WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher temperature moisture

  1. Automated Greenhouse : Temperature and soil moisture control

    OpenAIRE

    Attalla, Daniela; Tannfelt Wu, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis an automated greenhouse was built with the purpose of investigating the watering system’s reliability and if a desired range of temperatures can be maintained. The microcontroller used to create the automated greenhouse was an Arduino UNO. This project utilizes two different sensors, a soil moisture sensor and a temperature sensor. The sensors are controlling the two actuators which are a heating fan and a pump. The heating fan is used to change the temperature and the pump is ...

  2. The Effect of Temperature on Moisture Transport in Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Xi, Yunping

    2017-08-09

    Most concrete structures and buildings are under temperature and moisture variations simultaneously. Thus, the moisture transport in concrete is driven by the moisture gradient as well as the temperature gradient. This paper presents an experimental approach for determining the effect of different temperature gradients on moisture distribution profiles in concrete. The effect of elevated temperatures under isothermal conditions on the moisture transport was also evaluated, and found not to be significant. The non-isothermal tests show that the temperature gradient accelerates the moisture transport in concrete. The part of increased moisture transfer due to the temperature gradient can be quantified by a coupling parameter D HT , which can be determined by the present test data. The test results indicated that D HT is not a constant but increases linearly with the temperature variation. A material model was developed for D HT based on the experimental results obtained in this study.

  3. Impact of soil moisture on extreme maximum temperatures in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirien Whan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Land-atmosphere interactions play an important role for hot temperature extremes in Europe. Dry soils may amplify such extremes through feedbacks with evapotranspiration. While previous observational studies generally focused on the relationship between precipitation deficits and the number of hot days, we investigate here the influence of soil moisture (SM on summer monthly maximum temperatures (TXx using water balance model-based SM estimates (driven with observations and temperature observations. Generalized extreme value distributions are fitted to TXx using SM as a covariate. We identify a negative relationship between SM and TXx, whereby a 100 mm decrease in model-based SM is associated with a 1.6 °C increase in TXx in Southern-Central and Southeastern Europe. Dry SM conditions result in a 2–4 °C increase in the 20-year return value of TXx compared to wet conditions in these two regions. In contrast with SM impacts on the number of hot days (NHD, where low and high surface-moisture conditions lead to different variability, we find a mostly linear dependency of the 20-year return value on surface-moisture conditions. We attribute this difference to the non-linear relationship between TXx and NHD that stems from the threshold-based calculation of NHD. Furthermore the employed SM data and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI are only weakly correlated in the investigated regions, highlighting the importance of evapotranspiration and runoff for resulting SM. Finally, in a case study for the hot 2003 summer we illustrate that if 2003 spring conditions in Southern-Central Europe had been as dry as in the more recent 2011 event, temperature extremes in summer would have been higher by about 1 °C, further enhancing the already extreme conditions which prevailed in that year.

  4. Hysteresis of soil temperature under different soil moisture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in a solar greenhouse. The objective of this study was to find a simple method to estimate the hysteresis of soil temperature under three soil moisture and two fertilizer levels in solar greenhouse conditions with tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The results show that the soil moisture had no significant effects on ...

  5. Effects of Soil Moisture on the Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Heterotrophic Respiration: A Laboratory Incubation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiping; Hui, Dafeng; Shen, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    The temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) is an important ecological model parameter and may vary with temperature and moisture. While Q10 generally decreases with increasing temperature, the moisture effects on Q10 have been controversial. To address this, we conducted a 90-day laboratory incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil with a full factorial combination of five moisture levels (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% water holding capacity - WHC) and five temperature levels (10, 17, 24, 31, and 38°C). Under each moisture treatment, Rh was measured several times for each temperature treatment to derive Q10 based on the exponential relationships between Rh and temperature. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial community structure and soil nutrients were also measured several times to detect their potential contributions to the moisture-induced Q10 variation. We found that Q10 was significantly lower at lower moisture levels (60%, 40% and 20% WHC) than at higher moisture level (80% WHC) during the early stage of the incubation, but became significantly higher at 20%WHC than at 60% WHC and not significantly different from the other three moisture levels during the late stage of incubation. In contrast, soil Rh had the highest value at 60% WHC and the lowest at 20% WHC throughout the whole incubation period. Variations of Q10 were significantly associated with MBC during the early stages of incubation, but with the fungi-to-bacteria ratio during the later stages, suggesting that changes in microbial biomass and community structure are related to the moisture-induced Q10 changes. This study implies that global warming’s impacts on soil CO2 emission may depend upon soil moisture conditions. With the same temperature rise, wetter soils may emit more CO2 into the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration. PMID:24647610

  6. Soil moisture and temperature algorithms and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture has matured over the past decade as a result of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) program of JAXA. This program has resulted in improved algorithms that have been supported by rigorous validation. Access to the products and the valida...

  7. Robust design of microelectronics assemblies against mechanical shock, temperature and moisture effects of temperature, moisture and mechanical driving forces

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, E-H

    2015-01-01

    Robust Design of Microelectronics Assemblies Against Mechanical Shock, Temperature and Moisture discusses how the reliability of packaging components is a prime concern to electronics manufacturers. The text presents a thorough review of this important field of research, providing users with a practical guide that discusses theoretical aspects, experimental results, and modeling techniques. The authors use their extensive experience to produce detailed chapters covering temperature, moisture, and mechanical shock induced failure, adhesive interconnects, and viscoelasticity. Useful progr

  8. Hysteresis and Temperature Dependency of Moisture Sorption – New Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2011-01-01

    measurements of hysteresis and temperature dependency of the moisture sorption characteristics of three different porous building materials: aerated concrete, cement paste and spruce. Scanning curves are measured for all three materials where periods with adsorption and desorption interrupt each other...... intermittently. For one of the materials, aerated concrete, the sorption curves are determined at three different temperatures....

  9. Automated general temperature correction method for dielectric soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilaratne, R. G. C. Jeewantinie; Lu, Minjiao

    2017-08-01

    An effective temperature correction method for dielectric sensors is important to ensure the accuracy of soil water content (SWC) measurements of local to regional-scale soil moisture monitoring networks. These networks are extensively using highly temperature sensitive dielectric sensors due to their low cost, ease of use and less power consumption. Yet there is no general temperature correction method for dielectric sensors, instead sensor or site dependent correction algorithms are employed. Such methods become ineffective at soil moisture monitoring networks with different sensor setups and those that cover diverse climatic conditions and soil types. This study attempted to develop a general temperature correction method for dielectric sensors which can be commonly used regardless of the differences in sensor type, climatic conditions and soil type without rainfall data. In this work an automated general temperature correction method was developed by adopting previously developed temperature correction algorithms using time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements to ThetaProbe ML2X, Stevens Hydra probe II and Decagon Devices EC-TM sensor measurements. The rainy day effects removal procedure from SWC data was automated by incorporating a statistical inference technique with temperature correction algorithms. The temperature correction method was evaluated using 34 stations from the International Soil Moisture Monitoring Network and another nine stations from a local soil moisture monitoring network in Mongolia. Soil moisture monitoring networks used in this study cover four major climates and six major soil types. Results indicated that the automated temperature correction algorithms developed in this study can eliminate temperature effects from dielectric sensor measurements successfully even without on-site rainfall data. Furthermore, it has been found that actual daily average of SWC has been changed due to temperature effects of dielectric sensors with a

  10. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M. M.; Orth, R.; Cheruy, F.; Hagemann, S.; Lorenz, R.; Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2017-02-01

    Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2°C even if global warming is limited to this level. We investigate the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for this response based on multimodel experiments for the 21st century with either interactive or fixed (late 20th century mean seasonal cycle) soil moisture. We analyze changes in the hottest days in each year in both sets of experiments, relate them to the global mean temperature increase, and investigate processes leading to these changes. We find that soil moisture-temperature feedbacks significantly contribute to the amplified warming of the hottest days compared to that of global mean temperature. This contribution reaches more than 70% in Central Europe and Central North America. Soil moisture trends are more important for this response than short-term soil moisture variability. These results are relevant for reducing uncertainties in regional temperature projections.

  11. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper in "The Physics Teacher (TPT)", DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of…

  12. The Effects of the Heat and Moisture Exchanger on Humidity, Airway Temperature, and Core Body Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delventhal, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Findings from several studies have demonstrated that the use of a heat and moisture exchanger increases airway humidity, which in turn increases mean airway temperature and prevents decreases in core body temperature...

  13. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Martha Marie; Orth, René; Cheruy, Frederique; Hagemann, Stefan; Lorenz, Ruth; van den Hurk, Bart; Seneviratne, Sonia Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2°C even if global warming is limited to this level. We investigate here the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for this response based on multi-model experiments for the 21st century with either interactive or fixed (late 20th century mean seasonal cycle) soil moisture. We analyze changes in the hottest days in each year in both sets of experiments, relate them to the global mean temperature increase, and investigate physical processes leading to these changes. We find that soil moisture-temperature feedbacks significantly contribute to the amplified warming of hottest days compared to that of global mean temperature. This contribution reaches more than 70% in Central Europe and Central North America and between 42%-52% in Amazonia, Northern Australia and Southern Africa. Soil moisture trends (multi-decadal soil moisture variability) are more important for this response than short-term (e.g. seasonal, interannual) soil moisture variability. These results are relevant for reducing uncertainties in regional temperature projections. Vogel, M.M. et al.,2017. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks. Geophysical Research Letters, accepted.

  14. Effects of Soil Temperature and Moisture on Soil Respiration on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoying; Zhu, Xiaoxue; Chang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Shiping; Xu, Burenbayin; Luo, Caiyun; Zhang, Zhenhua; Wang, Qi; Rui, Yichao; Cui, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of effects of soil temperature and soil moisture on soil respiration (Rs) under future warming is critical to reduce uncertainty in predictions of feedbacks to atmospheric CO2 concentrations from grassland soil carbon. Intact cores with roots taken from a full factorial, 5-year alpine meadow warming and grazing experiment in the field were incubated at three different temperatures (i.e. 5, 15 and 25°C) with two soil moistures (i.e. 30 and 60% water holding capacity (WHC)) in our study. Another experiment of glucose-induced respiration (GIR) with 4 h of incubation was conducted to determine substrate limitation. Our results showed that high temperature increased Rs and low soil moisture limited the response of Rs to temperature only at high incubation temperature (i.e. 25°C). Temperature sensitivity (Q10) did not significantly decrease over the incubation period, suggesting that substrate depletion did not limit Rs. Meanwhile, the carbon availability index (CAI) was higher at 5°C compared with 15 and 25°C incubation, but GIR increased with increasing temperature. Therefore, our findings suggest that warming-induced decrease in Rs in the field over time may result from a decrease in soil moisture rather than from soil substrate depletion, because warming increased root biomass in the alpine meadow.

  15. Diuron mineralisation in a Mediterranean vineyard soil: impact of moisture content and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sebaï, Talaat; Devers, Marion; Lagacherie, Bernard; Rouard, Nadine; Soulas, Guy; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2010-09-01

    The diuron-mineralising ability of the microbiota of a Mediterranean vineyard soil exposed each year to this herbicide was measured. The impact of soil moisture and temperature on this microbial activity was assessed. The soil microbiota was shown to mineralise diuron. This mineralising activity was positively correlated with soil moisture content, being negligible at 5% and more than 30% at 20% soil moisture content. According to a double Gaussian model applied to fit the dataset, the optimum temperature/soil moisture conditions were 27.9 degrees C/19.3% for maximum mineralisation rate and 21.9 degrees C/18.3% for maximum percentage mineralisation. The impact of temperature and soil moisture content variations on diuron mineralisation was estimated. A simulated drought period had a suppressive effect on subsequent diuron mineralisation. This drought effect was more marked when higher temperatures were used to dry (40 degrees C versus 28 degrees C) or incubate (28 degrees C versus 20 degrees C) the soil. The diuron kinetic parameters measured after drought conditions were no longer in accordance with those estimated by the Gaussian model. Although soil microbiota can adapt to diuron mineralisation, its activity is strongly dependent on climatic conditions. It suggests that diuron is not rapidly degraded under Mediterranean climate, and that arable Mediterranean soils are likely to accumulate diuron residues. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Microhabitat effects of litter temperature and moisture on forest-floor invertebrate communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim A. Christiansen; Sue A. Perry; William B. Perry

    1996-01-01

    Litter temperature and moisture may be altered due to changes in global climate. We investigated the effect of small changes in litter temperature and moisture on forest-floor communities in West Virginia.

  17. Creep of concrete under various temperature, moisture, and loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to obtain information on the time-dependent deformation behavior of concrete in the presence of temperature, moisture, and loading conditions similar to those encountered in a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV). Variables included concrete strength, aggregate types, curing history, temperature, and types of loading (uniaxial, hydrostatic, biaxial, and triaxial). There were 66 test conditions for creep tests and 12 test conditions for unloaded or control specimens. Experimental results are presented and discussed. Comparisons are made concerning the effect of the various test conditions on the behavior of concrete, and general conclusions are formulated

  18. Interactive Vegetation Phenology, Soil Moisture, and Monthly Temperature Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, R. D.; Walker, G. K.

    2015-01-01

    The time scales that characterize the variations of vegetation phenology are generally much longer than those that characterize atmospheric processes. The explicit modeling of phenological processes in an atmospheric forecast system thus has the potential to provide skill to subseasonal or seasonal forecasts. We examine this possibility here using a forecast system fitted with a dynamic vegetation phenology model. We perform three experiments, each consisting of 128 independent warm-season monthly forecasts: 1) an experiment in which both soil moisture states and carbon states (e.g., those determining leaf area index) are initialized realistically, 2) an experiment in which the carbon states are prescribed to climatology throughout the forecasts, and 3) an experiment in which both the carbon and soil moisture states are prescribed to climatology throughout the forecasts. Evaluating the monthly forecasts of air temperature in each ensemble against observations, as well as quantifying the inherent predictability of temperature within each ensemble, shows that dynamic phenology can indeed contribute positively to subseasonal forecasts, though only to a small extent, with an impact dwarfed by that of soil moisture.

  19. The relationship between brightness temperature and soil moisture. Selection of frequency range for microwave remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.S.; Chandra, G.; Rao, P.V.N.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of brightness temperature data acquired from field and aircraft experiments demonstrates a linear relationship between soil moisture and brightness temperature. However, the analysis of brightness temperature data acquired by the Skylab radiometer demonstrates a non-linear relationship between soil moisture and brightness temperature. In view of the above and also because of recent theoretical developments for the calculation of the dielectric constant and brightness temperature under varying soil moisture profile conditions, an attempt is made to study the theoretical relationship between brightness temperature and soil moisture as a function of frequency. Through the above analysis, the appropriate microwave frequency range for soil moisture studies is recommended

  20. Arctic temperature and moisture trends during the past 2000 years - Progress from multiproxy-paleoclimate data compilations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Darrell; Routson, Cody; McKay, Nicholas; Beltrami, Hugo; Jaume-Santero, Fernando; Konecky, Bronwen; Saenger, Casey

    2017-04-01

    Instrumental climate data and climate-model projections show that Arctic-wide surface temperature and precipitation are positively correlated. Higher temperatures coincide with greater moisture by: (1) expanding the duration and source area for evaporation as sea ice retracts, (2) enhancing the poleward moisture transport, and (3) increasing the water-vapor content of the atmosphere. Higher temperature also influences evaporation rate, and therefore precipitation minus evaporation (P-E), the climate variable often sensed by paleo-hydroclimate proxies. Here, we test whether Arctic temperature and moisture also correlate on centennial timescales over the Common Era (CE). We use the new PAGES2k multiproxy-temperature dataset along with a first-pass compilation of moisture-sensitive proxy records to calculate century-scale composite timeseries, with a focus on longer records that extend back through the first millennium CE. We present a new Arctic borehole temperature reconstruction as a check on the magnitude of Little Ice Age cooling inferred from the proxy records, and we investigate the spatial pattern of centennial-scale variability. Similar to previous reconstructions, v2 of the PAGES2k proxy temperature dataset shows that, prior to the 20th century, mean annual Arctic-wide temperature decreased over the CE. The millennial-scale cooling trend is most prominent in proxy records from glacier ice, but is also registered in lake and marine sediment, and trees. In contrast, the composite of moisture-sensitive (primarily P-E) records does not exhibit a millennial-scale trend. Determining whether fluctuations in the mean state of Arctic temperature and moisture were in fact decoupled is hampered by the difficulty in detecting a significant trend within the relatively small number of spatially heterogeneous multi-proxy moisture-sensitive records. A decoupling of temperature and moisture would indicate that evaporation had a strong counterbalancing effect on precipitation

  1. Temperature and moisture effects on greenhouse gas emissions from deep active-layer boreal soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Smith, A. Peyton; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-12-01

    Rapid climatic changes, rising air temperatures, and increased fires are expected to drive permafrost degradation and alter soil carbon (C) cycling in many high-latitude ecosystems. How these soils will respond to changes in their temperature, moisture, and overlying vegetation is uncertain but critical to understand given the large soil C stocks in these regions. We used a laboratory experiment to examine how temperature and moisture control CO2 and CH4 emissions from mineral soils sampled from the bottom of the annual active layer, i.e., directly above permafrost, in an Alaskan boreal forest. Gas emissions from 30 cores, subjected to two temperatures and either field moisture conditions or experimental drought, were tracked over a 100-day incubation; we also measured a variety of physical and chemical characteristics of the cores. Gravimetric water content was 0.31 ± 0.12 (unitless) at the beginning of the incubation; cores at field moisture were unchanged at the end, but drought cores had declined to 0.06 ± 0.04. Daily CO2 fluxes were positively correlated with incubation chamber temperature, core water content, and percent soil nitrogen. They also had a temperature sensitivity (Q10) of 1.3 and 1.9 for the field moisture and drought treatments, respectively. Daily CH4 emissions were most strongly correlated with percent nitrogen, but neither temperature nor water content was a significant first-order predictor of CH4 fluxes. The cumulative production of C from CO2 was over 6 orders of magnitude higher than that from CH4; cumulative CO2 was correlated with incubation temperature and moisture treatment, with drought cores producing 52-73 % lower C. Cumulative CH4 production was unaffected by any treatment. These results suggest that deep active-layer soils may be sensitive to changes in soil moisture under aerobic conditions, a critical factor as discontinuous permafrost thaws in interior Alaska. Deep but unfrozen high-latitude soils have been shown to be

  2. Experimental on moisture migration and pore pressure formation of concrete members subjected to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Kakuhiro; Nakane, Sunao

    1993-01-01

    The experimental studies concerning temperature, moisture migration, and pore pressure of mass concrete mock-up specimens heated up to high temperature at 110degC to 600degC, were performed, so as to correctly estimate the moisture migration behaviour of concrete members subjected to high temperature, which is considered significantly influenced on physical properties of concrete. As a results, it is confirmed that the moisture migration behavior of concrete members can be explained by temperature and pore pressure, and indicate the characteristics both sealed condition (dissipation of moisture is prevented) and unsealed condition (dissipation of moisture occur). (author)

  3. Soil Temperature and Moisture Profile (STAMP) System Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The soil temperature and moisture profile system (STAMP) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil water content (soil-type specific and loam type), plant water availability, soil conductivity, and real dielectric permittivity as a function of depth below the ground surface at half-hourly intervals, and precipitation at one-minute intervals. The profiles are measured directly by in situ probes at all extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The profiles are derived from measurements of soil energy conductivity. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil. The STAMP system replaced the SWATS system in early 2016.

  4. Investigations for determining temperature, pressure and moisture distributions in concrete at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.; Kamp, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    The paper gives a report on the test program. The main objective of the tests was the determination of the temperature and moisture fields decisive for the corrosion conditions, which are built up behind the liner in the range of the heated concrete. The determination of transport characteristics of the concrete are another objective. Small concrete specimens are used to determine the following data: Thermal conductivity, heat capacity, diffusion coefficient for liquid water, steam and air, steam sorption therms. The chemical shrinkage of the concrete as a function of moisture and temperature is being evaluated by means of tests and calculations. (orig./HP)

  5. Local Versus Remote Contributions of Soil Moisture to Near-Surface Temperature Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, R.; Schubert, S.; Wang, H.; Chang, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Soil moisture variations have a straightforward impact on overlying air temperatures, wetter soils can induce higher evaporative cooling of the soil and thus, locally, cooler temperatures overall. Not known, however, is the degree to which soil moisture variations can affect remote air temperatures through their impact on the atmospheric circulation. In this talk we describe a two-pronged analysis that addresses this question. In the first segment, an extensive ensemble of NASA/GSFC GEOS-5 atmospheric model simulations is analyzed statistically to isolate and quantify the contributions of various soil moisture states, both local and remote, to the variability of air temperature at a given local site. In the second segment, the relevance of the derived statistical relationships is evaluated by applying them to observations-based data. Results from the second segment suggest that the GEOS-5-based relationships do, at least to first order, hold in nature and thus may provide some skill to forecasts of air temperature at subseasonal time scales, at least in certain regions.

  6. Regional amplification of extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M.; Orth, R.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2016-12-01

    Land temperatures, and in particular hot extremes, will likely increase by more than 2° C in many regions, even in the case that the global temperature increase with respect to pre-industrial levels can be limited to 2°C. We investigate here the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for projected changes of extreme temperatures by comparing experiments from the GLACE-CMIP5 (Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment - Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) project. In particular, we consider fully coupled experiments with all 6 involved GCMs and corresponding experiments where soil moisture is fixed to the local present-day seasonal cycle until the end of the 21st century. We consider the yearly hottest days and apply a scaling approach whereby we relate changes of hottest days to global mean temperature increase. We find that soil moisture-temperature coupling significantly contributes to additional future warming of extreme temperatures in many regions: In particular, it can explain more than 70% of the warming amplification of hottest days compared to global mean temperature in Central Europe, Central North America and Northern Australia, and around 50% of this signal in the Amazonian Region and Southern Africa.

  7. Interaction between Soil Moisture and Air Temperature in the Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing air temperatures are expected to continue in the future. The relation between soil moisture and near surface air temperature is significant for climate change and climate extremes. Evaluation of the relations between soil moisture and temperature was performed by devel...

  8. Sensitivity of soil respiration to variability in soil moisture and temperature in a humid tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tana Wood; M. Detto; W.L. Silver

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation and temperature are important drivers of soil respiration. The role of moisture and temperature are generally explored at seasonal or inter-annual timescales; however, significant variability also occurs on hourly to daily time-scales. We used small (1.54 m2), throughfall exclusion shelters to evaluate the role soil moisture and temperature as temporal...

  9. Degradation of [14C]isofenphos in soil in the laboratory under different soil pH's, temperatures, and moistures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Assaf, N.; Coats, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of three soil pH's, three soil temperatures, and three soil moistures on [ 14 C]isofenphos degradation were investigated. All three factors interacted strongly and significantly affected the persistence of isofenphos as well as the formation of the degradation products (p less than 1%). Isofenphos degradation was greatest at the higher temperatures 35 0 C greater than 25 0 C greater than 15 0 C (except under alkaline pH's), medium moisture 25% greater than 30% greater than 15%, and in both alkaline (pH = 8) and acidic soils (pH = 6) compared with neutral soil (pH = 7). Isofenphos oxon formation was greatest at higher temperatures 35 0 C compared with 25 0 C and 15 0 C, in acidic soil greater than neutral soil greater than alkaline soil, and under high moisture (30%) compared with the 15% and 22.5% moistures. The formation of soil-bound residues was greatest at higher temperatures 35 0 C greater than 25 0 C greater than 15 0 C, higher moisture 30% compared with 15% and 22.5%, and in alkaline soil compared with neutral and acidic soils

  10. Effect of sugar addition on glass transition temperatures of cassava starch with low to intermediate moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Yetzury; Guevara, Marvilan; Pérez, Adriana; Cova, Aura; Sandoval, Aleida J; Müller, Alejandro J

    2016-08-01

    This work studies how sucrose (S) addition modifies the thermal properties of cassava starch (CS). Neat CS and CS-S blends with 4, 6 and 8% sugar contents (CS-S-4%, CS-S-6% and CS-S-8%) were prepared and analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), in a wide range of moisture levels (2-20%). In equilibrated samples with moisture contents lower than 10%, twoendothermic steps were observed during first DSC heating scans and two corresponding relaxation maxima in tan δ were detected by DMTA. The first transition, detected at around 45-55°C by both DSC and DMTA, is frequently found in starchy foods, while the second observed at higher temperatures is associated to the glass transition temperature of the blends. At higher moisture contents, only one thermal transition was observed. Samples analyzed immediately after cooling from the melt (i.e., after erasing their thermal history), exhibited a single glass transition temperature, regardless of their moisture content. Addition of sugar promotes water plasticization of CS only at high moisture contents. In the low moisture content range, anti-plasticization was observed for both neat and sugar-added CS samples. Addition of sugar decreases the moisture content needed to achieve the maximum value of the glass transition temperature before plasticization starts. The results of this work may be valuable for the study of texture establishment in low moisture content extruded food products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Using soil moisture forecasts for sub-seasonal summer temperature predictions in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, René; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2014-12-01

    Soil moisture exhibits outstanding memory characteristics and plays a key role within the climate system. Especially through its impacts on the evapotranspiration of soils and plants, it may influence the land energy balance and therefore surface temperature. These attributes make soil moisture an important variable in the context of weather and climate forecasting. In this study we investigate the value of (initial) soil moisture information for sub-seasonal temperature forecasts. For this purpose we employ a simple water balance model to infer soil moisture from streamflow observations in 400 catchments across Europe. Running this model with forecasted atmospheric forcing, we derive soil moisture forecasts, which we then translate into temperature forecasts using simple linear relationships. The resulting temperature forecasts show skill beyond climatology up to 2 weeks in most of the considered catchments. Even if forecasting skills are rather small at longer lead times with significant skill only in some catchments at lead times of 3 and 4 weeks, this soil moisture-based approach shows local improvements compared to the monthly European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) temperature forecasts at these lead times. For both products (soil moisture-only forecast and ECMWF forecast), we find comparable or better forecast performance in the case of extreme events, especially at long lead times. Even though a product based on soil moisture information alone is not of practical relevance, our results indicate that soil moisture (memory) is a potentially valuable contributor to temperature forecast skill. Investigating the underlying soil moisture of the ECMWF forecasts we find good agreement with the simple model forecasts, especially at longer lead times. Analyzing the drivers of the temperature forecast skills we find that they are mainly controlled by the strengths of (1) the soil moisture-temperature coupling and (2) the soil moisture memory. We

  12. A soil moisture and temperature network for SMOS validation in Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bircher, Simone; Skou, Niels; Jensen, K. H.

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission (SMOS) acquires surface soil moisture data globally, and thus product validation for a range of climate and environmental conditions across continents is a crucial step. For this purpose, a soil moisture and temperature network of Decagon ECH2O 5TE...... SMOS pixel (44 × 44 km), which is representative of the land surface conditions of the catchment and with minimal impact from open water (2) arrangement of three network clusters along the precipitation gradient, and (3) distribution of the stations according to respective fractions of classes...... representing the prevailing environmental conditions. Overall, measured moisture and temperature patterns could be related to the respective land cover and soil conditions. Texture-dependency of the 0–5 cm soil moisture measurements was demonstrated. Regional differences in 0–5 cm soil moisture, temperature...

  13. Moisture Sensitivity of Crumb Rubber Modified Modifier Warm Mix Asphalt Additive for Two Different Compaction Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilema, Munder A.; Aman, Mohamad Y.; Hassan, Norhidayah A.; Ahmad, Kabiru A.; Elghatas, Hamza M.; Radwan, Ashraf A.; Shyaa, Ahmed S.

    2018-04-01

    Crumb rubber obtained from scrap tires has been incorporated with asphalt binder to improve the performance of asphalt mixtures in the past decades. Pavements containing crumb-rubber modified (CRM) binders present one major drawback: larger amounts of greenhouse gas emissions are produced as there is rise in the energy consumption at the asphalt plant due to the higher viscosity of these type of binders compared with a conventional mixture. The objective of this paper is to calculate the optimum bitumen content for each percentage and evaluate the moisture sensitivity of crumb rubber modified asphalt at two different compacting temperatures. In this study, crumb rubber modified percentages was 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% from the binder weight, with adding 1.5% warm mix asphalt additive (Sasobit) and crush granite aggregate of 9.5mm Nominal maximum size was used after assessing its properties. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) used by 2% from fine aggregate. The wet method was using to mix the CRM with bitumen, the CRM conducted at 177°C for 30 min with 700rpm and Sasobit conducted at 120°C for 10 min with 1000rpm. As a result, from this study the optimum bitumen content (OBC) was increased with increased crumb rubber content. For performance test, it was conducted using the AASHTO T283 (2007): Resistance of Compacted Bituminous Mixture to Moisture-Induced Damage. The result was as expected and it was within the specification of the test, the result show that the moisture damage increased with increased the crumb rubber content but it is not exceeding the limit of specification 80% for indirect tension strength ratio (ITSR). For the temperature was with lowing the temperature the moisture damage increased.

  14. NSSEFF Designing New Higher Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-13

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0083 NSSEFF - DESIGINING NEW HIGHER TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS Meigan Aronson THE RESEARCH FOUNDATION OF STATE UNIVERSITY OF...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NSSEFF - DESIGINING NEW HIGHER TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-10-1-0191 5c...materials, identifying the most promising candidates. 15. SUBJECT TERMS TEMPERATURE, SUPERCONDUCTOR 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  15. Effects of chemical composite, puffing temperature and intermediate moisture content on physical properties of potato and apple slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabtaing, S.; Paengkanya, S.; Tanthong, P.

    2017-09-01

    Puffing technique is the process that can improve texture and volumetric of crisp fruit and vegetable. However, the effect of chemical composite in foods on puffing characteristics is still lack of study. Therefore, potato and apple slices were comparative study on their physical properties. Potato and apple were sliced into 2.5 mm thickness and 2.5 cm in diameter. Potato slices were treated by hot water for 2 min while apple slices were not treatment. After that, they were dried in 3 steps. First step, they were dried by hot air at temperature of 90°C until their moisture content reached to 30, 40, and 50 % dry basis. Then they were puffed by hot air at temperature of 130, 150, and 170°C for 2 min. Finally, they were dried again by hot air at temperature of 90°C until their final moisture content reached to 4% dry basis. The experimental results showed that chemical composite of food affected on physical properties of puffed product. Puffed potato had higher volume ratio than those puffed apple because potato slices contains starch. The higher starch content provided more hard texture of potato than those apples. Puffing temperature and moisture content strongly affected on the color, volume ratio, and textural properties of puffed potato slices. In addition, the high drying rate of puffed product observed at high puffing temperature and higher moisture content.

  16. The effects of moisture and temperature variations on the long term durability of polymer concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Ricardo; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Grelk, Bent

    2013-01-01

    The use of polymer concrete to precast products in construction presents normally many advantages compared to traditional concrete. Higher strength, lower permeability, shorter curing periods, better chemical resistances and a better durability is normally predicated, however this is a research...... and after exposure to different thermal conditions is very important. In this paper, an experimental study concerning the influence of temperature and moisture in cyclic conditions on the durability of polymer concrete based on an unsaturated polyester resin is described and the results are presented...

  17. Time domain reflectometry measured moisture content of sewage sludge compost across temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Tong-Bin; Gao, Ding; Liu, Hong-Tao; Chen, Jun; Zheng, Guo-Di

    2013-01-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is a prospective measurement technology for moisture content of sewage sludge composting material; however, a significant dependence upon temperature has been observed. The objective of this study was to assess the impacts of temperature upon moisture content measurement and determine if TDR could be used to monitor moisture content in sewage sludge compost across a range of temperatures. We also investigated the combined effects of temperature and conductivity on moisture content measurement. The results revealed that the moisture content of composting material could be determined by TDR using coated probes, even when the measured material had a moisture content of 0.581 cm(3)cm(-3), temperature of 70°C and conductivity of 4.32 mS cm(-1). TDR probes were calibrated as a function of dielectric properties that included temperature effects. When the bulk temperature varied from 20°C to 70°C, composting material with 0.10-0.70 cm(3)cm(-3) moisture content could be measured by TDR using coated probes, and calibrations based on different temperatures minimized the errors. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Shrub encroachment alters sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Jessica M.; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Ogle, Kiona; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitchell; Scott, Russell L.; Williams, David G.; Huxman, Travis E.

    2012-03-01

    A greater abundance of shrubs in semiarid grasslands affects the spatial patterns of soil temperature, moisture, and litter, resulting in fertile islands with potentially enhanced soil metabolic activity. The goal of this study was to quantify the microsite specificity of soil respiration in a semiarid riparian ecosystem experiencing shrub encroachment. We quantified the response of soil respiration to different microsite conditions created by big mesquite shrubs (near the trunk and the canopy edge), medium-sized mesquite, sacaton bunchgrasses, and open spaces. We hypothesized that soil respiration would be more temperature sensitive and less moisture sensitive and have a greater magnitude in shrub microsites compared with grass and open microsites. Field and incubation soil respiration data were simultaneously analyzed in a Bayesian framework to quantify the microsite-specific temperature and moisture sensitivities and magnitude of respiration. The analysis showed that shrub expansion increases the heterogeneity of respiration. Respiration has greater temperature sensitivity near the shrub canopy edge, and respiration rates are higher overall under big mesquite compared with those of the other microsites. Respiration in the microsites beneath medium-sized mesquites does not behave like a downscaled version of big mesquite microsites. The grass microsites show more similarity to big mesquite microsites than medium-sized shrubs. This study shows there can be a great deal of fine-scale spatial heterogeneity that accompanies shifts in vegetation structure. Such complexity presents a challenge in scaling soil respiration fluxes to the landscape for systems experiencing shrub encroachment, but quantifying this complexity is significantly important in determining overall ecosystem metabolic behavior.

  19. Processing temperature and moisture content effects on the texture and microscopic appearance of cooked fowl meat gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voller, L M; Dawson, P L; Han, I Y

    1996-12-01

    New aseptic processes are being used and refined to produce convenient, shelf stable liquid products containing meat particles. These processes utilize high temperature, short time thermal treatments to minimize food quality change; however, little research has been conducted on the effects of this process on the texture of meat from mature hens traditionally used for canning. The objective of this study was to examine textural and structural changes in meat structure due to different high temperature (HT) heat treatments and meat moisture contents were examined by use of electron microscopy and torsion analyses. Cooked gels of different moisture contents (71.2 to 74.8%) were formulated from spent fowl breast meat and exposed to processing temperatures of 120 or 124 C. The HT processing resulted in stronger (tougher) meat gels that were more deformable (more chewy) than gels that were not processed by HT. Water added prior to cooking was not retained in samples that were cooked and then processed at 124 C, but was retained in the samples processed at 120 C. Electron micrographs showed a more organized and open gel structure in the samples with higher moisture content and lower temperature (120 C) processing compared to the lower moisture and higher (124 C) temperature treatments.

  20. Monitoring moisture content, temperature, and humidity in whole-tree pine chip piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Klepac; Dana Mitchell; Jason Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Two whole-tree chip piles were monitored for moisture content, temperature, and relative humidity from October 8th, 2010 to March 16th, 2011 at a location in south Alabama. Initial moisture content samples were collected immediately after chips were delivered to the study location on October 8th for Pile 1 and October 22nd for Pile 2. During pile construction, Lascar...

  1. Forest harvesting effects on soil temperature, moisture, and respiration in a bottomland hardwood forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londo, A.J.; Messina, M.G.; Schoenholtz, S.H.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of forest disturbance on C cycling has become an issue, given concerns about escalating atmospheric C content. The authors examined the effects of harvest intensity on in situ and laboratory mineral soil respiration in an East Texas bottomland hardwood forest between 6 and 22 mo after harvesting. Treatments included a clearcut, a partial cut wherein approximately 58% of the basal area was removed, and an unharvested control. The soda-lime absorption technique was used for in situ respiration (CO 2 efflux) and the wet alkali method (NaOH) was used for laboratory mineral soil respiration. Soil temperature and moisture content were also measured. Harvesting significantly increased in situ respiration during most sampling periods. This effect was attributed to an increase in live root and microflora activity associated with postharvesting revegetation. In situ respiration increased exponentially (Q 10 relationship) as treatment soil temperatures increased, but followed a parabolic-type pattern through the range of soil moisture measured (mean range 10.4--31.5%). Mean rates of laboratory mineral soil respiration measured during the study were unaffected by cutting treatment for most sampling sessions. Overall, the mean rate of CO 2 efflux in the clearcuts was significantly higher than that in the partial cuts, which in turn was significantly higher than that in the controls. Mass balance estimates indicate that these treatment differences will have little or no long-term effect on C sequestration of these managed forests

  2. GCOM-W soil moisture and temperature algorithms and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture has matured over the past decade as a result of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) program of JAXA. This program has resulted in improved algorithms that have been supported by rigorous validation. Access to the products and the valida...

  3. Impact of soil moisture initialization on boreal summer subseasonal forecasts: mid-latitude surface air temperature and heat wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunkyo; Lee, Myong-In; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Koster, Randal D.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Kim, Hye-Mi; Kim, Daehyun; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; MacLachlan, Craig; Scaife, Adam A.

    2018-05-01

    This study uses a global land-atmosphere coupled model, the land-atmosphere component of the Global Seasonal Forecast System version 5, to quantify the degree to which soil moisture initialization could potentially enhance boreal summer surface air temperature forecast skill. Two sets of hindcast experiments are performed by prescribing the observed sea surface temperature as the boundary condition for a 15-year period (1996-2010). In one set of the hindcast experiments (noINIT), the initial soil moisture conditions are randomly taken from a long-term simulation. In the other set (INIT), the initial soil moisture conditions are taken from an observation-driven offline Land Surface Model (LSM) simulation. The soil moisture conditions from the offline LSM simulation are calibrated using the forecast model statistics to minimize the inconsistency between the LSM and the land-atmosphere coupled model in their mean and variability. Results show a higher boreal summer surface air temperature prediction skill in INIT than in noINIT, demonstrating the potential benefit from an accurate soil moisture initialization. The forecast skill enhancement appears especially in the areas in which the evaporative fraction—the ratio of surface latent heat flux to net surface incoming radiation—is sensitive to soil moisture amount. These areas lie in the transitional regime between humid and arid climates. Examination of the extreme 2003 European and 2010 Russian heat wave events reveal that the regionally anomalous soil moisture conditions during the events played an important role in maintaining the stationary circulation anomalies, especially those near the surface.

  4. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on the Development of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Zuskov, David; Chan, Bronte Lee; Lee, Jihyun; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-09-23

    Concealed damage (CD) is a brown discoloration of nutmeat that appears only after kernels are treated with moderate heat (e.g., roasting). Identifying factors that promote CD in almonds is of significant interest to the nut industry. Herein, the effect of temperature (35 and 45 °C) and moisture (almonds (Prunus dulcis var. Nonpareil) was studied using HS-SPME-GC/MS. A CIE LCh colorimetric method was developed to identify raw almonds with CD. A significant increase in CD was demonstrated in almonds exposed to moisture (8% kernel moisture content) at 45 °C as compared to 35 °C. Elevated levels of volatiles related to lipid peroxidation and amino acid degradation were observed in almonds with CD. These results suggest that postharvest moisture exposure resulting in an internal kernel moisture ≥ 8% is a key factor in the development of CD in raw almonds and that CD is accelerated by temperature.

  5. Effect of soil moisture on the temperature sensitivity of Northern soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minions, C.; Natali, S.; Ludwig, S.; Risk, D.; Macintyre, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic and boreal ecosystems are vast reservoirs of carbon and are particularly sensitive to climate warming. Changes in the temperature and precipitation regimes of these regions could significantly alter soil respiration rates, impacting atmospheric concentrations and affecting climate change feedbacks. Many incubation studies have shown that both temperature and soil moisture are important environmental drivers of soil respiration; this relationship, however, has rarely been demonstrated with in situ data. Here we present the results of a study at six field sites in Alaska from 2016 to 2017. Low-power automated soil gas systems were used to measure soil surface CO2 flux from three forced diffusion chambers and soil profile concentrations from three soil depth chambers at hourly intervals at each site. HOBO Onset dataloggers were used to monitor soil moisture and temperature profiles. Temperature sensitivity (Q10) was determined at each site using inversion analysis applied over different time periods. With highly resolved data sets, we were able to observe the changes in soil respiration in response to changes in temperature and soil moisture. Through regression analysis we confirmed that temperature is the primary driver in soil respiration, but soil moisture becomes dominant beyond a certain threshold, suppressing CO2 flux in soils with high moisture content. This field study supports the conclusions made from previous soil incubation studies and provides valuable insights into the impact of both temperature and soil moisture changes on soil respiration.

  6. Thresholds and interactive effects of soil moisture on the temperature response of soil respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lellei-Kovács, Eszter; Kovács-Láng, Edit; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    efflux is soil temperature, while soil moisture has less, although significant effect on soil respiration. Clear thresholds for moisture effects on temperature sensitivity were identified at 0.6, 4.0 and 7.0vol% by almost each model, which relate well to other known limits for biological activity......Ecosystem carbon exchange is poorly understood in low-productivity, semiarid habitats. Here we studied the controls of soil temperature and moisture on soil respiration in climate change field experiment in a sandy forest-steppe. Soil CO2 efflux was measured monthly from April to November in 2003......–2008 on plots receiving either rain exclusion or nocturnal warming, or serving as ambient control. Based on this dataset, we developed and compared empirical models of temperature and moisture effects on soil respiration. Results suggest that in this semiarid ecosystem the main controlling factor for soil CO2...

  7. Numerical simulation of transient moisture and temperature distribution in polycarbonate and aluminum electronic enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shojaee Nasirabadi, Parizad; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of developing a reliable electronic product requires huge amounts of resources and knowledge. Temperature and thermal features directly affect the life of electronic products. Furthermore, moisture can be damaging for electronic components. Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics (CF...

  8. Spatial downscaling of SMAP soil moisture using MODIS land surface temperature and NDVI during SMAPVEX15

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) mission provides global surface soil moisture product at 36 km resolution from its L-band radiometer. While the coarse resolution is satisfactory to many applications there are also a lot of applications which would benefit from a higher resolution soil moistu...

  9. Western US high June 2015 temperatures and their relation to global warming and soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sjoukje Y.; Kew, Sarah F.; Hauser, Mathias; Guillod, Benoit P.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Whan, Kirien; Uhe, Peter; Oldenborgh, Geert Jan van

    2018-04-01

    The Western US states Washington (WA), Oregon (OR) and California (CA) experienced extremely high temperatures in June 2015. The temperature anomalies were so extreme that they cannot be explained with global warming alone. We investigate the hypothesis that soil moisture played an important role as well. We use a land surface model and a large ensemble from the weather@home modelling effort to investigate the coupling between soil moisture and temperature in a warming world. Both models show that May was anomalously dry, satisfying a prerequisite for the extreme heat wave, and they indicate that WA and OR are in a wet-to-dry transitional soil moisture regime. We use two different land surface-atmosphere coupling metrics to show that there was strong coupling between temperature, latent heat flux and the effect of soil moisture deficits on the energy balance in June 2015 in WA and OR. June temperature anomalies conditioned on wet/dry conditions show that both the mean and extreme temperatures become hotter for dry soils, especially in WA and OR. Fitting a Gaussian model to temperatures using soil moisture as a covariate shows that the June 2015 temperature values fit well in the extrapolated empirical temperature/drought lines. The high temperature anomalies in WA and OR are thus to be expected, given the dry soil moisture conditions and that those regions are in the transition from a wet to a dry regime. CA is already in the dry regime and therefore the necessity of taking soil moisture into account is of lower importance.

  10. Complex terrain alters temperature and moisture limitations of forest soil respiration across a semiarid to subalpine gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Erin Michele; Barnard, H.R.; Adams, H.R.; Burns, M.A.; Gallo, E.; Brooks, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Forest soil respiration is a major carbon (C) flux that is characterized by significant variability in space and time. We quantified growing season soil respiration during both a drought year and a nondrought year across a complex landscape to identify how landscape and climate interact to control soil respiration. We asked the following questions: (1) How does soil respiration vary across the catchments due to terrain-induced variability in moisture availability and temperature? (2) Does the relative importance of moisture versus temperature limitation of respiration vary across space and time? And (3) what terrain elements are important for dictating the pattern of soil respiration and its controls? Moisture superseded temperature in explaining watershed respiration patterns, with wetter yet cooler areas higher up and on north facing slopes yielding greater soil respiration than lower and south facing areas. Wetter subalpine forests had reduced moisture limitation in favor of greater seasonal temperature limitation, and the reverse was true for low-elevation semiarid forests. Coincident climate poorly predicted soil respiration in the montane transition zone; however, antecedent precipitation from the prior 10 days provided additional explanatory power. A seasonal trend in respiration remained after accounting for microclimate effects, suggesting that local climate alone may not adequately predict seasonal variability in soil respiration in montane forests. Soil respiration climate controls were more strongly related to topography during the drought year highlighting the importance of landscape complexity in ecosystem response to drought.

  11. Dynamics and characteristics of soil temperature and moisture of active layer in central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Hu, G.; Wu, X.; Tian, L.

    2017-12-01

    Research on the hydrothermal properties of active layer during the thawing and freezing processes was considered as a key question to revealing the heat and moisture exchanges between permafrost and atmosphere. The characteristics of freezing and thawing processes at Tanggula (TGL) site in permafrost regions on the Tibetan Plateau, the results revealed that the depth of daily soil temperature transmission was about 40 cm shallower during thawing period than that during the freezing period. Soil warming process at the depth above 140 cm was slower than the cooling process, whereas they were close below 140 cm depth. Moreover, the hydro-thermal properties differed significantly among different stages. Precipitation caused an obviously increase in soil moisture at 0-20 cm depth. The vertical distribution of soil moisture could be divided into two main zones: less than 12% in the freeze state and greater than 12% in the thaw state. In addition, coupling of moisture and heat during the freezing and thawing processes also showed that soil temperature decreased faster than soil moisture during the freezing process. At the freezing stage, soil moisture exhibited an exponential relationship with the absolute soil temperature. Energy consumed for water-ice conversion during the freezing process was 149.83 MJ/m2 and 141.22 MJ/m2 in 2011 and 2012, respectively, which was estimated by the soil moisture variation.

  12. Assimilation of microwave brightness temperatures for soil moisture estimation using particle filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, H Y; Ma, J W; Qin, S X; Zeng, J Y

    2014-01-01

    Soil moisture plays a significant role in global water cycles. Both model simulations and remote sensing observations have their limitations when estimating soil moisture on a large spatial scale. Data assimilation (DA) is a promising tool which can combine model dynamics and remote sensing observations to obtain more precise ground soil moisture distribution. Among various DA methods, the particle filter (PF) can be applied to non-linear and non-Gaussian systems, thus holding great potential for DA. In this study, a data assimilation scheme based on the residual resampling particle filter (RR-PF) was developed to assimilate microwave brightness temperatures into the macro-scale semi-distributed Variance Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model to estimate surface soil moisture. A radiative transfer model (RTM) was used to link brightness temperatures with surface soil moisture. Finally, the data assimilation scheme was validated by experimental data obtained at Arizona during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2004 (SMEX04). The results show that the estimation accuracy of soil moisture can be improved significantly by RR-PF through assimilating microwave brightness temperatures into VIC model. Both the overall trends and specific values of the assimilation results are more consistent with ground observations compared with model simulation results

  13. Effect of temperature and moisture on the mineralization and humification of leaf litter in a model incubation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionova, A. A.; Maltseva, A. N.; Lopes de Gerenyu, V. O.; Kvitkina, A. K.; Bykhovets, S. S.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Kudeyarov, V. N.

    2017-04-01

    The mineralization and humification of leaf litter collected in a mixed forest of the Prioksko-Terrasny Reserve depending on temperature (2, 12, and 22°C) and moisture (15, 30, 70, 100, and 150% of water holding capacity ( WHC)) has been studied in long-term incubation experiments. Mineralization is the most sensitive to temperature changes at the early stage of decomposition; the Q 10 value at the beginning of the experiment (1.5-2.7) is higher than at the later decomposition stages (0.3-1.3). Carbon losses usually exceed nitrogen losses during decomposition. Intensive nitrogen losses are observed only at the high temperature and moisture of litter (22°C and 100% WHC). Humification determined from the accumulation of humic substances in the end of incubation decreases from 34 to 9% with increasing moisture and temperature. The degree of humification CHA/CFA is maximum (1.14) at 12°C and 15% WHC; therefore, these temperature and moisture conditions are considered optimal for humification. Humification calculated from the limit value of litter mineralization is almost independent of temperature, but it significantly decreases from 70 to 3% with increasing moisture. A possible reason for the difference between the humification values measured by two methods is the conservation of a significant part of hemicelluloses, cellulose, and lignin during the transformation of litter and the formation of a complex of humic substances with plant residues, where HSs fulfill a protectoral role and decrease the decomposition rate of plant biopolymers.

  14. Sweet cherry softening accompanied with moisture migration and loss during low-temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Danshi; Liang, Jieyu; Liu, He; Cao, Xuehui; Ge, Yonghong; Li, Jianrong

    2017-12-18

    Hardness is one of the important qualities influencing consumer appeal and marketing of fresh sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Moisture loss is one of the main causative factors of cherry softening. In this work, moisture loss and softening process of sweet cherry during postharvest storage at 0 and 4 °C were studied. In addition, low-field 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was used to analyze water distribution and migration in sweet cherry during storage at 4 °C. Moisture content correlated significantly (p Contents of cytoplasmic (p content increased gradually, and then internal damage occurred. Sweet cherry softening closely correlated with moisture loss during low-temperature storage. LF-NMR is a useful technique to investigate moisture migration of fruits and vegetables. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Using Plant Temperature to Evaluate the Response of Stomatal Conductance to Soil Moisture Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Han Yu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant temperature is an indicator of stomatal conductance, which reflects soil moisture stresses. We explored the relationship between plant temperature and soil moisture to optimize irrigation schedules in a water-stress experiment using Firmiana platanifolia (L. f. Marsili in an incubator. Canopy temperature, leaf temperature, and stomatal conductance were measured using thermal imaging and a porometer. The results indicated that (1 stomatal conductance decreased with declines in soil moisture, and reflected average canopy temperature; (2 the variation of the leaf temperature distribution was a reliable indicator of soil moisture stress, and the temperature distribution in severely water-stressed leaves exhibited greater spatial variation than that in the presence of sufficient irrigation; (3 thermal indices (Ig and crop water stress index (CWSI were theoretically proportional to stomatal conductance (gs, Ig was certified to have linearity relationship with gs and CWSI have a logarithmic relationship with gs, and both of the two indices can be used to estimate soil moisture; and (4 thermal imaging data can reflect water status irrespective of long-term water scarcity or lack of sudden rainfall. This study applied thermal imaging methods to monitor plants and develop adaptable irrigation scheduling, which are important for the formulation of effective and economical agriculture and forestry policy.

  16. Reduction of cyanogenic glycosides by extrusion - influence of temperature and moisture content of the processed material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Dušica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhe paper presents results of the investigation of the influence of extrusion temperature and moisture content of treated material on the reduction of cyanogenic glycosides (CGs in linseed-based co-extrudate. CGs are the major limitation of the effective usage of linseed in animal nutrition. Hence, some technological process must be applied for detoxification of linseed before its application as a nutrient. Extrusion process has demonstrated several advantages in reducing the present CGs, since it combines the influences of heating, shearing, high pressure, mixing, etc. According to obtained results, the increase in both temperature and moisture content of the starting mixture decreased the content of CGs in the processed material. HCN content, as a measurement of GCs presence, ranged from 25.42 mg/kg, recorded at the moisture content of 11.5%, to 126 mg/kg, detected at the lowest moisture content of 7%. It seems that moisture content and temperature had the impact on HCN content of equal importance. However, the influence of extrusion parameters other than temperature and moisture content could not be neglected. Therefore, the impact of individual factors has to be tested together. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46012

  17. Incorporation of Passive Microwave Brightness Temperatures in the ECMWF Soil Moisture Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Muñoz-Sabater

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available For more than a decade, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF has used in-situ observations of 2 m temperature and 2 m relative humidity to operationally constrain the temporal evolution of model soil moisture. These observations are not available everywhere and they are indirectly linked to the state of the surface, so under various circumstances, such as weak radiative forcing or strong advection, they cannot be used as a proxy for soil moisture reinitialization in numerical weather prediction. Recently, the ECMWF soil moisture analysis has been updated to be able to account for the information provided by microwave brightness temperatures from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission of the European Space Agency (ESA. This is the first time that ECMWF uses direct information of the soil emission from passive microwave data to globally adjust the estimation of soil moisture by a land-surface model. This paper presents a novel version of the ECMWF Extended Kalman Filter soil moisture analysis to account for remotely sensed passive microwave data. It also discusses the advantages of assimilating direct satellite radiances compared to current soil moisture products, with a view to an operational implementation. A simple assimilation case study at global scale highlights the potential benefits and obstacles of using this new type of information in a global coupled land-atmospheric model.

  18. Equilibrium moisture content of radiata pine at elevated temperature and pressure reveals measurement challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Hamish; Gabbitas, Brian; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2012-01-01

    moisture contents were attributed to condensation of liquid water on the specimen with subsequent evaporation at a rate that was too slow for the moisture content to reach equilibrium before it was measured. Reliable EMC data at elevated temperatures require (1) tight process control of experimental......Relatively few studies have been performed on the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure. Eight studies indicated that EMC near saturation decreased between 100 and 150 °C, whilst five studies indicated that EMC increased. The aim...... of this study was to identify the likely source of the disagreement using radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood which was conditioned to a moisture content of around 3 % and then exposed for 1 h at 150 °C and relative humidities of either 50, 70 or 90 %. Mean values of EMC, obtained through in situ...

  19. Effects of Wax Coating on the Moisture Loss of Cucumbers at Different Storage Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wax coating on moisture loss of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L., cv. Jinglv were investigated at different temperatures. Cucumbers were treated with 10% (volume : volume wax and then stored at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C and 55% relative humidity. The changes in the mass of samples were recorded every 6 h. Results showed that wax coating along with low temperature was very effective in preventing moisture loss of cucumbers during simulated distribution. After 48 h storage, moisture loss in wax treated cucumbers at 15°C was 45% lower than the control at 30°C. Furthermore, a kinetic model was developed to study the influence of temperature on moisture loss based on the Arrhenius law. The model successfully described changes in cucumber moisture loss at different temperatures during storage. The shelf life of cucumber was also predicted using the kinetic model. A synergistic effect was found between wax coating and storage temperature on cucumber shelf life. Wax coating combined with low storage temperature was an effective method to extend the shelf life of cucumber fruit.

  20. Assessment of methane production from shredder waste in landfills: The influence of temperature, moisture and metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi Aghdam, Ehsan; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2017-05-01

    In this study, methane (CH 4 ) production rates from shredder waste (SW) were determined by incubation of waste samples over a period of 230days under different operating conditions, and first-order decay kinetic constants (k-values) were calculated. SW and sterilized SW were incubated under different temperatures (20-25°C, 37°C, and 55°C), moisture contents (35% and 75% w/w) and amounts of inoculum (5% and 30% of the samples wet weight). The biochemical methane potential (BMP) from different types of SW (fresh, old and sieved) was determined and compared. The ability of metals (iron, aluminum, zinc, and copper) contained in SW to provide electrons for methanogens resulting in gas compositions with high CH 4 contents and very low CO 2 contents was investigated. The BMP of SW was 1.5-6.2kg CH 4 /ton waste. The highest BMP was observed in fresh SW samples, while the lowest was observed in sieved samples (fine fraction of SW). Abiotic production of CH 4 was not observed in laboratory incubations. The biotic experiments showed that when the moisture content was 35% w/w and the temperature was 20-25°C, CH 4 production was extremely low. Increasing the temperature from 20-25°C to 37°C resulted in significantly higher CH 4 production while increasing the temperature from 37°C to 55°C resulted in higher CH 4 production, but to a lower extent. Increasing the moisture and inoculum content also increased CH 4 production. The k-values were 0.033-0.075yr -1 at room temperature, 0.220-0.429yr -1 at 37°C and 0.235-0.488yr -1 at 55°C, indicating that higher temperatures resulted in higher k-values. It was observed that H 2 can be produced by biocorrosion of iron, aluminum, and zinc and it was shown that produced H 2 can be utilized by hydrogenotrophic methanogens to convert CO 2 to CH 4 . Addition of iron and copper to SW resulted in inhibition of CH 4 production, while addition of aluminum and zinc resulted in higher CH 4 production. This suggested that aluminum and

  1. The sensitivity of soil respiration to soil temperature, moisture, and carbon supply at the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursh, Andrew; Ballantyne, Ashley; Cooper, Leila; Maneta, Marco; Kimball, John; Watts, Jennifer

    2017-05-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) is a major pathway by which fixed carbon in the biosphere is returned to the atmosphere, yet there are limits to our ability to predict respiration rates using environmental drivers at the global scale. While temperature, moisture, carbon supply, and other site characteristics are known to regulate soil respiration rates at plot scales within certain biomes, quantitative frameworks for evaluating the relative importance of these factors across different biomes and at the global scale require tests of the relationships between field estimates and global climatic data. This study evaluates the factors driving Rs at the global scale by linking global datasets of soil moisture, soil temperature, primary productivity, and soil carbon estimates with observations of annual Rs from the Global Soil Respiration Database (SRDB). We find that calibrating models with parabolic soil moisture functions can improve predictive power over similar models with asymptotic functions of mean annual precipitation. Soil temperature is comparable with previously reported air temperature observations used in predicting Rs and is the dominant driver of Rs in global models; however, within certain biomes soil moisture and soil carbon emerge as dominant predictors of Rs. We identify regions where typical temperature-driven responses are further mediated by soil moisture, precipitation, and carbon supply and regions in which environmental controls on high Rs values are difficult to ascertain due to limited field data. Because soil moisture integrates temperature and precipitation dynamics, it can more directly constrain the heterotrophic component of Rs, but global-scale models tend to smooth its spatial heterogeneity by aggregating factors that increase moisture variability within and across biomes. We compare statistical and mechanistic models that provide independent estimates of global Rs ranging from 83 to 108 Pg yr -1 , but also highlight regions of uncertainty

  2. A new heat and moisture exchanger for laryngectomized patients: endotracheal temperature and humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, R.J.; Muller, S.H.; Vincent, A.; Ackerstaff, A.H.; Jacobi, I.; Hilgers, F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the endotracheal temperature and humidity and clinical effects of 2 models of a new heat and moisture exchanger (HME): Rplus, which has regular breathing resistance, and Lplus, which has lower breathing resistance. Methods: We measured endotracheal temperature and humidity in 10

  3. A new heat and moisture exchanger for laryngectomized patients: endotracheal temperature and humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, Renske J.; Muller, Saar H.; Vincent, Andrew; Ackerstaff, Annemieke H.; Jacobi, Irene; Hilgers, Frans J. M.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the endotracheal temperature and humidity and clinical effects of 2 models of a new heat and moisture exchanger (HME): Rplus, which has regular breathing resistance, and Lplus, which has lower breathing resistance. We measured endotracheal temperature and humidity in 10 laryngectomized

  4. Western US high June 2015 temperatures and their relation to global warming and soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philip, Sjoukje Y.; Kew, Sarah F.; Hauser, Mathias; Guillod, Benoit P.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Whan, Kirien; Uhe, Peter; Oldenborgh, van Geert Jan

    2018-01-01

    The Western US states Washington (WA), Oregon (OR) and California (CA) experienced extremely high temperatures in June 2015. The temperature anomalies were so extreme that they cannot be explained with global warming alone. We investigate the hypothesis that soil moisture played an important role

  5. Tensile behaviour of radiata pine with different moisture contents at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Hamish; Gabbitas, Brian; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2012-01-01

    that moisture and temperature can play a significant role in reducing stress during drying, regardless of the drying time. Properties of wood, such as tensile elastic information at elevated temperatures, are important for mechanical design, distortion modelling and understanding the fundamental behaviour...

