WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher valency retards

  1. Non-classical behaviour of higher valence dopants in chromium (III) oxide by a Cr vacancy compensation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John J.; Nolan, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Modification of metal oxides with dopants that have a stable oxidation in their parent oxides which is higher than the host system is expected to introduce extra electrons into the material to improve carrier mobility. This is essential for applications in catalysis, SOFCs and solar energy materials. Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the change in electronic and geometric structure of chromium (III) oxide by higher valence dopants, namely; Ce, Ti, V and Zr. For single metal doping, we find that the dopants with variable oxidation states, Ce, Ti and V, adopt a valence state of  +3, while Zr dopant has a  +4 oxidation state and reduces a neighbouring Cr cation. Chromium vacancy formation is greatly enhanced for all dopants, and favoured over oxygen vacancy formation. The Cr vacancies generate holes which oxidise Ce, Ti and V from  +3 to  +4, while also oxidising lattice oxygen sites. For Zr doping, the generated holes oxidise the reduced Cr2+ cation back to Cr3+ and also two lattice oxygen atoms. Three metal atoms in the bulk lattice facilitate spontaneous Cr vacancy from charge compensation. A non-classical compensation mechanism is observed for Ce, Ti and V; all three metals are oxidised from  +3 to  +4, which explains experimental observations that these metals have a  +4 oxidation state in Cr2O3. Charge compensation of the three Zr metals proceeds by a classical higher valence doping mechanism; the three dopants reduce three Cr cations, which are subsequently charge compensated by a Cr vacancy oxidising three Cr2+ to Cr3+. The compensated structures are the correct ground state electronic structure for these doped systems, and used as a platform to investigate cation/anion vacancy formation. Unlike the single metal doped bulks, preference is now given for oxygen vacancy formation over Cr vacancy formation, indicating that the dopants increase the reducibility of Cr2O3 with Ce doping showing the strongest

  2. Research Update: Retardation and acceleration of phase separation evaluated from observation of imbalance between structure and valence in LiFePO4/FePO4 electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Tokuda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available LiFePO4 is a potential positive electrode material for lithium ion batteries. We have experimentally observed an imbalance between the valence change of Fe ions and the structure change from the LiFePO4 phase to the FePO4 phase during delithiation by simultaneous in situ XRD and XANES measurements in an LiFePO4/FePO4 electrode. The ratio of structure change to valence change clearly indicates that the phase separation from LiFePO4 to FePO4 is suppressed at the beginning of delithiation, while it is accelerated at the latter stage, which is due to the coherent strain caused by the lattice misfit between the two phases.

  3. Levels of valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera eShuman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between the positive and the negative is fundamental in our emotional life. In appraisal theories, in particular in the component process model of emotion (Scherer, 1984, 2010, qualitatively different types of valence are proposed based on appraisals of (unpleasantness, goal obstructiveness/conduciveness, low or high power, self- (incongruence, and moral badness/goodness. This multifaceted conceptualization of valence is highly compatible with the frequent observation of mixed feelings in real life. However, it seems to contradict the one-dimensional conceptualization of valence often encountered in psychological theories, and the notion of valence as a common currency used to explain choice behavior. Here, we propose a framework to integrate the seemingly disparate conceptualizations of multifaceted valence and one-dimensional valence by suggesting that valence should be conceived at different levels, micro and macro. Micro-valences correspond to qualitatively different types of evaluations, potentially resulting in mixed feelings, whereas one-dimensional macro-valence corresponds to an integrative common currency to compare alternatives for choices. We propose that conceptualizing levels of valence may focus research attention on the mechanisms that relate valence at one level (micro to valence at another level (macro, leading to new hypotheses and addressing various concerns that have been raised about the valence concept, such as the valence-emotion relation.

  4. Biological Factors in Mild Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costeff, H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Children (N=434) with nonsyndromic mental retardation were analysed for frequency of prenatal, perinatal and infantile biological disturbances. Mildly retarded individuals of unrelated parentage, both idiopathic and familial, had a strikingly higher prevalence of disturbances than a control group of retarded individuals with consanguineous parents…

  5. Valency and molecular structure

    CERN Document Server

    Cartmell, E

    1977-01-01

    Valency and Molecular Structure, Fourth Edition provides a comprehensive historical background and experimental foundations of theories and methods relating to valency and molecular structures. In this edition, the chapter on Bohr theory has been removed while some sections, such as structures of crystalline solids, have been expanded. Details of structures have also been revised and extended using the best available values for bond lengths and bond angles. Recent developments are mostly noted in the chapter on complex compounds, while a new chapter has been added to serve as an introduction t

  6. Perception of emotional valence in horse whinnies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefer, Elodie F; Mandel, Roi; Maigrot, Anne-Laure; Briefer Freymond, Sabrina; Bachmann, Iris; Hillmann, Edna

    2017-01-01

    Non-human animals often produce different types of vocalisations in negative and positive contexts (i.e. different valence), similar to humans, in which crying is associated with negative emotions and laughter is associated with positive ones. However, some types of vocalisations (e.g. contact calls, human speech) can be produced in both negative and positive contexts, and changes in valence are only accompanied by slight structural differences. Although such acoustically graded signals associated with opposite valence have been highlighted in some species, it is not known if conspecifics discriminate them, and if contagion of emotional valence occurs as a result. We tested whether domestic horses perceive, and are affected by, the emotional valence of whinnies produced by both familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics. We measured physiological and behavioural reactions to whinnies recorded during emotionally negative (social separation) and positive (social reunion) situations. We show that horses perceive acoustic cues to both valence and familiarity present in whinnies. They reacted differently (respiration rate, head movements, height of the head and latency to respond) to separation and reunion whinnies when produced by familiar, but not unfamiliar individuals. They were also more emotionally aroused (shorter inter-pulse intervals and higher locomotion) when hearing unfamiliar compared to familiar whinnies. In addition, the acoustic parameters of separation and reunion whinnies affected the physiology and behaviour of conspecifics in a continuous way. However, we did not find clear evidence for contagion of emotional valence. Horses are thus able to perceive changes linked to emotional valence within a given vocalisation type, similar to perception of affective prosody in humans. Whinnies produced in either separation or reunion situations seem to constitute acoustically graded variants with distinct functions, enabling horses to increase their apparent vocal

  7. Voiding dysfunctions in children with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Yu; Meng, Nai-Hsin; Chou, Eric Chieh-lung

    2010-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the voiding disorder and lower urinary tract symptoms in mentally retarded children. Fifty-one mentally retarded children (age 7.7 years) was assessed. A volunteer sample comprised of 36 typically developing children (age 6.4 years) served as the comparative group. All participants underwent uroflometric investigation, and residual urine was detected by sonography. Urological history including history of urinary tract infection, incontinence, frequency, and dysurea was collected. In addition, the mentally retarded group was classified according to IQ: severe mentally retarded group (IQ below 40) (n = 11), moderate mentally retarded group (IQ: 41 to 55) (n = 19), mild mentally retarded group (IQ: 56 to 70) (n = 21). Group comparisons were analyzed using Chi-square and Student's t-test. Of the 51 mentally retarded children, 18(35.2%) were found to have voiding dysfunction, which is significantly higher than the control group (8.3%). The incidence of urine incontinence and frequency is also significantly higher in the mentally retarded group. The comparison of the three mentally retarded subgroups showed that the severe mentally retarded group had the highest incidence of voiding dysfunction and urinary incontinence. Overall, the mentally retarded group had higher percentage of small bladder capacity. We concluded that mentally retarded children have a higher incidence of voiding dysfunction and incontinence than the control group. Early detection of voiding dysfunction in an objective, non-invasive manner is important in mentally retarded children, particularly those with severe cognitive impairment. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Study on etiological factors on mental retardation in Kathmandu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Kajal; Aryal, Umesh

    2003-06-01

    The study of etiological factors on mental retardation was conducted at family counselling and resource school of Association of Welfare of Menta+lly Retarded (AWMR), Hattisar, Kathmandu. A total of 91 mental retarded cases were studied in the year 2000 and 2001 for etiological factors. The present study shows significant relationship of mental retardation and age in both the year. The higher rate of mental retardation in the 0 to 5 years age group in both the year. About 70.0% with mental retardation (MR) are first born babies in both the year. Majority of the families have unfavourable attitude towards the mentally retarded individual.

  9. Supplemental Upward Lighting from Underneath to Obtain Higher Marketable Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Leaf Fresh Weight by Retarding Senescence of Outer Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Shen, Shanqi; Takagaki, Michiko; Kozai, Toyoki; Yamori, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the so-called “plant factory with artificial lighting” (PFAL) approach has been developed to provide safe and steady food production. Although PFALs can produce high-yielding and high-quality plants, the high plant density in these systems accelerates leaf senescence in the bottom (or outer) leaves owing to shading by the upper (or inner) leaves and by neighboring plants. This decreases yield and increases labor costs for trimming. Thus, the establishment of cultivation methods to retard senescence of outer leaves is an important research goal to improve PFAL yield and profitability. In the present study, we developed an LED lighting apparatus that would optimize light conditions for PFAL cultivation of a leafy vegetable. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was hydroponically grown under white, red, or blue LEDs, with light provided from above (downward), with or without supplemental upward lighting from underneath the plant. White LEDs proved more appropriate for lettuce growth than red or blue LEDs, and the supplemental lighting retarded the senescence of outer leaves and decreased waste (i.e., dead or low-quality senescent leaves), leading to an improvement of the marketable leaf fresh weight. PMID:26697055

  10. Supplemental Upward Lighting from Underneath to Obtain Higher Marketable Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Leaf Fresh Weight by Retarding Senescence of Outer Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Shen, Shanqi; Takagaki, Michiko; Kozai, Toyoki; Yamori, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the so-called "plant factory with artificial lighting" (PFAL) approach has been developed to provide safe and steady food production. Although PFALs can produce high-yielding and high-quality plants, the high plant density in these systems accelerates leaf senescence in the bottom (or outer) leaves owing to shading by the upper (or inner) leaves and by neighboring plants. This decreases yield and increases labor costs for trimming. Thus, the establishment of cultivation methods to retard senescence of outer leaves is an important research goal to improve PFAL yield and profitability. In the present study, we developed an LED lighting apparatus that would optimize light conditions for PFAL cultivation of a leafy vegetable. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was hydroponically grown under white, red, or blue LEDs, with light provided from above (downward), with or without supplemental upward lighting from underneath the plant. White LEDs proved more appropriate for lettuce growth than red or blue LEDs, and the supplemental lighting retarded the senescence of outer leaves and decreased waste (i.e., dead or low-quality senescent leaves), leading to an improvement of the marketable leaf fresh weight.

  11. Supplemental upward lighting from underneath to obtain higher marketable lettuce (Lactuca sativa leaf fresh weight by retarding senescence of outer leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng eZhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the so-called plant factory with artificial lighting (PFAL approach has been developed to provide safe and steady food production. Although PFALs can produce high-yielding and high-quality plants, the high plant density in these systems accelerates leaf senescence in the bottom (or outer leaves owing to shading by the upper (or inner leaves and by neighboring plants. This decreases yield and increases labor costs for trimming. Thus, the establishment of cultivation methods to retard senescence of outer leaves is an important research goal to improve PFAL yield and profitability. In the present study, we developed an LED lighting apparatus that would optimize light conditions for PFAL cultivation of a leafy vegetable. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. was hydroponically grown under white, red, or blue LEDs, with light provided from above (downward, with or without supplemental upward lighting from underneath the plant. White LEDs proved more appropriate for lettuce growth than red or blue LEDs, and the supplemental lighting retarded the senescence of outer leaves and decreased waste (i.e., dead or low-quality senescent leaves, leading to an improvement of the marketable leaf fresh weight.

  12. Toward Chemical Accuracy in ab Initio Thermochemistry and Spectroscopy of Lanthanide Compounds: Assessing Core-Valence Correlation, Second-Order Spin-Orbit Coupling, and Higher Order Effects in Lanthanide Diatomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonik, Victor G; Smirnov, Alexander N

    2017-11-14

    The higher order (HO) correlation beyond the coupled-cluster single double (triple) CCSD(T) level of theory, second-order spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and core-valence (CV) correlation effects on bond length, re, vibrational frequency, ωe, and dissociation energy, De, are studied for a set of 17 lanthanide containing diatomics, including lanthanum, europium, ytterbium, and lutetium oxides and halides. Convergence in the magnitudes of the SOC, CV, and HO corrections with respect to basis set size is examined using a sequence of double, triple, and quadruple-ζ basis sets, with the complete basis set (CBS) limit estimates provided in most cases. The CV effects on De, re, and ωe are calculated to amount up to 1.3 kcal·mol(-1), 0.008 Å, and 5 cm(-1), respectively. A detailed analysis of the origin of the CV effect with a particular accounting for various subvalence shells reveals that, generally, the Ln 4d correlation makes a major contribution, although in some instances the lower-lying 4sp shells contribute largely and even more substantially than 4d. The second-order SOC effect evaluated via two-component and four-component relativistic techniques proves to be non-negligible, especially for heavier species, e.g., LaI, in which it is as large as 0.8 kcal·mol(-1) in De, 0.002 Å in re, and 1.3 cm(-1) in ωe. Higher order correlation effects assessed through the CCSDT(Q) level are mostly less than 0.8 kcal·mol(-1), 0.004 Å, and 5 cm(-1); however, in species with prominence of nondynamical correlation, e.g., EuO, YbF, and LuO, the HO correction can amount to 1.2-1.6 kcal·mol(-1), 0.005-0.008 Å, and 8-30 cm(-1) in De, re, and ωe, respectively. In general, the [CCSD(T)+CV]/CBS + SOC + HO composite results are in good agreement with the available experimental data, exhibiting a mean absolute deviation of 1.8 kcal·mol(-1) in De, 0.0023 Å in re, and 3.5 cm(-1) in ωe. A significant experimental outlier, the bond length in YbI, is revealed, implying the need for re

  13. Valenced Cues and Contexts Have Different Effects on Event-Based Prospective Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Graf; Martin Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the separate influence and joint influences on event-based prospective memory task performance due to the valence of cues and the valence of contexts. We manipulated the valence of cues and contexts with pictures from the International Affective Picture System. The participants, undergraduate students, showed higher performance when neutral compared to valenced pictures were used for cueing prospective memory. In addition, neutral pictures were more effective as cues when ...

  14. Atomic valence in molecular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, R. C.; Lain, L.; Torre, A.

    2003-06-01

    Atomic valence in molecular systems is described as a partitioning of the hole distribution, the complementary part of the particle distribution. In this scheme, valence splits into three contributions, related to electron spin density, nonuniform occupancy of orbitals (nonpairing terms) and exchange density (pairing terms), respectively, and whose importance depends on the nature of the state of the system. Calculations carried out for correlated CI and Hartree-Fock state functions in both Mulliken and topological AIM type partitionings as well as theoretical results show the suitability of this formulation for describing valence concepts.

  15. Valence-Dependent Belief Updating: Computational Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Kuzmanovic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available People tend to update beliefs about their future outcomes in a valence-dependent way: they are likely to incorporate good news and to neglect bad news. However, belief formation is a complex process which depends not only on motivational factors such as the desire for favorable conclusions, but also on multiple cognitive variables such as prior beliefs, knowledge about personal vulnerabilities and resources, and the size of the probabilities and estimation errors. Thus, we applied computational modeling in order to test for valence-induced biases in updating while formally controlling for relevant cognitive factors. We compared biased and unbiased Bayesian models of belief updating, and specified alternative models based on reinforcement learning. The experiment consisted of 80 trials with 80 different adverse future life events. In each trial, participants estimated the base rate of one of these events and estimated their own risk of experiencing the event before and after being confronted with the actual base rate. Belief updates corresponded to the difference between the two self-risk estimates. Valence-dependent updating was assessed by comparing trials with good news (better-than-expected base rates with trials with bad news (worse-than-expected base rates. After receiving bad relative to good news, participants' updates were smaller and deviated more strongly from rational Bayesian predictions, indicating a valence-induced bias. Model comparison revealed that the biased (i.e., optimistic Bayesian model of belief updating better accounted for data than the unbiased (i.e., rational Bayesian model, confirming that the valence of the new information influenced the amount of updating. Moreover, alternative computational modeling based on reinforcement learning demonstrated higher learning rates for good than for bad news, as well as a moderating role of personal knowledge. Finally, in this specific experimental context, the approach based on

  16. Valenced cues and contexts have different effects on event-based prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Peter; Yu, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the separate influence and joint influences on event-based prospective memory task performance due to the valence of cues and the valence of contexts. We manipulated the valence of cues and contexts with pictures from the International Affective Picture System. The participants, undergraduate students, showed higher performance when neutral compared to valenced pictures were used for cueing prospective memory. In addition, neutral pictures were more effective as cues when they occurred in a valenced context than in the context of neutral pictures, but the effectiveness of valenced cues did not vary across contexts that differed in valence. The finding of an interaction between cue and context valence indicates that their respective influence on event-based prospective memory task performance cannot be understood in isolation from each other. Our findings are not consistent with by the prevailing view which holds that the scope of attention is broadened and narrowed, respectively, by positively and negatively valenced stimuli. Instead, our findings are more supportive of the recent proposal that the scope of attention is determined by the motivational intensity associated with valenced stimuli. Consistent with this proposal, we speculate that the motivational intensity associated with different retrieval cues determines the scope of attention, that contexts with different valence values determine participants' task engagement, and that prospective memory task performance is determined jointly by attention scope and task engagement.

  17. Valenced cues and contexts have different effects on event-based prospective memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Graf

    Full Text Available This study examined the separate influence and joint influences on event-based prospective memory task performance due to the valence of cues and the valence of contexts. We manipulated the valence of cues and contexts with pictures from the International Affective Picture System. The participants, undergraduate students, showed higher performance when neutral compared to valenced pictures were used for cueing prospective memory. In addition, neutral pictures were more effective as cues when they occurred in a valenced context than in the context of neutral pictures, but the effectiveness of valenced cues did not vary across contexts that differed in valence. The finding of an interaction between cue and context valence indicates that their respective influence on event-based prospective memory task performance cannot be understood in isolation from each other. Our findings are not consistent with by the prevailing view which holds that the scope of attention is broadened and narrowed, respectively, by positively and negatively valenced stimuli. Instead, our findings are more supportive of the recent proposal that the scope of attention is determined by the motivational intensity associated with valenced stimuli. Consistent with this proposal, we speculate that the motivational intensity associated with different retrieval cues determines the scope of attention, that contexts with different valence values determine participants' task engagement, and that prospective memory task performance is determined jointly by attention scope and task engagement.

  18. Training the Difficult Retardate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Beth, Ed.; And Others

    Described is a 1972 workshop designed to train Pennsylvania personnel in assessing and programing for low functioning or difficult retardates. State legislation dealing with education of the retarded is reviewed. Considered are assessment techniques in the following areas: motor, communication, cognitive, and social-emotional development and…

  19. Vignettes in Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1983-01-01

    The use of the family history chart and the "Binet-Simon Scale" to study mental retardation in the early 20th century are considered, along with the implications of this practice. With the thesis that mental retardation was primarily familial and hereditary, limiting reproduction and segregation were viewed as appropriate approaches.…

  20. Mental Retardation: Construction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.

    Federally funded construction programs for the retarded included are the following: 12 research centers in which biological, medical, social, and behavioral research is conducted to investigate the causes and prevention of mental retardation; 18 university-affiliated facilities for inter-disciplinary training of professional and technical…

  1. [Obstetric management of intrauterine fetal growth retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frundeva, B

    2009-01-01

    The intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) takes second position after the premature births as an cause for neonate with smaller weight for it's gestational age. Perinatal morbidity of retard children is important, but perinatal mortality is about eight times higher then normal weighted neonates. It is very important to make the right diagnosis of IUGR, the cause of their illness, the therapy they need and when it's necessary to find the right time, place and way of birth. The prognosis of physical and neuropsychical health of retard children is unfavorable.

  2. The valence of small fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, C.; Giambelli, C.; Roman, H. E.; Alasia, F.; Benedek, G.; Broglia, R. A.; Sanguinetti, S.; Yabana, K.

    1996-08-01

    The production and isolation of small fullerenes and of their stable compounds and the knowledge of their chemistry should pave the way to the syntesis of novel carbon-based cluster-assembled materials like carbon clathrates, hollow diamonds and diamond-like thin films. In this quest, the knowledge of the valence of the small fullerenes is essential. We report here that the small fullerenes C n (20 ≤ n ≤ 32), aside from the well known values associated with the local one electron picture of dangling bonds, display hidden valences connected with the free electron picture of the shell structure of π-electrons.

  3. Consanguinity and familial mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhara Rama Rao, B S; Narayanan, H S

    1976-01-01

    Studies made in a group of patients with mental retardation showed that there was a high degree of parental consanguinity of the order of 30.3%. Index cases with parental consanguinity showed a relatively higher prevalence where more than one sib was affected. Cases with metabolic defects were also more common among cases with parental consanguinity. There is a need for studies in the general population in order to understand the biological significance of consanguinity. PMID:1271423

  4. Taboo, emotionally valenced, and emotionally neutral word norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janschewitz, Kristin

    2008-11-01

    Although taboo words are used to study emotional memory and attention, no easily accessible normative data are available that compare taboo, emotionally valenced, and emotionally neutral words on the same scales. Frequency, inappropriateness, valence, arousal, and imageability ratings for taboo, emotionally valenced, and emotionally neutral words were made by 78 native-English-speaking college students from a large metropolitan university. The valenced set comprised both positive and negative words, and the emotionally neutral set comprised category-related and category-unrelated words. To account for influences of demand characteristics and personality factors on the ratings, frequency and inappropriateness measures were decomposed into raters' personal reactions to the words versus raters' perceptions of societal reactions to the words (personal use vs. familiarity and offensiveness vs. tabooness, respectively). Although all word sets were rated higher in familiarity and tabooness than in personal use and offensiveness, these differences were most pronounced for the taboo set. In terms of valence, the taboo set was most similar to the negative set, although it yielded higher arousal ratings than did either valenced set. Imageability for the taboo set was comparable to that of both valenced sets. The ratings of each word are presented for all participants as well as for single-sex groups. The inadequacies of the application of normative data to research that uses emotional words and the conceptualization of taboo words as a coherent category are discussed. Materials associated with this article may be accessed at the Psychonomic Society's Archive of Norms, Stimuli, and Data, www.psychonomic.org/archive.

  5. Fire retardant formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions where a substrate is liable to catch fire such as bituminous products, paints, carpets or the like. The invention relates to a composition comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant such as bituminous material or paint......, carpets which substrate is mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant component. The invention relates to a fire retardant component comprising or being constituted of attapulgite, and a salt being a source of a blowing or expanding agent, where the attapulgite and the salt are electrostatically...... connected by mixing and subjecting the mixture of the two components to agitation. Also, the invention relates to compositions comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant according to claim 1 or 2, which fire retardant component...

  6. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  7. THE VALENCE OF CORPUSCULAR PROTEINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, M H; Mover, L S

    1942-07-20

    BY THE USE OF TWO EXTREME MODELS: a hydrated sphere and an unhydrated rod the valence (net charge) of corpuscular proteins can be successfully calculated from electric mobility data by the Debye-Hückel theory (modified to include the effect of the ions in the ion atmosphere) in conjunction with the electrophoretic theory of Henry. As pointed out by Abramson, this permits a comparison with values for the valence from titration data. Electrometric titration measurements of serum albumin B (Kekwick) have been determined at several ionic strengths. These results, together with the available data in the literature for serum albumin B, egg albumin, and beta-lactoglobulin have been used to compare values for the valence calculated from measurements of titration, electrophoresis, and membrane potentials. The results indicate that the usual interpretation of titration curves is open to serious question. By extrapolation of the titration data to zero ionic strength and protein concentration, there results an "intrinsic" net charge curve describing the binding of H(+) (OH(-)) ion alone. This curve agrees closely, in each case, with values of the valence calculated from mobility data (which in turn are in close accord with those estimated from membrane potential measurements). The experimental titration curves in the presence of appreciable quantities of ions and protein deviate widely from the ideal curve. It is suggested that, under these conditions, binding of undissociated acid (base) leads to erroneous values for the net charge. This binding would not affect the electrophoretic mobility. Values of the net charge obtained by the two extreme models from electrophoretic data are in agreement within 15 to 20 per cent. The agreement between the cylindrical model and the titration data is somewhat better in each case than with the sphere; i.e., this comparison enables a choice to be made between asymmetry and hydration in the interpretation of results from sedimentation and

  8. Flame Retardation Modification of Paper-Based PVC Wallcoverings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flame-retarded paper-based polyvinyl chloride (PVC wallcoverings were successfully prepared, using plant fiber paper as base material and adding inorganic flame retardants and flame-retarded plasticizer as additives. Flame retardancy, thermostability, smoke suppression and mechanical properties were tested regarding to the prepared wallcoverings. The results showed that 2ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O could improve flame retardancy and thermostability of paper-based PVC wallcoverings; plasticizer tricresyl phosphate increased flame retardancy of the prepared materials auxiliarily. Also, flame-retarded paper-based PVC wallcoverings with higher flame retardancy, smoke suppression and mechanical property was prepared using plant fiber paper with fix quantity of 90 g/m3 as base material, using 2ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O as inorganic flame retardant, and using tricresyl phosphate as plasticizer. For the flame-retarded paper-based PVC wallcoverings in this study, the limit oxygen index (LOI reaches 32.3, maximal smoke density is 16.91 %, and the horizontal and longitudinal wet tensile strength reaches 1.38 kN·m−1 and 1.51 kN·m−1 respectively. Meanwhile, its flame retardancy meets the requirements about flame retardancy for material Class B1 listed in Chinese National Standards GB 8624-2012, Classification for burning behavior of building materials and products. This research creates an effective path to prepare paper-based PVC wallcoverings with high flame retardancy.

  9. Influence of emotional valence and arousal on the spread of activation in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhean-Larose, Sandra; Leveau, Nicolas; Denhière, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Controversy still persists on whether emotional valence and arousal influence cognitive activities. Our study sought to compare how these two factors foster the spread of activation within the semantic network. In a lexical decision task, prime words were varied depending on the valence (pleasant or unpleasant) or on the level of emotional arousal (high or low). Target words were carefully selected to avoid semantic priming effects, as well as to avoid arousing specific emotions (neutral). Three SOA durations (220, 420 and 720 ms) were applied across three independent groups. Results indicate that at 220 ms, the effect of arousal is significantly higher than the effect of valence in facilitating spreading activation while at 420 ms, the effect of valence is significantly higher than the effect of arousal in facilitating spreading activation. These findings suggest that affect is a sequential process involving the successive intervention of arousal and valence.

  10. Mental Retardation. ERIC Digest #423.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    A brief overview of mental retardation defines the concept, discusses incidence in the general population, describes characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, and discusses educational implications. References for further reading, as well as organizational resources, are provided. (JW)

  11. Unveiling causes for growth retardation in piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredes Escobar, S.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of hyper‐prolific sow breeds has led to a higher number of piglets born per sow per year. This increase in litter size has enlarged the number of light weight (or growth retarded) piglets, increased pre‐weaning mortality and heterogeneity at the end of the nursery phase (ten weeks of

  12. Valence-Bond Theory and Chemical Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Douglas J.; Trinajstic, Nenad

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the importance of valence bond theory on the quantum-mechanical theory of chemical structure and the nature of the chemical bond. Described briefly are early VB theory, development of VB theory, modern versions, solid-state applications, models, treatment in textbooks, and flaws in criticisms of valence bond theory. (KR)

  13. Fire and smoke retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  14. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  15. Valence evaluation with approaching or withdrawing cues: directly testing valence-arousal conflict theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Mei; Li, Ting; Li, Lin

    2017-07-19

    The valence-arousal conflict theory assumes that both valence and arousal will trigger approaching or withdrawing tendencies. It also predicts that the speed of processing emotional stimuli will depend on whether valence and arousal trigger conflicting or congruent motivational tendencies. However, most previous studies have provided evidence of the interaction between valence and arousal only, and have not provided direct proof of the interactive links between valence, arousal and motivational tendencies. The present study provides direct evidence for the relationship between approach-withdrawal tendencies and the valence-arousal conflict. In an empirical test, participants were instructed to judge the valence of emotional words after visual-spatial cues that appeared to be either approaching or withdrawing from participants. A three-way interaction (valence, arousal, and approach-withdrawal tendency) was observed such that the response time was shorter if participants responded to a negative high-arousal stimulus after a withdrawing cue, or to a positive low-arousal stimulus after an approaching cue. These findings suggest that the approach-withdrawal tendency indeed plays a crucial role in valence-arousal conflict, and that the effect depends on the congruency of valence, arousal and tendency at an early stage of processing.

  16. On triangle meshes with valence dominant vertices

    KAUST Repository

    Morvan, Jean-Marie

    2018-02-16

    We study triangulations $\\\\cal T$ defined on a closed disc $X$ satisfying the following condition: In the interior of $X$, the valence of all vertices of $\\\\cal T$ except one of them (the irregular vertex) is $6$. By using a flat singular Riemannian metric adapted to $\\\\cal T$, we prove a uniqueness theorem when the valence of the irregular vertex is not a multiple of $6$. Moreover, for a given integer $k >1$, we exhibit non isomorphic triangulations on $X$ with the same boundary, and with a unique irregular vertex whose valence is $6k$.

  17. Ab initio valence calculations in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, D B

    1974-01-01

    Ab Initio Valence Calculations in Chemistry describes the theory and practice of ab initio valence calculations in chemistry and applies the ideas to a specific example, linear BeH2. Topics covered include the Schrödinger equation and the orbital approximation to atomic orbitals; molecular orbital and valence bond methods; practical molecular wave functions; and molecular integrals. Open shell systems, molecular symmetry, and localized descriptions of electronic structure are also discussed. This book is comprised of 13 chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the use of the Schrödinge

  18. Photoion mass spectroscopy and valence photoionization of hypoxanthine, xanthine and caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyer, Vitaliy; Plekan, Oksana; Richter, Robert; Coreno, Marcello; Prince, Kevin C.

    2009-03-01

    Photoionization mass spectra of hypoxanthine, xanthine and caffeine were measured using the photoelectron-photoion coincidence technique and noble gas resonance radiation at energies from 8.4 to 21.2 eV for ionization. The fragmentation patterns for these compounds show that hydrogen cyanide is the main neutral loss species at higher photon energies, while photoionization below 16.67 eV led predominantly to the parent ion. The valence photoelectron spectra of this family of molecules were measured over an extended energy range, including the inner C, N and O 2s valence orbitals. The observed ion fragments were related to ionization of the valence orbitals.

  19. [Specific aspects of psychoses in mentally retarded children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Dusan; Bojanin, Svetomir; Kolar, Mila

    2003-01-01

    Mental retardation is a heterogenous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by arrested or incomplete psychological development. The first part of the study deals with psychological and biological factors: etiology and pathogenesis of mental retardation and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Their etiopathogenesis is similar as in other neurodevelopmental disorders and it was analyzed in the part dealing with biological specificities of persons with mental retardation. Numerous biopsycho-social factors cause increased vulnerability of the mentally retarded to development of mental disorders. Thus, prevalence of these disorders is higher in mentally retarded persons than in general population. This study also deals with specificities regarding diagnosis of psychotic disorders in mentally retarded persons as well as neurobiologic, epidemiologic, clinical and therapeutic characteristics of schizophrenic psychoses, autism and affective disorders in persons with mental retardation. Special emphasis was given to diagnostics of these disorders in mentally retarded children and adolescents, as well as to problems of differential diagnostics. Apart from other things, we have concluded that specific clinical pictures demand subspeciality approach in the frame of developmental psychiatry.

  20. Mental Retardation; A Basic Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Harold D., Ed.

    Designed as a guideline for parents and teachers, the book includes material prepared by the author as well as papers by others. Advice to parents and the emotional reactions and adjustment of parents are described. A historical survey of mental retardation is presented as are causes of retardation and current research in the field. The following…

  1. China's Approach to Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittman, Stephan

    History, tradition, culture, and superstition have played significant roles in influencing Chinese attitudes toward the mentally retarded. China's overwhelmingly rural, agricultural society has made it dependent upon a huge force of semi-skilled and unskilled labor, to which the retarded are capable of contribution. The stress on self-reliance,…

  2. Schizophrenia in the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menolascino, Frank J.

    The relationship between schizophrenia and mental retardation is examined. Historical associations between symptoms of the two disorders are reviewed, and a 3-year study of the incidence (14%) of mental illness in 798 retarded individuals in a community based program is described. Information on the etiological, developmental, and phenomenological…

  3. X-linked mental retardation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ropers, H.H.; Hamel, B.C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic factors have an important role in the aetiology of mental retardation. However, their contribution is often underestimated because in developed countries, severely affected patients are mainly sporadic cases and familial cases are rare. X-chromosomal mental retardation is the exception to

  4. Interplay of magnetism and valence instabilities in lanthanide systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The valence instability in lanthanide systems is described within an extended periodic Anderson Hamiltonian (EPAM which includes Coulomb repulsion between f- and conduction- electrons, allowing to describe both discontinuous and continuous valence variations. We investigate the connection between valence and magnetism in this model and show that it can be applied to several lanthanide compounds showing both magnetic and valence instabilities.

  5. Birth Order, Maternal Age, and Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternlicht, Manny; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Compared were the birth order, maternal age, and etiology of retardation in 309 institutionalized retarded persons (4-69 years old) and 69 retarded persons (3-62 years old) attending a private community center. (Author/CL)

  6. The Prevalence of Minor Physical Anomalies in Mentally Retarded Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ulovec, Z.; Škrinjarić, I.; Šošić, Z.; Szirovicza, L.; Jukić, J.

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of minor physical anomalies was examined in a sample of 109 children with idiopathic mental retardation (65 boys and 44 girls). Control group consisted of 246 healthy schoolchildren (123 boys and 123 girls) aged 8 to 12 years. A comparison was made between number of found minor anomalies per child (W1) and their Waldrop weight scores (W2) in healthy and mentally retarded (MR) children. The MR children were found to have a higher number of minor anomalies per chil...

  7. Generation of Kekule valence structures and the corresponding valence bond wave function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashid, Z.; van Lenthe, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    A new scheme, called “list of nonredundant bonds”, is presented to record the number of bonds and their positions for the atoms involved in Kekulé valence structures of (poly)cyclic conjugated systems. Based on this scheme, a recursive algorithm for generating Kekulé valence structures has been

  8. Ignition inhibitors for cellulosic materials. [Fire retardants; effects of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.J.

    1976-04-05

    By exposing samples to various irradiance levels from a calibrated thermal radiation source, the ignition responses of blackened alpha-cellulose and cotton cloth with and without fire-retardant additives were compared. Samples treated with retardant compounds which showed the most promise were then isothermally pyrolyzed in air for comparisons between the pyrolysis rates. Alpha-cellulose samples containing a mixture of boric acid, borax, and ammonium di-hydrogen phosphate could not be ignited by irradiances up to 4.0 cal cm/sup -2/ s-1 (16.7 W/cm/sup 2/). At higher irradiances the specimens ignited, but flaming lasted only until the flammable gases were depleted. Cotton cloth containing a polymeric retardant with the designation THPC + MM was found to be ignition-resistant to all irradiances below 7.0 cal cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ (29.3 W/cm/sup 2/). Comparison of the pyrolysis rates of the retardant-treated alpha-cellulose and the retardant-treated cotton showed that the retardant mechanism is qualitatively the same. Similar ignition-response measurements were also made with specimens exposed to ionizing radiation. It was observed that gamma radiation results in ignition retardance of cellulose, while irradiation by neutrons does not.

  9. Local Equilibrium and Retardation Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K; Vesselinov, Velimir V

    2018-01-01

    In modeling solute transport with mobile-immobile mass transfer (MIMT), it is common to use an advection-dispersion equation (ADE) with a retardation factor, or retarded ADE. This is commonly referred to as making the local equilibrium assumption (LEA). Assuming local equilibrium, Eulerian textbook treatments derive the retarded ADE, ostensibly exactly. However, other authors have presented rigorous mathematical derivations of the dispersive effect of MIMT, applicable even in the case of arbitrarily fast mass transfer. We resolve the apparent contradiction between these seemingly exact derivations by adopting a Lagrangian point of view. We show that local equilibrium constrains the expected time immobile, whereas the retarded ADE actually embeds a stronger, nonphysical, constraint: that all particles spend the same amount of every time increment immobile. Eulerian derivations of the retarded ADE thus silently commit the gambler's fallacy, leading them to ignore dispersion due to mass transfer that is correctly modeled by other approaches. We then present a particle tracking simulation illustrating how poor an approximation the retarded ADE may be, even when mobile and immobile plumes are continually near local equilibrium. We note that classic "LEA" (actually, retarded ADE validity) criteria test for insignificance of MIMT-driven dispersion relative to hydrodynamic dispersion, rather than for local equilibrium. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Affective Priming with Associatively Acquired Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Luis; Pierna, Manuel; Saugar, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the effect of affectively congruent or incongruent primes on evaluation responses to positive or negative valenced targets (the "affective priming" effect). Experiment 1 replicated the basic affective priming effect with Spanish nouns: reaction time for evaluative responses (pleasant/unpleasant) were slower on…

  11. Valence electronic state density in thorium dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teterin Anton Yu.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the fine low energy (0-40 eV X-ray photoelectron spectra of ThO2, taking into account relativistic Xα-discrete variation electronic structure calculations for the ThO8 (D4h cluster reflecting thorium's close environment in ThO2. As a result, it was theoretically shown and experimentally confirmed that Th5f electrons in ThO2 can participate directly (~0.6 Th5f electrons in chemical bond formation.Th6p electrons were shown to be a significant part (~0.44 Th6p electrons not only of inner valence molecular orbitals, but to play a significant role in outer valence molecular orbitals formation, as well. Inner valence molecular orbitals composition and sequent order were established to belong to the binding energy range of 13 eV to 40 eV. The valence electronic state density in the range of 0-40 eV in ThO2 was also calculated. For the first time, these data allowed an interpretation of the fine X-ray photoelectron spectra (0-40 eV and high resolution O4,5(Th X-ray emition spectral structure (~60 - ~85 eV of ThO2.

  12. Cesium's Off-the-Map Valence Orbital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goesten, Maarten G.; Rahm, Martin; Bickelhaupt, F. Matthias; Hensen, Emiel J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The Td-symmetric [CsO4]+ ion, featuring Cs in an oxidation state of 9, is computed to be a minimum. Cs uses outer core 5s and 5p orbitals to bind the oxygen atoms. The valence Cs 6s orbital lies too high to be involved in bonding, and contributes to Rydberg levels only. From a molecular orbital

  13. Reducing the negative valence of stressful memories through emotionally valenced, modality-specific tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadmor, Avia; McNally, Richard J; Engelhard, Iris M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: People who perform a cognitively demanding secondary task while recalling a distressing memory often experience the memory as less emotional, vivid, or accurate during subsequent recollections. In this experiment, we tested whether the emotional valence (positive versus

  14. The frequency of Toxocara infection in mental retarded children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kaplan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Human toxocariasis is commonly seen in places where stray and Toxocara canis-infected dog population is high. There is a strong correlation between frequency of Toxocara infection, life style, and infection risk. Institutionalization of mental retarded patients increases to risk of toxocariasis. In this study, we aimed at investigating the frequency of Toxocara infection among children with mental retardation not requiring institutionalization. The study included 96 cases, who had educatable mental retardation and 85 healthy subjects who comprised the control group. Anti-Toxocara IgG or IgM antibodies were investigated in all serum samples, using ELISA method. The frequency of Toxocara infection was found significantly higher in mental retarded cases than in those in the control group (18.8% and 7.1% respectively (p 0.05. We did not find any significant difference between Toxocara seropositive and seronegative mental retarded children in terms of demographic factors and epidemiological factors that could increase the risk of Toxocara infection (p > 0.05. The present study is the first seroprevalence study carried out with a mental retarded group not requiring institutionalization. Determination of high frequency of Toxocara infection suggests that these subjects constitute a risk factor for Toxocara infection, which may be attributed to their behavioural patterns.

  15. [Effects of postnatal growth retardation on early neurodevelopment in premature infants with intrauterine growth retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yue-Ju; Song, Yan-Yan; Huang, Zhi-Jian; Li, Jian; Qi, Jun-Ye; Xiao, Xu-Wen; Wang, Lan-Xiu

    2015-09-01

    To study the effects of postnatal growth retardation on early neurodevelopment in premature infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 171 premature infants who were born between May 2008 and May 2012 and were followed up until a corrected gestational age of 6 months. These infants were classified into two groups: IUGR group (n=40) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group (n=131). The growth retardation rates at the corrected gestational ages of 40 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months, as well as the neurodevelopmental outcome (evaluated by Gesell Developmental Scale) at corrected gestational ages of 3 and 6 months, were compared between the two groups. The growth retardation rate in the IUGR group was significantly higher than in the AGA group at the corrected gestational ages of 40 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. All five developmental quotients evaluated by Gesell Developmental Scale (gross motor, fine motor, language, adaptability and individuality) in the IUGR group were significantly lower than in the AGA group at the corrected gestational ages of 3 months. At the corrected gestational age of 6 months, the developmental quotients of fine motor and language in the IUGR group were significantly lower than in the AGA group, however, there were no significant differences in the developmental quotients of gross motor, adaptability and individuality between the two groups. All five developmental quotients in IUGR infants with catch-up lag in weight were significantly lower than in IUGR and AGA infants who had caught up well. Growth retardation at early postnatal stages may adversely affect the early neurodevelopment in infants with IUGR.

  16. Emotional reactivity to valence-loaded stimuli are related to treatment response of neurocognitive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Raedt, Rudi; Namur, Victoria; Valiengo, Leandro C L; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Baeken, Chris; Boggio, Paulo S; Brunoni, Andre R

    2016-01-15

    Emotional Context Insensitivity (ECI) is a psychological feature observed in depressed patients characterized by a decreased emotional reactivity when presented to positive- and negative valence-loaded stimuli. Given that fronto-cingulate-limbic circuits are implicated in abnormal reactivity to valence-loaded stimuli, neurocognitive treatments engaging the prefrontal cortex may be able to modulate this emotional blunting observed in MDD. Therefore, our goal was to evaluate emotional reactivity in depressed patients before and after a combination of neurocognitive interventions that engage the prefrontal cortex (cognitive control training and/or transcranial direct current stimulation). In line with the premises of the ECI framework, before the start of the antidepressant intervention, patients showed blunted emotional reactivity after exposure to negative valence-loaded stimuli. This emotional reactivity pattern changed after 9 sessions of the intervention: positive affect decreased and negative affect increased after watching a series of negative valence-loaded stimuli (i.e. images). Interestingly, higher emotional reactivity (as indexed by a larger increase in negative affect after watching the valence-loaded stimuli) at baseline predicted reductions in depression symptoms after the intervention. On the other hand, higher emotional reactivity (as indexed by a decrease in positive affect) after the intervention was marginally associated with reductions in depression symptoms. To conclude, emotional reactivity increased after the neurocognitive antidepressant intervention and it was directly associated to the degree of depression improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Janus Nematic Colloids with Designable Valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Čopar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Generalized Janus nematic colloids based on various morphologies of particle surface patches imposing homeotropic and planar surface anchoring are demonstrated. By using mesoscopic numerical modeling, multiple types of Janus particles are explored, demonstrating a variety of novel complex colloidal structures. We also show binding of Janus particles to a fixed Janus post in the nematic cell, which acts as a seed and a micro-anchor for the colloidal structure. Janus colloidal structures reveal diverse topological defect configurations, which are effectively combinations of surface boojum and bulk defects. Topological analysis is applied to defects, importantly showing that topological charge is not a well determined topological invariant in such patchy nematic Janus colloids. Finally, this work demonstrates colloidal structures with designable valence, which could allow for targeted and valence-conditioned self-assembly at micro- and nano-scale.

  18. Evaluative conditioning induces changes in sound valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative Conditioning (EC has hardly been tested in the auditory domain, but it is a potentially valuable research tool. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether the affective evaluation of short environmental sounds can be changed using affective words as unconditioned stimuli (US. Congruence effects on an affective priming task (APT for conditioned sounds demonstrated successful EC. Subjective ratings for sounds paired with negative words changed accordingly. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether the acquired valence remains stable after repeated presentation of the conditioned sound without the US or whether extinction occurs. The acquired affective value remained present, albeit weaker, even after 40 extinction trials. These results warrant the use of EC to study processing of short environmental sounds with acquired valence, even if this requires repeated stimulus presentations. This paves the way for studying processing of affective environmental sounds while effectively controlling low level-stimulus properties.

