via breast milk exceeds the RfD in 10% of US infants. BFRs including PBDEs, HBCDs and TBBP-A have induced endocrine-, reproductive- and behavior effects in laboratory animals. Furthermore, recent human epidemiological data demonstrated association between exposure to BFRs and similar adverse effects as observed in animal studies. Fish including farmed fish and crude fish oil for human consumption may contain substantial levels of BFRs and infants and toddlers consuming these products on a daily basis may exceed the tolerable daily intake suggesting that fish and fish oil alone represent a risk to human health. This intake comes in addition to exposure from other sources (breast milk, other food, house dust). Because potential harmful concentrations of BFRs and other toxicants occur in fish and fish products, research on a wider range of products is warranted, to assess health hazard related to the contamination of fish and fish products for human consumption. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Ion Temperature Measurements in the Tore Supra Scrape-Off Layer Using a Retarding Field Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocan, M.; Gunn, J.P.; Pascal, J.Y.; Gauthier, E.

    2010-01-01

    The retarding field analyzer (RFA) is one of the only widely accepted diagnostics for measuring the ion temperature T i )in the tokamak scrape-off layer. An overview of the outstanding RFA performance over ten years of operation in Tore Supra tokamak is given and the validation of T i measurements is addressed. The RFA measurements in Tore Supra are found to be well reproducible. The ion-to-electron temperature ratio is higher than one at low-to-moderate ion-electron collisionality regime and converges to unity at high collisionality regime. (authors)

  8. Development of low-smoke, flame-retarding cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.; Kanemitsuya, K.; Furukawa, K.; Mio, K.

    1983-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been given to the potential fire hazard of combustion gases from organic materials. Although cable industries have developed flame-retarding organic materials for the insulation and jacketing of wires and cables, there was insufficient prevention of toxic gas formation during combustion. To cope with these problems associated with conventional PVC cables, the authors have directed to develop low-smoke, flame-retarding plasticized PVC formulations retaining the original mechanical, electrical and aging properties. A series of basic investigations on smoke suppression followed by an evaluation on practical cables could indicate some effective means to end these problems. This paper describes the results and discussion on smoke suppressing study of plasticized PVC as well as behavior and characteristics of the low-smoke, flame-retarding PVC wires and cables using these materials. (author)

  9. Flame Retardant and Antimicrobial Jute Textile Using Sodium Metasilicate Nonahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Flame retardant and antimicrobial functionalities were imparted in jute textile using sodium metasilicate nonahydrate (SMSN, commonly known as “water glass”. Sodium metasilicate nonahydrate (SMSN was applied in jute fabric in different concentration by padding method followed by drying. Flame retardancy of the fabric was evaluated by Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI and burning behaviour under vertical flammability tester including the char length. Burning rate was found to decrease by almost 10 times after an application of 2% SMSN compared to the control sample. Thermogravimetry (TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis of both the control and treated jute fabrics were utilized to understand the mechanism of developed flame retardance in jute fabric. It was observed that the SMSN treated samples showed excellent antimicrobial property against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Antimicrobial properties of both the control and treated jute fabrics were also measured quantitatively.

  10. Improving free play skills of severely retarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehman, P; Marchant, J A

    1978-02-01

    Severely and profoundly retarded children are usually deficient in play skills. Since play facilitates socialization, language, and motor development, it is a vitally improtant skill to acquire. This pilot study examined the effects of a behavioral training program on the autistic, independent, and social types of play of four severely and profoundly retarded children. The training program involved the use of instructions, modeling, physical guidance, and verbal reinforcement. Results indicated that a marked increase in independent and social play occurred with the introduction of the training program with all four children. Occupational therapists can play an increasingly important role in helping educators formulate relevant educational programs for severely retarded children, particularly in the areas of play and motor skill development.

  11. Nonstatic one-boson-exchange potential with retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obinata, Toshio; Wada, Masanobu

    1975-01-01

    A one-boson-exchange potential (OBEP) with retardation represented in coordinate space is proposed, that produces a good fit to the experimental data such as the nuclear phase shifts, the deuteron properties and two-nucleon low-energy parameters. In addition to the scalar sigma 0 and Δ mesons, the well-established π, eta, ω and rho mesons have been exchanged in our OBEP. In the core region the hard core, Gaussian soft core and velocity-dependent core potentials are adopted. The characteristics of the retardation are discussed in detail as compared with those given in momentum space calculations. The OBEP's with and without retardation reproduce essentially the same phase shifts in spite of very different potential shapes, in particular in the central-to-tensor ratio. (auth.)

  12. Obstetric interventions and perinatal asphyxia in growth retarded term infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Lindmark, G

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The monitoring of fetal growth during pregnancy is usually justified because of the increased perinatal risk of these babies. METHODS: In 1552 infants from the Scandinavian Small for Gestational Age Study the need for obstetric interventions, risk of fetal asphyxia and immediate...... neonatal outcome at term have been studied in relation to different types of fetal growth retardation, including sub-groups with low ponderal index or low amount of subcutaneous fat. RESULTS: The need for obstetric intervention indicated by suspected fetal asphyxia before or during labor was increased 3......-fold (6-8%) for growth retarded infants both in SGA infants in general and infants with asymmetric body proportions. The immediate perinatal outcome, however, was favorable with Apgar below 8 at 5 min in only 2% irrespective of the type of growth retardation, in spite of the fact that less than 25...

  13. Moral and cognitive development in retarded and nonretarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J J; Achenbach, T M

    1975-07-01

    Subjects were 30 cultural-familially retarded and 30 nonretarded children matched for MA within 3 MA levels. The subjects were administered measures of moral judgement and cognitive operations hypothesized by Kohlberg to constitute necessary but not sufficient conditions for attainment of specific moral stages. Moral and cognitive performance improved with MA, but there were no differences between the MA-matched retarded and nonretarded children. Moral judgement related more strongly to MA then to any of the specific cognitive operations tested. The findings failed to support Kohlberg and Gilligan's (1971) hypothesis that the moral judgment of older individuals should be more advanced than that of younger individuals matched for cognitive level, but they were in accord with Zigler's (1969) "developmental" concept of cultural-familial retardation.

  14. Valence of facial cues influences sheep learning in a visual discrimination task

    OpenAIRE

    Bellegarde, Lucille; Erhard, Hans; Weiss, A.; Boissy, Alain; Haskell, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Sheep are one of the most studied farm species in terms of their ability to process information from faces, but little is known about their face-based emotion recognition abilities. We investigated (a) whether sheep could use images of sheep faces taken in situation of varying valence as cues in a simultaneous discrimination task and (b) whether the valence of the situation affects their learning performance. To accomplish this, we photographed faces of sheep in three situations inducing emot...

  15. Valence of Facial Cues Influences Sheep Learning in a Visual Discrimination Task

    OpenAIRE

    Lucille G. A. Bellegarde; Lucille G. A. Bellegarde; Lucille G. A. Bellegarde; Hans W. Erhard; Alexander Weiss; Alain Boissy; Marie J. Haskell

    2017-01-01

    Sheep are one of the most studied farm species in terms of their ability to process information from faces, but little is known about their face-based emotion recognition abilities. We investigated (a) whether sheep could use images of sheep faces taken in situation of varying valence as cues in a simultaneous discrimination task and (b) whether the valence of the situation affects their learning performance. To accomplish this, we photographed faces of sheep in three situations inducing emot...

  16. Lattice QCD with mixed action - Borici-Creutz valence quark on staggered sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Subhasish; Goswami, Jishnu; Chakrabarti, Dipankar

    2018-03-01

    Mixed action lattice QCD with Borici-Creutz valence quarks on staggered sea is investigated. The counter terms in Borici-Creutz action are fixed nonperturbatively to restore the broken symmetries. On symmetry restoration, the usual signatures of partial quenching / unitarity violation like negative scalar correlator are observed. The size of unitarity violation due to different discretization of valence and sea quark is determined by measuring Δmix.

  17. The effects of valence and arousal on the neural activity leading to subsequent memory

    OpenAIRE

    Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how valence and arousal affect the processes linked to subsequent memory for emotional information. While undergoing an fMRI scan, participants viewed neutral pictures and emotional pictures varying by valence and arousal. After the scan, participants performed a recognition test. Subsequent memory for negative or high arousal information was associated with occipital and temporal activity, while memory for positive or low arousal information was associated with frontal ac...

  18. Equation of states and phonons at high pressure of intermediate valence compound TmTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Prafulla K.; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    1997-01-01

    The study of equation of states and pressure dependence of the phonon frequencies of the compound TmTe have been performed by using a simple interatomic potential approach in the frame work of rigid ion model. The compressibility study confirms that below 2 GPa the valence of the Tm is 2+ while there is a valence transition from Tm 2+ to Tm 3+ above 2 GPa. The phonon frequencies of TmTe increases as pressure is increased. (author)

  19. Risk Factors to Growth Retardation in Major Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Uda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing in the life span of patients with major thalassemia should be followed by increased quality of life. There are factors which can affect growth retardation in these patients. The aim of this study was to find out the risk factors for growth retardation in patients with major thalassemia. An analytical study with cross-sectional design was conducted at Pediatric Thalassemia Clinics of Dr.Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, in June to July 2006. The subjects of this study were patients with major thalassemia. Inclusion criteria’s were age under 14 years old, had no chronic diseases like tuberculosis, cerebral palsy with complete medical records. Risk factors were the timing of diagnosis, initial and dose of deferoxamine, volume of transfused blood, mean pretransfusion hemoglobin level, family income, and age. Antropometric measurement indices were used to assess the growth which expressed in Z score. Growth evaluated based on height/age (H/A and growth retardation if H/A <-2 SD. Risk factors for growth retardation were analyzed separately using chi-square test and odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI. Then they were analyzed simultaneously with logistic regression method. Subjects consisted of 152 patients with major thalassemia. Seventy three thalassemia patients were stunted. Analysis showed that age (OR: 5.42, 95% CI:2.32–12.65, p <0.001, dosage of deferoxamine (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 1.29–12.41, p: 0.016, and family income (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06–5.06, p: 0.036 were risks factors for growth retardation. Conclusion, risk factors for growth retardation in major thalassemia are age, dosage of deferoxamine, and family income.