  6. Numerical and experimental determination of surface temperature and moisture evolution in a field soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Olukayode D.; Mendes, Nathan

    2007-03-01

    Knowledge about the dynamics of soil moisture and heat, especially at the surface, provides important insights into the physical processes governing their interactions with the atmosphere, thereby improving the understanding of patterns of climate dynamics. In this context the paper presents the numerical and field experimental results of temperature and moisture evolution, which were measured on the surface of a sandy soil at Abeokuta, south-western Nigeria. An unconditionally stable numerical method was used, which linearizes the vapour concentration driving-potential term giving the moisture exchanged at the boundaries in terms of temperature and moisture content, and simultaneously solves the governing equations for each time step. The model avoids stability problems and limitations to low moisture contents and the usual assumption of constant thermal conductivity. Instantaneous temperature measurements were made at the surface using a thermocouple, while the gravimetric method was employed to determine the volumetric water contents at some specific hours of the experimental period. The observed experimental data compared fairly well with the predicted values, with both having correlation coefficients greater than 0.9 and consequently following a common diurnal trend. The sensitivity of the model was very high to the choice of simulation parameters, especially grid size refinement and time step. While the model underestimated the soil moisture content at 6 a.m. and 10 p.m., the measured temperatures were however overestimated. When compared to moisture content, average errors for temperature were low resulting in a minimal absolute difference in amplitude of 0.81 °C.

  7. Equilibrium moisture content of wood at different temperature/moisture conditions in the cladding of wooden constructions and in the relation to their reliability and service life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Havířová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the natural properties of wood and wood-based materials is their soaking capacity (hy­gro­sco­pi­ci­ty. The moisture content of wood and building constructions of wood and wood based materials significantly influences the service life and reliability of these constructions and buildings. The equilibrium weight moisture content of built-in wood corresponding to temperature/moisture conditions inside the cladding has therefore a decisive influence on the basic requirements placed on building constructions. The wood in wooden frame cladding changes its moisture content depending on temperature and moisture conditions of the environment it is built into. The water vapor condensation doesn’t necessarily have to occur right in the wooden framework of the cladding for the equilibrium moisture content to rise over the level permissible for the reliable function of a given construction. In spite of the fact that the common heat-technical assessment cannot be considered fully capable of detecting the effects of these factors on the functional reliability of wood-based constructions and buildings, an extension has been proposed of the present method of design an assessment of building constructions according to the ČSN 73 0540 standard regarding the interpretation of equilibrium moisture content in relation to the temperature/moisture conditions and their time behavior inside a construction.

  8. Separating heat stress from moisture stress: analyzing yield response to high temperature in irrigated maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth K.; Melkonian, Jeff; Riha, Susan J.; Shaw, Stephen B.

    2016-09-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that high air temperatures are limiting maize (Zea mays L.) yields in the US Corn Belt and project significant yield losses with expected increases in growing season temperatures. Further work has suggested that high air temperatures are indicative of high evaporative demand, and that decreases in maize yields which correlate to high temperatures and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) likely reflect underlying soil moisture limitations. It remains unclear whether direct high temperature impacts on yields, independent of moisture stress, can be observed under current temperature regimes. Given that projected high temperature and moisture may not co-vary the same way as they have historically, quantitative analyzes of direct temperature impacts are critical for accurate yield projections and targeted mitigation strategies under shifting temperature regimes. To evaluate yield response to above optimum temperatures independent of soil moisture stress, we analyzed climate impacts on irrigated maize yields obtained from the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) corn yield contests for Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri. In irrigated maize, we found no evidence of a direct negative impact on yield by daytime air temperature, calculated canopy temperature, or VPD when analyzed seasonally. Solar radiation was the primary yield-limiting climate variable. Our analyses suggested that elevated night temperature impacted yield by increasing rates of phenological development. High temperatures during grain-fill significantly interacted with yields, but this effect was often beneficial and included evidence of acquired thermo-tolerance. Furthermore, genetics and management—information uniquely available in the NCGA contest data—explained more yield variability than climate, and significantly modified crop response to climate. Thermo-acclimation, improved genetics and changes to management practices have the potential to partially or completely

  9. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON GRAIN MOISTURE, GERMINATION AND VIGOUR OF THREE WHEAT CULTIVARS DURING ONE YEAR STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Strelec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in grain moisture, germination and vigour of three wheat cultivars packed in paper bags and stored for one year under four different conditions of environmental temperature and relative humidity (RH were investigated. During the first ninety days of storage significant reduction in grain moisture content of 4, 2.5 and 0.9 %, respectively, under 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C and RH of 45 % occurred. Subsequently grain moisture remained constant until the end of storage. Seeds of examined cultivars lost their germination ability and vigour only under elevated storage temperatures. Germination and vigour loss after one year of storage differed between cultivars being higher for seeds kept under 40°C, RH = 45% (35-85 % and 55-94 %, respectively, than under 25°C, RH = 45 % (10-20 % and 15-22 %, respectively. Obtained data indicate significant influence of storage conditions on moisture content, germination and vigour changes during storage of wheat seeds, as well as varietal dependence of seed viability.

  10. Quantifying the effects of soil temperature, moisture and sterilization on elemental mercury formation in boreal soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannu, Ravinder; Siciliano, Steven D; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2014-10-01

    Soils are a source of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) to the atmosphere, however the effects of soil temperature and moisture on Hg(0) formation is not well defined. This research quantifies the effect of varying soil temperature (278-303 K), moisture (15-80% water filled pore space (WFPS)) and sterilization on the kinetics of Hg(0) formation in forested soils of Nova Scotia, Canada. Both, the logarithm of cumulative mass of Hg(0) formed in soils and the reduction rate constants (k values) increased with temperature and moisture respectively. Sterilizing soils significantly (p soils and our results highlight two key processes: (i) a fast abiotic process that peaks at 45% WFPS and depletes a small pool of Hg(0) and; (ii) a slower, rate limiting biotic process that generates a large pool of reducible Hg(II). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Induction of enhanced methane oxidation in compost: Temperature and moisture response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mor, Suman; Visscher, Alex de; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Dahiya, R.P.; Chandra, A.; Cleemput, Oswald van

    2006-01-01

    Landfilling is one of the most common ways of municipal solid waste disposal. Degradation of organic waste produces CH 4 and other landfill gases that significantly contribute to global warming. However, before entering the atmosphere, part of the produced CH 4 can be oxidised while passing through the landfill cover. In the present study, the oxidation rate of CH 4 was studied with various types of compost as possible landfill cover. The influence of incubation time, moisture content and temperature on the CH 4 oxidation capacity of different types of compost was examined. It was observed that the influence of moisture content and temperature on methane oxidation is time-dependent. Maximum oxidation rates were observed at moisture contents ranging from 45% to 110% (dry weight basis), while the optimum temperature ranged from 15 to 30 deg. C

  12. Prediction of moisture migration and pore pressure build-up in concrete at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.; England, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of moisture migration and pore pressure build-up in non-uniformly heated concrete is important for safe operation of concrete containment vessels in nuclear power reactors and for assessing the behaviour of fire-exposed concrete structures. (1) Changes in moisture content distribution in a concrete containment vessel during long-term operation should be investigated, since the durability and radiation shielding ability of concrete are strongly influenced by its moisture content. (2) The pressure build-up in a concrete containment vessel in a postulated accident should be evaluated in order to determine whether a venting system is necessary between liner and concrete to relieve the pore pressure. (3) When concrete is subjected to rapid heating during a fire, the concrete can suffer from spalling due to pressure build-up in the concrete pores. This paper presents a mathematical and computational model for predicting changes in temperature, moisture content and pore pressure in concrete at elevated temperatures. A pair of differential equations for one-dimensional heat and moisture transfer in concrete are derived from the conservation of energy and mass, and take into account the temperature-dependent release of gel water and chemically bound water due to dehydration. These equations are numerically solved by the finite difference method. In the numerical analysis, the pressure, density and dynamic viscosity of water in the concrete pores are calculated explicitly from a set of formulated equations. The numerical analysis results are compared with two different sets of experimental data: (a) long-term (531 days) moisture migration test under a steady-state temperature of 200 deg. C, and (b) short-term (114 min) pressure build-up test under transient heating. These experiments were performed to investigate the moisture migration and pressure build-up in the concrete wall of a reactor containment vessel at high temperatures. The former experiment simulated

  13. Heat and moisture flow in concrete as a function of temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundt, J.

    1978-01-01

    Due to temperature, reactors in operation cause heat and moisture flows in the thick walled prestressed pressure vessels. These flows were studied in three beams of concrete made with crushed limestone aggregate, and in three beams made of crushed gravel/sand aggregate. The flow phenomena were related to the structural development of the concrete by determining the amount of non-evaporatable water, the total porosity, and the pore size distribution. Local temperature and moisture conditions also influenced the technical properties. Compressive strength, changes in length due to shrinkage and contraction, thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity were determined.

  14. Soil moisture and temperature profile effects on microwave emission at low frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, S.; Chanzy, A.; Wigneron, J.P.; Calvet, J.C.; Kerr, Y.; Laguerre, L.

    1995-01-01

    Soil moisture and temperature vertical profiles vary quickly during the day and may have a significant influence on the soil microwave emission. The objective of this work is to quantify such an influence and the consequences in soil moisture estimation from microwave radiometric information. The analysis is based on experimental data collected by the ground-based PORTOS radiometer at 1.4, 5.05, and 10.65 GHz and data simulated by a coherent model of microwave emission from layered media [Wilheit model (1978)]. In order to simulate diurnal variations of the brightness temperature (TB), the Wilheit model is coupled to a mechanistic model of heat and water flows in the soil. The Wilheit model is validated on experimental data and its performances for estimating TB are compared to those of a simpler approach based on a description of the soil media as a single layer (Fresnel model). When the depth of this single layer (hereafter referred to as the sampling depth) is determined to fit the experimental data, similar accuracy in TB estimation is found with both the Wilheit and Fresnel models. The soil microwave emission is found to be strongly affected by the diurnal variations of soil moisture and temperature profiles. Consequently, the TB sensitivity to soil moisture and temperature profiles has an influence on the estimation, from microwave observations, of the surface soil moisture in a surface layer with a fixed depth (05): the accuracy of θs retrievals and the optimal sampling depth depends both on the variation in soil moisture and temperature profile shape. (author)

  15. Application of Modular Modeling System to Predict Evaporation, Infiltration, Air Temperature, and Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Johnny; Birgan, Latricia J.; Tsegaye, Teferi; Coleman, Tommy; Soman, Vishwas

    1997-01-01

    Models are used for numerous application including hydrology. The Modular Modeling System (MMS) is one of the few that can simulate a hydrology process. MMS was tested and used to compare infiltration, soil moisture, daily temperature, and potential and actual evaporation for the Elinsboro sandy loam soil and the Mattapex silty loam soil in the Microwave Radiometer Experiment of Soil Moisture Sensing at Beltsville Agriculture Research Test Site in Maryland. An input file for each location was created to nut the model. Graphs were plotted, and it was observed that the model gave a good representation for evaporation for both plots. In comparing the two plots, it was noted that infiltration and soil moisture tend to peak around the same time, temperature peaks in July and August and the peak evaporation was observed on September 15 and July 4 for the Elinsboro Mattapex plot respectively. MMS can be used successfully to predict hydrological processes as long as the proper input parameters are available.

  16. Low-temperature conversion of high-moisture biomass: Topical report, January 1984--January 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Elliott, D.C.; Butner, R.S.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

    1988-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a low-temperature, catalytic process that converts high-moisture biomass feedstocks and other wet organic substances to useful gaseous and liquid fuels. The advantage of this process is that it works without the need for drying or dewatering the feedstock. Conventional thermal gasification processes, which require temperatures above 750/degree/C and air or oxygen for combustion to supply reaction heat, generally cannot utilize feedstocks with moisture contents above 50 wt %, as the conversion efficiency is greatly reduced as a result of the drying step. For this reason, anaerobic digestion or other bioconversion processes traditionally have been used for gasification of high-moisture feedstocks. However, these processes suffer from slow reaction rates and incomplete carbon conversion. 50 refs., 21 figs., 22 tabs.

  17. Inverse method to estimate kinetic degradation parameters of grape anthocyanins in wheat flour under simultaneously changing temperature and moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K P K; Dolan, K D; Ng, P K W

    2009-06-01

    Thermal and moisture effects on grape anthocyanin degradation were investigated using solid media to simulate processing at temperatures above 100 degrees C. Grape pomace (anthocyanin source) mixed with wheat pastry flour (1: 3, w/w dry basis) was used in both isothermal and nonisothermal experiments by heating the same mixture at 43% (db) initial moisture in steel cells in an oil bath at 80, 105, and 145 degrees C. To determine the effect of moisture on anthocyanin degradation, the grape pomace-wheat flour mixture was heated isothermally at 80 degrees C at constant moisture contents of 10%, 20%, and 43% (db). Anthocyanin degradation followed a pseudo first-order reaction with moisture. Anthocyanins degraded more rapidly with increasing temperature and moisture. The effects of temperature and moisture on the rate constant were modeled according to the Arrhenius and an exponential relationship, respectively. The nonisothermal reaction rate constant and activation energy (mean +/- standard error) were k(80 degrees C, 43% (db) moisture) = 2.81 x 10(-4)+/- 1.1 x 10(-6) s(-1) and DeltaE = 75273 +/- 197 J/g mol, respectively. The moisture parameter for the exponential model was 4.28 (dry basis moisture content)(-1). One possible application of this study is as a tool to predict the loss of anthocyanins in nutraceutical products containing grape pomace. For example, if the process temperature history and moisture history in an extruded snack fortified with grape pomace is known, the percentage anthocyanin loss can be predicted.

  18. The effect of seed moisture and temperature on grinding characteristics of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassoon Waleed Hameed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd is a native food plant of the Andean region of South America. Quinoa seeds have remarkable nutritional properties, not only from its high protein content, but also from its good amino acid balance. The aim of the study was evaluate the influence of quinoa seed moisture content (10, 12, 14, 16 and 18% and temperature (-20, 3, 20 and 40°C, with the initial grain moisture content of 10.5% on grinding process. Especially the particle size distributions and grinding energy indices were determined. The results showed that the increase of seed moisture content from 10 to 16% caused an increase the specific grinding energy from 6.9 to 8.3 kJ·kg-1, beside of this as the moisture increased the average particle also increased. The highest changes were observed in the fraction of coarse particles (above 1.0 mm. Interestingly, the mass fraction of fine particles (below 0.2 mm also increased. Other grinding indices also confirmed an increase the grinding energy requirements with the increase seed moisture content. The temperature of seed has little influence on quinoa grinding process. The highest grinding energy requirements were observed when the frozen seeds were ground.

  19. The influence of temperature and moisture contents regimes on the aerobic microbial activity of a biosolids composting blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C; Das, K C; McClendon, R W

    2003-01-01

    To understand the relationships between temperature, moisture content, and microbial activity during the composting of biosolids (municipal wastewater treatment sludge), well-controlled incubation experiments were conducted using a 2-factor factorial design with six temperatures (22, 29, 36, 43, 50, and 57 degrees C) and five moisture contents (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70%). The microbial activity was measured as O2 uptake rate (mg g(-1) h(-1)) using a computer controlled respirometer. In this study, moisture content proved to be a dominant factor impacting aerobic microbial activity of the composting blend. Fifty percent moisture content appeared to be the minimal requirement for obtaining activities greater than 1.0 mg g(-1) h(-1). Temperature was also documented to be an important factor for biosolids composting. However, its effect was less influential than moisture content. Particularly, the enhancement of composting activities induced by temperature increment could be realized by increasing moisture content alone.

  20. Effect of moisture content and temperature on thermal behaviour of sesame seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Hassan Miraei ASHTIANI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The specific heat, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of two varieties (white and brown of sesame seeds were evaluated as a function of moisture content and temperature. The experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 25-70˚C and the moisture content range of 3.86-19.83% (dry basis for white and 3.07-18.99% (dry basis for brown varieties. The specific heat of white and brown sesame seeds ranged 1062-3058 and 906-2958 J/(kg·˚C, respectively. Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity values also increased with increasing either moisture content or temperature. Thermal diffusivity varied between 4.66×10-8 and 8.59×10-8 m2/s for white and 4.36×10-8-8.08×10-8 m2/s for brown varieties. Thermal conductivity ranged 0.031-0.149 and 0.023-0.135 W/(m·˚C for white and brown varieties, respectively. Results showed that the moisture content and temperature had significant effects (p≤0.01 on the studied properties.

  1. THE EFFECT OF ACTIVATED CARBON SURFACE MOISTURE ON LOW TEMPERATURE MERCURY ADSORPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments with elemental mercury (Hg0) adsorption by activated carbons were performed using a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor at room temperature (27 degrees C) to determine the role of surface moisture in capturing Hg0. A bituminous-coal-based activated carbon (BPL) and an activ...

  2. Effects of temperature, moisture and soil type on seedling emergence and mortality of riparian plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Heerdt, Gerard N. J.; Veen, Ciska G.F.; van der Putten, Wim H.; Bakker, Jan P.

    Restoration of riparian plant communities on bare soil requires germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, species that are present in the soil seed bank do not always establish in the vegetation. Temperature, moisture conditions and soil type could play a major role in the

  3. Assessment of methane production from shredder waste in landfills: The influence of temperature, moisture and metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi Aghdam, Ehsan; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    different temperatures (20-25°C, 37°C, and 55°C), moisture contents (35% and 75% w/w) and amounts of inoculum (5% and 30% of the samples wet weight). The biochemical methane potential (BMP) from different types of SW (fresh, old and sieved) was determined and compared. The ability of metals (iron, aluminum...

  4. Effects of temperature, moisture and soil type on seedling emergence and mortality of riparian plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerdt, ter Gerard N.J.; Veen, Ciska G.F.; Putten, van der Wim H.; Bakker, Jan P.

    2017-01-01

    Restoration of riparian plant communities on bare soil requires germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, species that are present in the soil seed bank do not always establish in the vegetation. Temperature, moisture conditions and soil type could play a major role in the

  5. Effects of temperature, moisture and soil type on seedling emergence and mortality of riparian plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Heerdt, Gerard N.J.; Veen, G.F.; Van der Putten, Wim H.; Bakker, Jan P.

    Abstract Restoration of riparian plant communities on bare soil requires germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, species that are present in the soil seed bank do not always establish in the vegetation. Temperature, moisture conditions and soil type could play a major role in

  6. Assesment of a soil moisture retrieval with numerical weather prediction model temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of using a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) soil temperature product instead of estimates provided by concurrent 37 GHz data on satellite-based passive microwave retrieval of soil moisture retrieval was evaluated. This was prompted by the change in system configuration of preceding mult...

  7. Tensile creep and recovery of Norway spruce influenced by temperature and moisture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang; Salmén, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    of these two climatic factors on TDMB of wood. It was found that the mechanical response of wood tissue is the sum of responses from both tracheids and middle lamella, with only the previous being reversible. The effect of moisture and temperature differed in that the latter affected the elastic and time...

  8. Shrub encroachment alters sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature and moisture 2115

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrub encroachment into grasslands creates a mosaic of different soil microsites ranging from open spaces to well-developed shrub canopies, and it is unclear how this affects the spatial variability in soil respiration characteristics, such as the sensitivity to soil temperature and moisture. This i...

  9. The interactive effects of temperature and moisture on nitrogen fixation in two temperate-arctic mosses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Pedersen, Pia Agerlund; Dyrnum, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    fixation in mosses under controlled conditions have rarely been investigated separately, rendering the interactive effects of the two climatic factors on N2 fixation unknown. Here, we tested the interactive effects of temperature and moisture on N2 fixation in the two most dominant moss species...

  10. Moisture effects on temperature sensitivity of CO2 exchange in a subarctic heath ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Lotte; Christensen, TR; Mastepanov, M

    2004-01-01

    Carbon fluxes between natural ecosystems and the atmosphere have received increased attention in recent years due to the impact they have on climate. In order to investigate independently how soil moisture and temperature control carbon fluxes into and out of a dry subarctic dwarf shrub dominated...

  11. Soil moisture effects on seasonal temperature and precipitation forecast scores in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurk, Bart van den; Camargo, Helio [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, KNMI, PO Box 201, AE De Bilt (Netherlands); Doblas-Reyes, Francisco [Catalan Institute of Climate Sciences (IC3), Barcelona (Spain); European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Reading (United Kingdom); Balsamo, Gianpaolo [European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Reading (United Kingdom); Koster, Randal D. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Seneviratne, Sonia I. [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-01-15

    The Second Global Land Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE2) is designed to explore the improvement of forecast skill of summertime temperature and precipitation up to 8 weeks ahead by using realistic soil moisture initialization. For the European continent, we show in this study that for temperature the skill does indeed increase up to 6 weeks, but areas with (statistically significant) lower skill also exist at longer lead times. The skill improvement is smaller than shown earlier for the US, partly because of a lower potential predictability of the European climate at seasonal time scales. Selection of extreme soil moisture conditions or a subset of models with similar initial soil moisture conditions does improve the forecast skill, and sporadic positive effects are also demonstrated for precipitation. Using realistic initial soil moisture data increases the interannual variability of temperature compared to the control simulations in the South-Central European area at longer lead times. This leads to better temperature forecasts in a remote area in Western Europe. However, the covered range of forecast dates (1986-1995) is too short to isolate a clear physical mechanism for this remote correlation. (orig.)

  12. Equilibrium moisture content of wood at different temperature/moisture conditions in the cladding of wooden constructions and in the relation to their reliability and service life

    OpenAIRE

    Zdeňka Havířová; Pavel Kubů

    2010-01-01

    One of the natural properties of wood and wood-based materials is their soaking capacity (hy­gro­sco­pi­ci­ty). The moisture content of wood and building constructions of wood and wood based materials significantly influences the service life and reliability of these constructions and buildings. The equilibrium weight moisture content of built-in wood corresponding to temperature/moisture conditions inside the cladding has therefore a decisive influence on the basic requirements placed on bui...

  13. Implementation of Fully Coupled Heat and Mass Transport Model to Determine Temperature and Moisture State at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecenko, R.; Hozjan, Tomaz; Svensson, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present precise numerical formulation to determine temperature and moisture state of timber in the situation prior pyrolysis. The strong formulations needed for an accurate description of the physics are presented and discussed as well as their coupling terms. From...

  14. Mapping Surface Heat Fluxes by Assimilating SMAP Soil Moisture and GOES Land Surface Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Steele-Dunne, Susan C.; Farhadi, Leila; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-12-01

    Surface heat fluxes play a crucial role in the surface energy and water balance. In situ measurements are costly and difficult, and large-scale flux mapping is hindered by surface heterogeneity. Previous studies have demonstrated that surface heat fluxes can be estimated by assimilating land surface temperature (LST) and soil moisture to determine two key parameters: a neutral bulk heat transfer coefficient (CHN) and an evaporative fraction (EF). Here a methodology is proposed to estimate surface heat fluxes by assimilating Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil moisture data and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) LST data into a dual-source (DS) model using a hybrid particle assimilation strategy. SMAP soil moisture data are assimilated using a particle filter (PF), and GOES LST data are assimilated using an adaptive particle batch smoother (APBS) to account for the large gap in the spatial and temporal resolution. The methodology is implemented in an area in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. Assessment against in situ observations suggests that soil moisture and LST estimates are in better agreement with observations after assimilation. The RMSD for 30 min (daytime) flux estimates is reduced by 6.3% (8.7%) and 31.6% (37%) for H and LE on average. Comparison against a LST-only and a soil moisture-only assimilation case suggests that despite the coarse resolution, assimilating SMAP soil moisture data is not only beneficial but also crucial for successful and robust flux estimation, particularly when the uncertainties in the model estimates are large.

  15. Assimilation of SMOS Brightness Temperatures or Soil Moisture Retrievals into a Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2016-01-01

    Three different data products from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission are assimilated separately into the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) to improve estimates of surface and root-zone soil moisture. The first product consists of multi-angle, dual-polarization brightness temperature (Tb) observations at the bottom of the atmosphere extracted from Level 1 data. The second product is a derived SMOS Tb product that mimics the data at a 40 degree incidence angle from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. The third product is the operational SMOS Level 2 surface soil moisture (SM) retrieval product. The assimilation system uses a spatially distributed ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with seasonally varying climatological bias mitigation for Tb assimilation, whereas a time-invariant cumulative density function matching is used for SM retrieval assimilation. All assimilation experiments improve the soil moisture estimates compared to model-only simulations in terms of unbiased root-mean-square differences and anomaly correlations during the period from 1 July 2010 to 1 May 2015 and for 187 sites across the US. Especially in areas where the satellite data are most sensitive to surface soil moisture, large skill improvements (e.g., an increase in the anomaly correlation by 0.1) are found in the surface soil moisture. The domain-average surface and root-zone skill metrics are similar among the various assimilation experiments, but large differences in skill are found locally. The observation-minus-forecast residuals and analysis increments reveal large differences in how the observations add value in the Tb and SM retrieval assimilation systems. The distinct patterns of these diagnostics in the two systems reflect observation and model errors patterns that are not well captured in the assigned EnKF error parameters. Consequently, a localized optimization of the EnKF error parameters is needed to further improve Tb or SM retrieval

  16. Frequency, moisture content, and temperature dependent dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with radio-frequency/microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuozhuo; Guo, Wenchuan

    2017-08-24

    To develop advanced drying methods using radio-frequency (RF) or microwave (MW) energy, dielectric properties of potato starch were determined using an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer at frequencies between 20 and 4,500 MHz, moisture contents between 15.1% and 43.1% wet basis (w.b.), and temperatures between 25 and 75 °C. The results showed that both dielectric constant (ε') and loss factor (ε″) were dependent on frequency, moisture content, and temperature. ε' decreased with increasing frequency at a given moisture content or temperature. At low moisture contents (≤25.4% w.b.) or low temperatures (≤45 °C), ε″ increased with increasing frequency. However, ε″ changed from decrease to increase with increasing frequency at high moisture contents or temperatures. At low temperatures (25-35 °C), both ε' and ε″ increased with increasing moisture content. At low moisture contents (15.1-19.5% w.b.), they increased with increasing temperature. The change trends of ε' and ε″ were different and dependent on temperature and moisture content at their high levels. The penetration depth (d p ) decreased with increasing frequency. RF treatments may provide potential large-scale industrial drying application for potato starch. This research offers useful information on dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with electromagnetic energy.

  17. Measured temperature and moisture conditions in the roof attic of a one-and-a-half story house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Morelli, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Temperature and moisture measurements were made in a ventilated attic on a house with 200 mm mineral wool insulation. The measurements showed that 1) solar radiation had a great effect on the temperature in the attic; 2) moisture content reached a level below the risk of mold formation – no mold ...

  18. The Effects of Soil Type, Particle Size, Temperature, and Moisture on Reproduction of Belonolaimus longicaudatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, R T; Barker, K R

    1974-01-01

    Effects of soil type, particle size, temperature, and moisture on the reproduction of Belonolaimus longicaudatus were investigated under greenhouse conditions. Nematode increases occurred only in soils with a minimum of 80% sand and a maximum of 10% clay. Optimum soil particle size for reproduction of the Tarboro, N.C. and Tifton, Ga. populations of the nematode was near that of 120-370 mum (65-mesh) silica sand. Reproduction was greatest at 25-30 C. Some reproduction by the Tifton, Ga. population occurred at 35 C, whereas the Tarboro, N.C. population declined, as compared to the initial inoculum. Both populations reproduced slightly at 20 C. Nematode reproduction was greater at a moisture level of 7% than at a high of 30% or a low of 2%. Reproduction occurred at the high moisture level only when the nutrient solution was aerated.

  19. Recovery benefits of using a heat and moisture exchange mask during sprint exercise in cold temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, John G; Frost, Jeremy; St Cyr, John A

    2017-01-01

    Breathing cold air can lead to bronchoconstriction and peripheral vasoconstriction, both of which could impact muscular performance by affecting metabolic demands during exercise. Successful solutions dealing with these physiological changes during exercise in the cold has been lacking; therefore, we investigated the influence of a heat and moisture exchange mask during exercise in the cold. There were three trial arms within this study: wearing the heat and moisture exchange mask during the rest periods in the cold, no-mask application during the rest periods in the cold, and a trial at room temperature (22°C). Eight subjects cycled in four 35 kJ sprint sessions with each session separated by 20 min rest period. Workload was 4% of body mass. Mean sprint times were faster with heat and moisture exchange mask and room temperature trial than cold, no-mask trial (133.8 ± 8.6, 134.9 ± 8.8, and 138.0 ± 8.4 s (p = 0.001)). Systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were greater during the cold trial with no mask (15% and 13%, respectively), and heart rate was 10 bpm less during the third rest or recovery period during cold, no mask compared to the heat and moisture exchange mask and room temperature trials. Subjects demonstrated significant decreases in vital capacity and peak expiratory flow rate during the cold with no mask applied during the rest periods. These negative responses to cold exposure were alleviated by the use of a heat and moisture exchange mask worn during the rest intervals by minimizing cold-induced temperature stress on the respiratory system with subsequent maintenance of cardiovascular function.

  20. Temperature and moisture content effects on compressive strength parallel to the grain of paricá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jesús Manríquez Figueroa

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the temperature and moisture content on the compressive strength parallel to the grain of paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke from cultivated forests. The experiments were carried out on 3 timber samples under different conditions: heated (HT, thermal treatment (TT and water saturated (WS. The HT sample consisted of 105 clear specimens assembled in 15 groups, the TT consisted of 90 clear specimens assembled in 15 groups and the WS consisted of 90 clear specimens assembled in 9 groups. The specimens from HT and WS samples were tested at a temperature range from 20 to 230 ºC and 20 to 100 ºC, respectively. The HT specimens were tested at ambient temperature, but after being submitted to thermal treatment. The HT, TT and WS samples present a decrease in the compressive strength, reaching 65%, 76% and 59% of the compressive strength at room temperature, respectively. The decrease in the compressive strength of the HT and WS samples can be associated to the thermal degradation of wood polymers and the moisture content. For the TT sample, the strength increased for a pre-heating temperature of up to 170 °C due to the reduction in the moisture content of the specimens.

  1. Moisture migration and shrinkage of hardened cement paste at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numao, Tatsuya; Mihashi, Hirozo.

    1991-01-01

    The drying shrinkage of concrete is caused by the loss of water in the concrete. The moisture diffusion behavior influences the mechanical properties of concrete. When concrete is exposed to high temperature, the rate of moisture migration becomes fast, and moisture gradient is formed. This gradient causes cracks on the concrete surface. Accordingly, it is important to study on the relation between the drying shrinkage and the water diffusion in concrete when its mechanical properties at elevated temperature are discussed. In this paper, the results of the experiment which was carried out by using thin-walled cylinder specimens kept at different temperature and stress are reported. The specimens, the drying shrinkage of concrete and acoustic emission (AE), the thermal expansion of hardened cement paste, the influence that temperature change exerted to the drying shrinkage, and the influence that compressive stress and temperature exerted to water migration are described. The thin-walled cylinder specimens were useful for these experimental studies. (K.I.)

  2. Forest litter crickets prefer higher substrate moisture for oviposition: Evidence from field and lab experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias-Martins, Fernando; Sperber, Carlos Frankl; Albeny-Simões, Daniel; Breaux, Jennifer Ann; Fianco, Marcos; Szinwelski, Neucir

    2017-01-01

    For insects, choosing a favorable oviposition site is a type of parental care, as far as it increases the fitness of its offspring. Niche theory predicts that crickets should show a bell-shaped oviposition response to substrate moisture. However, lab experiments with mole crickets showed a linear oviposition response to substrate moisture. Studies with the house cricket Acheta domesticus also showed a linear juvenile body growth response to water availability, thus adult ovipositing females should respond positively to substrate moisture. We used a field experiment to evaluate the relationship between oviposition preference and substrate moisture in forest litter-dwelling cricket species. We also evaluated oviposition responses to substrate moisture level in Ubiquepuella telytokous, the most abundant litter cricket species in our study area, using a laboratory study. We offered cotton substrate for oviposition which varied in substrate moisture level from zero (i.e., dry) to maximum water absorption capacity. We used two complementary metrics to evaluate oviposition preference: (i) presence or absence of eggs in each sampling unit as binary response variable, and (ii) number of eggs oviposited per sampling unit as count response variable. To test for non-linear responses, we adjusted generalized additive models (GAMM) with mixed effects. We found that both cricket oviposition probability and effort (i.e., number of eggs laid) increased linearly with substrate moisture in the field experiment, and for U. telytokous in the lab experiment. We discarded any non-linear responses. Our results demonstrate the importance of substrate moisture as an ecological niche dimension for litter crickets. This work bolsters knowledge of litter cricket life history association with moisture, and suggests that litter crickets may be particularly threatened by changes in climate that favor habitat drying.

  3. Distribution of temperature and moisture content fields in a rectangular beet pulp particle during convection drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model describing distribution of fields of temperatures and moisture contents in a particle of a squared beet press at convective drying is given. As the initial equations the differential equations of material and thermal balances in which transfer of warmth and weight is caused by phase transformations have been accepted. The algorithm of the numerical solution of a non-stationary regional problem of heat conductivity with variable heat and mass transfer coefficients of the dried-up product, boundary and entry conditions and also phase transition with mobile limit of the section of phases is developed for the solution of mathematical model. At the same time the initial system of the equations is given to a dimensionless look. For the solution of a problem of non-stationary heat conductivity the zone method of calculation of temperature fields when drying a beet press is used. Process of drying broke into some time intervals. Within each interval geometrical form of a particle, its density, heatphysical and mass-exchanged characteristics; initial distribution of temperature and moisture content on particle volume and also density of a mass and thermal stream with the evaporated moisture are constant. The zone method of the solution of a problem of the non-stationary three-dimensional equation of heat conductivity for a parallelepiped taking into account internal sources of warmth has been checked on experimental data of stationary drying of a beet press with use of basic data. For realization of a zone method dependences of change of the linear size of a particle of a beet press on spatial coordinate x and its moisture content in the course of drying are received. At constant values of moisture content and the sizes of the party of the dried-up particle on each step the method of a machine experiment has found the current values of coefficient of phase transformation on condition of the maximum rapprochement of settlement and

  4. Reaction of LiD with moisture by temperature programmed reaction (TPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, L N; Balooch, M; Cecala, C M; Leckey, J H

    2000-01-01

    The temperature programmed reaction technique was performed on LiOH powders and LiD single crystals previously exposed to different moisture levels. Our results show that the LiOH decomposition process has an activation energy barrier of 30 to 33.1 kcal/mol. The LiOH structure is stable at 320 K for 100 years. However, LiOH structures formed on the surface of LiD during moisture exposure at low dosages may have multiple activation energy barriers, some of which may be much lower than 30 kcal/mol. We attribute the lowering of the activation energy barrier for the LiOH decomposition to the existence of dangling bonds, cracks, and other long range disorders in the LiOH structures formed at low levels of moisture exposure. These defective LiOH structures may decompose significantly over the next 100 years of storage even at room temperature. At high moisture exposure levels, LiOH.H 2 O formation is observed. The release of H 2 O molecules from LiOH.H 2 O structure has small activation energy barriers in the range of 13.8 kcal/mol to 16.0 kcal/mol. The loosely bonded H 2 O molecules in the LiOH.H 2 O structure can be easily pumped away at room temperature in a reasonable amount of time. Our experiments also suggest that handling LiD single crystals at an elevated temperature of 340 K or more reduces the growth of LiOH and LiOH.H 2 O significantly

  5. Dependence of Soil Respiration on Soil Temperature and Soil Moisture in Successional Forests in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Li Tang; Guo-Yi Zhou; Shu-Guang Liu; De-Qiang Zhang; Shi-Zhong Liu; Jiong Li; Cun-Yu Zhou

    2006-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variations in soil respiration and its relationship with biophysical factors in forests near the Tropic of Cancer remain highly uncertain. To contribute towards an improvement of actual estimates, soil respiration rates, soil temperature, and soil moisture were measured in three successional subtropical forests at the Dinghushan Nature Reserve (DNR) in southern China from March 2003 to February 2005. The overall objective of the present study was to analyze the temporal variations of soil respiration and its biophysical dependence in these forests. The relationships between biophysical factors and soil respiration rates were compared in successional forests to test the hypothesis that these forests responded similarly to biophysical factors. The seasonality of soil respiration coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with high respiration rates in the hot humid season (April-September) and with low rates in the cool dry season (October-March). Soil respiration measured at these forests showed a clear increasing trend with the progressive succession. Annual mean (± SD) soil respiration rate in the DNR forests was (9.0±4.6) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year, ranging from (6.1±3.2) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in early successional forests to (10.7±4.9) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in advanced successional forests. Soil respiration was correlated with both soil temperature and moisture. The T/M model, where the two biophysical variables are driving factors, accounted for 74%-82% of soil respiration variation in DNR forests. Temperature sensitivity decreased along progressive succession stages, suggesting that advanced-successional forests have a good ability to adjust to temperature. In contrast, moisture increased with progressive succession processes. This increase is caused, in part, by abundant respirators in advanced-successional forest, where more soil moisture is needed to maintain their activities.

  6. Dependence of soil respiration on soil temperature and soil moisture in successional forests in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.-L.; Zhou, G.-Y.; Liu, S.-G.; Zhang, D.-Q.; Liu, S.-Z.; Li, Ji; Zhou, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variations in soil respiration and its relationship with biophysical factors in forests near the Tropic of Cancer remain highly uncertain. To contribute towards an improvement of actual estimates, soil respiration rates, soil temperature, and soil moisture were measured in three successional subtropical forests at the Dinghushan Nature Reserve (DNR) in southern China from March 2003 to February 2005. The overall objective of the present study was to analyze the temporal variations of soil respiration and its biophysical dependence in these forests. The relationships between biophysical factors and soil respiration rates were compared in successional forests to test the hypothesis that these forests responded similarly to biophysical factors. The seasonality of soil respiration coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with high respiration rates in the hot humid season (April-September) and with low rates in the cool dry season (October-March). Soil respiration measured at these forests showed a clear increasing trend with the progressive succession. Annual mean (±SD) soil respiration rate in the DNR forests was (9.0 ± 4.6) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year, ranging from (6.1 ± 3.2) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year in early successional forests to (10.7 ± 4.9) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in advanced successional forests. Soil respiration was correlated with both soil temperature and moisture. The T/M model, where the two biophysical variables are driving factors, accounted for 74%-82% of soil respiration variation in DNR forests. Temperature sensitivity decreased along progressive succession stages, suggesting that advanced-successional forests have a good ability to adjust to temperature. In contrast, moisture increased with progressive succession processes. This increase is caused, in part, by abundant respirators in advanced-successional forest, where more soil moisture is needed to maintain their activities.

  7. An analytical method for determining the temperature dependent moisture diffusivities of pumpkin seeds during drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Ahmet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Trakya, 22030 Edirne (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    This paper presents an analytical method, which determines the moisture diffusion coefficients for the natural and forced convection hot air drying of pumpkin seeds and their temperature dependence. In order to obtain scientific data, the pumpkin seed drying process was investigated under both natural and forced hot air convection regimes. This paper presents the experimental results in which the drying air was heated by solar energy. (author)

  8. Influence of moisture content and temperature on thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of rice flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of four types of rice flours and one type of rice protein were determine at temperatures ranging from 4.8 to 36.8 C, bulk densities 535 to 875.8 kg/m3, and moisture contents 2.6 to 16.7 percent (w.b.), using a KD2 Thermal Properties Analyzer. It was ...

  9. Carbon Dioxide Adsorption by Calcium Zirconate at Higher Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Kale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The CO2 adsorption by calcium zirconate was explored at pre- and post- combustion temperature condition. The several samples of the calcium zirconate were prepared by different methods such as sol-gel, solid-solid fusion, template and micro-emulsion. The samples of the calcium zirconate were characterized by measurement of surface area, alkalinity/acidity, and recording the XRD patterns and SEM images. The CO2 adsorptions by samples of the calcium zirconate were studied in the temperature range 100 to 850 oC and the CO2 adsorptions were observed in the ranges of 6.88 to 40.6 wt % at 600 0C and 8 to 16.82 wt% at in between the temperatures 200 to 300 oC. The effect of Ca/Zr mol ratio in the samples of the calcium zirconate on the CO2 adsorption and alkalinity were discussed. The adsorbed moisture by the samples of the calcium zirconate was found to be useful for the CO2 adsorption. The promoted the samples of the calcium zirconate by K+, Na+, Rb+, Cs+, Ag+ and La3+ showed the increased CO2 adsorption. The exposure time of CO2 on the samples of the calcium zirconate showed the increased CO2 adsorption. The samples of the calcium zirconate were found to be regenerable and reusable several times for the adsorption of CO2 for at the post- and pre-combustion temperature condition. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC Undip. All rights reservedReceived: 23rd June 2012, Revised: 28th August 2012, Accepted: 30th August 2012[How to Cite: K. B. Kale, R. Y. Raskar, V. H. Rane and A. G.  Gaikwad (2012. Carbon Dioxide Adsorption by Calcium Zirconate at Higher Temperature. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (2: 124-136. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3686.124-136] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3686.124-136 ] | View in 

  10. Retrieving Temperature and Moisture Profiles from AERI Radiance Observations. AERIPROF Value-Added Product Technical Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltz, W. F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Howell, H. B. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United; Knuteson, R. O. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Comstock, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mahon, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Turner, D. D. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Smith, W. L. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Woolf, H. M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United; Sivaraman, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halter, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-04-01

    One of the goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to collect a long-term series of radiative and atmospheric state observations to improve the parameterization of these processes in global climate models. The ARM Program intended to move away from the traditional approach of directly measuring profiles of temperature and moisture using radiosondes, which is expensive in terms of expendables and manpower, and develop methods to retrieve these profiles with ground-based remote sensors. The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI), whose radiance data contains information on the vertical distribution of water vapor and temperature, is an integral part of the ARM profiling plan.

  11. Soil Temperature and Moisture Effects on Soil Respiration and Microbial Community Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    Bárcenas-Moreno, G., M. Gómez-Brandón, J. Rousk, and E. Bååth. 2009. Adaptation of soil microbial communities to temperature: Comparison of fungi and...ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 5- 6 ERDC 6.2 Geospatial Research and Engineering (GRE) ARTEMIS TSP-SA Soil Temperature and Moisture Effects on... Soil Respiration and Microbial Community Abundance Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra to ry Robyn A. Barbato

  12. Temperature and moisture regimes in the Enterprise Forest, 1970--1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, T.R.; Buech, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    Within the Enterprise Radiation Forest, measurements of ambient air temperature, humidity, and precipitation were taken from 1970 through 1973. Temperature and moisture stresses that could alter the responses of organisms to gamma radiation were not evident during irradiation (1972) or during the recovery year 1973. Changes in microclimatic regimes as a result of the destruction of vegetation by gamma radiation were also assessed. Although differences in temperature and vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) were small when considering monthly means, mean maximum and mean minimum temperature and standardized plots of mean daily temperature and mean daily VPD indicated greater extremes in the newly created open environment than under the forest canopy. These relationships parallel those reported in comparisons of open environments to forested environments

  13. Mulch and groundcover effects on soil temperature and moisture, surface reflectance, grapevine water potential, and vineyard weed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Bavougian

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to identify alternatives to glyphosate for intra-row (under-trellis vineyard floor management and to evaluate the potential for intra-row and inter-row (alleyway groundcovers to reduce vegetative vigor of ‘Marquette’ grapevines (Vitis spp. in a southeast Nebraska vineyard. The experiment was a randomized factorial design with five intra-row treatments (crushed glass mulch [CG], distillers’ grain mulch [DG], creeping red fescue [CRF], non-sprayed control [NSC], and glyphosate [GLY] and three inter-row treatments (creeping red fescue [CRF], Kentucky bluegrass [KB], and resident vegetation [RV]. Treatments were established in 2010–2011 and measurements were conducted during 2012 and 2013 on 5- and 6-year-old vines. Soil temperatures were mostly higher under mulches and lower under intra-row groundcovers, compared to GLY. Weed cover in CG, DG, and CRF treatments was the same or less than GLY. At most sampling dates, inter-row soil moisture was lowest under KB. Intra-row soil moisture was highest under DG mulch and lowest under CRF and NSC; CG had the same or lower soil moisture than GLY. Surprisingly, we did not detect differences in mid-day photosynthetically active radiation (PAR reflectance, despite visual differences among the intra-row treatments. Mid-day vine water potential did not differ among treatments. We concluded it is not necessary to maintain a bare soil strip under established vines in this region, where soil fertility and moisture are non-limiting.

  14. Space-Time Dynamics of Soil Moisture and Temperature: Scale issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Binayak P.; Miller, Douglas A.; Th.vanGenuchten, M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to gain further understanding of soil moisture/temperature dynamics at different spatio-temporal scales and physical controls/parameters.We created a comprehensive GIS database, which has been accessed extensively by NASA Land Surface Hydrology investigators (and others), is located at the following URL: http://www.essc.psu.edu/nasalsh. For soil moisture field experiments such as SGP97, SGP99, SMEX02, and SMEX03, cartographic products were designed for multiple applications, both pre- and post-mission. Premission applications included flight line planning and field operations logistics, as well as general insight into the extent and distribution of soil, vegetation, and topographic properties for the study areas. The cartographic products were created from original spatial information resources that were imported into Adobe Illustrator, where the maps were created and PDF versions were made for distribution and download.

  15. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS LIGNIN DERIVED FROM CORN STOVER AS AN INTRINSTIC BINDER FOR BIO-COMPOSITES MANUFACTURE: EFFECT OF FIBER MOISTURE CONTENT AND PRESSING TEMPERATURE ON BOARDS’ PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanben Du

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Binderless fiberboards from enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL and cotton stalk fibers were prepared under various manufacturing conditions, and their physico-mechanical properties were evaluated. Full factorial experimental design was used to assess the effect of fiber moisture content and pressing temperature on boards’ properties. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to obtain the glass transition temperature (Tg of EHL. We found that both fiber moisture content and pressing temperature had significant effects on binderless fiberboards’ properties. High fiber moisture content and pressing temperature are suggested to contribute to the self-bonding improvement among fibers with lignin-rich surface mainly by thermal softening enzymatic hydrolysis lignin. In this experiment, the optimized pressing temperature applied in binderless fiberboard production should be as high as 190°C in accordance with the EHL Tg value of 189.4°C, and the fiber moisture content should be limited to less than 20% with a higher board density of 950 kg/m3 to avoid the delamination of boards during hot pressing.

  16. Assimilation of global radar backscatter and radiometer brightness temperature observations to improve soil moisture and land evaporation estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievens, H.; Martens, B.; Verhoest, N.E.C.; Hahn, S.; Reichle, R.H.; Gonzalez Miralles, D.

    2016-01-01

    Active radar backscatter (σ°) observations from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and passive radiometer brightness temperature (TB) observations from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission are assimilated either individually or jointly into the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model

  17. Predicting temperature and moisture distributions in conditioned spaces using the zonal approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, K.C. [Parana Pontifical Catholic Univ., Curitiba (Brazil); Wurtz, E.; Inard, C. [La Rochelle Univ., La Rochelle, Cedex (France). LEPTAB

    2005-07-01

    Moisture interacts with building elements in a number of different ways that impact upon building performance, causing deterioration of building materials, as well as contributing to poor indoor air quality. In humid climates, moisture represents one of the major loads in conditioned spaces. It is therefore important to understand and model moisture transport accurately. This paper discussed an intermediate zonal approach to building a library of data in order to predict whole hygrothermal behavior in conditioned rooms. The zonal library included 2 models in order to consider building envelope moisture buffering effects as well as taking into account the dynamic aspect of jet airflow in the zonal method. The zonal library was then applied to a case study to show the impact of external humidity on the whole hygrothermal performance of a room equipped with a vertical fan-coil unit. The proposed theory was structured into 3 groups representing 3 building domains: indoor air; envelope; and heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. The indoor air sub-model related to indoor air space, where airflow speed was considered to be low. The envelope sub-model related to the radiation exchanges between the envelope and its environment as well as to the heat and mass transfers through the envelope material. The HVAC system sub-model referred to the whole system including equipment, control and specific airflow from the equipment. All the models were coupled into SPARK, where the resulting set of non-linear equations were solved simultaneously. A case study of a large office conditioned by a vertical fan-coil unit with a rectangular air supply diffuser was presented. Details of the building's external and internal environment were provided, as well as convective heat and mass transfer coefficients and temperature distributions versus time. Results of the study indicated that understanding building material moisture buffering effects is as important as

  18. Low moisture availability inhibits the enhancing effect of increased soil temperature on net photosynthesis of white birch (Betula papyrifera) seedlings grown under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambebe, Titus F; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2009-11-01

    White birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) seedlings were grown under two carbon dioxide concentrations (ambient: 360 micromol mol(-1) and elevated: 720 micromol mol(-1)), three soil temperatures (5, 15 and 25 degrees C initially, increased to 7, 17 and 27 degrees C, respectively, 1 month later) and three moisture regimes (low: 30-40%; intermediate: 45-55% and high: 60-70% field water capacity) in greenhouses. In situ gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured after 2 months of treatments. Net photosynthetic rate (A(n)) of seedlings grown under the intermediate and high moisture regimes increased from low to intermediate T(soil) and then decreased to high T(soil). There were no significant differences between the low and high T(soil), with the exception that A(n) was significantly higher under high than low T(soil) at the high moisture regime. No significant T(soil) effect on A(n) was observed at the low moisture regime. The intermediate T(soil) increased stomatal conductance (g(s)) only at intermediate and high but not at low moisture regime, whereas there were no significant differences between the low and high T(soil) treatments. Furthermore, the difference in g(s) between the intermediate and high T(soil) at high moisture regime was not statistically significant. The low moisture regime significantly reduced the internal to ambient CO2 concentration ratio at all T(soil). There were no significant individual or interactive effects of treatment on maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco, light-saturated electron transport rate, triose phosphate utilization or potential photochemical efficiency of photosystem II. The results of this study suggest that soil moisture condition should be taken into account when predicting the responses of white birch to soil warming.

  19. Effect of molecular weight, temperature, and additives on the moisture sorption properties of polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Jared A; Olayo-Valles, Roberto; Rinaldi, Carlos; Taylor, Lynne S

    2010-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a hygroscopic polymer that undergoes the phenomenon of deliquescence once a critical relative humidity (RH(0)) is reached. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the deliquescence behavior of PEG will be affected by the polymer molecular weight, temperature, and the presence of additives. The deliquescence relative humidity for single component (RH(0)) and binary mixtures (RH(0,mix)) were measured using an automated gravimetric moisture analyzer at 25 and 40 degrees C. Changes in PEG crystallinity after exposure to moisture were qualitatively assessed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Optical microscopy was used to visually observe the deliquescence phenomenon. For single component systems, decreasing PEG MW and elevating the temperature resulted in a decrease in the observed RH(0). Physical mixtures of acetaminophen and anhydrous citric acid with both PEG 3350 and PEG 100,000 exhibited deliquescence (RH(0,mix)) at a relative humidity below that of either individual component. Qualitative changes in crystallinity were observed from the X-ray diffractograms for each PEG MW grade at high relative humidities, indicating that phase transformation (deliquescence) of the samples had occurred. In conclusion, it was found that the deliquescence behavior of PEG was affected by the polymer MW, temperature, and the presence of additives. This phenomenon may have important implications for the stability of PEG containing formulations.

  20. Drying of brick as a function of heat flows and analysis of moisture and temperature distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy

    1997-01-01

    In order to investigate the driving mechanisms for frost damages in brickwork, laboratory tests has been performed on a test brick wall. These test include monitoring of temperature and moisture distribution in the wall as function of the influence of driving rain, wind speed and solar radiation....... After the initial tests the surface of the wall was treated with mortar and a new series of test was performed. The wall with and without treatment performed almost equal during the influence of driving rain, and during the later drying phase, the difference was equally small....

  1. Early establishment of trees at the alpine treeline: idiosyncratic species responses to temperature-moisture interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranger, Hannah; Zotz, Gerhard; Bader, Maaike Y

    2016-01-01

    On a global scale, temperature is the main determinant of arctic and alpine treeline position. However on a local scale, treeline form and position vary considerably due to other climatic factors, tree species ecology and life-stage-dependent responses. For treelines to advance poleward or uphill, the first steps are germination and seedling establishment. These earliest life stages may be major bottlenecks for treeline tree populations and will depend differently on climatic conditions than adult trees. We investigated the effect of soil temperature and moisture on germination and early seedling survival in a field experiment in the French Alps near the local treeline (2100 m a.s.l.) using passive temperature manipulations and two watering regimes. Five European treeline tree species were studied: Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus cembra, Pinus uncinata and Sorbus aucuparia In addition, we monitored the germination response of three of these species to low temperatures under controlled conditions in growth chambers. The early establishment of these trees at the alpine treeline was limited either by temperature or by moisture, the sensitivity to one factor often depending on the intensity of the other. The results showed that the relative importance of the two factors and the direction of the effects are highly species-specific, while both factors tend to have consistent effects on both germination and early seedling survival within each species. We show that temperature and water availability are both important contributors to establishment patterns of treeline trees and hence to species-specific forms and positions of alpine treelines. The observed idiosyncratic species responses highlight the need for studies including several species and life-stages to create predictive power concerning future treeline dynamics. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  2. Measurement of moisture motion under a temperature gradient in a concrete for SNR-300 using thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinger, A.

    1975-01-01

    For describing the behavior of the moisture in the concrete of the containment of SNR-300 in a hypothetical accident parameters were determined experimentally. The method is based on transmission of thermal neutrons through a plate of concrete. When a temperature of 170 deg C was applied at one end of the plate migration of moisture and evaporation took place. This could be observed by neutron radiography giving a gross picture of moisture migration. Furthermore the intensity of the transmitted neutron beam was measured with a neutron counter. From these values profiles of the change of moisture concentration could be obtained with a spatial resolution of few millimeters. The method used is entirely different from the conventional moisture meters which use fast neutrons. From the experimental data the mass transfer coefficient of vapour, the diffusion coefficient of vapour in concrete and the porosity of the concrete could be determined

  3. High temperature superconductivity the road to higher critical temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Uchida, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of material-specific factors that influence Tc and give rise to diverse Tc values for copper oxides and iron-based high- Tc superconductors on the basis of more than 25 years of experimental data, to most of which the author has made important contributions. The book then explains why both compounds are distinct from others with similar crystal structure and whether or not one can enhance Tc, which in turn gives a hint on the unresolved pairing mechanism. This is an unprecedented new approach to the problem of high-temperature superconductivity and thus will be inspiring to both specialists and non-specialists interested in this field.   Readers will receive in-depth information on the past, present, and future of high-temperature superconductors, along with special, updated information on what the real highest Tc values are and particularly on the possibility of enhancing Tc for each member material, which is important for application. At this time, the highest Tc has not been...

  4. The Effect of Moisture Content and Temperature on the Specific Heat Capacity of Nut and Kernel of Two Iranian Pistachio Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Salari Kia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio has a special ranking among Iranian agricultural products. Iran is known as the largest producer and exporter of pistachio in the world. Agricultural products are imposed under different thermal treatments during storage and processing. Designing all these processes requires thermal parameters of the products such as specific heat capacity. Regarding the importance of pistachio processing as an exportable product, in this study the specific heat capacity of nut and kernel of two varieties of Iranian pistachio (Kalle-Ghochi and Badami were investigated at four levels of moisture content (initial moisture content (5%, 15%, 25% and 40% w.b. and three levels of temperature (40, 50 and 60°C. In both varieties, the differences between the data were significant at the 1% of probability; however, the effect of moisture content was greater than that of temperature. The results indicated that the specific heat capacity of both nuts and kernels increase logarithmically with increase of moisture content and also increase linearly with increase of temperature. This parameter has altered for nut and kernel of Kalle-Ghochi and Badami varieties within the range of 1.039-2.936 kJ kg-1 K-1, 1.236-3.320 kJ kg-1 K-1, 0.887-2.773 kJ kg-1 K-1 and 0.811-2.914 kJ kg-1 K-1, respectively. Moreover, for any given level of temperature, the specific heat capacity of kernels was higher than that of nuts. Finally, regression models with high R2 values were developed to predict the specific heat capacity of pistachio varieties as a function of moisture content and temperature

  5. Low soil moisture during hot periods drives apparent negative temperature sensitivity of soil respiration in a dryland ecosystem: A multi-model comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Colin; Reed, Sasha C.

    2016-01-01

    Arid and semiarid ecosystems (drylands) may dominate the trajectory of biosphere-to-atmosphere carbon (C) flux over the coming century. Accordingly, understanding dryland CO2 efflux controls is important for understanding C cycling at the global-scale: key unknowns regarding how temperature and moisture interact to regulate dryland C cycling remain. Further, the patchiness of dryland vegetation can create ‘islands of fertility’, with spatially heterogeneous rates of soil respiration (Rs). At our study site in southeastern Utah, USA we added or removed litter (0 to 650% of control) in paired plots that were either associated with a shrub or with interspaces between vascular plants. We measured Rs, soil temperature, and water content (θ) on eight sampling dates between October 2013 and November 2014. Rs was highest following monsoon rains in late summer when soil temperature was ~30°C. During mid-summer, Rs was low, associated with high soil temperatures (>40°C), resulting in an apparent negative temperature sensitivity of Rs at high temperatures, and positive temperature sensitivity at low-moderate temperatures. We used Bayesian statistical methods to compare multiple competing models capturing a wide range of hypothesized relationships between temperature, moisture, and Rs. The best fit model indicates apparent negative temperature sensitivity of soil respiration at high temperatures reflects the control of soil moisture – not high temperatures – in limiting Rs. The modeled Q10 ranged from 2.7 at 5°C to 1.4 at 45°C. Litter addition had no effect on temperature sensitivity or reference respiration (Rref = Rs at 20°C and optimum moisture) beneath shrubs, and little effect on Rref in interspaces, yet Rref was 1.5 times higher beneath shrubs than in interspaces. Together, these results suggest reduced Rs often observed at high temperatures in drylands is dominated by the control of moisture, and that variable litter inputs – at least over the short

  6. The global SMOS Level 3 daily soil moisture and brightness temperature maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al Bitar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the multi-orbit (MO surface soil moisture (SM and angle-binned brightness temperature (TB products for the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission based on a new multi-orbit algorithm. The Level 3 algorithm at CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS makes use of MO retrieval to enhance the robustness and quality of SM retrievals. The motivation of the approach is to make use of the longer temporal autocorrelation length of the vegetation optical depth (VOD compared to the corresponding SM autocorrelation in order to enhance the retrievals when an acquisition occurs at the border of the swath. The retrieval algorithm is implemented in a unique operational processor delivering multiple parameters (e.g. SM and VOD using multi-angular dual-polarisation TB from MO. A subsidiary angle-binned TB product is provided. In this study the Level 3 TB V310 product is showcased and compared to SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive TB. The Level 3 SM V300 product is compared to the single-orbit (SO retrievals from the Level 2 SM processor from ESA with aligned configuration. The advantages and drawbacks of the Level 3 SM product (L3SM are discussed. The comparison is done on a global scale between the two datasets and on the local scale with respect to in situ data from AMMA-CATCH and USDA ARS Watershed networks. The results obtained from the global analysis show that the MO implementation enhances the number of retrievals: up to 9 % over certain areas. The comparison with the in situ data shows that the increase in the number of retrievals does not come with a decrease in quality, but rather at the expense of an increased time lag in product availability from 6 h to 3.5 days, which can be a limiting factor for applications like flood forecast but reasonable for drought monitoring and climate change studies. The SMOS L3 soil moisture and L3 brightness temperature products are delivered using an

  7. Relationships between δ18O in summer precipitation and temperature and moisture trajectories at Muztagata, western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Wusheng; YAO; Tandong; TIAN; Lide; LI; Zhen; SUN; Weizhen; WANG; Yu

    2006-01-01

    Based on summer observations of stable isotope of precipitation at Muztagata, western China, during 2002―2003, this paper presents the relationship between δ18O in precipitation and air temperature, and discusses the effect of moisture transport on δ18O in precipitation. Results show that air temperature correlates positively with δ18O in precipitation, and the temperature effect controls the δ18O of precipitation in this area. The Muztagata region exhibits high δ18O values in summer precipitation, similar to those shown at stations in adjacent regions. According to the results of our model set up to trace the moisture trajectories, the westerlies and local moisture circulation contribute to variations of oxygen isotopes in precipitation. In addition, the impacts of the moisture transport distance, the moisture transport level, and the incursion of the polar air mass also influence the variations of δ18O in precipitation. The moisture origins and transport mechanisms also contribute to the variation of δ18O in precipitation at Muztagata.