  19. Human Amygdala Represents the Complete Spectrum of Subjective Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwen; Zelano, Christina; Gottfried, Jay A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the amygdala is a major locus for hedonic processing, how it encodes valence information is poorly understood. Given the hedonic potency of odor stimuli and the amygdala's anatomical proximity to the peripheral olfactory system, we combined high-resolution fMRI with pattern-based multivariate techniques to examine how valence information is encoded in the amygdala. Ten human subjects underwent fMRI scanning while smelling 9 odorants that systematically varied in perceived valence. Representational similarity analyses showed that amygdala codes the entire dimension of valence, ranging from pleasantness to unpleasantness. This unidimensional representation significantly correlated with self-reported valence ratings but not with intensity ratings. Furthermore, within-trial valence representations evolved over time, prioritizing earlier differentiation of unpleasant stimuli. Together, these findings underscore the idea that both spatial and temporal features uniquely encode pleasant and unpleasant odor valence in the amygdala. The availability of a unidimensional valence code in the amygdala, distributed in both space and time, would create greater flexibility in determining the pleasantness or unpleasantness of stimuli, providing a mechanism by which expectation, context, attention, and learning could influence affective boundaries for guiding behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our findings elucidate the mechanisms of affective processing in the amygdala by demonstrating that this brain region represents the entire valence dimension from pleasant to unpleasant. An important implication of this unidimensional valence code is that pleasant and unpleasant valence cannot coexist in the amygdale because overlap of fMRI ensemble patterns for these two valence extremes obscures their unique content. This functional architecture, whereby subjective valence maps onto a pattern continuum between pleasant and unpleasant poles, offers a robust mechanism by which context

  20. Equilibrium gels of limited valence colloids

    OpenAIRE

    Sciortino, Francesco; Zaccarelli, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Gels are low-packing arrested states of matter which are able to support stress. On cooling, limited valence colloidal particles form open networks stabilized by the progressive increase of the interparticle bond lifetime. These gels, named equilibrium gels, are the focus of this review article. Differently from other types of colloidal gels, equilibrium gels do not require an underlying phase separation to form. Oppositely, they form in a region of densities deprived of thermodynamic instabi...

  1. 5th International Conference on Valence Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, S

    1987-01-01

    During the Koln meeting (August 28-31, 1984), Irdia was chosen as the venue for the next International Conference on Valence Fluctuations. lhis was in recognition ard appreciation of the work done, both experimental ard theoretical, by the Irdian scientists in this area during the last decade. We decided to hold this Conference in the month of January, 1987 at Bangalore. lhe subject of Valence Fluctuations has kept itself alive ard active as it has provided many shocks ard suprises particularly among the Ce- ard U-based intermetallies. lhe richness of many interesting physical phenomena occurring in mixed valent materials, the flexibility of modifying their physical properties (by alloying, for example) ard the possibility of synthesizing a wide variety of new such materials seem to be the key factors in this regard. Barely six months before this Conference, an International Conference on Anomalous Rare Earths and Actinides (ICAREA) had been held at Grenoble (July, 1986) which also focussed on mixed valence a...

  2. Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

  3. The Vanishing Mildly Retarded Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Julia H.; Obringer, S. J.

    This paper examines statistics that appear to show a 20 percent decline in the number of students identified as mildly mentally retarded. Evidence is provided which suggests that the primary reason for these declining figures is that these children are being classified as learning disabled. Relatively loose criteria for the learning disabilities…

  4. Epilepsy and Comorbid Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Preventable and unpreventable causes of childhood-onset epilepsy associated with mental retardation were determined in 692 patients with epilepsy onset between 1977 and 1985 in a Nova Scotia population-based cohort studied in the Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.

  5. Mental Retardation: Meeting the Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Major components of care for mentally retarded persons are discussed from an international perspective. The use of community resources to provide comprehensive services is emphasized, including teaching and rehabilitation techniques. Topics addressed include identification and assessment; etiological factors (prevalence and causative factors);…

  6. HANDBOOK OF MENTAL RETARDATION SYNDROMES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARTER, CHARLES H.

    THE CLINICAL SYNDROMES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE PRODUCTION OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE DESCRIBED BY SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, AND ETIOLOGY. SYNDROMES TREATED ARE (1) PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL INFECTIONS, (2) PRENATAL INTOXICATION AND ALLERGIC REACTIONS, (3) PRENATAL TRAUMA, PHYSICAL AGENTS, OR INTOXICATION, (4) BIRTH INJURIES, (5) POSTNATAL POISONS AND ALLERGIC…

  7. Idiots Savants: Retarded and Gifted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yewchuk, Carolyn

    The paper reviews the paradoxical nature of idiots savants, persons who, although retarded, have exceptional skills in certain areas. Various explanations for the phenomenon are discussed, such as a specific genetic endowment, a specialized compensatory response to general intellectual deficiency, and possession of an eidetic memory. Various…

  8. Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partnership project on flame retardants in furniture seeks to update the health and environmental profiles of flame-retardant chemicals that meet fire safety standards for upholstered consumer products with polyurethane foam

  9. An Exploratory Program for Blind-Retarded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkington, Larry W.

    1972-01-01

    Twelve blind retarded adolescents residing in a public institution for the mentally retarded participated in a 12-week project that sought to develop and implement a program focusing on stimulus behavior and motivation. (CB)

  10. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siamaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress

  11. Emotional Valence, Arousal, and Threat Ratings of 160 Chinese Words among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Samuel M Y; Mak, Christine W Y; Yeung, Dannii; Duan, Wenjie; Tang, Sandy; Yeung, June C; Ching, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide ratings of valence/pleasantness, arousal/excitement, and threat/potential harm for 160 Chinese words. The emotional valence classification (positive, negative, or neutral) of all of the words corresponded to that of the equivalent English language words. More than 90% of the participants, junior high school students aged between 12 and 17 years, understood the words. The participants were from both mainland China and Hong Kong, thus the words can be applied to adolescents familiar with either simplified (e.g. in mainland China) or traditional Chinese (e.g. in Hong Kong) with a junior secondary school education or higher. We also established eight words with negative valence, high threat, and high arousal ratings to facilitate future research, especially on attentional and memory biases among individuals prone to anxiety. Thus, the new emotional word list provides a useful source of information for affective research in the Chinese language.

  12. Probing Transient Valence Orbital Changes with Picosecond Valence-to-Core X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    March, Anne Marie; Assefa, Tadesse A.; Boemer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    valence orbitals to the nascent core-hole. Vtc-XES offers particular insight into the molecular orbitals directly involved in the light-driven dynamics; a change in the metal ligand orbital overlap results in an intensity reduction and a blue energy shift in agreement with our theoretical calculations......We probe the dynamics of valence electrons in photoexcited [Fe(terpy)2]2+ in solution to gain deeper insight into the Fe ligand bond changes. We use hard X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), which combines element specificity and high penetration with sensitivity to orbital structure, making...... it a powerful technique for molecular studies in a wide variety of environments. A picosecond-time-resolved measurement of the complete Is X-ray emission spectrum captures the transient photoinduced changes and includes the weak valence-to-core (vtc) emission lines that correspond to transitions from occupied...

  13. How the social ecology and social situation shape individuals' affect valence and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Nina; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E; Pincus, Aaron L; Gerstorf, Denis

    2017-04-01

    Many theories highlight the role social contexts play in shaping affective experience. However, little is known about how individuals' social environments influence core affect on short time-scales (e.g., hours). Using experience sampling data from the iSAHIB, wherein 150 adults aged 18 to 89 years reported on 64,213 social interactions (average 6.92 per day, SD = 2.85) across 9 weeks of daily life, we examined how 4 features of individuals' social ecology (between-person differences) and immediate social situations (within-person changes) were associated with core affect-valence and arousal-and how those associations differ with age. Results from multilevel models revealed that familiarity, importance, type of social partner, and gender composition of the social context were associated with affect valence and/or affect arousal. Higher familiarity, higher importance, and same-gender composition were associated with more positive affect valence and higher arousal. Interactions with family and friends were linked to more positive valence whereas nonfamily social partners were linked to higher arousal. Age moderated the associations between importance and affect arousal, and between type of social partner and both dimensions of core affect. Findings align with theoretical propositions, contributing to but also suggesting need for further precision regarding how development shapes the interplay between social context and moment-to-moment affective experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. A General Valence Asymmetry in Similarity: Good Is More Alike than Bad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alex; Alves, Hans; Krüger, Tobias; Unkelbach, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The density hypothesis (Unkelbach, Fiedler, Bayer, Stegmüller, & Danner, 2008) claims a general higher similarity of positive information to other positive information compared with the similarity of negative information to other negative information. This similarity asymmetry might explain valence asymmetries on all levels of cognitive…

  15. Moessbauer spectroscopic study on valence-detrapping and trapping of mixed-valence trinuclear iron(III, III, II) fluorine-substituted benzoate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yoichi, E-mail: yocsakai@daido-it.ac.jp; Onaka, Satoru [Daido University (Japan); Takahashi, Masashi [Toho University (Japan); Ogiso, Ryo; Takayama, Tsutomu [Daido University (Japan); Nakamoto, Tadahiro [Toray Research Center (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Four mixed-valence trinuclear iron(III, III, II) fluorine-substituted benzoate complexes were synthesized; Fe{sub 3}O(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}COO){sub 6}(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N){sub 3}{center_dot}CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} (1), Fe{sub 3}O(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}COO){sub 6}(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N){sub 3} (2), Fe{sub 3}O(2H-C{sub 6}F{sub 4}COO){sub 6}(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N){sub 3} (3), and Fe{sub 3}O(4H-C{sub 6}F{sub 4}COO){sub 6}(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N){sub 3} (4), in which valence-detrapping and trapping phenomena have been investigated by {sup 57}Fe- Moessbauer spectroscopy. The valence state of the three iron ions is trapped at lower temperatures while it is fully detrapped at higher temperatures for 1. Valence detrapping is not observed for 2, 3, and 4 even at room temperature, although Moessbauer spectra for 3 and 4 show complicated temperature dependence.

  16. Experimental Constraints on the Partitioning and Valence of V and Cr in Garnet and Coexisting Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Berthet, S.; Newville, M.

    2008-01-01

    A series of experiments with garnet and coexisting melt have been carried out across a range of oxygen fugacities (near hematite-magnetite (HM) to below the iron-wustite (IW) buffers) at 1.7 GPa to study the partitioning and valence of Cr and V in both phases. Experiments were carried out in a non end loaded piston cylinder apparatus, and the run products were analyzed with electron microprobe and xray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis at beamline 13-ID at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Lab. The valence of vanadium and chromium were determined using the position and intensity of the Ka pre-edge peaks, calibrated on a series of Cr and Vbearing standard glasses. This technique has been applied to V and Cr in glasses and V in spinels previously, and in these isotropic phases there are no orientational effects on the XANES spectra (Righter et al., 2006, Amer. Mineral. 91, 1643-1656). We also now demonstrate this to be true for V and Cr in garnet. Also, previous work has shown that V has a higher valence in the glass (or melt) than in the coexisting spinel. This is also true for V in garnet-glass pairs in this study. Vanadium valence in garnets varies from 2.7 below the IW buffer to 3.7 near HM, and for coexisting glass it varies from 3.2 to 4.3. Vanadium valence measured in some natural garnets from mantle localities indicates V in the more reduced range at 2.5. Comparisons will be made between fO2 estimated from V valence and other methods for garnet-bearing mantle samples. In contrast, Cr valence measured in garnet and coexisting glass for all experimental and natural samples is 2.9- 3.0, suggesting that the valence of Cr does not vary within either phase across a large fO2 range. These results demonstrate that while V varies from 2+ to 3+ to 4+ in garnet-melt systems, Cr does not, and this will ultimately affect the partitioning behavior of these two elements in natural systems. Garnet/melt D(Cr) are between 12 and 17 across this range

  17. Nonlinear hydrodynamics from flow of retarded Green's function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, N.; Dutta, S.

    2010-01-01

    We study the radial flow of retarded Green's function of energy-momentum tensor and $R$-current of dual gauge theory in presence of generic higher derivative terms in bulk Lagrangian. These are first order non-linear Riccati equations. We solve these flow equations analytically and obtain second

  18. Metaphase acrocentric associations in metally retarded patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasseen, A A; Al-Musawi, T A

    2001-10-01

    The metaphase of 21 severely mentally retarded patients were studies to assess the role of satellite association in the etiology of mental retardation. Peripheral blood culture, chromosome harvesting and study scoring were conducted according to standard methods. Considered as a whole the results indicate that there is a significant increase in the frequency of satellite association among the mentally retarded. The present study concluded that satellite association may play a role in the etiology of mental retardation and may explain to some extent the presence of normal karyotype in some mental retardation patients.

  19. Parental Attitude Towards Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEOKADIA WIATROWSKA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available https://doaj.org/puChild's developmental retardation is an undoubted condition for the absence of educational attainment and its unpleasant mental state. Due to the nature of multidimensional state of that, parental attitudes become relevant, as they affect the acceleration or retardation of development. Positive parental attitudes are the strong weapon for the child and his struggles on the way to an equal start and equal development opportunities. For this reason you should emphasize those factors that build the structures supporting developmental progression.An ecosystem approach to human development emphasizes each factor as relevant component for growth and expansion, without denying its own human activity and his self-determination rightblisher/metadata

  20. Positive valence music restores executive control over sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Carryl L; Lewis, Bridget A

    2017-01-01

    Music sometimes improves performance in sustained attention tasks. But the type of music employed in previous investigations has varied considerably, which can account for equivocal results. Progress has been hampered by lack of a systematic database of music varying in key characteristics like tempo and valence. The aims of this study were to establish a database of popular music varying along the dimensions of tempo and valence and to examine the impact of music varying along these dimensions on restoring attentional resources following performance of a sustained attention to response task (SART) vigil. Sixty-nine participants rated popular musical selections that varied in valence and tempo to establish a database of four musical types: fast tempo positive valence, fast tempo negative valence, slow tempo positive valence, and slow tempo negative valence. A second group of 89 participants performed two blocks of the SART task interspersed with either no break or a rest break consisting of 1 of the 4 types of music or silence. Presenting positive valence music (particularly of slow tempo) during an intermission between two successive blocks of the SART significantly decreased miss rates relative to negative valence music or silence. Results support an attentional restoration theory of the impact of music on sustained attention, rather than arousal theory and demonstrate a means of restoring sustained attention. Further, the results establish the validity of a music database that will facilitate further investigations of the impact of music on performance.

  1. Dissociable effects of valence and arousal in adaptive executive control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Zehetleitner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Based on introspectionist, semantic, and psychophysiological experimental frameworks, it has long been assumed that all affective states derive from two independent basic dimensions, valence and arousal...

  2. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  3. Consanguinity analysis in Israeli mental retardates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costeff, H; Cohen, B E; Weller, L; Rahman, D

    1977-01-01

    Consanguinity rates were analyzed in 904 families of retardates studied in 11 Israeli Jewish ethnic groups. It was estimated that the representative recessive gene frequency is .00518, implying that a gene equilibrium maintained by mutation alone is improbable and that some other hypothesis should be considered. The proportions of homozygotes among the following idiopathic subgroups are estimated as follows: 18%-19% homozygotes among severe idiopathic retardates with nonconsanguineous parents and no affected siblings; 74%-76% homozygotes among severe idiopathic retardates with first-cousin parents and no affected siblings; 5% homozygotes among mild idiopathic and idiopathic-familial retardates with nonconsanguineous parents; and 41% homozygotes among mild idiopathic and idiopathic-familial retardates with first-cousin parents. The estimated number of major gene loci within ethnic groups is 17-21 for severe idiopathic retardation and 43-61 for mild idiopathic retardation. These findings provide a basis for genetic counseling of families with single retardates of unknown cause. They can also be useful in epidemiologic studies of nongenetic factors. The great prevalence of common gene defects causing retardation, coupled with the rarity of disorders of amino acid metabolism in the same series, seem to indicate that further emphasis on amino acid metabolism may be nonproductive in the scientific study of retardation and that other biochemical approaches should be encouraged. PMID:879167

  4. Seniority Number in Valence Bond Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Zhou, Chen; Wu, Wei

    2015-09-08

    In this work, a hierarchy of valence bond (VB) methods based on the concept of seniority number, defined as the number of singly occupied orbitals in a determinant or an orbital configuration, is proposed and applied to the studies of the potential energy curves (PECs) of H8, N2, and C2 molecules. It is found that the seniority-based VB expansion converges more rapidly toward the full configuration interaction (FCI) or complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) limit and produces more accurate PECs with smaller nonparallelity errors than its molecular orbital (MO) theory-based analogue. Test results reveal that the nonorthogonal orbital-based VB theory provides a reverse but more efficient way to truncate the complete active Hilbert space by seniority numbers.

  5. Angular Limb Deformities: Growth Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrel, Taralyn M

    2017-08-01

    Angular limb deformities are common in foals; however, the importance of the deformity and if treatment is required depend on the degree of deformity relative to normal conformation for stage of growth, the breed and discipline expectations, age, and response to conservative therapies. This article addresses the importance of the foal conformation examination to determine which foals need surgical intervention to correct an angular deformity and when. Techniques for surgical growth retardation include the transphyseal staple, screw and wire transphyseal bridge, and transphyseal screw. Appropriate timing for intervention for each location and complications associated with each procedure are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prediction of valence and arousal from music features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Brinker, A.C.; Van Dinther, C.H.B.A.; Skowronek, J.

    2011-01-01

    Mood is an important attribute of music and knowledge on mood can beused as a basic ingredient in music recommender and retrieval systems. Moods are assumed to be dominantly determined by two dimensions:valence and arousal. An experiment was conducted to attain data forsong-based ratings of valence

  7. Intervalence charge transfer transition in mixed valence complexes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jcsc/114/04/0431-0442. Keywords. Mixed valence complexes; intervalence charge transfer; rotaxane; inclusion complex; optical electron transfer; cyclodextrin. Abstract. Intervalence charge transfer properties were studied for a set of mixed valence complexes incorporating ...

  8. Teaching Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher; Neo, Choo Tong

    2013-01-01

    This "Science Note" looks at the way that the shapes of simple molecules can be explained in terms of the number of electron pairs in the valence shell of the central atom. This theory is formally known as valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory. The article explains the preferred shape of chlorine trifluoride (ClF3),…

  9. Of Caucasians, Asians, and Giraffes: The Influence of Categorization and Target Valence on Social Projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machunsky, Maya; Walther, Eva

    2015-09-01

    Past research has indicated that social projection is moderated by categorization, with more projection onto ingroups than onto outgroups. However, a few studies have reported elevated levels of projection even onto outgroups. In line with recent evidence, we hypothesized that positive target valence is the key feature of conditions that elicit projection onto outgroups. The present research extends previous findings by testing whether the effect of valence occurs independent of categorization, with increased levels of projection onto positive ingroup and non-ingroup targets alike. We designed two experiments in which target valence was manipulated by means of evaluative conditioning. Category membership was varied by using faces of Caucasians, Asians, and giraffes. The results supported our valence hypothesis. Counter-intuitively, we also found higher levels of projection onto giraffes than onto humans. These findings suggest that current cognition-based models of projection are not sufficient to account for the whole range of projection phenomena. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antibacterial Activities of High-Valence Silver Propamidine Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinran Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU is becoming more serious concern as it affects 95% of diabetic patients worldwide. It has been shown that the Staphylococcus aureus and other Gram-negative microorganisms are the main reasons behind this disease. Though many antibiotics are presently used to treat the DFU, due to increased bacterial resistance, new alternative therapies are always welcome. To address this alarming issue, we have designed and synthesized the high-valence silver propamidine (Ag(IIPRO complex as well as nanoparticles and characterized both by usual spectroscopic methods. The reverse microemulsion technique has been applied to synthesize Ag(IIPRO nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity has been compared with zero-valence silver nanoparticles (AgNPs with similar size. The antibacterial efficacies of Ag(IIPRO nanoparticles and AgNPs were tested against Gram-negative and Gram -positive organisms responsible for DFU. The newly synthesized high-valence Ag(IIPRO nanoparticles showed higher antibacterial activity compared to silver-only nanoparticles (AgNPs. This study concludes that the high-valence Ag(IIPRO nanoparticles show better antibacterial activity than AgNPs and they may serve as the next generation therapeutic agent for the diabetic wound care.

  11. Valence instabilities as a possible source of actinide system inconsistencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandenaw, T.A.

    1979-08-01

    The presence of a mixed-valence state in light actinides appears evident from the crystal structures of certain U, Np, and Pu phases. As supporting evidence, the physical property response of these actinide elements (and some of their alloys) is compared with that of rare-earth metallic compounds known to have an unstable valence. Impurities may stabilize an intermediate (different) valence state locally in rare-earth compounds in the presence of the valence state of the bulk phase. Impurity elements from different periodic table groupings may likewise stabilize different intermediate valence states in light actinide elements, thus contributing to inconsistencies in results reported by different experimentalists. Any model (theory) advanced for explaining the physical property behavior of U, Np, and Pu may also require consideration of a configurational limit. A phenomenological connection could exist between a martensitic transformation and the fluctuation temperature in both rare earth and actinide systems.

  12. VALENCY AND SYNTACTICAL RELATION IN BIMANESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Sri Satyawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the findings and descriptions of the replies to severalproblems that have not been completely and deeply discussed in the researchespreviously conducted on Bimanese. The problems are related to micro-linguistic factors,namely valency and syntactical relation in Bimanese. Both deductive and inductiveapproaches were applied to obtain satisfactory results. The main theory employed in thisstudy is Role and Reference Grammar Theory (RRG by Van Valin and J. Lapolla. It wasemployed to completely analyze the collected data in accordance with the problemsproposed in this research, and the inductive approach was employed to analyze the datain order to get novelties.In this study, clause structure is given the first priority to discuss, followed by thediscussion on operator, voice markers, nominalizers, and definiteness. Based on thepredicate category, the clause in Bimanese can be constructed with the constituents thatare under the categories of verb, noun, adjective, number, and adverb (prepositionalphrase. Based on the clause analysis, it has been found that in Bimanese there are severaloperators, each of which has different functional boundary in marking the clausemeaning. One operator may only sign nucleus, core (nucleus and argument, or core andperiphery. Bimanese has also been identified to have four linguistic states expressed byverbs that are made to make sense based on state (Aktisontrat, achievement, andaccomplishment. RRG classifies verbs into ten instead of four. However, in this study, tomake the analysis easier, verbs are classified into four. The predicate in Bimanese can beboth serial verbs and secondary verbs. It has also been found that the mechanism ofchange in valency is marked by the attachment of markers to the verbs resulting incausativity, applicativity, and resultivity. From those syntactical constructions, thesyntactical relation in Bimanese can be clearly identified. The discussion on syntacticalrelation

  13. Emotion and language: Valence and arousal affect word recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysbaert, Marc; Warriner, Amy Beth

    2014-01-01

    Emotion influences most aspects of cognition and behavior, but emotional factors are conspicuously absent from current models of word recognition. The influence of emotion on word recognition has mostly been reported in prior studies on the automatic vigilance for negative stimuli, but the precise nature of this relationship is unclear. Various models of automatic vigilance have claimed that the effect of valence on response times is categorical, an inverted-U, or interactive with arousal. The present study used a sample of 12,658 words, and included many lexical and semantic control factors, to determine the precise nature of the effects of arousal and valence on word recognition. Converging empirical patterns observed in word-level and trial-level data from lexical decision and naming indicate that valence and arousal exert independent monotonic effects: Negative words are recognized more slowly than positive words, and arousing words are recognized more slowly than calming words. Valence explained about 2% of the variance in word recognition latencies, whereas the effect of arousal was smaller. Valence and arousal do not interact, but both interact with word frequency, such that valence and arousal exert larger effects among low-frequency words than among high-frequency words. These results necessitate a new model of affective word processing whereby the degree of negativity monotonically and independently predicts the speed of responding. This research also demonstrates that incorporating emotional factors, especially valence, improves the performance of models of word recognition. PMID:24490848

  14. Hand Function Measurement with Educable Mental Retardates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Patricia L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Reports on results of the Developmental Hand Function Test administered to 28 educable mentally retarded and 34 normal 12-and 14-year-old girls to show that manual dexterity and functional had skills are compromised in the mentally retarded. (DS)

  15. Mental Retardation, Mental Illness, and Seizure Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pary, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Review of psychiatric hospital discharge summaries for 247 individuals with mental retardation and psychiatric disorders found that 39 had a seizure diagnosis. The only difference between the groups with and without seizures was level of mental retardation. No differences existed concerning length of stay, transfer to state hospital, psychiatric…

  16. Biodegradation of brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaijers, S.L.; Parsons, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants account for about 21% of the total production of flame retardants and many of these have been identified as persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. Nevertheless, debromination of these chemicals under anaerobic conditions is well established, although this can increase

  17. The Mentally Retarded Offender and Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamour, Miles; West, Bernadette

    The booklet provides an overview of the issues involved in correctional rehabilitation for the mentally retarded offender. Reviewed are clinical and legal definitions of criminal behavior and retardation, and discussed are such issues as law enforcement and court proceedings problems, pros and cons of special facilities, labeling, normalization,…

  18. Political Philosophy and the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanovich, Keith E.

    The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically…

  19. Flame retardant cotton based highloft nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flame retardancy has been a serious bottleneck to develop cotton blended very high specific volume bulky High loft fabrics. Alternately, newer approach to produce flame retardant cotton blended High loft fabrics must be employed that retain soft feel characteristics desirable of furnishings. Hence, ...

  20. Perceptions of Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, David R.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Open-ended questions of college students (N=60) indicated students clearly differentiated between the mentally retarded and mentally ill. Mental retardation was characterized by physical stigmata, brain damage, developmental delays, and cognitive deficits; mental illness by emotional lability due to environmental, hereditary, or mixed factors.…

  1. Prevention of Developmental Retardation in Poor Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribes, Emilio

    The paper analyzes developmental retardation in relation to social factors, such as malnutrition, unemployment, illiteracy, and health services in poor countries. It is reported that present institutional strategies seem unable to cope with prevention of retardation. An alternative approach based on changing community patterns is proposed.…

  2. Rigidity in Mentally Retarded and Nonretarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Shulamith; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Seven rigidity tests varying in difficulty were administered to 45 retarded subjects, with a mean age of 10, and 45 mental age-matched nonretarded subjects. Subjects did not differ on 3 easy tests, but retarded children were more rigid on 4 difficult tests. (Author/JDD)

  3. Body Awareness in Children with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Johan; Dedroog, Inge

    2009-01-01

    The body awareness of 124 toddlers with mental retardation and of 124 children developing normally matched to them on age and gender was examined. Twenty-nine of the children with mental retardation were diagnosed as Down syndrome (DS). The "Pointing and Naming" Test of Berges and Lezine [Berges, J., & Lezine, I. (1978). "Test d'imitation de…

  4. Orthognathic surgery for mentally retarded patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, A. G.; Tuinzing, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    The surgical treatment of mentally retarded children for esthetic reasons is discussed. In mentally retarded adults a facial deformity can give rise to functional problems; in some cases a facial deformity can stigmatize the mental state. In selected cases orthognathic surgery may offer a solution

  5. Positron annihilation with core and valence electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Green, D G

    2015-01-01

    $\\gamma$-ray spectra for positron annihilation with the core and valence electrons of the noble gas atoms Ar, Kr and Xe is calculated within the framework of diagrammatic many-body theory. The effect of positron-atom and short-range positron-electron correlations on the annihilation process is examined in detail. Short-range correlations, which are described through non-local corrections to the vertex of the annihilation amplitude, are found to significantly enhance the spectra for annihilation on the core orbitals. For Ar, Kr and Xe, the core contributions to the annihilation rate are found to be 0.55\\%, 1.5\\% and 2.2\\% respectively, their small values reflecting the difficulty for the positron to probe distances close to the nucleus. Importantly however, the core subshells have a broad momentum distribution and markedly contribute to the annihilation spectra at Doppler energy shifts $\\gtrsim3$\\,keV, and even dominate the spectra of Kr and Xe at shifts $\\gtrsim5$\\,keV. Their inclusion brings the theoretical ...

  6. Valence band effective Hamiltonians in nitride semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punya, Atchara; Schwertfager, Nucharee; Lambrecht, Walter

    2012-02-01

    Valence band effective Hamiltonians are useful to determine the electronic states of shallow impurities, quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots within the effective mass approximation. Although significant experimental and theoretical work has been performed, basic parameters such as the Rashba Sheka Pikus (RSP) Hamiltonian parameters are still uncertain. In this work, the electronic band structures of AlN, GaN and InN, all in the wurtzite crystal structure, as well as the RSP Hamiltonian parameters are determined by using the QSGW approximation in a FP-LMTO implementation. The corrections offered by this approach beyond the LDA are important to obtain the splittings and effective masses accurately. The present GW implementation, which allows for a real space representation of the self-energy, enables us to interpolate exactly to a fine k-mesh and hence to obtain accurate effective masses. We find the crystal field splitting in GaN (12 meV) in much closer agreement with experiment than previous work and obtain a negative SO coupling for InN. Moreover, we have generalized the method of invariants to crystals with orthorombic symmetry, such as ZnSiN2 ZnGeN2, ZnSnN2 and CdGeN2 and determined the corresponding Hamiltonian parameters.

  7. CASE REPORT OF A MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilka GALEVSKA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mental retardation is a complex individual and social problem. According to WHO, around 1-3 % of world population are mentally retarded people and the percentage between school children is around 2 %.The development of a mentally retarded child depends on factors related to the disability itself, all the limitations and characteristics which results from that. But, physical, psychical, educational and social development of a mentally retarded child, also, depend on other conditions, such as the family and the wider environment, their reactions, attitudes, awareness and sensitivity for special needs of the child, as well as their preparedness and possibilities to respond.At the same time, it is necessary that the mentally retarded child is detected and diagnosed in time, as well as the early start of an adequate treatment.

  8. Flame Retardation Modification of Paper-Based PVC Wallcoverings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Hui; Yang, Haiyang; Xiao, He; Cao, Shilin; Huang, Liulian; Chen, Lihui; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The flame-retarded paper-based polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wallcoverings were successfully prepared, using plant fiber paper as base material and adding inorganic flame retardants and flame-retarded plasticizer as additives...

  9. Taboo, emotionally valenced, and emotionally neutral word norms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janschewitz, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    Although taboo words are used to study emotional memory and attention, no easily accessible normative data are available that compare taboo, emotionally valenced, and emotionally neutral words on the same scales...

  10. Conduction Mechanism of Valence Change Resistive Switching Memory: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ee Wah Lim; Razali Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Resistive switching effect in transition metal oxide (TMO) based material is often associated with the valence change mechanism (VCM). Typical modeling of valence change resistive switching memory consists of three closely related phenomena, i.e., conductive filament (CF) geometry evolution, conduction mechanism and temperature dynamic evolution. It is widely agreed that the electrochemical reduction-oxidation (redox) process and oxygen vacancies migration plays an essential role in the CF fo...

  11. Effect of valence nucleons on nuclear binding energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeli, I. (Kossuth Lajos Tudomanyegyetem, Debrecen (HU))

    1991-10-01

    The nucleonic promiscuity factor P = N{sub p}N{sub n}/(N{sub p} + N{sub n}), where N{sub p}(N{sub n}) is the number of valence protons (neutrons) or holes, is shown to be a useful parameter in the description of the mass number dependence of nuclear binding energies. This means that most of the deviation from a smooth mass number dependence is caused by the isoscalar interaction between valence protons and neutrons.

  12. Emotional Valence and the Free-Energy Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffily, Mateus; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    The free-energy principle has recently been proposed as a unified Bayesian account of perception, learning and action. Despite the inextricable link between emotion and cognition, emotion has not yet been formulated under this framework. A core concept that permeates many perspectives on emotion is valence, which broadly refers to the positive and negative character of emotion or some of its aspects. In the present paper, we propose a definition of emotional valence in terms of the negative rate of change of free-energy over time. If the second time-derivative of free-energy is taken into account, the dynamics of basic forms of emotion such as happiness, unhappiness, hope, fear, disappointment and relief can be explained. In this formulation, an important function of emotional valence turns out to regulate the learning rate of the causes of sensory inputs. When sensations increasingly violate the agent's expectations, valence is negative and increases the learning rate. Conversely, when sensations increasingly fulfil the agent's expectations, valence is positive and decreases the learning rate. This dynamic interaction between emotional valence and learning rate highlights the crucial role played by emotions in biological agents' adaptation to unexpected changes in their world. PMID:23785269

  13. Influence of outcome valence in the subjective experience of episodic past, future, and counterfactual thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brigard, Felipe; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2012-09-01

    Recent findings suggest that our capacity to imagine the future depends on our capacity to remember the past. However, the extent to which episodic memory is involved in our capacity to think about what could have happened in our past, yet did not occur (i.e., episodic counterfactual thinking), remains largely unexplored. The current experiments investigate the phenomenological characteristics and the influence of outcome valence on the experience of past, future and counterfactual thoughts. Participants were asked to mentally simulate past, future, and counterfactual events with positive or negative outcomes. Features of their subjective experiences during each type of simulation were measured using questionnaires and autobiographical interviews. The results suggest that clarity and vividness were higher for past than future and counterfactual simulations. Additionally, emotional intensity was lower for counterfactual simulations than past and future simulations. Finally, outcome valence influenced participants' judgment of probability for future and counterfactual simulations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal plasma homocysteine levels in intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeter, Ali; Topcu, Hasan Onur; Guzel, Ali Irfan; Ozgu, Emre; Danisman, Nuri

    2015-04-01

    To investigate a possible correlation between maternal plasma homocysteine (HC) concentrations and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The patients were divided into the IUGR group and controls. The IUGR group consisted of 40 women and their newborns with birth weight IUGR group and 4.6 ± 1.2 µmol/L in controls (p = 0.01). ROC curve analysis demonstrated that pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI) and HC concentrations were discriminative markers in IUGR group. According to Pearson correlation analysis there was a possible association between HC concentrations and PI, RI and middle cerebral artery Doppler velocimetry (MCA). Higher maternal HC concentration and lower birth weight were observed in the IUGR group as compared to the control group. We are of the opinion that maternal plasma homocysteine concentration may be a prognostic marker in intrauterine growth retardation.

  15. Carotenemia in mentally retarded children I. Incidence and etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, H.; Dunn, H. G.; Tischler, B.; McBurney, A. Karaa

    1973-01-01

    The incidence and etiology of carotenemia in mentally retarded children were examined. Fasting serum carotenoid and vitamin A levels were measured in 77 profoundly mentally retarded children aged 3 to 19 years who were receiving a standard diet containing 2000 IU of carotene (expressed in terms of vitamin A activity) and supplemented by 2000 IU of vitamin A daily. Seventeen of the 77 patients had serum carotenoid levels of more than 300 μg./ml. The particulate size of food had a significant inverse relationship to serum carotenoid levels and was an important factor in determining carotenemia. The serum vitamin A level was also higher in children on homogenized diet than in those on pureed feeds, while the lowest level was noted among patients on a chopped diet. Besides particulate size of food, other factors may also be operative in determining carotenemia. PMID:4707231

  16. Humans rely on the same rules to assess emotional valence and intensity in conspecific and dog vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragó, Tamás; Andics, Attila; Devecseri, Viktor; Kis, Anna; Gácsi, Márta; Miklósi, Adám

    2014-01-01

    Humans excel at assessing conspecific emotional valence and intensity, based solely on non-verbal vocal bursts that are also common in other mammals. It is not known, however, whether human listeners rely on similar acoustic cues to assess emotional content in conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations, and which acoustical parameters affect their performance. Here, for the first time, we directly compared the emotional valence and intensity perception of dog and human non-verbal vocalizations. We revealed similar relationships between acoustic features and emotional valence and intensity ratings of human and dog vocalizations: those with shorter call lengths were rated as more positive, whereas those with a higher pitch were rated as more intense. Our findings demonstrate that humans rate conspecific emotional vocalizations along basic acoustic rules, and that they apply similar rules when processing dog vocal expressions. This suggests that humans may utilize similar mental mechanisms for recognizing human and heterospecific vocal emotions.

  17. The self-esteem and anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Saban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was carried out with the aim of determining the factors affecting and to evaluate anxiety situations and self-esteem of children with and without mentally retarded siblings. Materials and Methods: The sampling included 227 healthy children: 108 of them have mental retarded sibling and 119 of them do not have mental retarded sibling. The context of this study consisted of 15-18 year of age healthy children with mentally retarded siblings and 15-18 year of aged healthy children having at least one sibling between the dates February 15 st and June 26 st 2010. Personal Information Form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Trait Anxiety Scale were used. Results: It was found out that trait anxiety of 17-18 aged of children with mental retarded sibling (47.04 ± 7.3 was higher than that of the children without mental retarded siblings (44.05 ± 11.23 (P 0.05. Trait anxiety score averages of children with mentally retarded sibling and experience some difficulties due to his or her siblings′s handicap (47.00 ± 7.76 were found higher than those of those of the children without any problem with the environment (42.61 ± 7.48 (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Although the average score of trait anxiety and self-esteem in both groups were not significant different, score of trait anxiety for children with mentally disabled siblings was higher in comparison. It was concluded that anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings increased as self-esteem of these children decreased.

  18. A, a Brominated Flame Retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Takeshita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA, a brominated flame retardant, has been found to exacerbate pneumonia in respiratory syncytial virus- (RSV- infected mice. We examined the effect of Brazilian propolis (AF-08 on the exacerbation of RSV infection by TBBPA exposure in mice. Mice were fed a powdered diet mixed with 1% TBBPA alone, 0.02% AF-08 alone, or 1% TBBPA and 0.02% AF-08 for four weeks and then intranasally infected with RSV. TBBPA exposure increased the pulmonary virus titer and level of IFN-γ, a representative marker of pneumonia due to RSV infection, in the lungs of infected mice without toxicity. AF-08 was significantly effective in reducing the virus titers and IFN-γ level increased by TBBPA exposure. Also, AF-08 significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the lungs of RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure, but Th2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10 levels were not evidently increased. Neither TBBPA exposure nor AF-08 treatment affected the anti-RSV antibody production in RSV-infected mice. In flow cytometry analysis, AF-08 seemed to be effective in reducing the ratio of pulmonary CD8a+ cells in RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure. TBBPA and AF-08 did not exhibit anti-RSV activity in vitro. Thus, AF-08 probably ameliorated pneumonia exacerbated by TBBPA exposure in RSV-infected mice by limiting excess cellular immune responses.

  19. Character Disposition and Behavior Type: Influences of Valence on Preschool Children's Social Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elaine F.; Tobias, Marvin; Pauley, Danielle; Thomson, Nicole Renick; Johnson, Shawana Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The authors studied the influences of valence information on preschool children's (n = 47) moral (good or bad), liking (liked or disliked by a friend), and consequence-of-behavior (reward or punishment) judgments. The authors presented 8 scenarios describing the behavior valence, positive valence (help, share), negative valence (verbal insult,…

  20. Brominated Flame Retardants and Perfluorinated Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) belong to a large class of chemicals known as organohalogens. It is believed that both BFRs and PFCs saved lives by reducing flammability of materials commonly used and bactericidal (biocidal) properties. Thes...

  1. Choroido-Cerebral Calcification with Retardation

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1993-01-01

    A family of three children with mental retardation, calcification of the choroid plexus, and increased CSF protein is reported from the Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, and Maternity and Children’s Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

  2. Intrauterine growth retardation - small events, big consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Syed R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intrauterine growth retardation refers to a rate of growth of a fetus that is less than normal for the growth potential of a fetus (for that particular gestational age. As one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity, intrauterine growth retardation has immense implications for the short term and long term growth of children. It is an important public health concern in the developing countries. Health statistics encompassing parameters for maternal and child health in the Indian subcontinent have shown improvement in the past few years but they are still far from perfect. Maternal health, education and empowerment bears a strong influence on perinatal outcomes including intrauterine growth retardation and should be the primary focus of any stratagem targeted at reducing the incidence of intrauterine growth retardation. A concerted liaison of various medical and social disciplines is imperative in this regard.

  3. The Political Values of Mentally Retarded Citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barbara B.; Klein, Nancy K.

    1980-01-01

    The findings indicated that the retarded are affected by the process of political socialization much like their nonretarded peers. In forming a ranking of goal-values, age and socioeconomic status outweighed differences in cognitive ability. (Author/DLS)

  4. Cortical Response of Retardates for AER Audiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Donald D.

    1971-01-01

    Averaged auditory evoked responses were obtained from 15 retarded and motor-handicapped subjects and from 15 nonretarded subjects in order to investigate comparative responsiveness and response features. (Author)

  5. Nanocellular foam with solid flame retardant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liang; Kelly-Rowley, Anne M.; Bunker, Shana P.; Costeux, Stephane

    2017-11-21

    Prepare nanofoam by (a) providing an aqueous solution of a flame retardant dissolved in an aqueous solvent, wherein the flame retardant is a solid at 23.degree. C. and 101 kiloPascals pressure when in neat form; (b) providing a fluid polymer composition selected from a solution of polymer dissolved in a water-miscible solvent or a latex of polymer particles in a continuous aqueous phase; (c) mixing the aqueous solution of flame retardant with the fluid polymer composition to form a mixture; (d) removing water and, if present, solvent from the mixture to produce a polymeric composition having less than 74 weight-percent flame retardant based on total polymeric composition weight; (e) compound the polymeric composition with a matrix polymer to form a matrix polymer composition; and (f) foam the matrix polymer composition into nanofoam having a porosity of at least 60 percent.

  6. Retrospective karyotype study in mentally retarded patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Wellcy Gonçalves; Marques, Fabiana Kalina; Freire, Maíra Cristina Menezes

    2016-01-01

    To describe the chromosomal alterations in patients with mental retardation (MR) using G-banding karyotype analysis. A retrospective study of the results G-banding karyotype analysis of 369 patients investigated for MR was performed. Based on the structural rearrangements found, the authors searched all chromosomal regions related with breakpoints, and these were compared with the literature on MR and databases. 338 (91.6%) normal cases, and 31 (8.4%) with some type of chromosomal abnormality were identified. Among the altered cases, 21 patients (67.8%) were identified with structural chromosomal alterations, nine (29%) with numerical alterations, and one (3.2%) with numerical and structural alterations. Structural chromosomal abnormalities were observed more frequently in this study. G-banding karyotyping contributes to the investigation of the causes of MR, showing that this technique can be useful for initial screening of patients. However, higher resolution techniques such as array based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MPLA) can detect submicroscopic alterations commonly associated with MR.

  7. Patterns of Injury in Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreat, Scott; Baker-Potts, Joan C.

    1983-01-01

    Patterns of injury for institutional residents of differing levels of mental retardation were investigated with 140 mildly, moderately, severely, and profoundly retarded individuals. Moderately and profoundly mentally retarded persons were found to be much more at risk for personal injury than were mildly or severely mentally retarded individuals.…

  8. Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

    This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

  9. Multistage Pressure-Retarded Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Devesh; Fyles, Thomas M.; Struchtrup, Henning

    2016-10-01

    One promising sustainable energy source is the chemical potential difference between salt and freshwater. The membrane process of pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) has been the most widely investigated means to harvest salinity gradient energy. In this report, we analyse the thermodynamic efficiency of multistage PRO systems to optimize energy recovery from a salinity gradient. We establish a unified description of the efficiencies of the component pumps (P), turbines (T), pressure exchangers (PX), and membrane modules (M) and exploit this model to determine the maximum available work with respect to the volume of the brine produced, the volume of the sea water consumed, or the volume of the freshwater that permeates the membrane. In an idealized series configuration of 1-20 modules (P-M-T), the three optimization conditions have significantly different intermediate operating pressures in the modules, but demonstrate that multistage systems can recover a significantly larger fraction of the available work compared to single-stage PRO. The biggest proportional advantage occurs for one to three modules in series. The available work depends upon the component efficiencies, but the proportional advantage of multistage PRO is retained. We also optimize one- and two-stage PX-M-T and P-M-T configurations with respect to the three volume parameters, and again significantly different optimal operating conditions are found. PX-M-T systems are more efficient than P-M-T systems, and two-stage systems have efficiency advantages that transcend assumed component efficiencies. The results indicate that overall system design with a clear focus on critical optimization parameters has the potential to significantly improve the near-term practical feasibility of PRO.

  10. Emotion valence, intensity and emotion regulation in immigrants and majority members in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupar, Snežana; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Fontaine, Johnny R J

    2015-08-01

    We were interested in interethnic differences and similarities in how emotion regulation strategies (reappraisal, suppression and social sharing) can be predicted by emotion valence and intensity. The sample consisted of 389 Dutch majority members and members of five immigrant groups: 136 Turkish and Moroccan, 105 Antillean and Surinamese, 102 Indonesian, 313 Western and 150 other non-Western immigrants. In a path model with latent variables we confirmed that emotion regulation strategies were significantly and similarly related to emotion valence and intensity across the groups. Negative emotions were more reappraised and suppressed than positive emotions. Intensity was positively related to social sharing and negatively related to reappraisal and suppression. The Dutch majority group scored higher on emotion valence than Turkish and Moroccan immigrants. Also, the Dutch majority group scored lower on reappraisal than all non-Western groups, and lower on suppression than Turkish and Moroccan immigrants. We conclude that group differences reside more in mean scores on some components than in how antecedents are linked to regulation strategies. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. Social learning modulates the lateralization of emotional valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Lavidor, Michal; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

    2008-08-01

    Although neuropsychological studies of lateralization of emotion have emphasized valence (positive vs. negative) or type (basic vs. complex) dimensions, the interaction between the two dimensions has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that recognition of basic emotions is processed preferentially by the right prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas recognition of complex social emotions is processed preferentially by the left PFC. Experiment 1 assessed the ability of healthy controls and patients with right and left PFC lesions to recognize basic and complex emotions. Experiment 2 modeled the patient's data of Experiment 1 on healthy participants under lateralized displays of the emotional stimuli. Both experiments support the Type as well as the Valence Hypotheses. However, our findings indicate that the Valence Hypothesis holds for basic but less so for complex emotions. It is suggested that, since social learning overrules the basic preference of valence in the hemispheres, the processing of complex emotions in the hemispheres is less affected by valence.