  20. The power of emotional valence – From cognitive to affective processes in reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eAltmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1 the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM, and (2 the neural substrate of liking negatively valenced narratives. A set of 80 short narratives was compiled, ranging from neutral to negative emotional valence. For each story mean rating values on valence and liking were obtained from a group of 32 participants in a prestudy, and later included as parametric regressors in the fMRI analysis. Another group of 24 participants passively read the narratives in a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Results revealed a stronger engagement of affective ToM-related brain areas with increasingly negative story valence. Stories that were unpleasant, but simulatiously liked, selectively engaged the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, which might reflect the moral exploration of the story content. Further analysis showed that the more the mPFC becomes engaged during the reading of negatively valenced stories, the more coactivation can be observed in other brain areas related to the neural processing of affective ToM and empathy.

  1. Importance-truncated shell model for multi-shell valence spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumpf, Christina; Vobig, Klaus; Roth, Robert [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The valence-space shell model is one of the work horses in nuclear structure theory. In traditional applications, shell-model calculations are carried out using effective interactions constructed in a phenomenological framework for rather small valence spaces, typically spanned by one major shell. We improve on this traditional approach addressing two main aspects. First, we use new effective interactions derived in an ab initio approach and, thus, establish a connection to the underlying nuclear interaction providing access to single- and multi-shell valence spaces. Second, we extend the shell model to larger valence spaces by applying an importance-truncation scheme based on a perturbative importance measure. In this way, we reduce the model space to the relevant basis states for the description of a few target eigenstates and solve the eigenvalue problem in this physics-driven truncated model space. In particular multi-shell valence spaces are not tractable otherwise. We combine the importance-truncated shell model with refined extrapolation schemes to approximately recover the exact result. We present first results obtained in the importance-truncated shell model with the newly derived ab initio effective interactions for multi-shell valence spaces, e.g., the sdpf shell.

  2. Age effects in emotional prospective memory: cue valence differentially affects the prospective and retrospective component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M; Horn, Sebastian S; Bayen, Ute J; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    While first studies suggested that emotional task material may enhance prospective memory performance in young and older adults, the extent and mechanisms of this effect are under debate. The authors explored possible differential effects of cue valence on the prospective and retrospective component of prospective memory in young and older adults. Forty-five young and 41 older adults performed a prospective memory task in which emotional valence of the prospective memory cue was manipulated (positive, negative, neutral). The multinomial model of event-based prospective memory was used to analyze effects of valence and age on the two prospective memory components separately. Results revealed an interaction indicating that age differences were smaller in both emotional valence conditions. For older adults positive cues improved the prospective component, while negative cues improved the retrospective component. No main effect of valence was found for younger adults on an overt accuracy measure, but model-based analyses showed that the retrospective component was enhanced in the positive compared with the negative cue condition. The study extends the literature in demonstrating that processes underlying emotional effects on prospective memory may differ depending on valence and age. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  3. The power of emotional valence-from cognitive to affective processes in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Ulrike; Bohrn, Isabel C; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2012-01-01

    The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1) the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM), and (2) the neural substrate of liking negatively valenced narratives. A set of 80 short narratives was compiled, ranging from neutral to negative emotional valence. For each story mean rating values on valence and liking were obtained from a group of 32 participants in a prestudy, and later included as parametric regressors in the fMRI analysis. Another group of 24 participants passively read the narratives in a three Tesla MRI scanner. Results revealed a stronger engagement of affective ToM-related brain areas with increasingly negative story valence. Stories that were unpleasant, but simultaneously liked, engaged the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which might reflect the moral exploration of the story content. Further analysis showed that the more the mPFC becomes engaged during the reading of negatively valenced stories, the more coactivation can be observed in other brain areas related to the neural processing of affective ToM and empathy.

  4. THERMAL DEGRADATION AND FLAME RETARDANCY OF CALCIUM ALGINATE FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于建; 夏延致

    2009-01-01

    Calcium alginate fibers were prepared by wet spinning of sodium alginate into a coagulating bath containing calcium chloride.The thermal degradation and flame retardancy of calcium alginate fibers were investigated with thermal gravimetry(TG),X-ray diffraction(XRD),limiting oxygen index(LOI) and cone calorimeter(CONE).The results show that calcium alginate fibers are inherently flame retardant with a LOI value of 34,and the heat release rate(HRR),total heat release(THR),CO and CO_2 concentrations during ...

  5. Fetishistic transvestism in a patient with mental retardation and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, Rajmohan; Khaleel, Asfia; Sankar, Nideesh; Kumar, Manoj; Kazhungil, Firoz; Raghuram, Thazhe Mangool

    2014-04-01

    Fetishistic transvestism is a disorder of sexual preference associated with fantasies and sexual urges to dress in opposite gender clothing as a means of arousal and as an adjunct to masturbation and coitus. The disorder has been reported in people with learning disabilities. The disorder has been reported in a young male with dull normal intelligence. Transvestism though has been described in schizophrenia and psychosis and fetishism has been described in the course of simple schizophrenia, there are no reports of fetishistic transvestism in a patient with mental retardation and psychosis. A case of fetishistic transvestism in a patient with mental retardation and psychosis with treatment and relevant review of literature is reported.

  6. Point defect engineering strategies to retard phosphorous diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.; Chroneos, Alexander I.; Grimes, Robin W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Bracht, Hartmut A.

    2013-01-01

    The diffusion of phosphorous in germanium is very fast, requiring point defect engineering strategies to retard it in support of technological application. Density functional theory corroborated with hybrid density functional calculations are used to investigate the influence of the isovalent codopants tin and hafnium in the migration of phosphorous via the vacancy-mediated diffusion process. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous are increased significantly in the presence of oversized isovalent codopants. Therefore, it is proposed that tin and in particular hafnium codoping are efficient point defect engineering strategies to retard phosphorous migration. © the Owner Societies 2013.

  7. Dynamic retardation corrections to the mass spectrum of heavy quarkonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopalejshvili, T.; Rusetskij, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the Logunov-Tavkhelidze quasipotential approach the first-order retardation corrections to the heavy quarkonia mass spectrum are calculated with the use of the stationary wave boundary condition in the covariant kernel of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. As has been expected, these corrections turn out to be small for all low-lying heavy meson states and vanish in the heavy quark limit (m Q →∞). The comparison of the suggested approach to the calculation of retardation corrections with others, known in literature, is carried out. 22 refs., 1 tab

  8. Effect of Oxidation Degree on Valence Change and Distribution of Octahedral Fe Element in Biotite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ziqian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the valence change and distribution of iron elements in octahedral vacancies of biotite were studied in the oxidation process. The biotite and saturated barium nitrate solution were mixed in dilute hydrochloric acid under hydrothermal reaction conditions, the solid after reaction was used as the test sample. Firstly, the remainder potassium and iron content were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry(AAS. Secondly, the state of iron along with oxidation degree increased was analyzed, in addition, the phase composition and the change of layer spacing in samples was detected by X-ray diffraction(XRD. Thirdly, The variation mode of Si-O bond were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR.This research was adopted hydrogen ions in diluted hydrochloric acid and nitrate ions in barium nitrate to provide oxidation environment for reaction, and the oxidation degree was controlled by adjusted the amount of hydrogen ion introduced. We found out that the amount of hydrogen ion is positively correlated with oxidation degree in biotite, and the deeper oxidation degree in biotite, the lower electronegativity of singer layer. Potassium and iron element would be release out of micaceous structure during the biotite oxidation. The higher the oxidation degree is, the greater the releasing happen. The charge density combining Fe oxidation and releasing firstly increased then decreased with the oxidation degree turned greater. During the oxidation, the Si-O vibrated would change from parallel layer vibration model to vertical vibration model.

  9. Chain stiffness, salt valency, and concentration influences on titration curves of polyelectrolytes: Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnal, Fabrice; Stoll, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been used to study two different models of a weak linear polyelectrolyte surrounded by explicit counterions and salt particles: (i) a rigid rod and (ii) a flexible chain. We focused on the influence of the pH, chain stiffness, salt concentration, and valency on the polyelectrolyte titration process and conformational properties. It is shown that chain acid-base properties and conformational properties are strongly modified when multivalent salt concentration variation ranges below the charge equivalence. Increasing chain stiffness allows to minimize intramolecular electrostatic monomer interactions hence improving the deprotonation process. The presence of di and trivalent salt cations clearly promotes the chain degree of ionization but has only a limited effect at very low salt concentration ranges. Moreover, folded structures of fully charged chains are only observed when multivalent salt at a concentration equal or above charge equivalence is considered. Long-range electrostatic potential is found to influence the distribution of charges along and around the polyelectrolyte backbones hence resulting in a higher degree of ionization and a lower attraction of counterions and salt particles at the chain extremities.

  10. Brominated flame retardants in Chinese air before and after the phase out of polybrominated diphenyl ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Long; Qi, Hong; Ma, Wan-Li; Liu, Li-Yan; Zhang, Zhi; Mohammed, Mohammed O. A.; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zifeng; Li, Yi-Fan

    2015-09-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel non-BDE flame retardants (NBFRs), were analyzed in Chinese air during China's POPs Soil and Air Monitoring Program Phase I (SAMP-I) and Phase II (SAMP-II). The levels of Σ12PBDEs and Σ6NBFRs in urban sites were significantly higher than those in rural sites and background sites. The higher detection rate and concentrations of high molecular weight PBDEs and NBFRs in Phase II indicated the changing of the commercial pattern of BFRs after the phase out of PBDEs in China. Temperature was the major factor affecting the seasonal variations of molecular weight BFRs in atmosphere. A significant correlation between BFRs concentration and gross domestic product (GDP) was observed, with the GDP parameter explained 59.4% and 72.7% of the total variability for Octa-BDEs and low molecular weight NBFRs, respectively. Our findings indicated an evolving commercial usage of BFRs from SAMP-I to SAMP-II, i.e. shifting from lower molecular weight to higher molecular weight congeners in China.