  8. Modelling of simultaneous effect of moisture and temperature on A. niger growth in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamidi-Esfahani, Z.; Shojaosadati, S.A.; Rinzema, A.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work a two factorial design of experiments was applied to study the simultaneous effect of temperature and moisture on A. niger growth in the solid-state fermentation (SSF). The increase of water content to more than 55% at the temperatures 35 and 40degreesC decreases microorganism

  9. The effects of moisture on LiD single crystals studied by temperature-programmed decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, L.N.; Cecala, C.M.; Leckey, J.H.; Balooch, M.

    2001-01-01

    Temperature-programmed decomposition (TPD) technique was performed on LiOH powders and LiD single crystals previously exposed to different moisture levels. Our results show that the LiOH decomposition process is rate-limited by an inward moving reaction front mechanism with an activation energy barrier of ∼122-149 kJ/mol. The LiOH structure is stable even if kept at 320 K. However, LiOH structures formed on the surface of LiD single crystals during moisture exposure at low dosages may have multiple activation energy barriers, some of which may be much lower than 122 kJ/mol. The rate-limiting mechanism for the decomposition of LiOH structures with reduced activation energy barriers is consistent with a unimolecular nucleation model. We attribute the lowering of the activation energy barrier for the LiOH decomposition to the existence of sub-stoichiometric Li(OH) x with x 2 O formation is observed. The release of H 2 O molecules from LiOH · H 2 O structure has small activation energy barriers in the range of 48-69 kJ/mol and follows a unimolecular nucleation process. The loosely bonded H 2 O molecules in the LiOH · H 2 O structure can be easily pumped away at room temperature in a reasonable amount of time. Our experiments also suggest that handling LiD single crystals at an elevated temperature of 340 K or more reduces the growth rate of LiOH and LiOH · H 2 O significantly

  10. Temperature Knowledge and Model Correlation for the Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Reflector Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, Rebecca; Dawson, Douglas; Kwack, Eug

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Earth observing Soil Moisture Active & Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled to launch in November 2014 into a 685 km near-polar, sun synchronous orbit. SMAP will provide comprehensive global mapping measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state in order to enhance understanding of the processes that link the water, energy, and carbon cycles. The primary objectives of SMAP are to improve worldwide weather and flood forecasting, enhance climate prediction, and refine drought and agriculture monitoring during its 3 year mission. The SMAP instrument architecture incorporates an L-band radar and an L-band radiometer which share a common feed horn and parabolic mesh reflector. The instrument rotates about the nadir axis at approximately 15 rpm, thereby providing a conically scanning wide swath antenna beam that is capable of achieving global coverage within 3 days. In order to make the necessary precise surface emission measurements from space, a temperature knowledge of 60 deg C for the mesh reflector is required. In order to show compliance, a thermal vacuum test was conducted using a portable solar simulator to illuminate a non flight, but flight-like test article through the quartz window of the vacuum chamber. The molybdenum wire of the antenna mesh is too fine to accommodate thermal sensors for direct temperature measurements. Instead, the mesh temperature was inferred from resistance measurements made during the test. The test article was rotated to five separate angles between 10 deg and 90 deg via chamber breaks to simulate the maximum expected on-orbit solar loading during the mission. The resistance measurements were converted to temperature via a resistance versus temperature calibration plot that was constructed from data collected in a separate calibration test. A simple thermal model of two different representations of the mesh (plate and torus) was created to correlate the mesh temperature predictions to within 60 deg C. The on-orbit mesh

  11. Linking increases in hourly precipitation extremes to atmospheric temperature and moisture changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenderink, Geert; Van Meijgaard, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Relations between hourly precipitation extremes and atmospheric temperature and moisture derived for the present-day climate are studied with the aim of understanding the behavior (and the uncertainty in predictions) of hourly precipitation extremes in a changing climate. A dependency of hourly precipitation extremes on the daily mean 2 m temperature of approximately two times the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation is found for temperatures above 10 deg. C. This is a robust relation obtained in four observational records across western Europe. A dependency following the CC relation can be explained by the observed increase in atmospheric (absolute) humidity with temperature, whereas the enhanced dependency (compared to the CC relation) appears to be caused by dynamical feedbacks owing to excess latent heat release in extreme showers. Integrations with the KNMI regional climate model RACMO2 at 25 km grid spacing show that changes in hourly precipitation extremes may indeed considerably exceed the prediction from the CC relation. The results suggests that increases of + 70% or even more are possible by the end of this century. However, a different regional model (CLM operated at ETHZ) predicts much smaller increases; this is probably caused by a too strong sensitivity of this model to a decrease in relative humidity.

  12. Effects of whey protein concentrate, feed moisture and temperature on the physicochemical characteristics of a rice-based extruded flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teba, Carla da Silva; Silva, Erika Madeira Moreira da; Chávez, Davy William Hidalgo; Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler de; Ascheri, José Luis Ramírez

    2017-08-01

    The influence of whey protein concentrate (WPC), feed moisture and temperature on the physicochemical properties of rice-based extrudates has been investigated. WPC (0.64-7.36g/100g rice) was extruded under 5 moisture (16.64-23.36g/100g) and 5 temperature (106.36-173.64°C) established by a 3 2 central composite rotational design. Physicochemical properties [color, porosimetry, crystallinity, water solubility and absorption, pasting properties, reconstitution test, proximate composition, amino acids, minerals and electrophoresis] were determined. WPC and feed moisture increased redness, yellowness and decreased luminosity. Feed moisture and temperature increased density and total volume pore. WPC and moisture increased crystallinity, but only WPC increased solubility and decrease the retrogradation tendency. Increasing temperature increased the viscosity of the extrudates. The addition of WPC improved the nutritional composition of the extrudates, especially proteins. It is suggested that the extrusion process positively affected the retention of most of the polypeptides chains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Unsaturated zone moisture and vapor movement induced by temperature variations in asphalt barrier field lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holford, D.J.; Fayer, M.J.

    1990-08-01

    Protective barriers are being considered for use at the Hanford Site to enhance the isolation of radioactive wastes from water, plant, and animal intrusion. Lysimeters were constructed to evaluate the performance of asphalt barrier formulations under natural environmental conditions. These lysimeters were constructed of 1.7-m lengths of PVC pipe that have a diameter of 30 cm. The lysimeters were filled with layers of gravel, coarse sand, and asphalt. The sand and gravel placed under the asphalt barrier were wet when installed. TOUGH was used to conduct simulations to assess the effect of temperature variations on moisture and vapor movement beneath the asphalt layer in field test lysimeters. All variables in TOUGH were converted to double precision so that simulations could be run on a Sun-4 UNIX workstation. A radially symmetric grid was used to simulate the lysimeter. 8 refs., 9 figs

  14. Soil moisture estimation by assimilating L-band microwave brightness temperature with geostatistics and observation localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujun Han

    Full Text Available The observation could be used to reduce the model uncertainties with data assimilation. If the observation cannot cover the whole model area due to spatial availability or instrument ability, how to do data assimilation at locations not covered by observation? Two commonly used strategies were firstly described: One is covariance localization (CL; the other is observation localization (OL. Compared with CL, OL is easy to parallelize and more efficient for large-scale analysis. This paper evaluated OL in soil moisture profile characterizations, in which the geostatistical semivariogram was used to fit the spatial correlated characteristics of synthetic L-Band microwave brightness temperature measurement. The fitted semivariogram model and the local ensemble transform Kalman filter algorithm are combined together to weight and assimilate the observations within a local region surrounding the grid cell of land surface model to be analyzed. Six scenarios were compared: 1_Obs with one nearest observation assimilated, 5_Obs with no more than five nearest local observations assimilated, and 9_Obs with no more than nine nearest local observations assimilated. The scenarios with no more than 16, 25, and 36 local observations were also compared. From the results we can conclude that more local observations involved in assimilation will improve estimations with an upper bound of 9 observations in this case. This study demonstrates the potentials of geostatistical correlation representation in OL to improve data assimilation of catchment scale soil moisture using synthetic L-band microwave brightness temperature, which cannot cover the study area fully in space due to vegetation effects.

  15. Soil moisture estimation by assimilating L-band microwave brightness temperature with geostatistics and observation localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xujun; Li, Xin; Rigon, Riccardo; Jin, Rui; Endrizzi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The observation could be used to reduce the model uncertainties with data assimilation. If the observation cannot cover the whole model area due to spatial availability or instrument ability, how to do data assimilation at locations not covered by observation? Two commonly used strategies were firstly described: One is covariance localization (CL); the other is observation localization (OL). Compared with CL, OL is easy to parallelize and more efficient for large-scale analysis. This paper evaluated OL in soil moisture profile characterizations, in which the geostatistical semivariogram was used to fit the spatial correlated characteristics of synthetic L-Band microwave brightness temperature measurement. The fitted semivariogram model and the local ensemble transform Kalman filter algorithm are combined together to weight and assimilate the observations within a local region surrounding the grid cell of land surface model to be analyzed. Six scenarios were compared: 1_Obs with one nearest observation assimilated, 5_Obs with no more than five nearest local observations assimilated, and 9_Obs with no more than nine nearest local observations assimilated. The scenarios with no more than 16, 25, and 36 local observations were also compared. From the results we can conclude that more local observations involved in assimilation will improve estimations with an upper bound of 9 observations in this case. This study demonstrates the potentials of geostatistical correlation representation in OL to improve data assimilation of catchment scale soil moisture using synthetic L-band microwave brightness temperature, which cannot cover the study area fully in space due to vegetation effects.

  16. Soil Moisture and Sea Surface Temperatures equally important for Land Climate in the Warm Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, R.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2015-12-01

    Both sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and soil moisture (SM) are important drivers of climate variability over land. In this study we present a comprehensive comparison of SM versus SST impacts on land climate in the warm season. We perform ensemble experiments with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) where we set SM or SSTs to median conditions, respectively, to remove their inter-annual variability, whereby the other component - SST or SM - is still interactively computed. In contrast to earlier experiments performed with prescribed SSTs, our experiments suggest that SM is overall as important as SSTs for land climate, not only in the midlatitudes but also in the tropics and subtropics. Mean temperature and precipitation are reduced by 0.1-0.5 K and 0-0.2 mm, respectively, whereas their variability at different time scales decreases by 10-40% (temperature) and 0-10% (precipitation) when either SM or SSTs are prescribed. Also drought occurrence is affected, with mean changes in the maximum number of cumulative dry days of 0-0.75 days. Both SM and SST-induced changes are strongest for hot temperatures (up to 0.7 K, and 50%), extreme precipitation (up to 0.4 mm, and 20%), and strong droughts (up to 2 days). Local climate changes in response to removed SM variability are controlled - to first order - by the land-atmosphere coupling and the natural SM variability. SST-related changes are partly controlled by the relation of local temperature or precipitation with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Moreover removed SM or SST variabilities both induce remote effects by impacting the atmospheric circulation. Our results are similar for the present day and the end of the century. We investigate the inter-dependency between SM and SST and find a sufficient degree of independence for the purpose of this study. The robustness of our findings is shown by comparing the response of CESM to removed SM variability with four other global climate models. In summary, SM and SSTs

  17. Effect of Atomic Hydrogen on Preparation of Highly Moisture-Resistive SiNx Films at Low Substrate Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heya, Akira; Niki, Toshikazu; Takano, Masahiro; Yonezawa, Yasuto; Minamikawa, Toshiharu; Muroi, Susumu; Minami, Shigehira; Izumi, Akira; Masuda, Atsushi; Umemoto, Hironobu; Matsumura, Hideki

    2004-12-01

    Highly moisture-resistive SiNx films on a Si substrate are obtained at substrate temperatures of 80°C by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) using a source gas with H2. Atomic hydrogen effected the selective etching of a weak-bond regions and an increase in atomic density induced by the energy of the surface reaction. It is concluded that Cat-CVD using H2 is a promising candidate for the fabrication of highly moisture-resistive SiNx films at low temperatures.

  18. Real-time measurements of temperature, pressure and moisture profiles in High-Performance Concrete exposed to high temperatures during neutron radiography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropovs, N., E-mail: nikolajs.toropovs@rtu.lv [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Riga Technical University, Institute of Materials and Structures, Riga (Latvia); Lo Monte, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Milan (Italy); Wyrzykowski, M. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Lodz University of Technology, Department of Building Physics and Building Materials, Lodz (Poland); Weber, B. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Sahmenko, G. [Riga Technical University, Institute of Materials and Structures, Riga (Latvia); Vontobel, P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Villigen (Switzerland); Felicetti, R. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Milan (Italy); Lura, P. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute for Building Materials (IfB), Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-02-15

    High-Performance Concrete (HPC) is particularly prone to explosive spalling when exposed to high temperature. Although the exact causes that lead to spalling are still being debated, moisture transport during heating plays an important role in all proposed mechanisms. In this study, slabs made of high-performance, low water-to-binder ratio mortars with addition of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) and polypropylene fibers (PP) were heated from one side on a temperature-controlled plate up to 550 °C. A combination of measurements was performed simultaneously on the same sample: moisture profiles via neutron radiography, temperature profiles with embedded thermocouples and pore pressure evolution with embedded pressure sensors. Spalling occurred in the sample with SAP, where sharp profiles of moisture and temperature were observed. No spalling occurred when PP-fibers were introduced in addition to SAP. The experimental procedure described here is essential for developing and verifying numerical models and studying measures against fire spalling risk in HPC.

  19. An Operational In Situ Soil Moisture & Soil Temperature Monitoring Network for West Wales, UK: The WSMN Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, George P; McCalmont, Jon P

    2017-06-23

    This paper describes a soil moisture dataset that has been collecting ground measurements of soil moisture, soil temperature and related parameters for west Wales, United Kingdom. Already acquired in situ data have been archived to the autonomous Wales Soil Moisture Network (WSMN) since its foundation in July 2011. The sites from which measurements are being collected represent a range of conditions typical of the Welsh environment, with climate ranging from oceanic to temperate and a range of the most typical land use/cover types found in Wales. At present, WSMN consists of a total of nine monitoring sites across the area with a concentration of sites in three sub-areas around the region of Aberystwyth located in Mid-Wales. The dataset of composed of 0-5 (or 0-10) cm soil moisture, soil temperature, precipitation, and other ancillary data. WSMN data are provided openly to the public via the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) platform. At present, WSMN is also rapidly expanding thanks to funding obtained recently which allows more monitoring sites to be added to the network to the wider community interested in using its data.

  20. Assimilation of Global Radar Backscatter and Radiometer Brightness Temperature Observations to Improve Soil Moisture and Land Evaporation Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, H.; Martens, B.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Hahn, S.; Reichle, R. H.; Miralles, D. G.

    2017-01-01

    Active radar backscatter (s?) observations from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and passive radiometer brightness temperature (TB) observations from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission are assimilated either individually or jointly into the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM) to improve its simulations of soil moisture and land evaporation. To enable s? and TB assimilation, GLEAM is coupled to the Water Cloud Model and the L-band Microwave Emission from the Biosphere (L-MEB) model. The innovations, i.e. differences between observations and simulations, are mapped onto the model soil moisture states through an Ensemble Kalman Filter. The validation of surface (0-10 cm) soil moisture simulations over the period 2010-2014 against in situ measurements from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) shows that assimilating s? or TB alone improves the average correlation of seasonal anomalies (Ran) from 0.514 to 0.547 and 0.548, respectively. The joint assimilation further improves Ran to 0.559. Associated enhancements in daily evaporative flux simulations by GLEAM are validated based on measurements from 22 FLUXNET stations. Again, the singular assimilation improves Ran from 0.502 to 0.536 and 0.533, respectively for s? and TB, whereas the best performance is observed for the joint assimilation (Ran = 0.546). These results demonstrate the complementary value of assimilating radar backscatter observations together with brightness temperatures for improving estimates of hydrological variables, as their joint assimilation outperforms the assimilation of each observation type separately.

  1. Measurements of soil respiration and simple models dependent on moisture and temperature for an Amazonian southwest tropical forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanchi, F.B.; Rocha, Da H.R.; Freitas, De H.C.; Kruijt, B.; Waterloo, M.J.; Manzi, A.O.

    2009-01-01

    Soil respiration plays a significant role in the carbon cycle of Amazonian tropical forests, although in situ measurements have only been poorly reported and the dependence of soil moisture and soil temperature also weakly understood. This work investigates the temporal variability of soil

  2. Persistence of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in loess soil under different combinations of temperature, soil moisture and light/darkness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins Bento, Celia; Yang, Xiaomei; Gort, Gerrit; Xue, Sha; Dam, van Ruud; Zomer, Paul; Mol, Hans G.J.; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2016-01-01

    The dissipation kinetics of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were studied in loess soil, under biotic and abiotic conditions, as affected by temperature, soil moisture (SM) and light/darkness. Nonsterile and sterile soil samples were spiked with 16 mg kg

  3. Assessment of tracheal temperature and humidity in laryngectomized individuals and the influence of heat and moisture exchangers on tracheal climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuur, J.K.; Muller, S.H.; Vincent, A.; Sinaasappel, M.; de Jongh, F.H.C.; Hilgers, F.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background The beneficial function of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) is undisputed, but knowledge of their effects on intra-airway temperature and humidity is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical applicability of a new airway climate explorer (ACE) and to assess the HME's

  4. Simply obtained global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture in an alley cropping system in semi-arid Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mungai, D.N.; Stigter, C.J.; Coulson, C.L.; Ng'ang'a, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    Global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture data were obtained from a 4-6 year old Cassia siamea/maize (CM) alley cropping (or hedgerow intercropping) system, at a semi-arid site at Machakos, Kenya, in the late eighties. With the growing need to explore and manage variations in

  5. The effects of moisture and temperature on the ageing kinetics of pollen : Interpretation based on cytoplasmic mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitink, J.; Leprince, O.; Hemminga, M.A.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2000-01-01

    This study shows that characterization of the molecular mobility in the cytoplasm of pollen provides a new understanding of the effects of moisture and temperature on ageing rates. Using EPR spectroscopy, we determined the rotational motion of the polar spin probe, 3-carboxy-proxyl, in the cytoplasm

  6. Optimisasi Suhu Pemanasan dan Kadar Air pada Produksi Pati Talas Kimpul Termodifikasi dengan Teknik Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT (Optimization of Heating Temperature and Moisture Content on the Production of Modified Cocoyam Starch Using Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Kencana Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the physically starch modification technique is heat-moisture treatment (HMT. This technique can increase the resistance of starch to heat, mechanical treatment, and acid during processing.  This research aimed to find out the influence of heating temperature and moisture content in the modification process of cocoyam starch  with HMT techniques on the characteristic of product, and then to determine the optimum heating temperature and moisture content in the process. The research was designed with a complete randomized design (CRD with two factors factorial experiment.  The first factor was temperature of the heating consists of 3 levels namely 100 °C, 110 °C, and 120 °C. The second factor was the moisture content of starch which consists of 4 levels, namely 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, and 30 %. The results showed that the heating temperature and moisture content significantly affected water content, amylose content and swelling power of modified cocoyam starch product, but the treatment had no significant effect on the solubility of the product. HMT process was able to change the type of cocoyam starch from type B to type C. The optimum heating temperature and water content on modified cocoyam starch production process was 110 °C and 30 % respectively. Such treatment resulted in a modified cocoyam starch with moisture content of 6.50 %, 50,14 % amylose content, swelling power of 7.90, 0.0009% solubility, paste clarity of 96.310 % T, and was classified as a type C starch.   ABSTRAK Salah satu teknik modifikasi pati secara fisik adalah teknik Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT. Teknik ini dapat meningkatkan ketahanan pati terhadap panas, perlakuan mekanik, dan asam selama pengolahan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh suhu dan kadar air pada proses modifikasi pati talas kimpul dengan teknik HMT terhadap karakteristik produk, dan selanjutnya menentukan suhu dan kadar air yang optimal dalam proses tersebut. Penelitian ini dirancang

  7. Temperature- and moisture-dependent phase changes in crystal forms of barbituric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zencirci, Neslihan; Gstrein, Elisabeth; Langes, Christoph; Griesser, Ulrich J.

    2009-01-01

    The dihydrate of barbituric acid (BAc) and its dehydration product, form II were investigated by means of moisture sorption analysis, hot-stage microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, solution calorimetry, IR- and Raman-spectroscopy as well as powder X-ray diffraction. The dihydrate desolvates already at and below 50% relative humidity (RH) at 25 deg. C whereas form II is stable up to 80% RH, where it transforms back to the dihydrate. The thermal dehydration of barbituric acid dihydrate (BAc-H2) is a single step, nucleation controlled process. The peritectic reaction of the hydrate was measured at 77 deg. C and a transformation enthalpy of Δ trs H H2-II = 17.3 kJ mol -1 was calculated for the interconversion between the hydrate and form II. An almost identical value of 17.0 kJ mol -1 was obtained from solution calorimetry in water as solvent (Δ sol H H2 = 41.5, Δ sol H II = 24.5 kJ mol -1 ). Additionally a high-temperature form (HT-form) of BAc, which is enantiotropically related to form II and unstable at ambient conditions has been characterized. Furthermore, we observed that grinding of BAc with potassium bromide (KBr) induces a tautomeric change. Therefore, IR-spectra recorded with KBr-discs usually display a mixture of tautomers, whereas the IR-spectra of the pure trioxo-form of BAc are obtained if alternative preparation techniques are used

  8. Coupling model of aerobic waste degradation considering temperature, initial moisture content and air injection volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Liu, Lei; Ge, Sai; Xue, Qiang; Li, Jiangshan; Wan, Yong; Hui, Xinminnan

    2018-03-01

    A quantitative description of aerobic waste degradation is important in evaluating landfill waste stability and economic management. This research aimed to develop a coupling model to predict the degree of aerobic waste degradation. On the basis of the first-order kinetic equation and the law of conservation of mass, we first developed the coupling model of aerobic waste degradation that considered temperature, initial moisture content and air injection volume to simulate and predict the chemical oxygen demand in the leachate. Three different laboratory experiments on aerobic waste degradation were simulated to test the model applicability. Parameter sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the reliability of parameters. The coupling model can simulate aerobic waste degradation, and the obtained simulation agreed with the corresponding results of the experiment. Comparison of the experiment and simulation demonstrated that the coupling model is a new approach to predict aerobic waste degradation and can be considered as the basis for selecting the economic air injection volume and appropriate management in the future.

  9. Influence of fuel moisture content and reactor temperature on the calorific value of syngas resulted from gasification of oil palm fronds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Yusup, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Biomass wastes produced from oil palm mills and plantations include empty fruit bunches (EFBs), shells, fibers, trunks, and oil palm fronds (OPF). EFBs and shells are partially utilized as boiler fuel while the rest of the biomass materials like OPF have not been utilized for energy generation. No previous study has been reported on gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) biomass for the production of fuel gas. In this paper, the effect of moisture content of fuel and reactor temperature on downdraft gasification of OPF was experimentally investigated using a lab scale gasifier of capacity 50 kW. In addition, results obtained from equilibrium model of gasification that was developed for facilitating the prediction of syngas composition are compared with experimental data. Comparison of simulation results for predicting calorific value of syngas with the experimental results showed a satisfactory agreement with a mean error of 0.1 MJ/Nm³. For a biomass moisture content of 29%, the resulting calorific value for the syngas was found to be only 2.63 MJ/Nm³, as compared to nearly double (4.95 MJ/Nm³) for biomass moisture content of 22%. A calorific value as high as 5.57 MJ/Nm³ was recorded for higher oxidation zone temperature values.

  10. Influence of Fuel Moisture Content and Reactor Temperature on the Calorific Value of Syngas Resulted from Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Mekbib Atnaw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass wastes produced from oil palm mills and plantations include empty fruit bunches (EFBs, shells, fibers, trunks, and oil palm fronds (OPF. EFBs and shells are partially utilized as boiler fuel while the rest of the biomass materials like OPF have not been utilized for energy generation. No previous study has been reported on gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF biomass for the production of fuel gas. In this paper, the effect of moisture content of fuel and reactor temperature on downdraft gasification of OPF was experimentally investigated using a lab scale gasifier of capacity 50 kW. In addition, results obtained from equilibrium model of gasification that was developed for facilitating the prediction of syngas composition are compared with experimental data. Comparison of simulation results for predicting calorific value of syngas with the experimental results showed a satisfactory agreement with a mean error of 0.1 MJ/Nm3. For a biomass moisture content of 29%, the resulting calorific value for the syngas was found to be only 2.63 MJ/Nm3, as compared to nearly double (4.95 MJ/Nm3 for biomass moisture content of 22%. A calorific value as high as 5.57 MJ/Nm3 was recorded for higher oxidation zone temperature values.

  11. Influence of Fuel Moisture Content and Reactor Temperature on the Calorific Value of Syngas Resulted from Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Yusup, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Biomass wastes produced from oil palm mills and plantations include empty fruit bunches (EFBs), shells, fibers, trunks, and oil palm fronds (OPF). EFBs and shells are partially utilized as boiler fuel while the rest of the biomass materials like OPF have not been utilized for energy generation. No previous study has been reported on gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) biomass for the production of fuel gas. In this paper, the effect of moisture content of fuel and reactor temperature on downdraft gasification of OPF was experimentally investigated using a lab scale gasifier of capacity 50 kW. In addition, results obtained from equilibrium model of gasification that was developed for facilitating the prediction of syngas composition are compared with experimental data. Comparison of simulation results for predicting calorific value of syngas with the experimental results showed a satisfactory agreement with a mean error of 0.1 MJ/Nm3. For a biomass moisture content of 29%, the resulting calorific value for the syngas was found to be only 2.63 MJ/Nm3, as compared to nearly double (4.95 MJ/Nm3) for biomass moisture content of 22%. A calorific value as high as 5.57 MJ/Nm3 was recorded for higher oxidation zone temperature values. PMID:24578617

  12. Simulated Seasonal Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Soil Moisture, Temperature, and Net Radiation in a Deciduous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Howington, Stacy E.; Cinnella, Pasquale; Smith, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The temperature and moisture regimes in a forest are key components in the forest ecosystem dynamics. Observations and studies indicate that the internal temperature distribution and moisture content of the tree influence not only growth and development, but onset and cessation of cambial activity [1], resistance to insect predation[2], and even affect the population dynamics of the insects [3]. Moreover, temperature directly affects the uptake and metabolism of population from the soil into the tree tissue [4]. Additional studies show that soil and atmospheric temperatures are significant parameters that limit the growth of trees and impose treeline elevation limitation [5]. Directional thermal infrared radiance effects have long been observed in natural backgrounds [6]. In earlier work, we illustrated the use of physically-based models to simulate directional effects in thermal imaging [7-8]. In this paper, we illustrated the use of physically-based models to simulate directional effects in thermal, and net radiation in a adeciduous forest using our recently developed three-dimensional, macro-scale computational tool that simulates the heat and mass transfer interaction in a soil-root-stem systems (SRSS). The SRSS model includes the coupling of existing heat and mass transport tools to stimulate the diurnal internal and external temperatures, internal fluid flow and moisture distribution, and heat flow in the system.

  13. Sensitivity of decomposition rates of soil organic matter with respect to simultaneous changes in temperature and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos A.; Trumbore, Susan E.; Davidson, Eric A.; Vicca, Sara; Janssens, I.

    2015-03-01

    The sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition to global environmental change is a topic of prominent relevance for the global carbon cycle. Decomposition depends on multiple factors that are being altered simultaneously as a result of global environmental change; therefore, it is important to study the sensitivity of the rates of soil organic matter decomposition with respect to multiple and interacting drivers. In this manuscript, we present an analysis of the potential response of decomposition rates to simultaneous changes in temperature and moisture. To address this problem, we first present a theoretical framework to study the sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition when multiple driving factors change simultaneously. We then apply this framework to models and data at different levels of abstraction: (1) to a mechanistic model that addresses the limitation of enzyme activity by simultaneous effects of temperature and soil water content, the latter controlling substrate supply and oxygen concentration for microbial activity; (2) to different mathematical functions used to represent temperature and moisture effects on decomposition in biogeochemical models. To contrast model predictions at these two levels of organization, we compiled different data sets of observed responses in field and laboratory studies. Then we applied our conceptual framework to: (3) observations of heterotrophic respiration at the ecosystem level; (4) laboratory experiments looking at the response of heterotrophic respiration to independent changes in moisture and temperature; and (5) ecosystem-level experiments manipulating soil temperature and water content simultaneously.

  14. Initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affects chemical properties of bagged substrates containing controlled release fertilizer at two different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagged potting mixes can be stored for weeks or months before being used by consumers. Some bagged potting mixes are amended with controlled release fertilizers (CRF). The objective of this research was to observe how initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect the chemical p...

  15. EFFECT OF LOW-TEMPERATURE HYGROTHERMAL PROCESSING ON FORMS OF ASSOCIATION OF MOISTURE IN RICE-VEGETABLE MIXTURE WITH HYDROBIONTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Rodionova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the catering industry common combination of rice, vegetable raw materials: onion and carrot, and aquatic organisms: fish, squid, which allows you to get a dish with high consumer properties. The article investigated the influence of the amount of water introduced by the ratio of free and bound moisture in food samples obtained using the low temperature thermo-humidity treatment, compared with the control. Found that for all drawing and vegetable mixture with squid, adding water in an amount exceeding 12.0 % of the total weight of the meal increases the mass fraction of free moisture. For rice-vegetable mixture with carp introduction of additional water is not recommended, since the introduction of water even in the amount of 5 % of the total weight of the meal increases the mass fraction of free moisture. The data indicate that the use of low-temperature thermal treatment of the samples humid pre vacuum packaging technology helps to reduce finished product weight loss, due to the amount of free moisture conservation while increasing the mass of bound water that helps to ensure better consistency of the final product, increase the shelf life and exit semis.

  16. Airborne-Measured Spatially-Averaged Temperature and Moisture Turbulent Structure Parameters Over a Heterogeneous Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platis, Andreas; Martinez, Daniel; Bange, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Turbulent structure parameters of temperature and humidity can be derived from scintillometer measurements along horizontal paths of several 100 m to several 10 km. These parameters can be very useful to estimate the vertical turbulent heat fluxes at the surface (applying MOST). However, there are many assumptions required by this method which can be checked using in situ data, e.g. 1) Were CT2 and CQ2 correctly derived from the initial CN2 scintillometer data (structure parameter of density fluctuations or refraction index, respectively)? 2) What is the influence of the surround hetereogeneous surface regarding its footprint and the weighted averaging effect of the scintillometer method 3) Does MOST provide the correct turbulent fluxes from scintillometer data. To check these issues, in situ data from low-level flight measurements are well suited, since research aircraft cover horizontal distances in very short time (Taylor's hypothesis of a frozen turbulence structure can be applyed very likely). From airborne-measured time series the spatial series are calculated and then their structure functions that finally provide the structure parameters. The influence of the heterogeneous surface can be controlled by the definition of certain moving-average window sizes. A very useful instrument for this task are UAVs since they can fly very low and maintain altitude very precisely. However, the data base of such unmanned operations is still quite thin. So in this contribution we want to present turbulence data obtained with the Helipod, a turbulence probe hanging below a manned helicopter. The structure parameters of temperature and moisture, CT2 and CQ2, in the lower convective boundary layer were derived from data measured using the Helipod in 2003. The measurements were carried out during the LITFASS03 campaign over a heterogeneous land surface around the boundary-layer field site of the Lindenberg Meteorological Observatory-Richard-Aßmann-Observatory (MOL) of the

  17. Temperature- and moisture-dependent phase changes in crystal forms of barbituric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zencirci, Neslihan; Gstrein, Elisabeth; Langes, Christoph [Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Griesser, Ulrich J. [Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: ulrich.griesser@uibk.ac.at

    2009-03-10

    The dihydrate of barbituric acid (BAc) and its dehydration product, form II were investigated by means of moisture sorption analysis, hot-stage microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, solution calorimetry, IR- and Raman-spectroscopy as well as powder X-ray diffraction. The dihydrate desolvates already at and below 50% relative humidity (RH) at 25 deg. C whereas form II is stable up to 80% RH, where it transforms back to the dihydrate. The thermal dehydration of barbituric acid dihydrate (BAc-H2) is a single step, nucleation controlled process. The peritectic reaction of the hydrate was measured at 77 deg. C and a transformation enthalpy of {delta}{sub trs}H{sub H2-II} = 17.3 kJ mol{sup -1} was calculated for the interconversion between the hydrate and form II. An almost identical value of 17.0 kJ mol{sup -1} was obtained from solution calorimetry in water as solvent ({delta}{sub sol}H{sub H2} = 41.5, {delta}{sub sol}H{sub II} = 24.5 kJ mol{sup -1}). Additionally a high-temperature form (HT-form) of BAc, which is enantiotropically related to form II and unstable at ambient conditions has been characterized. Furthermore, we observed that grinding of BAc with potassium bromide (KBr) induces a tautomeric change. Therefore, IR-spectra recorded with KBr-discs usually display a mixture of tautomers, whereas the IR-spectra of the pure trioxo-form of BAc are obtained if alternative preparation techniques are used.

  18. SMAP Multi-Temporal Soil Moisture and Vegetation Optical Depth Retrievals in Vegetated Regions Including Higher-Order Soil-Canopy Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, A.; Akbar, R.; Konings, A. G.; Piles, M.; Entekhabi, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission utilizes a zeroth order radiative transfer model, known as the tau-omega model, to retrieve soil moisture from microwave brightness temperature observations. This model neglects first order scattering which is significant at L-Band in vegetated regions, or 30% of land cover. Previous higher order algorithms require extensive in-situ measurements and characterization of canopy layer physical properties. We propose a first order retrieval algorithm that approximately characterizes the eight first order emission pathways using rough surface reflectivity, vegetation optical depth (VOD), and scattering albedo terms. The recently developed Multi-Temporal Dual Channel Algorithm (MT-DCA) then retrieves these three parameters in a forward model without ancillary information under the assumption of temporally static albedo and constant vegetation water content between three day SMAP revisits. The approximated scattering terms are determined to be conservative estimates of analytically derived first order scattering terms. In addition, we find the first order algorithm to be more sensitive to surface emission than the tau-omega model. The simultaneously retrieved VOD, previously demonstrated to be proportional to vegetation water content, can provide insight into vegetation dynamics in regions with significant phenology. Specifically, dry tropical forests exhibit an increase in VOD during the dry season in alignment with prior studies that suggest that certain vegetative species green up during the dry season despite limited water availability. VOD retrieved using the first order algorithm and MT-DCA framework can therefore contribute to understanding of tropical forests' role in the carbon, energy, and water cycles, which has yet to be fully explained.

  19. Effect of feed composition, moisture content and extrusion temperature on extrudate characteristics of yam-corn-rice based snack food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Dibyakanta; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Ganapathy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Blends of yam, rice and corn flour were processed in a twin-screw extruder. Effects of yam flour (10-40 %), feed moisture content (12-24 %) and extruder barrel temperature (100-140 °C) on the characteristics of the dried extrudates was investigated using a statistical technique response surface methodology (RSM). Radial expansion ratio differed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with change in all the independent variables. Highest expansion (3.97) was found at lowest moisture content (12 %) and highest barrel temperature (140 °C). Increased yam flour level decreased the expansion ratio significantly. Water absorption index (WAI) increased significantly with increase of all variables. However, water solubility index (WSI) did not change with change in yam flour percent. Hardness of extrudates that varied from 3.86 to 6.94 N was positively correlated with yam flour level and feed moisture content, however it decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) with increase of barrel temperature. Yam percent of 15.75 with feed moisture and barrel temperature at 12.00 % and 140 °C respectively gave an optimized product of high desirability (> 0.90) with optimum responses of 3.29 expansion ratio, 5.64 g/g dry solid water absorption index, 30.39 % water solubility index and 3.86 N hardness. The predicted values registered non-significant (p extruded snacks and little emphasis on the chemistry of interaction between different components.

  20. Radiolysis of Aqueous Benzene Solutions at higher temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, H.

    1964-07-01

    Aqueous solutions of benzene have been irradiated with Co γ-rays with doses of up to 2.3 Mrad in the temperature region 100 - 200 C. At 100 C a linear relationship between the phenol concentration and the absorbed dose was obtained, but at 150 C and at higher temperatures the rate of the phenol formation increased significantly after an initial constant period. With higher doses the rate decreased again, falling almost to zero at 200 C after a dose of 2.2 Mrad. The G value of phenol in the initial linear period increased from 2.8 at 100 C to 8.0 at 200 C. The reaction mechanism is discussed and reactions constituting a chain reaction are suggested. The result of the addition of iron ions and of a few inorganic oxides to the system is presented and briefly discussed

  1. Radiolysis of Aqueous Benzene Solutions at higher temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, H

    1964-07-15

    Aqueous solutions of benzene have been irradiated with Co {gamma}-rays with doses of up to 2.3 Mrad in the temperature region 100 - 200 C. At 100 C a linear relationship between the phenol concentration and the absorbed dose was obtained, but at 150 C and at higher temperatures the rate of the phenol formation increased significantly after an initial constant period. With higher doses the rate decreased again, falling almost to zero at 200 C after a dose of 2.2 Mrad. The G value of phenol in the initial linear period increased from 2.8 at 100 C to 8.0 at 200 C. The reaction mechanism is discussed and reactions constituting a chain reaction are suggested. The result of the addition of iron ions and of a few inorganic oxides to the system is presented and briefly discussed.

  2. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kazuei, E-mail: k-ishii@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability.

  3. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability

  4. Evaluation of the sensitivity of the mineralizable pool of soil organic matter to changes in temperature and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulina, A. S.; Semenov, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    The sensitivity of the potentially mineralizable pool of soil organic matter (Cpm) to changes in temperature and moisture has been assessed from the temperature coefficient ( Q10) and the moisture coefficient ( W 10), which indicate how much the Cpm size changes, when the temperature changes by 10°C and the soil water content changes by 10 wt %, respectively. Samples of gray forest soil, podzolized chernozem, and dark chestnut soil taken from arable plots have been incubated at 8, 18, and 28°C and humidity of 10, 25, and 40 wt %. From the data on the production of C-CO2 by soil samples during incubation for 150 days, the content of Cpm has been calculated. It has been shown that, on average for the three soils, an increase in temperature accounts for 63% of the rise in the pool of potentially mineralizable organic matter, whereas an increase in moisture accounts for 8% of that rise. The temperature coefficients of the potentially mineralizable pool are 2.71 ± 0.64, 1.27 ± 0.20, and 1.85 ± 0.30 in ranges of 8-18, 18-28, and 8-28°C, respectively; the moisture coefficients are 1.19 ± 0.11, 1.09 ± 0.05, and 1.14 ± 0.06 in ranges of 10-25, 25-40, and 10-40 wt %, respectively. The easily mineralizable fraction (C1, k 1 > 0.1 days-1) of the active pool of soil organic matter is less sensitive to temperature than the hardly mineralizable fraction (C3, 0.01 > k 3 > 0.001 days-1); their Q 10 values are 0.91 ± 0.15 and 2.40 ± 0.31, respectively. On the contrary, the easily mineralizable fraction is more sensitive to moistening than the hardly mineralizable fraction: their W 10 values are 1.22 ± 0.06 and 1.03 ± 0.08, respectively. The intensification of mineralization with rising temperature and water content during a long-term incubation results in the exhausting of the active pool, which reduces the production of CO2 by the soils during the repeated incubation under similar conditions nonlimiting mineralization.

  5. Strong increase in convective precipitation in response to higher temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, P.; Moseley, C.; Härter, Jan Olaf Mirko

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation changes can affect society more directly than variations in most other meteorological observables, but precipitation is difficult to characterize because of fluctuations on nearly all temporal and spatial scales. In addition, the intensity of extreme precipitation rises markedly...... at higher temperature, faster than the rate of increase in the atmosphere's water-holding capacity, termed the Clausius-Clapeyron rate. Invigoration of convective precipitation (such as thunderstorms) has been favoured over a rise in stratiform precipitation (such as large-scale frontal precipitation......) as a cause for this increase , but the relative contributions of these two types of precipitation have been difficult to disentangle. Here we combine large data sets from radar measurements and rain gauges over Germany with corresponding synoptic observations and temperature records, and separate convective...

  6. Development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at higher temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkous, C.A. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This report describes efforts in developing new solid polymer electrolytes that will enable operation of proton exchange membrane electrolyzers at higher temperatures than are currently possible. Several ionomers have been prepared from polyetheretherketone (PEEK), polyethersulfone (PES), and polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) by employing various sulfonation procedures. By controlling the extent of sulfonation, a range of proton conductivities could be achieved, whose upper limit actually exceeded that of commercially available perfluoralkyl sulfonates. Thermoconductimetric analysis of samples at various degrees of sulfonation showed an inverse relationship between conductivity and maximum operating temperature. This was attributed to the dual effect of adding sulfonate groups to the polymer: more acid groups produce more protons for increased conductivity, but they also increase water uptake, which mechanically weakens the membrane. This situation was exacerbated by the limited acidity of the aromatic sulfonic acids (pK{sub A} {approx} 2-3). The possibility of using partial fluorination to raise the acid dissociation constant is discussed.

  7. Magnitude and reactivity consequences of moisture ingress into the modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, O.L.

    1992-12-01

    Inadvertent admission of moisture into the primary system of a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor has been identified in US Department of Energy-sponsored studies as an important safety concern. The work described here develops an analytical methodology to quantify the pressure and reactivity consequences of steam-generator tube rupture and other moisture-ingress-related incidents. Important neutronic and thermohydraulic processes are coupled with reactivity feedback and safety and control system responses. The rate and magnitude of steam buildup are found to be dominated by major system features such as break size compared with safety valve capacity and reliability and less sensitive to factors such as heat transfer coefficients. The results indicate that ingress transients progress at a slower pace than previously predicted by bounding analyses, with milder power overshoots and more time for operator or automatic corrective actions

  8. Can crawl space temperature and moisture conditions be calculated with a whole-building hygrothermal simulation tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Morelli, Martin; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2017-01-01

    of measurements was compared with simulations of temperature and moisture condition in the floor structure and crawl space. The measurements showed that the extra 50 mm insulation placed below the beams reduced moisture content in the beams below 20 weight% all year. A reasonable agreement between......The hygrothermal behaviour of an outdoor ventilated crawl space with two different designs of the floor structure was investigated. The first design had 250 mm insulation and visible wooden beams towards the crawl space. The second design had 300 mm insulation and no visible wooden beams. One year...... the measurements and simulations was found; however, the evaporation from the soil was a dominant parameter affecting the hygrothermal response in the crawl space and floor structure....

  9. Role of the Soil Thermal Inertia in the short term variability of the surface temperature and consequences for the soil-moisture temperature feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruy, Frederique; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Ait Mesbah, Sonia; Grandpeix, Jean-Yves; Wang, Fuxing

    2017-04-01

    A simple model based on the surface energy budget at equilibrium is developed to compute the sensitivity of the climatological mean daily temperature and diurnal amplitude to the soil thermal inertia. It gives a conceptual framework to quantity the role of the atmospheric and land surface processes in the surface temperature variability and relies on the diurnal amplitude of the net surface radiation, the sensitivity of the turbulent fluxes to the surface temperature and the thermal inertia. The performances of the model are first evaluated with 3D numerical simulations performed with the atmospheric (LMDZ) and land surface (ORCHIDEE) modules of the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate model. A nudging approach is adopted, it prevents from using time-consuming long-term simulations required to account for the natural variability of the climate and allow to draw conclusion based on short-term (several years) simulations. In the moist regions the diurnal amplitude and the mean surface temperature are controlled by the latent heat flux. In the dry areas, the relevant role of the stability of the boundary layer and of the soil thermal inertia is demonstrated. In these regions, the sensitivity of the surface temperature to the thermal inertia is high, due to the high contribution of the thermal flux to the energy budget. At high latitudes, when the sensitivity of turbulent fluxes is dominated by the day-time sensitivity of the sensible heat flux to the surface temperature and when this later is comparable to the thermal inertia term of the sensitivity equation, the surface temperature is also partially controlled by the thermal inertia which can rely on the snow properties; In the regions where the latent heat flux exhibits a high day-to-day variability, such as transition regions, the thermal inertia has also significant impact on the surface temperature variability . In these not too wet (energy limited) and not too dry (moisture-limited) soil moisture (SM

  10. A new method to determine the water activity and the net isosteric heats of sorption for low moisture foods at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadapaneni, Ravi Kiran; Yang, Ren; Carter, Brady; Tang, Juming

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, research studies have shown that the thermal resistance of foodborne pathogens in the low moisture foods is greatly influenced by the water activity (a w ) at temperatures relevant to thermal treatments for pathogen control. Yet, there has been a lack of an effective method for accurate measurement of a w at those temperatures. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate a new method for measuring a w of food samples at elevated temperatures. An improved thermal cell with a relative humidity and temperature sensor was used to measure the a w of the three different food samples, namely, organic wheat flour, almond flour, and non-fat milk powder, over the temperature range between 20 and 80°C. For a constant moisture content, the a w data was used to estimate the net isosteric heat of sorption (q st ). The q st values were then used in the Clausius Clapeyron equation (CCE) equation to estimate the moisture sorption isotherm for all test food samples at different temperatures. For all the tested samples of any fixed moisture content, a w value generally increased with the temperature. The energy for sorption decreased with increasing moisture content. With the experimentally determined q st value, CCE describes well about the changes in a w of the food samples between 20 and 80°C. This study presents a method to obtain a w of a food sample for a specific moisture content at different temperatures which could be extended to obtain q st values for different moisture contents and hence, the moisture sorption isotherm of a food sample at different temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CO2, Temperature, and Soil Moisture Interactions Affect NDVI and Reproductive Phenology in Old-Field Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C.; Weltzin, J.; Norby, R.

    2004-12-01

    Plant community composition and ecosystem function may be altered by global atmospheric and climate change, including increased atmospheric [CO2], temperature, and varying precipitation regimes. We are conducting an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) utilizing open-top chambers to administer experimental treatments of elevated CO2 (+300 ppm), warming (+ 3 degrees Celsius), and varying soil moisture availability to experimental plant communities constructed of seven common old-field species, including C3 and C4 grasses, forbs, and legumes. During 2004 we monitored plant community phenology (NDVI) and plant reproductive phenology. Early in the year, NDVI was greater in wet treatment plots, and was unaffected by main effects of temperature or CO2. This result suggests that early in the season warming is insufficient to affect early canopy development. Differences in soil moisture sustained throughout the winter and into early spring may constitute an important control on early canopy greenup. Elevated CO2 alleviated detrimental effects of warming on NDVI, but only early in the season. As ambient temperatures increased, elevated temperatures negatively impacted NDVI only in the dry plots. Wetter conditions ameliorate the effects of warming on canopy greenness during the warmer seasons of the year. Warming increased rates of bolting, number of inflorescences, and time to reproductive maturity for Andropogon virginicus (a C4 bunchgrass). Solidago Canadensis (a C3 late-season forb) also produced flowers earlier in elevated temperatures. Conversely, none of the C3 grasses and forbs that bolt or flower in late spring or early summer responded to temperature or CO2. Results indicate that warming and drought may impact plant community phenology, and plant species reproductive phenology. Clearly community phenology is driven by complex interactions among temperature, water, and CO2 that change throughout the season. Our data stresses the importance of

  12. Biochar increases plant growth and alters microbial communities via regulating the moisture and temperature of green roof substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haoming; Ma, Jinyi; Wei, Jiaxing; Gong, Xin; Yu, Xichen; Guo, Hui; Zhao, Yanwen

    2018-09-01

    Green roofs have increasingly been designed and applied to relieve environmental problems, such as water loss, air pollution as well as heat island effect. Substrate and vegetation are important components of green roofs providing ecosystem services and benefiting the urban development. Biochar made from sewage sludge could be potentially used as the substrate amendment for green roofs, however, the effects of biochar on substrate quality and plant performance in green roofs are still unclear. We evaluated the effects of adding sludge biochar (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, v/v) to natural soil planted with three types of plant species (ryegrass, Sedum lineare and cucumber) on soil properties, plant growth and microbial communities in both green roof and ground ecosystems. Our results showed that sludge biochar addition significantly increased substrate moisture, adjusted substrate temperature, altered microbial community structure and increased plant growth. The application rate of 10-15% sludge biochar on the green roof exerted the most significant effects on both microbial and plant biomass by 63.9-89.6% and 54.0-54.2% respectively. Path analysis showed that biochar addition had a strong effect on microbial biomass via changing the soil air-filled porosity, soil moisture and temperature, and promoted plant growth through the positive effects on microbial biomass. These results suggest that the applications of biochar at an appropriate rate can significantly alter plant growth and microbial community structure, and increase the ecological benefits of green roofs via exerting effects on the moisture, temperature and nutrients of roof substrates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of extrusion temperature and moisture content of corn flour on crystallinity and hardness of rice analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Faleh Setia; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Budijanto, Slamet; Syah, Dahrul

    2015-12-01

    Rice analogues are food products made of broken rice and/or any other carbohydrate sources to have similar texture and shape as rice. They are usually made by hot extrusion processing. The hot extrusion process may change the crystallinity of starch and influence the characteristic of rice analogues. Therefore, this research aimed to study the effect of moisture content of incoming dough and temperature of extrusion process on the crystallinity and hardness of resulting rice analogues. The dough's were prepared by mixing of corn starch-flour with ratio 10/90 (w/w) and moisture content of 35%, 40% and 45% (w/w) and extrusion process were done at temperature of 70, 80, 90°C by using of twin screw extruder BEX-DS-2256 Berto. The analyses were done to determine the type of crystal, degree of crystallinity, and hardness of the resulting rice analogues. Our result showed that the enhancement of extrusion temperature from 70 - 90°C increased degree of crystallinity from 5.86 - 15.00% to 10.70 - 18.87% and hardness from 1.71 - 4.36 kg to 2.05 - 5.70 kg. The raising of dough moisture content from 35 - 45% decreased degree of crystallinity from 15.00 - 18.87% to 5.86 - 10.70% and hardness from 4.36 - 5.70 kg to 1.71 - 2.05 kg. The increase of degree of crystallinity correlated positively with the increase of hardness of rice analogues (r = 0.746, p = 0.05).

  14. Spatiotemporal Variability and Covariability of Temperature, Precipitation, Soil Moisture, and Vegetation in North America for Regional Climate Model Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, C. L.; Beltran-Przekurat, A. B.; Pielke, R. A.

    2007-05-01

    Previous work has established that the dominant modes of Pacific SSTs influence the summer climate of North America through large-scale forcing, and this effect is most pronounced during the early part of the season. It is hypothesized, then, that land surface influences become more dominant in the latter part of the season as remote teleconnection influences diminish. As a first step toward investigation of this hypothesis in a regional climate model (RCM) framework, the statistically signficant spatiotemporal patterns of variability and covariability in North American precipitation (specified by the standardized precipitation index, or SPI), soil moisture, and vegetation are determined for timescales from a month to six months. To specify these respective data we use: CPC gauge- derived precipitation (1950-2000), Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model and NOAH Model NLDAS soil moisture and temperature, and the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GIMMS-NDVI). The principal statistical tool used is multiple taper frequency singular value decomposition (MTM-SVD), and this is supplemented by wavelet analysis for specific areas of interest. The significant interannual variability in all of these data occur at a timescale of about 7 to 9 years and appears to be the integrated effect of remote SST forcing from the Pacific. Considering the entire year, the spatial pattern for precipitation resembles the typical ENSO winter signature. If the summer season is considered seperately, the out of phase relationship between precipitation anomalies in the central U.S. and core monsoon region is apparent. The largest soil moisture anomalies occur in the central U.S., since precipitation in this region has a consistent relationship to Pacific SSTs for the entire year. This helps to explain the approximately 20 year periodicity in drought conditions there. Unlike soil moisture, the largest anomalies in vegetation occur in the

  15. Role of temperature and free moisture in onion flower blight. [Botrytis squamosa; Botrytis cinerea; and Botrytis allii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, G.R.; Lorbeer, J.W.

    1986-06-01

    The cardinal temperatures at which onion umbels were blighted (after inoculation when two-thirds of the florets were open) with Botrytis squamosa, B. cinerea, and B. allii (isolated from blighted onion florets) were near 9, 21, and 27 C for B. squamosa, near 12, 21, and 30 C for B. cinerea, and near 9, 24, and 30 C for B. allii. The cardinal temperatures for mycelial growth (potato-dextrose agar) of B. squamosa, B. cinerea, and B. allii were near 5, 22, and 30 C for each fungus. The cardinal temperatures for conidial germination (on purified water agar) were near 6, 15, and 30 C for B. squamosa; 3, 18, and 33 C for B. cinerea; and 6, 24, and 33 C for B. allii. When the duration of free moisture on umbels after inoculation with the three pathogens was increased from 0 to 96 hr. the percentages of unopened florets, open florets, and immature seed capsules blighted at 21 C were increased significantly. Free moisture durations of 12-24, 6-12, and 6-12 hr were necessary for blighting of unopen florets, open florets, and immature seed capsules, respectively, by each pathogen at 21 C. A positive correlation between the amount of July rainfall and the natural incidence of onion flower blight was observed in Orange County, New York, from 1976 to 1981. 10 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  16. Particulate Matter Mass Concentration in Residential Prefabricated Buildings Related to Temperature and Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Building environmental audit and the assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in typical residential buildings is necessary process to ensure users’ health and well-being. The paper deals with the concentrations on indoor dust particles (PM10) in the context of hygrothermal microclimate in indoor environment. The indoor temperature, relative humidity and air movement are basic significant factors determining the PM10 concentration [μg/m3]. The experimental measurements in this contribution represent the impact of indoor physical parameters on the concentration of particulate matter mass concentration. The occurrence of dust particles is typical for the almost two-thirds of interiors of the buildings. Other parameters indoor environment, such as air change rate, volume of the room, roughness and porosity of the building material surfaces, static electricity, light ions and others, were set constant and they are not taken into account in this study. The mass concentration of PM10 is measured during summer season in apartment of residential prefabricated building. The values of global temperature [°C] and relative humidity of indoor air [%] are also monitored. The quantity of particulate mass matter is determined gravimetrically by weighing according to CSN EN 12 341 (2014). The obtained results show that the temperature difference of the internal environment does not have a significant effect on the concentration PM10. Vice versa, the difference of relative humidity exhibits a difference of the concentration of dust particles. Higher levels of indoor particulates are observed for low values of relative humidity. The decreasing of relative air humidity about 10% caused 10µg/m3 of PM10 concentration increasing. The hygienic limit value of PM10 concentration is not exceeded at any point of experimental measurement.

  17. Extended Opacity Tables with Higher Temperature-Density-Frequency Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Mark; Orban, Chris; Delahaye, Franck; Pinsonneault, Marc; Nahar, Sultana; Pradhan, Anil

    2015-05-01

    Theoretical models for plasma opacities underpin our understanding of radiation transport in many different astrophysical objects. These opacity models are also relevant to HEDP experiments such as ignition scale experiments on NIF. We present a significantly expanded set of opacity data from the widely utilized Opacity Project, and make these higher resolution data publicly available through OSU's portal with dropbox.com. This expanded data set is used to assess how accurate the interpolation of opacity data in temperature-density-frequency dimensions must be in order to adequately model the properties of most stellar types. These efforts are the beginning of a larger project to improve the theoretical opacity models in light of experimental results at the Sandia Z-pinch showing that the measured opacity of Iron disagrees strongly with all current models.

  18. Flutuações de temperatura e umidade do solo em resposta à cobertura vegetal Soil temperature and moisture fluctuations in response to vegetation cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milson L. de Oliveira

    2005-12-01

    weed cover and velvet bean. In the bare soil treatment, the greatest temperature variation (amplitude at the soil surface was observed, with lower soil moisture and higher temperature values.

  19. Inferring Land Surface Model Parameters for the Assimilation of Satellite-Based L-Band Brightness Temperature Observations into a Soil Moisture Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission provides global measurements of L-band brightness temperatures at horizontal and vertical polarization and a variety of incidence angles that are sensitive to moisture and temperature conditions in the top few centimeters of the soil. These L-band observations can therefore be assimilated into a land surface model to obtain surface and root zone soil moisture estimates. As part of the observation operator, such an assimilation system requires a radiative transfer model (RTM) that converts geophysical fields (including soil moisture and soil temperature) into modeled L-band brightness temperatures. At the global scale, the RTM parameters and the climatological soil moisture conditions are still poorly known. Using look-up tables from the literature to estimate the RTM parameters usually results in modeled L-band brightness temperatures that are strongly biased against the SMOS observations, with biases varying regionally and seasonally. Such biases must be addressed within the land data assimilation system. In this presentation, the estimation of the RTM parameters is discussed for the NASA GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, which is based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the Catchment land surface model. In the GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, soil moisture and brightness temperature biases are addressed in three stages. First, the global soil properties and soil hydraulic parameters that are used in the Catchment model were revised to minimize the bias in the modeled soil moisture, as verified against available in situ soil moisture measurements. Second, key parameters of the "tau-omega" RTM were calibrated prior to data assimilation using an objective function that minimizes the climatological differences between the modeled L-band brightness temperatures and the corresponding SMOS observations. Calibrated parameters include soil roughness parameters, vegetation structure parameters

  20. Weather and climate needs for Lidar observations from space and concepts for their realization. [wind, temperature, moisture, and pressure data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, D.; Korb, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    The spectrum of weather and climate needs for Lidar observations from space is discussed with emphasis on the requirements for wind, temperature, moisture, and pressure data. It is shown that winds are required to realistically depict all atmospheric scales in the tropics and the smaller scales at higher latitudes, where both temperature and wind profiles are necessary. The need for means to estimate air-sea exchanges of sensible and latent heat also is noted. A concept for achieving this through a combination of Lidar cloud top heights and IR cloud top temperatures of cloud streets formed during cold air outbreaks over the warmer ocean is outlined. Recent theoretical feasibility studies concerning the profiling of temperatures, pressure, and humidity by differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) from space and expected accuracies are reviewed. An alternative approach to Doppler Lidar wind measurements also is presented. The concept involves the measurement of the displacement of the aerosol backscatter pattern, at constant heights, between two successive scans of the same area, one ahead of the spacecraft and the other behind it a few minutes later. Finally, an integrated space Lidar system capable of measuring temperature, pressure, humidity, and winds which combines the DIAL methods with the aerosol pattern displacement concept is described.