  12. Space-valence priming with subliminal and supraliminal words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Ulrich; Khalid, Shah; König, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To date it is unclear whether (1) awareness-independent non-evaluative semantic processes influence affective semantics and whether (2) awareness-independent affective semantics influence non-evaluative semantic processing. In the current study, we investigated these questions with the help of subliminal (masked) primes and visible targets in a space-valence across-category congruence effect. In line with (1), we found that subliminal space prime words influenced valence classification of supraliminal target words (Experiment 1): classifications were faster with a congruent prime (e.g., the prime "up" before the target "happy") than with an incongruent prime (e.g., the prime "up" before the target "sad"). In contrast to (2), no influence of subliminal valence primes on the classification of supraliminal space targets into up- and down-words was found (Experiment 2). Control conditions showed that standard masked response priming effects were found with both subliminal prime types, and that an across-category congruence effect was also found with supraliminal valence primes and spatial target words. The final Experiment 3 confirmed that the across-category congruence effect indeed reflected priming of target categorization of a relevant meaning category. Together, the data jointly confirmed prediction (1) that awareness-independent non-evaluative semantic priming influences valence judgments.

  13. Space-Valence Priming with Subliminal and Supraliminal Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich eAnsorge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To date it is unclear whether (1 awareness-independent non-evaluative semantic processes influence affective semantics and whether (2 awareness-independent affective semantics influence non-evaluative semantic processing. In the current study, we investigated these questions with the help of subliminal (masked primes and visible targets in a space-valence across-category congruence effect. In line with (1, we found that subliminal space prime words influenced valence classification of supraliminal target words (Experiment 1: Classifications were faster with a congruent prime (e.g., the prime ‘up’ before the target ‘happy’ than with an incongruent prime (e.g., the prime ‘up’ before the target ‘sad’. In contrast to (2, no influence of subliminal valence primes on the classification of supraliminal space targets into up- and down-words was found (Experiment 2. Control conditions showed that standard masked response-priming effects were found with both subliminal prime types, and that an across-category congruence effect was also found with supraliminal valence primes and spatial target words. The final Experiment 3 confirmed that the across-category congruence effect indeed reflected priming of target categorization of a relevant meaning category. Together, the data jointly confirmed prediction (1 that awareness-independent non-evaluative semantic priming influences valence judgments.

  14. Evaluation of Phosphorylated Psyllium Seed Polysaccharide as a Release Retardant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Monica R P; Warrier, Deepa U; Rao, Shivani H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to modify psyllium seed polysaccharide and evaluate the modified polysaccharide as release retardant in tablets employing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride as model drug. Studies on polysaccharide from psyllium husk has been reported but no work has been reported on characterization and modification of the polysaccharide present in the psyllium (Plantago ovata) seed and the use of the modified polysaccharide as a release retardant in tablets. In this study, the seed gum was modified using sodium trimetaphosphate as crosslinking agent. Sustained release matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride were prepared by wet granulation using various drug-polymer ratios. The polymers investigated were psyllium polysaccharide, phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide and widely used release retardant hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100M. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content, swelling profile and in vitro dissolution studies. The matrix tablets containing 1:3 proportion of drug-phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide was found to have higher hardness as compared to tablets containing 1:1 and 1:2 proportions. The results of swelling behavior in water showed that the tablets containing 1:3 drug:phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide ratio had swelling comparable to that of tablets containing 1:3 drug:hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ratio. The in vitro dissolution studies shows that the dissolution rate was retarded from 98.41 to 37.6% in 6 h with increase in concentration of phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide from 100 to 300 mg. Formulations containing psyllium polysaccharide showed complete drug release in 8 h whereas those formulated with phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide exhibited extended drug release over the 12 h period. Drug release kinetic studies revealed that drug release followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model.

  15. A Study on Normal Siblings of Mentally Retarded Persons

    OpenAIRE

    Mihara, Hiromitsu

    1997-01-01

    This study examined how normal people perceive their mentally retarded siblings and what they see to be their future relationship. Normal siblings of mentally retarded persons were given a questionnaire regarding their relationships with their parents and mentally retarded siblings during childhood and how they introduced their mentally retarded siblings to their fiancees. In most cases, they had good relationships with their mentally retarded siblings during childhood. Most of them also inte...

  16. Valence of Ti, V, and Cr in Apollo 14 aluminous basalts 14053 and 14072

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven B.; Sutton, Stephen R.

    2017-09-01

    The valences of Ti, V, and Cr in olivine and pyroxene, important indicators of the fO2 of the source region of their host rocks, can be readily measured nondestructively by XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) spectroscopy, but little such work has been done on lunar rocks, and there is some uncertainty regarding the presence of Ti3+ in lunar silicates and the redox state of the lunar mantle. This is the first study involving direct XANES measurement of valences of multivalent cations in lunar rocks. Because high alumina activity facilitates substitution of Ti cations into octahedral rather than tetrahedral sites in pyroxene and Ti3+ only enters octahedral sites, two aluminous basalts from Apollo 14, 14053 and 14072, were studied. Most pyroxene contains little or no detectable Ti3+, but in both samples relatively early, magnesian pyroxene was found that has Ti valences that are not within error of 4; in 14053, this component has an average Ti valence of 3.81 ± 0.06 (i.e., Ti3+/[Ti3+ + Ti4+ = 0.19]). This pyroxene has relatively low atomic Ti/Al ratios ( 0.5 contains Ti3+ and pyroxene with lower ratios does not. Later pyroxene, with lower Mg/Fe and higher Ti/Al ratios, has higher proportions of Ti (all Ti4+) in tetrahedral sites. All pyroxene analyzed contains divalent Cr, ranging from 15 to 30% of the Cr present, and all but one analysis spot contains divalent V, accounting for 0 to 40% (typically 20-30%) of the V present. Three analyses of olivine in 14053 do not show any Ti3+, but Ti valences in 14072 olivine range from 4 down to 3.70 ± 0.10. In 14053 olivine, 50% of the Cr and 60% of the V are divalent. In 14072 olivine, the divalent percentages are 20% for Cr and 20-60% for V. These results indicate significant proportions of divalent Cr and V and limited amounts of trivalent Ti in the parental melts, especially when crystal/liquid partitioning preferences are taken into account. These features are consistent with an fO2 closer to IW - 2 than to IW

  17. Conduction Mechanism of Valence Change Resistive Switching Memory: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Wah Lim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistive switching effect in transition metal oxide (TMO based material is often associated with the valence change mechanism (VCM. Typical modeling of valence change resistive switching memory consists of three closely related phenomena, i.e., conductive filament (CF geometry evolution, conduction mechanism and temperature dynamic evolution. It is widely agreed that the electrochemical reduction-oxidation (redox process and oxygen vacancies migration plays an essential role in the CF forming and rupture process. However, the conduction mechanism of resistive switching memory varies considerably depending on the material used in the dielectric layer and selection of electrodes. Among the popular observations are the Poole-Frenkel emission, Schottky emission, space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC, trap-assisted tunneling (TAT and hopping conduction. In this article, we will conduct a survey on several published valence change resistive switching memories with a particular interest in the I-V characteristic and the corresponding conduction mechanism.

  18. Processing emotional pictures and words: effects of valence and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Schacter, Daniel L

    2006-06-01

    There is considerable debate regarding the extent to which limbic regions respond differentially to items with different valences (positive or negative) or to different stimulus types (pictures or words). In the present event-related fMRI study, 21 participants viewed words and pictures that were neutral, negative, or positive. Negative and positive items were equated on arousal. The participants rated each item for whether it depicted or described something animate or inanimate or something common or uncommon. For both pictures and words, the amygdala, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), and ventromedial PFC responded equally to all high-arousal items, regardless of valence. Laterality effects in the amygdala were based on the stimulus type (word = left, picture = bilateral). Valence effects were most apparent when the individuals processed pictures, and the results revealed a lateral/medial distinction within the PFC: The lateral PFC responded differentially to negative items, whereas the medial PFC was more engaged during the processing of positive pictures.

  19. Valence-to-core-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Eleanor R.; Pollock, Christopher J.; Bendix, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can provide detailed insight into the electronic and geometric structures of transition-metal active sites in metalloproteins and chemical catalysts. However, standard XAS spectra inherently represent an average contribution from the entire coordination...... environment with limited ligand selectivity. To address this limitation, we have investigated the enhancement of XAS features using valence-to-core (VtC)-detected XAS, whereby XAS spectra are measured by monitoring fluorescence from valence-to-core X-ray emission (VtC XES) events. VtC emission corresponds...... to transitions from filled ligand orbitals to the metal 1s core hole, with distinct energetic shifts for ligands of differing ionization potentials. VtC-detected XAS data were obtained from multiple valence emission features for a series of well-characterized Mn model compounds; taken together, these data...

  20. Strain effects on valence bands of wurtzite ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, LiPing; Chai, ChangChun; Jin, Zhao; Yang, YinTang; Ma, ZhenYang

    2013-09-01

    Based on the k.p theory of Luttinger-Kohn and Bir-Pikus, analytical E-k solutions for the valence band of strained wurtzite ZnO materials are obtained. Strain effects on valence band edges and hole effective masses in strained wurtzite ZnO materials are also discussed. In comparison with unstrained ZnO materials, apparent movement of valence band edges such as "light hole band", "heavy hole band" and "crystal splitting band" at Γ point is found in strained wurtzite ZnO materials. Moreover, effective masses of "light hole band", "heavy hole band" and "crystal splitting band" for strained wurtzite ZnO materials as the function of stress are given. The analytical results can provide a theoretical foundation for the understanding of physics of strained ZnO materials and its applications with the framework for an effective mass theory.

  1. Intentional and Incidental Memory in Organically Mentally Retarded, Familial Retarded, and Nonretarded Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burack, Jacob A.; Zigler, Edward

    1990-01-01

    When 40 organically mentally retarded, 33 familial retarded, and 35 nonretarded school-age children were compared on 2 tasks of intentional memory, with mental age being covaried, the nonretarded children performed best, followed by the familial group. The 3 groups did not differ on a task of incidental learning. (Author/JDD)

  2. Does Retardation Mean Dumb? Children's Perceptions of the Nature, Cause, and Course of Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joan F.

    1989-01-01

    When interviewed, 105 third-grade students indicated that they did not view retardation as a set of behaviors, but as a trait, defined abstractly and perceived to be both predetermined and largely irreversible through personal effort. Children did not assume that being retarded excluded being pretty, athletic, or smart. (Author/JDD)

  3. Particle-Size-Induced Valence Changes in Samarium Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, M. G.; Lee, S. -T.; Apai, G.; Davis, R. F.; Shirley, D. A.; Franciosi, A.; Weaver, J. H.

    1981-09-01

    Samarium clusters exhibit mixed-valence behavior which is sensitive to particle size. XPS and UPS data show samarium to be primarily divalent (4f{sup 6} ) at small particle size. The trivalent state (4f{sup 5} ) becomes progressively more abundant with increasing s1ze, becoming the dominant state for the bulk metal. These results are interpreted using a model in which band narrowing, due to reduced surface coordination, is more dominant than surface tension effects in establishing the valence of small samarium clusters.

  4. Representations of modality-general valence for videos and music derived from fMRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwan; Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Wedell, Douglas H

    2017-03-01

    This study tested for neural representations of valence that are shared across visual and auditory modalities referred to as modality-general representations. On a given trial participants made either affective or semantic judgments of short silent videos or music samples. For each modality valence was manipulated at three levels, positive, neutral, and negative, while controlling for the level of arousal. Whole-brain crossmodal identification of affect indicated the presence of modality-general valence representations that distinguished 1) positive from negative trials (signed valence) and 2) valenced from non-valenced trials (unsigned valence). These results generalized across the two tasks. Brain regions that were sensitive to valence states in the same way for both modalities were identified by searchlight analysis of fMRI data by comparing the correlation of voxel responses to the same and different valence conditions across the two modalities. These analyses identified seven clusters that distinguished signed valence, unsigned valence or both. Signed valence was represented in the precuneus, unsigned valence in the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus (STS)/postcentral, and middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and both types were represented in the STS/MFG and thalamus. These results support the idea that modality general valence is represented in a network of several locations throughout the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pollution of Lake Mjoesa by brominated flame retardants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlabach, M.; Gundersen, H.; Mariussen, E. [NILU, Kjeller (Norway); Fjeld, E.; Breivik, E. [NIVA, Oslo (Norway); Kjellberg, G. [NIVA, Hamar (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    The worldwide use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is extensive and there are significant release of these components to the environment. The last twenty years the levels of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in biota have increased, and in some areas the levels are comparable or even higher to what is reported for the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). This study was focused on the pollution of PBDEs in Lake Mjoesa, where unusually high concentrations have been found in fish. The objective of this part of the survey was to make a broader documentation of the PBDE levels in sediments and fish, and to localize areas with point sources of PBDEs.

  6. Plasma impregnation of wood with fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabeliña, Karel G.; Lumban, Carmencita O.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-01

    The efficacy of chemical and plasma treatments with phosphate and boric compounds, and nitrogen as flame retardants on wood are compared in this study. The chemical treatment involved the conventional method of spraying the solution over the wood surface at atmospheric condition and chemical vapor deposition in a vacuum chamber. The plasma treatment utilized a dielectric barrier discharge ionizing and decomposing the flame retardants into innocuous simple compounds. Wood samples are immersed in either phosphoric acid, boric acid, hydrogen or nitrogen plasmas or a plasma admixture of two or three compounds at various concentrations and impregnated by the ionized chemical reactants. Chemical changes on the wood samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) while the thermal changes through thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Plasma-treated samples exhibit superior thermal stability and fire retardant properties in terms of highest onset temperature, temperature of maximum pyrolysis, highest residual char percentage and comparably low total percentage weight loss.

  7. Euthanasia and mental retardation: suggesting the unthinkable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, R

    1989-04-01

    Current opinions on euthanasia of persons with mental retardation were discussed within the framework of the development of social policy towards this population. Historians of mental retardation have emphasized that incarceration and sterilization were the only two policy options available in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but a third option, euthanasia, was also suggested. The significance of the euthanasia option as the nation struggled to find a solution to the question of how to deal with what was thought to be a sharp rise in the number of people with mental retardation in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was examined. The responses of service providers to suggestions that euthanasia be implemented were reviewed. The rejection of proposals for euthanasia on moral and religious grounds and on the basis that custodial institutions, based on eugenics principles, were able to achieve the same end through a scientifically justifiable means was explored.

  8. Analysis Of Chemical Bonding Using Ab Initio Valence Bond Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelberts, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, theoretical chemical research is presented in which the Valence Bond (VB) Theory plays a central role. For the last three chapters, the VB method is used, in combination with Magnetically Induced Ring Currents, to analyze the aromaticity of several conjugated molecules. The

  9. Language Civility, Immediacy and Peace Valence among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, since interactions in the university, as in all human societies, are language driven, the language-based negotiation in the university can produce either harmony or discord. This study, thus, examined students' perception of university lecturers' immediacy and civility as they relate to peace valence of lecturers ...

  10. Emotional Valence and Arousal Effects on Memory and Hemispheric Asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mneimne, Malek; Powers, Alice S.; Walton, Kate E.; Kosson, David S.; Fonda, Samantha; Simonetti, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictions based upon the right hemisphere (RH) model, the valence-arousal model, and a recently proposed integrated model (Killgore & Yurgelun-Todd, 2007) of emotion processing by testing immediate recall and recognition memory for positive, negative, and neutral verbal stimuli among 35 right-handed women. Building upon…

  11. "Plug-and-go" strategy to manipulate streptavidin valencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xun; Montiel, Daniel; Li, Hao; Yang, Haw

    2014-08-20

    The streptavidin-biotin set is one of the most widely utilized conjugation pairs in biotechnological applications. The tetravalent nature of streptavidin and its homologues, however, tends to result in such undesirable complications as cross-linking or ill-defined stoichiometry. Here, we describe a mutagenesis-free strategy to manipulate the valencies of wild-type streptavidin that only requires commercially available reagents. The basic idea is simple: one obtains the desired streptavidin valency by blocking off unwanted binding sites using ancillary biotin ("plug"); this way, the extraordinary fM-biotin-binding affinity is fully retained for the remaining sites in streptavidin. In the present implementation, the ancillary biotin is attached to an auxiliary separation handle, negatively charged DNA or His-tagged protein, via a photochemically or enzymatically cleavable linker. Mixing streptavidin with the ancillary biotin construct produces a distribution of streptavidin valencies. The subsequent chromatographic separation readily isolates the construct of desired streptavidin valency, and the auxiliary handles are easily removed afterward ("go"). We demonstrate how this "plug-and-go" strategy allows a precise control for the compositions of streptavidin-biotin conjugates at the single-molecule level. This low-entry-barrier protocol could further expand the application scope of the streptavidin technology.

  12. Are valence and arousal separable in emotional experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Assaf; Pilkiw, Maryna; Banaei, Jasmin; Goldstein, Ariel; Anderson, Adam Keith

    2015-02-01

    The bipolar valence-arousal model of conscious experience of emotions is prominent in emotion research. In this work, we examine the validity of this model in the context of feelings elicited by visual stimuli. In particular, we examine whether arousal has a unique contribution over bivariate valence (separate measures for pleasure and displeasure) in explaining physiological arousal (electrodermal activity, EDA) and self-reported feelings at the level of item-specific responses across and within individuals. Our results suggest that self-reports of arousal have neither an advantage in predicting EDA nor make a unique contribution when valence is present in the model. Acceptance of the null hypothesis was confirmed with the use of the Bayesian information criterion. Arousal also showed no advantage over valence in predicting global feelings, but demonstrated a small unique component (1.5% to 4% of variance explained). These results have practical implications for both experimental design in the study of emotions and the underlying bases of their conscious experience. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Mn valence state and electrode performance of perovskite-type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    increase in the oxidation state of Mn ions was due to the formation of Mn4+ ions and oxygen vacancies. The addition of Cu ions to LSM systems could lead to enhanced electrode performance for oxygen reduction reactions originating from the change in valence of Mn ions. Keywords. Cu-doped LSM; electrical conductivity; ...

  14. Language Civility, Immediacy and Peace Valence among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language Civility, Immediacy and Peace Valence among Nigerian University Academics. Alexander Essien Timothy, Vincent Ugah Uguma. Abstract. The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 16 seeks, in part, to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development ….” Since the university is a vital ...

  15. Effective valence as the control parameter of the superconducting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we have demonstrated that the effective valence of iron can be used as the control parameter to tune the Tc of this family of superconducting materials. This is achieved by postulating that our model of spin fluctuation which has been used to successfully account for the superconductivity in the cuprates in Ref.

  16. Mobile linkers on DNA-coated colloids: valency without patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano; Varilly, Patrick; Mognetti, Bortolo M; Frenkel, Daan

    2014-09-19

    Colloids coated with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) can bind selectively to other colloids coated with complementary ssDNA. The fact that DNA-coated colloids (DNACCs) can bind to specific partners opens the prospect of making colloidal "molecules." However, in order to design DNACC-based molecules, we must be able to control the valency of the colloids, i.e., the number of partners to which a given DNACC can bind. One obvious, but not very simple approach is to decorate the colloidal surface with patches of single-stranded DNA that selectively bind those on other colloids. Here we propose a design principle that exploits many-body effects to control the valency of otherwise isotropic colloids. Using a combination of theory and simulation, we show that we can tune the valency of colloids coated with mobile ssDNA, simply by tuning the nonspecific repulsion between the particles. Our simulations show that the resulting effective interactions lead to low-valency colloids self-assembling in peculiar open structures, very different from those observed in DNACCs with immobile DNA linkers.

  17. Voice and Valency in San Luis Potosi Huasteco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Ledo Yanez, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of the system of transitivity, voice and valency alternations in Huasteco of San Luis Potosi (Mayan) within a functional-typological framework. The study is based on spoken discourse and elicited data collected in the municipalities of Aquismon and Tancanhuitz de Santos in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. The…

  18. verbal extensions: valency decreasing extensions in the basà ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finance

    of the Basà language, data collected for this work include discourse ... Keywords: Basà language, reciprocal, reflexive, valency decreasing verbal .... a body part.” This definition may be associated with some inadequacies with regards to what reflexive actually means. For example, A may perform an action on B which may.

  19. Resonance and Aromaticity : An Ab Initio Valence Bond Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashid, Zahid; van Lenthe, Joop H.; Havenith, Remco W. A.

    2012-01-01

    Resonance energy is one of the criteria to measure aromaticity. The effect of the use of different orbital models is investigated in the calculated resonance energies of cyclic conjugated hydrocarbons within the framework of the ab initio Valence Bond Self-Consistent Field (VBSCF) method. The VB

  20. Experimental evidence of photoinduced valence change of Fe 3 in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Photorefraction; electron paramagnetic resonance of Fe3+; BaTiO3; photo-electron paramagnetic resonance. Abstract. With a view to understanding the role of photo-induced valence changes of impurities in BaTiO3 in the phenomena of photorefraction, EPR experiments were conducted under in situ HeNe laser ...

  1. Arousal and valence effects on event-related P3a and P3b during emotional categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delplanque, Sylvain; Silvert, Laetitia; Hot, Pascal; Rigoulot, Simon; Sequeira, Henrique

    2006-06-01

    Due to the adaptive value of emotional situations, categorizing along the valence dimension may be supported by critical brain functions. The present study examined emotion-cognition relationships by focusing on the influence of an emotional categorization task on the cognitive processing induced by an oddball-like paradigm. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from subjects explicitly asked to categorize along the valence dimension (unpleasant, neutral or pleasant) deviant target pictures embedded in a train of standard stimuli. Late positivities evoked in response to the target pictures were decomposed into a P3a and a P3b and topographical differences were observed according to the valence content of the stimuli. P3a showed enhanced amplitudes at posterior sites in response to unpleasant pictures as compared to both neutral and pleasant pictures. This effect is interpreted as a negativity bias related to attentional processing. The P3b component was sensitive to the arousal value of the stimulation, with higher amplitudes at several posterior sites for both types of emotional pictures. Moreover, unpleasant pictures evoked smaller amplitudes than pleasant ones at fronto-central sites. Thus, the context updating process may be differentially modulated by the affective arousal and valence of the stimulus. The present study supports the assumption that, during an emotional categorization, the emotional content of the stimulus may modulate the reorientation of attention and the subsequent updating process in a specific way.

  2. Emotion Induced Blindness Is More Sensitive to Changes in Arousal As Compared to Valence of the Emotional Distractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divita Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Emotion Induced Blindness (EIB refers to the impairment in the identification of a neutral target image that follows a threatening or fearful distractor image. It has been suggested that valence plays a significant role in driving the perceptual impairment in EIB. Recent findings from the literature suggest that arousal has a very important role in biasing early cognitive functions. Hence, in the present study, we systematically investigate the role of valence (Experiment 1 and arousal (Experiment 2 in determining the impairment in EIB. The results suggest that when valence is controlled for, the stimuli with higher arousal level lead to greater impairment in target detection. Moreover, under high arousal condition, both positive and negative stimuli lead to significantly greater impairment in target detection. Present study suggests that impairment in EIB is sensitive to the arousal component of the emotional image as compared to valence. The arousal biased competition account that explains the effect of arousal on cognitive processing can sufficiently explains the current results.

  3. Recent Developments in Organophosphorus Flame Retardants Containing P-C Bond and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Wendels

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus compounds containing P-C bonds are increasingly developed as flame retardant additives due to their excellent thermal and hydrolytic stability and ease of synthesis. The latest development (since 2010 in organophosphorus flame retardants containing P-C bonds summarized in this review. In this review, we have broadly classified such phosphorus compounds based on the carbon unit linked to the phosphorus atom i.e., could be a part of either an aliphatic or an aromatic unit. We have only considered those published literature where a P-C bond was created as a part of synthetic strategy to make either an intermediate or a final organophosphorus compound with an aim to use it as a flame retardant. General synthetic strategies to create P-C bonds are briefly discussed. Most popular synthetic strategies used for developing P-C containing phosphorus based flame retardants include Michael addition, Michaelis–Arbuzov, Friedels–Crafts and Grignard reactions. In general, most flame retardant derivatives discussed in this review have been prepared via a one- to two-step synthetic strategy with relatively high yields greater than 80%. Specific examples of P-C containing flame retardants synthesized via suitable synthetic strategy and their applications on various polymer systems are described in detail. Aliphatic phosphorus compounds being liquids or low melting solids are generally applied in polymers via coatings (cellulose or are incorporated in the bulk of the polymers (epoxy, polyurethanes during their polymerization as reactive or non-reactive additives. Substituents on the P atoms and the chemistry of the polymer matrix greatly influence the flame retardant behavior of these compounds (condensed phase vs. the gas phase. Recently, aromatic DOPO based phosphinate flame retardants have been developed with relatively higher thermal stabilities (>250 °C. Such compounds have potential as flame retardants for high temperature processable

  4. Recent Developments in Organophosphorus Flame Retardants Containing P-C Bond and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendels, Sophie; Chavez, Thiebault; Bonnet, Martin; Gaan, Sabyasachi

    2017-01-01

    Organophosphorus compounds containing P-C bonds are increasingly developed as flame retardant additives due to their excellent thermal and hydrolytic stability and ease of synthesis. The latest development (since 2010) in organophosphorus flame retardants containing P-C bonds summarized in this review. In this review, we have broadly classified such phosphorus compounds based on the carbon unit linked to the phosphorus atom i.e., could be a part of either an aliphatic or an aromatic unit. We have only considered those published literature where a P-C bond was created as a part of synthetic strategy to make either an intermediate or a final organophosphorus compound with an aim to use it as a flame retardant. General synthetic strategies to create P-C bonds are briefly discussed. Most popular synthetic strategies used for developing P-C containing phosphorus based flame retardants include Michael addition, Michaelis–Arbuzov, Friedels–Crafts and Grignard reactions. In general, most flame retardant derivatives discussed in this review have been prepared via a one- to two-step synthetic strategy with relatively high yields greater than 80%. Specific examples of P-C containing flame retardants synthesized via suitable synthetic strategy and their applications on various polymer systems are described in detail. Aliphatic phosphorus compounds being liquids or low melting solids are generally applied in polymers via coatings (cellulose) or are incorporated in the bulk of the polymers (epoxy, polyurethanes) during their polymerization as reactive or non-reactive additives. Substituents on the P atoms and the chemistry of the polymer matrix greatly influence the flame retardant behavior of these compounds (condensed phase vs. the gas phase). Recently, aromatic DOPO based phosphinate flame retardants have been developed with relatively higher thermal stabilities (>250 °C). Such compounds have potential as flame retardants for high temperature processable polymers such as

  5. Recent Developments in Organophosphorus Flame Retardants Containing P-C Bond and Their Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendels, Sophie; Chavez, Thiebault; Bonnet, Martin; Salmeia, Khalifah A; Gaan, Sabyasachi

    2017-07-11

    Organophosphorus compounds containing P-C bonds are increasingly developed as flame retardant additives due to their excellent thermal and hydrolytic stability and ease of synthesis. The latest development (since 2010) in organophosphorus flame retardants containing P-C bonds summarized in this review. In this review, we have broadly classified such phosphorus compounds based on the carbon unit linked to the phosphorus atom i.e., could be a part of either an aliphatic or an aromatic unit. We have only considered those published literature where a P-C bond was created as a part of synthetic strategy to make either an intermediate or a final organophosphorus compound with an aim to use it as a flame retardant. General synthetic strategies to create P-C bonds are briefly discussed. Most popular synthetic strategies used for developing P-C containing phosphorus based flame retardants include Michael addition, Michaelis-Arbuzov, Friedels-Crafts and Grignard reactions. In general, most flame retardant derivatives discussed in this review have been prepared via a one- to two-step synthetic strategy with relatively high yields greater than 80%. Specific examples of P-C containing flame retardants synthesized via suitable synthetic strategy and their applications on various polymer systems are described in detail. Aliphatic phosphorus compounds being liquids or low melting solids are generally applied in polymers via coatings (cellulose) or are incorporated in the bulk of the polymers (epoxy, polyurethanes) during their polymerization as reactive or non-reactive additives. Substituents on the P atoms and the chemistry of the polymer matrix greatly influence the flame retardant behavior of these compounds (condensed phase vs. the gas phase). Recently, aromatic DOPO based phosphinate flame retardants have been developed with relatively higher thermal stabilities (>250 °C). Such compounds have potential as flame retardants for high temperature processable polymers such as

  6. Puberty in the Girl Who is Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattullo, Ann

    Designed to help mothers of mentally retarded girls deal with the problems and concerns of puberty, the booklet provides information on physical and emotional changes, menstruation, masturbation, heterosexual behavior, contraception, protection against sexual aggression, the possibilities of marriage, and additional sources of information.…

  7. Improving Outcomes for Workers with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornes, Sandra; Rocco, Tonette S.; Rosenberg, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This research presents an analysis of factors predicting job retention, job satisfaction, and job performance of workers with mental retardation. The findings highlight self-determination as a critical skill in predicting the three important employee outcomes. The study examined a hypothesized job retention model and the outcome of the three…

  8. PENETRATING KERATOPLASTY IN MENTALLY RETARDED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Pahor

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Penetrating keratoplasty (PK is rarely performed in mentally retarded patients, first of all because of numerous complications after surgery such as inflammation, self-inflicted injury, injury and because of difficult post-operative treatment. The aim of this study was to present the success of PK in this patients. In 16 years (from May 1984 to May 2000 201 PK were performed, but only three in mentally retarded patients.Methods. We present three cases of PK in mentally retarded patients. All the patients were men. They were 14, 16 and 27 year old. The indication for PK were in two cases acute keratoconus and in one case acute keratoglobus. The mean followup was 24.6 months. Trepanation was made with rotor threpin and donor material was sutured using single continuous 10-0 nylon suture.Results. In two cases keratoplasties stayed clear. Visual acuities were 0,4 and 0,5. In one patient with very aggressive behaviour graft failure developed with significant corneal vascularisation. Re-keratoplasty was not performed.Conclusions. Adequate post-operative care following PK in mentally retarded patients is the most important factor for the success of transplantation. The indication for the surgery must be made very carefully especially in self-aggressive patients in residential care.

  9. Flame retardant cotton barrier nonwovens for mattresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to regulation CPSC 16 CFR 1633, every new residential mattress sold in the United States since July 2007 must resist ignition by open flame. An environmentally benign “green”, inexpensive way to meet this regulation is to use a low-cost flame retardant (FR) barrier fabric. In this study, a...

  10. Blind Children in Mental Retardation Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogow, Sally M.

    The paper reviews problems and challenges in serving blind children in mental retardation facilities. Incidence figures for institutionalized blind multiply handicapped children are cited, and problems of assessing such residents are seen to include uneven development and lack of standardized evaluation measures. The impact of ward management and…

  11. Assessment of Depression in Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavidez, Debra; Matson, Johnny L.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-five adolescents with mild to severe levels of mental retardation were compared with 25 normal intelligence adolescents on self-report and informant versions of childhood depression measures. Results indicated that the Children's Depression Inventory, Bellevue Index of Depression, and Reynolds Child Depression Scale may be effective…

  12. Euthanasia and Mental Retardation: Suggesting the Unthinkable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Russell

    1989-01-01

    The article examines current opinions toward euthanasia of persons with mental retardation in light of the history of public and professional attitudes. It also discusses the rejection of euthanasia on moral and religious grounds, and notes the use of lifelong incarceration, based on eugenics principles, to accomplish similar ends. (DB)

  13. College Education for Mentally Retarded Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Larry A.; Moe, Randi

    1980-01-01

    Postsecondary education is a service system which is underutilized by mentally retarded (MR) adults. Like students with other disabilities, MR adults have recently been attending college in increased numbers largely as a result of the equal treatment guarantee of Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973. (Author/PHR)

  14. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  15. Cone calorimeter study of polyethylene flame retarded with expandable graphite and intumescent fire-retardant additives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, HR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene was flame retarded with two intumescent-type additives, 3,5-diaminobenzoic acid phosphate and ethylenediamine phosphate, which differ with respect to their decomposition onset temperatures, along with varying ratios of two grades...

  16. Approach and withdrawal tendencies during written word processing: effects of task, emotional valence and emotional arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Citron, Francesca M. M.; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behaviour (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implic...

  17. Effectiveness of Flame Retardants in TufFoam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelow, Alexis Elizabeth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Nissen, April [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Massey, Lee Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    An investigation of polyurethane foam filled with known flame retardant fillers including hydroxides, melamine, phosphate-containing compounds, and melamine phosphates was carried out to produce a low-cost material with high flame retardant efficiency. The impact of flame retardant fillers on the physical properties such a s composite foam density, glass transition temperature, storage modulus, and thermal expansion of composite foams was investigated with the goal of synthesizing a robust rigid foam with excellent flame retardant properties.

  18. Work Valence as a Predictor of Academic Achievement in the Family Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik; Ferrari, Lea; Nota, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study asserts a theoretical model of academic and work socialization within the family setting. The presumed associations between parents' work valences, children's work valences and valence perceptions, and children's academic interest and achievement are tested. The results suggest that children's perceptions of parents mediate the…

  19. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children's memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can…

  20. Distinct Brain Systems Underlie the Processing of Valence and Arousal of Affective Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielen, M. M. A.; Heslenfeld, D. J.; Heinen, K.; Van Strien, J. W.; Witter, M. P.; Jonker, C.; Veltman, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Valence and arousal are thought to be the primary dimensions of human emotion. However, the degree to which valence and arousal interact in determining brain responses to emotional pictures is still elusive. This functional MRI study aimed to delineate neural systems responding to valence and arousal, and their interaction. We measured neural…

  1. Magnetic-field-induced valence transition in rare-earth systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    loys are induced by pressure, temperature or chemical alloying. The change in the valence state of rare-earth ion is found to be either continuous or discontinuous. One of the com- mon features of all the systems which show valence instabilities is that, in the intermediate valence phase, the system fluctuates between a ...

  2. Valence-Specific Laterality Effects in Vocal Emotion: Interactions with Stimulus Type, Blocking and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepman, Astrid; Rodway, Paul; Geddes, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Valence-specific laterality effects have been frequently obtained in facial emotion perception but not in vocal emotion perception. We report a dichotic listening study further examining whether valence-specific laterality effects generalise to vocal emotions. Based on previous literature, we tested whether valence-specific laterality effects were…

  3. Distinct brain systems underlie the processing of valence and arousal of affective pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M. M. A.; Heslenfeld, D. J.; Heinen, K.; van Strien, J. W.; Witter, M. P.; Jonker, C.; Veltman, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Valence and arousal are thought to be the primary dimensions of human emotion. However, the degree to which valence and arousal interact in determining brain responses to emotional pictures is still elusive. This functional MRI study aimed to delineate neural systems responding to valence and

  4. Stigma Perception and Social Adjustment of Mentally Retarded Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Frederick X.

    Two studies attempted to assess the effect of the mental retardation label on the formation of social impressions in mentally retarded (MR) adults. In the first study, 123 mildly retarded students, half of whom were institutionalized were interviewed and asked to respond to questions about individuals pictured (some of whom were labeled as MR).…

  5. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, and smoking) in 329 adults with mental retardation residing in various settings with subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study found that adults with mental retardation had cardiovascular risk profiles similar to those of individuals without mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  6. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mild Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    To investigate the relation between low level lead absorption and mild mental retardation, hair lead concentrations were compared in a group of 40 mildly retarded children "etiology unknown" with a control group of 20 children. Children with probable cause for retardation were excluded from the sample as were children with a history of lead…

  7. Obesity of Mentally Retarded Individuals: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Jennifer E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Research on prevalence, characteristics, and treatment of obesity of mentally retarded individuals was reviewed. Obesity is prevalent in retarded Ss, with a greater incidence among females than males. Obese retarded Ss as a group can be distinguished from nonobese peers by physical condition, but not by eating style or personality characteristics.…

  8. Suicidal Tendencies of Mentally Retarded Adults in Community Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Betsey A.; Laman, David S.

    1988-01-01

    Mentally retarded suicide attempters/ideators (n=22) were compared to 22 nonsuicidal mentally retarded adults referred for outpatient mental health services. Few differences were found between the two groups. The typical suicide attempter was a young adult with mild to borderline mental retardation and a physical disability or chronic medical…

  9. Phosphorus flame retardants: Properties, production, environmental occurrence, toxicity and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, I.; de Boer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the ban on some brominated flame retardants (BFRs), phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs), which were responsible for 20% of the flame retardant (FR) consumption in 2006 in Europe, are often proposed as alternatives for BFRs. PFRs can be divided in three main groups, inorganic, organic and

  10. Recycling of plastic waste: Screening for brominated flame retardants (BFRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Granby, K; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2017-11-01

    Flame retardants are chemicals vital for reducing risks of fire and preventing human casualties and property losses. Due to the abundance, low cost and high performance of bromine, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have had a significant share of the market for years. Physical stability on the other hand, has resulted in dispersion and accumulation of selected BFRs in the environment and receiving biota. A wide range of plastic products may contain BFRs. This affects the quality of waste plastics as secondary resource: material recycling may potentially reintroduce the BFRs into new plastic product cycles and lead to increased exposure levels, e.g. through use of plastic packaging materials. To provide quantitative and qualitative data on presence of BFRs in plastics, we analysed bromophenols (tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), dibromophenols (2,4- and 2,6-DBP) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP)), hexabromocyclododecane stereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD), as well as selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in samples of household waste plastics, virgin and recycled plastics. A considerable number of samples contained BFRs, with highest concentrations associated with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS, up to 26,000,000ngTBBPA/g) and polystyrene (PS, up to 330,000ng∑HBCD/g). Abundancy in low concentrations of some BFRs in plastic samples suggested either unintended addition in plastic products or degradation of higher molecular weight BFRs. The presence of currently restricted flame retardants (PBDEs and HBCD) identified in the plastic samples illustrates that circular material flows may be contaminated for extended periods. The screening clearly showed a need for improved documentation and monitoring of the presence of BFRs in plastic waste routed to recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of Chromium Valence Over the Range Cr(0)-Cr(VI) by Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    be of Cr (VI): Cr (V) [14,40-45] and Cr (IV) [46]. To fully altered by microbes [11-13], green algae [14], higher plants understand the geochemistry of Cr ... Cr (III) by bacteria [42,44,45] and Further, nearly all mineralized Cr in the terrestrial crust is green algae [14], reacts with diphenylcarbazide to...Determination of chromium valence over the range Cr (O)- Cr (VI) by electron energy loss spectroscopy Tyrone L. Daultona , Brenda J. Littleb ’Marine

  12. Animal detection and identification in natural scenes: image statistics and emotional valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Marnix; Hilger, Maximilian; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2012-01-26

    Humans process natural scenes rapidly and accurately. Low-level image features and emotional valence affect such processing but have mostly been studied in isolation. At which processing stage these factors operate and how they interact has remained largely unaddressed. Here, we briefly presented natural images and asked observers to report the presence or absence of an animal (detection), species of the detected animal (identification), and their confidence. In a second experiment, the same observers rated images with respect to their emotional affect and estimated their anxiety when imagining a real-life encounter with the depicted animal. We found that detection and identification improved with increasing image luminance, background contrast, animal saturation, and luminance plus color contrast between target and background. Surprisingly, animals associated with lower anxiety were detected faster and identified with higher confidence, and emotional affect was a better predictor of performance than anxiety. Pupil size correlated with detection, identification, and emotional valence judgments at different time points after image presentation. Remarkably, images of threatening animals induced smaller pupil sizes, and observers with higher mean anxiety ratings had smaller pupils on average. In sum, rapid visual processing depends on contrasts between target and background features rather than overall visual context, is negatively affected by anxiety, and finds its processing stages differentially reflected in the pupillary response.

  13. A Family Genetic Study of Autism Associated with Profound Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Elizabeth; Berument, Sibel Kazak; Pickles, Andrew; Tomlins, Megan; Bailey, Anthony; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Rutter, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 47 families of individuals (ages 4-34) with autism and severe mental retardation found the familial loading for autism and for the broader phenotype was closely comparable to that in a study of children with higher IQ autism, and different from that for children with Down syndrome. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  14. Dementia and Depression in Elders with Mental Retardation: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Dennis C.; Wadsworth, John S.

    1990-01-01

    This article investigates cognitive decline and depressive symptomatology among older adults with mental retardation. A pilot study of assessment instruments is reported. Findings reveal that decreasing cognitive ability is associated with higher rates of observed depression and reported behavioral problems. Cognitive decline was associated with…

  15. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales with Mentally Retarded Adults: Informant versus Self-Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Sylvia L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The validity of using self report to assess competence on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales was investigated with 16 mentally retarded adults. Self report and informant report showed close agreement for both daily living skills and socialization. Higher functioning subjects provided more information regarding problem behaviors than did their…

  16. A functionalized surface modification with vanadium nanoparticles of various valences against implant-associated bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxing; Zhou, Huaijuan; Guo, Geyong; Cheng, Tao; Peng, Xiaochun; Mao, Xin; Li, Jinhua; Zhang, Xianlong

    2017-01-01

    Bloodstream infection, especially with implants involved, is an often life-threatening condition with high mortality rates, imposing a heavy burden on patients and medical systems. Herein, we firstly deposited homogeneous vanadium metal, V2O3, VO2, and V2O5 nanofilms on quartz glass by magnetron sputtering. Using these platforms, we further investigated the potential antimicrobial efficiency of these nano-VOx films and the interactions of human erythrocytes and bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) with our samples in a novel cell-bacteria coculture model. It was demonstrated that these nano-VOx precipitated favorable antibacterial activity on both bacteria, especially on S. aureus, and this effect increased with higher vanadium valence. A possible mechanism accountable for these results might be elevated levels of vanadium-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species. More importantly, based on hemolysis assays, our nano-VOx films were found to be able to kill prokaryotic cells but were not toxic to mammalian cells, holding the potential for the prevention of implant-related hematogenous infections. As far as we know, this is the first report wherein such nano-VOx films have assisted human erythrocytes to combat bacteria in a valence-dependent manner. Additionally, vanadium ions were released from these nano-VOx films in a sustained manner, and low-valence films possessed better biocompatibility with human fibroblasts. This work may provide new insights for biomedical applications of inorganic vanadium compounds and attract growing attention in this field. From the perspective of surface modification and functionalization, this study holds promise to avail the prophylaxis of bloodstream infections involving implantable biomedical devices.

  17. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR): epidemiology and etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Agustín; Carceller, Raquel; Tobajas, Javier

    2009-02-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is mainly due to a pathologic slow-down in the fetal growth pace, resulting in a fetus that is unable to reach its growth potential. IUGR frequency will vary depending on the discrimination criteria adopted. It is extremely important to use local or national fetal growth graphs in order to avoid some confounding factors. IUGR incidence in newborns would be between 3% and 7% of the total population. In our experience it is 5.13% a figure similar to the one obtained by other authors but with a progressively higher incidence during the last decade. There are multiple maternal factors that can generally be grouped into constitutional and general factors given that they affect age, weight, race, maternal cardiac volume, etc, socioeconomic factors with key incidence in the mother's nutrition level, where a poor maternal nutrition level would be the key factor in this group. We have evaluated multiple factors as possible contributors to the IUGR risk: race, parents' age, mother's height (cm), mother's birth weight and before pregnancy (kg), ponderal gain and blood pressure during pregnancy, and previous SGA newborns. Socioeconomic factors like social class, parents' profession, habitual residence, salary, immigration, and diet were also evaluated. We also included variables such as total daily working time and time mothers spent standing up, daily sleeping time (hrs), stress self-perception test at work and primiparity age. Toxic factors during pregnancy: tobacco (active and passive), alcohol, drugs and coffee consumption. Fetal or utero-placental factors were considered. In our study, the most significant etiologic factors were: Active and passive tobacco consuming, mother's stress level, increase of total months worked during pregnancy, total daily working hours and time mothers spent standing up and finally, the parent's height. Our data support the main objective of reducing the incidence of SGA newborns after IUGR by fighting

  18. Preparation, characterization of microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate and its flame retardancy in polyurethane composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Ming-Yuan; Chen, Wei-Jen [Department of Aviation Mechanical Engineering, China University of Science and Technology, Hsinchu County, 303, Taiwan (China); Kuan, Chen-Feng; Kuan, Hsu-Chiang [Department of Computer Application Engineering, Far East University, Tainan, 744, Taiwan (China); Yang, Jia-Ming [Green Flame Retardant Material Research Laboratory, Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hung-Kuang University, Taichung, 433, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Chin-Lung, E-mail: dragon@sunrise.hk.edu.tw [Green Flame Retardant Material Research Laboratory, Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hung-Kuang University, Taichung, 433, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-15

    In this study, a novel microencapsulated flame retardant containing ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and an 4,4′-oxydianiline-formaldehyde (OF) resin as the core and shell material was synthesized using in situ polymerization technology. The structure and performance of OF microencapsulated APP (OFAPP) were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The thermal properties of OFAPP were systematically analyzed through thermogravimetric analysis. Flame retardancy tests, such as limiting oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94, were conducted to evaluate the effect of varying the composition of APP and OFAPP in silanol-terminated polyurethane (Si-PU) composites. The results indicated that the microencapsulation of APP with the OF resin resulted in improved hydrophobicity. The results also revealed that the flame retardancy of the Si-PU/OFAPP composite (LOI = 37%) was higher than that of the Si-PU/APP composite (LOI = 23%) at the same additive loading. - Highlights: • A novel microencapsulated flame retardant was synthesized using in situ polymerization technology. • The microencapsulation of ammonium polyphosphate with the polymer resin resulted in improved hydrophobicity. • Polyurethane composites have excellent thermal stability and flame retardance.