  11. Final height and intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Maïthé

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 10% of small for gestational age (SGA) children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life with a decreased pubertal spurt. Growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner and adult height had now been well documented. Shorter children might benefit from a higher dose at start (50μg/kg/day). The response to GH treatment was similar for both preterm and term short SGA groups and the effect of GH treatment on adult height showed a wide variation in growth response. As a whole, mean adult height is higher than -2 SDS in 60% of patients and 70% reached an adult height in their target height with better results with higher doses and combined GnRH analog therapy in those who were short at onset of puberty. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Proceedings of the 2013 Valence international secondary school meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    Since 2008, French and foreign secondary schools participate to radiation protection workshops led by teachers of these establishments in partnership with radiation protection experts and researchers. The aim of these workshops is to involve students in pluri-disciplinary activities in relation with the practical radiation protection culture. Each year, 100 to 150 students from about 15 French and foreign secondary schools participate to these workshops. This document brings together the available documents (slides) presented at the occasion of the 2013 meeting, held at Valence (FR). The document gathers 24 presentations dealing with: - Radiation protection at hospitals (Lycee Alphonse Heinrich (Haguenau (FR)); - Radiation protection in a nuclear medicine service (Lycee Clemenceau (Nantes (FR)); - Management of radioactive hospital wastes (Lycee Bois d'Amour (Poitiers (FR)); - Radiation protection in the medical domain (Herve Visseaux - ASN)); - Biological effects of ionising radiations (Lycee Notre Dame (Boulogne- Billancourt (FR)); - Food-stuff ionisation (Lycee Gustave Jaume (Pierrelatte (FR)); - Cosmic radiations and protection of aircraft personnel (Lycee Jules Viette (Montbeliard (FR)); - Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident (Lycee du Bois d'Amour (Poitiers (FR)); - Analysis of the present day consequences of the Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents (School no. 46 of Gomel (Bielorussia)); - The life in contaminated territories (School Soudkhovo of Khoiniki (Bielorussia)); - Pripyat today (School no. 118 de Kiev (Ukraine)); - Consequences of the Fukushima accident (Didier Champion - IRSN); - Centres for practical radiation protection culture - Conditions for a population involvement in Chernobyl contaminated territories? (Andrei Mostovenka - (RIR (Belarus)); - Radioactive wastes management (Lycee Notre Dame (Boulogne-Billancourt (FR)); - Radon (Lycee Paul Vincensini (Bastia (FR)); - Nuclear imaging and radiation protection (Lycee Clemenceau

  13. Approach and withdrawal tendencies during written word processing: effects of task, emotional valence and emotional arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M. M. Citron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behaviour (approach vs. withdrawal and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH and negative, low-arousal (NL stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies towards emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labelled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task, in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with up responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down. Hence, in contexts in which participants’ spontaneous

  14. Approach and Withdrawal Tendencies during Written Word Processing: Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, Francesca M M; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with "up" responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are

  15. THERMODYNAMICS OF ELECTROLYTES. XI. PROPERTIES OF 3-2, 4-2, AND OTHER HIGH-VALENCE TYPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitzer, Kenneth S.; Silvester, Leonard F.

    1977-12-01

    Various thermodynamic properties are considered for very high-valence 3-2 and 4-2 electrolytes in water at room temperature. These solutions show the behavior described by Davies in which ion pairing arises as the concentration increases follow by re-dissociation at still higher concentrations. Heat of dilution data, which extend below 10{sup -4} M, are interpreted with the same form of equation used earlier for 2-2 electrolytes. Activity and osmotic coefficient data do not extend to low enough concentration for independent, interpretation, but they are treated with the aid of conductance data in the more dilute range. Parameters are reported for A{ell}{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, La{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, In{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, and several cyanoferrates. High-valence electrolytes show a special behavior at very low concentrations which was recognized by Bjerrum who showed in 1926 that purely electrostatic forces would yield an ion association. Davies showed that this association commonly reached a maximum at an intermediate concentration above which there was a re-dissociation. From one viewpoint, this ion association is an artifact of the linearization approximation in the Debye-Hueckel theory since a more exact statistical treatment yields agreement with experiment without assuming a separate associated species. If an association equilibrium is assumed for these electrolytes, it is found that the value of the association constant depends on the assumptions about the activity coefficients of the ions. To the extent that these effects are important for 2-2 electrolytes, they are discussed in paper III{sup 6} of this series. While in 3-2 and 4-2 electrolytes the effects are of the same nature as those in the 2-2 solutes, they occur at much lower concentration in the higher-valence solutes; consequently new problems arise in treating experimental data. Indeed, it is only the conductance and heat-of-dilution measurements, which extend down to 10{sup -5} M

  16. Radiation-grafting of flame retardants on flax fabrics - A comparison between different flame retardant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marie; Sonnier, Rodolphe; Otazaghine, Belkacem; Ferry, Laurent; Aubert, Mélanie; Tirri, Teija; Wilén, Carl-Eric; Rouif, Sophie

    2018-04-01

    Three unsaturated compounds bearing respectively phosphate, aryl bromide and sulfenamide moieties were used as flame retardants (FR) for flax fabrics. Due to the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds, radiation-grafting was considered to covalently bond these FR onto fiber structure. Grafting efficiency and location of FR molecules were investigated by weight measurements and SEM-EDX observations. Flammability and especially self-extinguishment were assessed by thermogravimetric analysis, pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimetry and a non-standardized fire test already used in previous studies. All FRs were able to diffuse into elementary fiber bulk. Nevertheless only the phosphonated monomer (noted FR-P) was significantly grafted onto flax. Self-extinguishment was obtained for fabrics containing at least around 0.5 wt% of phosphorus. On the contrary the FR content of flax fibers after radiation-grafting procedure and washing was negligible for FR-S and FR-Br, evidencing that these molecules have not been grafted upon irradiation. Moreover, the combination of these molecules prevents the radiation-grafting of other molecules which showed good grafting rate when used alone.

  17. Occupational exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other flame retardant foam additives at gymnastics studios: Before, during and after the replacement of pit foam with PBDE-free foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana M; Broadwater, Kendra; Page, Elena; Croteau, Gerry; La Guardia, Mark J

    2018-07-01

    Coaches spend long hours training gymnasts of all ages aided by polyurethane foam used in loose blocks, mats, and other padded equipment. Polyurethane foam can contain flame retardant additives such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), to delay the spread of fires. However, flame retardants have been associated with endocrine disruption and carcinogenicity. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) evaluated employee exposure to flame retardants in four gymnastics studios utilized by recreational and competitive gymnasts. We evaluated flame retardant exposure at the gymnastics studios before, during, and after the replacement of foam blocks used in safety pits with foam blocks certified not to contain several flame retardants, including PBDEs. We collected hand wipes on coaches to measure levels of flame retardants on skin before and after their work shift. We measured flame retardant levels in the dust on window glass in the gymnastics areas and office areas, and in the old and new foam blocks used throughout the gymnastics studios. We found statistically higher levels of 9 out of 13 flame retardants on employees' hands after work than before, and this difference was reduced after the foam replacement. Windows in the gymnastics areas had higher levels of 3 of the 13 flame retardants than windows outside the gymnastics areas, suggesting that dust and vapor containing flame retardants became airborne. Mats and other padded equipment contained levels of bromine consistent with the amount of brominated flame retardants in foam samples analyzed in the laboratory. New blocks did not contain PBDEs, but did contain the flame retardants 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate and 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate. We conclude that replacing the pit foam blocks eliminated a source of PBDEs, but not 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate and 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate. We recommend ways to further minimize employee exposure

  18. Predicting Adaptive Functioning of Mentally Retarded Persons in Community Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John T.; Thompson, Joy C.

    1980-01-01

    The impact of a variety of individual, residential, and community variables on adaptive functioning of 369 retarded persons (18 to 73 years old) was examined using a multiple regression analysis. Individual characteristics (especially IQ) accounted for 21 percent of the variance, while environmental variables, primarily those related to…

  19. Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of Release Retardant Diclofenac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of release retardant matrix tablets of diclofenac sodium for 24 h by wet granulation technique using different combinations and ratios of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (sodium CMC), sodium alginate and cetostearyl alcohol was carried out. The tablets were evaluated ...

  20. The Opinions and Attitudes of Mothers to Mental Retardation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion There is an increased pervasive attitude to children with mental retardation. Therefore, efforts aimed at changing parental and by extension societal attitudes toward these children are necessary for their care and survival. There is also need for government and charitable organizations to reach-out to parents of ...

  1. Music Training for Severely and Profoundly Retarded Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Buford; Richmond, Bert O.

    Investigated were the effects of sex, ability and training method on the musical instrument playing ability of 16 institutionalized severely and profoundly retarded persons ages 7 to 20 years. Ss were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, and the time required to reach criterion playing a familiar tune was recorded. Data indicated…

  2. Reducing Barriers to Sex Education for Adults with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Cristy F.; Benner, Susan M.

    1993-01-01

    Opinions of professionals from 16 agencies were obtained to identify techniques that agencies serving adults or adolescents with mental retardation could utilize to provide systematic sex education and counseling. Recommendations are offered in five areas: self-advocacy and self-determination, individual design, staff training and support,…

  3. Ecotoxicity and biodegradability of new brominated flame retardants: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ezechiáš, Martin; Covino, Stefano; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 2 (2014), s. 153-167 ISSN 0147-6513 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA TA ČR TE01020218 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Ecotoxicity * brominated flame retardants * biodegradation * review Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.762, year: 2014

  4. Pressure retarded osmosis from hypersaline sources - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajraktari, Niada; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Madsen, Henrik T.

    2017-01-01

    for commercialization. The scope of this paper is to review the existing knowledge on the use of hypersaline waters in the salinity gradient process, pressure retarded osmosis. Although only few papers have had the specific aim of investigating hypersaline waters, concentrated solutions have been used in many papers...

  5. Acceleration of Object Permanence with Severely and Profoundly Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, James V.

    Examined was the effectiveness of training four severely and profoundly retarded children (3-6 years old) to improve their level of functioning on a measure of object permanence and to demonstrate generalization to other areas of sensorimotor intelligence. Ss were given a pretest and posttest on the I. Uzgiris and J. Hunt instrument which consists…

  6. A Prelanguage Program for Five Severely Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlonie, Mary Lynne; Wolf, Judith M.