  1. Do heat and moisture exchangers in the anaesthesia breathing circuit preserve body temperature in dogs undergoing anaesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khenissi, Latifa; Covey-Crump, Gwen; Knowles, Toby G; Murrell, Joanna

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether the use of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) preserves body temperature in dogs weighing dogs. Dogs were assigned randomly to a treatment group [HME (n = 16) or no HME (n = 15)]. Dogs were pseudorandomised according to the premedication they were administered, either dexmedetomidine or no dexmedetomidine. Induction agents were not standardised. General anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane vaporised in 100% oxygen delivered using a T-piece and a fresh gas flow of 600 mL kg -1 minute -1 . Rectal temperature was measured before premedication (T1), after induction (T2), before moving to the MRI unit (T3) and at the end of the MRI scan (T4). Ambient temperatures were measured in the induction room, outside and inside the MRI unit. Data were analysed using a general linear model with T4 as the outcome variable. Linear correlations were performed between T1, T2, T3 and T4, and variables that predicted T4 were investigated. Sex, age and body mass were not significantly different between groups. There were no significant differences in rectal temperature between groups at any time point (group with HME at the end of MRI = 36.3 ± 1.1 °C; group with no HME at the end of MRI = 36.2 ± 1.4 °C) but at the end of the MRI, dogs administered dexmedetomidine (36.6 ± 0.7 °C) had a higher rectal temperature compared with dogs not administered dexmedetomidine (35.9 ± 1.6 °C) for premedication. Rectal temperature varied directly with ambient temperature in MRI scanning room and inversely with anaesthetic duration. Using an HME did not alter body temperature in dogs weighing temperature during anaesthesia. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in photosynthesis and soil moisture drive the seasonal soil respiration-temperature hysteresis relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan Zhang; Richard P. Phillips; Stefano Manzoni; Russell L. Scott; A. Christopher Oishi; Adrien Finzi; Edoardo Daly; Rodrigo Vargas; Kimberly A. Novick

    2018-01-01

    In nearly all large-scale terrestrial ecosystem models, soil respiration is represented as a function of soil temperature. However, the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature is highly variable across sites and there is often a pronounced hysteresis in the soil respiration-temperature relationship over the course of the growing season. This...

  3. Improving Soil Moisture Estimation with a Dual Ensemble Kalman Smoother by Jointly Assimilating AMSR-E Brightness Temperature and MODIS LST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijing Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainties in model parameters can easily result in systematic differences between model states and observations, which significantly affect the accuracy of soil moisture estimation in data assimilation systems. In this research, a soil moisture assimilation scheme is developed to jointly assimilate AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System brightness temperature (TB and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Land Surface Temperature (LST products, which also corrects model bias by simultaneously updating model states and parameters with a dual ensemble Kalman filter (DEnKS. Common Land Model (CoLM and a Radiative Transfer Model (RTM are adopted as model and observation operator, respectively. The assimilation experiment was conducted in Naqu on the Tibet Plateau from 31 May to 27 September 2011. The updated soil temperature at surface obtained by assimilating MODIS LST serving as inputs of RTM is to reduce the differences between the simulated and observed TB, then AMSR-E TB is assimilated to update soil moisture and model parameters. Compared with in situ measurements, the accuracy of soil moisture estimation derived from the assimilation experiment has been tremendously improved at a variety of scales. The updated parameters effectively reduce the states bias of CoLM. The results demonstrate the potential of assimilating AMSR-E TB and MODIS LST to improve the estimation of soil moisture and related parameters. Furthermore, this study indicates that the developed scheme is an effective way to retrieve downscaled soil moisture when assimilating the coarse-scale microwave TB.

  4. Toxicokinetics of Zn and Cd in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to metal-contaminated soils under different combinations of air temperature and soil moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaraz, M Nazaret; Loureiro, Susana; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated how different combinations of air temperature (20 °C and 25 °C) and soil moisture content (50% and 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC), reflecting realistic climate change scenarios, affect the bioaccumulation kinetics of Zn and Cd in the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Earthworms were exposed for 21 d to two metal-contaminated soils (uptake phase), followed by 21 d incubation in non-contaminated soil (elimination phase). Body Zn and Cd concentrations were checked in time and metal uptake (k 1 ) and elimination (k 2 ) rate constants determined; metal bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was calculated as k 1 /k 2 . Earthworms showed extremely fast uptake and elimination of Zn, regardless of the exposure level. Climate conditions had no major impacts on the bioaccumulation kinetics of Zn, although a tendency towards lower k 1 and k 2 values was observed at 25 °C + 30% WHC. Earthworm Cd concentrations gradually increased with time upon exposure to metal-contaminated soils, especially at 50% WHC, and remained constant or slowly decreased following transfer to non-contaminated soil. Different combinations of air temperature and soil moisture content changed the bioaccumulation kinetics of Cd, leading to higher k 1 and k 2 values for earthworms incubated at 25 °C + 50% WHC and slower Cd kinetics at 25 °C + 30% WHC. This resulted in greater BAFs for Cd at warmer and drier environments which could imply higher toxicity risks but also of transfer of Cd within the food chain under the current global warming perspective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimating surface turbulent heat fluxes from land surface temperature and soil moisture using the particle batch smoother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Dong, Jianzhi; Steele-Dunne, Susan; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    This study is focused on estimating surface sensible and latent heat fluxes from land surface temperature (LST) time series and soil moisture observations. Surface turbulent heat fluxes interact with the overlying atmosphere and play a crucial role in meteorology, hydrology and other climate-related fields, but in-situ measurements are costly and difficult. It has been demonstrated that the time series of LST contains information of energy partitioning and that surface turbulent heat fluxes can be determined from assimilation of LST. These studies are mainly based on two assumptions: (1) a monthly value of bulk heat transfer coefficient under neutral conditions (CHN) which scales the sum of the fluxes, and (2) an evaporation fraction (EF) which stays constant during the near-peak hours of the day. Previous studies have applied variational and ensemble approaches to this problem. Here the newly developed particle batch smoother (PBS) algorithm is adopted to test its capability in this application. The PBS can be seen as an extension of the standard particle filter (PF) in which the states and parameters within a fix window are updated in a batch using all observations in the window. The aim of this study is two-fold. First, the PBS is used to assimilate only LST time series into the force-restore model to estimate fluxes. Second, a simple soil water transfer scheme is introduced to evaluate the benefit of assimilating soil moisture observations simultaneously. The experiments are implemented using the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) (FIFE) data. It is shown that the restored LST time series using PBS agrees very well with observations, and that assimilating LST significantly improved the flux estimation at both daily and half-hourly time scales. When soil moisture is introduced to further constrain EF, the accuracy of estimated EF is greatly improved. Furthermore, the RMSEs of retrieved fluxes are effectively reduced at both

  6. Changes in photosynthesis and soil moisture drive the seasonal soil respiration-temperature hysteresis relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    In nearly all large-scale models, CO2 efflux from soil (i.e., soil respiration) is represented as a function of soil temperature. However, the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature is highly variable at the local scale, and there is often a pronounced hysteresis in the soil resp...

  7. Evaluating soil moisture retrievals from ESA’s SMOS and NASA’s SMAP brightness temperature datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yaari, A.; Wigneron, J.-P.; Kerr, Y.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, N.; O’Neill, P. E.; Jackson, T. J.; De Lannoy, G.J.M.; Al Bitar, A; Mialon, A.; Richaume, P.; Walker, JP; Mahmoodi, A.; Yueh, S.

    2018-01-01

    Two satellites are currently monitoring surface soil moisture (SM) using L-band observations: SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), a joint ESA (European Space Agency), CNES (Centre national d’études spatiales), and CDTI (the Spanish government agency with responsibility for space) satellite launched on November 2, 2009 and SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive), a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellite successfully launched in January 2015. In this study, we used a multilinear regression approach to retrieve SM from SMAP data to create a global dataset of SM, which is consistent with SM data retrieved from SMOS. This was achieved by calibrating coefficients of the regression model using the CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données) SMOS Level 3 SM and the horizontally and vertically polarized brightness temperatures (TB) at 40° incidence angle, over the 2013 – 2014 period. Next, this model was applied to SMAP L3 TB data from Apr 2015 to Jul 2016. The retrieved SM from SMAP (referred to here as SMAP_Reg) was compared to: (i) the operational SMAP L3 SM (SMAP_SCA), retrieved using the baseline Single Channel retrieval Algorithm (SCA); and (ii) the operational SMOSL3 SM, derived from the multiangular inversion of the L-MEB model (L-MEB algorithm) (SMOSL3). This inter-comparison was made against in situ soil moisture measurements from more than 400 sites spread over the globe, which are used here as a reference soil moisture dataset. The in situ observations were obtained from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN; https://ismn.geo.tuwien.ac.at/) in North of America (PBO_H2O, SCAN, SNOTEL, iRON, and USCRN), in Australia (Oznet), Africa (DAHRA), and in Europe (REMEDHUS, SMOSMANIA, FMI, and RSMN). The agreement was analyzed in terms of four classical statistical criteria: Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), Bias, Unbiased RMSE (UnbRMSE), and correlation coefficient (R). Results of the comparison of these various products with in

  8. Seasonal reversal of temperature-moisture response of net carbon exchange of biocrusted soils in a cool desert ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C.; Reed, S.; Howell, A.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon cycling associated with biological soil crusts, which occur in interspaces between vascular plants in drylands globally, may be an important part of the coupled climate-carbon cycle of the Earth system. A major challenge to understanding CO2 fluxes in these systems is that much of the biotic and biogeochemical activity occurs in the upper few mm of the soil surface layer (i.e., the `mantle of fertility'), which exhibits highly dynamic and difficult to measure temperature and moisture fluctuations. Here, we report data collected in a cool desert ecosystem over one year using a multi-sensor approach to simultaneously measuring temperature and moisture of the biocrust surface layer (0-2 mm), and the deeper soil profile (5-20 cm), concurrent with automated measurement of surface soil CO2 effluxes. Our results illuminate robust relationships between microclimate and field CO2 pulses that have previously been difficult to detect and explain. The temperature of the biocrust surface layer was highly variable, ranging from minimum of -9 °C in winter to maximum of 77 °C in summer with a maximum diurnal range of 61 °C. Temperature cycles were muted deeper in the soil profile. During summer, biocrust and soils were usually hot and dry and CO2 fluxes were tightly coupled to pulse wetting events experienced at the biocrust surface, which consistently resulted in net CO2 efflux (i.e., respiration). In contrast, during the winter, biocrust and soils were usually cold and moist, and there was sustained net CO2 uptake via photosynthesis by biocrust organisms, although during cold dry periods CO2 fluxes were minimal. During the milder spring and fall seasons, short wetting events drove CO2 loss, while sustained wetting events resulted in net CO2 uptake. Thus, the upper and lower bounds of net CO2 exchange at a point in time were functions of the seasonal temperature regime, while the actual flux within those bounds was determined by the magnitude and duration of biocrust

  9. Influence of moisture content and temperature on degree of carbonation and the effect on Cu and Cr leaching from incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenlin Yvonne; Heng, Kim Soon; Sun, Xiaolong; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the influence of moisture content and temperature on the degree of carbonation of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration bottom ash (IBA) from two different incineration plants in Singapore. The initial rate of carbonation was affected by the nominal moisture content used. Carbonation temperature seemed to play a part in changing the actual moisture content of IBA during carbonation, which in turn affected the degree of carbonation. Results showed that 2h of carbonation was sufficient for the samples to reach a relatively high degree of carbonation that was close to the degree of carbonation observed after 1week of carbonation. Both Cu and Cr leaching also showed significant reduction after only 2h of carbonation. Therefore, the optimum moisture content and temperature were selected based on 2h of carbonation. The optimum moisture content was 15% for both incineration plants while the optimum temperature was different for the two incineration plants, at 35°C and 50°C. The effect on Cu and Cr leaching from IBA after accelerated carbonation was evaluated as a function of carbonation time. Correlation coefficient, Pearson's R, was used to determine the dominant leaching mechanism. The reduction in Cu leaching was found to be contributed by both formation of carbonate mineral and reduction of DOC leaching. On the other hand, Cr leaching seemed to be dominantly controlled by pH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnitude and reactivity consequences of accidental moisture ingress into the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, O.L.

    1992-01-01

    Accidental admission of moisture into the primary system of a Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) has been identified in US Department of Energy-sponsored studies as an important safety concern. The work described here develops an analytical methodology to quantify the pressure and reactivity consequences of steam-generator tube rupture and other moistureingress-related incidents. Important neutronic and thermohydraulic processes are coupled with reactivity feedback and safety and control system responses. Rate and magnitude of steam buildup are found to be dominated by major system features such as break size in comparison with safety valve capacity and reliability, while being less sensitive to factors such as heat transfer coefficients. The results indicate that ingress transients progress at a slower pace than previously predicted by bounding analyses, with milder power overshoots and more time for operator or automatic corrective actions

  11. Effects of temperature and immersion time on diffusion of moisture and minerals during rehydration of osmotically treated pork meat cubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the changes in osmotically treated pork meat during rehydration. Meat samples were osmotically treated in sugar beet molasses solution, at temperature of (23±2°C for 5 hours. After being osmotically treated, meat samples were rehydrated at constant temperature (20- 40°C during different times (15-60 min in distilled water. The effective diffusivity were between 8.35 and 9.11•10-10 (m2•s-1 for moisture, 6.30-6.94 • 10-10 (m2•s-1, for Na, 5.73-7.46 10-10 (m2•s-1, for K, 4.43-6.25 • 10-10 (m2•s-1, for Ca, 5.35-6.25 • 10-10 (m2•s-1, for Mg, 4.67-6.78 10-10 (m2•s-1, for Cu, 4.68-5.33 • 10-10 (m2•s-1, for Fe, 4.21-5.04 • 10-10 (m2•s-1, for Zn and 5.44-7.16 10-10 (m2•s-1, for Mn. Zugarramurdi and Lupin’s model was used to predict the equilibrium condition, which was shown to be appropriate for moisture uptake and solute loss during rehydration. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31055: Osmotic dehydration of food - energy and environmental aspects of sustainable production

  12. Brightness Temperature and Soil Moisture Validation at Different Scales During the SMOS Validation Campaign in the Rur and Erft Catchments, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montzka, Carsten; Bogena, Heye R.; Weihermüller, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite was launched in November 2009 and delivers now brightness temperature and soil moisture products over terrestrial areas on a regular three-day basis. In 2010, several airborne campaigns were conducted to validate the SMOS......-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere model. Measurements of the airborne L-band sensors EMIRAD and HUT-2D on-board a Skyvan aircraft as well as ground-based mobile measurements performed with the truck mounted JÜLBARA L-band radiometer were analyzed for calibration of the simulated brightness temperature...

  13. Statistical Modelling of Temperature and Moisture Uptake of Biochars Exposed to Selected Relative Humidity of Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Bastistella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available New experimental techniques, as well as modern variants on known methods, have recently been employed to investigate the fundamental reactions underlying the oxidation of biochar. The purpose of this paper was to experimentally and statistically study how the relative humidity of air, mass, and particle size of four biochars influenced the adsorption of water and the increase in temperature. A random factorial design was employed using the intuitive statistical software Xlstat. A simple linear regression model and an analysis of variance with a pairwise comparison were performed. The experimental study was carried out on the wood of Quercus pubescens, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Trigonostemon huangmosun, and Bambusa vulgaris, and involved five relative humidity conditions (22, 43, 75, 84, and 90%, two mass samples (0.1 and 1 g, and two particle sizes (powder and piece. Two response variables including water adsorption and temperature increase were analyzed and discussed. The temperature did not increase linearly with the adsorption of water. Temperature was modeled by nine explanatory variables, while water adsorption was modeled by eight. Five variables, including factors and their interactions, were found to be common to the two models. Sample mass and relative humidity influenced the two qualitative variables, while particle size and biochar type only influenced the temperature.

  14. Static reliability of concrete structures under extreme temperature, radiation, moisture and force loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanek, P.; Stastnik, S.; Salajka, V.; Hradil, P.; Skolar, J.; Chlanda, V.

    2003-01-01

    The contribution presents some aspects of the static reliability of concrete structures under temperature effects and under mechanical loading. The mathematical model of a load-bearing concrete structure was performed using the FEM method. The temperature field and static stress that generated states of stress were taken into account. A brief description of some aspects of evaluation of the reliability within the primary circuit concrete structures is stated. The knowledge of actual physical and mechanical characteristics and chemical composition of concrete were necessary for obtaining correct results of numerical analysis. (author)

  15. The influence of soil moisture, temperature and oxygen on the oxic decay of organic archaeological deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Matthiesen, H.

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of organic-rich archaeological layers at Bryggen in Bergen, Norway, to changes in soil temperatures, water contents and oxygen concentrations is investigated. This is done by linking measurements of oxic decay at varying temperatures and water contents with on-site monitoring data...... using a one-pool decomposition model. The results show that the model can be used to elucidate the current in situ decay and to evaluate where and when the decay takes place. Future investigations need to include long-term incubation experiments and decay studies at zero or very low oxygen contents...

  16. Effect of pH, temperature and moisture content during composting of rice straw burning at different temperature with food waste and effective microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakarya Irnis Azura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw is considered as one of the most important agricultural residues and represented as one of the major by-products from rice production process. Normally, rice straw that produced after harvesting season been directly burned on-farm. Conversion of rice straw into value added compost will improve the productivity of plant, reduction of pollution towards environment and reduction of local pollution due to open burning activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of composting rice straw ash (RSA with food waste (FW and effective microorganisms (EM in term of the compost quality (pH, temperature, moisture content. RSA was prepared by burning the raw rice straw at three different temperature of 300°C, 400°C and 500°C for one hour. EM used during the composting process was prepared by mixing of brown sugar, ‘tempe’ and water that can be used after one week of fermentation process. There are four treatments of RSA-compost; RSA (300°C, RSA (400°C, RSA (500°C and control (raw rice straw with the same amount of compost medium; 1kg black soil, 0.5kg RSA, 3L EM and 1kg FW. The composting process happens for 30 days. During the composting process, all the parameters of RSA-compost obtained in a range like; pH value 8-10, temperature 20-50°C and moisture content 40-60%. The result showed that all compost quality of rice straw ash compost obtained in an acceptable range for final compost to establish.

  17. Effect of pH, temperature and moisture content during composting of rice straw burning at different temperature with food waste and effective microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azura Zakarya, Irnis; Baya Khalib, Siti Noor; Ramzi, Norhasykin Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Rice straw is considered as one of the most important agricultural residues and represented as one of the major by-products from rice production process. Normally, rice straw that produced after harvesting season been directly burned on-farm. Conversion of rice straw into value added compost will improve the productivity of plant, reduction of pollution towards environment and reduction of local pollution due to open burning activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of composting rice straw ash (RSA) with food waste (FW) and effective microorganisms (EM) in term of the compost quality (pH, temperature, moisture content). RSA was prepared by burning the raw rice straw at three different temperature of 300°C, 400°C and 500°C for one hour. EM used during the composting process was prepared by mixing of brown sugar, `tempe' and water that can be used after one week of fermentation process. There are four treatments of RSA-compost; RSA (300°C), RSA (400°C), RSA (500°C) and control (raw rice straw) with the same amount of compost medium; 1kg black soil, 0.5kg RSA, 3L EM and 1kg FW. The composting process happens for 30 days. During the composting process, all the parameters of RSA-compost obtained in a range like; pH value 8-10, temperature 20-50°C and moisture content 40-60%. The result showed that all compost quality of rice straw ash compost obtained in an acceptable range for final compost to establish.

  18. Exploiting the synergy between SMAP and SMOS to improve brightness temperature simulations and soil moisture retrievals in arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem; Hamzeh, Saeid; Amiraslani, Farshad; Neysani Samany, Najmeh; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to exploit the synergy between SMOS and SMAP based on vegetation optical depth (VOD) to improve brightness temperature (TB) simulations and land surface soil moisture (SM) retrievals in arid regions of the world. In the current operational algorithm of SMAP (level 2), vegetation water content (VWC) is considered as a proxy to compute VOD which is calculated by an empirical conversion function of NDVI. Avoiding the empirical estimation of VOD, the SMOS algorithm is used to retrieve simultaneously SM and VOD from TB observations. The present study attempted to improve SMAP TB simulations and SM retrievals by benefiting from the advantages of the SMOS (L-MEB) algorithm. This was achieved by using a synergy method based on replacing the default value of SMAP VOD with the retrieved value of VOD from the SMOS multi angular and bi-polarization observations of TB. The insitu SM measurements, used as reference SM in this study, were obtained from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) over 180 stations located in arid regions of the world. Furthermore, four stations were randomly selected to analyze the temporal variations in VOD and SM. Results of the synergy method showed that the accuracy of the TB simulations and SM retrievals was respectively improved at 144 and 124 stations (out of a total of 180 stations) in terms of coefficient of determination (R2) and unbiased root mean squared error (UbRMSE). Analyzing the temporal variations in VOD showed that the SMOS VOD, conversely to the SMAP VOD, can better illustrate the presence of herbaceous plants and may be a better indicator of the seasonal changes in the vegetation density and biomass over the year.

  19. Material degradation due to moisture and temperature. Part 1: mathematical model, analysis, and analytical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Mudunuru, M. K.; Nakshatrala, K. B.

    2016-11-01

    The mechanical response, serviceability, and load-bearing capacity of materials and structural components can be adversely affected due to external stimuli, which include exposure to a corrosive chemical species, high temperatures, temperature fluctuations (i.e., freezing-thawing), cyclic mechanical loading, just to name a few. It is, therefore, of paramount importance in several branches of engineering—ranging from aerospace engineering, civil engineering to biomedical engineering—to have a fundamental understanding of degradation of materials, as the materials in these applications are often subjected to adverse environments. As a result of recent advancements in material science, new materials such as fiber-reinforced polymers and multi-functional materials that exhibit high ductility have been developed and widely used, for example, as infrastructural materials or in medical devices (e.g., stents). The traditional small-strain approaches of modeling these materials will not be adequate. In this paper, we study degradation of materials due to an exposure to chemical species and temperature under large strain and large deformations. In the first part of our research work, we present a consistent mathematical model with firm thermodynamic underpinning. We then obtain semi-analytical solutions of several canonical problems to illustrate the nature of the quasi-static and unsteady behaviors of degrading hyperelastic solids.

  20. Effect of temperature and moisture on the fracture energy and the thermal properties of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallel, H.; Carre, H.; Laborderie, C.; Masson, B.; Tran, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, during a severe accident the containment building undergoes an increase of pressure, temperature and relative humidity that can reach respectively 5 bars, 140 C. degrees and the saturation of water vapor. Beyond the regulatory calculations, a suitable knowledge of the thermal and mechanical behaviour of the materials and more specifically of the concrete is required to carry out accurate numerical simulations. An experimental apparatus has been designed to assess the fracture energy (G f ) evolutions for concrete under various experimental conditions in terms of temperature and relative humidity of the concrete. Mechanical tests have been performed under different controlled conditions in terms of temperature (T=30 C. degrees ) and liquid water degree of saturation S w (four target values of 50, 70, 90 and 100%). These values of liquid water degree of saturation have been obtained by conditioning the relative humidity of the sealed environment where specimens have been left for the equalisation process by using potassium salt solutions. DCT (Disk-shape Compact Tension) test has been chosen for determining G f . In comparison with three points bending test, the typology of the test, the equipment and all test devices have been validated. Test results show clearly the decreasing of the fracture energy as saturation degree increases. This evolution has a linear trend for S w ranging from 36 % to 97 %

  1. Toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus crypticus changes under a global warming perspective: Variations in air temperature and soil moisture content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Alcaraz, M.N.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess how the current global warming perspective, with increasing air temperature (20 °C vs. 25 °C) and decreasing soil moisture content (50% vs. 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC), affected the toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus

  2. Moisture rivals temperature in limiting photosynthesis by trees establishing beyond their cold-edge range limit under ambient and warmed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B.; Germino, Matthew J.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is altering plant species distributions globally, and warming is expected to promote uphill shifts in mountain trees. However, at many cold-edge range limits, such as alpine treelines in the western United States, tree establishment may be colimited by low temperature and low moisture, making recruitment patterns with warming difficult to predict.

  3. Assessment of tracheal temperature and humidity in laryngectomized individuals and the influence of a heat and moisture exchanger on tracheal climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuur, J. Karel; Muller, Saar H.; Vincent, Andrew; Sinaasappel, Michiel; de Jongh, Frans H. C.; Hilgers, Frans J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The beneficial function of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) is undisputed, but knowledge of their effects on intra-airway temperature and humidity is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical applicability of a new airway climate explorer (ACE) and to assess the HME's influence

  4. The relative controls of temperature, soil moisture, and plant functional group on soil CO2 efflux at diel, seasonal, and annual scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil respiration (Rsoil) is a dominant, but variable, contributor to ecosystem CO2 efflux. Understanding how variations in major environmental drivers, like temperature and available moisture, might regulate Rsoil has become extremely relevant. Plant functional-type diversity makes such assessments ...

  5. Differential responses of production and respiration to temperature and moisture drive the carbon balance across a climatic gradient in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira; John P. Delong; Andrew M. Fox; Daniel A. Brese; Marcy E. Litvak

    2011-01-01

    Southwestern North America faces an imminent transition to a warmer, more arid climate, and it is critical to understand how these changes will affect the carbon balance of southwest ecosystems. In order to test our hypothesis that differential responses of production and respiration to temperature and moisture shape the carbon balance across a range of spatio-temporal...

  6. A Method for Assessing the Quality of Model-Based Estimates of Ground Temperature and Atmospheric Moisture Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Man Li C.; Schubert, Siegfried; Lin, Ching I.; Stajner, Ivanka; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A method is developed for validating model-based estimates of atmospheric moisture and ground temperature using satellite data. The approach relates errors in estimates of clear-sky longwave fluxes at the top of the Earth-atmosphere system to errors in geophysical parameters. The fluxes include clear-sky outgoing longwave radiation (CLR) and radiative flux in the window region between 8 and 12 microns (RadWn). The approach capitalizes on the availability of satellite estimates of CLR and RadWn and other auxiliary satellite data, and multiple global four-dimensional data assimilation (4-DDA) products. The basic methodology employs off-line forward radiative transfer calculations to generate synthetic clear-sky longwave fluxes from two different 4-DDA data sets. Simple linear regression is used to relate the clear-sky longwave flux discrepancies to discrepancies in ground temperature ((delta)T(sub g)) and broad-layer integrated atmospheric precipitable water ((delta)pw). The slopes of the regression lines define sensitivity parameters which can be exploited to help interpret mismatches between satellite observations and model-based estimates of clear-sky longwave fluxes. For illustration we analyze the discrepancies in the clear-sky longwave fluxes between an early implementation of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS2) and a recent operational version of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts data assimilation system. The analysis of the synthetic clear-sky flux data shows that simple linear regression employing (delta)T(sub g)) and broad layer (delta)pw provides a good approximation to the full radiative transfer calculations, typically explaining more thin 90% of the 6 hourly variance in the flux differences. These simple regression relations can be inverted to "retrieve" the errors in the geophysical parameters, Uncertainties (normalized by standard deviation) in the monthly mean retrieved parameters range from 7% for

  7. Higher spin entanglement entropy at finite temperature with chemical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bin [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology,Peking University,Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter,5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Beijing Center for Mathematics and Information Interdisciplinary Sciences, Beijing 100048 (China); Wu, Jie-qiang [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology,Peking University,Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-07-11

    It is generally believed that the semiclassical AdS{sub 3} higher spin gravity could be described by a two dimensional conformal field theory with W-algebra symmetry in the large central charge limit. In this paper, we study the single interval entanglement entropy on the torus in the CFT with a W{sub 3} deformation. More generally we develop the monodromy analysis to compute the two-point function of the light operators under a thermal density matrix with a W{sub 3} chemical potential to the leading order. Holographically we compute the probe action of the Wilson line in the background of the spin-3 black hole with a chemical potential. We find exact agreement.

  8. N2O emission from urine in the soil in the beef production in Southeast Brazil: soil moisture content and temperature effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões Barneze, Arlete; Mancebo Mazzetto, Andre; Fernandes Zani, Caio; Siqueira Neto, Marcos; Clemente Cerri, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    .05 probability level. Nitrogen mineralization and nitri?cation were higher at the higher temperature and higher soil water content. Significant effects of urine application and moisture were found (P

  9. Effects of moisture, elevated temperature, and fatigue loading on the behavior of graphite/epoxy buffer strip panels with center cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of fatigue loading combined with moisture and heat on the behavior of graphite epoxy panels with either Kevlar-49 or S-glass buffer strips were studied. Buffer strip panels, that had a slit in the center to represent damage, were moisture conditioned or heated, fatigue loaded, and then tested in tension to measure their residual strength. The buffer strips were parallel to the loading direction and were made by replacing narrow strips of the 0 deg graphite plies with Kevlar-49 epoxy or S-glass epoxy on a 1-for-1 basis. The panels were subjected to a fatigue loading spectrum. One group of panels was preconditioned by soaking in 60 C water to produce a 1 percent weight gain then tested at room temperature. One group was heated to 82 C during the fatigue loading. Another group was moisture conditioned and then tested at 82 C. The residual strengths of the buffer panels were not highly affected by the fatigue loading, the number of repetitions of the loading spectrum, or the maximum strain level. The moisture conditioning reduced the residual strengths of the S-glass buffer strip panel by 10 to 15 percent below the ambient results. The moisture conditioning did not have a large effect on the Kevlar-49 panels.

  10. Fort St. Vrain high temperature gas-cooled reactor. Pt. 12. The dew point moisture monitor testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, H.G. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Brey, H.L. (Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver (USA)); Swart, F.E. (Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates, La Jolla, CA (USA)); Forbis, J.M. (Storage Technology Corp., Louisville, CO (USA))

    1982-09-01

    Moisture ingress into the core volume could cause damaging reactions with the moderator-reflector graphite and burnable poison, therefore a dew point moisture monitoring system has been developed with the basic design criteria that a plant protective system trip is signaled after the system detects high primary coolant helium moisture levels and that the system is able to correctly identify which of two steam generator loops is leaking. Modifications to the sample supplies to the monitors were necessary to reduce the system's unsatisfactory response time at lower reactor power levels.

  11. Use of visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared remote sensing to study soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, M. B.; Greeley, R.; Goettelman, R.

    1974-01-01

    Two methods are described which are used to estimate soil moisture remotely using the 0.4- to 14.0 micron wavelength region: (1) measurement of spectral reflectance, and (2) measurement of soil temperature. The reflectance method is based on observations which show that directional reflectance decreases as soil moisture increases for a given material. The soil temperature method is based on observations which show that differences between daytime and nighttime soil temperatures decrease as moisture content increases for a given material. In some circumstances, separate reflectance or temperature measurements yield ambiguous data, in which case these two methods may be combined to obtain a valid soil moisture determination. In this combined approach, reflectance is used to estimate low moisture levels; and thermal inertia (or thermal diffusivity) is used to estimate higher levels. The reflectance method appears promising for surface estimates of soil moisture, whereas the temperature method appears promising for estimates of near-subsurface (0 to 10 cm).

  12. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in moisture-enhanced nonintact beef by pan-broiling or roasting with various cooking appliances set at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cangliang; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Belk, Keith E; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in moisture-enhanced restructured nonintact beef cooked to 65 °C using different cooking appliances set at different temperatures. Batches (2 kg) of coarse-ground beef (approximately 5% fat) were mixed with an 8-strain composite (100 mL) of rifampicin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 (6.4 ± 0.1 log CFU/g) and a solution (100 mL) of sodium chloride plus sodium tripolyphosphate to yield concentrations (wt/wt) of 0.5% and 0.25%, respectively, in the final product. Beef portions of 2.54 cm thickness (15 cm dia) were prepared and were vacuum-packaged and frozen (-20 °C, 42 h). Partially thawed (-2.5 ± 1.0 °C) portions were pan-broiled (Presto electric skillet and Sanyo grill) or roasted (Oster toaster oven and Magic Chef kitchen oven) to 65 °C. The appliances were set at, and preheated before cooking to 149 or 204 °C (electric skillet), 149 or 218 °C (grill), 149 or 232 °C (toaster oven), and 149, 204, or 260 °C (kitchen oven). Temperatures of appliances and beef samples were monitored with thermocouples, and meat samples were analyzed for surviving microbial populations. In general, the higher the appliance temperature setting, the shorter the time needed to reach 65 °C, and the higher the edge and surface temperatures of the meat samples. Temperatures of 204 to 260 °C, regardless of appliance, resulted in greater (P kitchen oven set at 260 °C. The results should be useful to the food service industry for selection of effective nonintact beef cooking protocols, and for use in risk assessments for nonintact meat products. Practical Application: Results of this study should be useful for developing cooking recommendations to enhance the safety of nonintact beef products, and for use in risk assessments of such products.

  13. Grau de umidade e temperatura na conservação de sementes de café Moisture content and temperature on the preservation of coffee seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL FELIPE DE OLIVEIRA GENTIL

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar as influências do grau de umidade e da temperatura de armazenamento na manutenção da qualidade de sementes de Coffea arabica L. Sementes com 51%, 41%, 34%, 23%, 16% e 10% de água, acondicionadas em sacos de polietileno e mantidas sob temperaturas de 30 °C, 20 °C e 10 °C, durante 48 semanas de armazenamento, foram submetidas a avaliações periódicas do grau de umidade, da germinação, do vigor e da sanidade. Foi constatado que as reduções do grau de umidade até 10% e da temperatura até 10 °C são favoráveis à manutenção da qualidade fisiológica das sementes, e que umidade próxima a 23% favorece o estabelecimento de Penicillium sp. e de Aspergillus sp. nas sementes.The aim of this work was to verify the influences of the moisture content and storage temperature in the preservation of Coffea arabica L. seeds. Seeds with 51%, 41%, 34%, 23%, 16% and 10% moisture content were packed in polyethylene bags and stored at temperatures of 30 °C, 20 °C and 10 °C for forty-eight weeks, and submitted to periodic evaluations of moisture content, germination, vigour and sanity. Decreases in moisture content until 10% and temperature until 10 °C were favorable to the maintenance of seed physiological quality. Seed moisture content around 23% favor the establishment of Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp.

  14. Yeast communities in Sphagnum phyllosphere along the temperature-moisture ecocline in the boreal forest-swamp ecosystem and description of Candida sphagnicola sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalkin, Aleksey V; Yurkov, Andrey M

    2012-06-01

    The effects of the temperature-moisture factors on the phylloplane yeast communities inhabiting Sphagnum mosses were studied along the transition from a boreal forest to a swamp biotope at the Central Forest State Biosphere Reserve (Tver region, Russia). We tested the hypothesis that microclimatic parameters affect yeast community composition and structure even on a rather small spatial scale. Using a conventional plating technique we isolated and identified by molecular methods a total of 15 species of yeasts. Total yeast counts and species richness values did not depend on environmental factors, although yeast community composition and structure did. On average, Sphagnum in the swamp biotope supported a more evenly structured yeast community. Relative abundance of ascomycetous yeasts was significantly higher on swamp moss. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa dominated in the spruce forest and Cryptococcus magnus was more abundant in the swamp. Our study confirmed the low occurrence of tremellaceous yeasts in the Sphagnum phyllosphere. Of the few isolated ascomycetous yeast and yeast-like species, some were differentiated from hitherto known species in physiological tests and phylogenetic analyses. We describe one of them as Candida sphagnicola and designate KBP Y-3887(T) (=CBS 11774(T) = VKPM Y-3566(T) = MUCL 53590(T)) as the type strain. The new species was registered in MycoBank under MB 563443.

  15. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  16. Soil hydraulic parameters and surface soil moisture of a tilled bare soil plot inversely derived from l-band brightness temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Dimitrov, Marin

    2014-01-01

    We coupled a radiative transfer model and a soil hydrologic model (HYDRUS 1D) with an optimization routine to derive soil hydraulic parameters, surface roughness, and soil moisture of a tilled bare soil plot using measured brightness temperatures at 1.4 GHz (L-band), rainfall, and potential soil evaporation. The robustness of the approach was evaluated using five 28-d data sets representing different meteorological conditions. We considered two soil hydraulic property models: the unimodal Mualem-van Genuchten and the bimodal model of Durner. Microwave radiative transfer was modeled by three different approaches: the Fresnel equation with depth-averaged dielectric permittivity of either 2-or 5-cm-thick surface layers and a coherent radiative transfer model (CRTM) that accounts for vertical gradients in dielectric permittivity. Brightness temperatures simulated by the CRTM and the 2-cm-layer Fresnel model fitted well to the measured ones. L-band brightness temperatures are therefore related to the dielectric permittivity and soil moisture in a 2-cm-thick surface layer. The surface roughness parameter that was derived from brightness temperatures using inverse modeling was similar to direct estimates from laser profiler measurements. The laboratory-derived water retention curve was bimodal and could be retrieved consistently for the different periods from brightness temperatures using inverse modeling. A unimodal soil hydraulic property function underestimated the hydraulic conductivity near saturation. Surface soil moisture contents simulated using retrieved soil hydraulic parameters were compared with in situ measurements. Depth-specific calibration relations were essential to derive soil moisture from near-surface installed sensors. © Soil Science Society of America 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA.

  17. Moisture rivals temperature in limiting photosynthesis by trees establishing beyond their cold-edge range limit under ambient and warmed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M

    2015-09-01

    Climate change is altering plant species distributions globally, and warming is expected to promote uphill shifts in mountain trees. However, at many cold-edge range limits, such as alpine treelines in the western United States, tree establishment may be colimited by low temperature and low moisture, making recruitment patterns with warming difficult to predict. We measured response functions linking carbon (C) assimilation and temperature- and moisture-related microclimatic factors for limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seedlings growing in a heating × watering experiment within and above the alpine treeline. We then extrapolated these response functions using observed microclimate conditions to estimate the net effects of warming and associated soil drying on C assimilation across an entire growing season. Moisture and temperature limitations were each estimated to reduce potential growing season C gain from a theoretical upper limit by 15-30% (c. 50% combined). Warming above current treeline conditions provided relatively little benefit to modeled net assimilation, whereas assimilation was sensitive to either wetter or drier conditions. Summer precipitation may be at least as important as temperature in constraining C gain by establishing subalpine trees at and above current alpine treelines as seasonally dry subalpine and alpine ecosystems continue to warm. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Effects of moisture and extrusion temperatures on the oxidative stability of milling oat products with granularity below 532 µm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Gutkoski

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The present research had as objective to study the effects of moisture and extrusion temperatures on the oxidative stability of oat fine (Estudos foram realizados com o objetivo avaliar os efeitos de umidade inicial da matéria-prima e da temperatura de extrusão na estabilidade oxidativa de produtos de aveia (Avena sativa L. Cariopses de aveia foram moídas em moinho de rolos Brabender e obtidas frações de granulometrias superior e inferior a 532 µm. A fração de granulometria inferior a 532 µm, de alto teor de a,mido e baixos teores de proteínas, lipídios e fibra alimentar, foi condicionada na umidade desejada (15,5-25,5% e extrusada em extrusor de laboratório Brabender monorosca. As condições usadas na extrusão foram taxa de compressão de 3:1, rotação de 100 rpm, matriz de 6 mm de diâmetro e temperaturas entre 77,6 e 162,4ºC nas 2ª e 3ª zonas e de 80ºC na 1ª zona. O material extrusado foi seco em estufa, moído, acondicionado em sacos plásticos e utilizado periodicamente nas determinações de peróxidos e de n-hexanal. O conteúdo de ácidos graxos insaturados no óleo da fração de aveia estudada foi elevado (79,20%. Independentemente do teor de umidade inicial da matéria-prima, todos os produtos extrusados em temperaturas inferiores a 120 ºC apresentaram baixa rancidez oxidativa.

  19. Dependence of Indian monsoon rainfall on moisture fluxes across the Arabian Sea and the impact of coupled model sea surface temperature biases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Richard C. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Devon (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew G. [University of Reading, NCAS-Climate, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    The Arabian Sea is an important moisture source for Indian monsoon rainfall. The skill of climate models in simulating the monsoon and its variability varies widely, while Arabian Sea cold sea surface temperature (SST) biases are common in coupled models and may therefore influence the monsoon and its sensitivity to climate change. We examine the relationship between monsoon rainfall, moisture fluxes and Arabian Sea SST in observations and climate model simulations. Observational analysis shows strong monsoons depend on moisture fluxes across the Arabian Sea, however detecting consistent signals with contemporaneous summer SST anomalies is complicated in the observed system by air/sea coupling and large-scale induced variability such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation feeding back onto the monsoon through development of the Somali Jet. Comparison of HadGEM3 coupled and atmosphere-only configurations suggests coupled model cold SST biases significantly reduce monsoon rainfall. Idealised atmosphere-only experiments show that the weakened monsoon can be mainly attributed to systematic Arabian Sea cold SST biases during summer and their impact on the monsoon-moisture relationship. The impact of large cold SST biases on atmospheric moisture content over the Arabian Sea, and also the subsequent reduced latent heat release over India, dominates over any enhancement in the land-sea temperature gradient and results in changes to the mean state. We hypothesize that a cold base state will result in underestimation of the impact of larger projected Arabian Sea SST changes in future climate, suggesting that Arabian Sea biases should be a clear target for model development. (orig.)

  20. Remote SST Forcing and Local Land-Atmosphere Moisture Coupling as Drivers of Amazon Temperature and Carbon Cycle Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, P. A.; Xu, M.; Chen, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Interannual variability of climatic conditions in the Amazon rainforest is associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and ocean-atmosphere interactions in the North Atlantic. Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in these remote ocean regions drive teleconnections with Amazonian surface air temperature (T), precipitation (P), and net ecosystem production (NEP). While SST-driven NEP anomalies have been primarily linked to T anomalies, it is unclear how much the T anomalies result directly from SST forcing of atmospheric circulation, and how much result indirectly from decreases in precipitation that, in turn, influence surface energy fluxes. Interannual variability of P associated with SST anomalies lead to variability in soil moisture (SM), which would indirectly affect T via partitioning of turbulent heat fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. To separate the direct and indirect influence of the SST signal on T and NEP, we performed a mechanism-denial experiment to decouple SST and SM anomalies. We used the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACMEv0.3), with version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model and version 4.5 of the Community Land Model. We forced the model with observed SSTs from 1982-2016. We found that SST and SM variability both contribute to T and NEP anomalies in the Amazon, with relative contributions depending on lag time and location within the Amazon basin. SST anomalies associated with ENSO drive most of the T variability at shorter lag times, while the ENSO-driven SM anomalies contribute more to T variability at longer lag times. SM variability and the resulting influence on T anomalies are much stronger in the eastern Amazon than in the west. Comparing modeled T with observations demonstrate that SST alone is sufficient for simulating the correct timing of T variability, but SM anomalies are necessary for simulating the correct magnitude of the T variability. Modeled NEP indicated that variability in carbon fluxes

  1. Experimental and finite element study of the effect of temperature and moisture on the tangential tensile strength and fracture behavior in timber logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2014-01-01

    Timber is normally dried by kiln drying, in the course of which moisture-induced stresses and fractures can occur. Cracks occur primarily in the radial direction due to tangential tensile strength (TSt) that exceeds the strength of the material. The present article reports on experiments and nume......Timber is normally dried by kiln drying, in the course of which moisture-induced stresses and fractures can occur. Cracks occur primarily in the radial direction due to tangential tensile strength (TSt) that exceeds the strength of the material. The present article reports on experiments...... and numerical simulations by finite element modeling (FEM) concerning the TSt and fracture behavior of Norway spruce under various climatic conditions. Thin log disc specimens were studied to simplify the description of the moisture flow in the samples. The specimens designed for TS were acclimatized...... to a moisture content (MC) of 18% before TSt tests at 20°C, 60°C, and 90°C were carried out. The maximum stress results of the disc simulations by FEM were compared with the experimental strength results at the same temperature levels. There is a rather good agreement between the results of modeling...

  2. Selection of soil hydraulic properties in a land surface model using remotely-sensed soil moisture and surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellito, P. J.; Small, E. E.; Gutmann, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    Synoptic-scale weather is heavily influenced by latent and sensible heating from the land surface. The partitioning of available energy between these two fluxes as well as the distribution of moisture throughout the soil column is controlled by a unique set of soil hydraulic properties (SHPs) at every location. Weather prediction systems, which use coupled land surface and atmospheric models in their forecasts, must therefore be parameterized with estimates of SHPs. Currently, land surface models (LSMs) obtain SHP values by assuming a correlation exists between SHPs and the soil type, which the USDA maps in 12 classes. This method is spurious because texture is only one control of many that affects SHPs. Alternatively, SHPs can be obtained by calibrating them within the framework of an LSM. Because remotely-sensed data have the potential for continent-wide application, there is a critical need to understand their specific role in calibration efforts and the extent to which such calibrated SHPs can improve model simulations. This study focuses on SHP calibration with soil moisture content (SMC) and land surface temperature (Ts), data that are available from the SMOS and MODIS satellite missions, respectively. The scientific goals of this study are: (1) What is the model performance tradeoff between weighting SMC and Ts differently during the calibration process? (2) What can the tradeoff between calibration using in-situ and remotely-sensed SMC reveal about SHP scaling? (3) How are these relationships influenced by climatic regime and vegetation type? (4) To what extent can calibrated SHPs improve model performance over that of texture-based SHPs? Model calibrations are carried out within the framework of the Noah LSM using the Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis (SCEM-UA) algorithm in five different climatic regimes. At each site, a five-dimensional parameter space of SHPs is searched to find the location that minimizes the difference between observed and

  3. A simple interpretation of the surface temperature/vegetation index space for assessment of surface moisture status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Inge; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Andersen, Jens Asger

    2002-01-01

    -AVHRR images from 1990 covering part of the Ferlo region of northern, semiarid Senegal in West Africa. The spatial pattern in TVDI has been compared with simulations of soil moisture from a distributed hydrological model based on the MIKE SHE code. The spatial variation in TVDI reflects the variation...

  4. Surface moisture estimation in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yitong

    Surface moisture is an important parameter because it modifies urban microclimate and surface layer meteorology. The primary objectives of this paper are: 1) to analyze the impact of surface roughness from buildings on surface moisture in urban areas; and 2) to quantify the impact of surface roughness resulting from urban trees on surface moisture. To achieve the objectives, two hypotheses were tested: 1) the distribution of surface moisture is associated with the structural complexity of buildings in urban areas; and 2) The distribution and change of surface moisture is associated with the distribution and vigor of urban trees. The study area is Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. In the part of the morphology of urban trees, Warren Township was selected due to the limitation of tree inventory data. To test the hypotheses, the research design was made to extract the aerodynamic parameters, such as frontal areas, roughness length and displacement height of buildings and trees from Terrestrial and Airborne LiDAR data, then to input the aerodynamic parameters into the urban surface energy balance model. The methodology was developed for comparing the impact of aerodynamic parameters from LiDAR data with the parameters that were derived empirically from land use and land cover data. The analytical procedures are discussed below: 1) to capture the spatial and temporal variation of surface moisture, daily and hourly Land Surface Temperature (LST) were downscaled from 4 km to 1 km, and 960 m to 30 m, respectively, by regression between LST and various components that impact LST; 2) to estimate surface moisture, namely soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET), land surfaces were classified into soil, vegetation, and impervious surfaces, using Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA); 3) aerodynamic parameters of buildings and trees were extracted from Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR data; 4) the Temperature-Vegetation-Index (TVX) method, and the Two-Source-Energy-Balance (TSEB

  5. Determination of basalt physical and thermal properties at varying temperatures, pressures, and moisture contents. Third progress report, fiscal year 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The rock mechanics testing performed at the Earth Mechanics Institute of the Colorado School of Mines for Rockwell Hanford Operations under subcontract SA-917 is summarized. Cores were supplied from drill hole DC-4 on the Hanford Site, characterized geologically, and tested for thermal and physical properties for designing long-term underground storage of radioactive waste materials. The approved test procedures, results, and data analysis for this test series are presented. Uniaxial and triaxial results indicate strengths similar to drill hole DC-6, but significantly higher than drill hole DC-8. Trends with density, depth, confining pressure, and temperature, however, were similar for the three drill hole locations tested

  6. Systematic approach for the calibration of humidity sensitive polyimide recoated fibre Bragg gratings for measuring humidity and temperature and their application for measuring moisture absorption in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, T J; Lodeiro, M J; Gower, M R L; Sassi, M B

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic method for calibrating polyimide recoated fibre Bragg grating (FBG) optical fibres and the associated models used to measure temperature and relative humidity (RH) from 20 to 70 °C and 20% RH to 80% RH. The method was validated by comparing known values of temperature and RH with calculated values from two FBG sensors with different thicknesses of polyimide recoat. Results show good agreement, with a standard deviation error of 0.5 °C and 4.8% RH for temperature and humidity respectively. Drift in the measured wavelength was observed for both thicknesses of polyimide coating under the combined effect of elevated temperature and high humidity. This drift was reversed after a reduction in the humidity. Additional results are provided on the use of embedded polyimide recoated FBG optical fibres for measuring moisture ingress within polymers and composites. (paper)

  7. The contact-temperature ignition (CTI) criteria for propagating chemical reactions including the effect of moisture and application to Hanford waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    To assure the continued absence of uncontrolled condensed-phase chemical reactions in connection with the Hanford waste materials, efforts have been underway including both theoretical and experimental investigations to clarify the requirements for such reactions. This document defines the differences and requirements for homogeneous runaway and propagating chemical reactions incuding a discussion of general contact-temperature ignition (CTI) condition for propagating reactions that include the effect of moisture. The CTI condition implies that the contact temperature or interface temperature between reacted and unreacted materials must exceed the ignition temperature and is compared to experimental data including both synthetic ferrocyanide and surrogate organic materials. In all cases, the occurrences of ignition accompanied by self-propagating reactions are consistent with the theoretical anticipations of the CTI condition

  8. HIRS-AMTS satellite sounding system test - Theoretical and empirical vertical resolving power. [High resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder - Advanced Moisture and Temperature Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the vertical resolving power of satellite-borne temperature sounding instruments. Information is presented on the capabilities of the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) and a proposed sounding instrument called the Advanced Moisture and Temperature Sounder (AMTS). Two quite different methods for assessing the vertical resolving power of satellite sounders are discussed. The first is the theoretical method of Conrath (1972) which was patterned after the work of Backus and Gilbert (1968) The Backus-Gilbert-Conrath (BGC) approach includes a formalism for deriving a retrieval algorithm for optimizing the vertical resolving power. However, a retrieval algorithm constructed in the BGC optimal fashion is not necessarily optimal as far as actual temperature retrievals are concerned. Thus, an independent criterion for vertical resolving power is discussed. The criterion is based on actual retrievals of signal structure in the temperature field.

  9. Moisture and temperature in a proppant-enveloped silt block of a recharge dam reservoir: Laboratory experiment and 1-D mathematical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar Kacimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosaic 3-D cascade of parallelepiped-shaped silt blocks, which sandwich sand- lled cracks, has been discovered in the eld and tested in lab experiments. Controlled wetting-drying of these blocks, collected from a dam reservoir, mimics field ponding-desiccation conditions of the topsoil layer subject to caustic solar radiation, high temperature and wind, typical in the Batinah region of Oman. In 1-D analytical modelling of a transient Richards’ equation for vertical evaporation, the method of small perturbations is applied, assuming that the relative permeability is Avery-anov’s 3.5-power function of the moisture content and capillary pressure is a given (measured function. A linearized advective dispersion equation is solved with respect to the second term in the series expansion of the moisture content as a function of spatial coordinates and time. For a single block of a nite thickness we solve a boundary value problem with a no- ow condition at the bottom and a constant moisture content at the surface. Preliminary comparisons with theta-, TDR- probes measuring the moisture content and temperature at several in-block points are made. Results corroborate that a 3-D heterogeneity of soil physical properties, in particular, horizontal and vertical capillary barriers emerging on the interfaces between silt and sand generate eco-niches with stored soil water compartments favourable for lush vegetation in desert conditions. Desiccation significantly increases the temperature in the blocks and re-wetting of the blocks reduces the daily average and peak temperatures, the latter by almost 15°C. This is important for planning irrigation in smartly designed soil substrates and sustainability of wild plants in the region where the top soil peak temperature in the study area exceeds 70°C in Summer but smartly structured soils maintain lash vegetation. Thee layer of dry top-blocks acts as a thermal insulator for the subjacent layers of wet blocks that

  10. Temperature dependent investigation on optically active process of higher-order bands in irradiated silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yi; Nanjing Univ., JS; Wu Fengmei; Nanjing Univ., JS; Zheng Youdou; Nanjing Univ., JS; Suezawa, M.; Imai, M.; Sumino, K.

    1996-01-01

    Optically active processes of the higher-order bands (HOB) are investigated at different temperatures in fast neutron irradiated silicon using Fourier transform infrared absorption measurement. It is shown that the optically active process is nearly temperature independent below 80 K, the slow decay process remains up to a heating temperature of 180 K. The observations are analyzed in terms of the relaxation behavior of photoexcited carriers governed by fast neutron radiation induced defect clusters. (orig.)

  11. Temperature variation of higher-order elastic constants of MgO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    series of strains using Taylor's series expansion. The coefficients of quadratic, cu- ... as thermal expansion, specific heat at higher temperature, temperature variation of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation, .... such studies have an impression that linear variation of elastic constant is true. The experimental study shows that ...

  12. Carbon use efficiency (CUE) and biomass turnover of soil microbial communities as affected by bedrock, land management and soil temperature and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qing; Hu, Yuntao; Richter, Andreas; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Soil microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE), defined as the proportion of organic C taken up that is allocated to microbial growth, represents an important synthetic representation of microbial community C metabolism that describes the flux partitioning between microbial respiration and growth. Therefore, studying microbial CUE is critical for the understanding of soil C cycling. Microbial CUE is thought to vary with environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and soil moisture). Microbial CUE is thought to decrease with increasing temperature and declining soil moisture, as the latter may trigger stress responses (e.g. the synthesis of stress metabolites), which may consequently lower microbial community CUE. However, these effects on microbial CUE have not been adequately measured so far due to methodological restrictions. The most widely used methods for microbial CUE estimation are based on tracing 13C-labeled substrates into microbial biomass and respiratory CO2, approaches that are known to overestimate microbial CUE of native organic matter in soil. Recently, a novel substrate-independent approach based on the measurement of (i) respiration rates and (ii) the incorporation rates of 18O from labelled water into newly formed microbial DNA has been developed in our laboratory for measuring microbial CUE. This approach overcomes the shortcomings of previously used methods and has already been shown to yield realistic estimations of soil microbial CUE. This approach can also be applied to concurrently measure microbial biomass turnover rates, which also influence the sequestration of soil organic C. Microbial turnover rates are also thought to be impacted by environmental factors, but rarely have been directly measured so far. Here, we aimed at determining the short-term effects of environmental factors (soil temperature and soil moisture) on microbial CUE and microbial biomass turnover rates based on the novel 18O approach. Soils from three land-use types (arable

  13. Inversion of Farmland Soil Moisture in Large Region Based on Modified Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. X.; Yu, B. S.; Zhang, G. Z.; Zhao, G. C.; He, S. D.; Luo, W. R.; Zhang, C. C.

    2018-04-01

    Soil moisture is an important parameter for agricultural production. Efficient and accurate monitoring of soil moisture is an important link to ensure the safety of agricultural production. Remote sensing technology has been widely used in agricultural moisture monitoring because of its timeliness, cyclicality, dynamic tracking of changes in things, easy access to data, and extensive monitoring. Vegetation index and surface temperature are important parameters for moisture monitoring. Based on NDVI, this paper introduces land surface temperature and average temperature for optimization. This article takes the soil moisture in winter wheat growing area in Henan Province as the research object, dividing Henan Province into three main regions producing winter wheat and dividing the growth period of winter wheat into the early, middle and late stages on the basis of phenological characteristics and regional characteristics. Introducing appropriate correction factor during the corresponding growth period of winter wheat, correcting the vegetation index in the corresponding area, this paper establishes regression models of soil moisture on NDVI and soil moisture on modified NDVI based on correlation analysis and compare models. It shows that modified NDVI is more suitable as a indicator of soil moisture because of the better correlation between soil moisture and modified NDVI and the higher prediction accuracy of the regression model of soil moisture on modified NDVI. The research in this paper has certain reference value for winter wheat farmland management and decision-making.

  14. Microbial ecology in a future climate: effects of temperature and moisture on microbial communities of two boreal fens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Krista; Laiho, Raija; Juottonen, Heli; Kiikkilä, Oili; Mäkiranta, Päivi; Minkkinen, Kari; Pennanen, Taina; Penttilä, Timo; Sarjala, Tytti; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Tuomivirta, Tero; Fritze, Hannu

    2015-07-01

    Impacts of warming with open-top chambers on microbial communities in wet conditions and in conditions resulting from moderate water-level drawdown (WLD) were studied across 0-50 cm depth in northern and southern boreal sedge fens. Warming alone decreased microbial biomass especially in the northern fen. Impact of warming on microbial PLFA and fungal ITS composition was more obvious in the northern fen and linked to moisture regime and sample depth. Fungal-specific PLFA increased in the surface peat in the drier regime and decreased in layers below 10 cm in the wet regime after warming. OTUs representing Tomentella and Lactarius were observed in drier regime and Mortierella in wet regime after warming in the northern fen. The ectomycorrhizal fungi responded only to WLD. Interestingly, warming together with WLD decreased archaeal 16S rRNA copy numbers in general, and fungal ITS copy numbers in the northern fen. Expectedly, many results indicated that microbial response on warming may be linked to the moisture regime. Results indicated that microbial community in the northern fen representing Arctic soils would be more sensitive to environmental changes. The response to future climate change clearly may vary even within a habitat type, exemplified here by boreal sedge fen. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The effect of moisture content on physicochemical properties of extruded waxy and non-waxy rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsutjarittam, Ornpicha; Charoenrein, Sanguansri

    2014-12-19

    The properties of waxy rice flour (WRF) and non-waxy rice flour (RF) were modified using an extrusion process with different feeding material moisture contents. WRF was more affected by the thermomechanical stress from extrusion; consequently, it had a lower glass transition temperature but higher water solubility index (WSI) indicating higher molecular degradation than extruded RF. The lower moisture content of the feeding flour caused more severe flour damage (coarser surface of the extruded flour) and lowered relative crystallinity compared to higher moisture content processing. Moreover, low moisture content processing led to complete gelatinization, whereas, partial gelatinization occurred in the higher moisture content extrusion. Consequently, the extruded flours had a lower peak viscosity and gelatinization enthalpy but a higher water absorption index and WSI than native flour. In conclusion, the rice flour type and the moisture content of the extrusion feeding flour affected the physicochemical properties of the extruded flour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Upper lethal temperatures in three cold-tolerant insects are higher in winter than in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Henry M; Duman, John G

    2017-08-01

    Upper lethal temperatures (ULTs) of cold-adapted insect species in winter have not been previously examined. We anticipated that as the lower lethal temperatures (LLTs) decreased (by 20-30°C) with the onset of winter, the ULTs would also decrease accordingly. Consequently, given the recent increases in winter freeze-thaw cycles and warmer winters due to climate change, it became of interest to determine whether ambient temperatures during thaws were approaching ULTs during the cold seasons. However, beetle Dendroides canadensis (Coleoptera: Pyrochroidae) larvae had higher 24 and 48 h ULT 50 (the temperature at which 50% mortality occurred) in winter than in summer. The 24 and 48 h ULT 50 for D. canadensis in winter were 40.9 and 38.7°C, respectively. For D. canadensis in summer, the 24 and 48 h ULT 50 were 36.7 and 36.4°C. During the transition periods of spring and autumn, the 24 h ULT 50 was 37.3 and 38.5°C, respectively. While D. canadensis in winter had a 24 h LT 50 range between LLT and ULT of 64°C, the summer range was only 41°C. Additionally, larvae of the beetle Cucujus clavipes clavipes (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) and the cranefly Tipula trivittata (Diptera: Tipulidae) also had higher ULTs in winter than in summer. This unexpected phenomenon of increased temperature survivorship at both lower and higher temperatures in the winter compared with that in the summer has not been previously documented. With the decreased high temperature tolerance as the season progresses from winter to summer, it was observed that environmental temperatures are closest to upper lethal temperatures in spring. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Can air-breathing fish be adapted to higher than present temperatures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, Mark

    Air-breathing in fish is thought to have evolved in environments at lower than present oxygen levels and higher than present temperatures raising the question of whether extant species are adapted to recent temperature regimes or living at sub-optimal temperatures. The air-breathing Pangasionodon...... hypophthalmus inhabits the Mekong river system covering two climate zones during its life cycle and migrating more than 2000 km from hatching in northern Laos to its adult life in the southern delta region. It is a facultative air-breather with well-developed gills and air-breathing organ and an unusual...... circulatory bauplan. Here we examine the question of its optimal temperature through aspects of its cardio respiratory physiology including temperature effects on blood oxygen binding, ventilation and blood gasses, stereological measures of cardiorespiratory system, metabolic rate and growth. Comparing...