  19. Equally unequal: gender discrimination in the workplace among adults with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, Elona; Wolfson, Hagit; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira

    2003-01-01

    Gender discrimination in the work place has been widely reported. Women are usually discriminated against both with respect to level of occupation and salary. The current study explored the correlation between gender and employment among adults with mental retardation, specifically, whether gender discrimination in the work place is as prominent among people with mental retardation as in the general population. Level of occupation and salary earned were studied in 227 adults with mild and moderate mental retardation residing in institutions, hostels, and sheltered homes in Israel. The findings suggest a correlation between gender and employment similar to that in the general population. Women were found to be employed mainly in sheltered workshops and lower levels of occupation, and to earn significantly less than the men. However, closer examination of each work place revealed that within each level of occupation there were no significant gender differences in salary. The finding suggests that while women with mental retardation earn lower salaries than men, this is mainly the result of their lower level of occupation. Rehabilitation efforts should therefore be directed toward ensuring higher levels of occupation as well as community employment among women with mental retardation.

  20. The chemical bond in inorganic chemistry the bond valence model

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I David

    2016-01-01

    The bond valence model is a version of the ionic model in which the chemical constraints are expressed in terms of localized chemical bonds formed by the valence charge of the atoms. Theorems derived from the properties of the electrostatic flux predict the rules obeyed by both ionic and covalent bonds. They make quantitative predictions of coordination number, crystal structure, bond lengths and bond angles. Bond stability depends on the matching of the bonding strengths of the atoms, while the conflicting requirements of chemistry and space lead to the structural instabilities responsible for the unusual physical properties displayed by some materials. The model has applications in many fields ranging from mineralogy to molecular biology.

  1. Emotional valence and arousal interact in attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Lisa N; Smilek, Daniel; Eich, Eric; Enns, James T

    2008-03-01

    A recent study demonstrated that observers' ability to identify targets in a rapid visual sequence was enhanced when they simultaneously listened to happy music. In the study reported here, we examined how the emotion-attention relationship is influenced by changes in both mood valence (negative vs. positive) and arousal (low vs. high). We used a standard induction procedure to generate calm, happy, sad, and anxious moods in participants. Results for an attentional blink task showed no differences in first-target accuracy, but second-target accuracy was highest for participants with low arousal and negative affect (sad), lowest for those with strong arousal and negative affect (anxious), and intermediate for those with positive affect regardless of their arousal (calm, happy). We discuss implications of this valence-arousal interaction for the control of visual attention.

  2. Human Amygdala Tracks a Feature-Based Valence Signal Embedded within the Facial Expression of Surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M Justin; Mattek, Alison M; Bennett, Randi H; Solomon, Kimberly M; Shin, Jin; Whalen, Paul J

    2017-09-27

    Human amygdala function has been traditionally associated with processing the affective valence (negative vs positive) of an emotionally charged event, especially those that signal fear or threat. However, this account of human amygdala function can be explained by alternative views, which posit that the amygdala might be tuned to either (1) general emotional arousal (activation vs deactivation) or (2) specific emotion categories (fear vs happy). Delineating the pure effects of valence independent of arousal or emotion category is a challenging task, given that these variables naturally covary under many circumstances. To circumvent this issue and test the sensitivity of the human amygdala to valence values specifically, we measured the dimension of valence within the single facial expression category of surprise. Given the inherent valence ambiguity of this category, we show that surprised expression exemplars are attributed valence and arousal values that are uniquely and naturally uncorrelated. We then present fMRI data from both sexes, showing that the amygdala tracks these consensus valence values. Finally, we provide evidence that these valence values are linked to specific visual features of the mouth region, isolating the signal by which the amygdala detects this valence information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There is an open question as to whether human amygdala function tracks the valence value of cues in the environment, as opposed to either a more general emotional arousal value or a more specific emotion category distinction. Here, we demonstrate the utility of surprised facial expressions because exemplars within this emotion category take on valence values spanning the dimension of bipolar valence (positive to negative) at a consistent level of emotional arousal. Functional neuroimaging data showed that amygdala responses tracked the valence of surprised facial expressions, unconfounded by arousal. Furthermore, a machine learning classifier identified

  3. Recurrent deletion of ZNF630 at Xp11.23 is not associated with mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lugtenberg, Dorien; Zangrande-Vieira, Luiz; Kirchhoff, Maria

    2010-01-01

    that the deletions resulted from non-allelic homologous recombination. In 2,121 healthy male controls, 10 ZNF630 deletions were identified. In total, there was a 1.6-fold higher frequency of this deletion in males with mental retardation as compared to controls, but this increase was not statistically significant (P......ZNF630 is a member of the primate-specific Xp11 zinc finger gene cluster that consists of six closely related genes, of which ZNF41, ZNF81, and ZNF674 have been shown to be involved in mental retardation. This suggests that mutations of ZNF630 might influence cognitive function. Here, we detected...... 12 ZNF630 deletions in a total of 1,562 male patients with mental retardation from Brazil, USA, Australia, and Europe. The breakpoints were analyzed in 10 families, and in all cases they were located within two segmental duplications that share more than 99% sequence identity, indicating...

  4. Continuum-limit scaling of overlap fermions as valence quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Herdoiza, Gregorio; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2009-10-15

    We present the results of a mixed action approach, employing dynamical twisted mass fermions in the sea sector and overlap valence fermions, with the aim of testing the continuum limit scaling behaviour of physical quantities, taking the pion decay constant as an example. To render the computations practical, we impose for this purpose a fixed finite volume with lattice size L{approx}1.3 fm. We also briefly review the techniques we have used to deal with overlap fermions. (orig.)

  5. Quantum Phase Transitions around the Staggered Valence Bond Solid

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Cenke; Balents, Leon

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent numerical results, we study the quantum phase transitions between Z_2 spin liquid, Neel ordered, and various valence bond solid (VBS) states on the honeycomb and square lattices, with emphasis on the staggered VBS. In contrast to the well-understood columnar VBS order, the staggered VBS is not described by an XY order parameter with Z_N anisotropy close to these quantum phase transitions. Instead, we demonstrate that on the honeycomb lattice, the staggered VBS is more appr...

  6. Effects of musical valence on the cognitive processing of lyrics

    OpenAIRE

    Fiveash, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The effects of music on the brain have been extensively researched, and numerous connections have been found between music and language, music and emotion, and music and cognitive processing. Despite this work, these three research areas have never before been drawn together in a single research paradigm. This is significant as their combination could lead to valuable insights into the effects of musical valence on the cognitive processing of lyrics. Based on the feelings-as-information theor...

  7. Feedback Valence Affects Auditory Perceptual Learning Independently of Feedback Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R.; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they were doing equally well, while 10% positive or 90% negative feedback informed them they were doing equally badly. In all conditions the feedback was random in relation to the listeners’ responses (because the task was to discriminate three identical tones), yet both the valence (negative vs. positive) and the probability of feedback (10% vs. 90%) affected learning. Feedback that informed listeners they were doing badly resulted in better post-training performance than feedback that informed them they were doing well, independent of valence. In addition, positive feedback during training resulted in better post-training performance than negative feedback, but only positive feedback indicating listeners were doing badly on the task resulted in learning. As we have previously speculated, feedback that better reflected the difficulty of the task was more effective in driving learning than feedback that suggested performance was better than it should have been given perceived task difficulty. But contrary to expectations, positive feedback was more effective than negative feedback in driving learning. Feedback thus had two separable effects on learning: feedback valence affected motivation on a subjectively difficult task, and learning occurred only when feedback probability reflected the subjective difficulty. To optimize learning, training programs need to take into consideration both feedback valence and probability. PMID:25946173

  8. Sketching the pion's valence-quark generalised parton distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mezrag

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to learn effectively from measurements of generalised parton distributions (GPDs, it is desirable to compute them using a framework that can potentially connect empirical information with basic features of the Standard Model. We sketch an approach to such computations, based upon a rainbow-ladder (RL truncation of QCD's Dyson–Schwinger equations and exemplified via the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD, Hπv(x,ξ,t. Our analysis focuses primarily on ξ=0, although we also capitalise on the symmetry-preserving nature of the RL truncation by connecting Hπv(x,ξ=±1,t with the pion's valence-quark parton distribution amplitude. We explain that the impulse-approximation used hitherto to define the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD is generally invalid owing to omission of contributions from the gluons which bind dressed-quarks into the pion. A simple correction enables us to identify a practicable improvement to the approximation for Hπv(x,0,t, expressed as the Radon transform of a single amplitude. Therewith we obtain results for Hπv(x,0,t and the associated impact-parameter dependent distribution, qπv(x,|b→⊥|, which provide a qualitatively sound picture of the pion's dressed-quark structure at a hadronic scale. We evolve the distributions to a scale ζ=2 GeV, so as to facilitate comparisons in future with results from experiment or other nonperturbative methods.

  9. Basic features of the pion valence-quark distribution function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The impulse-approximation expression used hitherto to define the pion's valence-quark distribution function is flawed because it omits contributions from the gluons which bind quarks into the pion. A corrected leading-order expression produces the model-independent result that quarks dressed via the rainbow–ladder truncation, or any practical analogue, carry all the pion's light-front momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale. Corrections to the leading contribution may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea-quarks. Working with available empirical information, we use an algebraic model to express the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison with experiment that allows us to highlight the basic features of the pion's measurable valence-quark distribution, qπ(x; namely, at a characteristic hadronic scale, qπ(x∼(1−x2 for x≳0.85; and the valence-quarks carry approximately two-thirds of the pion's light-front momentum.

  10. Interpersonal Communication of Children with Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyah Nur'aini Hanun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tunagrahita were a terminology to called the children with mentally retarded conditions. This conditions caused these children having difficulties at least on four areas, related with attention, memory, language, and academics. The research problem is how interpersonal communication tunagrahita in Dormitory Extraordinary Education Foundation (YPLB Cipaganti Bandung. This research’s aim is to seek the interpersonal communication phenomenon of children with mentally retarded in YPLB Cipaganti Dormitory. The research method which were used is the qualitative method with communication Ethnography approach and Symbolic Interactionism theory to have comprehensive descriptions about life reality of mentally retarded’s children in YPLB Cipaganti Dormitory. Data obtained by participation observer, unstructured interviews, and documentary study. The result showed that interpersonal interactions are done with each child boarding and with the management of the hostel, is a series of unique events and interpersonal communication with a distinctive circular process that takes place continuously.

  11. Electrophoretic Retardation of Colloidal Particles in Nonpolar Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Strubbe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have measured the electrophoretic mobility of single, optically trapped colloidal particles, while gradually depleting the co-ions and counterions in the liquid around the particle by applying a dc voltage. This is achieved in a nonpolar liquid, where charged reverse micelles act as co-ions and counterions. By increasing the dc voltage, the mobility first increases when the concentrations of co-ions and counterions near the particle start to decrease. At sufficiently high dc voltage (around 2 V, the mobility reaches a saturation value when the co-ions and counterions are fully separated. The increase in mobility is larger when the equilibrium ionic strength is higher. The dependence of the experimental data on the equilibrium ionic strength and on the applied voltage is in good agreement with the standard theory of electrophoretic retardation, assuming that the bare particle charge remains constant. This method is useful for studying the electrophoretic retardation effect and charging mechanisms for nonpolar colloids, and it sheds light on previously unexplained particle acceleration in electronic ink devices.

  12. Estimating valence from the sound of a word: Computational, experimental, and cross-linguistic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Max; Qu, Zhan

    2017-06-01

    It is assumed linguistic symbols must be grounded in perceptual information to attain meaning, because the sound of a word in a language has an arbitrary relation with its referent. This paper demonstrates that a strong arbitrariness claim should be reconsidered. In a computational study, we showed that one phonological feature (nasals in the beginning of a word) predicted negative valence in three European languages (English, Dutch, and German) and positive valence in Chinese. In three experiments, we tested whether participants used this feature in estimating the valence of a word. In Experiment 1, Chinese and Dutch participants rated the valence of written valence-neutral words, with Chinese participants rating the nasal-first neutral-valence words more positive and the Dutch participants rating nasal-first neutral-valence words more negative. In Experiment 2, Chinese (and Dutch) participants rated the valence of Dutch (and Chinese) written valence-neutral words without being able to understand the meaning of these words. The patterns replicated the valence patterns from Experiment 1. When the written words from Experiment 2 were transformed into spoken words, results in Experiment 3 again showed that participants estimated the valence of words on the basis of the sound of the word. The computational study and psycholinguistic experiments indicated that language users can bootstrap meaning from the sound of a word.

  13. Role of valence fluctuations in the superconductivity of Ce122 compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, H; Ikeda, Y; Jarrige, I; Tsujii, N; Zekko, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Mizuki, J; Lin, J-F; Hiraoka, N; Ishii, H; Tsuei, K-D; Kobayashi, T C; Honda, F; Onuki, Y

    2014-08-22

    Pressure dependence of the Ce valence in CeCu(2)Ge(2) has been measured up to 24 GPa at 300 K and to 17 GPa at 18-20 K using x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the partial fluorescence yield. A smooth increase of the Ce valence with pressure is observed across the two superconducting (SC) regions without any noticeable irregularity. The chemical pressure dependence of the Ce valence was also measured in Ce(Cu(1-x)Ni(x))(2)Si(2) at 20 K. A very weak, monotonic increase of the valence with x was observed, without any significant change in the two SC regions. Within experimental uncertainties, our results show no evidence for the valence transition with an abrupt change in the valence state near the SC II region, challenging the valence-fluctuation mediated superconductivity model in these compounds at high pressure and low temperature.

  14. Psychomotor Retardation in untreated depressed elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Lia Beheydt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR is one of the core features in depression according to 17 DSM V1, but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study 18 investigating psychomotor retardation in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant 19 effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic 20 medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched 21 control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical 22 depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, 23 clinical ratings of psychomotor retardation and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. 24 Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method (GLM multivariate analysis of variance to 25 compare the clinical, cognitive and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients 26 performed worse on all clinical, cognitive and psychomotor retardation measures. Both groups 27 showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger 28 for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: due to the restrictive 29 inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a 30 medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric 31 patients was found,. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive 32 load, it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression.

  15. Interactions between incentive valence and action information in a cued approach-avoidance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoofs, Vincent; Carsten, Thomas; Boehler, C Nico; Krebs, Ruth M

    2018-01-10

    Environmental stimuli can provoke specific response tendencies depending on their incentive valence. While some studies report positive-approach and negative-avoidance biases, others find no such mappings. To further illuminate the relationship between incentive valence and action requirement, we combined a cued monetary incentive paradigm with an approach/avoidance joystick task. Incentive type was manipulated between groups: The reward group won money, while the punishment group avoided losing money for correct and fast responses to targets following incentive cues. Depending on their orientations, targets had to be 'approached' or 'avoided'. Importantly, incentive valence (signaled by cue color) was orthogonal to action requirement (target orientation). Moreover, targets could carry valence-associated information or not (target color), which was, however, task-irrelevant. First, we observed that both valence cues (reward/punishment) improved performance compared to neutral cues, independent of the required action (approach/avoid), suggesting that advance valence cues do not necessarily produce specific action biases. Second, task-irrelevant valence associations with targets promoted action biases, with valence-associated targets facilitating approach and impairing avoid responses. Importantly, this approach bias for valence-associated targets was observed in both groups and hence occurred independently of absolute valence ('unsigned'). This rather unexpected finding might be related to the absence of a direct contrast between positive valence and negative valence within groups and the common goal to respond fast and accurately in all incentive trials. Together, our results seem to challenge the notion that monetary incentives trigger 'hard-wired' valence-action biases in that specific design choices seem to modulate the presence and/or direction of valence-action biases.

  16. Flame Retardant Polyamide Fibres: The Challenge of Minimising Flame Retardant Additive Contents with Added Nanoclays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Horrocks

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work shows that halogen-free, flame retarded polyamide 6 (PA6, fabrics may be produced in which component fibres still have acceptable tensile properties and low levels (preferably ≤10 wt % of additives by incorporating a nanoclay along with two types of flame retardant formulations. The latter include (i aluminium diethyl phosphinate (AlPi at 10 wt %, known to work principally in the vapour phase and (ii ammonium sulphamate (AS/dipentaerythritol (DP system present at 2.5 and 1 wt % respectively, believed to be condense phase active. The nanoclay chosen is an organically modified montmorillonite clay, Cloisite 25A. The effect of each additive system is analysed in terms of its ability to maximise both filament tensile properties relative to 100% PA6 and flame retardant behaviour of knitted fabrics in a vertical orientation. None of the AlPi-containing formulations achieved self-extinguishability, although the presence of nanoclay promoted lower burning and melt dripping rates. The AS/DP-containing formulations with total flame retardant levels of 5.5 wt % or less showed far superior properties and with nanoclay, showed fabric extinction times ≤ 39 s and reduced melt dripping. The tensile and flammability results, supported by thermogravimetric analysis, have been interpreted in terms of the mechanism of action of each flame retardant/nanoclay type.

  17. Embodied simulation of emotional valence: Facial muscle responses to abstract and concrete words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künecke, Janina; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin; Palazova, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Semantic knowledge is thought to be at least partially grounded in sensory, motor, and affective information, acquired through experiences in our inner and outer world. The reactivation of experience-related information during meaning access is called simulation. In the affective simulation account, it is assumed that the grounding information depends on the concepts' concreteness. Whereas abstract concepts are thought to be mainly represented through affective experiential information, concrete words rely more on sensory-motor experiential information. To test this hypothesis, we measured facial muscle activity as an indicator of affective simulation during visual word recognition. Words varied on the dimensions of concreteness and valence. Behavioral and electromyographic data were analyzed with linear mixed-effects models with maximal random effect structure to optimize generalization over participants and word samples. Contrary to this hypothesis, we found a valence effect in the m. corrugator supercilii only in response to concrete but not to abstract words. Our data show that affective simulation as measured with facial muscle activity occurs in response to concrete rather than to abstract words. More concrete words are supposed to have higher context availability and richer visual imagery, which might promote affective simulation on the expressive level of facial muscle activity. The results are in line with embodied accounts of semantic representation but speak against its predominant role for representing affective information in abstract concepts. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  18. Stress and emotional valence effects on children's versus adolescents' true and false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quas, Jodi A; Rush, Elizabeth B; Yim, Ilona S; Edelstein, Robin S; Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in understanding how stress influences memory accuracy and errors, particularly in children, methodological limitations have made it difficult to examine the effects of stress independent of the effects of the emotional valence of to-be-remembered information in developmental populations. In this study, we manipulated stress levels in 7-8- and 12-14-year-olds and then exposed them to negative, neutral, and positive word lists. Shortly afterward, we tested their recognition memory for the words and false memory for non-presented but related words. Adolescents in the high-stress condition were more accurate than those in the low-stress condition, while children's accuracy did not differ across stress conditions. Also, among adolescents, accuracy and errors were higher for the negative than positive words, while in children, word valence was unrelated to accuracy. Finally, increases in children's and adolescents' cortisol responses, especially in the high-stress condition, were related to greater accuracy but not false memories and only for positive emotional words. Findings suggest that stress at encoding, as well as the emotional content of to-be-remembered information, may influence memory in different ways across development, highlighting the need for greater complexity in existing models of true and false memory formation.

  19. Electronic structure and positron annihilation in alkali metals: isolation of ionic core contribution and valence high-momentum components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sob, M. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno. Ustav Fyzikalni Metalurgie)

    1985-01-01

    Momentum densities of annihilation pairs from valence as well as from ionic core electrons in alkali metals are calculated ab initio and compared with the experimental results. It is shown that the valence high-momentum components constitute a great deal (23-34% in Na-Cs and probably even more in Li) of the Gaussian part of the angular correlation curves. The average core enhancement factor ..gamma..sub(c) ranges from 1.5 (Li) to 7.1 (Cs) and may be well expressed by a logarithmic function of ionic core polarizability. The presented values of ..gamma..sub(c) are much higher than the core enhancement factors in the high-momentum (> approx. 15 mrad) region which, according to the recent theory of Bonderup, Andersen and Lowy, should not be very different from unity.

  20. Vibronic couplings in the C 1s-Rydberg and valence excitations of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, revealed by angle-resolved photoion yield spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Suomi [Graduate School for Advanced Studies, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Gejo, Tatsuo [University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho 678-1297 (Japan); Hiyama, Miyabi [Graduate School for Advanced Studies, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Kosugi, Nobuhiro [Graduate School for Advanced Studies, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)]. E-mail: kosugi@ims.ac.jp

    2005-06-15

    High resolution angle-resolved ion-yield spectra are reported for the C1s->Rydberg excitations of acetylene. Vibronic coupling features are found in the energy regions of 3s{sigma}{sub g}/3{sigma}{sub u}*, 3p{sigma}{sub u}, and near threshold. By increasing retarding potentials for ion detectors to select more energetic fragmentation channels, the feature observed in the 90{sup o} direction is assigned to the C1s->3{sigma}{sub u}* valence state coupled with the C1s->1{pi}{sub g}* excited state via cis bending ({pi}{sub u}) vibrational mode.

  1. A comparison on HBsAg and HBsAb prevalence in patients with Down syndrome and other mentally retarded patients living in retarded children institutes in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahebjamei M. Associate Professor

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The Prevalence of HBsAg, among patients with Down Syndrome (DS has been"nreported higher than normal population. Living in institutes, comparing to home, leads to higher"nprobability of HBsAg prevalence."nAim: The purpose of the present study was to determine HBsAg prevalence in patients with DS and"ncompare it with other mentally retarded patients with similar conditions, and also with healthy population"nin Iran."nMaterials and Methods: One hundred patients, with average age of 12 years, living in five institutes in"nTehran, were chosen. Children with DS and other mentally retarded children were considered as the first"nand second groups, respectively (50 members in each group. Blood samples were taken and tested"n(ELLSA to determine HBsAg and HBsAb titre. For statistical analysis, Chi- Square test was used."nResults: HBsAg was positive in 8% and 4% of DS and MR groups, respectively. HBsAb was seen in"n25% of DS, comparing to 32% of MR. The prevalence of HBsAg in retarded patients living in institutes"nwas higher than normal population of Iran (less than 3%, which was not statistically significant."nConclusion: Consideration of sterilization principles and infection control upon dental operations, in"nthese centers, are necessary. It is also suggested that these children, as a high- risk population, should be"nvaccinated against hepatitis B.

  2. 1D valence bond solids in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaizzi, Adam; Sandvik, Anders W.

    2015-09-01

    A Valence bond solid (VBS) is a nonmagnetic, long-range ordered state of a quantum spin system where local spin singlets are formed in some regular pattern. We here study the competition between VBS order and a fully polarized ferromagnetic state as function of an external magnetic field in a one-dimensional extended Heisenberg model—the J-Q2 model— using stochastic series expansion (SSE) quantum Monte Carlo simulations with directed loop updates. We discuss the ground state phase diagram.

  3. Early identification and prevention of mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persha, A J

    1992-01-01

    Early identification and prevention of mental retardation helps in terms of treatment for some conditions, better planning and management of cases, and counseling. Diagnostic procedures are available during pregnancy for early detection: blood tests, amniocentesis, ultrasound, fetoscopy, and urine tests; tests available for the newborn are blood tests for hypothyroidism, PKU; urine tests for metabolic disorders; apgar scores for screening of neurological deficits; neurobehavioral assessments, developmental schedules; neurodevelopmental screening; sensory examination; speech and language assessments; EEG; and imaging techniques. Early identification of mental retardation is beneficial in aiding the child's development and personality and in helping parents adjust mentally and learning to cope with caring for the child. Sometimes, it can help to limit the number and extent of the handicap. Prevention can be primary, secondary, or tertiary. The emphasis is on planned pregnancies, regular prenatal care, regular health checkups for mother and child, immunization, nutrition, prevention of environmental hazards and accidents, early identification and screening, genetic studies and counseling, family planning, and creation of awareness among the general population. Inadequate prenatal care is associated with prematurity and low birth weight, which are linked to mental retardation. Prenatal care for the pregnant woman involves participating in regular prenatal checkups, maintaining good nutrition, having preliminary screening, attending promptly to illnesses and infections, and getting immunized at the appropriate time. Avoidance of the following is recommended: unnecessary and nonprescribed drugs, physical accidents, exposure to radiation and teratogens, alcohol and tobacco consumption, exposure to infections such as measles, rubella, or syphilis, toxins and poisons such as lead, and attempts at abortion. Genetic counseling can provide information on the disorders, the

  4. The Utility of Nanocomposites in Fire Retardancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Wilkie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites have been shown to significantly reduce the peak heat release rate, as measured by cone calorimetry, for many polymers but they typically have no effect on the oxygen index or the UL-94 classification. In this review, we will cover what is known about the processes by which nanocomposite formation may bring this about. Montmorillonite will be the focus in this paper but attention will also be devoted to other materials, including carbon nanotubes and layered double hydroxides. A second section will be devoted to combinations of nanocomposite formation with conventional (and unconventional fire retardants. The paper will conclude with a section attempting to forecast the future.

  5. THE ETIOLOGIC PATTERNS IN MICROCEPHALY WITH MENTAL RETARDATION

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, K.M.R.; Girimaji, S.R.; Manjunatha, K.R.; Khanna, Neelam; Rao, B.S.S.; Ravi, V.; MURTHY, R. SRINIVASA; Vani, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Microcephaly with mental retardation forms a distinct subgroup among mentally retarded individuals. The paucity of studies on the etiology of this condition in India made the investigators to study this population. It HTO aimed to study the demographic and clinical characteristics, and the etiologic pattern in children with microcepltaly and mental retardation The sample consisted of 82 children who were examined by detailed clinical assessment and a battery of investigations. A definite etio...

  6. Mental Retardation (MR) Etiology in Children Referred to Care Services

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Foroutan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: It is estimated that 2800000 to 4800000 individuals in Iran suffer from some kind of mental or physical handicap. According to Iranian social welfare university, about 24000 mental retard children would be added to this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate demographic factors which were associated with mental retardation in Khorasan Razavi population. Materials and Methods:In this cross sectional study, the records of all mentally retarded children who had been r...

  7. Specificities of psychoses in children and adolescents with mental retardation

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar Dušan; Bojanin Svetomir S.; Kolar Mila

    2003-01-01

    Mental retardation is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by arrested or incomplete psychological development. The first part of the study deals with psychological and biological factors: etiology and pathogenesis of mental retardation and comorbid psychiatric disorders Their etiopathogenesis is similar as in other neurodevelopmental disorders and it was analyzed in the part dealing with biological specificities of persons with mental retardation. Numerous bio-psycho-soc...

  8. Studies on Flame Retardants on Malaysian Coir Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Elwaleed Awad Khidir; Mohd Jailani Mohd Nor; Rozli Zulkifli; Mohd Faizal Mat Tahir; Zulkarnain Ali Leman

    2011-01-01

    In this study to the effect of the utilization of urea and diammonium phosphate as fire retardant on Malaysian coir fiber was evaluated. Flammability and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests were used to evaluate the fire retardancy. Weight loss and percentage of mass residue were used as a measure from the results of flammability and TGA, respectively. The results revealed the effectiveness of using urea and diammonium phosphate as fire retardant for Malaysian coir fiber. However, for the ...

  9. Expertise in video game playing is associated with reduced valence-concordant emotional expressivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, André; Strobach, Tilo; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    In carefully selected groups of video game playing (VGP) experts and nonexperts, we examined valence-concordant emotional expressivity. We measured electromyographic (EMG) activity over the corrugator supercilii muscle while participants viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures. Potential group differences concerning valence-concordant expressivity may arise from differences concerning the participants' emotional reactivity. To control for such differences, we concomitantly measured skin conductance response (SCR) and, in a separate affect misattribution procedure (AMP), valence transfer from the same set of stimuli. Importantly, we found attenuated valence-concordant EMG activity over the corrugator supercilii muscle in VGP experts compared to nonexperts, but no differences were evident concerning SCR or valence transfer in the AMP. The findings suggest that expertise in VGP is particularly associated with reduced valence-concordant emotional expressivity. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Virtual Distance and Soundstage, and their Impacts on Experienced Emotional Valence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Research from animal ethology and affective neuroscience suggest that a listener’s perceived distance from a signal source can alter their experienced emotional valence of the music. Furthermore, appraisal theories of emotion suggest that emotionally valenced responses will diverge according...... to the type of emotion presented. For these exploratory investigations, subjects listen to selected musical excerpts on speakers in combination with a tactile transducer attached to their chair. The listening sessions are recorded on EEG supported by subject feedback responses. My hypothesis is that musical...... stimuli should cause stronger valenced responses in the nearfield than at a distance. Thus, music experienced as being negatively valenced at a distance should be more negatively valenced in nearfield, and music that is experienced as having a positive valence at a distance should be more positively...

  11. Dysmorphology and mental retardation: molecular cytogenetic studies in dysmorphic mentally retarded patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buggenhout, G.J.C.M. van; Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van; Mieloo, H.; Syrrou, M.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Brunner, H.G.; Fryns, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    In an institutionalised population of 471 mentally retarded adult residents (436 males and 35 females), 18 patients (16 males and 2 females) with dysmorphic features were selected to perform FISH studies by using subtelomeric probes to discover cryptic terminal deletions or duplications,

  12. Evaluation of Still Picture Telephone for Mentally Retarded Persons. Telematics and Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, Jane; Bjorck-Akesson, Eva

    This study examined the benefit of using a visual telecommunication system for Sweden's children and adults with mild to moderate mental retardation and speech difficulties. The Panasonic Image Communication Unit connects to standard modular telephones and includes a camera and monitor for the transfer of pictures. Units were placed in eight…

  13. Valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohani, H. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, P. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Goyal, R.; Awana, V.P.S. [National Physical Laboratory(CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sekhar, B.R., E-mail: sekhar@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • VB Photoemission study and DFT calculations on Pd based ternary superconductors are presented. • Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} shows a temperature dependent pseudogap. • VB spectral features of ternary superconductors are correlated to their structural geometry. - Abstract: We present a comparative study of the valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5}, Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}Te{sub 6} using experimental photoemission spectroscopy and density functional based theoretical calculations. We observe a qualitatively similarity between valence band (VB) spectra of Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6}. Further, we find a pseudogap feature in Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} at low temperature, unlike other two compounds. We have correlated the structural geometry with the differences in VB spectra of these compounds. The different atomic packing in these compounds could vary the strength of inter-orbital hybridization among various atoms which leads to difference in their electronic structure as clearly observed in our DOS calculations.

  14. An ecological valence theory of human color preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E; Schloss, Karen B

    2010-05-11

    Color preference is an important aspect of visual experience, but little is known about why people in general like some colors more than others. Previous research suggested explanations based on biological adaptations [Hurlbert AC, Ling YL (2007) Curr Biol 17:623-625] and color-emotions [Ou L-C, Luo MR, Woodcock A, Wright A (2004) Color Res Appl 29:381-389]. In this article we articulate an ecological valence theory in which color preferences arise from people's average affective responses to color-associated objects. An empirical test provides strong support for this theory: People like colors strongly associated with objects they like (e.g., blues with clear skies and clean water) and dislike colors strongly associated with objects they dislike (e.g., browns with feces and rotten food). Relative to alternative theories, the ecological valence theory both fits the data better (even with fewer free parameters) and provides a more plausible, comprehensive causal explanation of color preferences.

  15. Valence-bond quantum Monte Carlo algorithms defined on trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschner, Andreas; Sørensen, Erik S

    2014-09-01

    We present a class of algorithms for performing valence-bond quantum Monte Carlo of quantum spin models. Valence-bond quantum Monte Carlo is a projective T=0 Monte Carlo method based on sampling of a set of operator strings that can be viewed as forming a treelike structure. The algorithms presented here utilize the notion of a worm that moves up and down this tree and changes the associated operator string. In quite general terms, we derive a set of equations whose solutions correspond to a whole class of algorithms. As specific examples of this class of algorithms, we focus on two cases. The bouncing worm algorithm, for which updates are always accepted by allowing the worm to bounce up and down the tree, and the driven worm algorithm, where a single parameter controls how far up the tree the worm reaches before turning around. The latter algorithm involves only a single bounce where the worm turns from going up the tree to going down. The presence of the control parameter necessitates the introduction of an acceptance probability for the update.

  16. The effects of colour and valence on news evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Kai; Grümmer, Melanie; Kießler, Antje; Neuß, Celina; Schröter, Franziska

    2017-12-01

    Research across different fields of psychology has reported effects of colour cues on a variety of cognitive processes. Especially, the colour red has been shown to have striking influences. In the context of media reception, however, colour effects have been widely neglected so far. This study made a first step in this direction by investigating the effects of the colour red (compared with blue and grey) on the way news articles are evaluated. Two types of news were framed by a coloured border while the valence of the news content additionally varied. Based on 369 participants who read and evaluated the news articles online, we observed effects for colour cues and news valence in the absence of an interaction effect, indicating that the colour red induced approach motivation. However, only the contrast between red and grey reached statistical significance, indicating that chromatic and achromatic colours may differ in their perceived visual saliency. Overall, these results provide an important complement to previous studies and have practical implications for media researchers and producers. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. Emotional valence contributes to music-induced analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mathieu; Peretz, Isabelle; Rainville, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The capacity of music to soothe pain has been used in many traditional forms of medicine. Yet, the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been demonstrated. Here, we examine the possibility that the modulatory effect of music on pain is mediated by the valence (pleasant-unpleasant dimension) of the emotions induced. We report the effects of listening to pleasant and unpleasant music on thermal pain in healthy human volunteers. Eighteen participants evaluated the warmth or pain induced by 40.0, 45.5, 47.0 and 48.5 degrees C thermal stimulations applied to the skin of their forearm while listening to pleasant and unpleasant musical excerpts matched for their high level of arousal (relaxing-stimulating dimension). Compared to a silent control condition, only the pleasant excerpts produced highly significant reductions in both pain intensity and unpleasantness, demonstrating the effect of positive emotions induced by music on pain (Pairwise contrasts with silence: p'semotional valence contributes to music-induced analgesia. These findings call for the integration of music to current methods of pain control.

  18. Visuospatial Asymmetries and Emotional Valence Influence Mental Time Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicole A; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2017-11-27

    Spatial information is tightly intertwined with temporal and valence-based information. Namely, "past" is represented on the left, and "future" on the right, along a horizontal mental timeline. Similarly, right is associated with positive, whereas left is negative. We developed a novel task to examine the effects of emotional valence and temporal distance on mental representations of time. We compared positivity biases, where positive events are positioned closer to now, and right hemisphere emotion biases, where negative events are positioned to the left. When the entire life span was used, a positivity bias emerged; positive events were closer to now. When timeline length was reduced, positivity and right hemisphere emotion biases were consistent for past events. In contrast, positive and negative events were equidistant from now in the future condition, suggesting positivity and right hemisphere emotion biases opposed one another, leading events to be positioned at a similar distance. We then reversed the timeline by moving past to the right and future to the left. Positivity biases in the past condition were eliminated, and negative events were placed slightly closer to now in the future condition. We conclude that an underlying left-to-right mental representation of time is necessary for positivity biases to emerge for past events; however, our mental representations of future events are inconsistent with positivity biases. These findings point to an important difference in the way in which we represent the past and the future on our mental timeline. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. An ecological valence theory of human color preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-01-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of visual experience, but little is known about why people in general like some colors more than others. Previous research suggested explanations based on biological adaptations [Hurlbert AC, Ling YL (2007) Curr Biol 17:623–625] and color-emotions [Ou L-C, Luo MR, Woodcock A, Wright A (2004) Color Res Appl 29:381–389]. In this article we articulate an ecological valence theory in which color preferences arise from people’s average affective responses to color-associated objects. An empirical test provides strong support for this theory: People like colors strongly associated with objects they like (e.g., blues with clear skies and clean water) and dislike colors strongly associated with objects they dislike (e.g., browns with feces and rotten food). Relative to alternative theories, the ecological valence theory both fits the data better (even with fewer free parameters) and provides a more plausible, comprehensive causal explanation of color preferences. PMID:20421475

  20. Mental Retardation (MR Etiology in Children Referred to Care Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Foroutan

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Considering Mental Retardation (MR financial burden, planning to reduce and control preventable factors such as parents’ drug abuse could be possible through education and cultural changes.

  1. Social Anxiety and Biased Recall of Positive Information: It's Not the Content, It's the Valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Brianne L; Alden, Lynn E

    2017-07-01

    Cognitive theorists hypothesize that individuals with social anxiety are prone to memory biases such that event recall becomes more negative over time. With few exceptions, studies have focused primarily on changes in negative self-judgments. The current study examined whether memory for positive social events is also subject to recall bias. Undergraduate participants (N = 138) engaged in an unexpected public speaking task and received standardized positive or neutral feedback on their performance. They rated their memory of the received feedback following a 5-minute delay and again 1 week later. Results revealed that higher scores on social anxiety symptoms predicted significant reductions in the recalled valence of positive feedback over time, whereas no changes were observed for neutral feedback. The results suggest that social anxiety may lead to erosion in memory of positive events. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The effect of cortisol on autobiographical memory retrieval depends on remoteness and valence of memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Juliane; Weber, Juliane; Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Düsenberg, Moritz; Wolf, Oliver T; Otte, Christian; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2017-02-01

    There is evidence that specificity of autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval is impaired by cortisol. However, it is unknown whether glucocorticoids differentially influence the retrieval of recent versus remote AMs. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of cortisol on AM retrieval, in terms of memory specificity, with respect to remoteness of the retrieved memories. A placebo controlled, double blind study was conducted. Thirty female and 24 male healthy participants (mean age 24.5, SD=3.7) received either placebo or 10mg hydrocortisone before completing an autobiographical memory test. Participants showed higher memory specificity for recent memories compared to remote ones. There was no main effect of cortisol on AM retrieval. However, interaction effects suggest that cortisol affects remote, but not recent memories, which seems to depend upon valence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Competition between spin liquids and valence-bond order in the frustrated spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on the honeycomb lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Francesco; Bieri, Samuel; Becca, Federico

    2017-09-01

    Using variational wave functions and Monte Carlo techniques, we study the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model with first-neighbor J1 and second-neighbor J2 antiferromagnetic couplings on the honeycomb lattice. We perform a systematic comparison of magnetically ordered and nonmagnetic states (spin liquids and valence-bond solids) to obtain the ground-state phase diagram. Néel order is stabilized for small values of the frustrating second-neighbor coupling. Increasing the ratio J2/J1 , we find strong evidence for a continuous transition to a nonmagnetic phase at J2/J1≈0.23 . Close to the transition point, the Gutzwiller-projected uniform resonating valence-bond state gives an excellent approximation to the exact ground-state energy. For 0.23 ≲J2/J1≲0.36 , a gapless Z2 spin liquid with Dirac nodes competes with a plaquette valence-bond solid. In contrast, the gapped spin liquid considered in previous works has significantly higher variational energy. Although the plaquette valence-bond order is expected to be present as soon as the Néel order melts, this ordered state becomes clearly favored only for J2/J1≳0.3 . Finally, for 0.36 ≲J2/J1≤0.5 , a valence-bond solid with columnar order takes over as the ground state, being also lower in energy than the magnetic state with collinear order. We perform a detailed finite-size scaling and standard data collapse analysis, and we discuss the possibility of a deconfined quantum critical point separating the Néel antiferromagnet from the plaquette valence-bond solid.

  4. In-medium pion valence distributions in a light-front model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, J.P.B.C. de, E-mail: joao.mello@cruzeirodosul.edu.br [Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computacional – LFTC, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 01506-000 São Paulo (Brazil); Tsushima, K. [Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computacional – LFTC, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 01506-000 São Paulo (Brazil); Ahmed, I. [Laboratório de Física Teórica e Computacional – LFTC, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, 01506-000 São Paulo (Brazil); National Center for Physics, Quaidi-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2017-03-10

    Pion valence distributions in nuclear medium and vacuum are studied in a light-front constituent quark model. The in-medium input for studying the pion properties is calculated by the quark-meson coupling model. We find that the in-medium pion valence distribution, as well as the in-medium pion valence wave function, are substantially modified at normal nuclear matter density, due to the reduction in the pion decay constant.

  5. Ethics: the agonizing decisions in mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaworth, R C

    1977-05-01

    Many decisions which were once outside our control are now becoming matters of choice. Amniocentesis can detect severe birth defects and severely defective or crippled persons can be kept alive for long periods of time. Most people believe in adequate medical care and education for those born with physical and/or mental handicaps; the problems arise when the attempt to attain 1 valued goal conflicts with attaining others. There are insufficient resources to attain all goals. Physicians and nurses traditionally value individual human life while ignoring the family and broader society. The question raised now concerns the allocation of resources to individuals with terminal illness or life of limited quality vs. spending on public health measures that might preserve more lives. What part should societal coercion or societal persuasion play in handling cases of pregnancy at high risk of a deformed or retarded fetus, or extraordinary care of a severely deformed child? It is imperative for nurses to take an informed stand on such ethical issues. Many of the decisions to be made have greater bearing on the lives of women, those who will have to undergo the amniocentesis or abortion or raise the retarded child.

  6. AN EARLY DETECTION OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koviljka RADULOVIC

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The early detection of children with mental retardation is based on the close collaboration of a neonatologist, the pediatric services and a psychologist. The main methods are the following up of children who are carrying by themselves factors from birth, systematic six-months controls in the first three years of life, and collaboration with institutions taking care of youngsters.The analysis is based on the opinion of the neonatologist, an anamnesis taken from the parents, on following the child's development by a pediatrician and psychologist, as well as on the application of psychological tests according to the age of the child.At the moment, this method of working could be elaborated through developmental counseling departments located in municipal health institutions.The fact is that early detection has its value only if there are conditions for early treatment. This fact obliges developmental counseling departments to include in its team, besides a pediatrician and a psychologist, also defectologist who has adequate methods for the stimulation of the development and early treatment of mentally retarded children.

  7. The Fabrication and Properties Characterization of Wood-Based Flame Retardant Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood-based flame retardant composites were fabricated based on vacuum-pressure impregnating method after high intensive microwave pretreatment. The effects of ammonium polyphosphate (APP and modified nano-zinc borate (nZB addition on flame-retardation and smoke-suppression properties of wood were investigated by cone calorimeter method (CONE and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results show that the heat release rate (HRR, peak heat release rate (pk-HRR, and total heat release (THR of APP-treated woods decreased greatly with increasing concentration of APP. However, mean yield of CO (Mean COY of APP-treated wood was much higher (3.5 times than that of untreated wood. Compared with wood treated with APP at a concentration of 15%, the total smoke product (TSP, Mean COY, and pk-HRR decreased by 78.4%, 71.43%, and 31.23%, when wood was treated with APP and nZB (both concentrations were at 15%. APP and nZB have synergistic effects of flame-retardation and smoke-suppression. Nano-zinc borate combined with APP would be used in wood-based composites to efficiently retard flame, reduce fire intensity, and decrease noxious (CO/smoke release.

  8. Phytic acid as alternative setting retarder enhanced biological performance of dicalcium phosphate cement in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meininger, Susanne; Blum, Carina; Schamel, Martha; Barralet, Jake E; Ignatius, Anita; Gbureck, Uwe

    2017-04-03

    Dicalcium phosphate cement preparation requires the addition of setting retarders to meet clinical requirements regarding handling time and processability. Previous studies have focused on the influence of different setting modifiers on material properties such as mechanical performance or injectability, while ignoring their influence on biological cement properties as they are used in low concentrations in the cement pastes and the occurrence of most compounds in human tissues. Here, analyses of both material and biological behavior were carried out on samples with common setting retardants (citric acid, sodium pyrophosphate, sulfuric acid) and novel (phytic acid). Cytocompatibility was evaluated by in vitro tests with osteoblastic (hFOB 1.19) and osteoclastic (RAW 264.7) cells. We found cytocompatibility was better for sodium pyrophosphate and phytic acid with a three-fold cell metabolic activity by WST-1 test, whereas samples set with citric acid showed reduced cell number as well as cell activity. The compressive strength (CS) of cements formed with phytic acid (CS = 13 MPa) were nearly equal to those formed with citric acid (CS = 15 MPa) and approximately threefold higher than for other setting retardants. Due to a proven cytocompatibility and high mechanical strength, phytic acid seems to be a candidate replacement setting retardant for dicalcium phosphate cements.

  9. The Evaluation of Athlete and Non-Athlete Mentally Retarded Children’s Dynamic Balance Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Akın

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Balance is an extremely important fundamental skill for the survival of the individual’s life. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate dynamic balance of mentally retarded children who participated in sports active and regularly (athlete and did not participate in sports actively (non-athlete. The study group was consisted of total 29 mentally retarded children, 14 athletes and 15 non-athletes. In this study, the average ages of athletes were 13.25 and non-athletes’ were 12.95. As a data collection tool “Star Excursion Balance Test” was used. The obtained data was evaluated using t-test for the independent groups. The results showed a statistically significant difference between groups according to all sub-dimension of star excursion balance test (p< 0.05. It was determined that, the average values of mentally retarded athletes were higher than non-athletes. Consequently, it can be said that regular physical activity has a significant effect for improvement in balance skills of individuals with mentally retarded.

  10. Flame-retardant contamination of firefighter personal protective clothing - A potential health risk for firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara M; Baxter, C Stuart

    2016-09-01

    There is a high incidence of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers in firefighters that may be related to their occupational exposure to hazardous substances. Exposure may result from contaminated personal protective gear, as well as from direct exposure at fire scenes. This study characterized flame-retardant contamination on firefighter personal protective clothing to assess exposure of firefighters to these chemicals. Samples from used and unused firefighter protective clothing, including gloves, hoods and a coat wristlet, were extracted with methylene chloride and analyzed by EPA method 8270D Specific Ion Method (SIM) for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Until recently PBDEs were some of the most common flame-retardant chemicals used in the US. Fifteen of the seventeen PBDEs for which analysis was performed were found on at least one clothing swatch. Every clothing sample, including an unused hood and all three layers of an unused glove, held a detectable concentration of at least one PBDE. These findings, along with previous research, suggest that firefighters are exposed to PBDE flame retardants at levels much higher than the general public. PBDEs are found widely dispersed in the environment and still persist in existing domestic materials such as clothing and furnishings. Firefighter exposure to flame retardants therefore merits further study.