    Five severely retarded emotionally disturbed children (2-7 years old) were exposed to a prelanguage sensorimotor program for 20 weeks. The program emphasized the use of exploratory behavior and gesture imitation. Results suggested that object permanence could be encouraged using these activities but that the approach used in training imitative…

  7. Career Development and Adults with Moderate to Severe Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, John; Cocco, Karen

    Lifelong career development activities may assist persons with more severe forms of mental retardation in achieving occupational tenure. Occupational tenure is important if individuals are to move away from a succession of entry-level employment. Adaptive career development strategies and techniques may prevent job dissatisfaction and poor…

  8. Validation of a Weight Reduction Treatment Package for the Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotatori, Anthony F.; And Others

    Five studies are reviewed which indicated the effectiveness on weight loss by mentally retarded persons of a treatment program stressing self control. The intervention included procedures which increased the dieter's self awareness of overeating behavior patterns and body weight, reduced food cues, reduced eating rates, increased activity level…

  9. Factors which Motivate Job Acceptance and Profoundly Mentally Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozas, Donald S.; May, Deborah C.

    1980-01-01

    The study involving 360 Pennsylvania teachers was designed to identify factors which motivate job acceptance among teachers of severely and profoundly mentally retarded children. The responses of 235 teachers indicated that challenge and practicum experiences were the two most prevalent motivational factors underlying job acceptance. (Author)

  10. A near-infrared zero-order achromatic retarder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present investigation deals with a technique to design and study the characteristics of an achromatic combination of birefringent plates in 800–2000 nm range. The retarder has been designed using calcite, crystalline quartz and ADP. The thicknesses of the plates are 19.38 μm,. 446.14 μm and 12.57 μm respectively.

  11. PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CENTERWALL, WILLARD R.; CENTERWALL, SIEGRIED A.

    ADDRESSED TO PUBLIC HEALTH WORKERS AND PHYSICIANS IN GENERAL PRACTICE, THE PAMPHLET INTRODUCES METHODS OF DETECTING AND MANAGING PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION. INFORMATION, UPDATED FROM THE 1961 EDITION, IS INCLUDED ON THE INCIDENCE AND GENETICS, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND CLINICAL COURSE OF THE…

  12. Pre-Language Activities for the Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Marilyn R.; And Others

    Provided are sample lesson plans for a program to develop pre-language skills in profoundly retarded children and adults. Characteristic of the suggested activities is the stimulation of all sensory channels through structured infant-like play activities in five general areas: oral stimulation, sensory arousal, motor stimulation, vocal play, and…

  13. Enhancing Free-Recall Rates of Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Michael T.; Soraci, Sal A.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Chechile, Nicholas A.; Loiselle, Raquel C.

    2001-01-01

    This study with 16 adolescents with mental retardation compared free-recall rates under two encoding conditions: (1) fade-in, initially presenting pictures out of focus then slowly fading them into focus; and (2) fade-out, slowly blurring originally clear pictures. Results indicated that free-recall rates were greater for the fade-in items for…

  14. Case Management for Individuals with Mental Retardation. ARC Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    A question-and-answer format is used in this fact sheet to provide information on case management for individuals with mental retardation. The fact sheet describes the major components of a case management system, the role of the case manager, the individual's or family's role in case management, providers of case management services and systems…

  15. C syndrome with skeletal anomalies, mental retardation, eyelid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C syndrome with skeletal anomalies, mental retardation, eyelid chalazion, Bitot's spots and agenesis of the corpus callosum in an Egyptian child. ... broad nose, high arched palate, microretrognathia, low set ears, short neck, scoliosis, hypertrichosis over the back, talipes equinovarus as well as interatrial septal defect.

  16. Psychological Aspects of Sleep Disorders in Children with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David T.

    This paper reviews literature and clinical experiences on the neurobiological and psychological aspects of sleep in children with mental retardation. The lack of a universal, operational definition of sleep disorders is noted, and a study is cited in which 61% of a group of 20 children (ages 2-13) with developmental disabilities were found to have…

  17. Genetic Issues in Mental Retardation, 1996-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic Issues in Mental Retardation, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the first six issues of a newsletter, which discusses current knowledge about and concerns related to genetics and mental retardation. The second issue addresses the problem of genetic discrimination. The third issue considers genetic testing, screening, and counseling. The fourth issue addresses genetic privacy issues.…

  18. The Mentally Retarded and the Educational System in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Harry

    The history of educational services for mentally retarded persons in Denmark is traced, along with the evolution of attitudes toward the population from a protectionist philosophy which promoted segregation to current thinking about normalization. The role of the national parents' association in influencing service review and reform is stressed.…

  19. Neglected and Abused Children of Mentally Retarded Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagull, Elizabeth A. W.; Scheurer, Susan L.

    1986-01-01

    Follow-up of 64 neglected and abused children, seen one to seven years earlier, with mentally retarded parent revealed that six children had been relinquished voluntarily for adoption; that courts had terminated parental rights for 34 children; and that nine had been placed in foster care. Cognitive limitations prevented parents from utilizing…

  20. Occupational Interests and Mentally Retarded People: Review and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, Robert A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The article reviews several studies regarding the choice of occupational interests for the mentally retarded adolescent. Several concerns about current evaluation practices are discussed. Recommendations are offered for a client centered, developmental model, making the evaluation of occupational interests a viable part of the client's…

  1. Colour learning in retarded children | Karseboom | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 45, No 2 (1971) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Colour learning in retarded children. E Karseboom. Abstract.

  2. Task Monotony and Performance Efficacy of Mentally Retarded Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Bill J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-six mildly mentally retarded young adults were exposed to one of three training arrangements for vigilance performance, a monitoring task that some professionals consider uniquely appropriate for such persons because they are assumed to be less susceptible to boredom. (Author)

  3. by recycled subirrigational supply of plant growth retardants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... an ebb and flow system on the growth and flowering of kalanchoe cultivar 'Gold Strike' was examined. Plants potted in 10 cm .... photoperiod during the first six weeks after pinching. .... stage and adverse influences on overall growth of the plants. ..... retardants on the growth and flowering in poinsettia. RDA.

  4. Increasing Wearing of Prescription Glasses in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Bowman, Lynn G.; Long, Ethan S.; Boelter, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention for promoting wearing of prescription glasses in 4 individuals with mental retardation who had refused to wear their glasses previously. Distraction through noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) increased independent glasses wearing for 1 of the 4 participants. An intervention consisting of NCR, response cost, and…

  5. Colemanite: a fire retardant candidate for wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren Terzi; Saip Nami Kartal; Sabriye Piskin; Nicole Stark; Aysel Kanturk Figen; Robert H. White

    2018-01-01

    The use of raw boron minerals (i.e. tincalconite, colemanite, and ulexite) was evaluated to increase the fire performance of wood plastic composites (WPCs) in comparison with commercially available fire retardants (FRs). Cone calorimetry and limited oxygen index tests were performed to evaluate the fire properties of WPC specimens. Artificial weathering and 3-point...

  6. A Job Retention Model for Individuals with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornes, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    This structured literature review examines the literature and addresses issues of job retention for adult workers with moderate to mild mental retardation (MR), investigating the relationships between work-related social behaviors, self-determination, person-job congruency of individuals with MR, and their job performance and job satisfaction with…

  7. HIV and AIDS Awareness among Children with Mental Retardation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Openness to the subject of sexuality and HIV and AIDS is considered as taboo in many African cultures. To persons with disabilities, let alone individuals with mental retardation, sexuality and HIV are still areas of grave concern, which still require further study and investigation, hence the interest in the present study.

  8. Long-Term Retardation of Uranium in the KURT Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Shin, Joo Do; Park, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    One of possibilities resolving this issue is to study the migration and retardation processes of radionuclides in the subsurface environments by using naturally occurring radionuclides as analogues of radioactive waste. To date, however, the long-term behavior of radionuclides in a granitic groundwater system is not yet fully understood. The ubiquitous presence of uranium (U) in rocks makes it an ideal natural analogue for studying the behaviors of radionuclides in a deep geological repository for the final disposal of HLW. In this study, long-term retardation behavior of natural uranium was investigated using granite rock samples taken from the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel), located in Daejeon city. The distribution of uranium and its binding mechanism in granite samples were investigated using the sequential chemical extraction (SCE) technique combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ICP-MS methods. In this study, the long-term retardation of uranium in the KURT environment was investigated using SCE and EPMA techniques combined with ICP-MS and XRD. Results showed that long-term interaction of rock with groundwater can change U species and mineralize dissolved U, which can consequently contribute to the retardation of U in the fractured granitic rock environment. This study will help us to understand the long-term behavior of radionuclides migrating through the fractured granite rock and then enhance the reliability of the safety assessment for a HLW repository

  9. Haspeslagh syndrome without severe mental retardation and pterygia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bever, Y.; Hennekam, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    An adult female is described with mild developmental delay, typical facies, dental anomalies, arachnodactyly and camptodactyly. In many respects she resembles four other patients described earlier, but differs in not having multiple pterygia, nor severe mental retardation. We suggest that this

  10. "School Retardation" in Mexico from 1920 to 1960: Conceptual Passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Josefina Granja

    2012-01-01

    Educational concepts, such as enrolment, attendance, passing or failing students, school retardation, and school desertion, which made it possible to describe the course of children through the school system, went through a gradual process, beginning in the second half of the nineteenth century and throughout the first decades of the twentieth. In…

  11. A Behavioral Weight Reduction Model for Moderately Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotatori, Anthony F.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A behavioral weight reduction treatment and maintenance program for moderately mentally retarded adolescents which involves six phases from background information collection to followup relies on stimulus control procedures to modify eating behaviors. Data from pilot studies show an average weekly weight loss of .5 to 1 pound per S. (CL)

  12. Sugar cane juice as a retarding admixture in concrete production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane juice (SCJ) was investigated as a retarding agent in concrete production. Slump values and compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of water by sugar cane juice was also investigated. The concrete cubes were prepared by replacing water with SCJ in the following proportions 0, 3, 5, 10 and ...