  18. Moisture dynamics in building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuhkuri, R.

    2003-07-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis 'Moisture dynamics in building envelopes' has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygro thermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. (au)

  19. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...... part of the Thesis consists of a theory and literature review on the moisture storage and transport processes (Chapter 2), on the non-Fickian moisture transport (Chapter 3)and on the methods for determining the moisture properties (Chapter 4). In the second part, the conducted experimental work...

  20. Identification of a dynamic temperature threshold for soil moisture freeze/thaw (F/T) state classification using soil real dielectric constant derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, R.; Berg, A. A.; Warland, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    The use of microwave remote sensing for surface ground ice detection has been well documented using both active and passive systems. Typical validation of these remotely sensed F/T state products relies on in-situ air or soil temperature measurements and a threshold of 0°C to identify frozen soil. However, in soil pores, the effects of capillary and adsorptive forces combine with the presence of dissolved salts to depress the freezing point. This is further confounded by the fact that water over this temperature range releases/absorbs latent heat of freezing/fusion. Indeed, recent results from SLAPEx2015, a campaign conducted to evaluate the ability to detect F/T state and examine the controls on F/T detection at multiple resolutions, suggest that using a soil temperature of 0°C as a threshold for freezing may not be appropriate. Coaxial impedance sensors, like Steven's HydraProbeII (HP), are the most widely used soil sensor in water supply forecast and climatological networks. These soil moisture probes have recently been used to validate remote sensing F/T products. This kind of validation is still relatively uncommon and dependent on categorical techniques based on seasonal reference states of frozen and non-frozen soil conditions. An experiment was conducted to identify the correlation between the phase state of the soil moisture and the probe measurements. Eight soil cores were subjected to F/T transitions in an environmental chamber. For each core, at a depth of 2.5 cm, the temperature and real dielectric constant (rdc) were measured every five minutes using HPs while two heat pulse probes captured the apparent heat capacity 24 minutes apart. Preliminary results show the phase transition of water is bounded by inflection points in the soil temperature, attributed to latent heat. The rdc, however, appears to be highly sensitive to changes in the water preceding the phase change. This opens the possibility of estimating a dynamic temperature threshold for

  1. Effect of moisture and temperature variation on DOC release from a peatland: conflicting results from laboratory, field and historical data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Michael D; Eimers, M Catherine; Watmough, Shaun A

    2011-03-01

    Peatlands are large repositories of atmospheric carbon and concern has been raised over the stability of this carbon store because increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations have been observed in peatland drainage waters. A number of potential causes have been proposed in the literature, and conflicting results among studies conducted at different spatial and temporal scales suggest that the methodological approach may be an important confounding factor. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of moisture and temperature on DOC release from a south-central Ontario peatland during the fall (a major export period) following three commonly used approaches: laboratory microcosms, an intensive field study and analysis of long-term data (1980-2008). The effect of variations in temperature and moisture differed among microcosm, field study and analysis of the long-term record. Water content was important at the microcosm scale as DOC concentration and aromaticity increased with peat water-saturation. Drought caused a decrease in DOC concentration and pH, and an increase in sulphate and base cation concentrations. In contrast, the field study indicated that DOC concentration was strongly associated with temperature, and weakly correlated (negatively) with stream discharge. Average fall DOC concentration (but not export) increased over the 29 year record, and was correlated with fall discharge and precipitation (negative) and summer precipitation and fall stream pH (positive). As no common strong predictor of fall DOC was found at three scales of investigation at a single, well-studied site, it may be unreasonable to expect to identify a universal driver behind the widespread increase in DOC concentration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of soil moisture versus recent climate change for the 2010 heat wave in western Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Mathias; Orth, René; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-03-01

    The severe 2010 heat wave in western Russia was found to be influenced by anthropogenic climate change. Additionally, soil moisture-temperature feedbacks were deemed important for the buildup of the exceptionally high temperatures. We quantify the relative role of both factors by applying the probabilistic event attribution framework and analyze ensemble simulations to distinguish the effect of climate change and the 2010 soil moisture conditions for annual maximum temperatures. The dry 2010 soil moisture alone has increased the risk of a severe heat wave in western Russia sixfold, while climate change from 1960 to 2000 has approximately tripled it. The combined effect of climate change and 2010 soil moisture yields a 13 times higher heat wave risk. We conclude that internal climate variability causing the dry 2010 soil moisture conditions formed a necessary basis for the extreme heat wave.

  3. Effective temperatures and radiation spectra for a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanti, P.; Pappas, T.

    2017-07-01

    The absence of a true thermodynamical equilibrium for an observer located in the causal area of a Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime has repeatedly raised the question of the correct definition of its temperature. In this work, we consider five different temperatures for a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole: the bare T0, the normalized TBH, and three effective ones given in terms of both the black-hole and cosmological horizon temperatures. We find that these five temperatures exhibit similarities but also significant differences in their behavior as the number of extra dimensions and the value of the cosmological constant are varied. We then investigate their effect on the energy emission spectra of Hawking radiation. We demonstrate that the radiation spectra for the normalized temperature TBH—proposed by Bousso and Hawking over twenty years ago—leads to the dominant emission curve, while the other temperatures either support a significant emission rate only in a specific Λ regime or have their emission rates globally suppressed. Finally, we compute the bulk-over-brane emissivity ratio and show that the use of different temperatures may lead to different conclusions regarding the brane or bulk dominance.

  4. Spatial and Temporal Inter-Relationship between Anomalies and Trends of Temperature, Moisture, Cloud Cover and OLR as Observed by AIRS/AMSU on Aqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula

    2009-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the advanced IR/MW atmospheric sounding system launched on EOS Aqua in May 2002. Products derived from AIRS/AMSU by the AIRS Science Team include surface skin temperature and atmospheric temperature profiled; atmospheric humidity profiles, fractional cloud clover and cloud top pressure, and OLR. Products covering the period September 2002 through the present have been derived from AIRS/AMSU using the AIRS Science Team Version 5 retrieval algorithm. In this paper, we will show results covering the time period September 2006 - November 2008. This time period is marked by a substantial warming trend of Northern Hemisphere Extra-tropical land surface skin temperatures, as well as pronounced El Nino - La Nina episodes. These both influence the spatial and temporal anomaly patterns of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles, as well as of cloud cover and Clear Sky and All Sky OLR. The relationships between temporal and spatial anomalies of these parameters over this time period, as determined from AIRS/AMSU observations, will be shown with particular emphasis on which contribute significantly to OLR anomalies in each of the tropics and extra-tropics. Results will also be shown to evaluate the anomalies and trends of temperature profiles and OLR as determined from analysis of AIRS/AMSU data. Global and regional trends during the 6 1/3 year time period are not necessarily indicative of what has happened in the past, or what may happen in the future. Nevertheless, the inter-relationships of spatial and temporal anomalies of atmospheric geophysical parameters with those of surface skin temperature are indicative of climate processes, and can be used to test the performance of climate models when driven by changes in surface temperatures.

  5. Measuring temperature dependence of soil respiration: importance of incubation time, soil type, moisture content and model fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, L. A.; Robinson, J.; O'Neill, T.; Ryburn, J.; Arcus, V. L.

    2015-12-01

    Developing robust models of the temperature response and sensitivity of soil respiration is critical for determining changes carbon cycling in response to climate change and at daily to annual time scales. Currently, approaches for measuring temperature dependence of soil respiration generally use long incubation times (days to weeks and months) at a limited number of incubation temperatures. Long incubation times likely allow thermal adaptation by the microbial population so that results are poorly representative of in situ soil responses. Additionally, too few incubation temperatures allows for the fit and justification of many different predictive equations, which can lead to inaccuracies when used for carbon budgeting purposes. We have developed a method to rapidly determine the response of soil respiration rate to wide range of temperatures. An aluminium block with 44 sample slots is heated at one end and cooled at the other to give a temperature gradient from 0 to 55°C at about one degree increments. Soil respiration is measured within 5 hours to minimise the possibility of thermal adaptation. We have used this method to demonstrate the similarity of temperature sensitivity of respiration for different soils from the same location across seasons. We are currently testing whether long-term (weeks to months) incubation alter temperature response and sensitivity that occurs in situ responses. This method is also well suited for determining the most appropriate models of temperature dependence and sensitivity of soil respiration (including macromolecular rate theory MMRT). With additional testing, this method is expected to be a more reliable method of measuring soil respiration rate for soil quality and modelling of soil carbon processes.

  6. Aggregation of human sperm at higher temperature is due to hyperactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, E L; Chan, P J; Patton, W C; King, A

    1999-01-01

    Chemotaxis of sperm cells to chemicals and hormones, such as progesterone, helps us to understand the concept of sperm transport. Here, the hypothesis was that heat increased sperm hyperactive motility, which caused the sperm to aggregate at the higher temperature. The objectives were (1) to determine the concentration of sperm at both halves of an artificial female reproductive tract made from a hermetically sealed cryopreservation straw filled with culture medium and placed with each end at different temperatures, and (2) to analyze the motility or kinematic parameters and hyperactivation of sperm found at the different temperatures. Cryopreserved-thawed human donor sperm (N = 6) were pooled and processed through 2-layer colloid solution. Analyses of the motile sperm were carried out and the washed sperm were homogeneously mixed and pipetted into several 0.5-mL French cryopreservation straws and heat-sealed. The control substance, consisting of acid-treated sperm, was also placed in several straws. The plastic straws of sperm were placed half at 23 degrees C and half was at either 37 or 40 degrees C. After 4 h, sperm at different sections of the straws were analyzed using the Hamilton Thorn motility analyzer (HTM-C). After 4 h of incubation, the concentration of sperm was doubled at the 40 degrees C heated half of the straw when compared with the other half of the straw at 23 degrees C. There were no differences in sperm concentration in the straw kept half at 37 degrees C and half at 23 degrees C. There were significantly higher percent motility, mean average path velocity, straight line velocity, lateral head displacement, and percent hyperactivation in sperm at the 40 degrees C temperature. The aggregation of sperm at the higher temperature of 40 degrees C may be due to enhanced motility, increased sperm velocities, and a 10-fold increase in hyperactivation at that temperature. The 37 degrees C temperature was not sufficient to attract sperm. Sperm cells

  7. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  8. The higher temperature in the areola supports the natural progression of the birth to breastfeeding continuum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Zanardo

    Full Text Available Numerous functional features that promote the natural progression of the birth to breastfeeding continuum are concentrated in the human female's areolar region. The aim of this study was to look more closely into the thermal characteristics of areola, which are said to regulate the local evaporation rate of odors and chemical signals that are uniquely important for the neonate's 'breast crawl'. A dermatological study of the areolae and corresponding intern breast quadrants was undertaken on the mothers of 70 consecutive, healthy, full-term breastfed infants. The study took place just after the births at the Policlinico Abano Terme, in Italy from January to February 2014. Temperature, pH and elasticity were assessed one day postpartum using the Soft Plus 5.5 (Callegari S.P.A., Parma, Italy. The mean areolar temperature was found to be significantly higher than the corresponding breast quadrant (34.60 ±1.40°C vs. 34.04 ±2.00°C, p<0.001 and the pH was also significantly higher (4.60±0.59 vs. 4.17±0.59, p<0.001. In contrast, the elasticity of the areolar was significantly lower (23.52±7.83 vs. 29.02±8.44%, p<0.003. Our findings show, for the first time, that the areolar region has a higher temperature than the surrounding breast skin, together with higher pH values and lower elasticity. We believe that the higher temperature of the areolar region may act as a thermal signal to guide the infant directly to the nipple and to the natural progression of the birth to breastfeeding continuum.

  9. Increased vapor pressure deficit due to higher temperature leads to greater transpiration and faster mortality during drought for tree seedlings common to the forest-grassland ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Rodney E; Wilson, Stuart M; Zou, Chris B; Hennessey, Thomas C

    2013-10-01

    Tree species growing along the forest-grassland ecotone are near the moisture limit of their range. Small increases in temperature can increase vapor pressure deficit (VPD) which may increase tree water use and potentially hasten mortality during severe drought. We tested a 40% increase in VPD due to an increase in growing temperature from 30 to 33°C (constant dewpoint 21°C) on seedlings of 10 tree species common to the forest-grassland ecotone in the southern Great Plains, USA. Measurement at 33 vs 30°C during reciprocal leaf gas exchange measurements, that is, measurement of all seedlings at both growing temperatures, increased transpiration for seedlings grown at 30°C by 40% and 20% for seedlings grown at 33°C. Higher initial transpiration of seedlings in the 33°C growing temperature treatment resulted in more negative xylem water potentials and fewer days until transpiration decreased after watering was withheld. The seedlings grown at 33°C died 13% (average 2 d) sooner than seedlings grown at 30°C during terminal drought. If temperature and severity of droughts increase in the future, the forest-grassland ecotone could shift because low seedling survival rate may not sufficiently support forest regeneration and migration. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Assessment of factors that may affect the moisture- and temperature variations in the concrete structures inside nuclear reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxfall, M.; Hassanzadeh, M.; Johansson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Three factors that may affect the climatic conditions inside Swedish nuclear reactor containments are the outdoor climate, the cooling water temperature and the operational state of the reactor. Those factors that have a considerable affect on the climatic conditions will be identified through comparisons to actual conditions during operation inside reactor containments. Knowledge about the impact of the factors on the climatic conditions is essential when developing a model to determine the prevailing and to predict future conditions in the concrete structures. The comparison between a Pressurized Water Reactor and a Boiling Water Reactor showed that there is no clear similarity, with regard to fluctuation of the indoor climate conditions, between the two reactor types. The indoor climate at a Pressurized Water Reactor seemed not to be affected of changes in the operational state, but it follows the fluctuations of the outdoor temperature and to some extent the water temperature. The Boiling water Reactor did not follow the water or outdoor temperature fluctuations. However, at a full power outage during a short period of time during the operational year the temperature drastically decreased. An operational year of a Boiling water reactor can be divided into three periods, where the first represents the yearly power outage, the second represents the autumn-winter-spring period and the third represents the summer period. The operational year of a pressurized water reactor can't easily be divided into stable periods, since the indoor temperature fluctuation follows the outdoor temperature fluctuation. Based on these measurements a simplified model which includes outer factors is possible for a BWR but more difficult for a PWR. (authors)

  11. Moisture sorption isotherms and glass transition temperature of elecampe (Inula helenium L.) and burdock (Arctium lappa L.) roots at 25°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervenka, L; Kubínová, J; Juszczak, L; Witczak, M

    2012-02-01

    Sorption isotherms of elecampe (Inula helenium L.) and burdock (Arctium lappa L.) root samples were obtained at 25 °C. Elecampe exhibited hysteresis loop in the range of 0.35-0.90 a(w) , whereas burdock roots showed significant differences between adsorption and desorption isotherms from 0.65 to 0.80 a(w) . Blahovec-Yanniotis was considered to give the best fit over the whole range of a(w) tested. Various parameters describing the properties of sorbed water derived from GAB, Henderson and Blahovec-Yanniotis models have been discussed. Differential scanning calorimetric method was used to measure the glass transition temperature (T (g)) of root samples in relation to water activity. The safe moisture content was determined in 12.01 and 14.96 g/100 g d. b. for burdock and elecampe root samples at 25 °C, respectively. Combining the T (g) line with sorption isotherm in one plot, it was found that the glass transition temperature concept overestimated the temperature stability for both root samples.

  12. Effects of temperature, relative humidity and moisture content on seed longevity of shrubby Russian thistle (Salsola vermiculata L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niane, A.A.; Struik, P.C.; Bishaw, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Salsola vermiculata is a highly palatable shrub and widely used in rangeland rehabilitation programs, but has short seed longevity. To identify the most cost effective storage method for S. vermiculata, experiments were carried out to test the effects of fruit bracts (wings), temperature regimes,

  13. The importance of seasonal temperature and moisture patterns on growth of Douglas-fir in western Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-fir growth in the Pacific Northwest is thought to be water limited. However, discerning the relative influence of air temperature and plant available soil water (W) on growth is difficult because they interact with each other, with other climate factors and with the inher...

  14. Modelling soil temperature and moisture and corresponding seasonality of photosynthesis and transpiration in a boreal spruce ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. H.; Jansson, P.-E.

    2013-02-01

    Recovery of photosynthesis and transpiration is strongly restricted by low temperatures in air and/or soil during the transition period from winter to spring in boreal zones. The extent to which air temperature (Ta) and soil temperature (Ts) influence the seasonality of photosynthesis and transpiration of a boreal spruce ecosystem was investigated using a process-based ecosystem model (CoupModel) together with eddy covariance (EC) data from one eddy flux tower and nearby soil measurements at Knottåsen, Sweden. A Monte Carlo-based uncertainty method (GLUE) provided prior and posterior distributions of simulations representing a wide range of soil conditions and performance indicators. The simulated results showed sufficient flexibility to predict the measured cold and warm Ts in the moist and dry plots around the eddy flux tower. Moreover, the model presented a general ability to describe both biotic and abiotic processes for the Norway spruce stand. The dynamics of sensible heat fluxes were well described by the corresponding latent heat fluxes and net ecosystem exchange of CO2. The parameter ranges obtained are probably valid to represent regional characteristics of boreal conifer forests, but were not easy to constrain to a smaller range than that produced by the assumed prior distributions. Finally, neglecting the soil temperature response function resulted in fewer behavioural models and probably more compensatory errors in other response functions for regulating the seasonality of ecosystem fluxes.

  15. Characterisation of moisture uptake effects on the glass transitional behaviour of an amorphous drug using modulated temperature DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, P G; Craig, D Q; Doherty, C

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the depression of the glass transition temperature, T(g), of the protease inhibitor saquinavir in the first heating scan as a function of the quantity of sorbed water by the application of modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC). Samples of amorphous saquinavir were pretreated under various humidity conditions and the quantity of sorbed water measured by thermogravimetric analysis. MTDSC runs were performed using hermetically and non-hermetically sealed pans in order to determine the glass transition temperature. MTDSC allowed the separation of the glass transition from the enthalpic relaxation, thereby allowing clear visualisation of T(g) for amorphous saquinavir in the first heating scan. The plasticizing effects of water were assessed, with the depression in T(g) related to the mole fraction of water sorbed via the Gordon-Taylor relationship. An expression has been derived which allows estimation of the water content which lowers the T(g) to the storage temperature, thereby considerably increasing the risk of recrystallisation. It is argued that this model may aid prediction of the optimal storage conditions for amorphous drugs.

  16. Response of soil respiration to soil temperature and moisture in a 50-year-old oriental arborvitae plantation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinxiao; Zha, Tianshan; Pang, Zhuo; Wu, Bin; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Guopeng; Li, Chunping; Cao, Jixin; Jia, Guodong; Li, Xizhi; Wu, Hailong

    2011-01-01

    China possesses large areas of plantation forests which take up great quantities of carbon. However, studies on soil respiration in these plantation forests are rather scarce and their soil carbon flux remains an uncertainty. In this study, we used an automatic chamber system to measure soil surface flux of a 50-year-old mature plantation of Platycladus orientalis at Jiufeng Mountain, Beijing, China. Mean daily soil respiration rates (R(s)) ranged from 0.09 to 4.87 µmol CO(2) m(-2) s(-1), with the highest values observed in August and the lowest in the winter months. A logistic model gave the best fit to the relationship between hourly R(s) and soil temperature (T(s)), explaining 82% of the variation in R(s) over the annual cycle. The annual total of soil respiration estimated from the logistic model was 645±5 g C m(-2) year(-1). The performance of the logistic model was poorest during periods of high soil temperature or low soil volumetric water content (VWC), which limits the model's ability to predict the seasonal dynamics of R(s). The logistic model will potentially overestimate R(s) at high T(s) and low VWC. Seasonally, R(s) increased significantly and linearly with increasing VWC in May and July, in which VWC was low. In the months from August to November, inclusive, in which VWC was not limiting, R(s) showed a positively exponential relationship with T(s). The seasonal sensitivity of soil respiration to T(s) (Q(10)) ranged from 0.76 in May to 4.38 in October. It was suggested that soil temperature was the main determinant of soil respiration when soil water was not limiting.

  17. Using low temperature calorimetry and moisture fixation method to study the pore structure of cement based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Min

    connectivity but also the pore (interior) size distribution and the total pore volume. (6) Thermodynamic modeling using the program PHREEQC was performed on relevant cement paste samples. The results suggest that for the studied paste samples, the temperature depression caused by the ions present in the pore...... on the type of equations used for describing multilayer adsorption, indicating that the calculated specific surface area may not represent the “real” geometrical surface area. (4) The important factors influencing the analyzed pore size distribution (PSD) results using sorption data were reviewed...

  18. Strain rate effects in nuclear steels at room and higher temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomos, G. E-mail: george.solomos@jrc.it; Albertini, C.; Labibes, K.; Pizzinato, V.; Viaccoz, B

    2004-04-01

    An investigation of strain rate, temperature and size effects in three nuclear steels has been conducted. The materials are: ferritic steel 20MnMoNi55 (vessel head), austenitic steel X6CrNiNb1810 (upper internal structure), and ferritic steel 26NiCrMo146 (bolting). Smooth cylindrical tensile specimens of three sizes have been tested at strain rates from 0.001 to 300 s{sup -1}, at room and elevated temperatures (400-600 deg. C). Full stress-strain diagrams have been obtained, and additional parameters have been calculated based on them. The results demonstrate a clear influence of temperature, which amounts into reducing substantially mechanical strengths with respect to RT conditions. The effect of strain rate is also shown. It is observed that at RT the strain rate effect causes up shifting of the flow stress curves, whereas at the higher temperatures a mild downshifting of the flow curves is manifested. Size effect tendencies have also been observed. Some implications when assessing the pressure vessel structural integrity under severe accident conditions are considered.

  19. A 900-year pollen-inferred temperature and effective moisture record from varved Lake Mina, west-central Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie; Cumming, Brian F.; Smol, John P.

    2008-04-01

    Drought is endemic to the North American Great Plains, causing severe economic consequences. However, instrumental climate data only exist from ca AD 1890, and limited tree-ring, paleolimnological, archeological and eolian records document the last two millennia. To address this lack of monitoring and paleoclimatic data, the pollen preserved in the varved sediments of Lake Mina, Minnesota, on the northeastern border of the Great Plains, were analyzed. May and February mean monthly temperatures and "annual precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration" were reconstructed at a 4-year resolution using a pre-settlement pollen-climate calibration set. The period of the so-called Little Ice Age (LIA) (AD 1500-1870) was colder than the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (AD 1100-1500) in west-central Minnesota. Winter temperatures in the LIA declined more than summer ones. The pollen record suggests that the LIA occurred in three phases: an initial cold phase from AD 1505 to AD 1575, a warmer phase, and then a very cold phase from AD 1625 to AD 1775. There were severe droughts detected in the Lake Mina record from AD 1660 to AD 1710 and AD 1300 to AD 1400, suggesting that high-resolution pollen records can detect events previously defined from the tree-ring records. This latter century-scale drought is concurrent with the widely reported "AD 1250-1400 mega-drought", which exceeds the severity of 20th century droughts.

  20. Possible higher order phase transition in large-N gauge theory at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Hiromichi

    2017-08-07

    We analyze the phase structure of SU(¥) gauge theory at finite temperature using matrix models. Our basic assumption is that the effective potential is dominated by double-trace terms for the Polyakov loops. As a function of the temperature, a background field for the Polyakov loop, and a quartic coupling, it exhibits a universal structure: in the large portion of the parameter space, there is a continuous phase transition analogous to the third-order phase transition of Gross,Witten and Wadia, but the order of phase transition can be higher than third. We show that different confining potentials give rise to drastically different behavior of the eigenvalue density and the free energy. Therefore lattice simulations at large N could probe the order of phase transition and test our results. Critical

  1. The Integrity of ACSR Full Tension Single-Stage Splice Connector at Higher Operation Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; King Jr, Thomas J [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    Due to increases in power demand and limited investment in new infrastructure, existing overhead power transmission lines often need to operate at temperatures higher than those used for the original design criteria. This has led to the accelerated aging and degradation of splice connectors. It is manifested by the formation of hot-spots that have been revealed by infrared imaging during inspection. The implications of connector aging is two-fold: (1) significant increases in resistivity of the splice connector (i.e., less efficient transmission of electricity) and (2) significant reductions in the connector clamping strength, which could ultimately result in separation of the power transmission line at the joint. Therefore, the splice connector appears to be the weakest link in electric power transmission lines. This report presents a protocol for integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of full tension single-stage splice connector assemblies and the associated effective lifetime at high operating temperature.

  2. Considerations from the viewpoint of neoclassical transport towards higher ion temperature heliotron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, M.; Matsuoka, S.; Funaba, H.; Ida, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.

    2010-01-01

    The neoclassical (NC) transport analyses have been performed to elucidate the plausible approaches towards higher ion-temperature heliotron plasmas. Avoidance of the ripple transport is the key issue, for which the neoclassical ambipolar radial electric field (E r ) can be utilized. The ion-root scenario and the electron-root scenario are expected to be effective according to the experimental situation (especially, the temperature ratio between ions and electrons). The impact of the ion mass on the neoclassical ambipolar E r is also investigated to reveal the easier realization of electron-root E r in heavier ion plasmas. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Analyzes of students’ higher-order thinking skills of heat and temperature concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Suparmi, A.; Sarwanto; Harjana

    2017-11-01

    High order thinking skills refer to three highest domains of the revised Bloom Taxonomy. The aims of the research were to analyze the student’s higher-order thinking skills of heat and temperature concept. The samples were taken by purposive random sampling technique consisted of 85 high school students from 3 senior high schools in Jayapura city. The descriptive qualitative method was employed in this study. The data were collected by using tests and interviews regarding the subject matters of heat and temperature. Based on the results of data analysis, it was concluded that 68.24% of the students have a high order thinking skills in the analysis, 3.53% of the students have a high order thinking skills in evaluating, and 0% of the students have a high order thinking skills in creation.

  4. The SMOS Validation Campaign 2010 in the Upper Danube Catchment: A Data Set for Studies of Soil Moisture, Brightness Temperature, and Their Spatial Variability Over a Heterogeneous Land Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. dall' Amico, Johanna; Schlenz, Florian; Loew, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    resolutions from roughly 400 m to 2 km. The contemporaneous distributed ground measurements include surface soil moisture, a detailed land cover map, vegetation height, phenology, and biomass. Furthermore, several ground stations provide continuous measurements of soil moisture and soil temperature as well...... infrared and L-band passive microwave data were collected together with spatially distributed in situ measurements. Two airborne radiometers, EMIRAD and HUT-2D, were used during the campaigns providing two complementary sets of measurements at incidence angles from 0$^{circ}$ to 40$^{circ}$ and with ground...

  5. Soil respiration in Tibetan alpine grasslands: belowground biomass and soil moisture, but not soil temperature, best explain the large-scale patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Geng

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau is an essential area to study the potential feedback effects of soils to climate change due to the rapid rise in its air temperature in the past several decades and the large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC stocks, particularly in the permafrost. Yet it is one of the most under-investigated regions in soil respiration (Rs studies. Here, Rs rates were measured at 42 sites in alpine grasslands (including alpine steppes and meadows along a transect across the Tibetan Plateau during the peak growing season of 2006 and 2007 in order to test whether: (1 belowground biomass (BGB is most closely related to spatial variation in Rs due to high root biomass density, and (2 soil temperature significantly influences spatial pattern of Rs owing to metabolic limitation from the low temperature in cold, high-altitude ecosystems. The average daily mean Rs of the alpine grasslands at peak growing season was 3.92 µmol CO(2 m(-2 s(-1, ranging from 0.39 to 12.88 µmol CO(2 m(-2 s(-1, with average daily mean Rs of 2.01 and 5.49 µmol CO(2 m(-2 s(-1 for steppes and meadows, respectively. By regression tree analysis, BGB, aboveground biomass (AGB, SOC, soil moisture (SM, and vegetation type were selected out of 15 variables examined, as the factors influencing large-scale variation in Rs. With a structural equation modelling approach, we found only BGB and SM had direct effects on Rs, while other factors indirectly affecting Rs through BGB or SM. Most (80% of the variation in Rs could be attributed to the difference in BGB among sites. BGB and SM together accounted for the majority (82% of spatial patterns of Rs. Our results only support the first hypothesis, suggesting that models incorporating BGB and SM can improve Rs estimation at regional scale.

  6. Determination of basalt physical and thermal properties at varying temperatures, pressures, and moisture contents. First progress report, fiscal year 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.J.; Bishop, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    This report is a summary of the rock mechanics testing done at the Earth Mechanics Institute of the Colorado School of Mines for Rockwell Hanford Operations under Subcontract SA-917. Cores were supplied from drill hole DC-6 on the Hanford Site, characterized geologically, and tested for thermal and physical properties for designing long-term underground storage of radioactive waste materials. This report presents the approved test procedures, results, and data analysis for this test series. Results indicated thermophysical properties similar to those of previously tested basalt cores from the Hanford area, but showed no significant trends; thus, generalizations are risky at this time. However, density was found to be a good guide to thermal and physical properties--higher density basalt cores showed significant improvements in physical and thermal properties

  7. Epitaxial growth of higher transition-temperature VO2 films on AlN/Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Slusar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the epitaxial growth and the mechanism of a higher temperature insulator-to-metal-transition (IMT of vanadium dioxide (VO2 thin films synthesized on aluminum nitride (AlN/Si (111 substrates by a pulsed-laser-deposition method; the IMT temperature is TIMT ≈ 350 K. X-ray diffractometer and high resolution transmission electron microscope data show that the epitaxial relationship of VO2 and AlN is VO2 (010 ‖ AlN (0001 with VO2 [101] ‖   AlN   [ 2 1 ̄ 1 ̄ 0 ] zone axes, which results in a substrate-induced tensile strain along the in-plane a and c axes of the insulating monoclinic VO2. This strain stabilizes the insulating phase of VO2 and raises TIMT for 10 K higher than TIMT single crystal ≈ 340 K in a bulk VO2 single crystal. Near TIMT, a resistance change of about four orders is observed in a thick film of ∼130 nm. The VO2/AlN/Si heterostructures are promising for the development of integrated IMT-Si technology, including thermal switchers, transistors, and other applications.

  8. Comparison of higher irradiance and black panel temperature UV backsheet exposures to field performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Thomas C.; Gambogi, William J.; Phillips, Nancy; MacMaster, Steven W.; Yu, Bao-Ling; Trout, T. John

    2017-08-01

    The need for faster PV qualification tests that more accurately match field observations is leading to tests with higher acceleration levels, and validating the new tests through comparison to field data is an important step. We have tested and compared a wide panel of backsheets according to a proposed new backsheet UV exposure qualification standard from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Weathering Technical Standard IEC 62788-7-2 specifies higher irradiance and higher black panel temperature UV Xenon exposures. We tested PVF, PVDF, PET, PA and FEVEbased backsheets in glass laminates and simple backsheet coupons in UV exposure condition A3 (0.8W/sqmnm@340nm and 90° C BPT) We find mild yellowing with no mechanical loss in the original lower intensity ASTM G155 0.55 W/sqm-nm 70C BPT exposure condition. The new A3 exposures creates mechanical loss in sensitive backsheets, with no effect on known durable backsheets. Results from the new exposure are closer to field mechanical loss data.

  9. Correlation between near infrared spectroscopy and electrical techniques in measuring skin moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M; Sabbri, A R M; Jafri, M Z Mat; Omar, A F

    2014-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique serves as an important tool for the measurement of moisture content of skin owing to the advantages it has over the other techniques. The purpose of the study is to develop a correlation between NIR spectrometer with electrical conventional techniques for skin moisture measurement. A non-invasive measurement of moisture content of skin was performed on different part of human face and hand under control environment (temperature 21 ± 1 °C, relative humidity 45 ± 5 %). Ten healthy volunteers age between 21-25 (male and female) participated in this study. The moisture content of skin was measured using DermaLab ® USB Moisture Module, Scalar Moisture Checker and NIR spectroscopy (NIRQuest). Higher correlation was observed between NIRQuest and Dermalab moisture probe with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) above 70 % for all the subjects. However, the value of R 2 between NIRQuest and Moisture Checker was observed to be lower with the R 2 values ranges from 51.6 to 94.4 %. The correlation of NIR spectroscopy technique successfully developed for measuring moisture content of the skin. The analysis of this correlation can help to establish novel instruments based on an optical system in clinical used especially in the dermatology field

  10. Effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy of rambutan seed under different drying methods to promote storage stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, So'bah; Shamsul Anuar, Mohd; Saleena Taip, Farah; Shamsudin, Rosnah; M, Siti Roha A.

    2017-05-01

    The effects of two drying methods, oven and microwave drying on the effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy of rambutan seed were studied. Effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy are the main indicators used for moisture movement within the material. Hence, it is beneficial to determine an appropriate drying method to attain a final moisture content of rambutan seed that potentially could be used as secondary sources in the industry. An appropriate final moisture content will provide better storage stability that can extend the lifespan of the rambutan seed. The rambutan seeds were dried with two drying methods (oven and microwave) at two level of the process variables (oven temperature; 40°C and 60°C and microwave power; 250W and 1000W) at constant initial moisture contents. The result showed that a higher value of effective moisture diffusivity and less activation energy were observed in microwave drying compared to oven drying. This finding portrays microwave drying expedites the moisture removal to achieve the required final moisture content and the most appropriate drying method for longer storage stability for rambutan seed. With respect to the process variables; higher oven temperatures and lower microwave powers also exhibit similar trends. Hopefully, this study would provide a baseline data to determine an appropriate drying method for longer storage period for turning waste to by-products.

  11. Modeling the contributions of global air temperature, synoptic-scale phenomena and soil moisture to near-surface static energy variability using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Sara C.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; Schoof, Justin T.

    2017-12-01

    The static energy content of the atmosphere is increasing on a global scale, but exhibits important subglobal and subregional scales of variability and is a useful parameter for integrating the net effect of changes in the partitioning of energy at the surface and for improving understanding of the causes of so-called warming holes (i.e., locations with decreasing daily maximum air temperatures (T) or increasing trends of lower magnitude than the global mean). Further, measures of the static energy content (herein the equivalent potential temperature, θe) are more strongly linked to excess human mortality and morbidity than air temperature alone, and have great relevance in understanding causes of past heat-related excess mortality and making projections of possible future events that are likely to be associated with negative human health and economic consequences. New nonlinear statistical models for summertime daily maximum and minimum θe are developed and used to advance understanding of drivers of historical change and variability over the eastern USA. The predictor variables are an index of the daily global mean temperature, daily indices of the synoptic-scale meteorology derived from T and specific humidity (Q) at 850 and 500 hPa geopotential heights (Z), and spatiotemporally averaged soil moisture (text">SM). text">SM is particularly important in determining the magnitude of θe over regions that have previously been identified as exhibiting warming holes, confirming the key importance of text">SM in dictating the partitioning of net radiation into sensible and latent heat and dictating trends in near-surface T and θe. Consistent with our a priori expectations, models built using artificial neural networks (ANNs) out-perform linear models that do not permit interaction of the predictor variables (global T, synoptic-scale meteorological conditions and text">SM). This is particularly marked in regions with high variability in minimum and maximum θe, where

  12. Higher acclimation temperature modulates the composition of muscle fatty acid of Tor putitora juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Akhtar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A 30-day acclimation trial was conducted using golden mahseer, Tor putitora juveniles to study its muscle fatty acid composition at five acclimation temperatures (AT. Ninety juveniles of T. putitora were distributed among five treatment groups (20, 23, 26, 29 and 32±0.5 °C. At the end of 30 days trial, highest percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids was found at 20 °C and lowest at 26 °C. The highest percentage of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA was found at 23 °C and a decreasing trend was observed with increase in AT. However, highest percentage of n-3 PUFA was found at 32 °C and lowest at 29 °C. The maximum n-6 to n-3 ratio was observed at 23 °C and ratio decreased to a minimum at 32 °C. The results revealed that T. putitora juveniles could adapt to higher acclimation temperatures by altering its muscle fatty acid composition mainly by increasing its total saturated fatty acids especially stearic acid.

  13. Selection of the best active modified atmosphere packaging with ethylene and moisture scavengers to maintain quality of guava during low-temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmu, Sanchita Biswas; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2018-07-01

    In modified atmosphere packaging of guava, moisture scavenger (MS) sachet containing 30-50 g of coarse silica gel and ethylene scavenger (ES) sachet containing 0-4 g of potassium permanganate was added as per central composite rotatable design. The headspace O 2 and CO 2 of the packages were studied at 4, 8 and 12 °C for 30 days and thereafter the guava were left for two days to ripen at 30 °C. After that the chilling injuries, percentage acceptable guava, peel color and pulp texture was analyzed. After two days ripening at 30 °C the samples with 3 g ES and 46 g MS registered higher L ∗ , lower a ∗ value & firmness (16.65 N), lowest chilling injury score. About 95% of guava was found acceptable in this treatment with 1.89-2.79% reducing sugar, 0.95-1.1% titrable acidity, 59% and 46.61% retention of total phenols and ascorbic acid respectively, resulting 32 days shelf-life of guava. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimation of improved resolution soil moisture in vegetated areas using passive AMSR-E data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradizadeh, Mina; Saradjian, Mohammad R.

    2018-03-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for soil parameter retrievals. Therefore, various soil parameters estimation models have been developed using brightness temperature (BT) measured by passive microwave sensors. Due to the low resolution of satellite microwave radiometer data, the main goal of this study is to develop a downscaling approach to improve the spatial resolution of soil moisture estimates with the use of higher resolution visible/infrared sensor data. Accordingly, after the soil parameters have been obtained using Simultaneous Land Parameters Retrieval Model algorithm, the downscaling method has been applied to the soil moisture estimations that have been validated against in situ soil moisture data. Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS BT data in Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 region in the south and north of Oklahoma have been used to this end. Results illustrated that the soil moisture variability is effectively captured at 5 km spatial scales without a significant degradation of the accuracy.

  15. Durability of pellets made from different wood fuel assortments - The effect of moisture content, particle size and temperature development during storage. A laboratory-scale study; Haallfasthet hos braenslepellets tillverkade av olika traedbraenslesortiment - betydelsen av fukthalt, fraktionsstorlek och temperaturutveckling under lagringen. En laboratoriestudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtikangas, Paeivi [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Management and Products

    2001-02-01

    Durability of fuel pellets is one of the most important quality variables. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of moisture content and particle size distribution on the durability of pellets made out of sawdust, logging residues and bark from Norway spruce and Scots pine. Moreover, the durability of pellets made out of logging residues which were exposed to high temperature development was investigated. Pellets were manufactured using a laboratory press CPM Europe. The determined quality parameters were moisture content, percentage of accept-pellets (percentage of pellets of the total amount of raw material), temperature and density of individual pellets. The pelleting process was controlled by monitoring the raw material input to the press, vibration and power consumption. From the results of this study the following preliminary conclusions can be drawn: * Increase moisture content and temperature during pelleting had a positive correlation with the percentage of the accept-pellets, especially concerning the bark assortments, and * Pellets made out of particles smaller than 1 mm resulted in a significantly (Student's t-test) higher percentage of accept-pellets than pellets made out of particles of 1-2 mm. Moreover, the process temperature was probably too low (max. 86 deg C) to activate softening of the lignin. A lower press temperature was sufficient to produce the same percentage of accept-pellets of fresh bark than with other raw materials. A possible reason for that is the presence of high amounts of extractives in bark, which could develop an adhesive nature during thermal treatment.

  16. Moisture conditions in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Growth of mould requires the presence of moisture at a certain high level. In a heated indoor environment such moisture levels occur only if there is a reason for the moisture supply. Such moisture can come from the use of the building, because of malfunctioning constructions, or it can be the re......Growth of mould requires the presence of moisture at a certain high level. In a heated indoor environment such moisture levels occur only if there is a reason for the moisture supply. Such moisture can come from the use of the building, because of malfunctioning constructions, or it can...

  17. Laser-based air data system for aircraft control using Raman and elastic backscatter for the measurement of temperature, density, pressure, moisture, and particle backscatter coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraczek, Michael; Behrendt, Andreas; Schmitt, Nikolaus

    2012-01-10

    Flight safety in all weather conditions demands exact and reliable determination of flight-critical air parameters. Air speed, temperature, density, and pressure are essential for aircraft control. Conventional air data systems can be impacted by probe failure caused by mechanical damage from hail, volcanic ash, and icing. While optical air speed measurement methods have been discussed elsewhere, in this paper, a new concept for optically measuring the air temperature, density, pressure, moisture, and particle backscatter is presented, being independent on assumptions on the atmospheric state and eliminating the drawbacks of conventional aircraft probes by providing a different measurement principle. The concept is based on a laser emitting laser pulses into the atmosphere through a window and detecting the signals backscattered from a fixed region just outside the disturbed area of the fuselage flows. With four receiver channels, different spectral portions of the backscattered light are extracted. The measurement principle of air temperature and density is based on extracting two signals out of the rotational Raman (RR) backscatter signal of air molecules. For measuring the water vapor mixing ratio-and thus the density of the moist air-a water vapor Raman channel is included. The fourth channel serves to detect the elastic backscatter signal, which is essential for extending the measurements into clouds. This channel contributes to the detection of aerosols, which is interesting for developing a future volcanic ash warning system for aircraft. Detailed and realistic optimization and performance calculations have been performed based on the parameters of a first prototype of such a measurement system. The impact and correction of systematic error sources, such as solar background at daytime and elastic signal cross talk appearing in optically dense clouds, have been investigated. The results of the simulations show the high potential of the proposed system for

  18. Variation of moisture content of some varnished woods in indoor climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Üçüncü

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moisture change of varnished wood of black poplar (Populus nigra and yellow pine (Pinus silvestris L. used in indoor climate conditions with central heating in Trabzon (Turkey were investigated. 300 mm length wood specimens, with cross section of 12.5 mm in tangential and in radial and with the square sections of 25mm and 50 mm, were obtained from two species grown in Kanuni Campus of the Karadeniz Technical University. In this research, un-varnished wood samples were also used for reference. The wood moisture content was determined by the weighing method, the wood equilibrium moisture content by the Hailwood-Horrobin equation, and the relative humidity in the indoor climatic conditions by humid air thermodynamic principles. As a result; it was observed that the moisture content of varnished wood samples has a strong relationship with equilibrium moisture content, temperature and relative humidity. It was found that the moisture content of varnished woods was higher than the moisture content of un-varnished woods in the same climatic conditions. It was observed that the difference between the monthly average moisture content was lower in varnished woods in proportion to un-varnished woods. According to these results, it can be indicated that it would be more appropriate to select higher moisture content in the drying of wood than the equilibrium moisture content. Such an application would also reduce drying costs. Further, it can be recommended to use varnished wood in various applications because the low change range of average moisture content can affect the swelling or shrinking of wood.

  19. Moisture availability over the past five centuries indicated by carbon isotopes of Tamarix taklamakanensis leaves in a nebkha profile in the Central Taklimakan Desert, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Lili; Wang, Xunming; Hua, Ting; Zhang, Caixia

    2013-12-01

    We inferred moisture availability changes from 1555 to 2010 in the Central Taklimakan Desert (NW China) using Chinese tamarisk (Tamarix taklamakanensis) litter deposited within a nebkha that developed in this region. The litter δ13C trends revealed fluctuations of moisture availability: From 1555 to 1785, moisture availability was higher than the long-term average, but from 1555 to 1570, 1585 to 1620, 1640 to 1660, 1675 to 1700, and 1730 to 1755, this region experienced periods with lower than average moisture availability. From 1785 to 1850, significant moisture availability changes occurred, and the region experienced the lowest moisture availability since 1555. From 1850 to the present, the δ13C trends suggested that moisture availability increased. Our results also showed that although moisture availability in this region is controlled by precipitation and evaporation in the Central Taklimakan Desert, temperature variations in the adjacent Kunlun Mountains (whose glacier and snowmelt runoff are dominant water sources for the study area) were potentially more important. Water from these mountains plays an important role in moisture availability due the region’s extremely low precipitation. In addition, although previous studies suggested that the Tarim Basin and its adjacent areas experienced a wet climate for the past several centuries, this suggestion was inconsistent with the reconstructed moisture availability changes in the Central Taklimakan Desert. The moisture availability in the Central Taklimakan was more closely related to temperature variations in the adjacent mountain regions.

  20. Toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus crypticus changes under a global warming perspective: Variations in air temperature and soil moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaraz, M Nazaret; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-12-15

    This study aimed to assess how the current global warming perspective, with increasing air temperature (20°C vs. 25°C) and decreasing soil moisture content (50% vs. 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC), affected the toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus crypticus. Enchytraeids were exposed for 21d to a dilution series of the agricultural soil with Lufa 2.2 control soil under four climate situations: 20°C+50% WHC (standard conditions), 20°C+30% WHC, 25°C+50% WHC, and 25°C+30% WHC. Survival, reproduction and bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were obtained as endpoints. Reproduction was more sensitive to both climate factors and metal(loid) pollution. High soil salinity (electrical conductivity~3dSm -1 ) and clay texture, even without the presence of high metal(loid) concentrations, affected enchytraeid performance especially at drier conditions (≥80% reduction in reproduction). The toxicity of the agricultural soil increased at drier conditions (10% reduction in EC10 and EC50 values for the effect on enchytraeid reproduction). Changes in enchytraeid performance were accompanied by changes in As, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn bioaccumulation, with lower body concentrations at drier conditions probably due to greater competition with soluble salts in the case of Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. This study shows that apart from high metal(loid) concentrations other soil properties (e.g. salinity and texture) may be partially responsible for the toxicity of metal(loid)-polluted soils to soil invertebrates, especially under changing climate conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Relating coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) incidence to soil moisture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, E J; Bell, J E; Benedict, K; Shriber, J; McCotter, O; Cosh, M H

    2017-04-17

    Coccidioidomycosis (also called Valley fever) is caused by a soilborne fungus, Coccidioides spp. , in arid regions of the southwestern United States. Though some who develop infections from this fungus remain asymptomatic, others develop respiratory disease as a consequence. Less commonly, severe illness and death can occur when the infection spreads to other regions of the body. Previous analyses have attempted to connect the incidence of coccidioidomycosis to broadly available climatic measurements, such as precipitation or temperature. However, with the limited availability of long-term, in situ soil moisture data sets, it has not been feasible to perform a direct analysis of the relationships between soil moisture levels and coccidioidomycosis incidence on a larger temporal and spatial scale. Utilizing in situ soil moisture gauges throughout the southwest from the U.S. Climate Reference Network and a model with which to extend those estimates, this work connects periods of higher and lower soil moisture in Arizona and California between 2002 and 2014 to the reported incidence of coccidioidomycosis. The results indicate that in both states, coccidioidomycosis incidence is related to soil moisture levels from previous summers and falls. Stated differently, a higher number of coccidioidomycosis cases are likely to be reported if previous bands of months have been atypically wet or dry, depending on the location.

  2. Estudos sôbre a conservação de sementes. II - Citros Influence of moisture content and temperature on the vitality of citrus seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Bacchi

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de limão cravo e laranja caipira, espécies essas mais comumente empregadas como porta-enxertos no Estado de São Paulo, foram conservadas em ambientes de diferentes umidades e temperaturas, a fim de se conhecer as melhores condições para o seu armazenamento. Confirmando os resultados de outros autores, êstes ensaios mostraram, com bastante evidência, a importância dos fatôres umidade e temperatura na conservação destas sementes. Parece não haver dúvidas, entretanto, que outros fatôres, não estudados, são também responsáveis pela longevidade das sementes de citros. Para ambas as espécies, os melhores resultados foram obtidos à temperatura de 2-3°C e com emprego de recipientes semi-fechados. Nestas condições, onde foi possível manter a umidade relativa bastante elevada e evitar o acúmulo de CO², as sementes de limão cravo e laranja caipira tiveram uma longevidade de 14 e 11 meses, respectivamente.Seeds of Rangpur lime and sweet orange, the two species most used as rootstocks in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were stored under different conditions in order to find out the best for the conservation of their viability. It was found that seeds of both species remained viable longest when stored at 2-3°C in closed (not sealed containers with very humid air. Under these conditions, Rangpur lime and sweet orange seeds could be kept successfully for 14 and 11 months, respectively. The importance of moisture content and temperature effects on the viability of these seeds is shown. It is likely, however, that other factors may be involved, such as growth of fungi and bacteria, rate and temperature of drying, and gaseous exchange as has been suggested by other workers.

  3. Effect of Initial Moisture on the Adsorption and Desorption Equilibrium Moisture Contents of Polished Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Satoshi; Amaratunga, K.S.P.; Tanaka, Fumihiko; Hori, Yoshiaki; 村田, 敏; 田中, 史彦; 堀, 善昭

    1993-01-01

    The moisture adsorption and desorption properties for polished rice have been measured using a dynamic ventilatory method. Air temperatures of 10,20,30 and 40℃, relative humidities of 50,60,70,80 and 90%, and five levels of initial moisture contents ranging approximately from 8% to 19% d.b. were used to obtain moisture content data. The value of equilibrium moisture content for each initial moisture content at the range of air condition was determined by a method of nonlinear least squares. R...

  4. Development and Performance Evaluation of a Re-Circulatory Vegetable Moisturizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Sunmonu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A re-circulatory vegetable moisturizer for preventing wilting in vegetables was developed and its performance evaluation carried out. Freshly harvested Amaranthus vegetables were used for the experiments. The temperature and relative humidity were monitored daily. The vitamin A of this produce was determined at intervals of two days for 9 days. The effects of the storage parameters (temperature and relative humidity on the nutritional value of the produce were determined using statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA. Further analysis by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT was carried out to compare the means. The vegetable moisturizer was evaluated by comparing the change in nutritional (vitamin A of Amaranthus vegetable with hand wetting system and no wetting condition. The results showed that the moisturizer had higher mean vitamin A content (4.93mg/100gcompared to the mean vitamin A content of the manual wetting (4.88mg/100g and no wetting condition (4.57mg/100g. The sensory characteristics showed that the Moisturizer was more desirable when compared to the manual wetting and no wetting condition after nine days. It was concluded that the Moisturizer preserved the nutritional and sensory characteristics (texture and colour better than the manual and no wetting condition as a result of lower temperature, higher relative humidity and better water draining of the Moisturizer.

  5. Role of Soil Moisture vs. Recent Climate Change for the 2010 Heat Wave in Western Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Mathias; Orth, René; Seneviratne, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Extreme event attribution statements are often conditional on increased greenhouse gas concentrations or a particular ocean state, but not on other physical factors of the climate system. Here we extend the classical framework and assess the influence of soil moisture on a heat wave to obtain a physical attribution statement. In particular, we test the role of soil-moisture-temperature feedbacks which have been shown to be generally relevant for the build-up of exceptionally high temperatures. As a case study we investigate the severe 2010 heat wave in western Russia, which was previously found to be influenced by anthropogenic climate change. We quantify the relative role of climate change and that of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks with the event attribution framework and analyze ensemble simulations to distinguish the effect of climate change and the 2010 soil moisture conditions for annual maximum temperatures. We find that climate change from 1960 to 2000 alone has approximately tripled the risk of a severe heat wave in western Russia. The combined effect of climate change and the dry 2010 soil moisture yields a 13 times higher heat wave risk. We conclude that internal climate variability causing the dry 2010 soil moisture conditions formed the basis for this extreme heatwave.

  6. Structural studies on volatile, air and moisture sensitive liquids at ambient and elevated temperatures using liquid X-ray scattering. The structure of liquid gallium (III) chloride systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvenlund, Stefan; Bengtsson, Lars A.

    1994-09-01

    An X-ray scattering method is presented which provides accurate structural information on air and moisture sensitive liquids at ambient and elevated temperatures using a standard θ-θ X-ray diffractometer. The method utilizes capillary glass tubes as sample containers and requires no corrections for sample container absorption or scattering, as shown by structural studies of well-known systems such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride and antimony trichloride. Artefacts produced by the sample holder are insignificant and very easy to correct for. The major drawback of the method is the long time of experiment, due to the small (compared with the standard set-up) area/volume ratio of the liquid which contributes to the intensity of the scattered radiation. However, the time required is not unduly long except for liquids containing light elements only (very low scattering power) or very heavy ones (high liner absorptivity). Liquid GaCl 3 is shown to have a dimeric structure consisting of edge-sharing GaCl 4 tetrahedra. This structure is analogous to that previously found for GaCl 3 in the gaseous and solid state and for AlCl 3 in the gaseous and liquid state. Concentrated solutions of GaCl 3 in benzene have been shown to comprise monomeric GaCl 3 units with C3v symmetry. However, it is suggested that such units form as a result of a radiolytically induced cleavage of the Ga 2Cl 6 moieties. No GaC correlation is resolved, which is explained by assuming a σ-type complex GaCl 3 and benzene and/or an ill-defined interaction between the GaCl 3 unit and benzene. The former sitution would most probably produce too few GaC correlation to be observable by the present method, whereas the latter situation would produce a very broad GaC correlation difficult to separate from the background. However, the deviation from the D3h symmetry adopted by GaCl 3 in the gas phase indicates a specific interation between GaCl 3 and benzene.

  7. Can Personal Exposures to Higher Nighttime and Early Morning Temperatures Increase Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental temperatures are inversely related to BP; however, the effects of short-term temperature changes within a 24-hour period and measured with high accuracy at the personal level have not been described. Fifty-one nonsmoking patients living in the Detroit area had up to...

  8. Effect of higher temperature exposure on physicochemical properties of frozen buffalo meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Vishnuraj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the changes in various physicochemical parameters of frozen buffalo meat undergone temperature abuse at two different isothermal storage temperatures (37±1°C, 25±1°C using a simulated model. Materials and Methods: Frozen buffalo meat was evaluated after exposing to various temperature abuse conditions over selected durations for different meat quality parameters including pH, extract release volume (ERV, flourescein diacetate (FDA hydrolysis, free amino acid (FAA, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN and D-glucose value and compared against a control sample maintained at 4±1°C. Results: Of the various meat quality parameters evaluated pH, FDA hydrolysis, FAA content and TVBN content showed a significant (p<0.05 increase in temperature abused samples after temperature abuse and on subsequent refrigerated storage. However, ERV and D-glucose content decreased significantly (p<0.05 in temperature abused buffalo meat during the same period of study. Conclusions: The present study featured the influence of exposure temperature and duration in various physicochemical parameters and the rate of spoilage development in frozen buffalo meat after temperature abuse.

  9. Is the boundary layer of an ionic liquid equally lubricating at higher temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjalmarsson, Nicklas; Atkin, Rob; Rutland, Mark W

    2016-04-07

    Atomic force microscopy has been used to study the effect of temperature on normal forces and friction for the room temperature ionic liquid (IL) ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), confined between mica and a silica colloid probe at 25 °C, 50 °C, and 80 °C. Force curves revealed a strong fluid dynamic influence at room temperature, which was greatly reduced at elevated temperatures due to the reduced liquid viscosity. A fluid dynamic analysis reveals that bulk viscosity is manifested at large separation but that EAN displays a nonzero slip, indicating a region of different viscosity near the surface. At high temperatures, the reduction in fluid dynamic force reveals step-like force curves, similar to those found at room temperature using much lower scan rates. The ionic liquid boundary layer remains adsorbed to the solid surface even at high temperature, which provides a mechanism for lubrication when fluid dynamic lubrication is strongly reduced. The friction data reveals a decrease in absolute friction force with increasing temperature, which is associated with increased thermal motion and reduced viscosity of the near surface layers but, consistent with the normal force data, boundary layer lubrication was unaffected. The implications for ILs as lubricants are discussed in terms of the behaviour of this well characterised system.

  10. Sensing disks for slug-type calorimeters have higher temperature stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Graphite sensing disk for slug-type radiation calorimeters exhibits better performance at high temperatures than copper and nickel disks. The graphite is heat-soaked to stabilize its emittance and the thermocouple is protected from the graphite so repeated temperature cycling does not change its sensitivity.

  11. Is higher body temperature beneficial in ischemic stroke patients with normal admission CT angiography of the cerebral arteries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvistad, Christopher Elnan; Khanevski, Andrej; Nacu, Aliona; Thomassen, Lars; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike; Naess, Halvor

    2014-01-01

    Low body temperature is considered beneficial in ischemic stroke due to neuroprotective mechanisms, yet some studies suggest that higher temperatures may improve clot lysis and outcomes in stroke patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The effect of increased body temperature in stroke patients treated with tPA and with normal computed tomography angiography (CTA) on admission is unknown. We hypothesized a beneficial effect of higher body temperature in the absence of visible clots on CTA, possibly due to enhanced lysis of small, peripheral clots. Patients with ischemic stroke admitted to our Stroke Unit between February 2006 and April 2013 were prospectively registered in a database (Bergen NORSTROKE Registry). Ischemic stroke patients treated with tPA with normal CTA of the cerebral arteries were included. Outcomes were assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) after 1 week. An excellent outcome was defined as mRS=0, and a favorable outcome as mRS=0-1. A total of 172 patients were included, of which 48 (27.9%) had an admission body temperature ≥37.0°C, and 124 (72.1%) had a body temperature temperature ≥37.0°C was independently associated with excellent outcomes (odds ratio [OR]: 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-6.46; P=0.014) and favorable outcomes (OR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.13-4.98; P=0.015) when adjusted for confounders. We found an association between higher admission body temperature and improved outcome in tPA-treated stroke patients with normal admission CTA of the cerebral arteries. This may suggest a beneficial effect of higher body temperature on clot lysis in the absence of visible clots on CTA.

  12. A shorter snowfall season associated with higher air temperatures over northern Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Hengchun; Cohen, Judah

    2013-01-01

    The temperature sensitivity of the snowfall season (start, end, duration) over northern Eurasia (the former USSR) is analyzed from synoptic records of 547 stations from 1966 to 2000. The results find significant correlations between temperature and snowfall season at approximately 56% of stations (61% for the starting date and 56% for the ending date) with a mean snowfall season duration temperature sensitivity of −6.2 days °C −1 split over the start (2.8 days) and end periods (−3.4 days). Temperature sensitivity was observed to increase with stations’ mean seasonal air temperature, with the strongest relationships at locations of around 6 °C temperature. This implies that increasing air temperature in fall and spring will delay the onset and hasten the end of snowfall events, and reduces the snowfall season length by 6.2 days for each degree of increase. This study also clarifies that the increasing trend in snowfall season length during 1936/37–1994 over northern European Russia and central Siberia revealed in an earlier study is unlikely to be associated with warming in spring and fall seasons. (letter)

  13. The Effective Lifetime of ACSR Full Tension Splice Connector Operated at Higher Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; King Jr, Thomas J.; Graziano, Joe; Chan, John; Goodwin, Tip

    2009-01-01

    This paper is to address the issues related to integrity of ACSR full tension splice connectors operated at high temperatures. A protocol of integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of a full tension single-stage splice connector (SSC) assembly during service at high operating temperature was developed. Based on the developed protocol the effective lifetime evaluation was demonstrated with ACSR Drake conductor SSC systems. The investigation indicates that thermal cycling temperature and frequency, conductor cable tension loading, and the compressive residual stress field within a SSC system have significant impact on the SSC integrity and the associated effective lifetime

  14. Analog and Power Microelectronics to Higher Radiation Levels and Lower Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A study was done to examine low-temperature effects and radiation damage properties of bipolar integrated circuits. Anticipated benefits: useful in missions with...

  15. Effect of temperature during ion sputtering on the surface segregation rate of antimony in an iron-antimony alloy at higher temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, M.; Hirokawa, K.; Kimura, H.; Suzuki, S.