  11. Mental Retardation. Fact Sheet = El Retraso Mental. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is written in both English and Spanish. It begins with a vignette of a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation. Mental retardation is briefly explained as are some causes of mental retardation. It notes that a diagnosis of mental retardation looks at two things: first, the ability of a person's brain to learn,…

  12. The prevalence of minor physical anomalies in mentally retarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulovec, Z; Skrinjarić, I; Sosić, Z; Szirovicza, L; Jukić, J

    2002-06-01

    The prevalence of minor physical anomalies was examined in a sample of 109 children with idiopathic mental retardation (65 boys and 44 girls). Control group consisted of 246 healthy schoolchildren (123 boys and 123 girls) aged 8 to 12 years. A comparison was made between number of found minor anomalies per child (W1) and their Waldrop weight scores (W2) in healthy and mentally retarded (MR) children. The MR children were found to have a higher number of minor anomalies per child. In their group predominated those with four or more anomalies (56.9%), whereas among healthy children only 7.7% had four anomalies or more. In contrast to the high weighted score value (W2) of five or greater in 36.7% of MR children, it was absent in all control group subjects. There were highly significant differences between the MR and healthy children in the average value of the number of minor anomalies per child (W1) and in the average weighted score (W2). The average number of minor anomalies per child (W1) in MR and well children was 3.65 and 1.7, respectively. In MR children the average weighted score (W2) was 3.82, being 1.46 in healthy children. Our results suggest that common etiological factors, which had led to a physical and mental disorder, were active early in the development of MR children. The finding of high incidence of multiple minor anomalies in MR children indicates that genetic factors may play an important role in the etiology of the underlying disorder in the child group studied.

  13. Newborn Screening To Prevent Mental Retardation. The Arc Q & A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This information fact sheet on screening newborns to prevent mental retardation defines newborn screening and outlines how screening is performed. It discusses the six most common disorders resulting in mental retardation for which states most commonly screen. These include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup…

  14. Toxicity of new generation flame retardants to Daphnia magna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaijers, S.L.; Hartmann, J; Soeter, A.M.; Helmus, R.; Kools, S.A.E.; de Voogt, P.; Admiraal, W.; Parsons, J.R.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2013-01-01

    There is a tendency to substitute frequently used, but relatively hazardous brominated flame retardants (BFRs) with halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs). Consequently, information on the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) of these HFFRs is urgently needed, but large data gaps and

  15. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries...

  16. Environmental fate & effects of new generation flame retardants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaijers, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    There is a pressing need for substituting several halogenated flame retardants, given the human and environmental health concerns of many of these compounds. Halogen Free Flame Retardants (HFFRs) have been suggested as alternatives and are already being marketed, although their potential impact on

  17. Neurotoxicity and risk assessment of brominated and alternative flame retardants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Hester S; Westerink, Remco H S

    2015-01-01

    Brominatedflame retardants (BFRs) are widely used chemicals that prevent or slow the onset and spreading of fire. Unfortunately, many of these compounds pose serious threats for human health and the environment, indicating an urgent need for safe(r) and less persistent alternativeflame retardants

  18. Brominated flame retardants: occurrence, dietary intake and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter-Sorkina R de; Bakker MI; Wolterink G; Zeijlmaker MJ; SIR

    2006-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants have entered the human food chain. For the time being the occurrence of these chemicals in Dutch food does not pose a human health risk. However, this might easily change at increasing contents of flame retardants in Dutch food. The monitoring of brominated flame

  19. Antiepileptic Drug Status in Adult Outpatients with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baldev K.; Towle, Patricia O.

    1993-01-01

    Review of the charts of 100 patients with mental retardation and epilepsy revealed that 60 patients were taking 1 antiepileptic drug and 40 were taking 2 or 3 drugs. Most subjects had generalized tonic-clonic seizures, but individuals with profound retardation had relatively more mixed seizures. (Author/JDD)

  20. Adaptive and Intellectual Functioning in Autistic and Nonautistic Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentieri, Sarah; Morgan, Sam B.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between adaptive functioning and intellectual functioning in 18 children with autism and mental retardation and 20 children with mental retardation. The children with autism showed significantly more impairment in adaptive behavior composite scores, verbal reasoning abilities, socialization skills, and…

  1. The Retarded Child: Answers to Questions Parents Ask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwell, Arthur A.; Clabby, D. Ann

    Specific questions that parents ask and answers to them are presented on the following areas of mental retardation: categories and terminology; causes; diagnosis and referral; mental age and IQ; problems and adjustments in family relationships; behavior of the retarded child; speech; schooling; parent organizations; sex education;…

  2. Programs for Preventing the Causes of Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Peter S.; And Others

    This monograph, which reports findings from the New Jersey Governor's Council on the Prevention of Mental Retardation, discusses the scope of mental retardation (MR), its causes, identification of people at risk, and prevention methods. The Council cites several cost-effective prevention programs, such as vaccination programs and prenatal care…

  3. PUBLIC PROVISION FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BEST, HARRY

    WRITTEN FROM THE STANDPOINT OF THE SOCIOLOGIST OR SOCIAL SCIENTIST, THIS BOOK REPORTS DATA OBTAINED FROM STATISTICAL RESEARCH ON MENTAL RETARDATES. ITS CHIEF PURPOSE IS THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED AND PROVISIONS MADE FOR THEM IN THE UNITED STATES. DISCUSSION OF THE GENERAL CONDITION COVERS DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION, ETIOLOGY,…

  4. The Functional Development of Retarded Behavior. Working Paper No. 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Owen R.

    The author uses a behavioral model to discuss probable and demonstrable conditions through which retardation might develop. Noted are criteria for etiological classification and explained are four reasons why terms such as cultural deprivation should not be used to label mentally retarded individuals. The need to consider developmental retardation…

  5. Communication Problems in Mental Retardation: Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Herold S.; Bradley, Doris P.

    Discussed are the problems of communication in mental retardation with an introductory background and definition of this problem, including the etiological factors and general characteristics. A presentation of diagnostic methods leads into discussions of the problem of medical-dental management and educational management of the retarded child.…

  6. Association between the Diagnosis of Mental Retardation and Socioeconomic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Durrheim, Kevin; Lachman, Peter; Kaminer, Debra

    1998-01-01

    An examination of clinical data from the regional hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, over four years for 538 children with a diagnosis of mental retardation found mild mental retardation referrals were underrepresented in low socioeconomic areas and that paramedical agencies were the primary referral source in these areas. (Author/CR)

  7. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fatigue crack can be effectively retarded by heating a spot near the crack tip under nil remote stress condition. The subcritical spot heating at a proper position modifies the crack growth behaviour in a way, more or less, similar to specimen subjected to overload spike. It is observed that the extent of crack growth retardation ...

  8. Flame retardant antibacterial cotton high-loft nonwoven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flame retardant treated gray cotton fibers were blended with antibacterial treated gray cotton fibers and polyester/polyester sheath/core bicomponent fibers to form high-loft fabrics. The high flame retardancy (FR) and antibacterial property of these high lofts were evaluated by limiting oxygen inde...

  9. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  10. Adaptive Behavior Malingering in Legal Claims of Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlubek, Renee Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, the Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional to put people with mental retardation to death for capital crimes ("Atkins v. Virginia," 2002). Justice Scalia dissented, suggesting that mental retardation is a condition easy to feign. The current study examined whether participants provided with the definition of mental…

  11. Kaon semileptonic decay form factors with HISQ valence quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Gamiz, E; Bazavov, A; Bernard, C; Bouchard, C; DeTar, C; Du, D; El-Khadra, A X; Foley, J; Freeland, E D; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U M; Kim, J; Kronfeld, A S; Laiho, J; Levkova, L; Mackenzie, P B; Neil, E T; Oktay, M B; Qiu, Si-Wei; Simone, J N; Sugar, R; Toussaint, D; Van de Water, R S; Zhou, R

    2012-01-01

    We report on the status of our kaon semileptonic form factor calculations using the highly-improved staggered quark (HISQ) formulation to simulate the valence fermions. We present results for the form factor f_+^{K \\pi}(0) on the asqtad N_f=2+1 MILC configurations, discuss the chiral-continuum extrapolation, and give a preliminary estimate of the total error. We also present a more preliminary set of results for the same form factor but with the sea quarks also simulated with the HISQ action; these results include data at the physical light quark masses. The improvements that we expect to achieve with the use of the HISQ configurations and simulations at the physical quark masses are briefly discussed.

  12. Nature of the Frequency Shift of Hydrogen Valence Vibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhyganiuk, I V

    2015-01-01

    The physical nature of a frequency shift of hydrogen valence vibrations in a water molecule due to its interaction with neighbor molecules has been studied. Electrostatic forces connected with the multipole moments of molecules are supposed to give a dominating contribution to the intermolecular interaction. The frequency shift was calculated in the case where two neighbor molecules form a dimer. The obtained result is in qualitative agreement with the frequency shifts observed for water vapor, hexagonal ice, and liquid water, as well as for aqueous solutions of alcohols. This fact testifies to the electrostatic nature of H-bonds used to describe both the specific features of the intermolecular interaction in water and the macroscopic properties of the latter.

  13. Electric field control of valence tautomeric interconversion in cobalt dioxolene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droghetti, A; Sanvito, S

    2011-07-22

    We demonstrate that the critical temperature for valence tautomeric interconversion in cobalt dioxolene complexes can be significantly changed when a static electric field is applied to the molecule. This is achieved by effectively manipulating the redox potential of the metallic acceptor forming the molecule. Importantly, our accurate density functional theory calculations demonstrate that already a field of 0.1  V/nm, achievable in Stark spectroscopy experiments, can produce a change in the critical temperature for the interconversion of 20 K. Our results indicate a new way for switching on and off the magnetism in a magnetic molecule. This offers the unique chance of controlling magnetism at the atomic scale by electrical means.

  14. Time flies with music whatever its emotional valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Bigand, Emmanuel; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José Lino Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task to investigate whether music affects time estimation differently from a matched auditory neutral stimulus, and whether the emotional valence of the musical stimuli (i.e., sad vs. happy music) modulates this effect. The results showed that, compared to sine wave control music, music presented in a major (happy) or a minor (sad) key shifted the bisection function toward the right, thus increasing the bisection point value (point of subjective equality). This indicates that the duration of a melody is judged shorter than that of a non-melodic control stimulus, thus confirming that "time flies" when we listen to music. Nevertheless, sensitivity to time was similar for all the auditory stimuli. Furthermore, the temporal bisection functions did not differ as a function of musical mode. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms of valence selectivity in biological ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, B; Chung, S-H

    2006-02-01

    Transmembrane ion channels play a crucial role in the existence of all living organisms. They partition the exterior from the interior of the cell, maintain the proper ionic gradient across the cell membrane and facilitate signaling between cells. To perform these functions, ion channels must be highly selective, allowing some types of ions to pass while blocking the passage of others. Here we review a number of studies that have helped to elucidate the mechanisms by which ion channels discriminate between ions of differing charge, focusing on four channel families as examples: gramicidin, ClC chloride, voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels. The recent availability of high-resolution structural data has meant that the specific inter-atomic interactions responsible for valence selectivity can be pinpointed. Not surprisingly, electrostatic considerations have been shown to play an important role in ion specificity, although many details of the origins of this discrimination remain to be determined.

  16. Electric Crosstalk Effect in Valence Change Resistive Random Access Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Hong; Wu, Shiwei; Song, Fang; Wang, Zhan; Gao, Haixia; Ma, Xiaohua

    2017-08-01

    Electric crosstalk phenomenon in valence change resistive switching memory (VCM) is systematically investigated. When a voltage is applied on the VCM device, an electric field is formed in the isolated region between the devices, which causes the oxygen vacancies in conductive filaments (CFs) to drift apart, leading to a consequent resistance degradation of the neighboring devices. The effects of distance between memory cells, electrodes widths and physical dimensions of CFs on the memory performance are investigated in this work. Furthermore, the strategies to mitigate electric crosstalk effects are developed. According to the simulation results, the crosstalk phenomenon can become more severe as the distance between memory cells or the electrode width decreases. In order to optimize the device performance, it is helpful to control the location of the break points of CFs in the device close to the top electrode. Alternatively, taking the integration density into account, switching materials with a small field accelerated parameter can also contribute to obtaining a stable performance.

  17. Aging and long-term memory for emotionally valenced events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Carolyn W; Safer, Martin A

    2013-06-01

    In 2008, 1103 ardent Boston Red Sox fans answered questions about their team's 2003 loss and 2004 win in baseball championship games with archrival New York Yankees. Contrary to predictions based on socioemotional selectivity theory, there were no significant interactions of age and event valence for accuracy in remembering event details, or for self-reported subjective vividness and rehearsal of the memories. Fans 65 years and older tended to remember feeling only sad about the 2003 loss, whereas fans 25 years and under tended to remember feeling both sad and angry. Individuals may remember emotional feelings based on remembered goals about an event. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Materials with intermediate valence ; a comparison with transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, N. F.

    A discussion of metallic intermediate valence materials is given, particularly of hybridisation between the 4f and the conduction band δ. If n, 1 - n are the numbers of ions in each of two charge states, the variation of n with temperature is described. Resistivity is ascribed to scattering of the conduction electrons into the 4f band. The mechanism is compared with that in transition metals and their alloys, particularly Pd1-xAg x. The resistivity can be very large, of order of the Ioffe-Regel value 1/3 e2/ħa. It is argued that both here and in metallic alloys, this can only occur with a two-band model. At high temperatures there is some evidence that s-f scattering does not occur. On discute des matériaux métalliques à valence intermédiaire, en particulier de l'hybridation entre la bande 4f et la bande de conduction. Notant n et 1 - n les nombres d'ions dans chacun des deux états de charge, on décrit la variation de n avec la température. Le mécanisme est comparé avec celui des métaux de transition et de leurs alliages, particulièrement Pd1-xAg x. La résistivité peut être très grande, de l'ordre de la valeur de Ioffe-Regel 1/3 e2/ħa. On donne des arguments tendant à prouver que ceci ne peut se produire que dans le cadre d'un modèle à 2 bandes. Il y a des évidences qu'à haute température la diffusion s-f n'a pas lieu.

  19. Unsaturated polyester/expanded polystyrene composite : thermal characteristics and flame retardancy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R.; Syed Mustafa, S. A.; Norizan, Mohd N.; Amerudin, L. S.

    2017-07-01

    Panels for energy efficient buildings has to meet certain requirements such as low thermal conductivity and inherent flame retardancy characteristics, before being eligible for buildings and construction applications. Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) as waste material had been incorporated as filler in Unsaturated Polyester Resin (UPR) composites. The composite are fabricated as flat panel window or glazing to replace glass. In this study, different EPS content incorporated was found to affect flammability and thermal characteristics. Core additives such as Flame Retardant (FR) and Antioxidant (AO) were added to the composite for imparting flame retardancy and prevent aging of the composite. The result obtained via the comparison of the various composite systems studied had revealed that organic and metal oxide flame retardant (FR) additives imparts higher flame retardancy levels than others, but each type of additives had interacted with the polymeric matrixes differently. The thermal conductivity, k value, as measured from a handheld thermal probe had showed a minimum of ~0.124 W/m.K for the 1%wt zinc oxide sample, while the highest k value of ~0.280 W/m.K was exhibited by the 2%wt tin oxide sample. The first 1%wt of either metal oxide FR initially decreases both the thermal conductivity, k value; and volumetric specific heat, Cp,v of the samples. At 2%wt, increases in k value were obtained. The flammability was reduced with the use of organic Phosphate Ester FR, which had reduced the flame speed to about 37.1% of the original flame speed. With the equivalent mixture of all three organic FR system, the flammability reduced less than 30%, while the metal oxide FR additive doesn't reduces the flammability.

  20. Highly accurate spectral retardance characterization of a liquid crystal retarder including Fabry-Perot interference effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Asticio [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco (Chile); Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 4016, Concepción (Chile); Mar Sánchez-López, María del [Instituto de Bioingeniería, Universidad Miguel Hernández, 03202 Elche (Spain); García-Martínez, Pascuala [Departament d' Òptica, Universitat de València, 45100 Burjassot (Spain); Arias, Julia; Moreno, Ignacio [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Óptica y Tecnología Electrónica, Universidad Miguel Hernández, 03202 Elche (Spain)

    2014-01-21

    Multiple-beam Fabry-Perot (FP) interferences occur in liquid crystal retarders (LCR) devoid of an antireflective coating. In this work, a highly accurate method to obtain the spectral retardance of such devices is presented. On the basis of a simple model of the LCR that includes FP effects and by using a voltage transfer function, we show how the FP features in the transmission spectrum can be used to accurately retrieve the ordinary and extraordinary spectral phase delays, and the voltage dependence of the latter. As a consequence, the modulation characteristics of the device are fully determined with high accuracy by means of a few off-state physical parameters which are wavelength-dependent, and a single voltage transfer function that is valid within the spectral range of characterization.

  1. Valence-Bond Concepts in Coordination Chemistry and the Nature of Metal-Metal Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauling, Linus; Herman, Zelek S.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the valence-bond method, applying it to some coordination compounds of metals, especially those involving metal-metal bonds. Suggests that transition metals can form as many as nine covalent bonds, permitting valence-theory to be extended to transition metal compounds in a more effective way than has been possible before. (JN)

  2. Dissociable Modulation of Overt Visual Attention in Valence and Arousal Revealed by Topology of Scan Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianguang; Jiang, Huihui; Jin, Yixiang; Chen, Nanhui; Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Zhengbo; Luo, Yuejia; Ma, Yuanye; Hu, Xintian

    2011-01-01

    Emotional stimuli have evolutionary significance for the survival of organisms; therefore, they are attention-grabbing and are processed preferentially. The neural underpinnings of two principle emotional dimensions in affective space, valence (degree of pleasantness) and arousal (intensity of evoked emotion), have been shown to be dissociable in the olfactory, gustatory and memory systems. However, the separable roles of valence and arousal in scene perception are poorly understood. In this study, we asked how these two emotional dimensions modulate overt visual attention. Twenty-two healthy volunteers freely viewed images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) that were graded for affective levels of valence and arousal (high, medium, and low). Subjects' heads were immobilized and eye movements were recorded by camera to track overt shifts of visual attention. Algebraic graph-based approaches were introduced to model scan paths as weighted undirected path graphs, generating global topology metrics that characterize the algebraic connectivity of scan paths. Our data suggest that human subjects show different scanning patterns to stimuli with different affective ratings. Valence salient stimuli (with neutral arousal) elicited faster and larger shifts of attention, while arousal salient stimuli (with neutral valence) elicited local scanning, dense attention allocation and deep processing. Furthermore, our model revealed that the modulatory effect of valence was linearly related to the valence level, whereas the relation between the modulatory effect and the level of arousal was nonlinear. Hence, visual attention seems to be modulated by mechanisms that are separate for valence and arousal. PMID:21494331

  3. Atoms in Valence Bond – AiVB : synopsis and test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, M.L.; van Lenthe, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    The Atoms in Valence Bond (AiVB) method, a new approach in the Valence Bond, is introduced. This approach combines the ideas behind the early Atoms in Molecules (AIM) developments, e.g. by Moffit [21], to understand a molecular wave function in terms of proper atomic wave functions, with the

  4. Application of circular dichroism spectroscopy in the study of mixed-valence asymmetric ruthenium polypyridyl complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Hamid M. Y.; Coburn, Nadia; Dini, Danilo; de Jong, Jaap J. D.; Villani, Claudio; Browne, Wesley R.; Vos, Johannes G.

    2011-01-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) spectroelectrochemistry is used to determine the extent of singly occupied molecular orbital delocalization in mixed-valence multinuclear complexes, specifically the mixed-valence (RuRuIII)-Ru-II states of the four diastereoisomers of [(Ru(bpy)(2))(2)(bpt)](3+) [1; bpy =

  5. Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal on Recollective and Nonrecollective Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carlos F. A.; Brainerd, Charles J.; Stein, Lilian M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of valence and arousal on memory using a dual-process model that quantifies recollective and nonrecollective components of recall without relying on metacognitive judgments to separate them. The results showed that valenced words increased reconstruction (a component of nonrecollective retrieval) relative to…

  6. Does emotional valence affect performance in non-emotional categorization tasks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    In five experiments, a categorization task was used to test whether threatening emotional valence would automatically affect reactions, even when valence is task-irrelevant. Financial threat words (e.g., debts) required the same response as either anxiety words or pleasant words. In the first three

  7. The Effect of Stimulus Valence on Lexical Retrieval in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackett, Deena Schwen; Harnish, Stacy M.; Lundine, Jennifer P.; Zezinka, Alexandra; Healy, Eric W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Although there is evidence that emotional valence of stimuli impacts lexical processes, there is limited work investigating its specific impact on lexical retrieval. The current study aimed to determine the degree to which emotional valence of pictured stimuli impacts naming latencies in healthy younger and older adults. Method: Eighteen…

  8. SPIN POLARIZATION AND MAGNETIC DICHROISM IN PHOTOEMISSION FROM CORE AND VALENCE STATES IN LOCALIZED MAGNETIC SYSTEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    THOLE, BT; VANDERLAAN, G

    1991-01-01

    Using group theory we derive a general model for spin polarization and magnetic dichroism in photo-emission in the presence of atomic interactions between the hole created and the valence holes. We predict strong effects in the photoemission from core levels and localized valence levels of

  9. Dissociable modulation of overt visual attention in valence and arousal revealed by topology of scan path.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguang Ni

    Full Text Available Emotional stimuli have evolutionary significance for the survival of organisms; therefore, they are attention-grabbing and are processed preferentially. The neural underpinnings of two principle emotional dimensions in affective space, valence (degree of pleasantness and arousal (intensity of evoked emotion, have been shown to be dissociable in the olfactory, gustatory and memory systems. However, the separable roles of valence and arousal in scene perception are poorly understood. In this study, we asked how these two emotional dimensions modulate overt visual attention. Twenty-two healthy volunteers freely viewed images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS that were graded for affective levels of valence and arousal (high, medium, and low. Subjects' heads were immobilized and eye movements were recorded by camera to track overt shifts of visual attention. Algebraic graph-based approaches were introduced to model scan paths as weighted undirected path graphs, generating global topology metrics that characterize the algebraic connectivity of scan paths. Our data suggest that human subjects show different scanning patterns to stimuli with different affective ratings. Valence salient stimuli (with neutral arousal elicited faster and larger shifts of attention, while arousal salient stimuli (with neutral valence elicited local scanning, dense attention allocation and deep processing. Furthermore, our model revealed that the modulatory effect of valence was linearly related to the valence level, whereas the relation between the modulatory effect and the level of arousal was nonlinear. Hence, visual attention seems to be modulated by mechanisms that are separate for valence and arousal.

  10. Identifying Facial Emotions: Valence Specific Effects and an Exploration of the Effects of Viewer Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansari, Ashok; Rodway, Paul; Goncalves, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    The valence hypothesis suggests that the right hemisphere is specialised for negative emotions and the left hemisphere is specialised for positive emotions (Silberman & Weingartner, 1986). It is unclear to what extent valence-specific effects in facial emotion perception depend upon the gender of the perceiver. To explore this question 46…

  11. Pressure-induced anomalous valence crossover in cubic YbCu5-based compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Tsujii, Naohito; Suzuki, Michi-To; Yamamoto, Yoshiya; Jarrige, Ignace; Sato, Hitoshi; Lin, Jung-Fu; Mito, Takeshi; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro; Sakurai, Hiroya; Sakai, Osamu; Hiraoka, Nozomu; Ishii, Hirofumi; Tsuei, Ku-Ding; Giovannini, Mauro; Bauer, Ernst

    2017-07-19

    A pressure-induced anomalous valence crossover without structural phase transition is observed in archetypal cubic YbCu5 based heavy Fermion systems. The Yb valence is found to decrease with increasing pressure, indicating a pressure-induced crossover from a localized 4f 13 state to the valence fluctuation regime, which is not expected for Yb systems with conventional c-f hybridization. This result further highlights the remarkable singularity of the valence behavior in compressed YbCu5-based compounds. The intermetallics Yb2Pd2Sn, which shows two quantum critical points (QCP) under pressure and has been proposed as a potential candidate for a reentrant Yb2+ state at high pressure, was also studied for comparison. In this compound, the Yb valence monotonically increases with pressure, disproving a scenario of a reentrant non-magnetic Yb2+ state at the second QCP.

  12. Cultural similarities and differences in the perception of emotional valence and intensity: a comparison of Americans and Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuoying; Ho, Samuel M Y; Bonanno, George A

    2013-01-01

    Despite being challenged for their ecological validity, studies of emotion perception have often relied on static, posed expressions. One of the key reasons is that dynamic, spontaneous expressions are difficult to control because of the existence of display rules and frequent co-occurrence of non-emotion related facial movements. The present study investigated cross-cultural patterns in the perception of emotion using an expressive regulation paradigm for generating facial expressions. The paradigm largely balances out the competing concerns for ecological and internal validity. Americans and Hong Kong Chinese (expressors) were presented with positively and negatively valenced pictures and were asked to enhance, suppress, or naturally display their facial expressions according to their subjective emotions. Videos of naturalistic and dynamic expressions of emotions were rated by Americans and Hong Kong Chinese (judges) for valence and intensity. The 2 cultures agreed on the valence and relative intensity of emotion expressions, but cultural differences were observed in absolute intensity ratings. The differences varied between positive and negative expressions. With positive expressions, ratings were higher when there was a cultural match between the expressor and the judge and when the expression was enhanced by the expressor. With negative expressions, Chinese judges gave higher ratings than their American counterparts for Chinese expressions under all 3 expressive conditions, and the discrepancy increased with expression intensity; no cultural differences were observed when American expressions were judged. The results were discussed with respect to the "decoding rules" and "same-culture advantage" approaches of emotion perception and a negativity bias in the Chinese collective culture.

  13. A Fast Method for Synthesis Magnesium Hydroxide Nanoparticles, Thermal Stable and Flame Retardant Poly vinyl alcohol Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yousefi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium hydroxide nanostructures as an effective flame retardant were synthesized by a facile and rapid microwave reaction. The effect of different surfactants such as cationic, anionic and polymeric on the morphology of magnesium hydroxide nanostructures was investigated. Nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. The influence of Mg(OH2 nanostructures on the thermal stability and flame retardancy of the poly vinyl alcohol (PVA matrix was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and UL-94 respectively. Thermal decomposition of the nanocomposites shift towards higher temperature in the presence of Mg(OH2 nanostructures. The enhancement of thermal stability and flame retardancy of nanocomposites is due to the endothermic decomposition of Mg(OH2 and release of water which dilutes combustible gases.

  14. Entanglement in valence-bond-solid states and quantum search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying

    The present dissertation covers two independent subjects: (i) The quantum entanglement in Valence-Bond-Solid states, and (ii) quantum database search algorithms. Both subjects are presented in a self-contained and pedagogical way. (i) The first chapter is a through introduction to the subject of quantum entanglement in Valence-Bond-Solid (VBS) states defined on a lattice or graph. The VBS state was first introduced as the ground state of the celebrated Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki (AKLT) spin chain model in statistical mechanics. Then it became essential in condensed matter physics, quantum information and measurement-based quantum computation. Recent studies elucidated important entanglement properties of the VBS state. We start with the definition of a general AKLT model and the construction of VBS ground states. A subsystem is introduced and described by the density matrix. Exact spectrum properties of the density matrix are proved and discussed. Density matrices of 1-dimensional models are diagonalized and the entanglement entropies (the von Neumann entropy and Renyi entropy) are calculated. The entropies take saturated value and the density matrix is proportional to a projector in the large subsystem limit. (ii) The second chapter is a detailed introduction to the subject of quantum database search algorithms. The problem of searching a large database (a Hilbert space) for a target item is performed by the famous Grover algorithm which locates the target item with probability 1 and a quadratic speed up compared with the corresponding classical algorithm. If the database is partitioned into blocks and one is searching for the block containing the target item instead of the target item itself, then the problem is referred to as partial search. Partial search trades accuracy for speed and the most efficient version is the Grover-Radhakrishnan-Korepin (GRK) algorithm. The target block can be further partitioned into subblocks so that GRK can be performed in a

  15. Higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Wolter, Andrä

    2009-01-01

    During the last five years higher education research in Germany seems to be in a significant upturn. This is a side effect partly of the obvious boom of empirical educational research in general and partly of the reform movement that has affected the German higher education system since middle of the 1990s. The demand for data in the field of higher education will increase considerably in future. The available data infrastructure for higher education research in Germany consists of two comple...

  16. Social relationships of adolescents with moderate mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siperstein, G N; Bak, J J

    1989-02-01

    The social relationships of 64 adolescents with moderate mental retardation from seven classes in a special day school were examined via two sociometric measures. Results indicated that the classes contained social structures similar to those found in regular classrooms for students without retardation. Students were selective in choosing friends and playmates, there was reciprocity in their friendship choices, and classes had popular and rejected students. Further, students frequently chose as friends members of the opposite sex, peers from other classes, and adults in the school and community. Implications for future research concerning the nature and development of friendships among students with mental retardation were discussed.

  17. Short Jute Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Nonhalogenated Fire Retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk. Sharfuddin Chestee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Short jute fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP composites were prepared using a single screw extrusion moulding. Jute fiber content in the composites is optimized with the extent of mechanical properties, and composites with 20% jute show higher mechanical properties. Dissimilar concentrations of several fire retardants (FRs, such as magnesium oxide (MO, aluminum oxide (AO, and phosphoric acid (PA, were used in the composites. The addition of MO, AO, and PA improved the fire retardancy properties (ignition time, flame height, and total firing time of the composites. Ignition time for 30% MO, flame height for 30% PA, and total firing time for 20% MO content composites showed good results which were 8 sec, 1 inch, and 268 sec, respectively. Mechanical properties (tensile strength, tensile modulus, bending strength, bending modulus, and elongation at break, degradation properties (soil test, weathering test, and percentage of weight loss, and water uptake were studied.

  18. Growth patterns in children with intrauterine growth retardation and their correlation to neurocognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Toledano-Alhadef, Hagit; Leitner, Yael; Geva, Ronny; Eshel, Rina; Harel, Shaul

    2009-07-01

    The relationship between somatic growth and neurocognitive outcome was studied in a cohort of 136 children with intrauterine growth retardation. The children were followed up from birth to 9 to 10 years of age by annual measurements of growth parameters, neurodevelopmental evaluations, and IQ. The rate of catch-up for height between 1 and 2 years of age was significantly higher than the catch-up for weight (P cognitive outcome at 9 to 10 years correlated with head circumference at all ages. The neurodevelopmental outcome at 9 to 10 years correlated with weight at all ages. Correlation with head circumference was more significant with IQ, while with weight it was stronger with the neurodevelopmental score. Height at 1 year was a significant predictor for IQ and neurodevelopmental outcome at 9 to 10 years. These findings are of distinct importance for prediction of subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome in children with intrauterine growth retardation.

  19. Synergistic Effect of Nanosilica Aerogel with Phosphorus Flame Retardants on Improving Flame Retardancy and Leaching Resistance of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilica (Nano-SiO2 sol fabricated by a sol-gel process was introduced into wood modification with phosphorus flame retardants to improve the flame retardancy and leaching resistance of wood. The obtained materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, cone calorimetric (CONE, and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The residual rate of flame retardants before and after leaching was determinated by a leaching resistance. The results showed that the phosphorus flame retardants and SiO2 sol could reside in the poplar wood and are widely distributed in the vessels, pits, wood timber, and the spaces between wood cells of poplar substrate. TGA and CONE results indicated that the introduction of nano-SiO2 aerogel with phosphorus flame retardants had a significantly synergistic effect on improving the flame retardancy and inhibiting the release of smoke and toxic gases. In addition, the leaching resistance test, combined with infrared analysis and EDS analysis, confirmed that the phosphorus flame retardants were able to be fixed by SiO2 aerogel in the wood.

  20. Valence Scaling of Dynamic Facial Expressions Is Altered in High-Functioning Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An FMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahko, Jukka S.; Paakki, Jyri-Johan; Starck, Tuomo H.; Nikkinen, Juha; Pauls, David L.; Katsyri, Jari V.; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira M.; Carter, Alice S.; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja K.; Remes, Jukka J.; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna A.; Sams, Mikko E.; Bolte, Sven; Ebeling, Hanna E.; Moilanen, Irma K.; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2012-01-01

    FMRI was performed with the dynamic facial expressions fear and happiness. This was done to detect differences in valence processing between 25 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and 27 typically developing controls. Valence scaling was abnormal in ASDs. Positive valence induces lower deactivation and abnormally strong activity in ASD…

  1. Lying about the valence of affective pictures: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatia M C Lee

    Full Text Available The neural correlates of lying about affective information were studied using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI methodology. Specifically, 13 healthy right-handed Chinese men were instructed to lie about the valence, positive or negative, of pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS while their brain activity was scanned by a 3T Philip Achieva scanner. The key finding is that the neural activity associated with deception is valence-related. Comparing to telling the truth, deception about the valence of the affectively positive pictures was associated with activity in the inferior frontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, precuneus, and middle temporal regions. Lying about the valence of the affectively negative pictures, on the other hand, was associated with activity in the orbital and medial frontal regions. While a clear valence-related effect on deception was observed, common neural regions were also recruited for the process of deception about the valence of the affective pictures. These regions included the lateral prefrontal and inferior parietal regions. Activity in these regions has been widely reported in fMRI studies on deception using affectively-neutral stimuli. The findings of this study reveal the effect of valence on the neural activity associated with deception. Furthermore, the data also help to illustrate the complexity of the neural mechanisms underlying deception.

  2. Vivid: How valence and arousal influence word processing under different task demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Busch, Nathaniel; Wilkie, Gianna; Kuperberg, Gina

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine how dimensions of emotion – valence and arousal – influence different stages of word processing under different task demands. In two experiments, two groups of participants viewed the same single emotional and neutral words while carrying out different tasks. In both experiments, valence (pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral) was fully crossed with arousal (high and low). We found that task made a substantial contribution to how valence and arousal modulated the Late Positive Complex (LPC), which is thought to reflect sustained evaluative processing (particularly of emotional stimuli). When participants performed a semantic categorization task in which emotion was not directly relevant to task performance, the LPC showed a larger amplitude for high-arousal words than low-arousal words, but no effect of valence. In contrast, when participants performed an overt valence categorization task, the LPC showed a large effect of valence (with unpleasant words eliciting the largest positivity), but no effect of arousal. These data show not only that valence and arousal act independently to influence word processing, but that their relative contributions to prolonged evaluative neural processes are strongly influenced by situational demands (and individual differences, as revealed in a subsequent analysis of subjective judgments). PMID:26833048

  3. From Semantics to Feelings: How Do Individuals with Schizophrenia Rate the Emotional Valence of Words?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is characterized by both emotional and language abnormalities. However, in spite of reports of preserved evaluation of valence of affective stimuli, such as pictures, it is less clear how individuals with schizophrenia assess verbal material with emotional valence, for example, the overall unpleasantness/displeasure relative to pleasantness/attraction of a word. This study aimed to investigate how schizophrenic individuals rate the emotional valence of adjectives, when compared with a group of healthy controls. One hundred and eighty-four adjectives differing in valence were presented. These adjectives were previously categorized as “neutral,” “positive” (pleasant, or “negative” (unpleasant by five judges not participating in the current experiment. Adjectives from the three categories were matched on word length, frequency, and familiarity. Sixteen individuals with schizophrenia diagnosis and seventeen healthy controls were asked to rate the valence of each word, by using a computerized version of the Self-Assessment Manikin (Bradley and Lang, 1994. Results demonstrated similar ratings of emotional valence of words, suggesting a similar representation of affective knowledge in schizophrenia, at least in terms of the valence dimension.

  4. The electronic properties of mixed valence hydrated europium chloride thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silly, M G; Charra, F; Lux, F; Lemercier, G; Sirotti, F

    2015-07-28

    We investigate the electronic properties of a model mixed-valence hydrated chloride europium salt by means of high resolution photoemission spectroscopy (HRPES) and resonant photoemission spectroscopy (RESPES) at the Eu 3d → 4f and 4d → 4f transitions. From the HRPES spectra, we have determined that the two europium oxidation states are homogeneously distributed in the bulk and that the hydrated salt film is exempt from surface mixed valence transition. From the RESPES spectra, the well separated resonant contributions characteristic of divalent and trivalent europium species (4f(6) and 4f(7) final states, respectively) are accurately extracted and quantitatively determined from the resonant features measured at the two edges. The partial absorption yield spectra, obtained by integrating the photoemission intensity in the valence-band region, can be well reproduced by atomic multiplet calculation at the M(4,5) (3d-4f) absorption edge and by an asymmetric Fano-like shape profile at the N(4,5) (4d-4f) absorption edge. The ratio of Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) species measured at the two absorption edges matches with the composition of the mixed valence europium salt as determined chemically. We have demonstrated that the observed spectroscopic features of the mixed valence salt are attributed to the mixed-valence ground state rather than surface valence transition. HRPES and RESPES spectra provide reference spectra for the study of europium salts and their derivatives.

  5. Occurrence and Concentrations of Halogenated Flame Retardants in the Atmospheric Fine Particles in Chinese Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Lin, Tian; Shen, Kaijun; Li, Jun; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Gan

    2016-09-20

    The concentrations of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in PM2.5 were monitored for one year at 10 urban sites in China during 2013-2014. This study investigated four classes of HFRs: nine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), six nonbromodiphenyl ether (BDE) brominated flame retardants, two dechlorane plus (DP) flame retardants, and three chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). Extremely high concentrations of BDE-209 and DBDPE were observed in only one city (Guangzhou), which was a consequence of the intensive e-waste recycling and disposal operations in the Pearl River Delta. This result differed from the tris(monochloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) distributions, which showed high concentrations in most cities, suggesting wide usage and large emissions in China in recent years. The highest TCPP and TCEP concentrations were observed in the summer, indicating that emission from local sources was an important factor controlling the levels in the air. This was not the case for BDE-209 and DBDPE, for which higher concentrations were found in winter. When bound to particulate matter due to low vapor pressure, these compounds may be more persistent in air, and temperature-dependent gas-particle partitioning was a key factor. Moreover, regional pollution and long-range transport had a significant influence on the seasonal distributions of BDE-209 and DBDPE, especially in cities (Guangzhou and Shanghai) close to electrical/electronic waste recycling sites. Residents in urban areas were exposed to higher levels of chlorinated OPFRs. This raises considerable concern, and an appropriate risk assessment is required.

  6. Some plant extracts retarde nitrification in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul–Mehdi S. AL-ANSARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of 17 plant materials on nitrification inhibition of urea- N in soil as compared with chemical inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD. Plant materials used in study were collected from different areas of Basrah province, south of Iraq. Aqueous extracts were prepared at ratio of 1:10 (plant material: water and added at conc. of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 ml g– 1 soil to loamy sand soil. DCD was added to soil at rate of 50 µg g-1 soil . Soil received urea at rate of 1000 µg N g-1 soil. Treated soils were incubated at 30 OC for 40 days. Results showed that application of all plant extracts, except those of casuarina, date palm and eucalyptus to soil retarded nitrification in soil. Caper, Sowthistle ,bladygrass and pomegranate extracts showed highest inhibition percentage (51, 42, 40 and 40 %, respectively and were found to be more effective than DCD (33 %. Highest inhibition was achieved by using those extracts at conc. of 0.1 ml g-1 soil after 10 days of incubation . Data also revealed that treated soil with these plant extracts significantly increased amount of NH4+–N and decreased amount of NO3-–N accumulation in soil compared with DCD and control treatments. Results of the study suggested a possibility of using aqueous extracts of some studied plants as potent nitrification inhibitor in soil.

  7. Translation-Invariant Parent Hamiltonians of Valence Bond Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerga, Daniel; Greco, Andrés; Gazza, Claudio; Muramatsu, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    We present a general method to construct translation-invariant and SU(2) symmetric antiferromagnetic parent Hamiltonians of valence bond crystals (VBCs). The method is based on a canonical mapping transforming S =1 /2 spin operators into a bilinear form of a new set of dimer fermion operators. We construct parent Hamiltonians of the columnar and the staggered VBCs on the square lattice, for which the VBC is an eigenstate in all regimes and the exact ground state in some region of the phase diagram. We study the departure from the exact VBC regime upon tuning the anisotropy by means of the hierarchical mean field theory and exact diagonalization on finite clusters. In both Hamiltonians, the VBC phase extends over the exact regime and transits to a columnar antiferromagnet (CAFM) through a window of intermediate phases, revealing an intriguing competition of correlation lengths at the VBC-CAFM transition. The method can be readily applied to construct other VBC parent Hamiltonians in different lattices and dimensions.

  8. The genetics of anxiety-related negative valence system traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jeanne E; Sawyers, Chelsea; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Hettema, John M

    2017-03-01

    NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) domain of negative valence systems (NVS) captures constructs of negative affect such as fear and distress traditionally subsumed under the various internalizing disorders. Through its aims to capture dimensional measures that cut across diagnostic categories and are linked to underlying neurobiological systems, a large number of phenotypic constructs have been proposed as potential research targets. Since "genes" represent a central "unit of analysis" in the RDoC matrix, it is important for studies going forward to apply what is known about the genetics of these phenotypes as well as fill in the gaps of existing knowledge. This article reviews the extant genetic epidemiological data (twin studies, heritability) and molecular genetic association findings for a broad range of putative NVS phenotypic measures. We find that scant genetic epidemiological data is available for experimentally derived measures such as attentional bias, peripheral physiology, or brain-based measures of threat response. The molecular genetic basis of NVS phenotypes is in its infancy, since most studies have focused on a small number of candidate genes selected for putative association to anxiety disorders (ADs). Thus, more research is required to provide a firm understanding of the genetic aspects of anxiety-related NVS constructs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effects of Emotional Valence on Hemispheric Asymmetries in Response Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ocklenburg

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemispheric asymmetries are a major organizational principle in human emotion processing, but their interaction with prefrontal control processes is not well understood. To this end, we determined whether hemispheric differences in response inhibition depend on the emotional valence of the stimulus being inhibited. Participants completed a lateralised Go/Nogo task, in which Nogo stimuli were neutral or emotional (either positive or negative images, while Go stimuli were scrambled versions of the same pictures. We recorded the N2 and P3 event-related potential (ERP components, two common electrophysiological measures of response inhibition processes. Behaviourally, participants were more accurate in withholding responses to emotional than to neutral stimuli. Electrophysiologically, Nogo-P3 responses were greater for emotional than for neutral stimuli, an effect driven primarily by an enhanced response to positive images. Hemispheric asymmetries were also observed, with greater Nogo-P3 following left versus right visual field stimuli. However, the visual field effect did not interact with emotion. We therefore find no evidence that emotion-related asymmetries affect response inhibition processes.

  10. Valence Topological Charge-Transfer Indices for Dipole Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Torrens

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New valence topological charge-transfer indices are applied to the calculation of dipole moments. The algebraic and vector semisum charge-transfer indices are defined. The combination of the charge-transfer indices allows the estimation of the dipole moments. The model is generalized for molecules with heteroatoms. The ability of the indices for the description of the molecular charge distribution is established by comparing them with the dipole moments of a homologous series of phenyl alcohols. Linear and non-linear correlation models are obtained. The new charge-transfer indices improve the multivariable non-linear regression equations for the dipole moment. When comparing with previous results, the variance decreases 92%. No superposition of the corresponding Gk–Jk and GkV – JkV pairs is observed. This diminishes the risk of co-linearity. Inclusion of the oxygen atom in the p-electron system is beneficial for the description of the dipole moment, owing to either the role of the additional p orbitals provided by the heteroatom or the role of steric factors in the p-electron conjugation. Linear and non-linear correlations between the fractal dimension and various descriptors point not only to a homogeneous molecular structure but also to the ability to predict and tailor drug properties.

  11. Aging and distraction by irrelevant speech: does emotional valence matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gerven, Pascal W M; Murphy, Dana R

    2010-11-01

    From prior studies, we know that older adults are rarely more distracted by irrelevant speech than younger adults, which is remarkable in light of the inhibitory deficit view of aging. We tested the hypothesis that older adults are more distracted by emotional irrelevant speech during a visual cognitive task than younger adults. Forty-eight younger (mean age = 21.9 years) and 48 older individuals (mean age = 68.1 years) performed a visual counting task while being exposed to irrelevant speech consisting of random numbers intermixed with neutral, positive, or negative words. Performance in these conditions was compared with that in a silence condition. Irrelevant speech increased counting time and decreased accuracy similarly for younger and older adults. Furthermore, the emotional conditions did not elicit a stronger effect than the neutral condition. Finally, we found implicit memory for irrelevant speech, but its level was independent of emotional valence and age. We conclude that emotional irrelevant speech has no disproportionate impact on cognitive performance in older adults. This can be regarded as a challenge to the inhibitory deficit hypothesis.