  13. Characterization of Mental Retardation and Autism in Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyches, Tina Taylor; Prater, Mary Anne; Cramer, Sharon F.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 12 books, six picture books and six chapter books, examined how individuals with mental retardation and autism are depicted in children's literature. Results indicate characters were portrayed as making more choices in their lives and were educated in more inclusive environments than in an earlier study. (Contains references.)…

  14. Retardation of muscle growth in castrated male mice: further ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retardation of muscle growth in castrated male mice was studied as an evidence for the influence of hormones on the development of muscle mass. Male albino mice were castrated at 28days of age by open castration method. The weights and the muscle mass indices (mg muscle weight per gram body weight) of the ...

  15. Second Order Impulsive Retarded Differential Inclusions with Nonlocal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán R. Henríquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we establish some existence results for abstract second order Cauchy problems modeled by a retarded differential inclusion involving nonlocal and impulsive conditions. Our results are obtained by using fixed point theory for the measure of noncompactness.

  16. Prognosis and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Line Thousig; Pedersen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is the term describing a foetus that has not reached its genetic growth potential. There is no international consensus on the definition of IUGR. The aim of this study was to describe a cohort of weight-restricted neonates and their mothers...

  17. Flame retardants in eggs of four gull species (Laridae) from breeding sites spanning Atlantic to Pacific Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Da; Letcher, Robert J.; Burgess, Neil M.; Champoux, Louise; Elliott, John E.; Hebert, Craig E.; Martin, Pamela; Wayland, Mark; Chip Weseloh, D.V.; Wilson, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    To compare legacy and emerging flame retardant (FR) contamination in Canadian marine and freshwater ecosystems, eggs of four gull species (Laridae) were collected from 26 colonies spanning Pacific to Atlantic Canada, including in the Great Lakes basin. Fourteen polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 20 non-PBDE FRs were analyzed, but BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154 and -209, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and Dechlorane Plus (DP) syn- and anti-isomers were common, and where concentrations of ∑PBDEs (37–610 ng/g wet weight, ww) ≫ HBCD (0.5–12 ng/g ww) > ∑DP (not quantifiable-5.5 ng/g ww). All other FRs were generally not detectable. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes used as dietary tracers provided insights into the diet choice influences on the exposure sources and contamination patterns (e.g., PBDE congener compositions) for individual gulls from the same colony. Eggs from gulls breeding near metropolitan regions of higher human densities showed greater PBDE burdens than from other ecosystems. - Highlights: ► We investigated flame retardants in eggs of four gull species spanning Canada. ► Concentrations of ∑PBDE ≫ hexabromocyclododecane > ∑Dechlorane Plus in eggs. ► Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes revealed diet sources of flame retardants. ► Human density near breeding sites influenced flame retardant burdens in eggs. - Various flame retardants were found in eggs of four gull species from sites across Canada, and levels were influenced by location, ecosystem, diet and proximity to human populations.

  18. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to

  19. Memory effects of sleep, emotional valence, arousal and novelty in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marije C M; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Swaab, Hanna; van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-06-01

    Effectiveness of memory consolidation is determined by multiple factors, including sleep after learning, emotional valence, arousal and novelty. Few studies investigated how the effect of sleep compares with (and interacts with) these other factors, of which virtually none are in children. The present study did so by repeated assessment of declarative memory in 386 children (45% boys) aged 9-11 years through an online word-pair task. Children were randomly assigned to either a morning or evening learning session of 30 unrelated word-pairs with positive, neutral or negative valenced cues and neutral targets. After immediately assessing baseline recognition, delayed recognition was recorded either 12 or 24 h later, resulting in four different assessment schedules. One week later, the procedure was repeated with exactly the same word-pairs to evaluate whether effects differed for relearning versus original novel learning. Mixed-effect logistic regression models were used to evaluate how the probability of correct recognition was affected by sleep, valence, arousal, novelty and their interactions. Both immediate and delayed recognition were worse for pairs with negatively valenced or less arousing cue words. Relearning improved immediate and delayed word-pair recognition. In contrast to these effects, sleep did not affect recognition, nor did sleep moderate the effects of arousal, valence and novelty. The findings suggest a robust inclination of children to specifically forget the pairing of words to negatively valenced cue words. In agreement with a recent meta-analysis, children seem to depend less on sleep for the consolidation of information than has been reported for adults, irrespective of the emotional valence, arousal and novelty of word-pairs. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Some Thoughts on Counseling Parents of the Mentally Retarded. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, William R.

    Discussed are techniques in counseling parents of retarded children. Suggested are ways to structure the interview as well as methods to help the parents deal with such problems as overprotection and initial reactions to the diagnosis of retardation. (CL)

  1. Workability enhancement of geopolymer concrete through the use of retarder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umniati, B. Sri; Risdanareni, Puput; Zein, Fahmi Tarmizi Zulfikar

    2017-09-01

    Geopolymer concrete is a type of concrete manufactured without the addition of cement. In geopolymer concrete, along with an activator, cement as the concrete binder can be replaced by the fly ash. This will reduce global demand on cement, and therefore will reduce CO2 emission due to cement production. Thus, geopolymer concrete is commonly known as an eco-friendly concrete. Geopolymer concrete also offers a solution concerning with the utilization of the fly ash waste. However, despite of its environmental advantages, geopolymer concrete has a drawback, namelygeopolymer concrete set quickly, thus reducing its workability. This research aimed to increase the workability of geopolymer concrete by using retarder admixture (Plastocrete RT6 Plus). Retarder used varies within 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% of fly ash mass. As a control, geopolymer concrete without retarder (0%) were also made. Activator used in this research was Na2SiO3 mixed with NaOH 10 M solution, with ratio of 1:5. The results showed an optimum composition of geopolymer concrete with 0.6% retarder, where initial setting time occured after 6.75 hours, and the final setting time reached after 9.5 hours. Moreover, the slump of the geopolymer concrete was 8.8 cm, and the slump flow was 24 cm. The compressive strength of the geopolymer concrete at 28 days was 47.21 MPa. The experiment showed that the more retarder added, the setting time of the geopolymer concrete will be increased, thus increasing its workability.

  2. INFLUENCE OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM INITIAL CONCENTRATION ON RETARDATION FACTOR AND CONTAMINANT VELOCITY IN A SOIL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SHIVA PRASHANTH KUMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sources of soil and ground water contamination are many and include many folds of accidental spills and leaks of toxic and hazardous chemicals. Preparation of ground water contamination model needs good understanding of the behavior of contaminant transport through soil media for predicting the level of contamination of ground water in the near future at the intended site conditions. Sorption is a natural process; due to its presence, the contaminant can move slowly as compared to the ground water and hence the effects of sorption must be taken into consideration while predicting the travel time of the contaminant to reach the ground water sources. This paper discusses the results of column test studies carried out in the laboratory under controlled conditions about the spreading of contaminant (Hexavalent chromium, Cr (VI through the clay mixed red soil at two different initial concentrations (800 mg/L and 4200 mg/L. The variations of the contaminant flow velocity and retardation factor for two different initial concentrations of contaminant were brought out and discussed. The contaminant flow velocity drastically coming down for a relative concentration of 0 to 0.2 and beyond this range, the contaminant flow velocity value is decreasing in a slow rate for both the lower and higher initial contaminant concentrations tested. At the lower relative concentration, the higher retardation factor was observed and it may be due to slowly filling the available sorption sites in the soil column.

  3. Synthesis and carbonization chemistry of a phosphorous–nitrogen based intumescent flame retardant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Haiyun; Fang, Zhengping

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The carbonization chemistry and mechanism of a novel synthesized intumescent flame retardant. The final chars showed a complex P-O-Ph and aromatic/graphitic structure containing architecture. Highlights: ► The IFR synthesized is polymeric and has high molecular weight. ► The IFR has a higher thermal stability than most of the commercial IFRs. ► The final chars of IFR showed a complex P-O-Ph and aromatic/graphitic structure. - Abstract: In this work, a polymeric phosphorous–nitrogen containing intumescent flame retardant, named poly(diaminodiphenyl methane spirocyclic pentaerythritol bisphosphonate) (PDSPB), was synthesized. The carbonization chemistry was investigated. FTIR and 1 H NMR were used to confirm the chemical structure of PDSPB. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in situ FTIR and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) were used to investigate and monitor the chemical structural changes during thermal degradation. PDSPB demonstrated a three-step degradation behavior. PDSPB oligomers continuously polymerized and generated a higher macromolecular weight during the first step (200–250 °C). The phosphate ester bonds were broken down and phosphoric acid was released which dehydrated the carbon source to form chars during the second step (280–320 °C). The residues will be further degraded and form final chars during the final weight loss step (400–450 °C). The final chars showed a complex P-O-Ph and aromatic/graphitic structure containing architecture.

  4. Short-Term Memory for Movement Duration in Mentally Retarded and Nonretarded Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Digby; Grundy, Stephen B.

    1984-01-01

    Both retarded and nonretarded adults (N=26) failed to benefit from opportunities to mentally rehearse their criterion movement over the retention interval, suggesting that strategic differences between the groups cannot explain the poorer performances of the retarded Ss. The retarded Ss appeared to have problems remembering the sensory…

  5. Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Desmond J.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2000-01-01

    A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

  6. Roles of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Dopaminergic Stimulation-induced Synapse-associated Protein Synthesis and Subsequent α-Amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) Receptor Internalization*

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hansen; Kim, Susan S.; Zhuo, Min

    2010-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the absence of the RNA-binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP regulates local protein synthesis in dendritic spines. Dopamine (DA) is involved in the modulation of synaptic plasticity. Activation of DA receptors can regulate higher brain functions in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. Our recent study has shown that FMRP acts as a key messenger for DA modulation in forebrain ne...

  7. Measurement of the flame retardants polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) in house dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapleton, H.; Dodder, N.; Schantz, M.; Wise, S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Current monitoring of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has shown that concentrations are increasing in the environment very rapidly with doubling times as short as three to five years. North America consumes a large percentage of the global market demand for PBDEs, and as a result, concentrations of PBDEs in human milk and serum are an order of magnitude higher in women from North America relative to Europe. Within sampled populations, PBDE levels in human serum have been shown to range over an order of magnitude, and high levels cannot always be attributed to occupational exposure, age or diet. One source that may be responsible for these observations is exposure in the home. These compounds are liberally applied to many common household items such as furniture, mattresses, computers and TVs to retard or hinder the outbreak of fire. Over time, these flame retardants may leach out into the home environment, where they may be inhaled or ingested, resulting in elevated levels in human serum. Very few studies have examined PBDE levels within the home and only one study has measured the concentrations of two PBDE congeners in house dust. The present study was undertaken to measure a suite PBDE congeners in house dust from a variety of homes and to assess the contribution of the three commercial PBDE mixtures (penta-, octa- and decaBDE) to the house dust composition. In addition, we also measured the concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), another flame retardant. Correlations with properties of the houses such as year of construction, square footage, carpeting coverage and number of computers in the house were also examined for any positive influences.