    1986-01-01

    The surface segregation of antimony in an iron-0.23 at% antimony alloy was studied by XPS. The segregation rate in the temperature range between 800 and 900 K depends on the temperature during sputtering with argon ion of kinetic energy of 1 keV. The sputtering at room temperature or 473 K gives higher values of the segregation rate than those at 673 K. Both cases give the activation energy of 170 kJmol -1 for the surface segregation rate. The segregation of antimony is not observed after the sample is heated at 1000 K. (author)

  16. Strategies to increase the stability of intermediate moisture foods towards Zygosaccharomyces rouxii: The effect of temperature, ethanol, pH and water activity, with or without the influence of organic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, A.; Nielsen, Cecilie Lykke Marvig; Daelman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Intermediate moisture foods (IMF) are in general microbiologically stable products. However, due to health concerns consumer demands are increasingly forcing producers to lower the fat, sugar and preservatives content, which impede the stability of the IMF products. One of the strategies to count......Intermediate moisture foods (IMF) are in general microbiologically stable products. However, due to health concerns consumer demands are increasingly forcing producers to lower the fat, sugar and preservatives content, which impede the stability of the IMF products. One of the strategies......, acetic acid had only an additive effect to ethanol and aw at low pH, whereas sorbic acid had also an additive effect at the higher pH values. For incubation periods longer than 30 days the growth/no growth boundary remained stable but enlarged gradually between day 60 and 90, except for the lower...

  17. Progress report on the influence of higher interpass temperatures on the integrity of austenitic stainless steel welded joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmuch, M.; Choi, L. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Armstrong, K.; Radu, I. [PCL Industrial Constructors Inc., Nisku, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This report discussed the progress of the Welding Productivity Group (TWPG) interpass temperature assessment project (ITAP). The project was initiated to evaluate the influence of interpass temperatures on the metallurgical, corrosive, and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel, carbon steel, and low-alloy pressure weldments. To date, the project has conducted experiments to determine if interpass temperatures in austenitic stainless steel weldments are higher than temperatures recommended by API requirements. Elevated interpass temperatures for various base materials have been evaluated. Preliminary metallurgical, mechanical, and laboratory corrosion data from 3 experiments with 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steel weldment test specimens has shown that no significant changes occur as a result of elevated interpass temperatures. Results from side bend specimens have demonstrated that elevated interpass temperatures produce acceptable weldment ductility. No intergranular cracking was observed during oxalic acid etch tests conducted for the 316/316L samples. Huey tests performed on the 304/304L specimens indicated that elevated interpass temperatures did not adversely affect the intergranular corrosion resistance of weldments with less than 3 weld passes. Huey tests performed on the 316 specimens showed a marked increase in corrosion rates and normalized weight losses. It was concluded that rates of attack correlate with the maximum interpass temperature and not the average weld metal ferrite number. 22 refs., 11 tabs., 12 figs.

  18. Heat-flow and temperature control in Tian–Calvet microcalorimeters: toward higher detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilchiz-Bravo, L E; Pacheco-Vega, A; Handy, B E

    2010-01-01

    Strategies based on the principle of heat flow and temperature control were implemented, and experimentally tested, to increase the sensitivity of a Tian–Calvet microcalorimeter for measuring heats of adsorption. Here, both heat-flow and temperature control schemes were explored to diminish heater-induced thermal variations within the heat sink element, hence obtaining less noise in the baseline signal. PID controllers were implemented within a closed-loop system to perform the control actions in a calorimetric setup. The experimental results demonstrate that the heat flow control strategy provided a better baseline stability when compared to the temperature control. The effects on the results stemming from the type of power supply used were also investigated

  19. Influence of deposits quantity and air temperature on 137Cs accumulation by the higher mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Zarubina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches of the influence of weather conditions (amount of precipitation, air temperature on 137Cs content’s magnitude in fruit bodies of mushrooms: Boletus edulis Bull.: Fr., Suillus luteus (L.: Fr. S.F.Gray, Xerocomus badius (Fr. Kuhn. ex Gilb., Tricholoma flavovirens (Pers.: Fr. Lund., Cantharellus cibarius Fr. at the territory of Chernobyl alienation zone and «southern trace» are performed. Correlation factors, determination factors between specific activity 137Cs at mushrooms and quantity of deposits (mm and the maximum temperature of air (0С are calculated. At calculations the decrease of the content of 137Cs in mushrooms at the expense of disintegration of this isotope has been considered. As a result of researches the authentic dependence of specific activity 137Cs in fruit bodies of the studied kinds of mushrooms from quantity of deposits and from air temperature has not been established.

  20. Influence of deposits quantity and air temperature on 137Cs accumulation by the higher mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubina, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    Researches of the influence of weather conditions (amount of precipitation, air temperature) on 137 Cs content magnitude in fruit bodies of mushrooms: Boletus edulis Bull.: Fr., Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) S.F.Gray, Xerocomus badius (Fr.) Kuhn. ex Gilb., Tricholoma flavovirens (Pers.: Fr.) Lund., Cantharellus cibarius Fr. at the territory of Chernobyl alienation zone and 'southern trace are performed. Correlation factors, determination factors between specific activity 137 Cs at mushrooms and quantity of deposits (mm) and the maximum temperature of air ( o C) are calculated. At calculations the decrease of the content of 137 Cs in mushrooms at the expense of disintegration of this isotope has been considered. As a result of researches the authentic dependence of specific activity 137 Cs in fruit bodies of the studied kinds of mushrooms from quantity of deposits and from air temperature has not been established.

  1. Increased Kawasaki Disease Incidence Associated With Higher Precipitation and Lower Temperatures, Japan, 1991-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Joseph Y; Blase, Jennifer L; Belay, Ermias D; Uehara, Ritei; Maddox, Ryan A; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2018-06-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile vasculitis, which primarily affects children. The etiology of KD is unknown; while certain characteristics of the disease suggest an infectious origin, genetic or environmental factors may also be important. Seasonal patterns of KD incidence are well documented, but it is unclear whether these patterns are caused by changes in climate or by other unknown seasonal effects. The relationship between KD incidence and deviations from expected temperature and precipitation were analyzed using KD incidence data from Japanese nationwide epidemiologic surveys (1991-2004) and climate data from 136 weather stations of the Japan Meteorological Agency. Seven separate Poisson-distributed generalized linear regression models were run to examine the effects of temperature and precipitation on KD incidence in the same month as KD onset and the previous 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months, controlling for geography as well as seasonal and long-term trends in KD incidence. KD incidence was negatively associated with temperature in the previous 2, 3, 4 and 5 months and positively associated with precipitation in the previous 1 and 2 months. The model that best predicted variations in KD incidence used climate data from the previous 2 months. An increase in total monthly precipitation by 100 mm was associated with increased KD incidence (rate ratio [RR] 1.012, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.005-1.019), and an increase of monthly mean temperature by 1°C was associated with decreased KD incidence (RR 0.984, 95% CI: 0.978-0.990). KD incidence was significantly affected by temperature and precipitation in previous months independent of other unknown seasonal factors. Climate data from the previous 2 months best predicted the variations in KD incidence. Although fairly minor, the effect of temperature and precipitation independent of season may provide additional clues to the etiology of KD.

  2. Thermodynamic Studies of the Phase Relationships of Nonstoichiometric Cerium Oxides at Higher Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Toft

    1976-01-01

    Partial molar thermodynamic quantities for oxygen in nonstoichiometric cerium oxides were determined by thermogravimetric analysis in CO/CO2 mixtures in the temperature range 900–1400°C. Under these conditions compositions within the range 2.00 greater-or-equal, slanted O/M greater-or-equal, slan......Partial molar thermodynamic quantities for oxygen in nonstoichiometric cerium oxides were determined by thermogravimetric analysis in CO/CO2 mixtures in the temperature range 900–1400°C. Under these conditions compositions within the range 2.00 greater-or-equal, slanted O/M greater...

  3. The Lifetime Estimate for ACSR Single-Stage Splice Connector Operating at Higher Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Graziano, Joe; Chan, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the continuation of Part I effort to develop a protocol of integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of a full tension single-stage splice connector (SSC) assembly during service at high operating temperature.1The Part II efforts are mainly focused on the thermal mechanical testing, thermal-cycling simulation and its impact on the effective lifetime of the SSC system. The investigation indicates that thermal cycling temperature and frequency, conductor cable tension loading, and the compressive residual stress field within a SSC system have significant impact on the SSC integrity and the associated effective lifetime.

  4. Moisture in Crawl Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Crawl space foundations can be designed and built to avoid moisture problems. In this article we provide a brief overview of crawl spaces with emphasis on the physics of moisture. We review trends that have been observed in the research literature and summarize cur-rent recommendations for moisture control in crawl spaces.

  5. Higher Temperature Thermal Barrier Coatings with the Combined Use of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet and the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Maurice; Wang, Jiwen; Kumar, Rishi; Roth, Jeffery; Jiang, Chen; Jordan, Eric H.

    2018-02-01

    Gas-turbine engines are widely used in transportation, energy and defense industries. The increasing demand for more efficient gas turbines requires higher turbine operating temperatures. For more than 40 years, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has been the dominant thermal barrier coating (TBC) due to its outstanding material properties. However, the practical use of YSZ-based TBCs is limited to approximately 1200 °C. Developing new, higher temperature TBCs has proven challenging to satisfy the multiple property requirements of a durable TBC. In this study, an advanced TBC has been developed by using the solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process that generates unique engineered microstructures with the higher temperature yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) to produce a TBC that can meet and exceed the major performance standards of state-of-the-art air plasma sprayed YSZ, including: phase stability, sintering resistance, CMAS resistance, thermal cycle durability, thermal conductivity and erosion resistance. The temperature improvement for hot section gas turbine materials (superalloys & TBCs) has been at the rate of about 50 °C per decade over the last 50 years. In contrast, SPPS YAG TBCs offer the near-term potential of a > 200 °C improvement in temperature capability.

  6. Higher Temperature Thermal Barrier Coatings with the Combined Use of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet and the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Maurice; Wang, Jiwen; Kumar, Rishi; Roth, Jeffery; Jiang, Chen; Jordan, Eric H.

    2018-04-01

    Gas-turbine engines are widely used in transportation, energy and defense industries. The increasing demand for more efficient gas turbines requires higher turbine operating temperatures. For more than 40 years, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has been the dominant thermal barrier coating (TBC) due to its outstanding material properties. However, the practical use of YSZ-based TBCs is limited to approximately 1200 °C. Developing new, higher temperature TBCs has proven challenging to satisfy the multiple property requirements of a durable TBC. In this study, an advanced TBC has been developed by using the solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process that generates unique engineered microstructures with the higher temperature yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) to produce a TBC that can meet and exceed the major performance standards of state-of-the-art air plasma sprayed YSZ, including: phase stability, sintering resistance, CMAS resistance, thermal cycle durability, thermal conductivity and erosion resistance. The temperature improvement for hot section gas turbine materials (superalloys & TBCs) has been at the rate of about 50 °C per decade over the last 50 years. In contrast, SPPS YAG TBCs offer the near-term potential of a > 200 °C improvement in temperature capability.

  7. Effect of feed moisture, extrusion temperature and screw speed on properties of soy white flakes based aquafeed: a response surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sushil K; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan

    2016-04-01

    Soy white flakes (SWF) is an intermediate product during soy bean processing. It is an untoasted inexpensive product and contains around 51% of crude protein. It can be a potential source of protein to replace fish meal for developing aquafeed. The extrusion process is versatile and is used for the development of aquafeed. Our objective was to study the effects of inclusion of SWF (up to 50%) and other extrusion processing parameters such as barrel temperature and screw speed on the properties of aquafeed extrudates using a single-screw extruder. Extrudate properties, including pellet durability index, bulk density, water absorption and solubility indices and mass flow rate, were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the process variables. SWF was the most significant variable with quadratic effects on most of the properties. Increasing temperature and screw speed resulted in increase in durability and mass flow rate of extrudates. Response surface regression models were established to correlate the properties of extrudates to the process variables. SWF was used as an alternative protein source of fish meal. Our study shows that aquafeed with high durability, lower bulk density and lower water absorption and higher solubility indices can be obtained by adding SWF up to 40%. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Simple grain moisture content determination from microwave measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraszewski, A.W.; Trabelsi, S.; Nelson, S.O.

    1998-01-01

    Moisture content of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., is expressed as a function of the ratio of microwave attenuation and phase shift, measured at 16.8 GHz, and grain temperature. Validation of the calibration equation indicated that moisture content was obtained with an uncertainty less than +/- 0.45% moisture at the 95% confidence level, independent of density variation, at temperatures from -1 degree C to 42 degrees C, and moisture contents from 10% to 19%. Moisture determination does not depend on the layer thickness of the wheat norits bulk density. No differences between two wheat cultivars were observed in the measurement data

  9. Dopamine mediated iron release from ferritin is enhanced at higher temperatures: Possible implications for fever-induced Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babincova, Melania; Babinec, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A new molecular mechanism is proposed to explain the pathogenesis of fever-induced Parkinson's disease. This proposal is based on dopamine and 6-hydroxydopamine-mediated free iron release from ferritin magnetic nanoparticles, which is enhanced at higher temperatures, and which may lead to substantial peroxidation and injury of lipid biomembranes of the substantia nigra in the brain

  10. Soil moisture transport during the 1974--1975 and 1975--1976 water years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Easley, P.G.; Brown, D.J.

    1976-12-01

    The rate and direction of soil moisture movement in Hanford sediments were determined for the 1974-1975 and 1975-1976 water years. The data for these determinations was obtained from two large lysimeters located on the 200 area plateau near the center of the Hanford Reservation. During the 1974-75 water year, meteoric moisture percolated to a depth of 2.5 meters with a peak moisture content of 10.5 volume-percent. This percolation envelope was eliminated by evaporation during the hot dry summer of 1975. The 1975-76 water year had only 70 percent of the normal precipitation, thus the percolation envelope was small and penetrated to a depth of only two meters. However, in spite of this shallow depth and low volume of moisture, the percolation envelope was not eliminated by the end of the water year because of lower seasonal temperatures and higher humidity during the drying season. Moisture content of sediments in the 4-18 meter depth range showed no relative change throughout the two water years, and no moisture accumulated at the bottom of the lysimeters, which indicates there is no deep percolation of meteoric moisture at this site, and no recharge to the ground water

  11. Evaluation of a Soil Moisture Data Assimilation System Over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, J. D.; Crow, W.; Zhan, X.; Jackson, T.; Reynolds, C.

    2009-05-01

    A crucial requirement of global crop yield forecasts by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) International Production Assessment Division (IPAD) is the regional characterization of surface and sub-surface soil moisture. However, due to the spatial heterogeneity and dynamic nature of precipitation events and resulting soil moisture, accurate estimation of regional land surface-atmosphere interactions based sparse ground measurements is difficult. IPAD estimates global soil moisture using daily estimates of minimum and maximum temperature and precipitation applied to a modified Palmer two-layer soil moisture model which calculates the daily amount of soil moisture withdrawn by evapotranspiration and replenished by precipitation. We attempt to improve upon the existing system by applying an Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation system to integrate surface soil moisture retrievals from the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) into the USDA soil moisture model. This work aims at evaluating the utility of merging satellite-retrieved soil moisture estimates with the IPAD two-layer soil moisture model used within the DBMS. We present a quantitative analysis of the assimilated soil moisture product over West Africa (9°N- 20°N; 20°W-20°E). This region contains many key agricultural areas and has a high agro- meteorological gradient from desert and semi-arid vegetation in the North, to grassland, trees and crops in the South, thus providing an ideal location for evaluating the assimilated soil moisture product over multiple land cover types and conditions. A data denial experimental approach is utilized to isolate the added utility of integrating remotely-sensed soil moisture by comparing assimilated soil moisture results obtained using (relatively) low-quality precipitation products obtained from real-time satellite imagery to baseline model runs forced with higher quality rainfall. An analysis of root-zone anomalies for each model

  12. Structural changes in a clay-containing nanocomposite with a different moisture content caused by its deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajtel'son, E.A.; Glaskova, T.I.; Korkhovm, V.P.; Aniskevich, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of the properties of a clay-containing nanocomposite with an epoxy binder under moisture-temperature and mechanical action. It has been established that whatever the moisture content, the nanocomposite crystallizes under the thermomechanical action (upon reaching the glasstransition temperature). When the nanocomposite is heated to 70 C, the restructuring process is reversible, and its heating to above 150 C leads to its amorphization. The presence of clay nanoparticles (up to 6 mass percent) does not influence the temperature of structural transitions of the nanocomposite and does not cause a substantial strengthening effect. The sorbed moisture plasticizes the nanocomposite and decreases its glasstransition temperature by 10 C. The specific features of the thermomechanical behavior of nanocomposites upon their tensile prestrain or creep are due to the formation of an oriented structure. Their crystallization begins at lower temperatures and with a higher degree of crystallinity than that of unloaded nanostructures. (authors)

  13. Effects of moisture barrier and initial moisture content on the storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two factors examined were moisture barrier at three levels namely: thick lining, thin lining and non-lining. The other factor included initial moisture content of the produce, namely, turgid and partially wilted. Partial wilting of the produce was achieved by exposing freshly harvested materials at ambient temperature to dry ...

  14. Higher Temperature at Lower Elevation Sites Fails to Promote Acclimation or Adaptation to Heat Stress During Pollen Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluvia Flores-Rentería

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available High temperatures associated with climate change are expected to be detrimental for aspects of plant reproduction, such as pollen viability. We hypothesized that (1 higher peak temperatures predicted with climate change would have a minimal effect on pollen viability, while high temperatures during pollen germination would negatively affect pollen viability, (2 high temperatures during pollen dispersal would facilitate acclimation to high temperatures during pollen germination, and (3 pollen from populations at sites with warmer average temperatures would be better adapted to high temperature peaks. We tested these hypotheses in Pinus edulis, a species with demonstrated sensitivity to climate change, using populations along an elevational gradient. We tested for acclimation to high temperatures by measuring pollen viability during dispersal and germination stages in pollen subjected to 30, 35, and 40°C in a factorial design. We also characterized pollen phenology and measured pollen heat tolerance using trees from nine sites along a 200 m elevational gradient that varied 4°C in temperature. We demonstrated that this gradient is biologically meaningful by evaluating variation in vegetation composition and P. edulis performance. Male reproduction was negatively affected by high temperatures, with stronger effects during pollen germination than pollen dispersal. Populations along the elevational gradient varied in pollen phenology, vegetation composition, plant water stress, nutrient availability, and plant growth. In contrast to our hypothesis, pollen viability was highest in pinyons from mid-elevation sites rather than from lower elevation sites. We found no evidence of acclimation or adaptation of pollen to high temperatures. Maximal plant performance as measured by growth did not occur at the same elevation as maximal pollen viability. These results indicate that periods of high temperature negatively affected sexual reproduction, such that

  15. Resistant Starch Contents of Native and Heat-Moisture Treated Jackfruit Seed Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornanong S. Kittipongpatana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Native jackfruit seed starch (JFS contains 30% w/w type II resistant starch (RS2 and can potentially be developed as a new commercial source of RS for food and pharmaceutical application. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT was explored as a mean to increase RS content of native JFS. The effect of the conditions was tested at varied moisture contents (MC, temperatures, and times. Moisture levels of 20–25%, together with temperatures 80–110°C, generally resulted in increases of RS amount. The highest amount of RS (52.2% was achieved under treatment conditions of 25% MC and 80°C, for 16 h (JF-25-80-16. FT-IR peak ratio at 1047/1022 cm−1 suggested increases in ordered structure in several HMT-JFS samples with increased RS. SEM showed no significant change in the granule appearance, except at high moisture/temperature treatment. XRD revealed no significant change in peaks intensities, suggesting the crystallinity within the granule was mostly retained. DSC showed increases in Tg and, in most cases, ΔT, as the MC was increased in the samples. Slight but significant decreases in ΔH were observed in samples with low RS, indicating that a combination of high moisture and temperature might cause partial gelatinization. HMT-JFS with higher RS exhibited less swelling, while the solubility remained mostly unchanged.

  16. Acclimation to higher VPD and temperature minimized negative effects on assimilation and grain yield of wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, Muhammad Adil; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2018-01-01

    Adapting to climate change and minimizing its negative impact on crop production requires detailed understanding of the direct and indirect effects of different climate variables (i.e. temperature, VPD). We investigated the direct (via heat stress) and indirect effects (through increased VPD....... Treatments included hot humid (HH: 36° C; 1.96 kPa VPD), hot dry (HD: 36° C; 3.92 kPa VPD) and normal (NC: 24° C; 1.49 kPa VPD). Difference between HH and HD was considered as the indirect effect of temperature through increased VPD. HD increased transpiration by 2–22% and decreased photosynthetic water......-use efficiency (WUEp) by 24–64% over HH during stress but whole-plant WUE at final harvest was not affected. HD reduced grainfilling duration (3 days), resulted in relatively lower green leaf area (GLA) after the stress and showed a tendency of lower net assimilation rate during the stress compared to HH...

  17. Effect of process variables on the density and durability of the pellets made from high moisture corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2014-03-01

    A flat die pellet mill was used to understand the effect of high levels of feedstock moisture content in the range of 28–38% (w.b.), with die rotational speeds of 40–60 Hz, and preheating temperatures of 30–110 °C on the pelleting characteristics of 4.8 mm screen size ground corn stover using an 8 mm pellet die. The physical properties of the pelletised biomass studied are: (a) pellet moisture content, (b) unit, bulk and tapped density, and (c) durability. Pelletisation experiments were conducted based on central composite design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that feedstock moisture content influenced all of the physical properties at P < 0.001. Pellet moisture content decreased with increase in preheating temperature to about 110 °C and decreasing the feedstock moisture content to about 28% (w.b.). Response surface models developed for quality attributes with respect to process variables has adequately described the process with coefficient of determination (R2) values of >0.88. The other pellet quality attributes such as unit, bulk, tapped density, were maximised at feedstock moisture content of 30–33% (w.b.), die speeds of >50 Hz and preheating temperature of >90 °C. In case of durability a medium moisture content of 33–34% (w.b.) and preheating temperatures of >70 °C and higher die speeds >50 Hz resulted in high durable pellets. It can be concluded from the present study that feedstock moisture content, followed by preheating, and die rotational speed are the interacting process variables influencing pellet moisture content, unit, bulk and tapped density and durability.

  18. Moisture accumulation in a building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, T.W.; Checkwitch, K.

    1988-09-01

    In a large number of cases, the failure of a building envelope can be traced to the accumulation of moisture. In a cold winter climate, characteristic of the Canadian prairies, moisture is deposited in the structure by the movement of warm, moist air through the envelope. Tests on the moisture accumulation in a building envelope were initiated in a test house at an Alberta research facility during the 1987/88 heating season. The indoor moisture generation rate was measured and compared with the value inferred from the measured air infiltration rate. With the flue open, the moisture generation rate was approximately 5.5 kg/d of which 0.7 kg/d entered the building envelope; the remainder was exhausted through the flue. With the flue blocked, the moisture generation rate decreased to 3.4 kg/d, while the amount of moisture migrating through the envelope increased to 4.0 kg/d. The moisture accumulation in wall panels located on the north and south face of the test house was also monitored. Moisture was allowed to enter the wall cavity via a hole in the drywall. The fiberglass insulation remained dry throughout the test period. The moisture content of the exterior sheathing of the north panel increased to a maximum of 18% wt in the vicinity of the hole, but quickly dried when the ambient temperatures increased towards the end of the season. The south panel showed very little moisture accumlation due to the effects of solar radiation. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Moisture dependence of radon transport in concrete : Measurements and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozmuta, [No Value; van der Graaf, ER; de Meijer, RJ

    2003-01-01

    The moisture dependence of the radon-release rate of concrete was measured under well controlled conditions. It was found that the radon-release rate almost linearly increases up to moisture contents of 50 to 60%. At 70 to 80% a maximum was found and for higher moisture contents the radon-release

  20. [Sap flow characteristics of Quercus liaotungensis in response to sapwood area and soil moisture in the loess hilly region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jin Lin; He, Qiu Yue; Yan, Mei Jie; Li, Guo Qing; Du, Sheng

    2018-03-01

    To examine the characteristics of sap flow in Quercus liaotungensis and their response to environmental factors under different soil moisture conditions, Granier-type thermal dissipation probes were used to measure xylem sap flow of trees with different sapwood area in a natural Q. liaotungensis forest in the loess hilly region. Solar radiation, air temperature, relative air humidity, precipitation, and soil moisture were monitored during the study period. The results showed that sap flux of Q. liaotungensis reached daily peaks earlier than solar radiation and vapor pressure deficit. The diurnal dynamics of sap flux showed a similar pattern to those of the environmental factors. Trees had larger sap flux during the period with higher soil moisture. Under the same soil moisture conditions, trees with larger diameter and sapwood areas had significantly higher sap flux than those with smaller diameter and sapwood areas. Sap flux could be fitted with vapor pressure deficit, solar radiation, and the integrated index of the two factors using exponential saturation function. Differences in the fitted curves and parameters suggested that sap flux tended to reach saturation faster under higher soil moisture. Furthermore, trees in the smaller diameter class were more sensitive to the changes of soil moisture. The ratio of daily sap flux per unit vapor pressure deficit under lower soil moisture condition to that under higher soil moisture condition was linearly correlated to sapwood area. The regressive slope in smaller diameter class was larger than that in bigger diameter class, which further indicated the higher sensitivity of trees with smaller diameter class to soil moisture. These results indicated that wider sapwood of larger diameter class provided a buffer against drought stress.

  1. The effect of soil moisture anomalies on maize yield in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichl, Michael; Thober, Stephan; Meyer, Volker; Samaniego, Luis

    2018-03-01

    Crop models routinely use meteorological variations to estimate crop yield. Soil moisture, however, is the primary source of water for plant growth. The aim of this study is to investigate the intraseasonal predictability of soil moisture to estimate silage maize yield in Germany. We also evaluate how approaches considering soil moisture perform compare to those using only meteorological variables. Silage maize is one of the most widely cultivated crops in Germany because it is used as a main biomass supplier for energy production in the course of the German Energiewende (energy transition). Reduced form fixed effect panel models are employed to investigate the relationships in this study. These models are estimated for each month of the growing season to gain insights into the time-varying effects of soil moisture and meteorological variables. Temperature, precipitation, and potential evapotranspiration are used as meteorological variables. Soil moisture is transformed into anomalies which provide a measure for the interannual variation within each month. The main result of this study is that soil moisture anomalies have predictive skills which vary in magnitude and direction depending on the month. For instance, dry soil moisture anomalies in August and September reduce silage maize yield more than 10 %, other factors being equal. In contrast, dry anomalies in May increase crop yield up to 7 % because absolute soil water content is higher in May compared to August due to its seasonality. With respect to the meteorological terms, models using both temperature and precipitation have higher predictability than models using only one meteorological variable. Also, models employing only temperature exhibit elevated effects.

  2. Communal nesting under climate change: fitness consequences of higher incubation temperatures for a nocturnal lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayananda, Buddhi; Gray, Sarah; Pike, David; Webb, Jonathan K

    2016-07-01

    Communal nesting lizards may be vulnerable to climate warming, particularly if air temperatures regulate nest temperatures. In southeastern Australia, velvet geckos Oedura lesueurii lay eggs communally inside rock crevices. We investigated whether increases in air temperatures could elevate nest temperatures, and if so, how this could influence hatching phenotypes, survival, and population dynamics. In natural nests, maximum daily air temperature influenced mean and maximum daily nest temperatures, implying that nest temperatures will increase under climate warming. To determine whether hotter nests influence hatchling phenotypes, we incubated eggs under two fluctuating temperature regimes to mimic current 'cold' nests (mean = 23.2 °C, range 10-33 °C) and future 'hot' nests (27.0 °C, 14-37 °C). 'Hot' incubation temperatures produced smaller hatchlings than did cold temperature incubation. We released individually marked hatchlings into the wild in 2014 and 2015, and monitored their survival over 10 months. In 2014 and 2015, hot-incubated hatchlings had higher annual mortality (99%, 97%) than cold-incubated (11%, 58%) or wild-born hatchlings (78%, 22%). To determine future trajectories of velvet gecko populations under climate warming, we ran population viability analyses in Vortex and varied annual rates of hatchling mortality within the range 78- 96%. Hatchling mortality strongly influenced the probability of extinction and the mean time to extinction. When hatchling mortality was >86%, populations had a higher probability of extinction (PE: range 0.52- 1.0) with mean times to extinction of 18-44 years. Whether future changes in hatchling survival translate into reduced population viability will depend on the ability of females to modify their nest-site choices. Over the period 1992-2015, females used the same communal nests annually, suggesting that there may be little plasticity in maternal nest-site selection. The impacts of climate change may

  3. Drought and Cooler Temperatures Are Associated with Higher Nest Survival in Mountain Plovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J. Dreitz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Native grasslands have been altered to a greater extent than any other biome in North America. The habitats and resources needed to support breeding performance of grassland birds endemic to prairie ecosystems are currently threatened by land management practices and impending climate change. Climate models for the Great Plains prairie region predict a future of hotter and drier summers with strong multiyear droughts and more frequent and severe precipitation events. We examined how fluctuations in weather conditions in eastern Colorado influenced nest survival of an avian species that has experienced recent population declines, the Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus. Nest survival averaged 27.2% over a 7-yr period (n = 936 nests and declined as the breeding season progressed. Nest survival was favored by dry conditions and cooler temperatures. Projected changes in regional precipitation patterns will likely influence nest survival, with positive influences of predicted declines in summer rainfall yet negative effects of more intense rain events. The interplay of climate change and land use practices within prairie ecosystems may result in Mountain Plovers shifting their distribution, changing local abundance, and adjusting fecundity to adapt to their changing environment.

  4. Study of higher order cumulant expansion of U(1) lattice gauge model at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xite; Lei Chunhong; Li Yuliang; Chen Hong

    1993-01-01

    The order parameter, Polyakov line , of the U(1) gauge model on N σ 3 x N τ (N τ = 1) lattice by using the cumulant expansion is calculated to the 5-th order. The emphasis is put on the behaviour of the cumulant expansion in the intermediate coupling region. The necessity of higher order expansion is clarified from the connection between the cumulant expansion and the correlation length. The variational parameter in the n-th order calculation is determined by the requirement that corrections of the n-th order expansion to the zeroth order expansion finish. The agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation is obtained not only in the weak and strong coupling regions, but also in the intermediate coupling region except in the very vicinity of the phase transition point

  5. Soil hydraulic parameters and surface soil moisture of a tilled bare soil plot inversely derived from l-band brightness temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Dimitrov, Marin; Vanderborght, Jan P.; Kostov, K. G.; Jadoon, Khan; Weihermü ller, Lutz; Jackson, Thomas J.; Bindlish, Rajat; Pachepsky, Ya A.; Schwank, Mike; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-01-01

    model (CRTM) that accounts for vertical gradients in dielectric permittivity. Brightness temperatures simulated by the CRTM and the 2-cm-layer Fresnel model fitted well to the measured ones. L-band brightness temperatures are therefore related

  6. Comprehensive analysis of an Antarctic bacterial community with the adaptability of growth at higher temperatures than those in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi-Tanabe, Shoko; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhu, Daochen; Nagata, Shinichi; Ban, Syuhei; Imura, Satoshi

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the adaptability to higher temperatures of Antarctic microorganisms persisting in low temperature conditions for a long time, Antarctic lake samples were incubated in several selection media at 25 degrees C and 30 degrees C. The microorganisms did not grow at 30 degrees C; however, some of them grew at 25 degrees C, indicating that the bacteria in Antarctic have the ability to grow at a wide range of temperatures. Total DNA was extracted from these microorganisms and amplified using the bacteria-universal primers. The amplified fragments were cloned, and randomly selected 48 clones were sequenced. The sequenced clones showed high similarity to the alpha-subdivision of the Proteobacteria with specific affinity to the genus Agrobacterium, Caulobacter and Brevundimonas, the ss-subdivision of Proteobacteria with specific affinity to the genus Cupriavidus, and Bacillus of the phylum Firmicutes. These results showed the presence of universal genera, suggesting that the bacteria in the Antarctic lake were not specific to this environment.

  7. Evaluating the Utility of Remotely-Sensed Soil Moisture Retrievals for Operational Agricultural Drought Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, John D.; Crow, Wade T.; Zhan, Xiwu; Jackson, Thomas J.; Reynolds,Curt

    2010-01-01

    Soil moisture is a fundamental data source used by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) International Production Assessment Division (IPAD) to monitor crop growth stage and condition and subsequently, globally forecast agricultural yields. Currently, the USDA IPAD estimates surface and root-zone soil moisture using a two-layer modified Palmer soil moisture model forced by global precipitation and temperature measurements. However, this approach suffers from well-known errors arising from uncertainty in model forcing data and highly simplified model physics. Here we attempt to correct for these errors by designing and applying an Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation system to integrate surface soil moisture retrievals from the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) into the USDA modified Palmer soil moisture model. An assessment of soil moisture analysis products produced from this assimilation has been completed for a five-year (2002 to 2007) period over the North American continent between 23degN - 50degN and 128degW - 65degW. In particular, a data denial experimental approach is utilized to isolate the added utility of integrating remotely-sensed soil moisture by comparing EnKF soil moisture results obtained using (relatively) low-quality precipitation products obtained from real-time satellite imagery to baseline Palmer model runs forced with higher quality rainfall. An analysis of root-zone anomalies for each model simulation suggests that the assimilation of AMSR-E surface soil moisture retrievals can add significant value to USDA root-zone predictions derived from real-time satellite precipitation products.

  8. Remote Sensing of Surface Soil Moisture using Semi-Concurrent Radar and Radiometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Ouellette, J. D.; Colliander, A.; Cosh, M. H.; Caldwell, T. G.; Walker, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Radar backscatter and radiometer brightness temperature both have well-documented sensitivity to surface soil moisture, particularly in the microwave regime. While radiometer-derived soil moisture retrievals have been shown to be stable and accurate, they are only available at coarse spatial resolutions on the order of tens of kilometers. Backscatter from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is similarly sensitive to soil moisture but can yield higher spatial resolutions, with pixel sizes about an order of magnitude smaller. Soil moisture retrieval from radar backscatter is more difficult, however, due to the combined sensitivity of radar scattering to surface roughness, vegetation structure, and soil moisture. The algorithm uses a time-series of SAR data to retrieval soil moisture information, constraining the SAR-derived soil moisture estimates with radiometer observations. This effectively combines the high spatial resolution offered by SAR with the precision offered by passive radiometry. The algorithm is a change detection approach which maps changes in the radar backscatter to changes in surface soil moisture. This new algorithm differs from existing retrieval techniques in that it does not require ancillary vegetation information, but assumes vegetation and surface roughness are stable between pairs of consecutive radar overpasses. Furthermore, this method does not require a radar scattering model for the vegetation canopy, nor the use of a training data set. The algorithm works over a long time series, and is constrained by hard bounds which are defined using a coarse-resolution radiometer soil moisture product. The presentation will include soil moisture retrievals from Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) SAR data. Two sets of optimization bounds will constrain the radar change detection algorithm: one defined by SMAP radiometer retrievals and one defined by WindSat radiometer retrievals. Retrieved soil moisture values will be presented on a world map and will

  9. Microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shengkang; Mei Yu

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge is introduced. This gauge consists of a neutron moisture sensor and instruments. It is developed from the neutron moisture gauge for concrete mixer. A TECH-81 single card microcomputer is used for count, computation and display. It has the function of computing compensated quantity of sand. It can acquire the data from several neutron sensors by the multichanneling sampling, therefore it can measure moisture values of sand in several hoppers simultaneously. The precision of the static state calibration curve is 0.24% wt. The error limits of the dynamic state check is < 0.50% wt

  10. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  11. Conservação de sementes de Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. McVaugh seed storability as affected by temperature and seed moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Felipe de Oliveira Gentil

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de Myrciaria dubia apresentam baixa longevidade e demandam a ampliação do conhecimento sobre fatores interferentes na sua conservação. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar as influências do grau de umidade e da temperatura do ambiente na manutenção da qualidade dessas sementes. Para tanto, sementes com 48%, 43%, 40%, 34%, 30%, 24%, 18% e 14% de água, acondicionadas em sacos de polietileno, foram armazenadas sob temperaturas controladas de 10 ºC, 20 ºC e 30 ºC, durante 280 dias, e submetidas, periodicamente, à avaliação do grau de umidade, da germinação, do vigor e da sanidade. Constatou-se que as sementes têm a conservação favorecida pela associação do grau de umidade de 43% com a temperatura de armazenamento de 10 °C.Myrciaria dubia seeds have a short life span and few informations are available about the factors that determine their storability. The main aim of this research work was to check the effects of three temperatures (10 ºC, 20 ºC and 30 ºC and eight seed moisture contents (48%, 43%, 40%, 34%, 30%, 24%, 18% and 14% on seed storability, during a time period of 280 days. Periodic evaluations of seed moisture content, germination, vigor and healthness were carried out throughout the experimental time. The best seed storability conditions were observed at 10 °C and 43% of seed moisture content.

  12. Development of a neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron moisture gauge fabricated for measuring the moisture content of coke is described. It has an americium-beryllium source placed beside a boron coated neutron counter which is a slow neutron detector. The fast neutrons emitted by the radioactive source are slowed down by the hydrogen nuclei present in the material either as bound hydrogen or as a hydrogen of the water. Measure of the slowed down i.e. thermal neutrons (their density) is proportional to the total hydrogen content of the material. The instrument is installed as an ''on-line'' measuring device to estimate the moisture content of coke at the weighing hopper feeding the skip car. The accuracy of measurement is dependent on the moisture content, i.e. higher accuracy is obtained for higher moisture content. At low moisture content, the effect of the bound hydrogen other than that of the water on low moisture readings is pronounced. Effect of bulk density on the accuracy of measurement is not very significant as long as the coke size is constant. The error is in the range of +- 1.1%. (M.G.B.)

  13. Moisture sources of the Mono Lake deglacial pluvial events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Liang, M. C.; Ali, G.; Shen, C. C.; Cai, Y.; Ke, L.; Hemming, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    Enormously expanded lakes existed in the today's dry western US Great Basin during the last glacial period. The ancient shorelines located well above modern lake levels suggest that precipitation in lake basins must have been substantially higher in the past. It is however under debate whether the subtropical North Pacific or the tropical Pacific is the major moisture source that contributed to the pluvial events, particularly during the deglaciation. Here, we collected a suite of tufa carbonate samples deposited at the 2,080 meter terrace ( 135 meters above today's lake level) in the Mono Basin, California, a closed lake basin for the last 130 thousand years (kyr). At Goat Ranch, we discovered white, shiny, laminated botryoidal carbonate coatings on tufa mounds. Most of these coatings present two generations of formation separated by a hiatus, which indicates lake level fluctuations. Using high-precision U-Th dating techniques, we found that the lower layer was formed 14.1-14.4 kyr BP (corresponding to the North Atlantic Bølling warming period). The upper layer of the coating was formed 11.9-12.3 kyr BP (within the Younger Dryas event). We then obtained d18O, d13C, D47 and 17O-excess values for the two carbonate layers. The upper part is characterized by low d18O values, -8 to -12 ‰ VPDB, whereas the lower one has higher d18O values, -5 to -6 ‰ VPDB. Both share similar d13C values ( 1-2‰ VPDB). D47 analysis on the carbonates suggests that both layers were deposited in a water temperature of 9±2 oC (1s, n = 4 and 8, respectively). The two generations of carbonates present 17O-excess of moisture in values of 50±5 (1s, n=4) and 25±5 (1s, n=8) per meg VSMOW-SLAP, respectively. The large difference in 17O-excess of parent meteoric water points to different origins of moisture for the tufa carbonate formations. The high 17O-excess values during YD suggest a moisture source with a low relative humidity, consistent with the conventional view that the moisture

  14. Dominant bryophyte control over high-latitude soil temperature fluctuations predicted by heat transfer traits, field moisture regime and laws of thermal insulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; van Bodegom, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Bryophytes cover large territories in cold biomes, where they control soil temperature regime, and therefore permafrost, carbon and nutrient dynamics. The mechanisms of this control remain unclear. We quantified the dependence of soil temperature fluctuations under bryophyte mats on the interplay of

  15. ELEVATED TEMPERATURE, SOIL MOISTURE AND SEASONALITY BUT NOT CO2 AFFECT CANOPY ASSIMILATION AND SYSTEM RESPIRATION IN SEEDLING DOUGLAS-FIR ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and air temperature on C cycling in trees and associated soil system, focusing on canopy CO2 assimilation (Asys) and system CO2 loss through respiration (Rsys). We hypothesized that both elevated CO2 and elevated temperature...

  16. Detecting Trends in Wetland Extent from MODIS Derived Soil Moisture Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gumbricht

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A soil wetness index for optical satellite images, the Transformed Wetness Index (TWI is defined and evaluated against ground sampled soil moisture. Conceptually, TWI is formulated as a non-linear normalized difference index from orthogonalized vectors representing soil and water conditions, with the vegetation signal removed. Compared to 745 ground sites with in situ measured soil moisture, TWI has a globally estimated Random Mean Square Error of 14.0 (v/v expressed as percentage, which reduces to 8.5 for unbiased data. The temporal variation in soil moisture is significantly captured at 4 out of 10 stations, but also fails for 2 to 3 out of 10 stations. TWI is biased by different soil mineral compositions, dense vegetation and shadows, with the latter two most likely also causing the failure of TWI to capture soil moisture dynamics. Compared to soil moisture products from microwave brightness temperature data, TWI performs slightly worse, but has the advantages of not requiring ancillary data, higher spatial resolution and a relatively simple application. TWI has been used for wetland and peatland mapping in previously published studies but is presented in detail in this article, and then applied for detecting changes in soil moisture for selected tropical regions between 2001 and 2016. Sites with significant changes are compared to a published map of global tropical wetlands and peatlands.

  17. Preparation and Properties of Moisture-absorbing Film Impregnated with Polyacrylic Acid Partial Sodium Salt Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Suk; Park, Insik; Choi, Hong Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Moisture is a major factor causing the deteriorative physical change, microbial growth, and chemical reaction of the products. In this study, the moisture absorbing composite films have been prepared with moisture absorbing material of polyacrylic acid partial sodium salt (PAPSS) impregnated on LLDPE polymer for the functional packaging applications. The results showed that PAPSS impregnated film illustrated uniformly dispersed PAPSS particles in the LLDPE polymer matrix. The transparency of the PAPSS impregnated film decreased slightly at higher PAPSS concentrations. An increase in the PAPSS content for moisture-absorbing films showed a similar decrease in tensile strength, percent elongation at break, and tear strength. Their values of films impregnated with PAPSS of 0.5, 1, and 2% showed no significant difference. Meanwhile, 4% PAPSS films significantly decreased the values of mechanical properties compared to the films impregnated with different PAPSS levels. Values of the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability for PAPSS impregnated films decreased significantly with greater PAPSS. The results indicate that 4% PAPSS impregnated in LLDPE films had high affinity of moisture absorbencies compared to the other films. The mathematical equation that best described the moisture sorption isotherm of each film sample was the GAB equation at 25 .deg. C. The crystallization and melting temperatures of PAPSS films were influenced by the addition of PAPSS material, but showed good thermal stability

  18. Preparation and Properties of Moisture-absorbing Film Impregnated with Polyacrylic Acid Partial Sodium Salt Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Suk; Park, Insik [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hong Yeol [CJ Cheiljedang, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Moisture is a major factor causing the deteriorative physical change, microbial growth, and chemical reaction of the products. In this study, the moisture absorbing composite films have been prepared with moisture absorbing material of polyacrylic acid partial sodium salt (PAPSS) impregnated on LLDPE polymer for the functional packaging applications. The results showed that PAPSS impregnated film illustrated uniformly dispersed PAPSS particles in the LLDPE polymer matrix. The transparency of the PAPSS impregnated film decreased slightly at higher PAPSS concentrations. An increase in the PAPSS content for moisture-absorbing films showed a similar decrease in tensile strength, percent elongation at break, and tear strength. Their values of films impregnated with PAPSS of 0.5, 1, and 2% showed no significant difference. Meanwhile, 4% PAPSS films significantly decreased the values of mechanical properties compared to the films impregnated with different PAPSS levels. Values of the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability for PAPSS impregnated films decreased significantly with greater PAPSS. The results indicate that 4% PAPSS impregnated in LLDPE films had high affinity of moisture absorbencies compared to the other films. The mathematical equation that best described the moisture sorption isotherm of each film sample was the GAB equation at 25 .deg. C. The crystallization and melting temperatures of PAPSS films were influenced by the addition of PAPSS material, but showed good thermal stability.

  19. Radiosensitivity of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhijie

    1992-11-01

    The general views on radiosensitivity of higher plants have been introduced from published references. The radiosensitivity varies with species, varieties and organs or tissues. The main factors of determining the radiosensitivity in different species are nucleus volume, chromosome volume, DNA content and endogenous compounds. The self-repair ability of DNA damage and chemical group of biological molecules, such as -SH thiohydroxy of proteins, are main factors to determine the radiosensitivity in different varieties. The moisture, oxygen, temperature radiosensitizer and protector are important external factors for radiosensitivity. Both the multiple target model and Chadwick-Leenhouts model are ideal mathematical models for describing the radiosensitivity of higher plants and the latter has more clear significance in biology

  20. Implementation of sorption hysteresis in multi-Fickian moisture transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Svensson, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    In the cellular structure of wood, bound-water diffusion and water-vapor diffusion interact via sorption in a complex moisture-transportation system. At low relative humidities, moisture transport may be modeled by a Fickian diffusion equation with a good approximation. At higher relative......-35% in moisture content. Hence, for a precise moisture content computation, sorption hysteresis must be taken into account. The present paper explains the relation between sorption hysteresis and multi-Fickian moisture transport, and clarifies how models for the two phenomena are coupled. To illustrate...

  1. Moisture separator reheaters for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Michizo; Yonemura, Katsutoshi

    1974-01-01

    In the light water reactor plants using BWRS or PWRS, the pressure and temperature of steam at the inlet of turbines are low, and the steam is moist, as compared with the case of thermal power plants. Therefore, moisture separator/reheaters are used between high and low pressure turbines. The steam from a high pressure turbine enters a manifold, and goes zigzag through vertical plate separator elements, its moisture is removed from the steam. Then, after being reheated with the steam bled from the high pressure turbine and directly from a reactor, the steam is fed into a low pressure turbine. The development and test made on the components of a moisture separaotr/reheater and the overall model experiment are described together with the mechanism of moisture separation and reheating. (Mori, K.)

  2. Moisture Transfer in Ventilated Facade Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olshevskyi Vyacheslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the phenomenon of moisture transfer in the designs of ventilated facades (VF. The main ways of moisture transfer are defined. The negative factors connected with moisture accumulation and excessive moistening of insulation are given. The physical processes occurring in the gap of the building envelope due to saturation of air with water vapor are described. The dependence of the intensity of the mass transfer on the air velocity in the layer is considered. Much attention is paid to the selection of the optimum design of the facade, namely a system with or without grooved lines. The dependence of velocity and temperature on the width of the ventilated gap is established empirically for the constructions with open and closed grooves. Expediency of a design without grooves to effectively remove moisture is determined.

  3. Estimating the responses of winter wheat yields to moisture variations in the past 35 years in Jiangsu Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangying; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xinkai; Guo, Wenshan; Ding, Jinfeng; Li, Chunyan

    2018-01-01

    Jiangsu is an important agricultural province in China. Winter wheat, as the second major grain crop in the province, is greatly affected by moisture variations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there were significant trends in changes in the moisture conditions during wheat growing seasons over the past decades and how the wheat yields responded to different moisture levels by means of a popular drought index, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The study started with a trend analysis and quantification of the moisture conditions with the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope method, respectively. Then, correlation analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between de-trended wheat yields and multi-scalar SPEI. Finally, a multivariate panel regression model was established to reveal the quantitative yield responses to moisture variations. The results showed that the moisture conditions in Jiangsu were generally at a normal level, but this century appeared slightly drier in because of the relatively high temperatures. There was a significant correlation between short time scale SPEI values and wheat yields. Among the three critical stages of wheat development, the SPEI values in the late growth stage (April-June) had a closer linkage to the yields than in the seedling stage (October-November) and the over-wintering stage (December-February). Moreover, the yield responses displayed an asymmetric characteristic, namely, moisture excess led to higher yield losses compared to moisture deficit in this region. The maximum yield increment could be obtained under the moisture level of slight drought according to the 3-month SPEI at the late growth stage, while extreme wetting resulted in the most severe yield losses. The moisture conditions in the first 15 years of the 21st century were more favorable than in the last 20 years of the 20th century for wheat production in Jiangsu.

  4. Estimating the responses of winter wheat yields to moisture variations in the past 35 years in Jiangsu Province of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangying Xu

    Full Text Available Jiangsu is an important agricultural province in China. Winter wheat, as the second major grain crop in the province, is greatly affected by moisture variations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there were significant trends in changes in the moisture conditions during wheat growing seasons over the past decades and how the wheat yields responded to different moisture levels by means of a popular drought index, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI. The study started with a trend analysis and quantification of the moisture conditions with the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope method, respectively. Then, correlation analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between de-trended wheat yields and multi-scalar SPEI. Finally, a multivariate panel regression model was established to reveal the quantitative yield responses to moisture variations. The results showed that the moisture conditions in Jiangsu were generally at a normal level, but this century appeared slightly drier in because of the relatively high temperatures. There was a significant correlation between short time scale SPEI values and wheat yields. Among the three critical stages of wheat development, the SPEI values in the late growth stage (April-June had a closer linkage to the yields than in the seedling stage (October-November and the over-wintering stage (December-February. Moreover, the yield responses displayed an asymmetric characteristic, namely, moisture excess led to higher yield losses compared to moisture deficit in this region. The maximum yield increment could be obtained under the moisture level of slight drought according to the 3-month SPEI at the late growth stage, while extreme wetting resulted in the most severe yield losses. The moisture conditions in the first 15 years of the 21st century were more favorable than in the last 20 years of the 20th century for wheat production in Jiangsu.

  5. Detecting the honeycomb sandwich composite material's moisture impregnating defects by using infrared thermography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Koo Ahn; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Choi, Won Jae; Park, Hee Sang

    2017-01-01

    Many composite materials are used in the aerospace industry because of their excellent mechanical properties. However, the nature of aviation exposes these materials to high temperature and high moisture conditions depending on climate, location, and altitude. Therefore, the molecular arrangement chemical properties, and mechanical properties of composite materials can be changed under these conditions. As a result, surface disruptions and cracks can be created. Consequently, moisture-impregnating defects can be induced due to the crack and delamination of composite materials as they are repeatedly exposed to moisture absorption moisture release, fatigue environment, temperature changes, and fluid pressure changes. This study evaluates the possibility of detecting the moisture-impregnating defects of CFRP and GFRP honeycomb structure sandwich composite materials, which are the composite materials in the aircraft structure, by using an active infrared thermography technology among non-destructive testing methods. In all experiments, it was possible to distinguish the area and a number of CFRP composite materials more clearly than those of GFRP composite material. The highest detection rate was observed in the heating duration of 50 mHz and the low detection rate was at the heating duration of over 500 mHz. The reflection method showed a higher detection rate than the transmission method

  6. Effect of Initial Moisture Content on the in-Vessel Composting Under Air Pressure of Organic Fraction of MunicipalSolid Waste in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhadi Makan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  7. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makan, Abdelhadi; Assobhei, Omar; Mountadar, Mohammed

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  8. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mountadar Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts. For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times. This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  9. Thermal shock effect on Mechanical and Physical properties of pre-moisture treated GRE composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraverty, A. P.; Panda, A. B.; Mohanty, U. K.; Mishra, S. C.; Biswal, B. B.

    2018-03-01

    Many practical situations may be encountered under which a GFRP (Glass fibre reinforced polymer) composite, during its service life, is exposed to the severities of sudden temperature fluctuations. Moisture absorption of GRE (Glass fibre reinforced epoxy) composites followed by various gradients of temperature fluctuations may cause thermo- mechanical degradation. It is on this context, the hand layed GRE composite samples are exposed to up-thermal shock (-40°C to +50°C) and down-thermal shock (+50°C to -40°C) for various time interval after several periods of moisture (hydrothermal/hygrothermal) conditioning. The thermally shocked GRE specimens are put to 3-point bend test to divulge inter laminar shear strength (ILSS). Least ILSS values are recorded for the samples with maximum period of moisture treatments under with both up-thermal and down-thermal shock conditions. Lower glass transition temperature (Tg) values, as revealed through the low temperature DSC test, are exhibited at maximum durations of both up-thermal and down-thermal shock for the samples with higher periods of hygrothermal/hydrothermal treatments. SEM fractographs of representative GRE specimens after optimum period of moisture treatments and thermal shock show the various modes of failures.

  10. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... traditional SM muscle without compromising quality. ... technique is intermediate moisture food processing. ... Traditionally, most tsire suya producers use ..... quality of Chinese purebred and European X Chinese crossbred ...

  11. CPC Soil Moisture

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The monthly data set consists of a file containing 1/2 degree monthly averaged soil moisture water height equivalents for the globe from 1948 onwards. Values are...

  12. Buffer moisture protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritola, J.; Peura, J.

    2013-11-01

    With the present knowledge, bentonite blocks have to be protected from the air relative humidity and from any moisture leakages in the environment that might cause swelling of the bentonite blocks during the 'open' installation phase before backfilling. The purpose of this work was to design the structural reference solution both for the bottom of the deposition hole and for the buffer moisture protection and dewatering system with their integrated equipment needed in the deposition hole. This report describes the Posiva's reference solution for the buffer moisture protection system and the bottom plate on basis of the demands and functional requirements set by long-term safety. The reference solution with structural details has been developed in research work made 2010-2011. The structural solution of the moisture protection system has not yet been tested in practice. On the bottom of the deposition hole a copper plate which protects the lowest bentonite block from the gathered water is installed straight to machined and even rock surface. The moisture protection sheet made of EPDM rubber is attached to the copper plate with an inflatable seal. The upper part of the moisture protection sheet is fixed to the collar structures of the lid which protects the deposition hole in the disposal tunnel. The main function of the moisture protection sheet is to protect bentonite blocks from the leaking water and from the influence of the air humidity at their installation stage. The leaking water is controlled by the dewatering and alarm system which has been integrated into the moisture protection liner. (orig.)

  13. Total C and N Pools and fluxes vary with time, soil temperature, and moisture along an elevation, precipitation, and vegetation gradient in southern Appalachian Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Craig R. See; James M. Vose; Chelcy F. Miniat; James S. Clark

    2018-01-01

    The interactions of terrestrial C pools and fluxes with spatial and temporal variation in climate are not well understood. We conducted this study in the southern Appalachian Mountains where complex topography provides variability in temperature, precipitation, and forest communities. In 1990, we established five large plots across an elevation gradient...

  14. Soil moisture variability across different scales in an Indian watershed for satellite soil moisture product validation

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Gurjeet

    2016-05-05

    Strategic ground-based sampling of soil moisture across multiple scales is necessary to validate remotely sensed quantities such as NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) product. In the present study, in-situ soil moisture data were collected at two nested scale extents (0.5 km and 3 km) to understand the trend of soil moisture variability across these scales. This ground-based soil moisture sampling was conducted in the 500 km2 Rana watershed situated in eastern India. The study area is characterized as sub-humid, sub-tropical climate with average annual rainfall of about 1456 mm. Three 3x3 km square grids were sampled intensively once a day at 49 locations each, at a spacing of 0.5 km. These intensive sampling locations were selected on the basis of different topography, soil properties and vegetation characteristics. In addition, measurements were also made at 9 locations around each intensive sampling grid at 3 km spacing to cover a 9x9 km square grid. Intensive fine scale soil moisture sampling as well as coarser scale samplings were made using both impedance probes and gravimetric analyses in the study watershed. The ground-based soil moisture samplings were conducted during the day, concurrent with the SMAP descending overpass. Analysis of soil moisture spatial variability in terms of areal mean soil moisture and the statistics of higher-order moments, i.e., the standard deviation, and the coefficient of variation are presented. Results showed that the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of measured soil moisture decreased with extent scale by increasing mean soil moisture. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  15. Northern Hemisphere moisture variability during the Last Glacial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Lachniet, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    It was previously shown that large oxygen isotope variability related to changing moisture sources in the southwestern United States (SW) match the Greenland ice core temperature record. The variations were attributed to changes in the ratio of winter to summer precipitation delivered to the SW, with lighter winter δ18O values compared to summer monsoon rainfall, due to meridonial shifts in the position of the polar jet stream, which directs winter storm tracks. Cold stadial δ18O excursions are associated with strongly negative values, while interstadials have higher than average δ18O values. Although these data documented moisture source variability to the SW, the question of effective moisture variability remains unanswered. Here we present new high-resolution δ18O and δ13C isotopic data from a precisely dated speleothem, FS-AH1, from Fort Stanton Cave, New Mexico USA. The sample grew continuously between 47.6 and 11.1 kyr. The new chronology is more precise than previous work due to high sample growth rate, new gains in efficiency provided by our upgraded Neptune MC-ICPMS and new more precise determinations of the half-lives of 230Th and 234U. The FS-AH1 δ18O and the Greenland δ18O data (on the GICC05 time scale) show a remarkable match, both with respect to stadials/interstadial amplitudes and variability, and in the overall long-term trend. Our interpretation of the δ18O data remains the same, an indicator of moisture source variability. The δ18O and δ13C isotopic data show no correlation (R2 effective moisture in the soil zone overlying the cave, with low δ13C attributed to high soil productivity, high effective moisture, and wet conditions. The stadial and interstadial events are expressed mutely, if at all, in the δ13C data, while the secular variation follows the change in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation (insolation), similar to other Northern Hemisphere data, such as the strength of the East Asian summer monsoon as recorded in the Hulu

  16. The Uses of Copper and Zinc Aluminates to Capture and Convert Carbon dioxide to Syn-gas at Higher Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Y. Raskar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The uses of copper and zinc aluminates to capture and convert the CO2 to syn-gas were studied at higher temperatures. The samples of copper and zinc aluminates were prepared by solid-solid fusion method by calcining in air at 900 oC for 3 h. Those samples were characterized by acidity/alkalinity, surface area, XRD pattern, IR, SEM images and screening to capture CO2 at the different temperatures. The phases Cu2O, CuO, ZnO, CuAl2O4 and ZnAl2O4 were found to be in the samples of zinc and copper aluminates. Acidity and surface area of the samples of copper and zinc aluminates were found to be in the ranges from 0.063 to 9.37 mmol g-1 and 3.04 to 11.8 m2 g-1, respectively. The captured CO2 by the samples of copper and zinc aluminates was found to be 19.92 to 31.52 wt% for the temperature range 40 to 850 oC. The captured CO2 at 550 oC by variable Zn/Al and Cu/Al mol ratio from 0.5 to 6 of the samples of copper and zinc aluminates was found to be 12.81 to 18.04 wt%. The reduction of carbon dioxide by zinc and copper aluminates was observed. The conversion of CO2 by methane over variable mol ratio of Cu/Al and Zn/Al in copper and zinc aluminates, respectively, at 500 oC showed the production of syn-gas by using the gas hourly space velocities (GHSV 12000, 12000 and 6000 ml. h-1. g-1 of helium, CO2 and methane. The conversions of CO2 by methane over the samples of zinc and copper aluminates were studied at different mol ratios of CO2 to methane.  © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 13rd May 2013; Revised: 8th November 2013; Accepted: 8th November 2013[How to Cite: Raskar, R.Y., Gaikwad, A.G. (2014. The Uses of Copper and Zinc Aluminates to Cap-ture and Convert Carbon Dioxide to Syn-gas at Higher Temperature. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (1: 1-15. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.1.4899.1-15[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.1.4899.1-15

  17. Modeling moisture absorption kinetics of barley grain using viscoelastic model and neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kamali

    2015-09-01

    containers having 200 mg of distilled water. Grains were weighed after a predetermined period of elapsed time (5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, etc. minutes. The experiments were conducted with three replications and moisture absorption rates were determined by the equations presented by McWatters et al., 2002. The experiments were conducted on a time table based on which the time for the dissolving of grains was reached. In this case, the moisture content of the grains reaches the saturation point. According to equations presented by Peleg, as water density increases as much as 0.01 gram due to grains dissolving in water, the saturation point has been reached (Peleg, 1988. For this reason, distilled water density was measured and controlled before and after each experiment by a pycnometer. Neural network was designed according to the two methods of multi-layer perceptron (MLP and radial basis function (RBF with three neuron layers. The first layer, i.e. input layer, is independent variables of temperature and time.The second layer, i.e. hidden layers, is the networks hidden layer and the third layer, i.e. output layer, is the dependent variable of moisture content which was selected. In each case, the nonlinear reduced gradient, combined gradient and BFGS algorithm, and Trigonometric, Logarithmic, Gaussian, and Logical functions were used to train, test and evaluate the network. To evaluate the predicting viscoelastic model and the network, we used statistical indices maximum value of coefficient of determination (R2 and minimum value of mean square error (RMSE. Results and Discussion: Moisture absorption curves showed that as the temperature increases, moisture absorption rate increases as well. Higher equilibrium moisture levels are obtained in water with higher temperatures. This phenomenon is the result of increased moisture diffusion in grains due to higher temperature levels. Higher water temperatures causes grain internal material which is mainly starch to gelatinize and

  18. Moisture sorption isotherms of dehydrated whey proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms describe the relation between the moisture content of the dry material (food and relative humidity of the surrounding environment. The data obtained are important in modelling of drying process conditions, packaging and shelf-life stability of food that will provide maximum retaining of aroma, colour and texture as well as nutritive and biological value. The objective of this research was to establish the equilibrium moisture content and water activity, as well as monolayer value of two commercial powdered whey protein isolates before and after tribomechanical micronisation and enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively. At the same time it was necessary to evaluate the best moisture sorption isotherm equation to fit the experimental data. The equilibrium moisture contents in investigated samples were determined using standard gravimetric method at 20 °C. The range of water activities was 0.11 to 0.75. The monolayer moisture content was estimated from sorption data using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB models. The results have shown that tribomechanically treated whey protein isolates as well as protein hydrolizates had lower monolayer moisture content values as well as higher corresponding water activity. Therefore, in spite of the fact that they have lower moisture content, they can be storage at higher relative humidity compared to untreated samples. BET model gave better fit to experimental sorption data for a water activity range from 0.11-0.54, while GAB model gave the closest fit for a water activity to 0.75.