  12. Positively valenced stimuli facilitate creative novel metaphoric processes by enhancing medial prefrontal cortical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Beeman, Mark; Faust, Miriam; Mashal, Nira

    2013-01-01

    A metaphor is a figure of speech in which a subject is symbolic of another unrelated object. In the present study, we examined neural patterns associated with both novel unfamiliar and conventional familiar metaphoric processing, and how these patterns are modulated by affective valence. Prior to fMRI scanning, participants received a list of word pairs (novel unfamiliar metaphors as well as conventional familiar metaphors) and were asked to denote the valence (positive, negative, or neutral) of each word pair. During scanning, participants had to decide whether the word pairs formed meaningful or meaningless expressions. Results indicate that participants were faster and more accurate at deciding that positively valenced metaphors were meaningful compared to neutral metaphors. These behavioral findings were accompanied by increased activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and the right inferior parietal lobe (RIPL). Specifically, positively valenced novel unfamiliar metaphors elicited activation in these brain regions in addition to the left superior temporal gyrus when compared to neutral novel metaphors. We also found that the mPFC and PCC mediated the processing of positively valenced metaphors when compared to negatively valenced metaphors. Positively valenced conventional metaphors, however, elicited different neural signatures when contrasted with either neutral or negatively valenced conventional metaphors. Together, our results indicate that positively valenced stimuli facilitate creative metaphoric processes (specifically novel metaphoric processes) by mediating attention and cognitive control processes required for the access, integration, and selection of semantic associations via modulation of the mPFC. The present study is important for the development of neural accounts of emotion-cognition interactions required for creativity, language, and successful social functioning in general.

  13. Experiencing activation: energetic arousal and tense arousal are not mixtures of valence and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmack, Ulrich; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2002-12-01

    R. E. Thayer (1989) proposed 2 types of activation: energetic arousal (awake-tired) and tense arousal (tense-calm). This view has been challenged by claims that energetic arousal and tense arousal are mixtures of valence and a single activation dimension. The authors present a direct test of this hypothesis by computing the correlation between the residuals of energetic arousal and tense arousal after removing the shared variance with valence. Whereas the valence activation hypothesis predicts a strong positive correlation between the 2 residuals, the authors found that it was not significantly different from 0. This finding reaffirms the view of energetic arousal and tense arousal as 2 distinct types of activation.

  14. Multielectron coincidence spectroscopy for core-valence doubly ionized states of CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Y; Kaneyasu, T; Shigemasa, E; Lablanquie, P; Penent, F; Ito, K

    2007-07-28

    Double photoionization into states which have holes in one core and one valence orbitals has been observed in CO using a state-of-the-art multielectron coincidence method. The core-valence CO2+ structures exhibited on the electron coincidence spectra are assigned by comparison with the available calculation [H. Schulte et al., J. Chem. Phys. 105, 11108 (1996)]. Features of the spectrum confirm that the properties of the CO2+ states are characterized by the interaction between the localized valence holes and the core holes.

  15. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics, Regional Engineering. College, Rourkela 769 008, India. MS received 29 November 2001; revised 24 June 2002. Abstract. A fatigue crack can be effectively retarded by heating a spot near the crack ...

  16. Aryl Polyphosphonates: Useful Halogen-Free Flame Retardants for Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Aryl polyphosphonates (ArPPN) have been demonstrated to function in wide applications as flame retardants for different polymer materials, including thermosets, polycarbonate, polyesters and polyamides, particularly due to their satisfactory thermal stability compared to aliphatic flame retardants, and to their desirable flow behavior observed during the processing of polymeric materials. This paper provides a brief overview of the main developments in ArPPN and their derivatives for flame-retarding polymeric materials, primarily based on the authors’ research work and the literature published over the last two decades. The synthetic chemistry of these compounds is discussed along with their thermal stabilities and flame-retardant properties. The possible mechanisms of ArPPN and their derivatives containing hetero elements, which exhibit a synergistic effect with phosphorus, are also discussed. PMID:28883350

  17. Tourette syndrome, growth retardation, and platyspondyly: an entity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, Frederike Y.; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.

    2002-01-01

    A 14-year-old male is described with Tourette syndrome, platyspondyly, a marked delay in bone age, growth retardation that is more expressed in the limbs and talipes equinovarus. This appears to be a new entity

  18. Aryl Polyphosphonates: Useful Halogen-Free Flame Retardants for Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aryl polyphosphonates (ArPPN have been demonstrated to function in wide applications as flame retardants for different polymer materials, including thermosets, polycarbonate, polyesters and polyamides, particularly due to their satisfactory thermal stability compared to aliphatic flame retardants, and to their desirable flow behavior observed during the processing of polymeric materials. This paper provides a brief overview of the main developments in ArPPN and their derivatives for flame-retarding polymeric materials, primarily based on the authors’ research work and the literature published over the last two decades. The synthetic chemistry of these compounds is discussed along with their thermal stabilities and flame-retardant properties. The possible mechanisms of ArPPN and their derivatives containing hetero elements, which exhibit a synergistic effect with phosphorus, are also discussed.

  19. The Effects of Institutionalisation on Retardates Social Independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, G.; Seim, R.

    1979-01-01

    Forty retarded adults were the Ss of a study to evaluate the hypothesis that individuals who have been institutionalized for a greater percentage of their lifetime are more socially immature than those institutionalized for a smaller percentage. (CL)

  20. Development programme motor function of children with mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the rehabilitation program recovery of motor function of children with mental retardation. Material-methods: the study involved 19 students from primary diagnosis - mental retardation. Age of children was 8 - 9 years and 9 - 10 years. Motor speed detection reaction carried out using a falling line setting (in cm. Determination of speed integral motor actions performed with running 30 meters to go. From cross-country test also used the shuttle run 4x9 meters. Results : a program of exercise for children with mental retardation. Exercises aimed at correcting the basic movements, flexibility correction, correction and development of coordination abilities, adjustment and development of physical fitness, correction and prevention of secondary fractures. Conclusions : it was found that the rehabilitation program for development and correction of motor function of children with mental retardation is an effective and affordable to adjust coordination abilities and flexibility.

  1. Perceptual-Motor Testing of Mentally Retarded Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurrager, Phil S.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Compared were the performances on a visual-motor task of 130 8-to 30-year-old retarded persons with separate etiologies but similar intelligence levels (in five categories ranging from IQ 30-91). (Author/CL)

  2. Acquired alopecia, mental retardation, short stature, microcephaly, and optic atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R. C.; Renckens-Wennen, E. G.

    1990-01-01

    We report on a female patient who had acquired total alopecia, short stature, microcephaly, optic atrophy, severe myopia, and mental retardation. A survey of published reports failed to show an identical patient, despite various similar cases

  3. Persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity of halogen-free flame retardants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaijers, S.L.; Kong, D; Hendriks, H.S.; de Wit, C.A.; Cousins, I.T.; Westerink, R.H.S.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.; de Voogt, P.; Parsons, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Polymers are synthetic organic materials that have a high carbon and hydrogen content, which renders them readily combustible. When used in buildings, electrical appliances, furniture, textiles, transportation, mining, and in many other applications, polymers have to fulfill flame retardancy

  4. Polaritons and retarded interactions in nonlinear optical susceptibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoester, Jasper; Mukamel, Shaul

    1989-01-01

    The role of retarded intermolecular interactions (polariton effects) in the nonlinear optical susceptibilities of condensed phases is studied. A systematic method for calculating these susceptibilities is developed, based on the derivation of reduced equations of motion which couple the electronic

  5. The Overweight Preschool Retarded Child Can and Should Lose Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a weight reduction and control program for obese retarded preschool children involving parent leaders and incorporating social and tangible rewards. Discusses techniques children practice daily for a total of 15 weeks. (RH)

  6. Reality Therapy with Institutionalized Emotionally Disturbed Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolly, John P.; Page, D. Patricia

    1981-01-01

    The study evaluated a reality therapy program used with 20 institutionalized mentally retarded (mild to profound) and emotionally disturbed adolescents residing in an institution. Results indicated that 17 of the Ss increased adaptive behaviors and all decreased maladaptive behaviors. (DB)

  7. Coding, Planning and Mental Retardation: Theory, Evidence and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Geoffrey N.; Das, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    The paper traces the development of an integrated model of cognition stemming from Soviet neuropsychology and reviews recent research on simultaneous and successive syntheses. Implications for mental retardation, learning disability, hyperactivity, and reading disability are given. (Author/CL)

  8. [Comparative bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of Dolotren retard and Dolotren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorato, J; Montes, B; Suárez, J; Lucero, M L; Valiente, R

    1992-01-01

    A randomized crossover study was designed in order to evaluate the bioequivalence of a sustained-release preparation (DR) of diclofenac sodium (Dolotrén RETARD) with respect to an enteric coated (D) tablet (Dolotren). For this purpose the bioavailability of both formulations, orally administered in single and multiple doses, was determined. Nine healthy volunteers were included in this study, receiving 100 mg of D and 100 mg of DR, firstly in single dose and then for 15 days b.i.d. for D group and once a day for DR group. For the analytical determination of diclofenac, blood samples at established time intervals, the day of the single dose and the 3rd, 7th and 15th day of multiple dose administration, were taken. The following kinetic parameters were determined: Cmac, tmax, alpha and beta, clearance, ka, area under the curve and absolute and relative bioavailability. When administered both endovenous and orally, the great interindividual variability in the kinetic characteristics of diclofenac sodium is evidenced. The lag time (tlag) for DR is 0.4 h, shorter than for D (2.2 h), which indicates a faster absorption in the upper sections of the gastrointestinal tract. Also tmax was shorter for Dr (1.9 h) than for D (4.3 h). Cmax obtained with D was higher tan with DR. The diclofenac sodium elimination process from plasma is significantly slower with DR than with D (t1/2 beta = 18.1 h and 2.5 h, respectively). In consequence, quantifiable plasmatic levels are maintained for at least 24 hours after administration of DR, but not of D. Absolute bioavailability of both preparations is about 80%, with great interindividual variations. Significant differences between the two preparations could not be demonstrated. Relative bioavailability between DR and D was 91.5%. None of the preparations when administered in repeated doses, D every 12 hours and DR every 24 hours, produced accumulation, neither their pharmacokinetic characteristics changed. Clinical and biological

  9. A Theoretical Study of Remobilizing Surfactant Retarded Fluid Particle Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Papageorgiou, Dimitri; Maldarelli, Charles

    1996-01-01

    Microgravity processes must rely on mechanisms other than bouyancy to move bubbles or droplets from one region to another in a continuous liquid phase. One suggested method is thermocapillary migration in which a temperature gradient is applied to the continuous phase. When a fluid particle contacts this gradient, one pole of the particle becomes warmer than the opposing pole. The interfacial tension between the drop or bubble phase and the continuous phase usually decreases with temperature. Thus the cooler pole is of higher interfacial tension than the warmer pole, and the interface is tugged in the direction of the cooler end. This thermocapillary or thermally induced Marangoni surface stress causes a fluid streaming in the continuous phase from which develops a viscous shear traction and pressure gradient which together propel the particle in the direction of the warmer fluid. In this paper, we provide a theoretical basis for remobilizing surfactant retarded fluid particle interfaces in an effort to make viable the use of thermocapillary migrations for the management of bubbles and drops in microgravity,

  10. Surface nanomodification of cotton fiber for flame retardant application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat; Jermsutjarit, Piyarat; Bhanthumnavin, Worawan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents efficient surface modification methodology to increase fire resistance properties of cotton by radio frequency (RF) plasma-induced graft copolymerization of vinyl phosphate ester as nanometer residue structure onto cotton surface. Methacryloyloxyethyl diphenyl phosphate (MEDP) monomer was synthesized and grafted onto the surface of cotton fabric by argon RF plasma at ambient temperature. Under optimum RF power (30 W), amounts of MEDP and N,N methylenebisacrylamide cross linking agent were varied to obtain optimum graft copolymerization conditions. Untreated and treated cotton were characterized by attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to investigate their functional group characteristics. This showed a strong covalent attachment between the surface of cotton and flame retardant material as the carbonyl functionality of the MEDP was clearly observed in the spectra. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis also showed grafted material as nanometer residue on cotton surface. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the decomposition of phosphorus compound which occurs at lower temperature than the cotton itself resulted in the formation of char which covers cotton surface. This protects the fabric surface from further burning, therefore, higher amounts of remaining materials were observed as char in all cases. Furthermore, limiting oxygen index (LOI) had increased from 19 in untreated to 28 in grafted cotton. Detailed analysis on structural and thermal properties as well as surface grafting efficiency are presented.

  11. How You Can Help Your Retarded Child; A Manual for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Edward L.; Scott, J. Clifford

    Directed to parents of mentally retarded children, the manual describes the problem of retardation that these parents must face and their reactions to it. Mental retardation is explained, and both emotional and social maturity are discussed. The necessity of choosing a life plan for the retarded child and factors involved in the decision are…

  12. Upgrading of recycled polypropylene by preparing flame retarded layered composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ronkay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Upgrading of polypropylene waste was performed by different composite technologies, in order to improve the flame retardancy combined with preserved or improved mechanical properties. The polymer waste of density below 900 kg/m3 is originated from end-of-life vehicles (ELV after comminution, density separation and comprehensive analysis. Intumescent flame retardant system was used for reducing the flammability; while chopped glass fibre reinforcement was used to compensate the deterioration of mechanical properties caused by flame retardant additives. In mixed composite beside of flame retardants, the reinforcement effect of glass fibre can not be realized; therefore with modification of composite structure (but maintaining the composition a multilayer composite was developed, which contains 65.5% of recycled polymer, where the core is reinforced with glass fibre covered by flame retarded shell layers. Enhanced flame retardancy (4 min longer time to escape was achieved by using this layered composite compared to the mixed composite, thus the time to escape could be extended only with modification of composite structure.

  13. Accuracy enhancement of dual rotating mueller matrix imaging polarimeter by diattenuation and retardance error calibration approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kaustav; Serrano-García, David Ignacio; Otani, Yukitoshi

    2017-06-01

    We present a new calibration method to minimize the errors due to non-ideal retarders of a dual rotating Mueller matrix polarimeter. To increase the accuracy of the dual rotating retarder polarimeter, it is necessary to compensate the errors caused by the inaccuracy of retarders. Although calibration method for retardance already exists, limitations on the accuracy have been obtained by considering only the retardance errors. In the proposed model we added the calibration of diattenuation error of the retarder along with retardance error on the standard model. An enhancement in the accuracy of the system is obtained. The proposed model is described with equations and supporting experimental results are presented.

  14. Game System for Rehabilitation Based on Kinect is Effective for Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinect has already been widely used in the area of retardation, and this study is to evaluate whether the Game System for Rehabilitation based on Kinect is effective for children with mental retardation. The subjects in this paper are 112 children with mental retardation in Zhejiang province of China. The Game System for Rehabilitation based on Kinect was applied to assist the rehabilitation of children. Before the training, the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI was used to evaluate abilities of children, including self-care, mobility, and social function. And after having been trained for a month, the abilities of these children were evaluated again by PEDI. The results in this paper is that, after the application of Game System for Rehabilitation based on Kinect, the PEDI score of children is significantly higher than the score before training. And it can be concluded that the Game System for Rehabilitation based on Kinect can significantly improve self-care, mobility, and social function of children with MR.

  15. Fragile X Mental Retardation-1 Knockout Zebrafish Shows Precocious Development in Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao-Ju; Hsu, Mao-Ting; Ng, Ming-Chong; Amstislavskaya, Tamara G; Tikhonova, Maria A; Yang, Yi-Ling; Lu, Kwok-Tung

    2017-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a generally hereditary form of human mental retardation that is caused by triplet repeat expansion (CGG) mutation in fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene promoter and that results in the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression. The common symptoms of FXS patients include learning disabilities, anxiety, autistic behaviors, as well as other behavioral abnormalities. Our previous results demonstrated the behavioral abnormalities in fmr1 knockout (KO) zebrafish such as fear memory impairment and autism-like behavior. Here, we studied the functional role of fmr1 gene on the development of social behavior by behavioral experiments, including shoaling behavior, shoaling preference, light/dark test, and novel tank task. Our results demonstrated that precocious development of shoaling behavior is found in fmr1 KO zebrafish without affecting the shoaling preference on conspecific zebrafish. The shoaling behavior appeared after 14 days postfertilization (dpf), and the level of shoaling elevated in fmr1 KO zebrafish. Furthermore, the fmr1 KO zebrafish at 28 dpf expressed higher anxiety level in novel tank task. These results suggest that the change of shoaling behavior in fmr1 KO zebrafish may result from hyperactivity and an increase of anxiety.

  16. A syntactic investigation of verbal autistic, mentally retarded, and normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S; Bartolucci, G

    1977-06-01

    The syndrome of childhood autism is typified by major abnormalities in language development, yet there are few systematic descriptions of autistic children's linguistic systems. We have, therefore, begun a comprehensive investigation of the language of verbal autistic children and concentrate in this paper on comparing the syntax used by 10 verbal autistic children matched for nonlinguistic mental age with a group of mentally retarded subjects and normal controls. Two different means of assessing syntactic development were utilized: Lee's Developmental Sentence analysis and Chomsky's Transformational analysis. The autistic group was found to rank significantly lower than either the mentally retarded or the normal groups in terms of Developmental Sentence Scores. When a transformational grammar was used to describe the language samples of our subjects the autistic children were typified by a higher error rate and lower level of complexity compared to the other two groups. However, the results also indicate that the grammatical system of autistic children is rule-governed and probably not unlike that of young normal or retarded children. In conclusion, it appears that the syntactic abnormalities characteristic of autism are attributable to an extreme delay in language development as well as to an impaired ability to make use of linguistic rules.

  17. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to yalella azteca (Saussure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1997-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca Saussure (an amphipod) exposed in soft and hard waters to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two foam suppressants (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). The chemicals were slightly to moderately toxic to amphipods. The most toxic chemical to amphipods in soft and hard water was Phos-Chek WD-881 (96-h mean lethal concentration [LC50] equal to 10 mg/L and 22 mg/L, respectively), and the least toxic chemical to amphipods in soft water was Fire-Trol GTS-R (96-h LC50 equal to 127 mg/L) and in hard water was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-h LC50 equal to 535 mg/L). Concentrations of ammonia in tests with the three fire retardants and both water types were greater than reported LC50 values and probably were the major toxic component. Estimated un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the LC50 were frequently less than the reported LC50 ammonia concentrations for amphipods. The three fire retardants were more toxic in soft water than in hard water even though ammonia and un-ionized ammonia concentrations were higher in hard water tests than in soft water tests. The accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect aquatic invertebrates, thereby disrupting ecosystem function.

  18. Effect of computer game intervention on the attention capacity of mentally retarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaiyan, Akram; Mohammadi, Eesa; Fallah, Parviz A

    2007-10-01

    The low rate of understanding and the limited domain of attention are two important and distinctive characteristics of mental retardation. One of the important strategies to provide effective education for these subjects is to lessen the backgrounds and impacts of these affective factors. The aim of this research was to find the effect of computer games program on the amount of mentally retarded persons' attention. Sixty educable male mentally retarded subjects were selected from two 24-h care centres in Tehran. The Toulouse-Pieron Scale was used to determinate the subjects' attention at pre-post test. Members of the experimental group were subjected to 35 sets of computer games. After use of the sets of computer games, the attention scores of the subjects were assessed immediately after the intervention and 5 weeks later. The results showed that exactly after the intervention the average attention scores of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group. But, 5 weeks after the intervention, there was actually no significant difference.

  19. Valence Bond Theory Reveals Hidden Delocalized Diradical Character of Polyenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junjing; Wu, Wei; Danovich, David; Hoffmann, Roald; Tsuji, Yuta; Shaik, Sason

    2017-07-12

    The nature of the electronic-structure of polyenes, their delocalization features, and potential diradicaloid characters constitute a fundamental problem in chemistry. To address this problem, we used valence bond self-consistent field (VBSCF) calculations and modeling of polyenes, C2nH2n+2 (n = 2-10). The theoretical treatment shows that starting with n = 5, the polyene's wave function is mainly a shifting 1,4-diradicaloid, a character that increases as the chain length increases, while the contribution of the fundamental Lewis structure with alternating double and single bonds (1) decays quite fast and becomes minor relative to the diradicaloid pack. We show how, nevertheless, it is this wave function that predicts that polyenes will still exhibit alternating short/long CC bonds like the fundamental structure 1. Furthermore, despite the decay of the VB contribution of 1, it remains the single structure with the largest weight among all the individual structures. The mixing of all the 1,4-diradicaloid structures into 1 follows perturbation theory rules, with the result that the delocalization energy due to this mixing is additive and behaves as a linear function of the number of the double bonds, ΔEdel = -6.9 × n (kcal mol(-1)). The VB modeling shows that while the conjugation stabilizes structure 1, this stabilization energy is energetically overridden by the Pauli repulsion between two adjacent double bonds. Nevertheless, unsubstituted polyenes remain planar; this observation is addressed. Potential manifestations of the diradicaloid nature of polyenes are discussed, and it is concluded that the diradicaloid character is clearly not a well-defined physical property as in real diradicals. Thus, we went full circle to realize that our philosophical question may not be strictly resolved. The localized/delocalized properties of polyenes seem to define a "chemical duality principle". This duality of molecular wave functions is a ubiquitous beguiling phenomenon.

  20. Chemical Bonding: The Orthogonal Valence-Bond View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander F. Sax

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical bonding is the stabilization of a molecular system by charge- and spin-reorganization processes in chemical reactions. These processes are said to be local, because the number of atoms involved is very small. With multi-configurational self-consistent field (MCSCF wave functions, these processes can be calculated, but the local information is hidden by the delocalized molecular orbitals (MO used to construct the wave functions. The transformation of such wave functions into valence bond (VB wave functions, which are based on localized orbitals, reveals the hidden information; this transformation is called a VB reading of MCSCF wave functions. The two-electron VB wave functions describing the Lewis electron pair that connects two atoms are frequently called covalent or neutral, suggesting that these wave functions describe an electronic situation where two electrons are never located at the same atom; such electronic situations and the wave functions describing them are called ionic. When the distance between two atoms decreases, however, every covalent VB wave function composed of non-orthogonal atomic orbitals changes its character from neutral to ionic. However, this change in the character of conventional VB wave functions is hidden by its mathematical form. Orthogonal VB wave functions composed of orthonormalized orbitals never change their character. When localized fragment orbitals are used instead of atomic orbitals, one can decide which local information is revealed and which remains hidden. In this paper, we analyze four chemical reactions by transforming the MCSCF wave functions into orthogonal VB wave functions; we show how the reactions are influenced by changing the atoms involved or by changing their local symmetry. Using orthogonal instead of non-orthogonal orbitals is not just a technical issue; it also changes the interpretation, revealing the properties of wave functions that remain otherwise undetected.

  1. Valence, arousal, and task effects in emotional prosody processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke ePaulmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that emotional prosody processing is a highly rapid and complex process. In particular, it has been shown that different basic emotions can be differentiated in an early event-related brain potential (ERP component, the P200. Often, the P200 is followed by later long lasting ERPs such as the late positive complex (LPC. The current experiment set out to explore in how far emotionality and arousal can modulate these previously reported ERP components. In addition, we also investigated the influence of task demands (implicit vs. explicit evaluation of stimuli. Participants listened to pseudo-sentences (sentences with no lexical content spoken in six different emotions or in a neutral tone of voice while they either rated the arousal level of the speaker or their own arousal level. Results confirm that different emotional intonations can first be differentiated in the P200 component, reflecting a first emotional encoding of the stimulus possibly including a valence tagging process. A marginal significant arousal effect was also found in this time-window with high arousing stimuli eliciting a stronger P200 than low arousing stimuli. The P200 component was followed by a long lasting positive ERP between 400 and 750 ms. In this late time-window, both emotion and arousal effects were found. No effects of task were observed in either time-window. Taken together, results suggest that emotion relevant details are robustly decoded during early processing and late processing stages while arousal information is only reliably taken into consideration at a later stage of processing.

  2. Valence state partitioning of V between pyroxene-melt: Effects of pyroxene and melt composition, and direct determination of V valence states by XANES. Application to Martian basalt QUE 94201 composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, J. M.; Papike, J. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Shearer, C. K.; Burger, P.; McKay, G.; Le, L.

    2008-08-01

    Experiments on a Martian basalt composition show that Dv augite/melt is greater than Dv pigeonite/melt in samples equilibrated under the same fO2 conditions. This increase is due to the increased availability of elements for coupled substitution with the V3+ or V4+ ions, namely A1 and Na. For this bulk composition, both A1 and Na are higher in concentration in augite compared with pigeonite; therefore more V can enter augite than pigeonite. Direct valence state determination by XANES shows that the V3+ and V4+ are the main V species in the melt at fO2 conditions of IW-1 to IW+3.5, whereas pyroxene grains at IW-1, IW, and IW+1 contain mostly V3+. This confirms the idea that V3+ is more compatible in pyroxene than V4+. The XANES data also indicates that a small percentage of V2+ may exist in melt and pyroxene at IW-1. The similar valence of V in glass and pyroxene at IW-1 suggests that V2+ and V3+ may have similar compatibilities in pyroxene.

  3. Valence state partitioning of V between pyroxene-melt: Effects of pyroxene and melt composition, and direct determination of V valence states by XANES. Application to Martian basalt QUE 94201 composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karner, J.M.; Papike, J.J.; Sutton, S.R.; Shearer, C.K.; Burger, P.; McKay, G.; Le, L. (UNM); (NASA, Johnson Space Center); (NASA , Johnson Space Center); (UC)

    2009-01-13

    Experiments on a Martian basalt composition show that D{sub V} augite/melt is greater than D{sub V} pigeonite/melt in samples equilibrated under the same fO{sub 2} conditions. This increase is due to the increased availability of elements for coupled substitution with the V{sup 3+} or V{sup 4+} ions, namely Al and Na. for this bulk composition, both Al and Na are higher in concentration in augite compared with pigeonite; therefore more V can enter augite than pigeonite. Direct valence state determination by XANES shows that the V{sup 3+} and V{sup 4+} are the main V species in the melt at fO{sub 2} conditions of IW-1 to IW+3.5, whereas pyroxene grains at IW-1, IW, and IW+1 contain mostly V{sup 3+}. This confirms the idea that V{sup 3+} is more compatible in pyroxene than V{sup 4+}. The Xanes data also indicates that a small percentage of V{sup 2+} may exist in melt and pyroxene at IW-1. The similar valence of V in glass and pyroxene at IW-1 suggests that V{sup 2+} and V{sup 3+} may have similar compatibilities in pyroxene.

  4. Determination of the bulk cobalt valence state of co-perovskites containing surface-adsorbed impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, O; Ludwig, Chr; Wokaun, A

    2006-10-15

    We used thermogravimetric hydrogen reduction and iodometric titration to determine the bulk valence state of cobalt in Co-perovskites containing surface carbonate hydroxide or hydroxyl groups. It could be shown that thermogravimetric hydrogen reduction experiments are very sensitive to volatile surface groups, but due to their volatility, they can be specified and the bulk valence state of cobalt can still be deduced from these experiments. The iodometric titration is less sensitive to small volatile surface impurities, but precaution has to be taken that oxygen or iodine does not escape from the solution during dissolution of the sample. Best results were obtained if the sample was titrated during dissolution in a closed argon floated titration apparatus. We tested the two methods using LaCoO3 perovskite as a sample with a known valence state. Both methods delivered satisfactory results, and the valence state could be determined with an accuracy of better than 1%.

  5. Two Routes to Emotional Memory: Distinct Neural Processes for Valence and Arousal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elizabeth A. Kensinger; Suzanne Corkin; Marcus E. Raichle

    2004-01-01

    ... attributable to arousal. By using functional MRI and behavioral studies, we found that distinct cognitive and neural processes contribute to emotional memory enhancement for arousing information versus valenced, nonarousing information...

  6. Overlap valence quarks on a twisted mass sea. A case study for mixed action lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Drach, Vincent; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Garcia-Ramos, Elena [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Herdoiza, Gregorio [UAM/CSIC Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; UAM/CSIC Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2012-11-15

    We discuss a Lattice QCD mixed action investigation employing Wilson maximally twisted mass sea and overlap valence fermions. Using four values of the lattice spacing, we demonstrate that the overlap Dirac operator assumes a point-like locality in the continuum limit. We also show that by adopting suitable matching conditions for the sea and valence theories a consistent continuum limit for the pion decay constant and light baryon masses can be obtained. Finally, we confront results for sea-valence mixed meson masses and the valence scalar correlator with corresponding expressions of chiral perturbation theory. This allows us to extract low energy constants of mixed action chiral perturbation which characterize the strength of unitarity violations in our mixed action setup.

  7. A continuous mapping between space and valence with left- and right-handers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freddi, Sébastien; Brouillet, Thibaut; Cretenet, Joël; Heurley, Loïc P; Dru, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we examined whether emotional valence could correspond to a continuous lateral bias in space, according to a mental metaphor that establishes the mapping between a concrete domain (space...

  8. Life changes and depressive symptoms: the effects of valence and amount of change

    OpenAIRE

    Bennik, Elise C.; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2013-01-01

    Background Only few studies have focused on the effects of positive life changes on depression, and the ones that did demonstrated inconsistent findings. The aim of the present study was to obtain a better understanding of the influence of positive life changes on depressive symptoms by decomposing life changes into a valence and an amount of change component. Methods Using hierarchical multiple regression, we examined the unique effects of valence (pleasantness/unpleasantness) and amount of ...

  9. The New Resonating Valence Bond Method for Ab-Initio Electronic Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Sorella, Sandro; Zen, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The Resonating Valence Bond theory of the chemical bond was introduced soon after the discovery of quantum mechanics and has contributed to explain the role of electron correlation within a particularly simple and intuitive approach where the chemical bond between two nearby atoms is described by one or more singlet electron pairs. In this chapter Pauling's resonating valence bond theory of the chemical bond is revisited within a new formulation, introduced by P.W. Anderson after the discover...

  10. Time-resolved imaging of purely valence-electron dynamics during a chemical reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockett, Paul; Bisgaard, Christer Z.; Clarkin, Owen J.

    2011-01-01

    the non-adiabatic photodissociation of carbon disulphide demonstrate how the purely electronic rearrangements of the valence electrons can be projected from inherently coupled electronic-vibrational dynamics. Combined with ongoing efforts in molecular frame alignment(20) and orientation(21,22), TRMFPADs...... offer the promise of directly imaging valence-electron dynamics during molecular processes without involving the use of strong, highly perturbing laser fields(23)....

  11. The power of emotional valence – From cognitive to affective processes in reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eAltmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1 the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM, and (2 the neural substrate of liking negatively valenced narratives. A set of 80 short narratives was compiled, ranging from neutral to negative emotional valence. For each story mean rating values on valence and liking were obtained from a group of 32 participants in a prestudy, and later included as parametric regressors in the fMRI analysis. Another group of 24 participants passively read the narratives in a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Results revealed a stronger engagement of affective ToM-related brain areas with increasingly negative story valence. Stories that were unpleasant, but simulatiously liked, selectively engaged the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, which might reflect the moral exploration of the story content. Further analysis showed that the more the mPFC becomes engaged during the reading of negatively valenced stories, the more coactivation can be observed in other brain areas related to the neural processing of affective ToM and empathy.

  12. Distracted by pleasure: Effects of positive versus negative valence on emotional capture under load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rashmi; Hur, Young-Jin; Lavie, Nilli

    2016-04-01

    We report 3 experiments examining the effects of positive versus negative valence and perceptual load in determining attention capture by irrelevant emotional distractors. Participants performed a letter search task searching for 1 of 2 target letters (X or N) in conditions of either low perceptual load (circular nontarget letters) or high perceptual load (angular nontarget letters that are similar to the target letters). On 25% of the trials an irrelevant emotional distractor was presented at the display center and participants were instructed to ignore it. The distractor stimulus was either positive or negative and was selected from 3 different classes: IAPS pictures of erotica or mutilated bodies (Experiment 1), happy or angry faces (Experiment 2), and faces associated with gain or loss in a prior value-learning phase involving a betting game (Experiment 3). The results showed a consistent pattern of interaction of load and valence across the 3 experiments. Irrelevant emotional distractors produced interference effects on search reaction time (RT) in conditions of low load, with no difference between negative and positive valence. High perceptual load, however, consistently reduced interference from the negative-valence distractors, but had no effect on the positive-valence distractors. As these results were consistently found across 3 different categories of emotional distractors, they suggest the general conclusion that attentional capture by irrelevant emotional distractors depends on both their valence and the level of perceptual load in the task and highlight the special status of distractors associated with pleasure. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Valence, arousal, and cognitive control: a voluntary task-switching study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demanet, Jelle; Liefooghe, Baptist; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    The present study focused on the interplay between arousal, valence, and cognitive control. To this end, we investigated how arousal and valence associated with affective stimuli influenced cognitive flexibility when switching between tasks voluntarily. Three hypotheses were tested. First, a valence hypothesis that states that the positive valence of affective stimuli will facilitate both global and task-switching performance because of increased cognitive flexibility. Second, an arousal hypothesis that states that arousal, and not valence, will specifically impair task-switching performance by strengthening the previously executed task-set. Third, an attention hypothesis that states that both cognitive and emotional control ask for limited attentional resources, and predicts that arousal will impair both global and task-switching performance. The results showed that arousal affected task-switching but not global performance, possibly by phasic modulations of the noradrenergic system that reinforces the previously executed task. In addition, positive valence only affected global performance but not task-switching performance, possibly by phasic modulations of dopamine that stimulates the general ability to perform in a multitasking environment.

  14. Electronic structure of γ-FeSi 2: angle resolved valence band photoemission and Si 2p photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, W. L.; Tonner, B. P.

    1994-06-01

    We have investigated the electronic properties of γ-FeSi 2 thin films using angle resolved valence band photoemission and Si2p core level photoemission. We find two features in the valence band data which are not present in the calculated density of states (DOS). One of these has a constant final state energy and we identify it as being due to a final state effect. Another feature, found near —1.8 eV binding energy, is located in an energy gap of the bulk DOS and is identified as a surface state. We have measured the energy dispersion of this surface state and of two bulk-like states. The surface state has a total energy shift of 0.4 eV and exhibits band extrema near positions of the (2×2) reconstructed surface Brillouin zone boundaries. High resolution Si 2p photoemission spectra on samples of varying thickness show that the Si 2p binding energy is higher in the suicide than in bulk silicon by 0.49 eV. We find no evidence of silicon adatoms in our Si 2p photoemission results.

  15. Media preferences in scenarios involving relationship closeness and information valence: evidence of strategic self-presentation and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Jan-Are K; Kummervold, Per Egil; Wynn, Rolf

    2014-02-01

    The study investigated strategic self-presentation (relationship closeness, information valence, and sex) on hypothetical choice of media used. 145 participants (73 women, 72 men; M age = 22.3 yr.) were randomly assigned to experimental conditions where they indicated their preference for communicating with either a friend or a stranger using Short Messaging Service (SMS), e-mail, or telephone, compared to face-to-face. Information valence was manipulated as a within-subjects variable by scenarios where information was self-referential and either negative or positive. Preference to mediated channels in the two scenarios was measured as an average of self-reported scores on a scale from 1-5 where 3 indicated face-to-face communication. Relationship closeness and scenario affected media preferences. Participants had higher preference scores for mediated channels when communicating with strangers than with friends and when sharing self-referential and negative information. Only women's preferences appeared to be affected by the manipulation of relationship closeness.

  16. Resonating Valence Bonds and Mean-Field d-Wave Superconductivity in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black-Schaffer, Annica M.

    2010-04-27

    We investigate the possibility of inducing superconductivity in a graphite layer by electronic correlation effects. We use a phenomenological microscopic Hamiltonian which includes nearest neighbor hopping and an interaction term which explicitly favors nearest neighbor spin-singlets through the well-known resonance valence bond (RVB) character of planar organic molecules. Treating this Hamiltonian in mean-field theory, allowing for bond-dependent variation of the RVB order parameter, we show that both s- and d-wave superconducting states are possible. The d-wave solution belongs to a two-dimensional representation and breaks time reversal symmetry. At zero doping there exists a quantum critical point at the dimensionless coupling J/t = 1.91 and the s- and d-wave solutions are degenerate for low temperatures. At finite doping the d-wave solution has a significantly higher T{sub c} than the s-wave solution. By using density functional theory we show that the doping induced from sulfur absorption on a graphite layer is enough to cause an electronically driven d-wave superconductivity at graphite-sulfur interfaces. We also discuss applying our results to the case of the intercalated graphites as well as the validity of a mean-field approach.

  17. Effect of Oxidation Degree on Valence Change and Distribution of Octahedral Fe Element in Biotite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ziqian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the valence change and distribution of iron elements in octahedral vacancies of biotite were studied in the oxidation process. The biotite and saturated barium nitrate solution were mixed in dilute hydrochloric acid under hydrothermal reaction conditions, the solid after reaction was used as the test sample. Firstly, the remainder potassium and iron content were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry(AAS. Secondly, the state of iron along with oxidation degree increased was analyzed, in addition, the phase composition and the change of layer spacing in samples was detected by X-ray diffraction(XRD. Thirdly, The variation mode of Si-O bond were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR.This research was adopted hydrogen ions in diluted hydrochloric acid and nitrate ions in barium nitrate to provide oxidation environment for reaction, and the oxidation degree was controlled by adjusted the amount of hydrogen ion introduced. We found out that the amount of hydrogen ion is positively correlated with oxidation degree in biotite, and the deeper oxidation degree in biotite, the lower electronegativity of singer layer. Potassium and iron element would be release out of micaceous structure during the biotite oxidation. The higher the oxidation degree is, the greater the releasing happen. The charge density combining Fe oxidation and releasing firstly increased then decreased with the oxidation degree turned greater. During the oxidation, the Si-O vibrated would change from parallel layer vibration model to vertical vibration model.

  18. Exposure to flame retardant chemicals on commercial airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; Stapleton, Heather M; Vallarino, Jose; McNeely, Eileen; McClean, Michael D; Harrad, Stuart J; Rauert, Cassandra B; Spengler, John D

    2013-02-16

    Flame retardant chemicals are used in materials on airplanes to slow the propagation of fire. These chemicals migrate from their source products and can be found in the dust of airplanes, creating the potential for exposure. To characterize exposure to flame retardant chemicals in airplane dust, we collected dust samples from locations inside 19 commercial airplanes parked overnight at airport gates. In addition, hand-wipe samples were also collected from 9 flight attendants and 1 passenger who had just taken a cross-country (USA) flight. The samples were analyzed for a suite of flame retardant chemicals. To identify the possible sources for the brominated flame retardants, we used a portable XRF analyzer to quantify bromine concentrations in materials inside the airplanes. A wide range of flame retardant compounds were detected in 100% of the dust samples collected from airplanes, including BDEs 47, 99, 153, 183 and 209, tris(1,3-dichloro-isopropyl)phosphate (TDCPP), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromo-phthalate (TBPH). Airplane dust contained elevated concentrations of BDE 209 (GM: 500 ug/g; range: 2,600 ug/g) relative to other indoor environments, such as residential and commercial buildings, and the hands of participants after a cross-country flight contained elevated BDE 209 concentrations relative to the general population. TDCPP, a known carcinogen that was removed from use in children's pajamas in the 1970's although still used today in other consumer products, was detected on 100% of airplanes in concentrations similar to those found in residential and commercial locations. This study adds to the limited body of knowledge regarding exposure to flame retardants on commercial aircraft, an environment long hypothesized to be at risk for maximum exposures due to strict flame retardant standards for aircraft materials. Our findings indicate that flame retardants are widely used in many airplane components and all airplane types, as

  19. Approach and Withdrawal Tendencies during Written Word Processing: Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, Francesca M M; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with "up" responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are

  20. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reviews litigation in higher education for 1986. The first section discusses the relationship between postsecondary institutions and various governmental agencies, in which litigation covers questions on the authority of boards, access to information through sunshine laws, questions of tax exempt status, and issues of accreditation.…

  1. Sex between people with "mental retardation": an ethical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiecker, Ben; Steutel, Jan

    2002-06-01

    Is sex between people with "mental retardation" [1] morally permissible and, if at all, under what conditions? This paper tries to answer this question, but only with regard to sex between biologically mature individuals with mild or moderate mental retardation. First, the concepts of "sexual activity" and mental retardation" are analysed briefly, which is challenging given the widely divergent and sometimes rather awkward definitions of these concepts. On the basis of this analysis, it is argued that the liberal principle of mutual consent, if taken as a necessary condition of permissible sex, has unacceptable consequences for people with mental retardation. Many forms of sex between them would be morally impermissible, given the fact that their limited powers of practical reasoning will often make valid consent well-nigh impossible. As an alternative to the liberal principle of permissible sex, conditions are specified that include the additional consent of caretakers. If people with mental retardation do not have the capacities of practical deliberation required for valid consent, care providers with mature reasoning powers should act as their substitutes. Finally, some important implications for the moral education of future care professionals are spelled out.

  2. Thermal Stability, Combustion Behavior, and Mechanical Property in a Flame-Retardant Polypropylene System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to comprehensively improve the strength, toughness, flame retardancy, smoke suppression, and thermal stability of polypropylene (PP, layered double hydroxide (LDH Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH was synthesized by a coprecipitation method coupled with the microwave-hydrothermal treatment. The X-ray diffraction (XRD, morphology, mechanical, thermal, and fire properties for PP composites containing 1 wt %–20 wt % Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH were investigated. The cone calorimeter tests confirm that the peak heat release rate (pk–HRR of PP–20%LDH was decreased to 500 kW/m2 from the 1057 kW/m2 of PP. The pk–HRR, average mass loss rate (AMLR and effective heat of combustion (EHC analysis indicates that the condensed phase fire retardant mechanism of Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH in the composites. The production rate and mean release yield of CO for composites gradually decrease as Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH increases in the PP matrix. Thermal analysis indicates that the decomposition temperature for PP–5%LDH and PP–10%LDH is 34 °C higher than that of the pure PP. The mechanical tests reveal that the tensile strength of PP–1%LDH is 7.9 MPa higher than that of the pure PP. Furthermore, the elongation at break of PP–10%LDH is 361% higher than PP. In this work, the synthetic LDH Ni0.2Mg2.8Al–LDH can be used as a flame retardant, smoke suppressant, thermal stabilizer, reinforcing, and toughening agent of PP products.

  3. Emission behavior of hexabromocyclododecanes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers from flame-retardant-treated textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the emission behavior of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) added to textile products as flame retardants, we used a small stainless steel container (7 cm i.d. × 5.5 cm height, ca. 210 cm(3)) to conduct emission tests on three upholstery textile samples at temperatures of 20, 40, 60, and 80 °C. The textile samples, which were intended for use in curtain manufacture and had been treated with either technical HBCD or technical DecaBDE, emitted HBCDs and PBDEs, including BDE 209, even at room temperature (20 °C), and the emission rates increased with increasing test temperature. These results indicate that flame-retardant-treated upholstery textiles have the potential to be major sources of brominated flame retardant contamination in indoor air and dust. The HBCD diastereomer emission profiles at the test temperatures of 20 and 40 °C were similar to the profiles of the original textile samples; in contrast, at the higher test temperatures, the proportion of α-HBCD was larger (up to 70% of the total HBCD emission) than in the original samples. At the higher test temperatures, the proportions of di- to hexa-BDEs in the emissions were clearly larger than in the original sample, suggesting that the textile products treated with technical DecaBDE could be a source of environmentally relevant PBDE congeners such as BDE 47, 99, and 100. The emission rates of HBCDs from the textiles were two orders of magnitude higher than those of PBDEs, suggesting that HBCDs volatilize more easily from textile products to the indoor environment than PBDEs.

  4. Effect of electron beam irradiation and microencapsulation on the flame retardancy of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer materials during hot water ageing test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Haibo; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Bibo; Yu, Bin; Shi, Yongqian; Song, Lei; Kundu, Chanchal Kumar; Tao, Youji; Jie, Ganxin; Feng, Hao; Hu, Yuan

    2017-04-01

    Microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (MCAPP) in combination with polyester polyurethane (TPU) was used to flame retardant ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA). The EVA composites with different irradiation doses were immersed in hot water (80 °C) to accelerate ageing process. The microencapsulation and irradiation dose ensured positive impacts on the properties of the EVA composites in terms of better dimensional stability and flame retardant performance. The microencapsulation of APP could lower its solubility in water and the higher irradiation dose led to the more MCAPP immobilized in three dimensional crosslinked structure of the EVA matrix which could jointly enhance the flame retardant and electrical insulation properties of the EVA composites. So, the EVA composites with 180 kGy irradiation dose exhibited better dimensional stability than the EVA composites with 120 kGy due to the higher crosslinking degree. Moreover, the higher irradiation dose lead to the more MCAPP immobilizated in crosslinked three-dimensional structure of EVA, enhancing the flame retardancy and electrical insulation properties of the EVA composites. After ageing test in hot water at 80 °C for 2 weeks, the EVA/TPU/MCAPP composite with 180 kGy could still maintain the UL-94 V-0 rating and the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value was as high as 30%. This investigation indicated the flame retardant EVA cable containing MCAPP could achieve stable properties and lower electrical fire hazard risk during long-term hot water ageing test.

  5. Thermal properties of flame retardant cotton fabric grafted by dimethyl methacryloyloxyethyl phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Tie-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of flame retardant cotton fabric grafted by dimethyl methacryloy-loxyethyl phosphate were investigated by the atom transfer radical polymerization method. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used to explore the thermal decomposition mode of flamed retardant cotton fabric. The weight loss rate of the flamed retardant cotton was bigger than that of the control cotton fabric, and a more final residual char of flamed retardant cotton was also observed. Flammability tests were used to study the flame retardance property of the flame retardant cotton fabric. The results showed that flamed retardant cotton fabric with 16.8% of weight gain could keep good flame retardance. Scanning electron microscope pictures were applied to investigate the morphology of residual char of the flame retardant samples.