  8. A study of the valence shell electronic states of s-triazine by photoabsorption spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, D.M.P., E-mail: david.holland@stfc.ac.uk [Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Shaw, D.A. [Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Stener, M.; Decleva, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienze e Tecnologia dei Materiali, INSTM, Unità di Trieste (Italy); CNR-IOM, Trieste (Italy); Coriani, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienze e Tecnologia dei Materiali, INSTM, Unità di Trieste (Italy); Aarhus Institute of Advanced Studies, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • The valence shell photoabsorption spectrum of s-triazine has been measured. • Electronic structure calculated with TDDFT and coupled cluster approaches. • Assignments proposed for Rydberg and valence states. • Mixing between Rydberg and valence states important. - Abstract: The absolute photoabsorption cross section of s-triazine has been measured between 4 and 40 eV, and is dominated by bands associated with valence states. Structure due to Rydberg excitations is both weak and irregular. Jahn-Teller interactions affect the vibronic structure observed in the Rydberg absorption bands due to excitation from the 1e″ or 6e′ orbitals. The interpretation of the experimental spectrum has been guided by transition energies and oscillator strengths, for Rydberg and valence states, calculated with the time-dependent version of density functional theory and with the coupled cluster linear response approach. The theoretical studies indicate that Rydberg/Rydberg and Rydberg/valence mixing is important.

  9. Not always a matter of context: direct effects of red on arousal but context-dependent moderations on valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L. Buechner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The arousal theory of color proposes that red is associated with arousal. Research on the color-in-context theory, in turn, states that the context in which red is perceived influences its valence-related meaning and behavioral responses to it. This study faces and integrates these theories by examining the influence of red on both arousal and valence perceptions of test-relevant and neutral stimuli, rendering a color 2 (red vs. blue × context 2 (test vs. neutral between-subjects design. Participants rated different pictures regarding their arousal and valence component, respectively. In line with the assumptions of both theories, red increased arousal perceptions of stimuli irrespective of their valence but a context × color interaction was found for valence perceptions: for participants viewing test-relevant pictures, red increased their perceptions of negativity compared to neutral pictures. The present study shows that both theories are actually compatible when differentiating the arousal and valence component.

  10. Valence and Magnetic Transitions in YbMn2Ge2-Applied Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, M.; Link, P.; Campbell, S.J.; Goncharenko, I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Rare-earth intermetallic compounds containing ytterbium exhibit a wide range of interesting and unusual physical and magnetic properties. This occurs mainly as a result of their mixed valence states (II/III) or changes from one valence state to the other. We have recently determined the magnetic structures of tetragonal YbMn 2 Ge 2 (I4/mmm) by powder neutron diffraction experiments and demonstrated that YbMn 2 Ge 2 has a planar antiferromagnetic structure below T N1 ∼ 510 K with a canted antiferromagnetic structure below T N2 ∼ 185 K. As applied pressure favours changes in the valence character of intermediate valence systems and correspondingly influences the magnetic behaviour, we have investigated the effects of applied pressure on YbMn 2 Ge 2 . Analyses of our in situ neutron diffraction experiments (T=1.5-300 K; p=0-2.7 GPa), reveal a distinct change in magnetic structure and a sharp drop in the a-lattice parameter above ∼ 1.4 GPa with the changes associated with a valence transition. A full account of these effects will be discussed in relation to our current photoelectron spectroscopy measurements of YbMn 2 Ge 2 . (authors)

  11. Crossover and valence band Kβ X-rays of chromium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazinic, Stjepko; Mandic, Luka; Kavcic, Matjaz; Bozicevic, Iva

    2011-01-01

    Kβ X-ray spectra of chromium metal and selected chromium oxides were measured twice using medium resolution flat crystal spectrometer and high resolution spectrometer employing Johansson geometry after excitation with 2 MeV proton beams. The positions and intensities of crossover (Kβ'') and valence (Kβ 2,5 ) band X-rays relative to the primary Kβ X-ray components were extracted in a consistent way. The results were compared with the existing data obtained by proton and photon induced ionization mechanisms and theoretical predictions. The obtained results in peak relative positions and intensities were analyzed in order to study dependence on the chromium oxidation states and chromium-oxygen bond lengths in selected chromium oxides. Our results obtained by both spectrometers confirm that the linear trend observed for the valence peak relative energy shift as a function of chromium oxidation number does not depend on the experimental resolution. Experimental results for normalized intensities (i.e. relative intensities divided with the number of chromium-oxygen pairs) of crossover and valence band X-rays obtained by both spectrometers are in very good agreement, and follow exponential relationship with the average Cr-O bond lengths in corresponding chromium oxides. The observed trends in crossover and valence X-rays normalized intensities could be used to measure the average chromium-oxygen bond length in various chromium oxides, with the sum of both crossover and valence X-ray normalized intensities being the most sensitive measure.

  12. The influence of valence and arousal on reasoning: Affective priming in the semantic verification task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlić Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of affective valence and arousal on the reasoning process. Reasoning was measured using a semantic verification task and the influence of valence and arousal was tracked using the affective priming paradigm. Primes were photographs varied on two dimensions - emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative and arousal (high, low. Forty-nine psychology students participated in the experiment. Results showed that reaction time needed for semantic verification was significantly faster for positive-high arousing in comparison to positive-low arousing condition and for neutral high arousing in comparison to neutral-low arousing condition, but there were no significant differences in negative low and high arousing conditions. Also, significant differences were found among all three valences in high arousing conditions and there were no such differences in low arousing conditions. These results reveal the importance of both arousal and valence in the research on the influence of emotions on the reasoning process. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179033

  13. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L. O.; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music. PMID:23882233

  14. The Relation Between Valence and Arousal in Subjective Experience Varies With Personality and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, Peter; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Yik, Michelle; Koval, Peter; Coosemans, Joachim; Zeng, Kevin J; Russell, James A

    2017-08-01

    While in general arousal increases with positive or negative valence (a so-called V-shaped relation), there are large differences among individuals in how these two fundamental dimensions of affect are related in people's experience. In two studies, we examined two possible sources of this variation: personality and culture. In Study 1, participants (Belgian university students) recalled a recent event that was characterized by high or low valence or arousal and reported on their feelings and their personality in terms of the Five-Factor Model. In Study 2, participants from Canada, China/Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and Spain reported on their feelings in a thin slice of time and on their personality. In Study 1, we replicated the V-shape as characterizing the relation between valence and arousal, and identified personality correlates of experiencing particular valence-arousal combinations. In Study 2, we documented how the V-shaped relation varied as a function of Western versus Eastern cultural background and personality. The results showed that the steepness of the V-shaped relation between valence and arousal increases with Extraversion within cultures, and with a West-East distinction between cultures. Implications for the personality-emotion link and research on cultural differences in affect are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Valence band variation in Si (110) nanowire induced by a covered insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Hua, Xu; Xiao-Yan, Liu; Yu-Hui, He; Gang, Du; Ru-Qi, Han; Jin-Feng, Kang; Chun, Fan; Ai-Dong, Sun

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we investigate strain effects induced by the deposition of gate dielectrics on the valence band structures in Si (110) nanowire via the simulation of strain distribution and the calculation of a generalized 6×6k·p strained valence band. The nanowire is surrounded by the gate dielectric. Our simulation indicates that the strain of the amorphous SiO 2 insulator is negligible without considering temperature factors. On the other hand, the thermal residual strain in a nanowire with amorphous SiO 2 insulator which has negligible lattice misfit strain pushes the valence subbands upwards by chemical vapour deposition and downwards by thermal oxidation treatment. In contrast with the strain of the amorphous SiO 2 insulator, the strain of the HfO 2 gate insulator in Si (110) nanowire pushes the valence subbands upwards remarkably. The thermal residual strain by HfO 2 insulator contributes to the up-shifting tendency. Our simulation results for valence band shifting and warping in Si nanowires can provide useful guidance for further nanowire device design. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  16. Music, Emotion and Time Perception: The influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIE eDROIT-VOLET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (< 2 s and long (> 2 s stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow (Experiment 1 or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces. The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant versus atonal (unpleasant versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  17. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L O; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  18. Verbal instructions targeting valence alter negative conditional stimulus evaluations (but do not affect reinstatement rates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Camilla C; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2018-02-01

    Negative conditional stimulus (CS) valence acquired during fear conditioning may enhance fear relapse and is difficult to remove as it extinguishes slowly and does not respond to the instruction that unconditional stimulus (US) presentations will cease. We examined whether instructions targeting CS valence would be more effective. In Experiment 1, an image of one person (CS+) was paired with an aversive US, while another (CS-) was presented alone. After acquisition, participants were given positive information about the CS+ poser and negative information about the CS- poser. Instructions reversed the pattern of differential CS valence present during acquisition and eliminated differential electrodermal responding. In Experiment 2, we compared positive and negative CS revaluation by providing positive/negative information about the CS+ and neutral information about CS-. After positive revaluation, differential valence was removed and differential electrodermal responding remained intact. After negative revaluation, differential valence was strengthened and differential electrodermal responding was eliminated. Unexpectedly, the instructions did not affect the reinstatement of differential electrodermal responding.