  19. Disaggregation of SMOS soil moisture over West Africa using the Temperature and Vegetation Dryness Index based on SEVIRI land surface parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagesson, T.; Horion, S.; Nieto, H.

    2018-01-01

    the Temperature and Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) that served as SM proxy within the disaggregation process. West Africa (3 N, 26 W; 28 N, 26 E) was selected as a case study as it presents both an important North-South climate gradient and a diverse range of ecosystem types. The main challenge was to set up...... resolution of SMOS SM, with potential application for local drought/flood monitoring of importance for the livelihood of the population of West Africa....

  20. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture

  1. The Influence of Tuners and Temperature on the Higher Order Mode Spectrum for 1.3 GHz SCRF Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Ainsworth, R; Zhang, P; Grecki, M; Baboi, N; Wamsat, T; Eddy, N

    2013-01-01

    Higher Order Modes (HOMs) are of concern for superconducting cavities as they can drive instabilities and so are usually damped and monitored. With special dedicated electronics, HOMs can provide information on the position on the beam. It has been proposed that piezo tuners used to keep the cavities operating at 1.3 GHz could alter the HOM spectrum altering the calibration constants used to read out the beam position affecting long term stability of the system. Also, of interest is how the cavity reacts to the slow tuner. Detuning and the retuning the cavity may alter the HOM spectrum. This is of particular interest for future machines not planning to use dedicated HOM damping as the tuning procedure may shift the frequency of HOMs onto dangerous resonances. The effect of temperature on the HOM spectrum is also investigated. An investigation of these effects has been performed at FLASH and the results are presented.

  2. Polymer Composite Rebars under Moisture and Mechanical Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Mohamed Ibrahim

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been increasingly used by the civil engineering construction industry in the past few years. Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) is one of the most commonly used FRP materials in applications such as a profile member or reinforcing rebars. Lightweight, high strength and excellent corrosion resistance are just a few among the many appealing properties of GFRP rebars. Use of GFRP has been focused on extending the service life of civil engineering structures acting as reinforcement instead of steel. FRP composites also provide opportunities for repair and retrofit of existing structures to extend their service life or to increase their load bearing capacity. However, the higher initial cost of GFRP rebar compared to steel is a current barrier in their widespread usage. Recent advancements in processes such as pultrusion have helped in reducing the cost of the FRP rebar. In addition, a higher initial raw material cost can be offset by the lower lifecycle cost of GFRP rebar compared to steel rebar. These factors are helping in increasing the acceptance of GFRP rebars in construction industry. Availability of technical data on GFRP, especially for long-term performance and under practical loading conditions faced in a real-life application, can help in increasing their acceptance. Although there have been numerous studies to characterize the properties of GFRP in terms of strength, corrosion, fatigue, chemical and physical aging, and natural weathering, most of these studies were limited to material characterization and were not intended for civil engineering applications. For this reason, and to encourage the increased use of GFRP rebars in concrete structures, GFRP rebar has been an important research topic in recent years. Of particular interest are their long-term durability and their susceptibility to degradation that might be initiated by moisture, temperature, and corrosive chemical environments. This is because

  3. Plasticisation of amylodextrin by moisture. Consequences for compaction behaviour and tablet properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steendam, R; Frijlink, H W; Lerk, C F

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Amylodextrin, a starch-based controlled release excipient, spontaneously absorbs moisture during storage. The aim of this study was to investigate plasticisation of amylodextrin by moisture and its effect on compaction and tablet characteristics. Methods: The glass transition temperature

  4. Dielectric Properties of Marsh Vegetation in a Frequency Range of 0.1-18 GHz Under Variation of Temperature and Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, A. N.; Kochetkova, T. D.; Suslyaev, V. I.; Shcheglova, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Dielectric characteristics of some species of marsh vegetation: lichen Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar, moss Sphagnum, and a representative of Bryidae mosses - Dicranum polysetum are studied in the frequency range from 100 MHz to 18 GHz. At a frequency of 1.41 GHz, the influence of temperature in the range from -12 to +20°C on the behavior of dielectric characteristics of mosses, lichens, and peat is studied. The dependences of the dielectric characteristics of vegetation on the volumetric wetness are established.

  5. HCMM/soil moisture experiment. [relationship between surface minus air temperature differential and available water according to crop type in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihlar, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the compilation and analysis of airborne and ground data to determine the relationship between the maximum surface minus maximum air temperature differential (delta Tsa) and available water (PAW) is reported. Also, results of an analysis of HCMM images to determine the effect of cloud cover on the availability of HCMM-type data are presented. An inverse relationship between delta Tsa and PAW is indicated along with stable delta Tsa vs. PAW distributions for fully developed canopies. Large variations, both geographical and diurnal, in the cloud cover images are reported. The average monthly daytime cloud cover fluctuated between 40 and 60 percent.

  6. Moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin and its response to North Atlantic cooling and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Ingo [University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Xie, Shang-Ping [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Atmospheric moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin plays an important role in regulating North Atlantic salinity and thus the strength of the thermohaline circulation. Potential changes in the strength of this moisture transport are investigated for two different climate-change scenarios: North Atlantic cooling representative of Heinrich events, and increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. The effect of North Atlantic cooling is studied using a coupled regional model with comparatively high resolution that successfully simulates Central American gap winds and other important aspects of the region. Cooler North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) in this model leads to a regional decrease of atmospheric moisture but also to an increase in wind speed across Central America via an anomalous pressure gradient. The latter effect dominates, resulting in a 0.13 Sv (1 Sv = 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} s{sup -1}) increase in overall moisture transport to the Pacific basin. In fresh water forcing simulations with four different general circulation models, the wind speed effect is also present but not strong enough to completely offset the effect of moisture decrease except in one model. The influence of GHG forcing is studied using simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change archive. In these simulations atmospheric moisture increases globally, resulting in an increase of moisture transport by 0.25 Sv from the Atlantic to Pacific. Thus, in both scenarios, moisture transport changes act to stabilize the thermohaline circulation. The notion that the Andes effectively block moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin is not supported by the simulations and atmospheric reanalyses examined here. This indicates that such a blocking effect does not exist or else that higher resolution is needed to adequately represent the steep orography of the Andes. (orig.)

  7. Disaggregation of remotely sensed soil moisture under all sky condition using machine learning approach in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Kim, H.; Choi, M.; Kim, K.

    2016-12-01

    Estimating spatiotemporal variation of soil moisture is crucial to hydrological applications such as flood, drought, and near real-time climate forecasting. Recent advances in space-based passive microwave measurements allow the frequent monitoring of the surface soil moisture at a global scale and downscaling approaches have been applied to improve the spatial resolution of passive microwave products available at local scale applications. However, most downscaling methods using optical and thermal dataset, are valid only in cloud-free conditions; thus renewed downscaling method under all sky condition is necessary for the establishment of spatiotemporal continuity of datasets at fine resolution. In present study Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique was utilized to downscale a satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. The 0.1 and 0.25-degree resolution of daily Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) L3 soil moisture datasets from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) were disaggregated over Northeast Asia in 2015. Optically derived estimates of surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and its cloud products were obtained from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the purpose of downscaling soil moisture in finer resolution under all sky condition. Furthermore, a comparison analysis between in situ and downscaled soil moisture products was also conducted for quantitatively assessing its accuracy. Results showed that downscaled soil moisture under all sky condition not only preserves the quality of AMSR2 LPRM soil moisture at 1km resolution, but also attains higher spatial data coverage. From this research we expect that time continuous monitoring of soil moisture at fine scale regardless of weather conditions would be available.

  8. Multilayer moisture barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  9. Comparative seed germination traits in alpine and subalpine grasslands: higher elevations are associated with warmer germination temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pascual, E; Jiménez-Alfaro, B; Bueno, Á

    2017-01-01

    Seed germination traits in alpine grasslands are poorly understood, despite the sensitivity of these communities to climate change. We hypothesise that germination traits predict species occurrence along the alpine-subalpine elevation gradient. Phylogenetic comparative analyses were performed using fresh seeds of 22 species from alpine and subalpine grasslands (1600-2400 m) of the Cantabrian Mountains, Spain (43° N, 5° W). Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterise germinability, optimum germination temperature and effect of cold and warm stratification on dormancy breaking. Variability in these traits was reduced by phylogenetic principal component analysis (phyl.PCA). Phylogenetic generalised least squares regression (PGLS) was used to fit a model in which species average elevation was predicted from their position on the PCA axes. Most subalpine species germinated in snow-like conditions, whereas most alpine species needed accumulation of warm temperatures. Phylogenetic signal was low. PCA1 ordered species according to overall germinability, whilst PCA2 ordered them according to preference for warm or cold germination. PCA2 significantly predicted species occurrence in the alpine-subalpine gradient, as higher elevation species tended to have warmer germination preferences. Our results show that germination traits in high-mountain grasslands are closely linked to the alpine-subalpine gradient. Alpine species, especially those from stripped and wind-edge communities, prefer warmer germination niches, suggesting that summer emergence prevents frost damage during seedling establishment. In contrast, alpine snowfield and subalpine grassland plants have cold germination niches, indicating that winter emergence may occur under snow to avoid drought stress. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Effect of grain moisture content during milling on pasting profile and functional properties of amaranth fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Vishnuswamy Preetham; Dharmaraj, Usha; Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A

    2016-05-01

    Evaluation of functional properties of milled fractions of grain amaranth may be useful to decide the end uses of the grain. Hence, pasting profiles of amaranth fractions obtained by milling the grains at different moisture contents were studied in relation with their starch profile and also with their swelling power and solubility indices. It was observed that, for flour fraction, the viscosity parameters were lowest at 14-16 % moisture content. Swelling power and solubility indices of the samples varied as a function of grain moisture content. The middling fraction also showed similar pasting pattern with the variation of grain moisture content. The seed coat fractions showed higher gelatinization temperature compared to that of fine flour and middling fractions. However, starch content of the fine seed coat fraction was comparable with that of the flour and middling fractions. The coarse seed coat fraction showed lower viscosity parameters than the other samples. Viscosity parameters correlated well among themselves while, they did not show significant correlation with the starch content. However, the viscosity parameters showed negative correlation with the soluble amylose content. The study revealed that, the fractions obtained by milling the grains at different moisture content show differential pasting profiles and functional properties.

  11. The effect of regional-scale soil-moisture deficits on mesoscale atmospheric dynamics that influence fire severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, J.D.

    1994-09-30

    This study employs a three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic mesoscale model to evaluate the effects of horizontally heterogeneous soil moisture and vegetation type on the atmosphere during two periods in which wildland fires occurred. Numerical sensitivity simulations demonstrate that evapotranspiration significantly affects the boundary-layer structure embedded in the synoptic-scale circulations. In regions with sufficiently moist soils, evapotranspiration increases the humidity and modifies the diurnally varying temperature near the surface. Occasionally, changes in the humidity and temperature fields can also be seen a significant distance downwind of the moist soil regions. The perturbations in the temperature fields ultimately affect the wind speed and direction over or at the boundaries of the moist-soil regions, but only at certain times during the simulation period. The higher humidity also increases the cloudiness and changes the precipitation amounts, indicating that soil moisture and vegetation may play an important role in modifying the spatial distribution and intensity of precipitation. A lower atmospheric stability index, that is an indicator of the potential for wildland fire, is also calculated from the model results. This index is also sensitive to the horizontal distribution of soil moisture and vegetation, especially in regions with relatively moist soils. While only two periods are examined in this study, the impact of surface inhomogeneities in soil moisture and vegetation type on the atmosphere is expected to be highly dependent on the particular synoptic conditions and upon the distribution of soil moisture.

  12. Errors in the calculation of sub-soil moisture probe by equivalent moisture content technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmipathy, A.V.; Gangadharan, P.

    1982-01-01

    The size of the soil sample required to obtain the saturation response, with a neutron moisture probe is quite large and this poses practical problems of handling and mixing large amounts of samples for absolute laboratory calibration. Hydrogenous materials are used as a substitute for water in the equivalent moisture content technique, for calibration of soil moisture probes. In this it is assumed that only hydrogen of the bulk sample is responsible for the slowing down of fast neutrons and the slow neutron countrate is correlated to equivalent water content by considering the hydrogen density of sample. It is observed that the higher atomic number elements present in water equivalent media also affect the response of the soil moisture probe. Hence calculations, as well as experiments, were undertaken to know the order of error introduced by this technique. The thermal and slow neutron flux distribution around the BF 3 counter of a sub-soil moisture probe is calculated using three group diffusion theory. The response of the probe corresponding to different equivalent moisture content of hydrogenous media, is calculated taking into consideration the effective length of BF 3 counter. Soil with hydrogenous media such as polyethylene, sugar and water are considered for calculation, to verify the suitability of these materials as substitute for water during calibration of soil moisture probe. Experiments were conducted, to verify the theoretically calculated values. (author)

  13. Calibration of moisture monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, R.L.

    1979-02-01

    A method for calibrating an aluminum oxide hygrometer against an optical chilled mirror dew-point hygrometer has been established. A theoretical cross-point line of dew points from both hygrometers and a maximum moisture content of 10 ppM/sub v/ are used to define an area for calibrating the sensor probes of the aluminum oxide hygrometer

  14. Investigation on Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR Specimen to Predict Moisture Sensitivity of Asphalt Pavements Mixture and Using Polymer to Reduce Moisture Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aziz Hameed Al-Shaybani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Moisture damage of asphalt concrete is defined as losing the strength and Permanence caused by the active presence of moisture.The most common technique to reduce moisture damage is using modifiers with the asphalt binder or the aggregate.The goal of this study was to explore the effect of various modifiers of polymer on the moisture susceptibility mixture of asphaltic concrete pavement. Modifiers included in this research selected two kinds of polymers Crumb Rubber No 50 (CR No 50 and Methyl Methacrylates (MMA(which are available in the local markets in Iraq and have been used in three percentages for each type. These percentages are (5, 10 and 15% for (CR No 50 and (2.5, 5 and 7.5(% for (MMA.Each type of these polymers is blended with asphalt by wet process at constant blending times for a suitable range of temperatures. The experimental works showed that all polymers modified mixtures have indirect tensile strength higher than control asphalt mixtures, its about (2-15 %, dependent on different type of polymer and polymer concentration under predicted suitable blending time.Test results of indirect tensile strength indicated betterment in modifying the proprieties of mixture, the increased resistance mixture of asphalt concrete pavement versus moisture damage, and reduced the effect of water on asphalt concrete properties. The final result is the addition of (10% CR No 50 and (5% MMA to asphalt mixtures showed an improved mixture of asphalt concrete properties and produced strong mixtures for road construction.One model is predicted for tensile strength ratio [TSR]to estimate the effects of polymer modification on moisture susceptibility mixture of asphalt concrete.

  15. Structure of the urban moisture field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisterson, D.L.; Dirks, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    In the 26 July 1974 case study in St. Louis as a part of Project METROMEX, aircraft and surface network stations were used to determine specific humidity and potential temperature patterns near the surface and at two levels within the mixing layer. From the data acquired at these three levels, three-dimensional analyses of the moisture fields in the mixing layer were constructed. The mesoscale dry regions observed throughout the mixing layer correspond to the more impervious surfaces of the urban area. From energy budget considerations, latent heat fluxes are small over these impervious surfaces owing to the large runoff of precipitation and the lack of moisture retention capabilities. Hence, urbanization obviously alters the local energy budget. Surface boundary layer conditions are determined by heat and moisture fluxes. A new internal boundary layer within the city is formed after the breakdown of the radiation inversion in order to compensate for the alteration of sensible heat and latent heat energies. Hence, isolated semistagnant urban air is replenished by moisture only as quickly as evapotranspiration from impervious surfaces will allow. The city surface, therefore, is not a sink of moisture, but rather a reduced source relative to rural areas

  16. Variability of Moisture Retention and Hydrophobicity Among Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research identifies factors and mechanisms that control changes in moisture retention when biochars produced from different feedstocks and under different heat treatment temperatures are mixed with fine sand. While substantial experimental research has been conducted on the ...

  17. Complexation of rice starch/flour and maize oil through heat moisture treatment: Structural, in vitro digestion and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; He, Xiaowei; Fu, Xiong; Zhang, Bin; Huang, Qiang

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated structural, in vitro digestion and physicochemical properties of normal rice starch (NRS)/flour (NRF) complexed with maize oil (MO) through heat-moisture treatment (HMT). The NRS-/NRF-MO complex displayed an increased pasting temperature and a decreased peak viscosity. After HMT, less ordered Maltese and more granule fragments were observed for NRS-/NRF-MO complex. Meanwhile, more aggregation was observed in the HMT samples with higher moisture contents. We found that higher onset temperature, lower enthalpy change and relative crystallinity of the NRS-/NRF-MO complex were associated with a higher moisture content of HMT samples. The higher moisture content of HMT was also favorable for the amylose-lipid complex formation. Differences in starch digestion properties were found for NRS-MO and NRF-MO complex. All of the NRS/NRF complexed MO after cooking showed lower rapidly digestible starch (RDS) contents compared with the control sample, therein NRS-/NRF- MO 20% exhibited the highest sum of the slowly digestible starch and resistant starch contents. In general, HMT had a greater impact on the in vitro digestion and physicochemical properties of flour samples compared with starch counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimating surface soil moisture from SMAP observations using a Neural Network technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolassa, J; Reichle, R H; Liu, Q; Alemohammad, S H; Gentine, P; Aida, K; Asanuma, J; Bircher, S; Caldwell, T; Colliander, A; Cosh, M; Collins, C Holifield; Jackson, T J; Martínez-Fernández, J; McNairn, H; Pacheco, A; Thibeault, M; Walker, J P

    2018-01-01

    A Neural Network (NN) algorithm was developed to estimate global surface soil moisture for April 2015 to March 2017 with a 2-3 day repeat frequency using passive microwave observations from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite, surface soil temperatures from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Model version 5 (GEOS-5) land modeling system, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-based vegetation water content. The NN was trained on GEOS-5 soil moisture target data, making the NN estimates consistent with the GEOS-5 climatology, such that they may ultimately be assimilated into this model without further bias correction. Evaluated against in situ soil moisture measurements, the average unbiased root mean square error (ubRMSE), correlation and anomaly correlation of the NN retrievals were 0.037 m 3 m -3 , 0.70 and 0.66, respectively, against SMAP core validation site measurements and 0.026 m 3 m -3 , 0.58 and 0.48, respectively, against International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) measurements. At the core validation sites, the NN retrievals have a significantly higher skill than the GEOS-5 model estimates and a slightly lower correlation skill than the SMAP Level-2 Passive (L2P) product. The feasibility of the NN method was reflected by a lower ubRMSE compared to the L2P retrievals as well as a higher skill when ancillary parameters in physically-based retrievals were uncertain. Against ISMN measurements, the skill of the two retrieval products was more comparable. A triple collocation analysis against Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) soil moisture retrievals showed that the NN and L2P retrieval errors have a similar spatial distribution, but the NN retrieval errors are generally lower in densely vegetated regions and transition zones.

  19. Measured moisture in buildings and adverse health effects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Mark J; Macher, Janet M; Kumagai, Kazukiyo

    2018-04-23

    It has not yet been possible to quantify dose-related health risks attributable to indoor dampness or mold (D/M), to support the setting of health-related limits for D/M. An overlooked target for assessing D/M is moisture in building materials, the critical factor allowing microbial growth. A search for studies of quantified building moisture and occupant health effects identified three eligible studies. Two studies assessed associations between measured wall moisture content and respiratory health in the UK. Both reported dose-related increases in asthma exacerbation with higher measured moisture, with one study reporting an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 7.0 for night-time asthma symptoms with higher bedroom moisture. The third study assessed relationships between infrared camera-determined wall moisture and atopic dermatitis in South Korea, reporting an adjusted OR of 14.5 for water-damaged homes and moderate or severe atopic dermatitis. Measuring building moisture has, despite extremely limited available findings, potential promise for detecting unhealthy D/M in homes and merits more research attention. Further research to validate these findings should include measured "water activity," which directly assesses moisture availability for microbial growth. Ultimately, evidence-based, health-related thresholds for building moisture, across specific materials and measurement devices, could better guide assessment and remediation of D/M in buildings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential of bias correction for downscaling passive microwave and soil moisture data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive microwave satellites such as SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) or SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) observe brightness temperature (TB) and retrieve soil moisture at a spatial resolution greater than most hydrological processes. Bias correction is proposed as a simple method to disag...

  1. The effects of drying conditions on moisture transfer and quality of pomegranate fruit leather (pestil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet Yılmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum, cabinet and open air drying of pomegranate fruit leather were carried out at various drying conditions to monitor the drying kinetics together with bionutrient degradation of the product. Drying curves exhibited first order drying kinetics and effective moisture diffusivity values varied between 3.1 × 10−9 and 52.6 × 10−9 m2/s. The temperature dependence of the effective moisture diffusivity was satisfactorily described by an Arrhenius-type relationship. Drying conditions, product thickness and operation temperature had various effects on drying rate and final quality of the product. In terms of drying kinetics and final quality of product, vacuum drying had higher drying rate with higher conservation of phenolic, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid that is connected to faster drying condition and oxygen deficient medium. Anthocyanin content was significantly affected by drying method, drying temperature and product thickness. Scatter plot using principle component analysis enabled better understanding of moisture transfer rate and anthocyanin change under various drying conditions.

  2. Moisture Metrics Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchmann, Mark

    2011-08-31

    the goal of this project was to determine the optimum moisture levels for biomass processing for pellets commercially, by correlating data taken from numerous points in the process, and across several different feedstock materials produced and harvested using a variety of different management practices. This was to be done by correlating energy consumption and material through put rates with the moisture content of incoming biomass ( corn & wheat stubble, native grasses, weeds, & grass straws), and the quality of the final pellet product.This project disseminated the data through a public website, and answering questions form universities across Missouri that are engaged in biomass conversion technologies. Student interns from a local university were employed to help collect data, which enabled them to learn firsthand about biomass processing.

  3. Detecting the honeycomb sandwich composite material's moisture impregnating defects by using infrared thermography technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Koo Ahn; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Choi, Won Jae [Safety Measurement Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Sang [R and D, Korea Research Institute of Smart Material and Structures System Association, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Many composite materials are used in the aerospace industry because of their excellent mechanical properties. However, the nature of aviation exposes these materials to high temperature and high moisture conditions depending on climate, location, and altitude. Therefore, the molecular arrangement chemical properties, and mechanical properties of composite materials can be changed under these conditions. As a result, surface disruptions and cracks can be created. Consequently, moisture-impregnating defects can be induced due to the crack and delamination of composite materials as they are repeatedly exposed to moisture absorption moisture release, fatigue environment, temperature changes, and fluid pressure changes. This study evaluates the possibility of detecting the moisture-impregnating defects of CFRP and GFRP honeycomb structure sandwich composite materials, which are the composite materials in the aircraft structure, by using an active infrared thermography technology among non-destructive testing methods. In all experiments, it was possible to distinguish the area and a number of CFRP composite materials more clearly than those of GFRP composite material. The highest detection rate was observed in the heating duration of 50 mHz and the low detection rate was at the heating duration of over 500 mHz. The reflection method showed a higher detection rate than the transmission method.

  4. Spatial variability and its main controlling factors of the permafrost soil-moisture on the northern-slope of Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W.; Sheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The soil moisture movement is an important carrier of material cycle and energy flow among the various geo-spheres in the cold regions. It is very critical to protect the alpine ecology and hydrologic cycle in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Especially, it becomes one of the key problems to reveal the spatial-temporal variability of soil moisture movement and its main influence factors in earth system science. Thus, this research takes the north slope of Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as a case study. The present study firstly investigates the change of permafrost moisture in different slope positions and depths. Based on this investigation, this article attempts to investigate the spatial variability of permafrost moisture and identifies the key influence factors in different terrain conditions. The method of classification and regression tree (CART) is adopted to identify the main controlling factors influencing the soil moisture movement. And the relationships between soil moisture and environmental factors are revealed by the use of the method of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The results show that: 1) the change of the soil moisture on the permafrost slope is divided into 4 stages, including the freezing stability phase, the rapid thawing phase, the thawing stability phase and the fast freezing phase; 2) this greatly enhances the horizontal flow in the freezing period due to the terrain slope and the freezing-thawing process. Vertical migration is the mainly form of the soil moisture movement. It leads to that the soil-moisture content in the up-slope is higher than that in the down-slope. On the contrary, the soil-moisture content in the up-slope is lower than that in the down-slope during the melting period; 3) the main environmental factors which affect the slope-permafrost soil-moisture are elevation, soil texture, soil temperature and vegetation coverage. But there are differences in the impact factors of the soil moisture in different

  5. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  6. Non-isothermal Moisture Transport Through Insulation Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in order to draw some conclusions on the magnitude of moisture transport due to temperature gradient on a range of porous light-weight building materials. A special constructed non-isothermal set-up allowed the creation of a temperature gradient of 10K...... and given humidity gradient over the sample. The resulting moisture ux as well as the hygrothermal states around and within the material were monitored. The hypothesis of relative humidity being a driving force for non-isothermal moisture transport already in the hygroscopic range could not be confirmed....... On the contrary, indications exist that the temperature gradient itself is driving the moisture from the warm side towards the cold side. An attempt to identify and quantify the single contributions of the different transport forms involved is also presented. The diferent results gave, however, diverging...

  7. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  8. Use of Soil Moisture Variability in Artificial Neural Network Retrieval of Soil Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Veenendaal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Passive microwave remote sensing is one of the most promising techniques for soil moisture retrieval. However, the inversion of soil moisture from brightness temperature observations is not straightforward, as it is influenced by numerous factors such as surface roughness, vegetation cover, and soil texture. Moreover, the relationship between brightness temperature, soil moisture and the factors mentioned above is highly non-linear and ill-posed. Consequently, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs have been used to retrieve soil moisture from microwave data, but with limited success when dealing with data different to that from the training period. In this study, an ANN is tested for its ability to predict soil moisture at 1 km resolution on different dates following training at the same site for a specific date. A novel approach that utilizes information on the variability of soil moisture, in terms of its mean and standard deviation for a (sub region of spatial dimension up to 40 km, is used to improve the current retrieval accuracy of the ANN method. A comparison between the ANN with and without the use of the variability information showed that this enhancement enables the ANN to achieve an average Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of around 5.1% v/v when using the variability information, as compared to around 7.5% v/v without it. The accuracy of the soil moisture retrieval was further improved by the division of the target site into smaller regions down to 4 km in size, with the spatial variability of soil moisture calculated from within the smaller region used in the ANN. With the combination of an ANN architecture of a single hidden layer of 20 neurons and the dual-polarized brightness temperatures as input, the proposed use of variability and sub-region methodology achieves an average retrieval accuracy of 3.7% v/v. Although this accuracy is not the lowest as comparing to the research in this field, the main contribution is the ability of ANN in

  9. SOIL moisture data intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Yann; Rodriguez-Frenandez, Nemesio; Al-Yaari, Amen; Parens, Marie; Molero, Beatriz; Mahmoodi, Ali; Mialon, Arnaud; Richaume, Philippe; Bindlish, Rajat; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite (SMOS) was launched in November 2009 and started delivering data in January 2010. Subsequently, the satellite has been in operation for over 6 years while the retrieval algorithms from Level 1 to Level 2 underwent significant evolutions as knowledge improved. Other approaches for retrieval at Level 2 over land were also investigated while Level 3 and 4 were initiated. In this présentation these improvements are assessed by inter-comparisons of the current Level 2 (V620) against the previous version (V551) and new products either using neural networks or Level 3. In addition a global evaluation of different SMOS soil moisture (SM) products is performed comparing products with those of model simulations and other satellites (AMSR E/ AMSR2 and ASCAT). Finally, all products were evaluated against in situ measurements of soil moisture (SM). The study demonstrated that the V620 shows a significant improvement (including those at level1 improving level2)) with respect to the earlier version V551. Results also show that neural network based approaches can yield excellent results over areas where other products are poor. Finally, global comparison indicates that SMOS behaves very well when compared to other sensors/approaches and gives consistent results over all surfaces from very dry (African Sahel, Arizona), to wet (tropical rain forests). RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) is still an issue even though detection has been greatly improved while RFI sources in several areas of the world are significantly reduced. When compared to other satellite products, the analysis shows that SMOS achieves its expected goals and is globally consistent over different eco climate regions from low to high latitudes and throughout the seasons.

  10. On-line moisture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Mijak, D.G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk material. Nuclear-based analysers measure the total hydrogen content in the sample and do not differentiate between free and combined moisture. Such analysers may also be sensitive to material presentation and elemental composition. Very low frequency electromagnetic probes, such as capacitance or conductance probes, operate in the frequency region where the DC conductivity dominates much of the response, which is a function not only of moisture content but also of ionic composition and chemistry. These problems are overcome using microwave transmission techniques, which also have the following advantages, as a true bulk moisture analysis is obtained, because a high percentage of the bulk material is analysed; the moisture estimate is mostly insensitive to any biased presentation of moisture, for example due to stratification of bulk material with different moisture content and because no physical contact is made between the sensor and the bulk material. This is

  11. Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage, when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing.; Moisture conditions in double stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double stud assemblies were compared.

  12. Thermal decomposition of expanded polystyrene in a pebble bed reactor to get higher liquid fraction yield at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.S.; Gopinath, S.; Razdan, P.; Delattre, C.; Nirmala, G.S.; Natarajan, R.

    2008-01-01

    Expanded polystyrene is one of the polymers produced in large quantities due to its versatile application in different fields. This polymer is one of the most intractable components in municipal solid waste. Disposal of polymeric material by pyrolysis or catalytic cracking yields valuable hydrocarbon fuels or monomers. Literature reports different types of reactors and arrangements that have uniform temperatures during pyrolysis and catalytic cracking. The present study focuses on reducing the temperature to maximize the quantity of styrene monomer in the liquid product. A bench scale reactor has been developed to recover the styrene monomer and other valuable chemicals. Experiments were carried under partial oxidation and vacuum conditions in the temperature range of 300-500 deg. C. In the pyrolysis optimization studies, the best atmospheric condition was determined to be vacuum, the pyrolysis temperature should be 500 deg. C, yield of liquid product obtained was 91.7% and yield of styrene obtained was 85.5%. In the characterization studies, distillation and IR spectroscopy experiments were carried out. The remaining of the liquid product comprises of benzene, ethyl benzene, and styrene dimers and trimers

  13. Thermodynamic Studies at Higher Temperatures of the Phase Relationships of Substoichiometric Plutonium and Uranium/Plutonium Oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Toft

    1976-01-01

    Partial molar thermodynamic quantities for oxygen in non-stoichiometric Pu and U/Pu oxides were determined by thermogravimetric measurements in CO/CO2 mixtures in the temperature range 900-1450°C. A detailed analysis of the thermodynamic data obtained, as well as data previously published...

  14. On the behavior of water at subfreezing temperatures in a protein crystal: evidence of higher mobility than in bulk water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongqi; Böckmann, Anja; Dolenc, Jožica; Meier, Beat H; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2013-10-03

    NMR experiments have shown that water molecules in the crystal of the protein Crh are still mobile at temperatures well below 273 K. In order to investigate this water anomaly, a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of crystalline Crh was carried out to determine the mobility of water in this crystal. The simulations were carried out at three temperatures, 150, 200, and 291 K. Simulations of bulk water at these temperatures were also done to obtain the properties of the simple point charge (SPC) water model used at these temperatures and to allow a comparison of the properties of water in the Crh crystal with those of bulk water at the same temperatures. According to the simulations, water is immobilized at 150 K both in crystal and in bulk water. As expected, at 291 K it diffuses and rotates more slowly in the protein crystal than in bulk water. However, at 200 K, the translational and rotational mobility of the water molecules is larger in the crystal than in bulk water. The enhancement of water mobility in the crystal at 200 K was further investigated by MD simulations in which the backbone or all protein atoms were positionally restrained, and in which additionally the electrostatic protein-water interactions were removed. Of these changes in the environment of the water molecules, rigidifying the protein backbones slightly enhanced water diffusion, while it slowed down rotation. In contrast, removal of electrostatic protein-water interactions did not change water diffusion but enhanced rotational motion significantly. Further investigations are required to delineate particular features of the protein crystal that induce the anomalous behavior of water at 200 K.

  15. Moisture content measurement in paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomklao, P.; Kuntinugunetanon, S.; Wongkokua, W.

    2017-09-01

    Moisture content is an important quantity for agriculture product, especially in paddy. In principle, the moisture content can be measured by a gravimetric method which is a direct method. However, the gravimetric method is time-consuming. There are indirect methods such as resistance and capacitance methods. In this work, we developed an indirect method based on a 555 integrated circuit timer. The moisture content sensor was capacitive parallel plates using the dielectric constant property of the moisture. The instrument generated the output frequency that depended on the capacitance of the sensor. We fitted a linear relation between periods and moisture contents. The measurement results have a standard uncertainty of 1.23 % of the moisture content in the range of 14 % to 20 %.

  16. Modeling of the process of moisture loss during the storage of dried apricots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, G; Berna, A; Bon, J; Mulet, A

    2011-10-01

    Moisture content is a reference parameter for dried food because the growth of most microorganisms is inhibited below certain water activity levels. In addition, it has a determining influence on the evolution of important parameters, such as color and flavor, and on other properties and deterioration reactions, such as texture, oxidation processes and nutritional value. During the storage of some dried fruits, moisture is produced due to Maillard reactions and exchanged with the surrounding environment through the packaging. The evolution of dried foods during their shelf life depends on the storage conditions. The aim of this study is to analyze the evolution of the moisture content in dried apricots packaged in different types of containers, namely glass and thermosealed polypropylene trays. The samples were stored at constant temperatures: 5, 15, 25 and 35 °C and were analyzed periodically over a period of 12 months. The sorption isotherms of apricots used in this study were also determined. In order to model how the moisture evolved, an empirical kinetic model was tested. This model considers both water transfer from the fruit and also water production as a result of the Maillard processes. The explained variance was higher than 95% in the samples stored in trays, which were thermosealed with film.

  17. Soil moisture in sessile oak forest gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagyvainé Kiss, Katalin Anita; Vastag, Viktor; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter

    2015-04-01

    By social demands are being promoted the aspects of the natural forest management. In forestry the concept of continuous forest has been an accepted principle also in Hungary since the last decades. The first step from even-aged stand to continuous forest can be the forest regeneration based on gap cutting, so small openings are formed in a forest due to forestry interventions. This new stand structure modifies the hydrological conditions for the regrowth. Without canopy and due to the decreasing amounts of forest litter the interception is less significant so higher amount of precipitation reaching the soil. This research focuses on soil moisture patterns caused by gaps. The spatio-temporal variability of soil water content is measured in gaps and in surrounding sessile oak (Quercus petraea) forest stand. Soil moisture was determined with manual soil moisture meter which use Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology. The three different sizes gaps (G1: 10m, G2: 20m, G3: 30m) was opened next to Sopron on the Dalos Hill in Hungary. First, it was determined that there is difference in soil moisture between forest stand and gaps. Second, it was defined that how the gap size influences the soil moisture content. To explore the short term variability of soil moisture, two 24-hour (in growing season) and a 48-hour (in dormant season) field campaign were also performed in case of the medium-sized G2 gap along two/four transects. Subdaily changes of soil moisture were performed. The measured soil moisture pattern was compared with the radiation pattern. It was found that the non-illuminated areas were wetter and in the dormant season the subdaily changes cease. According to our measurements, in the gap there is more available water than under the forest stand due to the less evaporation and interception loss. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004 and AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034.

  18. Shelf stable intermediate moisture fruit cubes using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Bibhuti B.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Gautam, Satyendra; Chander, Ramesh; Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    A process has been developed to prepare shelf stable ready-to-eat (RTE) intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes using radiation technology. The combination of hurdles including osmotic dehydration, blanching, infrared drying, and gamma radiation dose of 1 kGy successfully reduced the microbial load to below detectable limit. The shelf life of the intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes was found to be 40 days at ambient temperature (28 ± 2 deg C). The control samples spoiled within 6 days. The RTE intermediate moisture fruit products were found to have good texture, colour and sensory acceptability during this 40 days storage. (author)

  19. Moisture buffering and its consequence in whole building hygrothermal modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Grau, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Moisture absorption and desorption of materials in contact with indoor air of buildings can be used as a passive, i.e., nonmechanical, way to moderate the variation of indoor humidity. This phenomenon, which is recognized as,moisture buffering', could potentially be used as an attractive feature...... for ventilation if indoor humidity is a parameter for controlling ventilation rate, 2. it is possible to improve the perceived acceptability of indoor air, as judged by the temperature and humidity of the air, by using moisture buffering to control the indoor humidity. The results of the whole building...

  20. Physiological seed quality of sweet corn seeds as a function of the moisture content at harvest and the drying temperature / Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de milho doce BR 401 (su em função do teor de água na colheita e da temperatura de secagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Dutra Zanotto

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research was to study physiological seed quality of sweet corn as a function of water content and drying temperatures of ears at harvesting time. Experiments were made in the Agriculture School of São Paulo State University located in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Ears of sweet corn cultivar, BR 401 Doce de Ouro (sugary, were harvested at different times, starting at physiological seed maturity, and submitted to different drying temperatures (30o C and 40o C in an air circulation chamber. After drying, ears were shelled and seeds were stored in paper bags under laboratory environmental conditions. Field dried seeds, with 10.1% of moisture, were utilized as a control. Physiological seed quality for each harvesting date and drying temperature were analyzed before storage and six months after. The following characteristics were utilized: seedling emergency under field condition, speed of seedling emergence, seedling dry matter content, germination, first counting of germination, accelerated ageing test, cold test without soil, electrical conductivity and Ca, Mg, K and Na lixiviated from seeds in the water of the in conductivity test. The following conclusions were drawn: seeds showed a higher sensitivity to drying temperature of 40oC than to 30oC, in the first evaluation, but not after six months of storage. Artificial drying of seeds did not affect seed quality, if harvest occurred between 17.6% and 50.7% of moisture, when compared to field dried harvested seeds.Sementes de milho doce possuem, em geral, germinação inferior, sendo o baixo vigor que essas apresentam, em grande parte, resultado da inadequação da época de colheita e da temperatura de secagem utilizada. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de milho doce cv. BR 401 (su em função do teor de água na colheita e da temperatura de secagem em espiga. O experimento foi conduzido na FCA/Unesp, Botucatu- SP, em

  1. Moisture Durability Assessment of Selected Well-insulated Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boudreaux, Philip R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Desjarlais, Andre Omer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report presents the results from studying the hygrothermal performance of two well-insulated wall assemblies, both complying with and exceeding international building codes (IECC 2015 2014, IRC 2015). The hygrothermal performance of walls is affected by a large number of influential parameters (e.g., outdoor and indoor climates, workmanship, material properties). This study was based on a probabilistic risk assessment in which a number of these influential parameters were simulated with their natural variability. The purpose of this approach was to generate simulation results based on laboratory chamber measurements that represent a variety of performances and thus better mimic realistic conditions. In total, laboratory measurements and 6,000 simulations were completed for five different US climate zones. A mold growth indicator (MGI) was used to estimate the risk of mold which potentially can cause moisture durability problems in the selected wall assemblies. Analyzing the possible impact on the indoor climate due to mold was not part of this study. The following conclusions can be reached from analyzing the simulation results. In a hot-humid climate, a higher R-value increases the importance of the airtightness because interior wall materials are at lower temperatures. In a cold climate, indoor humidity levels increase with increased airtightness. Air leakage must be considered in a hygrothermal risk assessment, since air efficiently brings moisture into buildings from either the interior or exterior environment. The sensitivity analysis of this study identifies mitigation strategies. Again, it is important to remark that MGI is an indicator of mold, not an indicator of indoor air quality and that mold is the most conservative indicator for moisture durability issues.

  2. Interactions Between Structure and Processing that Control Moisture Uptake in High-Performance Polycyanurates (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-24

    Motivation • SOTA Theories of Moisture Uptake in Thermosetting Networks • New Tools and New Discoveries • Unresolved Issues and Ways to Address Them...Temperature Thermosetting Polymers: Cyanate Esters • Glass transition temperatures at full cure of 200 – 400°C • Uncured resins exist as low-melting solids...Summary: Basic Studies of Moisture Uptake in Cyanate Ester Networks • Many aspects of moisture uptake (and its minimization) in thermosetting polymer

  3. Moisture availability limits subalpine tree establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Harvey, Brian J; Rodman, Kyle C; Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T

    2018-03-01

    In the absence of broad-scale disturbance, many temperate coniferous forests experience successful seedling establishment only when abundant seed production coincides with favorable climate. Identifying the frequency of past establishment events and the climate conditions favorable for seedling establishment is essential to understanding how climate warming could affect the frequency of future tree establishment events and therefore future forest composition or even persistence of a forest cover. In the southern Rocky Mountains, USA, research on the sensitivity of establishment of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa)-two widely distributed, co-occurring conifers in North America-to climate variability has focused on the alpine treeline ecotone, leaving uncertainty about the sensitivity of these species across much of their elevation distribution. We compared annual germination dates for >450 Engelmann spruce and >500 subalpine fir seedlings collected across a complex topographic-moisture gradient to climate variability in the Colorado Front Range. We found that Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir established episodically with strong synchrony in establishment events across the study area. Broad-scale establishment events occurred in years of high soil moisture availability, which were characterized by above-average snowpack and/or cool and wet summer climatic conditions. In the recent half of the study period (1975-2010), a decrease in the number of fir and spruce establishment events across their distribution coincided with declining snowpack and a multi-decadal trend of rising summer temperature and increasing moisture deficits. Counter to expected and observed increases in tree establishment with climate warming in maritime subalpine forests, our results show that recruitment declines will likely occur across the core of moisture-limited subalpine tree ranges as warming drives increased moisture deficits. © 2018 by the

  4. Monitoring Moisture Damage Propagation in GFRP Composites Using Carbon Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Sabagh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP composites are widely used in infrastructure applications including water structures due to their relatively high durability, high strength to weight ratio, and non-corrosiveness. Here we demonstrate the potential use of carbon nanoparticles dispersed during GFRP composite fabrication to reduce water absorption of GFRP and to enable monitoring of moisture damage propagation in GFRP composites. GFRP coupons incorporating 2.0 wt % carbon nanofibers (CNFs and 2.0 wt % multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were fabricated in order to study the effect of moisture damage on mechanical properties of GFRP. Water absorption tests were carried out by immersing the GFRP coupons in a seawater bath at two temperatures for a time period of three months. Effects of water immersion on the mechanical properties and glass transition temperature of GFRP were investigated. Furthermore, moisture damage in GFRP was monitored by measuring the electrical conductivity of the GFRP coupons. It was shown that carbon nanoparticles can provide a means of self-sensing that enables the monitoring of moisture damage in GFRP. Despite the success of the proposed technique, it might not be able to efficiently describe moisture damage propagation in GFRP beyond a specific threshold because of the relatively high electrical conductivity of seawater. Microstructural investigations using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR explained the significance of seawater immersion time and temperature on the different levels of moisture damage in GFRP.

  5. Cooperation between catalytic and DNA binding domains enhances thermostability and supports DNA synthesis at higher temperatures by thermostable DNA polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Andrey R; Pavlova, Nadejda V; Kozyavkin, Sergei A; Slesarev, Alexei I

    2012-03-13

    We have previously introduced a general kinetic approach for comparative study of processivity, thermostability, and resistance to inhibitors of DNA polymerases [Pavlov, A. R., et al. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.99, 13510-13515]. The proposed method was successfully applied to characterize hybrid DNA polymerases created by fusing catalytic DNA polymerase domains with various sequence-nonspecific DNA binding domains. Here we use the developed kinetic analysis to assess basic parameters of DNA elongation by DNA polymerases and to further study the interdomain interactions in both previously constructed and new chimeric DNA polymerases. We show that connecting helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) domains to catalytic polymerase domains can increase thermostability, not only of DNA polymerases from extremely thermophilic species but also of the enzyme from a faculatative thermophilic bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus. We also demonstrate that addition of Topo V HhH domains extends efficient DNA synthesis by chimerical polymerases up to 105 °C by maintaining processivity of DNA synthesis at high temperatures. We found that reversible high-temperature structural transitions in DNA polymerases decrease the rates of binding of these enzymes to the templates. Furthermore, activation energies and pre-exponential factors of the Arrhenius equation suggest that the mechanism of electrostatic enhancement of diffusion-controlled association plays a minor role in binding of templates to DNA polymerases.

  6. Anthropogenic warming exacerbates European soil moisture droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego, L.; Thober, S.; Kumar, R.; Wanders, N.; Rakovec, O.; Pan, M.; Zink, M.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Marx, A.

    2018-05-01

    Anthropogenic warming is anticipated to increase soil moisture drought in the future. However, projections are accompanied by large uncertainty due to varying estimates of future warming. Here, using an ensemble of hydrological and land-surface models, forced with bias-corrected downscaled general circulation model output, we estimate the impacts of 1-3 K global mean temperature increases on soil moisture droughts in Europe. Compared to the 1.5 K Paris target, an increase of 3 K—which represents current projected temperature change—is found to increase drought area by 40% (±24%), affecting up to 42% (±22%) more of the population. Furthermore, an event similar to the 2003 drought is shown to become twice as frequent; thus, due to their increased occurrence, events of this magnitude will no longer be classified as extreme. In the absence of effective mitigation, Europe will therefore face unprecedented increases in soil moisture drought, presenting new challenges for adaptation across the continent.

  7. Effective moisture diffusivity, moisture sorption, thermo-physical properties and infrared drying kinetics of germinated paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawan Tirawanichakul

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and relative humidity (RH dependence of moisture sorption phenomena for agricultural products provide valuable information related to the thermodynamics of the system. So the equilibrium moisture contents (EMC, effective moisture diffusivity (Deff and thermo-physical properties in terms of void fraction, specific heat capacity, and the apparent density of germinated non-waxy Suphanburi 1 paddy were evaluated. Five commonly cited EMC equations were fitted to the experimental data among temperatures of 40-60°C correlating with RH of 0-90%. The results showed that the modified GAB equation was the best function for describing experimental results while those evaluated thermo-physical properties depended on moisture content. To determine drying kinetics model, the simulated values using Midilli et al. (2002 model and Page’s model was the best fitting to exact drying kinetics values for infrared (IR and hot air (HA drying, respectively. Finally, the Deff value of paddy dried with IR and HA sources were also evaluated and the calculated Deff value of both HA and IR drying was in order of 10-9 m2/s.

  8. Neutron moisture measurement in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thony, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This method is generally used for soil moisture determination but also for moisture in building materials. After a review of neutron interaction with matter (elastic and inelastic scattering, radiative capture and absorption with emission of charged particles) and of the equipment (source, detector and counting), gravimetric and chemical calibration are described and accuracy of measurement is discussed. 5 refs [fr

  9. Moisture relationships in composting processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, T.L.; Veeken, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Moisture is a key environmental factor that affects many aspects of the composting process. Biodegradation kinetics are affected by moisture through changes in oxygen diffusion, water potential and water activity, and microbial growth rates. These relationships are made more complex by the dynamic

  10. One-dimensional scanning of moisture in heated porous building materials with NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, G H A; Huinink, H P; Pel, L; Kopinga, K

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we present a new dedicated NMR setup which is capable of measuring one-dimensional moisture profiles in heated porous materials. The setup, which is placed in the bore of a 1.5 T whole-body scanner, is capable of reaching temperatures up to 500 °C. Moisture and temperature profiles can be measured quasi simultaneously with a typical time resolution of 2-5 min. A methodology is introduced for correcting temperature effects on NMR measurements at these elevated temperatures. The corrections are based on the Curie law for paramagnetism and the observed temperature dependence of the relaxation mechanisms occurring in porous materials. Both these corrections are used to obtain a moisture content profile from the raw NMR signal profile. To illustrate the methodology, a one-sided heating experiment of concrete with a moisture content in equilibrium with 97% RH is presented. This kind of heating experiment is of particular interest in the research on fire spalling of concrete, since it directly reveals the moisture and heat transport occurring inside the concrete. The obtained moisture profiles reveal a moisture peak building up behind the boiling front, resulting in a saturated layer. To our knowledge the direct proof of the formation of a moisture peak and subsequent moisture clogging has not been reported before. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher Storage Temperature Causes Greater Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Internal Penetration of Artificially Contaminated, Commercially Available, Washed Free Range Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Alice; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin; McEvoy, Vanessa; Whiley, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    Foodborne salmonellosis is a major public health concern, with contaminated eggs identified as a significant source of infection. In Australia, the most prevalent cause of salmonellosis from eggs is Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. This study explored the effect of temperature after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage on commercially available washed free range eggs, artificially contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium on the external surface. At each time point, the external surface of the egg, the crushed eggshell, and the internal egg yolk and albumen were analyzed for Salmonella. After 28 days of storage, 25% of eggs stored at 4°C, 50% of eggs stored at 14°C, and 100% of eggs stored at 23 and 35°C were internally contaminated with Salmonella. After 1 day of storage, more than 50% of all eggs had Salmonella present in the crushed shell after the external surface had been disinfected with ethanol. This is the first study to demonstrate that refrigeration reduced the potential for Salmonella Typhimurium to penetrate the eggshell membrane and internally contaminate table eggs commercially available in Australia. It also suggests that the processes of cracking eggs may be a source of cross-contamination within the kitchen.

  12. Initializing numerical weather prediction models with satellite-derived surface soil moisture: Data assimilation experiments with ECMWF's Integrated Forecast System and the TMI soil moisture data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusch, M.

    2007-02-01

    Satellite-derived surface soil moisture data sets are readily available and have been used successfully in hydrological applications. In many operational numerical weather prediction systems the initial soil moisture conditions are analyzed from the modeled background and 2 m temperature and relative humidity. This approach has proven its efficiency to improve surface latent and sensible heat fluxes and consequently the forecast on large geographical domains. However, since soil moisture is not always related to screen level variables, model errors and uncertainties in the forcing data can accumulate in root zone soil moisture. Remotely sensed surface soil moisture is directly linked to the model's uppermost soil layer and therefore is a stronger constraint for the soil moisture analysis. For this study, three data assimilation experiments with the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) have been performed for the 2-month period of June and July 2002: a control run based on the operational soil moisture analysis, an open loop run with freely evolving soil moisture, and an experimental run incorporating TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager) derived soil moisture over the southern United States. In this experimental run the satellite-derived soil moisture product is introduced through a nudging scheme using 6-hourly increments. Apart from the soil moisture analysis, the system setup reflects the operational forecast configuration including the atmospheric 4D-Var analysis. Soil moisture analyzed in the nudging experiment is the most accurate estimate when compared against in situ observations from the Oklahoma Mesonet. The corresponding forecast for 2 m temperature and relative humidity is almost as accurate as in the control experiment. Furthermore, it is shown that the soil moisture analysis influences local weather parameters including the planetary boundary layer height and cloud coverage.

  13. Shivering and rewarming after cardiac surgery: comparison of ventilator circuits with humidifier and heated wires to heat and moisture exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, M T; Carey, T J

    1995-07-01

    Detrimental physiologic effects of shivering in the cardiac surgery patient have been well documented. Rewarming techniques have been compared, with noted differences in the incidence of shivering. Ventilator circuits have not been examined independently from other rewarming variables. To compare heated wire humidification circuits with heat and moisture exchanger circuits on the incidence of shivering and speed and pattern of rewarming in mechanically ventilated patients. A prospective, descriptive, correlational study was done on 140 adult cardiac surgery patients in a university teaching medical center. All subjects underwent cardiac surgical procedures with hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Subjects were randomized to humidified, heated wire circuits (n = 70) or heat and moisture exchanger circuits (n = 70). Heated water blankets were used on all patients. Mean intensive care unit admission temperature was 35.28 degrees C. No statistical differences were found in preoperative, demographic, or operative course data between treatment and control groups. Shivering was more common in the heat and moisture exchanger group than in the heated wire group. In our analysis, the only variable associated with shivering was the type of ventilator circuit. Patients using heated wire systems rewarmed more rapidly and had significantly higher temperatures than did patients using heat and moisture exchangers. These data suggest that use of heated wire humidified ventilator circuits with heated water blankets in adult cardiac surgery patients significantly reduces the incidence of shivering and results in a more rapid return to normothermia.

  14. DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OF LARCH BOARD WITH FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaofang Zhou

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the moisture diffusion coefficient of Dahurian Larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr. by use of the Finite Difference Method (FDM. To obtain moisture distributions the dimensional boards of Dahurian Larch were dried, from which test samples were cut and sliced evenly into 9 pieces in different drying periods, so that moisture distributions at different locations and times across the thickness of Dahurian Larch were obtained with a weighing method. With these experimental data, FDM was used to solve Fick’s one-dimensional unsteady-state diffusion equation, and the moisture diffusion coefficient across the thickness at specified time was obtained. Results indicated that the moisture diffusion coefficient decreased from the surface to the center of the Dahurian Larch wood, and it decreased with decreasing moisture content at constant wood temperature; as the wood temperature increased, the moisture diffusion coefficient increased, and the effect of the wood temperature on the moisture diffusion coefficient was more significant than that of moisture content. Moisture diffusion coefficients were different for the two experiments due to differing diffusivity of the specimens.

  15. Pyrolysis of Lantana camara and Mimosa pigra: Influences of temperature, other process parameters and incondensable gas evolution on char yield and higher heating value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundike, Jhonnah; Collard, François-Xavier; Görgens, Johann F

    2017-11-01

    Pyrolysis of invasive non-indigenous plants, Lantana camara (LC) and Mimosa pigra (MP) was conducted at milligram-scale for optimisation of temperature, heating rate and hold time on char yield and higher heating value (HHV). The impact of scaling-up to gram-scale was also studied, with chromatography used to correlate gas composition with HHV evolution. Statistically significant effects of temperature on char yield and HHV were obtained, while heating rate and hold time effects were insignificant. Milligram-scale maximised HHVs were 30.03MJkg -1 (525°C) and 31.01MJkg -1 (580°C) for LC and MP, respectively. Higher char yields and HHVs for MP were attributed to increased lignin content. Scaling-up promoted secondary char formation thereby increasing HHVs, 30.82MJkg -1 for LC and 31.61MJkg -1 for MP. Incondensable gas analysis showed that temperature increase beyond preferred values caused dehydrogenation that decreased HHV. Similarly, CO evolution profile explained differences in optimal HHV temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and evaluation of the MTVDI for soil moisture monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenbin; Lv, Aifeng; Jia, Shaofeng; Sun, Liang

    2017-06-01

    Several parameterization schemes have been developed to retrieve the soil moisture information involved in the remotely sensed surface temperature-vegetation index (Ts - VI) space. However, most of them are performed with the constraint of the dry edge of the Ts - VI space to define the maximum water stressed conditions. In view of the subjectivity and uncertainty involved in the determination of the dry edge, a new index termed as the Modified Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (MTVDI) was developed in this paper to reduce the reliance of the parameterization scheme on the dry edge. In the parameterization scheme of MTVDI, isopleth lines of soil moisture involved in the feature space were retrieved by the temperature-vegetation index method, and only the maximum surface temperature of bare soil (Tsmax) was indispensable in the definition of maximum water stressed conditions. For evaluation purpose, the MTVDI was demonstrated in the Southern Great Plains region of the U.S. and was compared with two other traditional soil moisture indexes developed under the constraint of dry edge. The comparison confirmed the effectivity of the MTVDI in monitoring the spatial pattern and seasonal variation of soil moisture. Our analyses also suggest that Tsmax, the only parameter needed in the definition of maximum water stressed conditions, can be retrieved directly from the parameterization scheme itself. Therefore, the retrieval of MTVDI can be performed independent of the dry edge, which is a significant improvement to the traditional parameterization schemes of soil moisture from the Ts - VI feature space.

  17. Trace moisture emissions from heated metal surfaces in hydrogen service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, Hans H.; Yao Jianlong; Raynor, Mark W.

    2004-01-01

    The formation of trace moisture by exposure of dry heated surfaces of 316 L stainless-steel, Restek Silcosteel registered , and nickel 1/8 in. outer diameter line segments to purified Ar and H 2 was studied using atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry at flow rates of 2 slpm. Prior to H 2 exposure, adsorbed moisture was removed by heating incrementally to 500 deg. C in an argon matrix, where the Restek Silcosteel registered material released a maximum of 50 ppb moisture at 300 deg. C and moisture spikes from the Ni and stainless-steel surfaces reached several 100 ppb. Upon exposure to H 2 , persistent low ppb moisture emissions due to the reduction of surface oxide species were observed at temperatures as low as 100 deg. C. Spikes at 300-500 deg. C ranged from ∼100 ppb for the stainless-steel lines to 400 ppb for the Restek Silcosteel registered material. The observed moisture emissions have to be considered as a potential contamination source for high-purity processes utilizing H 2 purge at elevated temperatures

  18. Moisture Performance of Energy-Efficient and Conventional Wood-Frame Wall Assemblies in a Mixed-Humid Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel Glass; Vladimir Kochkin; S. Drumheller; Lance Barta

    2015-01-01

    Long-term moisture performance is a critical consideration for design and construction of building envelopes in energy-efficient buildings, yet field measurements of moisture characteristics for highly insulated wood-frame walls in mixed-humid climates are lacking. Temperature, relative humidity, and moisture content of wood framing and oriented strand board (OSB)...

  19. Soil moisture determination with Tesla NZK 203 neutron gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hally, J.