  6. Bidirectional switch of the valence associated with a hippocampal contextual memory engram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Roger L; Kim, Joshua; Arons, Autumn L; Ramirez, Steve; Liu, Xu; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2014-09-18

    The valence of memories is malleable because of their intrinsic reconstructive property. This property of memory has been used clinically to treat maladaptive behaviours. However, the neuronal mechanisms and brain circuits that enable the switching of the valence of memories remain largely unknown. Here we investigated these mechanisms by applying the recently developed memory engram cell- manipulation technique. We labelled with channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) a population of cells in either the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus or the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) that were specifically activated during contextual fear or reward conditioning. Both groups of fear-conditioned mice displayed aversive light-dependent responses in an optogenetic place avoidance test, whereas both DG- and BLA-labelled mice that underwent reward conditioning exhibited an appetitive response in an optogenetic place preference test. Next, in an attempt to reverse the valence of memory within a subject, mice whose DG or BLA engram had initially been labelled by contextual fear or reward conditioning were subjected to a second conditioning of the opposite valence while their original DG or BLA engram was reactivated by blue light. Subsequent optogenetic place avoidance and preference tests revealed that although the DG-engram group displayed a response indicating a switch of the memory valence, the BLA-engram group did not. This switch was also evident at the cellular level by a change in functional connectivity between DG engram-bearing cells and BLA engram-bearing cells. Thus, we found that in the DG, the neurons carrying the memory engram of a given neutral context have plasticity such that the valence of a conditioned response evoked by their reactivation can be reversed by re-associating this contextual memory engram with a new unconditioned stimulus of an opposite valence. Our present work provides new insight into the functional neural circuits underlying the

  7. Memory effects of sleep, emotional valence, arousal and novelty in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marije C M; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Swaab, Hanna; van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-06-01

    Effectiveness of memory consolidation is determined by multiple factors, including sleep after learning, emotional valence, arousal and novelty. Few studies investigated how the effect of sleep compares with (and interacts with) these other factors, of which virtually none are in children. The present study did so by repeated assessment of declarative memory in 386 children (45% boys) aged 9-11 years through an online word-pair task. Children were randomly assigned to either a morning or evening learning session of 30 unrelated word-pairs with positive, neutral or negative valenced cues and neutral targets. After immediately assessing baseline recognition, delayed recognition was recorded either 12 or 24 h later, resulting in four different assessment schedules. One week later, the procedure was repeated with exactly the same word-pairs to evaluate whether effects differed for relearning versus original novel learning. Mixed-effect logistic regression models were used to evaluate how the probability of correct recognition was affected by sleep, valence, arousal, novelty and their interactions. Both immediate and delayed recognition were worse for pairs with negatively valenced or less arousing cue words. Relearning improved immediate and delayed word-pair recognition. In contrast to these effects, sleep did not affect recognition, nor did sleep moderate the effects of arousal, valence and novelty. The findings suggest a robust inclination of children to specifically forget the pairing of words to negatively valenced cue words. In agreement with a recent meta-analysis, children seem to depend less on sleep for the consolidation of information than has been reported for adults, irrespective of the emotional valence, arousal and novelty of word-pairs. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Bidirectional switch of the valence associated with a hippocampal contextual memory engram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Roger L; Kim, Joshua; Arons, Autumn L; Ramirez, Steve; Liu, Xu; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    The valence of memories is malleable because of their intrinsic reconstructive property1. This property of memory has been used clinically to treat maladaptive behaviours2. However, the neuronal mechanisms and brain circuits that enable the switching of the valence of memories remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated these mechanisms by applying the recently developed memory engram cell-labelling and -manipulation technique 3,4. We labelled, with Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), a population of cells in either the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus or the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) that were specifically activated during contextual fear or reward conditioning. Both groups of fear-conditioned mice displayed aversive light-dependent responses in an optogenetic place avoidance test, whereas both DG- and BLA-labelled mice that underwent reward conditioning exhibited an appetitive response in an optogenetic place preference test. Next, in an attempt to reverse the valence of memory within a subject, mice whose DG or BLA engram had initially been labelled by contextual fear or reward conditioning were subjected to a second conditioning of the opposite valence while their original DG or BLA engram was reactivated by blue light. Subsequent optogenetic place avoidance and preference tests revealed that while the DG-engram group displayed a response indicating a switch of the memory valence, the BLA-engram group did not. This switch was also evident at the cellular level by a change in functional connectivity between DG engram-bearing cells and BLA engram-bearing cells. Thus, we found that in the DG, the neurons carrying the memory engram of a given neutral context have plasticity such that the valence of a conditioned response evoked by their reactivation can be reversed by re-associating this contextual memory engram with a new US of an opposite valence. Our present work provides new insight into the functional neural circuit underlying the

  9. Ab initio study of valence and Rydberg states of CH3Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escure, Christelle; Leininger, Thierry; Lepetit, Bruno

    2009-06-01

    We performed configuration interaction ab initio calculations on the valence and 5s, 5pa1, and 5pe Rydberg bands of the CH3Br molecule as a function of the methyl-bromide distance for frozen C3v geometries. The valence state potential energy curves are repulsive, the Rydberg state ones are similar to the one of the CH3Br+ ion with a minimum at short distance. One state emerging from the 5pe band has valence and ion-pair characters as distance increases and the corresponding potential curve has a second minimum at large distance. This state has a very strong parallel electric dipole transition moment with the ground state and plays a central role in UV photon absorption spectra. It is also responsible for the parallel character of the anisotropy parameters measured in ion-pair production experiments. In each band, there is a single state, which has a non-negligible transition moment with the ground state, corresponding to a transition perpendicular to the molecular axis of symmetry, except for the 5pe band where it is parallel. The perpendicular transition moments between ground and valence states increase sharply as methyl-bromide distance decreases due to a mixing between valence and 5s Rydberg band at short distance. In each band, spin orbit interaction produces a pair of states, which have significant transition moments with the ground one. In the valence band, the mixing between singlet and triplet states is weak and the perpendicular transition to the Q11 state is dominant. In each Rydberg band, however, spin-orbit interaction is larger than the exchange interaction and the two significant transition moments with the ground state have comparable strengths. The valence band has an additional state (Q10) with significant parallel transition moment induced by spin-orbit interaction with the ground state at large distance.

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the North American environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Robert C; Alaee, Mehran; Manchester-Neesvig, Jon B; Stapleton, Heather M; Ikonomou, Michael G

    2003-09-01

    North America consumes over half of the world's production of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. About 98% of global demand for the Penta-BDE mixture, the constituents of which are the most bioaccumulative and environmentally widespread, resides here. However, research on the environmental distribution of PBDEs in North America has lagged behind that in Northern Europe. Examination of available governmentally maintained release data suggests that Deca-BDE use in the US substantially exceeds that in Canada. Penta-BDE use probably follows a similar pattern. PBDE demand in Mexico is uncertain, but is assumed to be comparatively modest. Recent research examining air, water, sediment, sewage sludge and aquatic biota suggests that Penta-BDE constituents are present in geographically disparate locations in the US and Canada. The less brominated congeners have been observed in areas distant from their known use or production, e.g. the Arctic. PBDEs have been detected in low concentrations in North American air, water and sediment, but much higher levels in aquatic biota. Increased burdens as a function of position in the food web have been noted. PBDE concentrations in US and Canadian sewage sludges appear to be at least 10-fold greater than European levels and may be a useful barometer of release. In general, PBDE concentrations in environmental media reported in North America are comparable or exceed those observed elsewhere in the world. In contrast to Europe, environmental burdens are increasing over time here, consistent with the greater consumption of the commercial mixtures. However, data remain relatively scarce. Deca-BDE in the North American environment appears largely restricted to points of release, e.g. urban areas and those where PBDE-containing sewage sludges have been applied. This lack of redistribution is likely due to its extremely low volatility and water solubility. Penta-BDE and Deca-BDE products are used in different applications

  11. Gypsum scaling in pressure retarded osmosis: experiments, mechanisms and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minmin; Hou, Dianxun; She, Qianhong; Tang, Chuyang Y

    2014-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is an osmotically-driven membrane process that can be used to harvest salinity-gradient power. The PRO performance (both water flux and power density) can be severely limited by membrane fouling. The current study, for the first time, investigates PRO scaling in a bench-scale pressurized system using calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) as a model scalant. In addition to the bulk feed solution (FS) saturation index (SI bulk), gypsum scaling was found to be strongly affected by the draw solution (DS) type and concentration, the applied hydraulic pressure, and the membrane orientation. The commonly recommended active layer facing draw solution (AL-DS) orientation was highly prone to internal scaling. In this orientation, severe internal concentration polarization (ICP) of scaling precursors induced gypsum clogging in membrane support layer even when the FS was undersaturated (e.g., SI bulk = 0.8). At higher SI bulk values, external gypsum crystal deposition occurred in addition to internal scaling. More severe scaling was observed when the DS contained scaling precursors such as Ca(2+) or SO4(2-), suggesting that the reverse diffusion of these precursors into the FS can significantly enhanced gypsum scaling. Increasing applied hydraulic pressure could enhance reverse solute diffusion and thus result in more severe gypsum scaling when the DS contained scaling precursors. A conceptual model, capturing the two important PRO scaling mechanisms (ICP of scaling precursors from FS and reverse diffusion of scaling precursors from the DS), is presented to rationalize the experimental results. Our results provide significant implications for PRO scaling control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Maternal exposure to brominated flame retardants and infant Apgar scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Metrecia L; Hartnett, Kathleen P; Lim, Hyeyeun; Wirth, Julie; Marcus, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and other persistent organic pollutants have been associated with adverse health outcomes in humans and may be particularly toxic to the developing fetus. We investigated the association between in utero polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures and infant Apgar scores in a cohort of Michigan residents exposed to PBB through contaminated food after an industrial accident. PBB and PCB concentrations were measured in serum at the time the women were enrolled in the cohort. PBB concentrations were also estimated at the time of conception for each pregnancy using a validated elimination model. Apgar scores, a universal measure of infant health at birth, measured at 1 and 5min, were taken from birth certificates for 613 offspring born to 330 women. Maternal PCB concentrations at enrollment were not associated with below-median Apgar scores in this cohort. However, maternal PBB exposure was associated with a dose-related increase in the odds of a below-median Apgar score at 1min and 5min. Among infants whose mothers had an estimated PBB at conception above the limit of detection of 1 part per billion (ppb) to <2.5ppb, the odds ratio=2.32 (95% CI: 1.22-4.40); for those with PBB⩾2.5ppb the OR=2.62 (95% CI: 1.38-4.96; test for trend p<0.01). Likewise, the odds of a below-median 5min Apgar score increased with higher maternal PBB at conception. It remains critical that future studies examine possible relationships between in utero exposures to brominated compounds and adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Obstetric interventions and perinatal asphyxia in growth retarded term infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Lindmark, G

    1997-01-01

    neonatal outcome at term have been studied in relation to different types of fetal growth retardation, including sub-groups with low ponderal index or low amount of subcutaneous fat. RESULTS: The need for obstetric intervention indicated by suspected fetal asphyxia before or during labor was increased 3......BACKGROUND: The monitoring of fetal growth during pregnancy is usually justified because of the increased perinatal risk of these babies. METHODS: In 1552 infants from the Scandinavian Small for Gestational Age Study the need for obstetric interventions, risk of fetal asphyxia and immediate......-fold (6-8%) for growth retarded infants both in SGA infants in general and infants with asymmetric body proportions. The immediate perinatal outcome, however, was favorable with Apgar below 8 at 5 min in only 2% irrespective of the type of growth retardation, in spite of the fact that less than 25...

  14. The Influence of Flame Retardant Treated Timber Density on Combustibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbignev Karpovič

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Timber is widely used as a construction material in the majority of countries. In most cases, timber is the main structural material. Timber and timber fabrics used in building structure elements have to fulfill the requirements of fire safety. This article presents factors affecting the combustibility of timber, mainly the influence of flame retardants on the combustion phase, timber density and moisture. The influence of flame retardant treated timber density on combustibility is analyzed in this paper. Research was performed according to the requirements of the standard LST ISO 5657:1999 “Reaction to fire tests – ignitibility of building products using a radiant heat source”. The influence of flame retardant treated timber density on combustibility is assessed according to duration up to the combustion of the specimen. Article in Lithuanian

  15. Brominated flame retardant: environmental and exposed individuals' health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Patrice; Charlier, Corinne

    2017-04-01

    Since Antiquity, men have used chemicals to protect their goods against fire. Effective and easy to use, brominated flame retardants are used since decades massively in plastic industry. Such like other organohalogenated compounds, brominated flame retardants are very persistent in the environment and able to accumulate along the food chain. Many authors highlight their presence in the environment, in many animal species and in the human serum. Worryingly, man is exposed as soon as the pregnancy and then by the breastfeeding. This exposition may have consequence on our health. Many studies (in vitro, in vivo or epidemiologic) highlight brominated flame retardant negative effects on the endocrine system, mainly on the thyroid function but also on the reproduction, the neurodevelopment in the children and on the metabolism with increasing diabetes risk. If authorities and some big enterprises are aware about the problematic, new studies are needed to confirm previous results, elucidate endocrine disrupting mechanisms and highlight hypothetical synergies with other pollutants such like PCBs.

  16. WEEE recycling: Pyrolysis of fire retardant model polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luda, M P; Euringer, N; Moratti, U; Zanetti, M

    2005-01-01

    Pyrolysis treatments of model polymers were made with the aim of studying the recycling of wastes from electronic, electric equipment containing brominated flame retardants. Pyrolysis of flame retarded high impact polystyrene and epoxy resins were made both in flow and closed systems. Products of pyrolysis were analysed with FT-IR spectroscopy and GC-MS and the evolution of bromine was followed with a bromine ion specific electrode. The effect of alkali on pyrolysis was also studied demonstrating, as far epoxy resin is concerned, to be effective on decreasing bromine content in oil and volatile products leading to the recovery of bromine from the residue by washing. The alkali treatment was shown to be less effective in styrenic polymers containing brominated flame retardants.

  17. Improving free play skills of severely retarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehman, P; Marchant, J A

    1978-02-01

    Severely and profoundly retarded children are usually deficient in play skills. Since play facilitates socialization, language, and motor development, it is a vitally improtant skill to acquire. This pilot study examined the effects of a behavioral training program on the autistic, independent, and social types of play of four severely and profoundly retarded children. The training program involved the use of instructions, modeling, physical guidance, and verbal reinforcement. Results indicated that a marked increase in independent and social play occurred with the introduction of the training program with all four children. Occupational therapists can play an increasingly important role in helping educators formulate relevant educational programs for severely retarded children, particularly in the areas of play and motor skill development.

  18. Indoor organophosphate and polybrominated flame retardants in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, I; Onuki, A; Seto, H

    2007-02-01

    In Japan, organophosphate and polybrominated flame retardants are used in building materials and electric appliances to protect them from fire hazards. In this study, to identify the emission sources of these flame retardants to indoor air, the migration rates (flux) of organophosphate and polybrominated flame retardants from building materials and electrical appliances to solid extraction disks that were placed in contact with the interior surfaces were measured. In addition to the migration test, indoor air and outdoor air concentrations of these flame retardants were investigated. With regard to building materials in a newly built house, triethylphosphate (TEP) and tributylphosphate (TBP) were detected in the wall and ceiling coverings, and tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBEP) was detected in the wooden flooring cleaned with a floor polish agent. With regard to electrical appliances, triphenylphosphate (TPHP) was predominantly detected in computer monitors and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) in television (TV) sets, with the highest median levels. Among the polybrominated compounds, only 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) was detected from a few old TV sets manufactured before 1995. In an indoor and outdoor air survey, nine organophosphates and nine polybrominated flame retardants were detected from indoor air. In outdoor air, only four organophosphate flame retardants were detected. The maximum level of indoor organophosphate compounds was 1260 ng/m(3) with tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate (TCPP), and that of polybrominated compounds was 29.5 ng/m(3) with hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) was not detected in this study, although it has the largest demand among flame retardants in Japan. The results of the migration test and the indoor air survey revealed that in indoor air, organophosphate compounds were more predominant than polybrominated compounds in Tokyo. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and polybrominated

  19. Hierarchical Polyphosphazene@Molybdenum Disulfide Hybrid Structure for Enhancing the Flame Retardancy and Mechanical Property of Epoxy Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Qiu, Shuilai; Xing, Weiyi; Gangireddy, Chandra Sekhar Reddy; Gui, Zhou; Hu, Yuan

    2017-08-30

    A novel polyphosphazene (PZS) microsphere@molybdenum disulfide nanoflower (MoS 2 ) hierarchical hybrid architecture was first synthesized and applied for enhancing the mechanical performance and flame retardancy of epoxy (EP) resin via a cooperative effect. Herein, using PZS microsphere as the template, a layer of MoS 2 nanoflowers were anchored to PZS spheres via a hydrothermal strategy. The well-designed PZS@MoS 2 exhibits excellent fire retardancy and a reinforcing effect. The obtained PZS@MoS 2 significantly enhanced the flame-retardant performance of EP composites, which can be proved by thermogravimetric and cone calorimeter results. For instance, the incorporation of 3 wt % PZS@MoS 2 brought about a 41.3% maximum reduction in the peak heat-release rate and decreased by 30.3% maximum in the total heat release, accompanying the higher graphitized char layer. With regard to mechanical property, the storage modulus of EP/PZS@MoS 2 3.0 in the glassy state was dramatically increased to 22.4 GPa in comparison with that of pure EP (11.15 GPa). It is sensible to know that the improved flame-retardant performance for EP composites is primarily assigned to a physical barrier effect of the MoS 2 nanoflowers and the polyphosphazene structure has an positive impact on promoting char formation in the condensed phase.

  20. Intumescent mechanisms of fire-retarding polyurethane systems and development of graphite/polymer nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qingchun

    As an effective and environmentally friendly fire retarding approach, intumescence has been applied to design better fire retarding polymer systems for different applications. However, intumescent mechanisms have not been well understood. This has hindered the further development of intumescent fire retarding polymer systems. This research investigated the intumescent mechanisms of three commercial fire retarding polyurethane products and developed a new generation of fire retarding products based on graphite/polymer nanocomposites. The three commercial products were studied using a single direction well-ventilated natural burning method and a series of intumescent char characterisation techniques developed in this research. The natural burning method was designed to show the protection and protection efficiency of intumescent chars. The protection efficiency was measured by the difference of char yields between natural burning and furnace burning. The intumescent chars produced by natural burning were investigated for their char structures, gas permeability, bulk strength and reactivity using microscopic methods, open porosity, durometer hardness and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Experimental results show that the three commercial products contain inert inorganic additives. The charring ability of the polymers is important in producing integrated chars by binding the inert additives together, and in strengthening the chars. An integrated char with lower open porosity has higher protection efficiency. The lower porosity also results in the char with higher strength. Graphite/polymer nanocomposites were synthesised by solution intercalation and in situ polymerisation methods. Five graphites were modified into graphite oxides (GO) by oxidation. A chosen GO was intercalated with a polyethylene oxide (PEO), polyethylene glycol Mn300 (PEG1500) or polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in water. The GO and its PEG1500 or PVP intercalated compounds as nano-structured graphites

  1. Halogenated flame retardants in bobcats from the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, Esmarie; Tan, Hongli; Wu, Yan; Nielsen, Clayton K; Shen, Li; Reiner, Eric J; Chen, Da

    2017-02-01

    In response to the restrictions of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in various consumer products, alternative halogenated flame retardants have been subjected to increased use. Compared to aquatic ecosystems, relatively little information is available on the contamination of alternative flame retardants in terrestrial ecosystems, especially with regards to mammalian wildlife. In this study we used a top terrestrial carnivore, the bobcat (Lynx rufus), as a unique biomonitoring species for assessing flame retardant contamination in the Midwestern United States (U.S.) terrestrial ecosystems. Concentrations of ∑PBDEs (including all detectable PBDE congeners) ranged from 8.3 to 1920 ng/g lipid weight (median: 50.3 ng/g lw) in livers from 44 bobcats collected during 2013-2014 in Illinois. Among a variety of alternative flame retardants screened, Dechloranes (including anti- and syn-Dechlorane Plus and Dechlorane-602, 603, and 604), tetrabromo-o-chlorotoluene (TBCT), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were also frequently detected, with median concentrations of 28.7, 5.2, and 11.8 ng/g lw, respectively. Dechlorane analogue compositions in bobcats were different from what has been reported in other studies, suggesting species- or analogue-dependent bioaccumulation, biomagnification, or metabolism of Dechlorane chemicals in different food webs. Our findings, along with previously reported food web models, suggest Dechloranes may possess substantial bioaccumulation and biomagnification potencies in terrestrial mammalian food webs. Thus, attention should be given to these highly bioavailable flame retardants in future environmental biomonitoring and risk assessments in a post-PBDE era. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Point defect engineering strategies to retard phosphorous diffusion in germanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahini, H A; Chroneos, A; Grimes, R W; Schwingenschlögl, U; Bracht, H

    2013-01-07

    The diffusion of phosphorous in germanium is very fast, requiring point defect engineering strategies to retard it in support of technological application. Density functional theory corroborated with hybrid density functional calculations are used to investigate the influence of the isovalent codopants tin and hafnium in the migration of phosphorous via the vacancy-mediated diffusion process. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous are increased significantly in the presence of oversized isovalent codopants. Therefore, it is proposed that tin and in particular hafnium codoping are efficient point defect engineering strategies to retard phosphorous migration.

  3. Point defect engineering strategies to retard phosphorous diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    The diffusion of phosphorous in germanium is very fast, requiring point defect engineering strategies to retard it in support of technological application. Density functional theory corroborated with hybrid density functional calculations are used to investigate the influence of the isovalent codopants tin and hafnium in the migration of phosphorous via the vacancy-mediated diffusion process. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous are increased significantly in the presence of oversized isovalent codopants. Therefore, it is proposed that tin and in particular hafnium codoping are efficient point defect engineering strategies to retard phosphorous migration. © the Owner Societies 2013.

  4. Obstetric interventions and perinatal asphyxia in growth retarded term infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Lindmark, G

    1997-01-01

    -fold (6-8%) for growth retarded infants both in SGA infants in general and infants with asymmetric body proportions. The immediate perinatal outcome, however, was favorable with Apgar below 8 at 5 min in only 2% irrespective of the type of growth retardation, in spite of the fact that less than 25......% of the SGA pregnancies and 10% of those with asymmetric fetal growth had been eligible for close antenatal fetal monitoring. CONCLUSION: With a moderate increase in interventions at delivery, perinatal outcome was highly favorable for term infants with a weight for gestational age, weight for length...

  5. Fragile site X chromosomes in mentally retarded boys.

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, H. R.; Moon, S. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The fragile X syndrome is a common X-linked mental retardation and autism, affecting females as well as males. The fragile site X chromosomes were studied in a series of 153 mentally retarded boys of unknown etiology to determine the frequency of fragile X syndrome, and to assess the feasibility of making a clinical diagnosis of the fragile X syndrome in young boys before cytogenetic results were known. The 10 boys (6.4%) were positive for fra (X) (q27). The phenotype of fra (X) (q27) positiv...

  6. The influence of valence and arousal on reasoning: Affective priming in the semantic verification task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlić Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of affective valence and arousal on the reasoning process. Reasoning was measured using a semantic verification task and the influence of valence and arousal was tracked using the affective priming paradigm. Primes were photographs varied on two dimensions - emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative and arousal (high, low. Forty-nine psychology students participated in the experiment. Results showed that reaction time needed for semantic verification was significantly faster for positive-high arousing in comparison to positive-low arousing condition and for neutral high arousing in comparison to neutral-low arousing condition, but there were no significant differences in negative low and high arousing conditions. Also, significant differences were found among all three valences in high arousing conditions and there were no such differences in low arousing conditions. These results reveal the importance of both arousal and valence in the research on the influence of emotions on the reasoning process. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179033

  7. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L O; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  8. Music, Emotion and Time Perception: The influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIE eDROIT-VOLET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (< 2 s and long (> 2 s stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow (Experiment 1 or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces. The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant versus atonal (unpleasant versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  9. Differential Activation of Amygdala Arc Expression By Positive and Negatively Valenced Emotional Learning Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eYoung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Norepinephrine is released in the amygdala following negatively arousing learning conditions. This event initiates a cascade of changes including the transcription of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc expression, an early-immediate gene associated with memory encoding. Recent evidence suggests that the valence of emotionally laden encounters may generate lateralized, as opposed to symmetric release of this transmitter in the right or left amygdala. It is currently not clear if valence-induced patterns of selective norepinephrine output across hemispheres are also reproduced in downstream pathways of cellular signaling necessary for memory formation. This question was addressed by determining if Arc expression is differentially distributed across the right and left amygdala following exposure to positively or negatively valenced learning conditions respectively. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to groups exposed to the Homecage only, 5 auditory tones only, or 5 auditory tones paired with footshock (0.35mA during Pavlovian fear conditioning. Western blot analysis revealed that Arc expression in the right amygdala was elevated significantly above that observed in the left amygdala 60 and 90 minutes following fear conditioning. Similarly, subjects exposed to a a negatively valenced outcome consisting of an unexpected reduction in food rewards showed a greater level of Arc expression in only the right, but not left basolateral amygdala. Presenting a positively valenced event involving an unexpected increase in food reward magnitude following bar pressing, resulted in significantly greater Arc expression in the left, but not right basolateral amygdala (p

  10. Segregation of information about emotional arousal and valence in horse whinnies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefer, Elodie F; Maigrot, Anne-Laure; Mandel, Roi; Freymond, Sabrina Briefer; Bachmann, Iris; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-04-21

    Studying vocal correlates of emotions is important to provide a better understanding of the evolution of emotion expression through cross-species comparisons. Emotions are composed of two main dimensions: emotional arousal (calm versus excited) and valence (negative versus positive). These two dimensions could be encoded in different vocal parameters (segregation of information) or in the same parameters, inducing a trade-off between cues indicating emotional arousal and valence. We investigated these two hypotheses in horses. We placed horses in five situations eliciting several arousal levels and positive as well as negative valence. Physiological and behavioral measures collected during the tests suggested the presence of different underlying emotions. First, using detailed vocal analyses, we discovered that all whinnies contained two fundamental frequencies ("F0" and "G0"), which were not harmonically related, suggesting biphonation. Second, we found that F0 and the energy spectrum encoded arousal, while G0 and whinny duration encoded valence. Our results show that cues to emotional arousal and valence are segregated in different, relatively independent parameters of horse whinnies. Most of the emotion-related changes to vocalizations that we observed are similar to those observed in humans and other species, suggesting that vocal expression of emotions has been conserved throughout evolution.

  11. Neural systems subserving valence and arousal during the experience of induced emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colibazzi, Tiziano; Posner, Jonathan; Wang, Zhishun; Gorman, Daniel; Gerber, Andrew; Yu, Shan; Zhu, Hongtu; Kangarlu, Alayar; Duan, Yunsuo; Russell, James A; Peterson, Bradley S

    2010-06-01

    The circumplex model of affect construes all emotions as linear combinations of 2 independent neurophysiological dimensions, valence and arousal. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural networks subserving valence and arousal, and we assessed, in 10 participants, the associations of the BOLD (blood oxygen level-dependent) response, an indirect index of neural activity, with ratings of valence and arousal during the emotional experiences induced by the presentation of evocative sentences. Unpleasant emotional experience was associated with increased BOLD signal intensities in the supplementary motor, anterior midcingulate, right dorsolateral prefrontal, occipito-temporal, inferior parietal, and cerebellar cortices. Highly arousing emotions were associated with increased BOLD signal intensities in the left thalamus, globus pallidus, caudate, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, premotor cortex, and cerebellar vermis. Separate analyses using a finite impulse response model confirmed these results and revealed that pleasant emotions engaged an additional network that included the midbrain, ventral striatum, and caudate nucleus, all portions of a reward circuit. These findings suggest the existence of distinct networks subserving the valence and arousal dimensions of emotions, with midline and medial temporal lobe structures mediating arousal and dorsal cortical areas and mesolimbic pathways mediating valence.

  12. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L. O.; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music. PMID:23882233

  13. Final height and intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Maïthé

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 10% of small for gestational age (SGA) children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life with a decreased pubertal spurt. Growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner and adult height had now been well documented. Shorter children might benefit from a higher dose at start (50μg/kg/day). The response to GH treatment was similar for both preterm and term short SGA groups and the effect of GH treatment on adult height showed a wide variation in growth response. As a whole, mean adult height is higher than -2 SDS in 60% of patients and 70% reached an adult height in their target height with better results with higher doses and combined GnRH analog therapy in those who were short at onset of puberty. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Preparation and properties of flexible flame-retardant neutron shielding material based on methyl vinyl silicone rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Hao; Tang, Xiaobin; Ni, Minxuan; Chen, Feida; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Da; Qiu, Yunlong

    2015-09-01

    Flexible flame-retardant composites were prepared using high-functional methyl vinyl silicone rubber matrix with B4C, hollow beads, and zinc borate (ZB) as filler materials. As filler content increased, the tensile strength, elongation, and tear strength of the composites initially increased and then decreased. The shore hardness of the composites increased with increasing filler content with a maximum value of 30 HA. The heat insulation properties of the composites with hollow beads were higher than that of the ordinary composites with the same filler mass fraction. When ZB content exceeded 12 wt%, the limit of oxygen index of the composites was higher than 27.1%. With Am-Be neutron as the test radiation source, the transmission of neutron for a 2 cm sample was only 47.8%. Powder surface modification improved the mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, flame retardancy, and neutron shielding performance of the composites, but did not affect shore hardness.

  15. Preparation and properties of flexible flame-retardant neutron shielding material based on methyl vinyl silicone rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Hao [Department of Nuclear Science & Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Tang, Xiaobin, E-mail: tangxiaobin@nuaa.edu.cn [Department of Nuclear Science & Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering (China); Ni, Minxuan; Chen, Feida; Zhang, Yun [Department of Nuclear Science & Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Chen, Da [Department of Nuclear Science & Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering (China); Qiu, Yunlong [ZhongXing Energy Equipment Co., LTD, Haimen Nantong (China)

    2015-09-15

    Flexible flame-retardant composites were prepared using high-functional methyl vinyl silicone rubber matrix with B{sub 4}C, hollow beads, and zinc borate (ZB) as filler materials. As filler content increased, the tensile strength, elongation, and tear strength of the composites initially increased and then decreased. The shore hardness of the composites increased with increasing filler content with a maximum value of 30 HA. The heat insulation properties of the composites with hollow beads were higher than that of the ordinary composites with the same filler mass fraction. When ZB content exceeded 12 wt%, the limit of oxygen index of the composites was higher than 27.1%. With Am–Be neutron as the test radiation source, the transmission of neutron for a 2 cm sample was only 47.8%. Powder surface modification improved the mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, flame retardancy, and neutron shielding performance of the composites, but did not affect shore hardness.

  16. Role of radiative decay of valence plasmons in transmission spectra of Si, SiNx and PET membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, P. K.; Gupta, R. K.; Modi, M. H.; Kumar, Shailendra

    2013-03-01

    Membranes of Si, SiNx and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were investigated via vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) transmission measurements. The transmission spectra show maxima at energies equal to energies of valence plasmons (VPs) which are interpreted as signatures of radiative decay of VPs. Resonant generation and radiative decay mechanism of valence plasmons and their effects on transmission spectra are discussed. Furthermore, the energy of VPs in SiNx was also confirmed by photo electron spectroscopy (PES) measurements on SiNx thin film. The presented results demonstrate the light induced resonant generation and radiative decay of both, valence bulk and valence surface plasmons.

  17. Differences between problem and nonproblem gamblers in subjective arousal and affective valence amongst electronic gaming machine players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen L; Rodda, Simone; Phillips, James G

    2004-12-01

    Arousal-based theories of gambling suggest that excitement gained from gambling reinforces further gambling behavior. However, recent theories of emotion conceptualize mood as comprising both arousal and valence dimensions. Thus, excitement comprises arousal with positive valence. We examined self-reported changes in arousal and affective valence in 27 problem and 40 nonproblem gamblers playing electronic gaming machines (EGMs). Problem gamblers reported greater arousal increases after gambling and increases in negative valence if they lost. This accords poorly with an excitement-based explanation of problem gambling.

  18. Gibberellin biosynthesis retardants differentially affected growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hamayun

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... lodging, which results from plant and environmental factors. Lodging makes machine harvesting difficult and ... growth responses in higher plants, including stem elongation, fruit set, flower induction, seed ... reduce plant stem length, these chemicals are widely used in agricultural and horticultural practices.

  19. Reactivity of seventeen- and nineteen-valence electron complexes in organometallic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegman, Albert E.; Tyler, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A guideline to the reactivity of 17- and 19-valence electron species in organometallic chemistry is proposed which the authors believe will supersede all others. The thesis holds that the reactions of 17-electron metal radicals are associatively activated with reactions proceeding through a 19-valence electron species. The disparate reaction chemistry of the 17-electron metal radicals are unified in terms of this associative reaction pathway, and the intermediacy of 19-valence electron complexes in producing the observed products is discussed. It is suggested that related associatively activated pathways need to be considered in some reactions that are thought to occur by more conventional routes involving 16- and 18-electron intermediates. The basic reaction chemistry and electronic structures of these species are briefly discussed.

  20. Name-valence and physical attractiveness in Facebook: their compensatory effects on friendship acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Kunz, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Name-valence and physical attractiveness have been shown to be associated with how people respond toward others, in that people judge and behave more positively toward individuals with positive names and individuals who are physically attractive. The present research examined whether Facebook users are more likely to accept friendship requests from other Facebook users with positive (relative to negative) names and who are physically attractive (relative to being moderately attractive). In fact, both name-valence and physical attractiveness affected friendship acceptance. Moreover, results revealed that name-valence can be compensated by physical attractiveness (and vice versa). Acceptance rates of requests from users with positive names who are moderately attractive, as well as requests from users with negative names who are attractive did not significantly differ from those with positive names who are attractive.

  1. Direct observation of heterogeneous valence state in Yb-based quasicrystalline approximants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunami, M.; Oura, M.; Tamasaku, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Ideta, S.; Tanaka, K.; Takeuchi, T.; Yamada, T.; Tsai, A. P.; Imura, K.; Deguchi, K.; Sato, N. K.; Ishimasa, T.

    2017-12-01

    We study the electronic structure of Tsai-type cluster-based quasicrystalline approximants, Au64Ge22Yb14 (AGY-I), Au63.5Ge20.5Yb16 (AGY-II), and Zn85.4Yb14.6 (Zn-Yb), by means of photoemission spectroscopy. In the valence band hard x-ray photoemission spectra of AGY-II and Zn-Yb, we separately observe a fully occupied Yb 4 f state and a valence fluctuation derived Kondo resonance peak, reflecting two inequivalent Yb sites, a single Yb atom in the cluster center and its surrounding Yb icosahedron, respectively. The fully occupied 4 f signal is absent in AGY-I containing no Yb atom in the cluster center. The results provide direct evidence for a heterogeneous valence state in AGY-II and Zn-Yb.

  2. fK /f{pi} in Full QCD with Domain Wall Valence Quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silas Beane; Paulo Bedaque; Konstantinos Orginos; Martin Savage

    2007-05-01

    We compute the ratio of pseudoscalar decay constants f{sub K}/f{sub {pi}} using domain-wall valence quarks and rooted improved Kogut-Susskind sea quarks. By employing continuum chiral perturbation theory, we extract the Gasser-Leutwyler low-energy constant L{sub 5}, and extrapolate f{sub K}/f{sub {pi}} to the physical point. We find: f{sub K}/f{sub {pi}} = 1.218 {+-} 0.002{sub -0.024}{sup +0.011} where the first error is statistical and the second error is an estimate of the systematic due to chiral extrapolation and fitting procedures. This value agrees within the uncertainties with the determination by the MILC collaboration, calculated using Kogut-Susskind valence quarks, indicating that systematic errors arising from the choice of lattice valence quark are small.

  3. The role of valence focus and appraisal overlap in emotion differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas, Yasemin; Ceulemans, Eva; Koval, Peter; Kuppens, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Emotion differentiation refers to the level of specificity with which people distinguish between their emotional states and is considered to play an important role for psychological well-being. Yet, not much is known about what characterizes people high or low in emotion differentiation and what underlies these differences. In 2 studies involving experience sampling (Studies 1-2) and lab based (Study 2) methods, we investigated how emotion differentiation is related to individual differences in valence focus and the overlap in appraisal patterns between emotions. In line with expectations, results showed that high levels of both positive and negative emotion differentiation are related to lower levels of valence focus and lower levels of appraisal overlap between emotions. These findings suggest that individuals who are low in emotion differentiation mainly emphasize the valence aspect of emotions while individuals who are high in emotion differentiation make stronger distinctions between emotions in terms of their underlying appraisal profiles. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The use of symmetrized valence and relative motion coordinates for crystal potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurry, H. L.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    1980-01-01

    Symmetrized valence coordinates are linear combinations of conventional valence coordinates which display the symmetry of a set of atoms bound by the valence bonds. Relative motion coordinates are relative translations, or relative rotations, of two or more strongly bonded groups of atoms among...... which relatively weak forces act. They are useful for expressing interactions between molecules in molecular crystals and should be chosen, also, to reflect the symmetry of the interacting groups. Since coordinates defined by these procedures possess elements of symmetry in common with the bonding...... electron distributions, the force constants in the potential should be more amenable to calculation in terms of energy changes in the electronic ground state which accompany displacements of the atoms from equilibrium. It is easier to determine force constants for fitting experimental data because...

  5. Depression, Anxiety, and Relevant Cognitions in Persons with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Elizabeth; Bihm, Elson M.; Lammers, William J.

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed depression, anxiety, and relevant cognitions in 46 adults with borderline, mild, or moderate mental retardation. Consistent with research on other groups, self-reports of depression and anxiety were highly correlated and cognitions were strong predictors of negative affect. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses offered…

  6. Brominated flame retardants in Dutch North Sea surface sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klamers, H.J.C.; Villerius, L.A.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Bakker, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFR) concentrations were determined in the fine fraction (<63?m) of 10 surface sediments located in the southern part of the Dutch section of the North Sea Continental Shelf. Concentrations generally decreased with increasing distance from the Dutch shore. Highest

  7. Innovative green technique for preparing of flame retardant cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to its environmentally benign character, microwave-assisted or supercritical carbon dioxide high pressure reactors are considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. In this paper, an innovative approach for preparation of flame retardant cotton fabric ...

  8. Predicting Adaptive Functioning of Mentally Retarded Persons in Community Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John T.; Thompson, Joy C.

    1980-01-01

    The impact of a variety of individual, residential, and community variables on adaptive functioning of 369 retarded persons (18 to 73 years old) was examined using a multiple regression analysis. Individual characteristics (especially IQ) accounted for 21 percent of the variance, while environmental variables, primarily those related to…

  9. Physicochemical equivalence of some brands of Nifedipine retard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research evaluated the physicochemical equivalence of some samples of Nifedipine 20 mg Retard Tablets available in Nigeria. Seven samples were randomly procured from various zones of the country and standard protocols applied to evaluate their tablet weight uniformity, dimensions, hardness, disintegration time, ...

  10. Long-Term Retardation of Uranium in the KURT Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Min Hoon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Joo Do [KARA, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Jin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    One of possibilities resolving this issue is to study the migration and retardation processes of radionuclides in the subsurface environments by using naturally occurring radionuclides as analogues of radioactive waste. To date, however, the long-term behavior of radionuclides in a granitic groundwater system is not yet fully understood. The ubiquitous presence of uranium (U) in rocks makes it an ideal natural analogue for studying the behaviors of radionuclides in a deep geological repository for the final disposal of HLW. In this study, long-term retardation behavior of natural uranium was investigated using granite rock samples taken from the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel), located in Daejeon city. The distribution of uranium and its binding mechanism in granite samples were investigated using the sequential chemical extraction (SCE) technique combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ICP-MS methods. In this study, the long-term retardation of uranium in the KURT environment was investigated using SCE and EPMA techniques combined with ICP-MS and XRD. Results showed that long-term interaction of rock with groundwater can change U species and mineralize dissolved U, which can consequently contribute to the retardation of U in the fractured granitic rock environment. This study will help us to understand the long-term behavior of radionuclides migrating through the fractured granite rock and then enhance the reliability of the safety assessment for a HLW repository.

  11. Asymptotic stability results for retarded differential systems | Igobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transcendental character of the polynomial equation of the retarded differential system makes it difficult to express its solution explicitly. This has cause a set back in the asymptotic stability analysis of the system solutions. Various acceptable mathematical techniques have been used to address the issue. In this paper ...

  12. Green Flame Retardant Cotton Highlofts for Mattresses and Upholstered Furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green flame retardant (FR) barrier fabric is environmentally-friendly because it is from a natural renewable resource, biodegradable, economical, employing greige cotton that is soft to touch. Greige unbleached cotton is cheaper and softer than bleached cotton, thus, increasing its marketability par...

  13. GROWTH RETARDANTS: Effects on Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Other Metabolic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Wilhelm

    2000-06-01

    Plant growth retardants are applied in agronomic and horticultural crops to reduce unwanted longitudinal shoot growth without lowering plant productivity. Most growth retardants act by inhibiting gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. To date, four different types of such inhibitors are known: (a) Onium compounds, such as chlormequat chloride, mepiquat chloride, chlorphonium, and AMO-1618, which block the cyclases copalyl-diphosphate synthase and ent-kaurene synthase involved in the early steps of GA metabolism. (b) Compounds with an N-containing heterocycle, e.g. ancymidol, flurprimidol, tetcyclacis, paclobutrazol, uniconazole-P, and inabenfide. These retardants block cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, thereby inhibiting oxidation of ent-kaurene into ent-kaurenoic acid. (c) Structural mimics of 2-oxoglutaric acid, which is the co-substrate of dioxygenases that catalyze late steps of GA formation. Acylcyclohexanediones, e.g. prohexadione-Ca and trinexapac-ethyl and daminozide, block particularly 3ss-hydroxylation, thereby inhibiting the formation of highly active GAs from inactive precursors, and (d) 16,17-Dihydro-GA5 and related structures act most likely by mimicking the GA precursor substrate of the same dioxygenases. Enzymes, similar to the ones involved in GA biosynthesis, are also of importance in the formation of abscisic acid, ethylene, sterols, flavonoids, and other plant constituents. Changes in the levels of these compounds found after treatment with growth retardants can mostly be explained by side activities on such enzymes.

  14. "School Retardation" in Mexico from 1920 to 1960: Conceptual Passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Josefina Granja

    2012-01-01

    Educational concepts, such as enrolment, attendance, passing or failing students, school retardation, and school desertion, which made it possible to describe the course of children through the school system, went through a gradual process, beginning in the second half of the nineteenth century and throughout the first decades of the twentieth. In…

  15. Research in mental retardation in the German Democratic Republic (GDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, E

    1984-01-01

    Research in mental retardation in the GDR has been influenced primarily by the brain damage--development theory, which assumes biological as well as social determinants in human development. The theory was based on the results of brain damage (encephalopathy) research, which distinguishes between primary and secondary symptoms of mental retardation. The importance of social factors such as family conditions for development was demonstrated in a variety of studies, including research with adopted children. Positive results have been achieved with early education programming for developmentally disabled children, as well as with medical treatment for some genetically induced metabolic disorders. Results from longitudinal studies suggest that intelligence continues to develop in educable mentally retarded adolescents. New diagnostic methods have been developed; test of motor skills, visuomotor coordination, and a developmental test for young infants. Further developments of traditional school entrance diagnosis for special education classes is reported. Several studies show that there has been some success in the vocational and social integration of mentally retarded persons in the GDR.

  16. Retardation of muscle growth in castrated male mice: further ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retardation of muscle growth in castrated male mice was studied as an evidence for the influence of hormones on the development of muscle mass. Male albino mice were castrated at 28days of age by open castration method. The weights and the muscle mass indices (mg muscle weight per gram body weight) of the ...

  17. Anxious-retarded depression: relation with plasma vasopressin and cortisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Remco F. P.; van Hemert, Albert M.; DeRijk, Roel H.; Zwinderman, Koos H.; Frankhuijzen-Sierevogel, Ank C.; Wiegant, Victor M.; Goekoop, Jaap G.

    2003-01-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is related to melancholic or endogenous depression; however, the strength of this relationship depends on the definition of the specific depression subcategory. A two-dimensionally defined subcategory, anxious-retarded depression, is

  18. Behavioral Coping Styles of Mentally Retarded and Learning Disabled Pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Barrie Jo; Marsh, George E., II

    The Coping Analysis Schedule for Educational Settings (CASES), an observation instrument to identify students' primary coping or interaction styles, was evaluated with 44 educable mentally retarded (EMR), learning disabled (LD), or normal children (7 to 11 years old). CASES is intended to be a quantitative tool for collecting the data required…

  19. The Opinions and Attitudes of Mothers to Mental Retardation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Mental retardation is a chronic and permanent disorder occurring during developmental period of life. The uncertainty of the future and independent existence result in negative attitudes toward the affected children. An increased burden of care leading to emotional and psychological distress among parents.