  19. Segregation of information about emotional arousal and valence in horse whinnies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefer, Elodie F; Maigrot, Anne-Laure; Mandel, Roi; Freymond, Sabrina Briefer; Bachmann, Iris; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-04-21

    Studying vocal correlates of emotions is important to provide a better understanding of the evolution of emotion expression through cross-species comparisons. Emotions are composed of two main dimensions: emotional arousal (calm versus excited) and valence (negative versus positive). These two dimensions could be encoded in different vocal parameters (segregation of information) or in the same parameters, inducing a trade-off between cues indicating emotional arousal and valence. We investigated these two hypotheses in horses. We placed horses in five situations eliciting several arousal levels and positive as well as negative valence. Physiological and behavioral measures collected during the tests suggested the presence of different underlying emotions. First, using detailed vocal analyses, we discovered that all whinnies contained two fundamental frequencies ("F0" and "G0"), which were not harmonically related, suggesting biphonation. Second, we found that F0 and the energy spectrum encoded arousal, while G0 and whinny duration encoded valence. Our results show that cues to emotional arousal and valence are segregated in different, relatively independent parameters of horse whinnies. Most of the emotion-related changes to vocalizations that we observed are similar to those observed in humans and other species, suggesting that vocal expression of emotions has been conserved throughout evolution.

  20. Optical investigation of the valency of Pr in Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, J.; Cardona, M.; Gopalan, S.; Habermeier, H.; Fuchs, D.

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the dependence of the visible-ultraviolet dielectric function of Y 1-x Pr x Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 on the Pr content x using rotating analyzer ellipsometry. Based on recently published band-structure calculations, we believe that the valency of Pr can be deduced from the optical properties in this spectral region. Interband transitions should shift to higher energies for Pr 4+ and to lower energies for Pr 3+ when compared to the optical spectra of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . In the case of tetravalent Pr ions, transitions into unoccupied Pr 5d levels should be observable. Since the experimental energies for interband transitions shift down with increasing x and no additional structure can be seen, we conclude that Pr is trivalent in Y 1-x Pr x Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7

  1. CASPR2 autoantibodies are raised during pregnancy in mothers of children with mental retardation and disorders of psychological development but not autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Ester; Jacobson, Leslie; Pedersen, Marianne Giørtz

    2017-01-01

    ) or CASPR2 antibodies (n=1) were identified in 5/11 (45.5%) women whose children were given a diagnosis of mild or unspecified mental retardation or disorders of psychological and motor development (collectively abbreviated as mental retardation and/or disorders of psychological development (MR...... a significantly higher frequency of CASPR2 antibodies in mothers of MD/DPD children (p=0.01). These autoantibodies were not increased in mothers of children with autistic spectrum disorder. CONCLUSIONS: These findings complement the known roles of CASPR2 in brain development, and warrant further epidemiological...

  2. A study of the valence shell photoelectron and photoabsorption spectra of CF3SF5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, D M P; Shaw, D A; Walker, I C; McEwen, I J; Apra, E; Guest, M F

    2005-01-01

    The outer valence shell photoelectron spectrum of CF 3 SF 5 has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Synchrotron radiation has been used to record angle-resolved outer valence shell photoelectron spectra of CF 3 SF 5 in the photon energy range 18-60 eV. These spectra have allowed photoelectron asymmetry parameters and branching ratios to be derived. The Outer Valence Green's Function approach has been employed to calculate the molecular orbital configuration and associated binding energies. A charge distribution analysis has also been obtained. Assignments have been proposed for the peaks observed in the photoelectron spectrum. The absolute photoabsorption cross section of CF 3 SF 5 has been measured from threshold to 40 eV, and strongly resembles that of SF 6 . Assignments, involving intravalence transitions, have been proposed for some of the principal features appearing in the photoabsorption spectrum of CF 3 SF 5

  3. Transfer of newly acquired stimulus valence between identities in dissociative identity disorder (DID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Peters, Madelon L; Postma, Albert; Woertman, Liesbeth; Effting, Marieke; van der Hart, Onno

    2005-02-01

    Patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) frequently report episodes of interidentity amnesia, that is amnesia for events experienced by other identities. The goal of the present experiment was to test the implicit transfer of trauma-related information between identities in DID. We hypothesized that whereas declarative information may transfer from one identity to another, the emotional connotation of the memory may be dissociated, especially in the case of negative, trauma-related emotional valence. An evaluative conditioning procedure was combined with an affective priming procedure, both performed by different identities. In the evaluative conditioning procedure, previously neutral stimuli come to refer to a negative or positive connotation. The affective priming procedure was used to test the transfer of this acquired valence to an identity reporting interidentity amnesia. Results indicated activation of stimulus valence in the affective priming task, that is transfer of emotional material between identities.

  4. Gastrointestinal absorption of large amounts of plutonium. Effect of valency state on transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lataillade, G.; Duserre, C.; Metivier, H.; Madic, C.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92

    1989-01-01

    The gastrointestinal absorption of Pu, ingested in valency state III, IV, V or VI was studied in baboons. For each state, the absorption of Pu from masses ranging from 1 to 7 mg per kg of body weight was compared with that from masses ranging from 5 to 45 μg per kg of body weight. The mass ingested did not affect the gastrointestinal absorption of Pu(IV) or PU(VI), but for Pu(V) and to a lesser extent Pu(III), absorption clearly increased about 150-fold and 7-fold respectively, when large masses of Pu were ingested. When small masses were ingested, the valency state did not affect absorption. The increased Pu absorption observed after ingestion of large masses of Pu(V) or (III) might be due to the weak hydrolysis of these valency states. (author)

  5. The role of valence focus and appraisal overlap in emotion differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas, Yasemin; Ceulemans, Eva; Koval, Peter; Kuppens, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Emotion differentiation refers to the level of specificity with which people distinguish between their emotional states and is considered to play an important role for psychological well-being. Yet, not much is known about what characterizes people high or low in emotion differentiation and what underlies these differences. In 2 studies involving experience sampling (Studies 1-2) and lab based (Study 2) methods, we investigated how emotion differentiation is related to individual differences in valence focus and the overlap in appraisal patterns between emotions. In line with expectations, results showed that high levels of both positive and negative emotion differentiation are related to lower levels of valence focus and lower levels of appraisal overlap between emotions. These findings suggest that individuals who are low in emotion differentiation mainly emphasize the valence aspect of emotions while individuals who are high in emotion differentiation make stronger distinctions between emotions in terms of their underlying appraisal profiles. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Electronic structures and valence band splittings of transition metals doped GaNs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Lee, Kyu-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    For a practical viewpoint, presence of spin splitting of valence band in host semiconductors by the doping of transition metal (TM) ions is an essential property when designing a diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) material. The first principle calculations were performed on the electronic and magnetic structure of 3d transition metal doped GaN. V, Cr, and Mn doped GaNs could not be candidates for DMS materials since most of their magnetic moments is concentrated on the TM ions and the splittings of valence band were negligible. In the cases of Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu doped GaNs, on the contrary, long-ranged spin splitting of valence band was found, which could be candidates for DMS materials

  7. Mixing positive and negative valence: Affective-semantic integration of bivalent words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Michael; Hofmann, Markus J; Briesemeister, Benny B; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2016-08-05

    Single words have affective and aesthetic properties that influence their processing. Here we investigated the processing of a special case of word stimuli that are extremely difficult to evaluate, bivalent noun-noun-compounds (NNCs), i.e. novel words that mix a positive and negative noun, e.g. 'Bombensex' (bomb-sex). In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment we compared their processing with easier-to-evaluate non-bivalent NNCs in a valence decision task (VDT). Bivalent NNCs produced longer reaction times and elicited greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) than non-bivalent words, especially in contrast to words of negative valence. We attribute this effect to a LIFG-grounded process of semantic integration that requires greater effort for processing converse information, supporting the notion of a valence representation based on associations in semantic networks.

  8. Yb valence state in Yb{sub 5}Rh{sub 4}Ge{sub 10}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Hitoshi; Arita, Masashi; Shimada, Kenya; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Utsumi, Yuki [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Katoh, Kenichi [Department of Applied Physics, National Defense Academy, Yokosuka (Japan); Mimura, Kojiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai (Japan); Ueda, Shigenori [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science, Hyogo (Japan); Quantum Beam Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Yamaoka, Hitoshi [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Hyogo (Japan); Rousuli, Awabaikeli [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Umeo, Kazunori [NBARD, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Temperature- and pressure-dependent Yb valence state in Yb{sub 5}Rh{sub 4}Ge{sub 10} has been investigated by means of Yb 3d hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES) and Yb L{sub 3} absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The mean Yb valence derived from the Yb 3d HAXPES is estimated to be ∝2.78 at 300 K and decreases to ∝2.74 at 20 K. On the other hand, the Yb valence deduced from the Yb L{sub 3} XAS at 300 K is almost constant with ∝2.81 in the pressure range between 9.2 and 34.7 GPa. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Name-valence and physical attractiveness in Facebook: their compensatory effects on friendship acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Kunz, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Name-valence and physical attractiveness have been shown to be associated with how people respond toward others, in that people judge and behave more positively toward individuals with positive names and individuals who are physically attractive. The present research examined whether Facebook users are more likely to accept friendship requests from other Facebook users with positive (relative to negative) names and who are physically attractive (relative to being moderately attractive). In fact, both name-valence and physical attractiveness affected friendship acceptance. Moreover, results revealed that name-valence can be compensated by physical attractiveness (and vice versa). Acceptance rates of requests from users with positive names who are moderately attractive, as well as requests from users with negative names who are attractive did not significantly differ from those with positive names who are attractive.

  10. fK /f{pi} in Full QCD with Domain Wall Valence Quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silas Beane; Paulo Bedaque; Konstantinos Orginos; Martin Savage

    2007-05-01

    We compute the ratio of pseudoscalar decay constants f{sub K}/f{sub {pi}} using domain-wall valence quarks and rooted improved Kogut-Susskind sea quarks. By employing continuum chiral perturbation theory, we extract the Gasser-Leutwyler low-energy constant L{sub 5}, and extrapolate f{sub K}/f{sub {pi}} to the physical point. We find: f{sub K}/f{sub {pi}} = 1.218 {+-} 0.002{sub -0.024}{sup +0.011} where the first error is statistical and the second error is an estimate of the systematic due to chiral extrapolation and fitting procedures. This value agrees within the uncertainties with the determination by the MILC collaboration, calculated using Kogut-Susskind valence quarks, indicating that systematic errors arising from the choice of lattice valence quark are small.