  20. RESPONSES OF BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN TO LEARNING TASKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARRIER, NEIL A.; AND OTHERS

    THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE VARIABLES OF INTELLIGENCE, LEARNING TASK PERFORMANCE, EMOTIONAL TENSION, AND TASK MOTIVATION WERE STUDIED. ABOUT 120 BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN PERFORMED SIX TRIALS OF NUMBER LEARNING, CONCEPT FORMATION, PROBLEM SOLVING, PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR COORDINATION, AND VERBAL LEARNING TASKS. DURING THE LEARNING SESSIONS,…

  1. PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CENTERWALL, WILLARD R.; CENTERWALL, SIEGRIED A.

    ADDRESSED TO PUBLIC HEALTH WORKERS AND PHYSICIANS IN GENERAL PRACTICE, THE PAMPHLET INTRODUCES METHODS OF DETECTING AND MANAGING PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION. INFORMATION, UPDATED FROM THE 1961 EDITION, IS INCLUDED ON THE INCIDENCE AND GENETICS, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND CLINICAL COURSE OF THE…

  2. Sugar cane juice as a retarding admixture in concrete production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane juice (SCJ) was investigated as a retarding agent in concrete production. Slump values and compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of water by sugar cane juice was also investigated. The concrete cubes were prepared by replacing water with SCJ in the following proportions 0, 3, 5, 10 and ...

  3. Caring for children with mental retardation: The experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They also struggled to give care to their children with mental retardation and manage their families. Resources were lacking and qualified professionals were scarce. The mothers need emotional support from members of their families, friends and members of the community. There is need to implement health support ...

  4. Physicochemical equivalence of some brands of Nifedipine retard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... In nifedipine retard, the rate of drug release is reduced by increasing particle size or forming insoluble crystals (MeRec, 2000). Other applications of nifedipine are in the management of exercise induced asthma (Barnes et al., 1981), primary. Raynaud syndrome (Kennis et al., 2001), prevention of ...

  5. HIV and AIDS Awareness among Children with Mental Retardation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to establish the level of HIV and AIDS awareness among children with mental retardation in Masvingo urban of southern Zimbabwe. Openness to the subject of sexuality and HIV and AIDS is considered as taboo in many African cultures. To persons with disabilities, let alone individuals with mental ...

  6. Teaching Profoundly Retarded Adults to Ascend Stairs Safely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The study was designed to modify the stair climbing behavior of two profoundly retarded residents through backward shaping with graduated guidance, edible rewards, a correction procedure, and a 30 second timeout. Both residents showed an increase in the number of correct steps used while ascending the stairs.

  7. IQ and the Death Penalty: Verifying Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Denis William

    Whether or not subjects can simulate mental retardation, a consideration that has implications in criminal cases, was studied using 21 adult Caucasian males between 20 and 30 years of age, largely comprised of students and staff employees of the University of New Mexico. Subjects were asked to give genuine and simulated responses to two major test…

  8. Psychosocial Impacts of Mentally Retarded Children on Parents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sometimes, problems arise in the marital life and in social participation. The research showed that most parents suffered from degrees of anxiety and depression ranging mainly from severe to moderate. The number, age or degree of retardation of the children did not affect the social and psychological impacts on the ...

  9. Psychological Aspects of Sleep Disorders in Children with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David T.

    This paper reviews literature and clinical experiences on the neurobiological and psychological aspects of sleep in children with mental retardation. The lack of a universal, operational definition of sleep disorders is noted, and a study is cited in which 61% of a group of 20 children (ages 2-13) with developmental disabilities were found to have…

  10. Cone calorimeter evaluation of two flame retardant cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Sunghyun Nam; Dharnidhar V. Parikh

    2012-01-01

    Unbleached (gray) cotton needle-punched nonwoven (NW) fabrics with 12.5% polypropylene scrim were treated with two phosphate–nitrogen-based flame retardant (FR) formulations, Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC)-1 and SRRC-2. The SRRC-1 formulation contains diammonium phosphate as the FR chemical along with urea and dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea. Because a trace...

  11. Pre-Language Activities for the Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Marilyn R.; And Others

    Provided are sample lesson plans for a program to develop pre-language skills in profoundly retarded children and adults. Characteristic of the suggested activities is the stimulation of all sensory channels through structured infant-like play activities in five general areas: oral stimulation, sensory arousal, motor stimulation, vocal play, and…

  12. Pressure retarded osmosis from hypersaline sources - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajraktari, Niada; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Madsen, Henrik T.

    2017-01-01

    for commercialization. The scope of this paper is to review the existing knowledge on the use of hypersaline waters in the salinity gradient process, pressure retarded osmosis. Although only few papers have had the specific aim of investigating hypersaline waters, concentrated solutions have been used in many papers...

  13. C syndrome with skeletal anomalies, mental retardation, eyelid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient had in addition chalazion in left lower eyelid as well as bilateral Bitot's spots most probably due to vitamin A deficiency. MRI brain revealed agenesis of the corpus callosum. Keywords: C syndrome; Skeletal anomalies; Mental retardation; Eye lid chalazion; Bitot's spots; Agenesis of corpus callosum ...

  14. Housekeeping Management Assistant Manual for Training of the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Research and Training Center in Mental Retardation.

    Presented is an instructional guide for teaching mentally retarded persons to become housekeeping assistants. Listed are tasks, objectives, and background information for the following six units: general safety procedures; daily duties (general cleaning, use of supply carts, and bathroom cleaning); laundry procedures (including use of washer and…

  15. Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

  16. Physicochemical equivalence of some brands of Nifedipine retard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Physicochemical equivalence of some brands of ... Nigeria. Accepted 9 November, 2009. This research evaluated the physicochemical equivalence of some samples of Nifedipine 20 mg Retard ... Tel: +23408052742521. dicarboxylate. It is light sensitive and its photo-reaction.

  17. Psycho-legal challenges facing the mentally retarded rape victim

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-03

    Sep 3, 2011 ... against women and children is rife in South Africa, the country has been branded the 'rape capital of the world'. ... the criminal justice system, have regarded people with mental retardation as unreliable witnesses. ..... Another important role player in this legal battle is the police. If a rape survivor with mental ...

  18. Teaching and Training Relevant Community Skills to Mentally Retarded Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews some of the major developments in teaching and training relevant community skills to mentally retarded persons. The following adaptive skills are discussed: (1) toilet use and bed wetting; (2) eating, dressing, and personal hygiene; (3) community survival; and (4) vocational and social skills. (BJV)

  19. Use of the 16PF with Mentally Retarded Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlern, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental form of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) for a low literate population was verbally administered to a population of retarded adults. Teacher ratings were also obtained on the most important personality dimensions involved in the 16PF. Results suggested a modest degree of agreement. (Author)

  20. Distinct cerebellar lobules process arousal, valence and their interaction in parallel following a temporal hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styliadis, Charis; Ioannides, Andreas A; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Papadelis, Christos

    2015-04-15

    The cerebellum participates in emotion-related neural circuits formed by different cortical and subcortical areas, which sub-serve arousal and valence. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown a functional specificity of cerebellar lobules in the processing of emotional stimuli. However, little is known about the temporal component of this process. The goal of the current study is to assess the spatiotemporal profile of neural responses within the cerebellum during the processing of arousal and valence. We hypothesized that the excitation and timing of distinct cerebellar lobules is influenced by the emotional content of the stimuli. By using magnetoencephalography, we recorded magnetic fields from twelve healthy human individuals while passively viewing affective pictures rated along arousal and valence. By using a beamformer, we localized gamma-band activity in the cerebellum across time and we related the foci of activity to the anatomical organization of the cerebellum. Successive cerebellar activations were observed within distinct lobules starting ~160ms after the stimuli onset. Arousal was processed within both vermal (VI and VIIIa) and hemispheric (left Crus II) lobules. Valence (left VI) and its interaction (left V and left Crus I) with arousal were processed only within hemispheric lobules. Arousal processing was identified first at early latencies (160ms) and was long-lived (until 980ms). In contrast, the processing of valence and its interaction to arousal was short lived at later stages (420-530ms and 570-640ms respectively). Our findings provide for the first time evidence that distinct cerebellar lobules process arousal, valence, and their interaction in a parallel yet temporally hierarchical manner determined by the emotional content of the stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Atomic contributions to the valence band photoelectron spectra of metal-free, iron and manganese phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidermane, I., E-mail: ieva.bidermane@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box-516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7588, F-75005 Paris (France); Brumboiu, I.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box-516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Totani, R. [Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito, I-67010 L’Aquila (Italy); Grazioli, C. [CNR-IOM, Laboratorio TASC, ss. 14 km. 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Departement of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste (Italy); Shariati-Nilsson, M.N.; Herper, H.C.; Eriksson, O.; Sanyal, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box-516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Ressel, B. [University of Nova Gorica, Vipavska Cesta 11c, 5270 Ajdovščina (Slovenia); Simone, M. de [CNR-IOM, Laboratorio TASC, ss. 14 km. 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Lozzi, L. [Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito, I-67010 L’Aquila (Italy); Brena, B.; Puglia, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box-516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • In detail comparison between the valence band structure of H{sub 2}Pc, FePc and MnPc. • Comparison between the gas phase samples and thin evaporated films on Au (1 1 1). • Detailed analysis of the atomic orbital contributions to the valence band features. • DFT/HSE06 study of the valence band electronic structure of H{sub 2}Pc, FePc and MnPc. - Abstract: The present work reports a photoelectron spectroscopy study of the low-energy region of the valence band of metal-free phthalocyanine (H{sub 2}Pc) compared with those of iron phthalocyanine (FePc) and manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc). We have analysed in detail the atomic orbital composition of the valence band both experimentally, by making use of the variation in photoionization cross-sections with photon energy, and theoretically, by means of density functional theory. The atomic character of the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO), reflected on the outermost valence band binding energy region, is different for MnPc as compared to the other two molecules. The peaks related to the C 2p contributions, result in the HOMO for H{sub 2}Pc and FePc and in the HOMO-1 for MnPc as described by the theoretical predictions, in very good agreement with the experimental results. The DFT simulations, discerning the atomic contribution to the density of states, indicate how the central metal atom interacts with the C and N atoms of the molecule, giving rise to different partial and total density of states for these three Pc molecules.

  2. A Note on Left-Handedness and Severity of Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Robert E.; Barton, A. Keith

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents data supplementing previous reports of elevated incidence of left handedness for the mentally retarded. The new data confirm a positive relationship between degree of retardation and incidence of left-handedness. (GO)

  3. Lithium Storage in Microstructures of Amorphous Mixed-Valence Vanadium Oxide as Anode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Zheng, Lirong; Xiao, Ying; Wang, Xia; Cao, Minhua

    2015-07-08

    Constructing three-dimensional (3 D) nanostructures with excellent structural stability is an important approach for realizing high-rate capability and a high capacity of the electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we report the synthesis of hydrangea-like amorphous mixed-valence VOx microspheres (a-VOx MSs) through a facile solvothermal method followed by controlled calcination. The resultant hydrangea-like a-VOx MSs are composed of intercrossed nanosheets and, thus, construct a 3 D network structure. Upon evaluation as an anode material for LIBs, the a-VOx MSs show excellent lithium-storage performance in terms of high capacity, good rate capability, and long-term stability upon extended cycling. Specifically, they exhibit very stable cycling behavior with a highly reversible capacity of 1050 mA h g(-1) at a rate of 0.1 A g(-1) after 140 cycles. They also show excellent rate capability, with a capacity of 390 mA h g(-1) at a rate as high as 10 A g(-1) . Detailed investigations on the morphological and structural changes of the a-VOx MSs upon cycling demonstrated that the a-VOx MSs went through modification of the local VO coordinations accompanied with the formation of a higher oxidation state of V, but still with an amorphous state throughout the whole discharge/charge process. Moreover, the a-VOx MSs can buffer huge volumetric changes during the insertion/extraction process, and at the same time they remain intact even after 200 cycles of the charge/discharge process. Thus, these microspheres may be a promising anode material for LIBs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Acoustic correlates of emotional dimensions in laughter: arousal, dominance, and valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szameitat, Diana P; Darwin, Chris J; Wildgruber, Dirk; Alter, Kai; Szameitat, Andre J

    2011-06-01

    Although laughter plays an essential part in emotional vocal communication, little is known about the acoustical correlates that encode different emotional dimensions. In this study we examined the acoustical structure of laughter sounds differing along four emotional dimensions: arousal, dominance, sender's valence, and receiver-directed valence. Correlation of 43 acoustic parameters with individual emotional dimensions revealed that each emotional dimension was associated with a number of vocal cues. Common patterns of cues were found with emotional expression in speech, supporting the hypothesis of a common underlying mechanism for the vocal expression of emotions.

  5. Electron momentum spectroscopy study of amantadine: binding energy spectra and valence orbital electron density distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinyuk, I. V.; Zheng, Y.; Brion, C. E.

    2000-11-01

    The electron binding energy spectrum and valence orbital electron momentum density distributions of amantadine (1-aminoadamantane), an important anti-viral and anti-Parkinsonian drug, have been measured by electron momentum spectroscopy. Theoretical momentum distributions, calculated at the 6-311++G** and AUG-CC-PVTZ levels within the target Hartree-Fock and also the target Kohn-Sham density functional theory approximations, show good agreement with the experimental results. The results for amantadine are also compared with those for the parent molecule, adamantane, reported earlier (Chem. Phys. 253 (2000) 41). Based on the comparison tentative assignments of the valence region ionization bands of amantadine have been made.

  6. Inducing changes in arousal and valence: comparison of two mood induction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallais, Christophe; Gilet, Anne-Laure

    2010-02-01

    This research examined the relative effectiveness of two mood induction procedures (MIPs) for inducing four specific moods varying along the dimensions of both valence and arousal. Participants were randomly assigned either to an autobiographical recall or to a music and guided imagery MIP and underwent a happiness, serenity, anger, or sadness mood induction. The findings confirmed the effectiveness of the two MIPs in producing changes on both the valence and arousal dimensions of mood. The results also revealed an unexpected greater efficiency of the autobiographical recall than of the combined procedure.

  7. High-Resolution Conversion Electron Spectroscopy of Valence Electron Configurations (CESVEC) in Solids

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    First measurements with the Zurich $\\beta$-spectrometer on sources from ISOLDE have demonstrated that high resolution spectroscopy of conversion electrons from valence shells is feasible.\\\\ \\\\ This makes possible a novel type of electron spectroscopy (CESVEC) on valence-electron configurations of tracer elements in solids. Thus the density of occupied electron states of impurities in solids has been measured for the first time. Such data constitute a stringent test of state-of-the-art calculations of impurity properties. Based on these results, we are conducting a systematic investigation of impurities in group IV and III-V semiconductors.

  8. Valence photoelectron spectra of alkali bromides calculated within the propagator theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpenko, Alexander; Iablonskyi, Denys; Aksela, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate photoion......The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate...... photoionization processes and to describe molecular electronic structure. Theoretical results are compared with available experimental data....

  9. The life expectancy of profoundly handicapped people with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyman, R K; Grossman, H J; Chaney, R H; Call, T L

    1990-08-30

    The life expectancy of people with mental retardation is shorter than that of the general population. Exact estimates of the length of survival for mentally retarded persons at especially high risk are not available, however. We collected data on mortality and other factors for 99,543 persons with developmental disabilities, including mental retardation, who received services from the California Department of Developmental Services between March 1984 and October 1987. Three subgroups were selected on the basis of the four characteristics identified in previous studies as the best predictors of mortality among mentally retarded people (deficits in cognitive function, limitations on mobility, incontinence, and inability to eat without assistance). In all three subgroups, the subjects had severe deficits in cognitive function and were incontinent; the subjects in subgroup 1 (n = 1550) were immobile and required tube feeding; those in subgroup 2 (n = 4513) were immobile but could eat with assistance; those in subgroup 3 (n = 997) were mobile (but not ambulatory) and could eat with assistance. Life tables were generated for each of the three subgroups. Immobile subjects were found to have a much shorter life expectancy than those who could move about. Those who also required tube feeding (subgroup 1) had a very short life expectancy (i.e., four to five additional years). Those who could eat if fed by others (subgroup 2) had an average life expectancy of approximately eight additional years. In contrast, those who were mobile though not ambulatory (subgroup 3) had a life expectancy of about 23 additional years. Severe mental retardation is associated with a decrease in life expectancy, particularly for those who were immobile.

  10. Neurotoxicity and risk assessment of brominated and alternative flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Hester S; Westerink, Remco H S

    2015-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are widely used chemicals that prevent or slow the onset and spreading of fire. Unfortunately, many of these compounds pose serious threats for human health and the environment, indicating an urgent need for safe(r) and less persistent alternative flame retardants (AFRs). As previous research identified the nervous system as a sensitive target organ, the neurotoxicity of past and present flame retardants is reviewed. First, an overview of the neurotoxicity of BFRs in humans and experimental animals is provided, and some common in vitro neurotoxic mechanisms of action are discussed. The combined epidemiological and toxicological studies clearly underline the need for replacing BFRs. Many potentially suitable AFRs are already in use, despite the absence of a full profile of their environmental behavior and toxicological properties. To prioritize the suitability of some selected halogenated and non-halogenated organophosphorous flame retardants and inorganic halogen-free flame retardants, the available neurotoxic data of these AFRs are discussed. The suitability of the AFRs is rank-ordered and combined with human exposure data (serum concentrations, breast milk concentrations and house dust concentrations) and physicochemical properties (useful to predict e.g. bioavailability and persistence in the environment) for a first semi-quantitative risk assessment of the AFRs. As can be concluded from the reviewed data, several BFRs and AFRs share some neurotoxic effects and modes of action. Moreover, the available neurotoxicity data indicate that some AFRs may be suitable substitutes for BFRs. However, proper risk assessment is hampered by an overall scarcity of data, particularly regarding environmental persistence, human exposure levels, and the formation of breakdown products and possible metabolites as well as their toxicity. Until these data gaps in environmental behavioral and toxicological profiles are filled, large scale use of

  11. Workability enhancement of geopolymer concrete through the use of retarder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umniati, B. Sri; Risdanareni, Puput; Zein, Fahmi Tarmizi Zulfikar

    2017-09-01

    Geopolymer concrete is a type of concrete manufactured without the addition of cement. In geopolymer concrete, along with an activator, cement as the concrete binder can be replaced by the fly ash. This will reduce global demand on cement, and therefore will reduce CO2 emission due to cement production. Thus, geopolymer concrete is commonly known as an eco-friendly concrete. Geopolymer concrete also offers a solution concerning with the utilization of the fly ash waste. However, despite of its environmental advantages, geopolymer concrete has a drawback, namelygeopolymer concrete set quickly, thus reducing its workability. This research aimed to increase the workability of geopolymer concrete by using retarder admixture (Plastocrete RT6 Plus). Retarder used varies within 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% of fly ash mass. As a control, geopolymer concrete without retarder (0%) were also made. Activator used in this research was Na2SiO3 mixed with NaOH 10 M solution, with ratio of 1:5. The results showed an optimum composition of geopolymer concrete with 0.6% retarder, where initial setting time occured after 6.75 hours, and the final setting time reached after 9.5 hours. Moreover, the slump of the geopolymer concrete was 8.8 cm, and the slump flow was 24 cm. The compressive strength of the geopolymer concrete at 28 days was 47.21 MPa. The experiment showed that the more retarder added, the setting time of the geopolymer concrete will be increased, thus increasing its workability.

  12. A Comparison of Occupational Stress Correlates as Reported by Teachers of Mentally Retarded and Nonmentally Retarded Handicapped Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimian, Michael J.

    1983-01-01

    The statewide (Connecticut) survey of 365 teachers of mentally retarded (MR) and nonretarded handicapped (non-MR) students indicated such results as that MR teachers reported stress source levels comparable to or less than levels of non-MR teachers, but reported stress manifestation levels comparable to or greater than those of non-MR teachers.…

  13. Part I. Improved flame retardant textiles. Part II. Novel approach to layer-by-layer processing for flame retardant textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this presentation, new approaches for flame retardant textile by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and layer-by-layer processing will be discussed. Due to its environmentally benign character, the scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical re...

  14. Development of fiber reactive, non-halogenated flame retardant on cotton fabrics and the enhanced flame retardancy by covalent bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US law requires flame resistant properties on apparel or house hold items to prevent or minimize the fire damage. The objective of this research was to develop a non-halogenated flame retardant for application onto cotton fabrics. These treated fabrics can then be used in clothes or beddings to ...

  15. Mineralisation and primary biodegradation of aromatic organophosphorus flame retardants in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurgens, S.S.; Helmus, R.; Waaijers, S.L.; Uittenbogaard, D.; Dunnebier, D; Vleugel, M; Kraak, M.H.S.; de Voogt, P.; Parsons, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs), such as the aromatic organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), resorcinol bis(diphenylphosphate) (PBDPP) and bisphenol A bis(diphenylphosphate) (BPA-BDPP) have been proposed as potential replacements for brominated flame retardants

  16. Training Law Enforcement Officers: The Logical Starting Point in Understanding the Mentally Retarded Offender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Linn; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Underscores the importance of police officers understanding mental retardation when dealing with mentally retarded offenders. Describes a study comparing the effectiveness of two instructional methods for increasing officer knowledge about the mentally retarded. Discusses implications for police educators and ways of identifying mentally retarded…

  17. Frequency of fragile-x in x‑linked mental retardation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited mental retardation and accounts for about one third of all cases of X linked mental retardation (XLMR). It is inherited as an X‑linked dominant trait with a fragile site at Xq27.3 locus named fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR‑1). The FMR‑1 ...

  18. Mental Retardation: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mental retardation begins with a definition of mental retardation and developmental disability. The implications of alcohol and other drug use for individuals with mental retardation are noted, emphasizing that this population does not use alcohol or other drugs as…

  19. Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Desmond J.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2000-01-01

    A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

  20. Tune yourself in: Valence and arousal preferences in music-listening choices from adolescence to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrdes, Caroline; Wrzus, Cornelia; Frisch, Simon; Riediger, Michaela

    2017-09-01

    In previous studies, older as compared with younger individuals were more strongly motivated to regulate their momentary affect toward pleasant and calm states. Whether these motivational differences are also reflected in regulatory behavior and whether this behavior is efficient in terms of affect change, however, is unclear. To address these issues, we conducted 3 studies with samples ranging in age from adolescence to old adulthood. In Study 1, we developed a novel and age-fair music browsing paradigm for music of diverse musical styles, dates of origin, and affective characteristics. The time spent listening to self-selected music with varying levels of valence and arousal served as an indicator of affect-regulatory preferences in 2 different affectively relevant situations, namely after mood induction in Study 2 and before an upcoming discussion with a stranger in Study 3. As predicted, we found a higher preference for music with positive valence and low arousal in older as compared with younger individuals in both studies. Additionally, the efficacy of music listening as an affect-regulatory strategy was supported because individuals' current affect significantly changed from before to after music listening (Studies 2 and 3), whereas that was not the case in an active control group listening to neutral nonmusical sounds (Study 3). These results extend previous research on affect regulation by demonstrating the utility of the music browsing paradigm as a behavioral indicator of affect-regulatory preferences in individuals from various age groups. They also provide evidence for age differences in, and affect-regulatory effects of, music-choice behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Chemical bonding and charge redistribution - Valence band and core level correlations for the Ni/Si, Pd/Si, and Pt/Si systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunthaner, P. J.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Madhukar, A.

    1982-01-01

    Via a systematic study of the correlation between the core and valence level X-ray photoemission spectra, the nature of the chemical bonding and charge redistribution for bulk transition metal silicides has been examined. Particular emphasis is placed on Pt2Si and PtSi. It is observed that the strength of the metal (d)-silicon (p) interaction increases in the order Ni2Si, Pd2Si, Pt2Si. It is also observed that both the metal and silicon core lines shift to higher binding energy as the silicides are formed. The notion of charge redistribution for metallic bonds is invoked to explain these data.

  2. Stronger Association Between Valence- and Arousal Ratings of Affective Pictures with Older Age: Evidence for Variation Across Emotion Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Lyby, Marlene Skovgaard

    A sample of older and younger adults rated affective pictures according to valence, arousal and emotion category (happiness, sadness and disgust). Results indicate that older age is associated with a stronger linear association between ratings of arousal and valence. Further, the strength...

  3. Intergroup Discrimination in Positive and Negative Outcome Allocations: Impact of Stimulus Valence, Relative Group Status, and Relative Group Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Sabine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Three studies investigated the determination of social discrimination by the valence of stimuli that are allocated between groups. The studies were based on either the minimal group paradigm or a more reality-based laboratory intergroup setting, with stimulus valence, group status, and group size as factors and with pull scores on Tajfel matrices…

  4. Intergroup discrimination in positive and negative outcome allocations : Impact of stimulus valence, relative group status, and relative group size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, S; Mummendey, A; Blanz, M

    Three studies investigated the determination of social discrimination by the valence of stimuli that are allocated between groups. The studies were based on either the minimal group paradigm or a more reality-based laboratory intergroup setting, with stimulus valence, group status, and group size as

  5. Age-related emotional bias in processing two emotionally valenced tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Philip A; Lien, Mei-Ching; Jardin, Elliott

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that older adults process positive emotions more efficiently than negative emotions, whereas younger adults show the reverse effect. We examined whether this age-related difference in emotional bias still occurs when attention is engaged in two emotional tasks. We used a psychological refractory period paradigm and varied the emotional valence of Task 1 and Task 2. In both experiments, Task 1 was emotional face discrimination (happy vs. angry faces) and Task 2 was sound discrimination (laugh, punch, vs. cork pop in Experiment 1 and laugh vs. scream in Experiment 2). The backward emotional correspondence effect for positively and negatively valenced Task 2 on Task 1 was measured. In both experiments, younger adults showed a backward correspondence effect from a negatively valenced Task 2, suggesting parallel processing of negatively valenced stimuli. Older adults showed similar negativity bias in Experiment 2 with a more salient negative sound ("scream" relative to "punch"). These results are consistent with an arousal-bias competition model [Mather and Sutherland (Perspectives in Psychological Sciences 6:114-133, 2011)], suggesting that emotional arousal modulates top-down attentional control settings (emotional regulation) with age.

  6. Zur Besetzung der Leerstellen von Valenztragern (The Occupation of the Empty Spaces of Valence Bearers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeldt, Karl-Ernst

    1973-01-01

    Study of the linguistic means related to the occupation and non-occupation of Leerstellen'' (empty spaces) initiated by semantic and syntactic valence, as in the elliptical usage: Die Henne legt wieder. (Eier)'' (The hen is laying again. YeggsI). (RS)

  7. Memory transfer for emotionally valenced words between identities in dissociative identity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.; Peters, Madelon L.; Woertman, Liesbeth; van der Hart, Onno; Postma, Albert

    The present study aimed to determine interidentity retrieval of emotionally valenced words in dissociative identity disorder (DID). Twenty-two DID patients participated together with 25 normal controls and 25 controls instructed to simulate DID. Two wordlists A and B were constructed including

  8. An experimental and theoretical study of core-valence double ionisation of acetaldehyde (ethanal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodskikh, S; Vapa, M; Vahtras, O; Zhaunerchyk, V; Mucke, M; Eland, J H D; Squibb, R J; Linusson, P; Jänkälä, K; Ågren, H; Feifel, R

    2016-01-28

    Core-valence double ionisation spectra of acetaldehyde (ethanal) are presented at photon energies above the carbon and oxygen 1s ionisation edges, measured by a versatile multi-electron coincidence spectroscopy technique. We use this molecule as a testbed for analyzing core-valence spectra by means of quantum chemical calculations of transition energies. These theoretical approaches range from two simple models, one based on orbital energies corrected by core valence interaction and one based on the equivalent core approximation, to a systematic series of quantum chemical electronic structure methods of increasing sophistication. The two simple models are found to provide a fast orbital interpretation of the spectra, in particular in the low energy parts, while the coverage of the full spectrum is best fulfilled by correlated models. CASPT2 is the most sophisticated model applied, but considering precision as well as computational costs, the single and double excitation configuration interaction model seems to provide the best option to analyze core-valence double hole spectra.

  9. Positive-negative asymmetry in social discrimination : Valence of evaluation and salience of categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mummendey, A; Otten, S; Berger, U; Kessler, T

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have consistently demonstrated a positive-negative asymmetry in intergroup discrimination. As a Possible explanation for this effect, the authors investigated whether stimulus valence has an impact on the salience of social categorization, which, in turn, is assumed to determine the

  10. Emotional cues, emotional signals, and their contrasting effects on listener valence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Justin

    2015-01-01

    different magnitudes of emotional valence responses between multimodal haptic and audio sources to unimodal audio sources, and whether there are divergences between the different types of emotions presented. Some emotions are more strongly intentional signals (e.g. happiness, fear or grief) while others...

  11. Ueber das Mannheimer Woerterbuch zur Verbvalenz (About the Mannheim Dictionary of Verb Valence)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Helmut

    1976-01-01

    Describes the purpose, structure and application of this monolingual verb lexicon, which indicates the morphosyntactic environments of the most common German verbs. Mention is made of the forthcoming valence lexicon. The book is for teachers and textbook writers. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  12. Effects of phase fraction on superconductivity of low-valence eutectic titanate films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Hikaru; Yoshimatsu, Kohei; Sakata, Osami; Ohtomo, Akira

    2017-08-01

    Creation and characterization of mixed valence states in transition-metal oxides are a fundamental approach to search for the unprecedented electronic and magnetic properties. In contrast to complex oxides, mixed-valence simple oxides tend to form binary or ternary phases, and turning a valence from one to next must be accompanied by structural transformations owing to a lower tolerance for oxygen non-stoichiometry. In this paper, epitaxial growth and transport properties of low-valence titanate thin films are reported to shed light on recently discovered superconducting γ-phase Ti3O5 (γ-Ti3O5). Single-phase TiO and Ti2O3 films and eutectic films including TiO, Ti2O3, and γ-Ti3O5 phases were independently grown on α-Al2O3 (0001) substrates by using pulsed-laser deposition. The X-ray diffraction measurements revealed clear epitaxial relationships with substrates and among three eutectic phases. Temperature dependence of the resistivity revealed that the γ-Ti3O5-rich films exhibited superconductivity with a maximum of transition temperature (TC) of 6.3 K. Distinct effects of the phase fraction on TC are found between TiO- and Ti2O3-enriched samples, suggesting the complex mechanisms of the superconducting proximity effect.

  13. Prévalence et susceptibilité aux antibiotiques des souches de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prévalence et susceptibilité aux antibiotiques des souches de Salmonella spp. non typhiques isolées de la viande de poulets au Tchad. Hamadou Abba, Marius K. Somda, Ban-bo Bebanto Antipas, Nicolas Barro, Alfred S. Traore ...

  14. Type of gesture, valence, and gaze modulate the influence of gestures on observer's behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefani, Elisa; Innocenti, Alessandro; Secchi, Claudio; Papa, Veronica; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The present kinematic study aimed at determining whether the observation of arm/hand gestures performed by conspecifics affected an action apparently unrelated to the gesture (i.e., reaching-grasping). In 3 experiments we examined the influence of different gestures on action kinematics. We also analyzed the effects of words corresponding in meaning to the gestures, on the same action. In Experiment 1, the type of gesture, valence and actor's gaze were the investigated variables Participants executed the action of reaching-grasping after discriminating whether the gestures produced by a conspecific were meaningful or not. The meaningful gestures were request or symbolic and their valence was positive or negative. They were presented by the conspecific either blindfolded or not. In control Experiment 2 we searched for effects of the sole gaze, and, in Experiment 3, the effects of the same characteristics of words corresponding in meaning to the gestures and visually presented by the conspecific. Type of gesture, valence, and gaze influenced the actual action kinematics; these effects were similar, but not the same as those induced by words. We proposed that the signal activated a response which made the actual action faster for negative valence of gesture, whereas for request signals and available gaze, the response interfered with the actual action more than symbolic signals and not available gaze. Finally, we proposed the existence of a common circuit involved in the comprehension of gestures and words and in the activation of consequent responses to them.

  15. Mixed-valence cytoplasmic iron granules are linked to anaerobic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasauer, S; Langley, S; Boyanov, M; Lai, B; Kemner, K; Beveridge, T J

    2007-02-01

    Intracellular granules containing ferric and ferrous iron formed in Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 during dissimilatory reduction of solid-phase ferric iron. It is the first in situ detection at high resolution (150 nm) of a mixed-valence metal particle residing within a prokaryotic cell. The relationship of the internal particles to Fe(III) reduction may indicate a respiratory role.

  16. Effects of emotional valence and arousal on the voice perception network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Kotz, Sonja A.; Belin, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Several theories conceptualise emotions along two main dimensions: valence (a continuum from negative to positive) and arousal (a continuum that varies from low to high). These dimensions are typically treated as independent in many neuroimaging experiments, yet recent behavioural findings suggest

  17. Distinct populations of neurons respond to emotional valence and arousal in the human subthalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Tomáš; Serranová, Tereza; Růžička, Filip; Vostatek, Pavel; Wild, Jiří; Štastná, Daniela; Bonnet, Cecilia; Novák, Daniel; Růžička, Evžen; Urgošík, Dušan; Jech, Robert

    2015-03-10

    Both animal studies and studies using deep brain stimulation in humans have demonstrated the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in motivational and emotional processes; however, participation of this nucleus in processing human emotion has not been investigated directly at the single-neuron level. We analyzed the relationship between the neuronal firing from intraoperative microrecordings from the STN during affective picture presentation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and the affective ratings of emotional valence and arousal performed subsequently. We observed that 17% of neurons responded to emotional valence and arousal of visual stimuli according to individual ratings. The activity of some neurons was related to emotional valence, whereas different neurons responded to arousal. In addition, 14% of neurons responded to visual stimuli. Our results suggest the existence of neurons involved in processing or transmission of visual and emotional information in the human STN, and provide evidence of separate processing of the affective dimensions of valence and arousal at the level of single neurons as well.

  18. Memory effects of sleep, emotional valence, arousal and novelty in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Marije C M; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Swaab, Hanna; van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-01-01

    Effectiveness of memory consolidation is determined by multiple factors, including sleep after learning, emotional valence, arousal and novelty. Few studies investigated how the effect of sleep compares with (and interacts with) these other factors, of which virtually none are in children. The

  19. The Interaction of Arousal and Valence in Affective Priming: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Kong, Lingyue; Jiang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    The affective priming paradigm has been studied extensively and applied in many fields during the past two decades. Most research thus far has focused on the valence dimension. Whether emotional arousal influences affective priming remains poorly understood. The present study demonstrates how arousal impacts evaluation of affective words using reaction time and event-related potential (ERP) measures. Eighteen younger subjects evaluated pleasantness of target words after seeing affective pictures as primes. The participants’ responses were faster and/or more accurate for valence-congruent trials than for incongruent trials, particularly with high-arousal stimuli. An ERP affective priming effect (N400) also occurred mainly in high-arousing stimulus pairs. In addition, whereas valence congruency influenced both the N400 and the LPP, arousal congruency influenced only the LPP, suggesting that arousal congruency mainly modulates post-semantic processes, but valence congruency effects begin with semantic processes. Overall, our current findings indicate that the arousal level of visual images impacts both behavioral and ERP effects of affective priming. Section Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience PMID:22820299

  20. Alteration of Expected Hemispheric Asymmetries: Valence and Arousal Effects in Neuropsychological Models of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Keith M.; Cimino, Cynthia R.

    2008-01-01

    The relative advantage of the left (LH) over the right hemisphere (RH) in processing of verbal material for most individuals is well established. Nevertheless, several studies have reported the ability of positively and negatively valenced stimuli to enhance and reverse, respectively, the usual LH greater than RH asymmetry. These studies, however,…

  1. Prévalence des dyslipidémies au laboratoire de biochimie du CHU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prévalence des dyslipidémies au laboratoire de biochimie du CHU Aristide le Dantec de Dakar, Sénégal. Fatou Cissé, Fatou Diallo Agne, Alassane Diatta, Abdou Salam Mbengue, Arame Ndiaye, Abdourahmane Samba, Souleymane Thiam, Dominique Doupa, Gaston Ndéné Sarr, Niama Diop Sall, Méissa Touré ...

  2. Unconscious Processing of Facial Emotional Valence Relation: Behavioral Evidence of Integration between Subliminally Perceived Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhen Liu

    Full Text Available Although a few studies have investigated the integration between some types of unconscious stimuli, no research has yet explored the integration between unconscious emotional stimuli. This study was designed to provide behavioral evidence for the integration between unconsciously perceived emotional faces (same or different valence relation using a modified priming paradigm. In two experiments, participants were asked to decide whether two faces in the target, which followed two subliminally presented faces of same or different emotional expressions, were of the same or different emotional valence. The interstimulus interval (ISI between the prime and the target was manipulated (0, 53, 163 ms. In Experiment 1, prime visibility was assessed post-experiment. In Experiment 2, it was assessed on each trial. Interestingly, in both experiments, unconsciously processed valence relation of the two faces in the prime generated a negative priming effect in the response to the supraliminally presented target, independent of the length of ISI. Further analyses suggested that the negative priming was probably caused by a motor response incongruent relation between the subliminally perceived prime and the supraliminally perceived target. The visual feature incongruent relation across the prime and target was not found to play a role in the negative priming. Because the negative priming was found at short ISI, an attention mechanism as well as a motor inhibition mechanism were proposed in the generation of the negative priming effect. Overall, this study indicated that the subliminal valence relation was processed, and that integration between different unconsciously perceived stimuli could occur.

  3. Unconscious Processing of Facial Emotional Valence Relation: Behavioral Evidence of Integration between Subliminally Perceived Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengzhen; Sun, Zhiyi; Jou, Jerwen; Cui, Qian; Zhao, Guang; Qiu, Jiang; Tu, Shen

    2016-01-01

    Although a few studies have investigated the integration between some types of unconscious stimuli, no research has yet explored the integration between unconscious emotional stimuli. This study was designed to provide behavioral evidence for the integration between unconsciously perceived emotional faces (same or different valence relation) using a modified priming paradigm. In two experiments, participants were asked to decide whether two faces in the target, which followed two subliminally presented faces of same or different emotional expressions, were of the same or different emotional valence. The interstimulus interval (ISI) between the prime and the target was manipulated (0, 53, 163 ms). In Experiment 1, prime visibility was assessed post-experiment. In Experiment 2, it was assessed on each trial. Interestingly, in both experiments, unconsciously processed valence relation of the two faces in the prime generated a negative priming effect in the response to the supraliminally presented target, independent of the length of ISI. Further analyses suggested that the negative priming was probably caused by a motor response incongruent relation between the subliminally perceived prime and the supraliminally perceived target. The visual feature incongruent relation across the prime and target was not found to play a role in the negative priming. Because the negative priming was found at short ISI, an attention mechanism as well as a motor inhibition mechanism were proposed in the generation of the negative priming effect. Overall, this study indicated that the subliminal valence relation was processed, and that integration between different unconsciously perceived stimuli could occur.

  4. Size-extensive wave functions for quantum Monte Carlo: A linear scaling generalized valence bond approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fracchia, F.; Filippi, Claudia; Amovilli, C.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new class of multideterminantal Jastrow–Slater wave functions constructed with localized orbitals and designed to describe complex potential energy surfaces of molecular systems for use in quantum Monte Carlo (QMC). Inspired by the generalized valence bond formalism, we elaborate a

  5. Las colecciones del Museu Valencià d’Història Natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Ortí, A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The collections of the Museu Valencià d’Història Natural The records of database collections of the Museu Valencia d’Història Natural are published, with a clear dominance of mollusks, arthropods and chordates. Data published through GBIF (doi:10.15470/8oedep.

  6. Affective modulation of response timing in ADHD: The impact of reinforcement valence and magnitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luman, M.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of reinforcement valence and magnitude on response timing in children with ADHD. Children were required to estimate a 1-s interval, and both the median response time (response tendency) and the intrasubject-variability (response stability) were investigated.

  7. Modulation of response timing in ADHD, effects of reinforcement valence magnitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luman, M.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of reinforcement valence and magnitude on response timing in children with ADHD. Children were required to estimate a 1-s interval, and both the median response time (response tendency) and the intrasubject-variability (response stability) were investigated.

  8. Modulation of Response Timing in ADHD, Effects of Reinforcement Valence and Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of reinforcement valence and magnitude on response timing in children with ADHD. Children were required to estimate a 1-s interval, and both the median response time (response tendency) and the intrasubject-variability (response stability) were investigated. In addition, heart rate and skin conductance…

  9. Variations in Group Process Due to Valence, Response Mode, and Directness of Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram, Mary; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Evaluated differences in group cohesion, trust, attraction, and perceptions of feedback due to interpersonal feedback. Undergraduate groups experienced intimacy-building exercises and then exchanged varied interpersonal feedback. Results indicated response mode did not affect feedback ratings or cohesion ratings; the valence of the feedback…

  10. THE VALENCE OF AU IN AUTE2 AND AUSE STUDIED BY X-RAY-ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ETTEMA, ARHF; STEGINK, TA; HAAS, C

    The gold compounds AuTe2 and AuSe contain Au atoms in two different chemical surroundings. In the literature these different coordinations have been associated with a difference in valency of the Au atoms. In this paper the occupation of the 5d shell in AuSe and AuTe2 is deduced from a study of the

  11. The stabilities and electron structures of Al-Mg clusters with 18 and 20 valence electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huihui; Chen, Hongshan

    2017-07-01

    The spherical jellium model predicts that metal clusters having 18 and 20 valence electrons correspond to the magic numbers and will show specific stabilities. We explore in detail the geometric structures, stabilities and electronic structures of Al-Mg clusters containing 18 and 20 valence electrons by using genetic algorithm combined with density functional theories. The stabilities of the clusters are governed by the electronic configurations and Mg/Al ratios. The clusters with lower Mg/Al ratios are more stable. The molecular orbitals accord with the shell structures predicted by the jellium model but the 2S level interweaves with the 1D levels and the 2S and 1D orbitals form a subgroup. The clusters having 20 valence electrons form closed 1S21P61D102S2 shells and show enhanced stability. The Al-Mg clusters with a valence electron count of 18 do not form closed shells because one 1D orbital is unoccupied. The ionization potential and electron affinity are closely related to the electronic configurations; their values are determined by the subgroups the HOMO or LUMO belong to. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://https://doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2017-80042-9

  12. The Effect of an Extinction Cue on ABA-Renewal: Does Valence Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbets, Pauline; Maes, Joseph H. R.

    2011-01-01

    The present human fear conditioning study examined whether the valence of an extinction cue has a differential effect on attenuating renewal that is induced by removal of the extinction context. Additionally, the study aimed to assess whether such attenuating effect is based on a modulatory or safety-signal role of the cue. In acquisition,…

  13. The effect of an extinction cue on ABA-renewal: Does valence matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibbets, P.; Maes, J.H.R.

    2011-01-01

    The present human fear conditioning study examined whether the valence of an extinction cue has a differential effect on attenuating renewal that is induced by removal of the extinction context. Additionally, the study aimed to assess whether such attenuating effect is based on a modulatory or

  14. Talking about alcohol consumption: health campaigns, conversational valence, and binge drinking intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.; de Bruijn, G.-J.; van den Putte, B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Although research has shown that whether people talk about health issues influences health campaign effects, no evidence exists on whether conversational valence fulfils a mediating role within health campaign effects. In the context of alcohol consumption, this two-wave experimental

  15. Subjective reality: the influence of perceived and objective conversational valence on binge drinking determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.; van den Putte, B.; de Bruijn, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that interpersonal communication, and particularly perceived conversational valence (i.e., the perceived negativity or positivity of conversations) about health topics, influences health determinants. On the basis of 43 dyads (N = 86) discussing the topic of alcohol

  16. Cheminoes: A Didactic Game to Learn Chemical Relationships between Valence, Atomic Number, and Symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luis F.; Hincapié, Gina; Alzate, María Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Cheminoes is a didactic game that enables the meaningful learning of some relations between concepts such as chemical element, valence, atomic number, and chemical symbol for the first 36 chemical elements of the periodic system. Among the students who have played the game, their opinions of the activity were positive, considering the game to be a…

  17. Determining binding energies of valence-band electrons in insulators and semiconductors via lanthanide spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, P.

    2013-01-01

    Models and methods to determine the absolute binding energy of 4f-shell electrons in lanthanide dopants will be combined with data on the energy of electron transfer from the valence band to a lanthanide dopant. This work will show that it provides a powerful tool to determine the absolute binding

  18. Spin dynamics of the intermediate-valence compound EuCu2Si2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alekseev, P. A.; Mignot, J.-M.; Nemkovski, K. S.; Lazukov, V. N.; Nefeodova, E. V.; Menushenkov, A. P.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Bewley, R. I.; Gribanov, A. V.

    The dynamic magnetic response of the intermediate-valence compound EuCu2Si2 has been studied using inelastic neutron scattering. At low temperatures, strong renormalization of the F-7(0) -> F-7(1) spin-orbit transition energy is detected; it is likely to be related to partial delocalization of the f

  19. Core and Valence Structures in K beta X-ray Emission Spectra of Chromium Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Deluigi, Maria; de Groot, Frank M. F.; Lopez-Diaz, Gaston; Tirao, German; Stutz, Guillermo; Riveros de la Vega, Jose

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the core and valence transitions in chromium in a series of materials with a number of different ligands and including the oxidation states: Cr-II, Cr-III, Cr-IV, and Cr-VI. To study the core-to-core transitions we employ the CTM4XAS program and investigate the shapes, widths,

  20. A valence force field-Monte Carlo algorithm for quantum dot growth modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barettin, Daniele; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Pecchia, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel kinetic Monte Carlo version for the atomistic valence force fields algorithm in order to model a self-assembled quantum dot growth process. We show our atomistic model is both computationally favorable and capture more details compared to traditional kinetic Monte Carlo models...