  11. Effects of self-relevant cues and cue valence on autobiographical memory specificity in dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Noboru; Mochizuki, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) is a characteristic memory bias observed in depression. To corroborate the capture hypothesis in the CaRFAX (capture and rumination, functional avoidance, executive capacity and control) model, we investigated the effects of self-relevant cues and cue valence on rAMS using an adapted Autobiographical Memory Test conducted with a nonclinical population. Hierarchical linear modelling indicated that the main effects of depression and self-relevant cues elicited rAMS. Moreover, the three-way interaction among valence, self-relevance, and depression scores was significant. A simple slope test revealed that dysphoric participants experienced rAMS in response to highly self-relevant positive cues and low self-relevant negative cues. These results partially supported the capture hypothesis in nonclinical dysphoria. It is important to consider cue valence in future studies examining the capture hypothesis.

  12. Orbital momentum distribution and binding energies for the complete valence shell of molecular bromine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, L.; Grisogono, A.M.; Weigold, E.

    1987-08-01

    The binding energy spectrum of Br 2 has been recorded in both the outer and inner valence regions using electron momentum spectroscopy. The measurements are compared with the results of several Green's function calculations using different approximations and based on both polarized and unpolarized wave functions. The inner valence region, observed for the first time, is found to exhibit complex structure that is shown to be due to many-body effects, thus indicating a breakdown of the simple MO picture for ionization in this region. Momentum distributions for the three outer valence orbitals are also measured and compared with spherically averaged calculations using the target Hartree-Fock and plane wave impulse approximations. The effect of polarization functions in the basis set is investigated. Orbital density maps in both momentum and position space have been calculated and compared with the experimental measurements

  13. Spin--orbit configuration-interaction study of valence and Rydberg states of LiBe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, M.M.; Ermler, W.C.; Kern, C.W.; Bondybey, V.E.

    1992-01-01

    Ab initio spin--orbit full configuration-interaction calculations in the context of relativistic effective core potentials are reported for the weakly bound metal dimer LiBe, a three-valence-electron system. The effects of basis set on the energies of valence and Rydberg states of the cluster are discussed, as are the effects of configuration space selection on the energy of the latter states. Results at the dissociative limit are compared to the experimental atomic spectra. Potential-energy curves and spectroscopic constants are presented for the ground state and fourteen excited states, which includes the Li and Be 2p valence states, the Li 3s, 3p, 3d, and 4s Rydberg states, as well as three low-lying states of the molecular cation

  14. The use of symmetrized valence and relative motion coordinates for crystal potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurry, H. L.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    1980-01-01

    Symmetrized valence coordinates are linear combinations of conventional valence coordinates which display the symmetry of a set of atoms bound by the valence bonds. Relative motion coordinates are relative translations, or relative rotations, of two or more strongly bonded groups of atoms among...... which relatively weak forces act. They are useful for expressing interactions between molecules in molecular crystals and should be chosen, also, to reflect the symmetry of the interacting groups. Since coordinates defined by these procedures possess elements of symmetry in common with the bonding...... interaction constants coupling coordinates of unlike symmetry with regard to the crystal point group are necessarily zero. They may be small, also, for coordinates which belong to different representations of the local symmetry when this is not the same as for the crystal. Procedures are given for defining...

  15. Time-resolved imaging of purely valence-electron dynamics during a chemical reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockett, Paul; Bisgaard, Christer Z.; Clarkin, Owen J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical reactions are manifestations of the dynamics of molecular valence electrons and their couplings to atomic motions. Emerging methods in attosecond science can probe purely electronic dynamics in atomic and molecular systems(1-6). By contrast, time-resolved structural-dynamics methods...... such as electron(7-10) or X-ray diffraction(11) and X-ray absorption(12) yield complementary information about the atomic motions. Time-resolved methods that are directly sensitive to both valence-electron dynamics and atomic motions include photoelectron spectroscopy(13-15) and high-harmonic generation(16......,17): in both cases, this sensitivity derives from the ionization-matrix element(18,19). Here we demonstrate a time-resolved molecular-frame photoelectron-angular-distribution (TRMFPAD) method for imaging the purely valence-electron dynamics during a chemical reaction. Specifically, the TRMFPADs measured during...

  16. Orbital momentum distributions and binding energies for the complete valence shell of molecular iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisogono, A.M.; Pascual, R.; Weigold, E.

    1988-03-01

    The complete valence shell binding energy spectrum (8-43eV) of I 2 has been measured by using electron momentum spectroscopy at 1000eV. The complete inner valence region, corresponding to ionization from the 10 σ u and 10 σ g orbitals, has been measured for the first time and shows extensive splitting of the ionization strength due to electron correlation effects in the ion. Many-body calculations using the Green's function method have been carried out and are compared with the data. Momentum distributions, measured in both the outer and inner valence regions, are compared with those given by SCF orbital wave functions calculated with a number of different basis sets. Computed orbital position and momentum density maps for oriented I 2 molecules are discussed in comparison with the measured and calculated spherically averaged momentum distributions

  17. Coincidence Doppler broadening study on hydrocarbons with pi and sigma valence electrons: positronium correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djourelov, N.; Suzuki, T.; Yu, R.S.; Ito, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) technique was applied to study the electron momentum distribution in anthracene, diphenyl, naphthalene, and polystyrene. A method for separation of the positron and positronium (Ps) components from the Doppler-broadened annihilation line (DBAL) was developed further to be applicable to hydrocarbons with different π and σ valence electron distributions. This method allows extraction of the electron momentum distribution (EMD) from DBAL for samples when Ps formation occurs. The annihilation on π valence electrons was detected as broadening of the EMD compared to that obtained for a polymer sample only with σ valence electrons. The broadening appeared as a significant change in the shape of the CDB ratio of the corresponding positronium-corrected curves: a slight enhancement above the unity line in the low-momentum region and a drop in the momentum region, 10-20x10 -3 m o c

  18. Flammability of Cellulose-Based Fibers and the Effect of Structure of Phosphorus Compounds on Their Flame Retardancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifah A. Salmeia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose fibers are promoted for use in various textile applications due their sustainable nature. Cellulose-based fibers vary considerably in their mechanical and flammability properties depending on their chemical composition. The chemical composition of a cellulose-based fiber is further dependent on their source (i.e., seed, leaf, cane, fruit, wood, bast, and grass. Being organic in nature, cellulose fibers, and their products thereof, pose considerable fire risk. In this work we have compared the flammability properties of cellulose fibers obtained from two different sources (i.e., cotton and peat. Compared to cotton cellulose textiles, peat-based cellulose textiles burn longer with a prominent afterglow which can be attributed to the presence of lignin in its structure. A series of phosphoramidates were synthesized and applied on both cellulose textiles. From thermogravimetric and pyrolysis combustion flow analysis of the treated cellulose, we were able to relate the flame retardant efficacy of the synthesized phosphorus compounds to their chemical structure. The phosphoramidates with methyl phosphoester groups exhibited higher condensed phase flame retardant effects on both types of cellulose textiles investigated in this study. In addition, the bis-phosphoramidates exhibited higher flame retardant efficacy compared to the mono-phosphoramidates.

  19. STRUCTURE OF BODY DEFORMATIES AMONG PERSONS WITH MENTAL RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagoja GESHOSKI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to assess body structure deformities among people with mental retardation.Knowing the structure of people with mental retardation’s physical deformities is the starting basis of a quality program for preventive and corrective work. Also, it is a starting point in the process of special education and rehabilitation in regards to their removal and mitigation.The structure of the physical deformities among persons with mental retardation were analyzed in terms of age and degree of mental retardation in relation to everyday life activities.The inquiry covered 170 respondents with mental retardation in both sexes. All respondents were placed in an institution for treatment of persons with severe and profound mental retardation (Special Institute Deep River. On the basis of two criteria, participants are divided into groups. The first criterion forestablishing a group of level of mental retardation: Group I - severe mental retardation (TMR and Group II - profound mental retardation (DMR. A second criterion for establishing the age group of respondents: Group I - age 18 years; Group II- Age 19 - 30 years and Group III - over 31 years. The structure of the physical deformities was analyzed in terms of age and degree of mental retardation in relation to activities in everyday life.For the purposes of the planned research , an integral protocol is established for the evaluation of physical deformities among persons with disabilities, including: an application form for general information about the respondents, a questionnaire to assess somatic status, and a clinical sheet and test activities in everyday life (Test ASZH, Rusk, 1971. All data obtained by the research are expressed quantitatively and treated with the following statistical methods and procedures: number of repetitions, frequency and percentages, measure of central tendency, the arithmetic mean and standard deviation, χ2 and Fisher Exact - test

  20. Durable flame retardant finish for silk fabric using boron hybrid silica sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiang-hua; Gu, Jiali; Chen, Guo-qiang [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University (China); Xing, Tie-ling, E-mail: xingtieling@suda.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University (China); Jiangsu HuaJia Group (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Highly homogeneous boron hybrid silica sol flame retardant system was prepared through sol-gel method. • The silk samples treated and cross-linked by this hybrid sol and BTCA solution showed a higher limiting oxygen index (LOI) more than 31.0% and a better washing durability for more than 30 times washing. • The smoke suppression, combustion performance and thermal stability properties of the treated samples have a significant improvement. - Abstract: A hybrid silica sol was prepared via sol gel method using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as a precursor and boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) as flame retardant additive and then applied to silk fabric. In order to endow silk fabric with durable flame retardancy, 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) was used as cross-linking agent for the sake of strong linkage formation between the hybrid silica sol and silk fabric. The FT-IR and XPS analysis demonstrated the Si-O-B formation in the sol system, as well as the linkage between the sol and silk after the treatment. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) and smoke density test indicated good flame retardancy and smoke suppression of the treated silk fabrics. The micro calorimeter combustion (MCC) test and thermo gravimetric (TG) analysis showed that the treated samples had less weight loss in the high temperature and lower heat release rate when burning. The washing durability evaluation results indicated that there was a distinct improvement for the silk samples treated with BTCA even after 30 times washing. In addition, the influence of the processing order of BTCA and silica sol treatment on the limiting oxygen index (LOI) of the finished silk fabric was also investigated. And the results demonstrated that the sample treated with BTCA first and then with the silica sol exhibited better LOI value (32.3%) than that of the sample by the conversed treatment order. Moreover the tensile property of treated samples was nearly unchanged, but the handle of sol treated