    1977-01-01

    Soil moisture was measured using the NZK 203 neutron probe manufactured by Tesla Premysleni. The individual measuring sites were spaced at a distance of 100 m. The NZK 203 set consists of a NPK 202 moisture gage and a NSK 301 scintillation detector and features the following specifications: moisture density measuring range 20 to 500 kg/m 3 , 241 Am-Be fast neutron source having a neutron flux of 7.5x10 4 n.sec -1 +-10%, operating temperature -10 to +45 degC. The measured counting rate was primarily affected by the statistical fluctuation of ionizing radiation and by instrument instability. In order that these effects should be limited each measurement was repeated 10 times with the optimum measurement time at an interval of 20 to 100 sec. The NZK 203 Tesla set was proven to be suitable for rapid and reproducible determination of moisture profiles. (J.P.)

  20. Water activity reduction of intermediate moisture yellowstrip trevally (Selaroides leptolepis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phomajun, P.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Water activity reduction of intermediate moisture yellowstrip trevally was studied. The optimal time (8, 12, 16, 20 hrs. for curing marinade was investigated. The effects of different humectants (glycerol, sorbitol, lactitol, glucose syrup at 50% w/w of curing ingredients were compared. Results showed that moisture content and water activity of cured yellowstrip trevally decreased as curing time increased (p0.05. However, the hardness of intermediate moisture Yellowstrip trevally, determined by texture analyzer, decreased. Hardness, shear force, L a b value of sample added with various humectants were lower than those of the control (p0.05. The glycerol-added samples had the highest overall acceptability score and were higher than control, whereas the glucose syrup-added samples had the lowest score. Moisture content of the samples with the addition of various humectants was higher than that of the control (18.28 %. The samples added with glycerol retained the highest moisture (24.94%. The adsorption isotherm studies showed that the equilibrium moisture of sample added with glycerol was higher than that added with lactitol.

  1. Understanding natural moisturizing mechanisms: implications for moisturizer technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandar, Prem; Nole, Greg; Johnson, Anthony W

    2009-07-01

    Dry skin and moisturization are important topics because they impact the lives of many individuals. For most individuals, dry skin is not a notable concern and can be adequately managed with current moisturizing products. However, dry skin can affect the quality of life of some individuals because of the challenges of either harsh environmental conditions or impaired stratum corneum (SC) dry skin protection processes resulting from various common skin diseases. Dry skin protection processes of the SC, such as the development of natural moisturizing factor (NMF), are complex, carefully balanced, and easily perturbed. We discuss the importance of the filaggrin-NMF system and the composition of NMF in both healthy and dry skin, and also reveal new insights that suggest the properties required for a new generation of moisturizing technologies.

  2. Daily δ18O and δD of precipitations from 2007 to 2009 in Guangzhou, South China: Implications for changes of moisture sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Luhua; Wei, Gangjian; Deng, Wenfeng; Zhao, Xiaoli

    2011-04-01

    SummaryOxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes ( δ18O and δD) in precipitation collected in every event from 2007 to 2009 in Guangzhou, South China, are presented in this paper. The total correlation between δ18O and δD is obtained as δD = (8.46 ± 0.13) δ18O + (15.0 ± 0.9). More negative δ18O and δD generally occur during summer and autumn, while less negative or even positive δ18O and δD occur during winter and spring. Significant negative correlations between precipitation δ18O and temperature, and between precipitation δ18O and precipitation amount are observed. Regression line changes from year to year are likely due to changes in moisture sources for the precipitation. The moisture contributed by adjacent seas or local evaporation account for the main precipitation during winter and early spring, while summer monsoon brings huge amounts of moisture from remote seas associated with higher temperature and larger precipitation amounts. Seasonal variations of the precipitation D-excess provide more details for changes in moisture sources. Higher D-excess values during winter and early spring are estimated to correspond to a lesser proportion of remote moisture, while lower D-excess values during summer and autumn correspond to larger remote moisture transported by summer monsoons. This generally agrees with the results of model analysis on single isobaric backward trajectories for air parcels during specific time periods. Results of this study imply that precipitation δ18O and δD, as well as some related paleoclimate proxies such as δ18O in speleothem and tree ring, and δD in plant-derived organic compounds and tree ring, currently cannot indicate changes in temperature or precipitation amount separately, but should be comprehensive proxies for monsoon climate.

  3. Settlement determination of operating moisture of autoclaved aerated concrete in different climatic zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastushkov Pavel Pavlovich

    Full Text Available In the process of operation of buildings the moisture state of enveloping structures materials is changing depending on their construction features, properties of the material, temperature and moisture conditions in the premises, climatic conditions of the construction area. Moisture mode determines the operational properties of the enveloping structures of a building. It directly influences the thermal characteristics of enveloping structure and energy efficiency of the applied materials. The analysis of the methods for calculation of moisture behavior of enclosing structures is carried out. The research relevance of operational moisture of AAC is substantiated. Experimental studies and results of the sorption moisturizing and water vapor permeability of leading marks of aerated concrete are carried out. The authors offer the results of numerical calculations of the moisture behavior of aerated concrete in the walls with mark D400 with facade thermal insulation composite systems - with external plaster layers for different climatic zones of construction.

  4. Effects of soil moisture on the diurnal pattern of pesticide emission: Comparison of simulations with field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Rivka; Yates, Scott R.; Skaggs, Todd H.; Rolston, Dennis E.

    2013-02-01

    Pesticide volatilization from agricultural soils is one of the main pathways in which pesticides are dispersed in the environment and affects ecosystems including human welfare. Thus, it is necessary to have accurate knowledge of the various physical and chemical mechanisms that affect volatilization rates from field soils. A verification of the influence of soil moisture modeling on the simulated volatilization rate, soil temperature and soil-water content is presented. Model simulations are compared with data collected in a field study that measured the effect of soil moisture on diazinon volatilization. These data included diurnal changes in volatilization rate, soil-water content, and soil temperature measured at two depths. The simulations were performed using a comprehensive non-isothermal model, two water retention functions, and two soil surface resistance functions, resulting in four tested models. Results show that the degree of similarity between volatilization curves simulated using the four models depended on the initial water content. Under fairly wet conditions, the simulated curves mainly differ in the magnitude of their deviation from the measured values. However, under intermediate and low moisture conditions, the simulated curves also differed in their pattern (shape). The model prediction accuracy depended on soil moisture. Under normal practices, where initial soil moisture is about field capacity or higher, a combination of Brooks and Corey water retention and the van de Grind and Owe soil surface resistance functions led to the most accurate predictions. However, under extremely dry conditions, when soil-water content in the top 1 cm is below the volumetric threshold value, the use of a full-range water retention function increased prediction accuracy. The different models did not affect the soil temperature predictions, and had a minor effect on the predicted soil-water content of Yolo silty clay soil.

  5. Moisture effect on the dielectric response and space charge behaviour of mineral oil impregnated paper insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jian; Liao Ruijin; Chen, George

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric response and space charge behaviour of oil-paper insulation sample with different moisture contents were investigated using the frequency dielectric spectroscopy (FDS) and the pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) technique, respectively. The influence of moisture on the dielectric response and space charge behaviour of oil impregnated paper insulation was analysed. Results show that the moisture has great effect on the FDS and space charge behaviour of oil impregnated paper insulation. In the frequency range of 10 -2 ∼10 6 Hz, the conductivity and the capacitance of oil impregnated paper increases with its moisture content. The space charge distribution of oil-paper sample with lower and higher moisture contents is very different from each other. The higher the moisture concentration of the oil impregnated paper, the easier the negative charge penetration into the insulation paper. There is a significant amount of positive charge accumulated at the paper-paper interface near to the cathode for oilpaper sample with lower moisture content. However, the positive charge appears in the middle layer paper for oil-paper sample with higher moisture content. Due to the high conductivity, the charge trapped in the oil-paper sample with higher moisture content disappears much faster than that in the oil-paper sample with lower moisture content after removing the voltage.

  6. Moisture effect on the dielectric response and space charge behaviour of mineral oil impregnated paper insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Jian; Liao Ruijin [State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University (China); Chen, George, E-mail: jh210v@ecs.soton.ac.uk [School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-12

    Dielectric response and space charge behaviour of oil-paper insulation sample with different moisture contents were investigated using the frequency dielectric spectroscopy (FDS) and the pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) technique, respectively. The influence of moisture on the dielectric response and space charge behaviour of oil impregnated paper insulation was analysed. Results show that the moisture has great effect on the FDS and space charge behaviour of oil impregnated paper insulation. In the frequency range of 10{sup -2}{approx}10{sup 6}Hz, the conductivity and the capacitance of oil impregnated paper increases with its moisture content. The space charge distribution of oil-paper sample with lower and higher moisture contents is very different from each other. The higher the moisture concentration of the oil impregnated paper, the easier the negative charge penetration into the insulation paper. There is a significant amount of positive charge accumulated at the paper-paper interface near to the cathode for oilpaper sample with lower moisture content. However, the positive charge appears in the middle layer paper for oil-paper sample with higher moisture content. Due to the high conductivity, the charge trapped in the oil-paper sample with higher moisture content disappears much faster than that in the oil-paper sample with lower moisture content after removing the voltage.

  7. Modeling temperature and moisture fields in conditioned spaces using zonal approach, including sorption phenomena in buildings materials; Modelisation thermo-hydro-aeraulique des locaux climatises selon l'approche zonale (prise en compte des phenomenes de sorption d'humidite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro Mendoca, K.

    2004-05-15

    Building simulation models represent in our days an important tool for building conception and performance analysis. Although moisture interacts in many ways with the whole building affecting therefore its behavior, frequently these models neglects the interactions between them. In addition, in most of them, indoor air conditions are considered uniform, which is a non-realistic assumption in conditioned spaces. In this work, a model to predict temperature and moisture fields in conditioned spaces, using zonal approach, is proposed. This method is based in dividing spatially a room in a relative small number of zones, typically on the order of tens to hundreds, where the state variables of air are considered uniform, with the exception of pressure that varies hydrostatically. While not as fine-grained as CFD simulation, zonal models do give useful information about temperature and moisture distributions that is important in comfort analysis. The proposed model was structured in three groups of sub-models representing the three building domains: indoor air, envelope and HVAC system. The indoor air sub-model is related to the indoor air space, where airflow speed can be considered weak. The envelope sub-model is related to the radiation exchanges between envelope and its neighborhood, and to the simultaneous heat and mass transfers across the envelope material. This latest can be represented by four sub-models of different complexity levels, with two of them taking into account moisture adsorption and desorption by building materials. Concerning to the HVAC system model, it refers to the whole system that means equipment, control and specific airflow from equipment. All sub-models were coupled into a modular simulation environment, SPARK, well-adapted to compare different models. The applicability of the proposed model is shown by two examples. The first one shows the importance of considering moisture sorption phenomena in the prediction of indoor air conditions

  8. A Novel Bias Correction Method for Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS Soil Moisture: Retrieval Ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyoung Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bias correction is a very important pre-processing step in satellite data assimilation analysis, as data assimilation itself cannot circumvent satellite biases. We introduce a retrieval algorithm-specific and spatially heterogeneous Instantaneous Field of View (IFOV bias correction method for Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS soil moisture. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to present the probabilistic presentation of SMOS soil moisture using retrieval ensembles. We illustrate that retrieval ensembles effectively mitigated the overestimation problem of SMOS soil moisture arising from brightness temperature errors over West Africa in a computationally efficient way (ensemble size: 12, no time-integration. In contrast, the existing method of Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF matching considerably increased the SMOS biases, due to the limitations of relying on the imperfect reference data. From the validation at two semi-arid sites, Benin (moderately wet and vegetated area and Niger (dry and sandy bare soils, it was shown that the SMOS errors arising from rain and vegetation attenuation were appropriately corrected by ensemble approaches. In Benin, the Root Mean Square Errors (RMSEs decreased from 0.1248 m3/m3 for CDF matching to 0.0678 m3/m3 for the proposed ensemble approach. In Niger, the RMSEs decreased from 0.14 m3/m3 for CDF matching to 0.045 m3/m3 for the ensemble approach.

  9. Investigating soil moisture-climate interactions with prescribed soil moisture experiments: an assessment with the Community Earth System Model (version 1.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Mathias; Orth, René; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-04-01

    Land surface hydrology is an important control of surface weather and climate. A valuable technique to investigate this link is the prescription of soil moisture in land surface models, which leads to a decoupling of the atmosphere and land processes. Diverse approaches to prescribe soil moisture, as well as different prescribed soil moisture conditions have been used in previous studies. Here, we compare and assess four methodologies to prescribe soil moisture and investigate the impact of two different estimates of the climatological seasonal cycle used to prescribe soil moisture. Our analysis shows that, though in appearance similar, the different approaches require substantially different long-term moisture inputs and lead to different temperature signals. The smallest influence on temperature and the water balance is found when prescribing the median seasonal cycle of deep soil liquid water, whereas the strongest signal is found when prescribing soil liquid and soil ice using the mean seasonal cycle. These results indicate that induced net water-balance perturbations in experiments investigating soil moisture-climate coupling are important contributors to the climate response, in addition to the intended impact of the decoupling. These results help to guide the set-up of future experiments prescribing soil moisture, as for instance planned within the Land Surface, Snow and Soil Moisture Model Intercomparison Project (LS3MIP).

  10. Sandwich panels with high performance concrete thin plates at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    concerned HMT modelling and elastic stress analysis with nonlinear temperature effects of a full size loaded sandwich wall, qualitatively assessing the location of critically stressed zones. Modelling output was compared to published experimental results. The model reproduced experimental temperature...... recordings satisfactorily, except phase changes of water at low heating rates. It was suggested that the function governing moisture evolution with temperature and pressure should be updated for HPC. Pore pressure was found critical for sandwich structures due their higher temperatures. Adding polypropylene...

  11. Compact RFID Enabled Moisture Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. H. Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a novel, low-cost RFID tag sensor antenna implemented using commercially available Kodak photo-paper. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of stable, RFID centric communication under varying moisture levels. Variation in the frequency response of the RFID tag in presence of moisture is used to detect different moisture levels. Combination of unique jaw shaped contours and T-matching network is used for impedance matching which results in compact size and minimal ink consumption. Proposed tag is 1.4 × 9.4 cm2 in size and shows optimum results for various moisture levels upto 45% in FCC band with a bore sight read range of 12.1 m.

  12. Determining seed moisture in Quercus

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner

    1974-01-01

    The air-oven method with drying times 7 to 8 hours shorter than those now prescribed in the ISTA rules proved adequate for determining moisture contents in acorns of several North American oaks. Schedules of 8 hours at 105°C for Quercus muehlenbergii and 9 hours at 105°C for Q.shumardii and Q.nigra gave moisture contents within three percentage points of those obtained...

  13. On moisture migration in a heated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Yasuaki

    1985-10-01

    Transient moisture migration in a slab of porous concrete being heated at one surface was analyzed with consideration of evaporation and condensation effects. Analysis was made in the existence of non-condensable fluid (air). Since partial differential equations which describe the total system are very complicated, the existence of similar solution is assumed under the condition of low dry-wet interface temperature. Then, partial differential equations were transformed into ordinary differential equations. Solutions were obtained for two boundary conditions of a permeable outer surface and a impermeable outer surface. (author)

  14. Moisture transfer in a concrete slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.L.D.; Siang, H.H.; Kirmser, P.G.

    1979-01-01

    A diffusion theory with a linear or a nonlinear coefficient of diffusivity is insufficient for the characterization of the drying behaviour of hydrated concrete slabs. A general mathematical model, based on nonequilibrium, irreversible flows of heat and mass, yields a set of nonlinear partial differential equations of parabolic type. Implicit finite difference calculations for a concrete slab yield moisture, temperature, and pressure histories as well as global average drying rates. Graphs show that during the pendular state of dessication, diffusion, capillary, and evaporation-condensation processes are the governing mechanisms in drying. (orig.)

  15. Soil-moisture transport in arid site vadose zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacson, R.E.; Brownell, L.E.; Nelson, R.W.; Roetman, E.L.

    1974-01-01

    Soil-moisture transport processes in the arid soils of the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Hanford site are being evaluated. The depth of penetration of meteoric precipitation has been determined by profiling fall-out tritium at two locations where the water table is about 90 m below ground surface. In situ temperatures and water potentials were measured with temperature transducers and thermocouple psychrometers at the same location to obtain thermodynamic data for identifying the factors influencing soil-moisture transport. Neutron probes are being used to monitor soil-moisture changes in two lysimeters, three metres in diameter by 20 metres deep. The lysimeters are also equipped to measure pressure, temperature and relative humidity as a function of depth and time. Theoretical models based on conservation of momentum expressions are being developed to analyse non-isothermal soil-moisture transport processes. Future work will be concerned with combining the theoretical and experimental work and determining the amount of rainfall required to cause migration of soil-moisture to the water table. (author)

  16. Experience of Implementing Moisture Sorption Control in Historical Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zítek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a novel approach to inhibiting the harmful impact of moisture sorption in old art works and historical exhibits preserved in remote historic buildings that are in use as depositories or exhibition rooms for cultural heritage collections. It is a sequel to the previous work presented in [2], where the principle of moisture sorption stabilization was explained. Sorption isotherm investigations and EMC control implementation in historical buildings not provided with heating are the main concern in this paper. The proposed microclimate adjustment consists in leaving the interior temperature to run almost its spontaneous yearly cycle, while the air humidity is maintained in a specific relationship to the current interior temperature. The interior air humidity is modestly adjusted to protect historical exhibits and art works from harmful variations in the content of absorbed moisture, which would otherwise arise owing to the interior temperature drifts. Since direct measurements of moisture content are not feasible, the air humidity is controlled via a model-based principle. Two long-term implementations of the proposed microclimate control have already proved that it can permanently maintain a constant moisture content in the preserved exhibits. 

  17. Preparation and characterization of pulsed laser deposited CdTe thin films at higher FTO substrate temperature and in Ar + O{sub 2} atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Chao; Ming, Zhenxun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China); Li, Bing, E-mail: libing70@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China); Feng, Lianghuan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, Sichuan (China); Wu, Judy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Kansas University, Lawrence 66045 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: • CdTe films were deposited by PLD at high substrate temperatures (400 °C, 550 °C). • CdTe films were achieved under the atmosphere (1.2 Torr) of Ar mixed with O{sub 2}. • Deposited CdTe films were cubic phase and had strong (1 0 0) preferred orientation. • Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed an average grain size of 0.3–0.6 μm. • The ultra-thin film (CdS/PLD-CdTe) solar cell with efficiency of 6.68% was made. -- Abstract: Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is one of the promising techniques for depositing cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films. It has been reported that PLD CdTe thin films were almost deposited at the lower substrate temperatures (<300 °C) under vacuum conditions. However, the poor crystallinity of CdTe films prepared in this way renders them not conducive to the preparation of high-efficiency CdTe solar cells. To obtain high-efficiency solar cell devices, better crystallinity and more suitable grain size are needed, which requires the CdTe layer to be deposited by PLD at high substrate temperatures (>400 °C). In this paper, CdTe layers were deposited by PLD (KrF, λ = 248 nm, 10 Hz) at different higher substrate temperatures (T{sub s}). Excellent performance of CdTe films was achieved at higher substrate temperatures (400 °C, 550 °C) under an atmosphere of Ar mixed with O{sub 2} (1.2 Torr). X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of CdTe cubic phase with a strong (1 0 0) preferential orientation at all substrates temperatures on 60 mJ laser energy. The optical properties of CdTe were investigated, and the band gaps of CdTe films were 1.51 eV and 1.49 eV at substrate temperatures of 400 °C and 550 °C, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed an average grain size of 0.3–0.6 μm. Thus, under these conditions of the atmosphere of Ar + O{sub 2} (15 Torr) and at the relatively high T{sub s} (500 °C), an thin-film (FTO/PLD-CdS (100 nm)/PLD-CdTe (∼1.5 μm)/HgTe: Cu/Ag) solar cell with an

  18. Specification of indoor climate design parameters at the assessment of moisture protective properties of enclosing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornienko Sergey Valer’evich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to wide implementation of enveloping structures with increased heat-insulation properties in modern construction here appeared a necessity to assess their moisture conditions. Assessment of moisture conditions of enveloping structures is carried out according to maximum allowable moisture state basing on determining the surface of maximum damping. In relation to it the necessity of additional vapour barrier is checked using moisture balance equation. Though the change of indoor climate parameters in premises is not taken into account in moisture balance equations defined for different seasons. The author improves the method of calculating moisture protective parameters of enclosing structures according to the maximum allowable damping state for a year and a period of moisture accumulation. It is shown in this article that accounting of temperature and relative humidity change of inside air allows specifying calculated parameters of indoor climate in residential and office rooms in assessment of moisture protective properties of enclosing structures for the case of an effective enclosing structure with a façade heat-insulation composite system. Coordinates of the maximum moistened surface of the envelope depends on indoor climate design parameters. It is concluded that the increase of requirements for moisture protection of enclosing structures when using design values of temperature and relative humidity of internal air according to the Russian regulation (SP 50.13330.2012 is not always reasonable. Accounting of changes of indoor climate parameters allows more precise assessment of moisture protective properties of enclosing structures during their design.

  19. Laboratory evaluation of resistance to moisture damage in asphalt mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Moisture damage in asphalt mixtures refers to loss in strength and durability due to the presence of water. Egypt road network is showing severe deterioration such as raveling and stripping because the bond between aggregates and asphalt film is broken due to water intrusion. To minimize moisture damage, asphalt mixes are investigated to evaluate the effect of air voids, degree of saturation, media of attack and the conditioning period. Two medias of attack are considered and two anti-stripping additives are used (hydrated lime and Portland cement. The retained Marshall stability and tensile strength ratio are calculated to determine the resistance to moisture damage. The results showed that both lime and cement could increase Marshall stability, resilient modulus, tensile strength and resistance to moisture damage of mixtures especially at higher condition periods. Use of hydrated lime had better results than Portland cement.

  20. A Pilot Study Examining Physical and Social Warmth: Higher (Non-Febrile) Oral Temperature Is Associated with Greater Feelings of Social Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Tristen K; Irwin, Michael R; Moieni, Mona; Jevtic, Ivana; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-01-01

    An emerging literature suggests that experiences of physical warmth contribute to social warmth-the experience of feeling connected to others. Thus, thermoregulatory systems, which help maintain our relatively warm internal body temperatures, may also support feelings of social connection. However, the association between internal body temperature and feelings of connection has not been examined. Furthermore, the origins of the link between physical and social warmth, via learning during early experiences with a caregiver or via innate, co-evolved mechanisms, remain unclear. The current study examined the relationship between oral temperature and feelings of social connection as well as whether early caregiver experiences moderated this relationship. Extending the existing literature, higher oral temperature readings were associated with greater feelings of social connection. Moreover, early caregiver experiences did not moderate this association, suggesting that the physical-social warmth overlap may not be altered by early social experience. Results provide additional support for the link between experiences of physical warmth and social warmth and add to existing theories that highlight social connection as a basic need on its own.

  1. Impact of Soil Moisture Assimilation on Land Surface Model Spin-Up and Coupled LandAtmosphere Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Lawston, P.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in satellite monitoring of the terrestrial water cycle have led to a concerted effort to assimilate soil moisture observations from various platforms into offline land surface models (LSMs). One principal but still open question is that of the ability of land data assimilation (LDA) to improve LSM initial conditions for coupled short-term weather prediction. In this study, the impact of assimilating Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) soil moisture retrievals on coupled WRF Model forecasts is examined during the summers of dry (2006) and wet (2007) surface conditions in the southern Great Plains. LDA is carried out using NASAs Land Information System (LIS) and the Noah LSM through an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) approach. The impacts of LDA on the 1) soil moisture and soil temperature initial conditions for WRF, 2) land-atmosphere coupling characteristics, and 3) ambient weather of the coupled LIS-WRF simulations are then assessed. Results show that impacts of soil moisture LDA during the spin-up can significantly modify LSM states and fluxes, depending on regime and season. Results also indicate that the use of seasonal cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) is more advantageous compared to the traditional annual CDF bias correction strategies. LDA performs consistently regardless of atmospheric forcing applied, with greater improvements seen when using coarser, global forcing products. Downstream impacts on coupled simulations vary according to the strength of the LDA impact at the initialization, where significant modifications to the soil moisture flux- PBL-ambient weather process chain are observed. Overall, this study demonstrates potential for future, higher-resolution soil moisture assimilation applications in weather and climate research.

  2. Engineering properties of sunflower seed: Effect of dehulling and moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ahmad Malik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study diagnosed engineering properties on varying moisture content of sunflower seed and kernel from 7.6 to 25% (wet basis. On increasing moisture, dimensional values increased for both seed and kernel. Bulk density, true density and porosity were found higher for kernel as compared to seed at each moisture content. On increasing the moisture content from 7.6 to 25%, true density, porosity and thousand kernel weight increased. Coefficient of static friction on plywood was found maximum for kernel at 25% moisture content, while it was minimum for seed on glass at 7.6% moisture content. The angle of repose was maximum for kernel as compared to seed. Initial cracking force, average rupture force and average rupture energy for seed and kernel decreased with an increase in the moisture content. The kernel was found to be more resistant to initial cracking than seed.

  3. Effect of moisture on the accuracy of coke-ash determination by X-ray backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, H.D.; Prasad, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Effect of moisture on the rapid non-destructive estimation of ash content in coal specimens using the X-ray backscattering technique has been studied extensively by various workers. In the present work, an attempt has been made to estimate its influence when the technique is extended to coke-ash determinations. From the study of the variation of backscattered intensity with change in the moisture content of a coke specimen, it is observed that the ash content varies significantly at moisture levels higher than 5%. The variation, however, remains within allowable limits if the moisture level is kept below 5%. This observation is confirmed by the actual measurement of ash percentages in thirteen coke specimens containing three different states of moisture levels viz. (i) in the dry state, (ii) with 5% moisture and (iii) with 10% moisture. (author)

  4. Further development of landfill sealing systems. Subproject 20: long-term behaviour of earthen layers in landfill liners, moisture conditions under the action of temperature; Weiterentwicklung von Deponieabdichtungssystemen. Teilvorhaben 20: Langzeitverhalten von Erdstoffschichten in Deponiebasisabdichtungen, Feuchtehaushalt unter Temperatureinwirkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzloehner, U.; Schossig, W.; Wuttke, W.; Ziegler, F.

    1996-12-31

    The sealing properties of the earthen layers in landfill liners depend on water content, which is not constant but changes according to the moisture conditions of the landfill and the adjacent soil. Earthen layers in landfill liners tend to lose water over the course of time and this may result in desiccation cracking. To study the behaviour of soils undergoing desiccation, test devices and methods were developed to evaluate the water transport characteristics of soil samples. Measurement of the temporal and spatial changes in moisture distribution within the cylindrical soil sample was accompanied by a calculation in which diffusion coefficients were iteratively varied so as to reach optimum agreement with the observed moisture distribution. Overburden pressure can to some extent prevent desiccation. Therefore test devices were developed which made it possible to load soil samples simultaneously by vertical stress and by suction. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Dichtigkeit von Erdstoffschichten in Deponieabdichtungen haengt vom Wassergehalt ab, der nicht konstant ist, sondern sich entsprechend dem Feuchtehaushalt von Deponie und umgebendem Boden aendert. Die Erdstoffabdichtungssschichten tendieren langfristig zum Trocknerwerden, wodurch es zu Rissen kommen kann. Um das Austrocknungsverhalten zu untersuchen, wurden Versuchsgeraete und -verfahren zur Bestimmung von Wassertransportkennwerten an Bodenproben entwickelt. Die Messung der zeitlichen und oertlichen Aenderung der Feuchteverteilung in der zylindrischen Bodenprobe wurde durch eine Rechnung begleitet, in der die eingegebenen Diffusionskoeffizienten iterativ variiert wurden, bis optimale Uebereinstimmung mit der gemessenen Feuchteverteilung erreicht war. Auflast kann Austrocknung bis zu einem gewissen Grad verhindern. Deshalb wurden Geraete entwickelt, in denen Bodenproben gleichzeitig einer Wasserspannung und einer vertikalen Spannung ausgesetzt werden koennen. (orig./SR)

  5. Assessment of SMOS Soil Moisture Retrieval Parameters Using Tau-Omega Algorithms for Soil Moisture Deficit Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prashant K.; Han, Dawei; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel A.; O'Neill, Peggy; Islam, Tanvir; Gupta, Manika

    2014-01-01

    Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) is the latest mission which provides flow of coarse resolution soil moisture data for land applications. However, the efficient retrieval of soil moisture for hydrological applications depends on optimally choosing the soil and vegetation parameters. The first stage of this work involves the evaluation of SMOS Level 2 products and then several approaches for soil moisture retrieval from SMOS brightness temperature are performed to estimate Soil Moisture Deficit (SMD). The most widely applied algorithm i.e. Single channel algorithm (SCA), based on tau-omega is used in this study for the soil moisture retrieval. In tau-omega, the soil moisture is retrieved using the Horizontal (H) polarisation following Hallikainen dielectric model, roughness parameters, Fresnel's equation and estimated Vegetation Optical Depth (tau). The roughness parameters are empirically calibrated using the numerical optimization techniques. Further to explore the improvement in retrieval models, modifications have been incorporated in the algorithms with respect to the sources of the parameters, which include effective temperatures derived from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-NOAH Land Surface Model and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) while the s is derived from MODIS Leaf Area Index (LAI). All the evaluations are performed against SMD, which is estimated using the Probability Distributed Model following a careful calibration and validation integrated with sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The performance obtained after all those changes indicate that SCA-H using WRF-NOAH LSM downscaled ECMWF LST produces an improved performance for SMD estimation at a catchment scale.

  6. Analysis of Moisture Evaporation from Underwear Designed for Fire-Fighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Onofrei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analysed the effect of moisture on the thermal protective performance of fire-fighter clothing in case of routine fire-fighting conditions. In the first stage of this research we investigated simultaneous heat and moisture transfer through a single-layer fabric, used as underwear for fire-fighters, at different moisture conditions. In the second stage of the study, the underwear in dry and wet state was tested together with protective clothing systems for fire-fighter consisting of three or four layers. It was found that during the evaporation of the moisture, a temperature plateau appeared during which temperatures hardly rose. The energy consumption used for the phase change of moisture located in the assembly dominated the heat transfer process as long as there was moisture present. As soon as all water had evaporated, the temperatures approached the temperatures measured for dry samples. The moisture within the clothing assembly did not lead to increased temperatures compared with the measurements with dry samples. This research has confirmed that moisture can positively affect the thermal protection of a clothing system.

  7. 7 CFR 52.3185 - Moisture limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture limits. 52.3185 Section 52.3185 Agriculture... United States Standards for Grades of Dried Prunes Moisture, Uniformity of Size, Defects § 52.3185 Moisture limits. Dried prunes shall not exceed the moisture limits for the applicable grades and kind and...

  8. Model Based Control of Moisture Sorption in a Historical Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zítek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a novel scheme for microclimate control in historical exhibition rooms, inhibiting moisture sorption phenomena that are inadmissible from the preventive conservation point of view. The impact of air humidity is the most significant harmful exposure for a great deal of the cultural heritage deposited in remote historical buildings. Leaving the interior temperature to run almost its spontaneous yearly cycle, the proposed non-linear model-based control protects exhibits from harmful variations in moisture content by compensating the temperature drifts with an adequate adjustment of the air humidity. Already implemented in a medieval interior since 1999, the proposed microclimate control has proved capable of permanently maintaining constant a desirable moisture content in organic or porous materials in the interior of a building. 

  9. Optimum moisture levels for biodegradation of mortality composting envelope materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H K; Richard, T L; Glanville, T D

    2008-01-01

    Moisture affects the physical and biological properties of compost and other solid-state fermentation matrices. Aerobic microbial systems experience different respiration rates (oxygen uptake and CO2 evolution) as a function of moisture content and material type. In this study the microbial respiration rates of 12 mortality composting envelope materials were measured by a pressure sensor method at six different moisture levels. A wide range of respiration (1.6-94.2mg O2/g VS-day) rates were observed for different materials, with alfalfa hay, silage, oat straw, and turkey litter having the highest values. These four envelope materials may be particularly suitable for improving internal temperature and pathogen destruction rates for disease-related mortality composting. Optimum moisture content was determined based on measurements across a range that spans the maximum respiration rate. The optimum moisture content of each material was observed near water holding capacity, which ranged from near 60% to over 80% on a wet basis for all materials except a highly stabilized soil compost blend (optimum around 25% w.b.). The implications of the results for moisture management and process control strategies during mortality composting are discussed.

  10. Influence of Soil Moisture on Litter Respiration in the Semiarid Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Guo, Shengli; Liu, Qingfang; Jiang, Jishao

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response mechanisms of litter respiration to soil moisture in water-limited semi-arid regions is of vital importance to better understanding the interplay between ecological processes and the local carbon cycle. In situ soil respiration was monitored during 2010–2012 under various conditions (normal litter, no litter, and double litter treatments) in a 30-year-old artificial black locust plantation (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) on the Loess Plateau. Litter respiration with normal and double litter treatments exhibited similar seasonal variation, with the maximum value obtained in summer (0.57 and 1.51 μmol m−2 s−1 under normal and double litter conditions, respectively) and the minimum in spring (0.27 and 0.69 μmol m−2 s−1 under normal and double litter conditions, respectively). On average, annual cumulative litter respiration was 115 and 300 g C m−2 y−1 under normal and double litter conditions, respectively. Using a soil temperature of 17°C as the critical point, the relationship between litter respiration and soil moisture was found to follow quadratic functions well, whereas the determination coefficient was much greater at high soil temperature than at low soil temperature (33–35% vs. 22–24%). Litter respiration was significantly higher in 2010 and 2012 than in 2011 under both normal litter (132–165 g C m−2 y−1 vs. 48 g C m−2 y−1) and double litter (389–418 g C m−2 y−1 vs. 93 g C m−2 y−1) conditions. Such significant interannual variations were largely ascribed to the differences in summer rainfall. Our study demonstrates that, apart from soil temperature, moisture also has significant influence on litter respiration in semi-arid regions. PMID:25474633

  11. Study on the optimal moisture adding rate of brown rice during germination by using segmented moisture conditioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yinping; Jia, Fuguo; Han, Yanlong; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the optimal moisture adding rate of brown rice during the process of germination. The process of water addition in brown rice could be divided into three stages according to different water absorption speeds in soaking process. Water was added with three different speeds in three stages to get the optimal water adding rate in the whole process of germination. Thus, the technology of segmented moisture conditioning which is a method of adding water gradually was put forward. Germinated brown rice was produced by using segmented moisture conditioning method to reduce the loss of water-soluble nutrients and was beneficial to the accumulation of gamma aminobutyric acid. The effects of once moisture adding amount in three stages on the gamma aminobutyric acid content in germinated brown rice and germination rate of brown rice were investigated by using response surface methodology. The optimum process parameters were obtained as follows: once moisture adding amount of stage I with 1.06 %/h, once moisture adding amount of stage II with 1.42 %/h and once moisture adding amount of stage III with 1.31 %/h. The germination rate under the optimum parameters was 91.33 %, which was 7.45 % higher than that of germinated brown rice produced by soaking method (84.97 %). The content of gamma aminobutyric acid in germinated brown rice under the optimum parameters was 29.03 mg/100 g, which was more than two times higher than that of germinated brown rice produced by soaking method (12.81 mg/100 g). The technology of segmented moisture conditioning has potential applications for studying many other cereals.

  12. On the assimilation of satellite derived soil moisture in numerical weather prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusch, M.

    2006-12-01

    Satellite derived surface soil moisture data sets are readily available and have been used successfully in hydrological applications. In many operational numerical weather prediction systems the initial soil moisture conditions are analysed from the modelled background and 2 m temperature and relative humidity. This approach has proven its efficiency to improve surface latent and sensible heat fluxes and consequently the forecast on large geographical domains. However, since soil moisture is not always related to screen level variables, model errors and uncertainties in the forcing data can accumulate in root zone soil moisture. Remotely sensed surface soil moisture is directly linked to the model's uppermost soil layer and therefore is a stronger constraint for the soil moisture analysis. Three data assimilation experiments with the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) have been performed for the two months period of June and July 2002: A control run based on the operational soil moisture analysis, an open loop run with freely evolving soil moisture, and an experimental run incorporating bias corrected TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager) derived soil moisture over the southern United States through a nudging scheme using 6-hourly departures. Apart from the soil moisture analysis, the system setup reflects the operational forecast configuration including the atmospheric 4D-Var analysis. Soil moisture analysed in the nudging experiment is the most accurate estimate when compared against in-situ observations from the Oklahoma Mesonet. The corresponding forecast for 2 m temperature and relative humidity is almost as accurate as in the control experiment. Furthermore, it is shown that the soil moisture analysis influences local weather parameters including the planetary boundary layer height and cloud coverage. The transferability of the results to other satellite derived soil moisture data sets will be discussed.

  13. Frost damage of roof tiles: A study on moisture boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Iba, Chiemi; Ueda, Ayumi; Hokoi, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Freeze-thaw cycles are the most serious cause of roof tile deterioration; thus, it is important to know the temperature and moisture distributions in tile materials for protection against frost damage. This study focused on moisture boundary conditions for air layers under the tile. Temperature and humidity were measured using model structures with different types of roof tiles. The results showed that the temperatures around the roof were strongly influenced by solar and longwave radiation, ...

  14. Moisture migration in concrete. Final report. Technical report C-75-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.E.

    1975-05-01

    In an effort to obtain information regarding the nature of moisture movement and rate of moisture loss in a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), an experimental study of moisture migration in a pie-shaped specimen representing the flow path through a cylindrical wall of a PCRV was initiated. After casting of the test specimen, temperature distribution, shrinkage, and moisture distribution were monitored for approximately 510 days. After this initial monitoring, a temperature difference of 80 0 F was applied to the specimen, and the above-mentioned measurements were continued for an additional test period of one year. Results indicate that moisture migration in thick sections of concrete, such as a PCRV, is a slow process and is not likely to be a significant factor with temperature differences of 80 0 F or less. 15 references. (auth)

  15. Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, F

    2011-05-01

    The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. A NEW NETWORK FOR HIGHER-TEMPERATURE GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY. I. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF ACCRETION DISKS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Nanase; Herbst, Eric; Wakelam, Valentine

    2010-01-01

    We present a new interstellar chemical gas-phase reaction network for time-dependent kinetics that can be used for modeling high-temperature sources up to ∼800 K. This network contains an extended set of reactions based on the Ohio State University (OSU) gas-phase chemical network. The additional reactions include processes with significant activation energies, reverse reactions, proton exchange reactions, charge exchange reactions, and collisional dissociation. Rate coefficients already in the OSU network are modified for H 2 formation on grains, ion-neutral dipole reactions, and some radiative association reactions. The abundance of H 2 O is enhanced at high temperature by hydrogenation of atomic O. Much of the elemental oxygen is in the form of water at T ≥ 300 K, leading to effective carbon-rich conditions, which can efficiently produce carbon-chain species such as C 2 H 2 . At higher temperatures, HCN and NH 3 are also produced much more efficiently. We have applied the extended network to a simplified model of the accretion disk of an active galactic nucleus.

  17. Impact of Soil Moisture Initialization on Seasonal Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Suarez, Max J.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The potential role of soil moisture initialization in seasonal forecasting is illustrated through ensembles of simulations with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP) model. For each boreal summer during 1997-2001, we generated two 16-member ensembles of 3-month simulations. The first, "AMIP-style" ensemble establishes the degree to which a perfect prediction of SSTs would contribute to the seasonal prediction of precipitation and temperature over continents. The second ensemble is identical to the first, except that the land surface is also initialized with "realistic" soil moisture contents through the continuous prior application (within GCM simulations leading up to the start of the forecast period) of a daily observational precipitation data set and the associated avoidance of model drift through the scaling of all surface prognostic variables. A comparison of the two ensembles shows that soil moisture initialization has a statistically significant impact on summertime precipitation and temperature over only a handful of continental regions. These regions agree, to first order, with regions that satisfy three conditions: (1) a tendency toward large initial soil moisture anomalies, (2) a strong sensitivity of evaporation to soil moisture, and (3) a strong sensitivity of precipitation to evaporation. The degree to which the initialization improves forecasts relative to observations is mixed, reflecting a critical need for the continued development of model parameterizations and data analysis strategies.

  18. Relative skills of soil moisture and vegetation optical depth retrievals for agricultural drought monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture condition is an important indicator for agricultural drought monitoring. Through the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), vegetation optical depth (VOD) as well as surface soil moisture (SM) can be retrieved simultaneously from brightness temperature observations from the Advanced Mi...

  19. On the intrinsic moisture permeation rate of remote microwave plasma-deposited silicon nitride layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Assche, F. J. H.; Unnikrishnan, S.; Michels, J. J.; van Mol, A. M. B.; van de Weijer, P.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Creatore, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a low substrate temperature (110 °C) remote microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process of silicon nitride barrier layers against moisture permeation for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and other moisture sensitive devices such as organic

  20. Evaluation of the Free Volume Theory to Predict Moisture Transport and Quality Changes During Broccoli Drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture diffusion in porous broccoli florets and stalks is modeled using the free volume and Maxwell-Eucken theories. These theories are based on the mobility of water and concern the variation of the effective diffusion coefficient for a wide range of temperature and moisture content during

  1. Evaluation of the free volume theory to predict moisture transport and quality changes during broccoli drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Moisture diffusion in porous broccoli florets and stalks is modeled by using the free volume and Maxwell-Eucken theories. These theories are based on the mobility of water and show the variation of the effective diffusion coefficient for a wide range of temperatures and moisture content of

  2. Investigation of Historic Equilibrium Moisture Content Data from the Forest Products Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka; Jay A. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    The Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) has provided equilibrium moisture content (EMC) values of wood for given temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions in various forms over the course of its history, primarily for practical purposes related to drying lumber and controlling moisture content. The FPL EMC data have been widely cited and reprinted, not only in...

  3. Controlling moisture content of wood samples using a modified soil-pan decay method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy; Simon F. Curling; Patricia K. Lebow

    2005-01-01

    In wood, the threshold level below which decay cannot occur varies with species or type of wood product and other factors such as temperature, humidity, and propensity of exposure or service-use to allow rain-induced wetting and subsequent drying. The ability to control wood moisture content (MC) during laboratory decay testing could allow research on the moisture...

  4. Effect of heat moisture treatment and annealing on physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red sorghum starch was physically modified by annealing and heat moisture treatment. The swelling power and solubility increased with increasing temperature range (60-90°), while annealing and heatmoisture treatment decreased swelling power and solubility of starch. Solubility and swelling were pH dependent with ...

  5. Moisture Sorption Characteristics of Dambu-nama – A Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moisture sorption characteristics of traditional Dambu-nama (control) (TDBN) and laboratory Dambu-nama (LDBN), a cooked, pounded, shredded and dried Nigerian meat product, were determined at four different temperatures (10oC, 20oC, 30oC and 40oC) and relative humidities of 10 – 96% using the standard static, ...

  6. Effect of moisture on natural fibre reinforced plastics | Ogakwu | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, the rate of moisture absorption of the composites reinforced with natural fibres – Ukam plant fibres (chochlostermum placoni) were studied and determined.Composite cubes and plates of different sizes were prepared, then immersed in water for 24 hours at room temperature in order to determine the extent ...

  7. Measurement of moisture in smoldering smoke and implications for fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. Achtemeier

    2006-01-01

    Smoke from wildland burning in association with fog has been implicated as a visibility hazard over roadways in the southern United States. A project began in 2002 to determine whether moisture released during the smoldering phases of southern prescribed burns could contribute to fog formation. Temperature and relative humidity measurements were taken from 27...

  8. U.S National cropland soil moisture monitoring using SMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop condition information is critical for public and private sector decision making that concerns agricultural policy, food production, food security, and food commodity prices. Crop conditions change quickly due to various growing condition events, such as temperature extremes, soil moisture defic...

  9. Thermodynamic analysis on heavy metals partitioning impacted by moisture during the MSW incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanguo; Li Qinghai; Jia Jinyan; Meng Aihong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Partitioning of HMs affected by moisture was investigated by thermodynamic analysis. ► Increase in moisture and in temperature was opposite impact on HMs contribution. ► The extent of temperature decreased by increase in moisture determines the impact. - Abstract: A thermodynamic calculation was carried out to predict the behavior and speciation of heavy metals (HMs), Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd, during municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration with the different moisture levels. The calculation was based on the minimization of the total Gibbs free energy of the multi-components and multi-phases closed system reaching chemical equilibrium. The calculation also indicated the reaction directions and tendencies of HMs components. The impacts of chlorine additives (No PVC, 1%PVC, and 5%PVC) and moisture on the behavior of HMs were investigated at different temperature levels in the system (750 °C, 950 °C, and 1150 °C). Furthermore, because the incineration temperature falls down with the increase in moisture in waste, the co-influence of moisture and temperature in combusting MSW on the HMs was also studied with the given chlorine (as 1%PVC + 0.5%NaCl). The results showed that in the non-chlorine system, the impact of the moisture on Pb, Zn, and Cu was not significant, and the ratio of compound transformation was less than 10%, except the Cd compounds at 950 °C and 1150 °C. In the system with low chlorine (as 1%PVC) at constant temperature, the chlorides of HMs (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) transferred to oxides, and when the content of chlorine rose up (as 5%PVC), the ratio of the chlorides of HMs (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) transferring to oxides fell down noticeably. When the moisture varied together with the temperature, the Zn and Cu compounds transferred from chlorides to oxides with increase in moisture as well as decrease in temperature. At the temperature of 700–1000 °C, the impact of temperature on Pb and Cd was little and the moisture was the main factor

  10. The influence of ventilation on moisture conditions in facades with wooden cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2009-01-01

    A ventilated cavity behind the cladding of timber frame walls is often considered good building practice that facilitates the removal of moisture from the construction. However, moisture will only be removed from the construction by ventilating it with dry air, whereas ventilating with humid air...... might add moisture to the construction. Full-size wall elements with wooden cladding placed in a test building were exposed to natural climate on the outside and to a humid indoor climate on the inside. Temperature and moisture conditions inside the wall elements and climate parameters were monitored...

  11. Evaluating new SMAP soil moisture for drought monitoring in the rangelands of the US High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Senay, Gabriel B.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Level 3 soil moisture datasets from the recently launched Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite are evaluated for drought monitoring in rangelands.Validation of SMAP soil moisture (SSM) with in situ and modeled estimates showed high level of agreement.SSM showed the highest correlation with surface soil moisture (0-5 cm) and a strong correlation to depths up to 20 cm.SSM showed a reliable and expected response of capturing seasonal dynamics in relation to precipitation, land surface temperature, and evapotranspiration.Further evaluation using multi-year SMAP datasets is necessary to quantify the full benefits and limitations for drought monitoring in rangelands.

  12. Anthropogenic moisture production and its effect on boundary layer circulations over New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornstein, R.D.; Tam, Y.T.

    1975-01-01

    A heat and moisture excess over New York City is shown to exist by the analysis of helicopter soundings of temperature and wet bulb depression. The magnitude of the temporal and spatial distribution of anthropogenic moisture emissions in New York City were estimated from fuel usage data. The URBMET urban boundary layer model was used to evaluate the effects on the dynamics of the urban boundary layer resulting from the observed urban moisture excess. Work is currently in progress which seeks to determine the fraction of the observed moisture excess over New York that is due to anthropogenic sources. (auth)

  13. Physically plausible prescription of land surface model soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Mathias; Orth, René; Thiery, Wim; Seneviratne, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Land surface hydrology is an important control of surface weather and climate, especially under extreme dry or wet conditions where it can amplify heat waves or floods, respectively. Prescribing soil moisture in land surface models is a valuable technique to investigate this link between hydrology and climate. It has been used for example to assess the influence of soil moisture on temperature variability, mean and extremes (Seneviratne et al. 2006, 2013, Lorenz et al., 2015). However, perturbing the soil moisture content artificially can lead to a violation of the energy and water balances. Here we present a new method for prescribing soil moisture which ensures water and energy balance closure by using only water from runoff and a reservoir term. If water is available, the method prevents soil moisture decrease below climatological values. Results from simulations with the Community Land Model (CLM) indicate that our new method allows to avoid soil moisture deficits in many regions of the world. We show the influence of the irrigation-supported soil moisture content on mean and extreme temperatures and contrast our findings with that of earlier studies. Additionally, we will assess how long into the 21st century the new method will be able to maintain present-day climatological soil moisture levels for different regions. Lorenz, R., Argüeso, D., Donat, M.G., Pitman, A.J., den Hurk, B.V., Berg, A., Lawrence, D.M., Chéruy, F., Ducharne, A., Hagemann, S. and Meier, A., 2015. Influence of land-atmosphere feedbacks on temperature and precipitation extremes in the GLACE-CMIP5 ensemble. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. Seneviratne, S.I., Lüthi, D., Litschi, M. and Schär, C., 2006. Land-atmosphere coupling and climate change in Europe. Nature, 443(7108), pp.205-209. Seneviratne, S.I., Wilhelm, M., Stanelle, T., Hurk, B., Hagemann, S., Berg, A., Cheruy, F., Higgins, M.E., Meier, A., Brovkin, V. and Claussen, M., 2013. Impact of soil moisture

  14. Moisture Sorption in Porous Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    2007-01-01

    pressure and weight data can be "translated" to pore geometry by known physical relationships. In this context, analytical descriptions are important which can relate moisture condensation in pore structures to ambient vapor pressure. Such a description, the extended BET-relation, is presented...... physical parameters, the so-called BET-parameters: The heat property factor, C, and the pore surface, SBET (derived from the so-called uni-molecular moisture content uBET). A software ‘SORP07’ has been developed to handle any calculations made in the paper. For readers who have a special interest...... in the subject considered this software is available on request to the author. Keywords: Porous materials, moisture, adsorption, desorption, BET-parameters....

  15. Aspen increase soil moisture, nutrients, organic matter and respiration in Rocky Mountain forest communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Joshua R; St Clair, Samuel B

    2012-01-01

    Development and change in forest communities are strongly influenced by plant-soil interactions. The primary objective of this paper was to identify how forest soil characteristics vary along gradients of forest community composition in aspen-conifer forests to better understand the relationship between forest vegetation characteristics and soil processes. The study was conducted on the Fishlake National Forest, Utah, USA. Soil measurements were collected in adjacent forest stands that were characterized as aspen dominated, mixed, conifer dominated or open meadow, which includes the range of vegetation conditions that exist in seral aspen forests. Soil chemistry, moisture content, respiration, and temperature were measured. There was a consistent trend in which aspen stands demonstrated higher mean soil nutrient concentrations than mixed and conifer dominated stands and meadows. Specifically, total N, NO(3) and NH(4) were nearly two-fold higher in soil underneath aspen dominated stands. Soil moisture was significantly higher in aspen stands and meadows in early summer but converged to similar levels as those found in mixed and conifer dominated stands in late summer. Soil respiration was significantly higher in aspen stands than conifer stands or meadows throughout the summer. These results suggest that changes in disturbance regimes or climate scenarios that favor conifer expansion or loss of aspen will decrease soil resource availability, which is likely to have important feedbacks on plant community development.

  16. Moisture parameters and fungal communities associated with gypsum drywall in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedesko, Sandra; Siegel, Jeffrey A

    2015-12-08

    /or species, temperature, and nutrient availability. Despite these complexities, meaningful measurements can still be made to inform fungal growth by making localised, long-term, and continuous measurements of surface moisture. Such an approach will capture variations in a material's surface moisture, which could provide insight on a number of conditions that could lead to fungal proliferation.

  17. Multi-decadal analysis of root-zone soil moisture applying the exponential filter across CONUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Tobin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study applied the exponential filter to produce an estimate of root-zone soil moisture (RZSM. Four types of microwave-based, surface satellite soil moisture were used. The core remotely sensed data for this study came from NASA's long-lasting AMSR-E mission. Additionally, three other products were obtained from the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (CCI. These datasets were blended based on all available satellite observations (CCI-active, CCI-passive, and CCI-combined. All of these products were 0.25° and taken daily. We applied the filter to produce a soil moisture index (SWI that others have successfully used to estimate RZSM. The only unknown in this approach was the characteristic time of soil moisture variation (T. We examined five different eras (1997–2002; 2002–2005; 2005–2008; 2008–2011; 2011–2014 that represented periods with different satellite data sensors. SWI values were compared with in situ soil moisture data from the International Soil Moisture Network at a depth ranging from 20 to 25 cm. Selected networks included the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM program (25 cm, Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN; 20.32 cm, SNOwpack TELemetry (SNOTEL; 20.32 cm, and the US Climate Reference Network (USCRN; 20 cm. We selected in situ stations that had reasonable completeness. These datasets were used to filter out periods with freezing temperatures and rainfall using data from the Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM. Additionally, we only examined sites where surface and root-zone soil moisture had a reasonably high lagged r value (r > 0. 5. The unknown T value was constrained based on two approaches: optimization of root mean square error (RMSE and calculation based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI value. Both approaches yielded comparable results; although, as to be expected, the optimization approach generally

  18. Technique for mass-spectrometric determination of moisture content in fuel elements and fuel element claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurillovich, A.N.; Pimonov, Yu.I.; Biryukov, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    A technique for mass-spectroimetric determination of moisture content in fuel elements and fuek claddings in the 2x10 -4 -1.5x10 -2 g range is developed. The relative standard deviation is 0.13. A character of moisture extraction from oxide uranium fuels in the 20-700 deg C temperature range is studied. Approximately 80% of moisture is extracted from the fuels at 300 deg C. The moisture content in fuel elements with granular uranium oxide fuels is measured. Dependence of fuel element moisture content on conditions of hot vacuum drying is shown. The technique permits to optimize the fuel element fabrication process to decrease the moisture content in them. 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  19. Superconducting materials at temperature higher than liquid nitrogen of the YBaCuO type. Materiaux supraconducteurs jusqu'a des temperatures superieures a celles de l'azote liquide, appartenant au systeme Y-Ba-Cu-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R; Gegnier, P; Truchot, P

    1990-02-09

    The invention concerns new superconducting materials with the formula Zr{sub x} Hf{sub y} Ti{sub z} Y{sub 1-x-y-z} Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} where 0temperature higher than liquid nitrogen and can be used as wire, solid parts, thin or thick layers.

  20. Potential feedbacks between snow cover, soil moisture and surface energy fluxes in Southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brox Nilsen, Irene; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Stordal, Frode

    2017-04-01

    At high latitudes, the snow season has become shorter during the past decades because snowmelt is highly sensitive to a warmer climate. Snowmelt influences the energy balance by changing the albedo and the partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes. It further influences the water balance by changing the runoff and soil moisture. In a previous study, we identified southern Norway as a region where significant temperature changes in summer could potentially be explained by land-atmosphere interactions. In this study we hypothesise that changes in snow cover would influence the summer surface fluxes in the succeeding weeks or months. The exceptionally warm summer of 2014 was chosen as a test bed. In Norway, evapotranspiration is not soil moisture limited, but energy limited, under normal conditions. During warm summers, however, such as in 2014, evapotranspiration can be restricted by the available soil moisture. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model we replace the initial ground conditions for 2014 with conditions representative of a snow-poor spring and a snow-rich spring. WRF was coupled to Noah-MP at 3 km horizontal resolution in the inner domain, and the simulations covered mid-May through September 2014. Boundary conditions used to force WRF were taken from the Era-Interim reanalysis. Snow, runoff, soil moisture and soil temperature observational data were provided by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate for validation. The validation shows generally good agreement with observations. Preliminary results show that the reduced snowpack, hereafter "sim1" increased the air temperature by up to 5 K and the surface temperature by up to 10 K in areas affected by snow changes. The increased snowpack, hereafter "sim2", decreased the air and surface temperature by the same amount. These are weekly mean values for the first eight simulation weeks from mid May. Because of the higher net energy available ( 100 Wm-2) in sim 1, both

  1. Fuel optimization in a multi chamber incinerator by the moisture control of oily sludge and medical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, I.; Hussain, S.; Khan, S.; Mehran, T.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to study the effects of %age moisture content on fuel optimization during the waste feed combustion of oily sludge, medical waste and mix blend waste in a 50 kg/hr multi chamber incinerator installed at NCPC- ARL RWP. Intention is to find out the optimum and in compliance with NEQs incinerator performance at various moisture contents in the different waste feeds. Optimum performances of the incinerator, so that optimum operating moisture conditions, which has been used for multi purpose waste, feeds, may be defined. Three waste feeds of 10 kg batch size were used for the experimentation namely; Oily Sludge, Medical waste and Mix blend waste (oily sludge and medical), with the primary chamber preheating temperature 655 deg. C for 15 mins. interval monitoring. The secondary chamber temperature was set to 850 deg. C. By the data obtained it is apparent that rising the waste moisture content tend to increase fuel consumption specifically in case of medical waste and hence lowering the overall combustion efficiency. In the emissions the CO/sub 2/ concentration is showing the incineration efficiency. Higher efficiency of the system could have been achieved by increasing the CO/sub 2/ in the gases leaving the incinerator, lower fuel usage per kg waste feed and maintain proper operating conditions. Fuel consumption for the oily sludge with 10% moisture content, was found to be least as compared with the same %age of medical waste and mix blend waste. However environmental compliance of the operation is shown by the flue gas analysis. The results shows that using mix blend(oily sludge and medical) waste having 12-13% moisture content would be suitable for incineration in multi-chamber incinerator .Other makes it possible to determine the optimum incinerator temperature control settings and operating conditions, as well as to assure continuous, efficient, environmentally satisfactory operation. The optimum fuel consumption for 10 kg each waste

  2. Global Soil Moisture from the Aquarius/SAC-D Satellite: Description and Initial Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindlish, Rajat; Jackson, Thomas; Cosh, Michael; Zhao, Tianjie; O'Neil, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Aquarius satellite observations over land offer a new resource for measuring soil moisture from space. Although Aquarius was designed for ocean salinity mapping, our objective in this investigation is to exploit the large amount of land observations that Aquarius acquires and extend the mission scope to include the retrieval of surface soil moisture. The soil moisture retrieval algorithm development focused on using only the radiometer data because of the extensive heritage of passive microwave retrieval of soil moisture. The single channel algorithm (SCA) was implemented using the Aquarius observations to estimate surface soil moisture. Aquarius radiometer observations from three beams (after bias/gain modification) along with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction model forecast surface temperatures were then used to retrieve soil moisture. Ancillary data inputs required for using the SCA are vegetation water content, land surface temperature, and several soil and vegetation parameters based on land cover classes. The resulting global spatial patterns of soil moisture were consistent with the precipitation climatology and with soil moisture from other satellite missions (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System and Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity). Initial assessments were performed using in situ observations from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Little Washita and Little River watershed soil moisture networks. Results showed good performance by the algorithm for these land surface conditions for the period of August 2011-June 2013 (rmse = 0.031 m(exp 3)/m(exp 3), Bias = -0.007 m(exp 3)/m(exp 3), and R = 0.855). This radiometer-only soil moisture product will serve as a baseline for continuing research on both active and combined passive-active soil moisture algorithms. The products are routinely available through the National Aeronautics and Space Administration data archive at the National Snow and Ice Data Center.

  3. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account......For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...

  4. Thermogravimetric analysis for rapid assessment of moisture diffusivity in polydisperse powder and thin film matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunathan, Praveena; Arnz, Patrik; Husny, Joeska; Gianfrancesco, Alessandro; Perdana, Jimmy

    2018-03-01

    Accurate description of moisture diffusivity is key to precisely understand and predict moisture transfer behaviour in a matrix. Unfortunately, measuring moisture diffusivity is not trivial, especially at low moisture values and/or elevated temperatures. This paper presents a novel experimental procedure to accurately measure moisture diffusivity based on thermogravimetric approach. The procedure is capable to measure diffusivity even at elevated temperatures (>70°C) and low moisture values (>1%). Diffusivity was extracted from experimental data based on "regular regime approach". The approach was tailored to determine diffusivity from thin film and from poly-dispersed powdered samples. Subsequently, measured diffusivity was validated by comparing to available literature data, showing good agreement. Ability of this approach to accurately measure diffusivity at a wider range of temperatures provides better insight on temperature dependency of diffusivity. Thus, this approach can be crucial to ensure good accuracy of moisture transfer description/prediction especially when involving elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  6. Variation in seasonal moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Phelps

    1992-01-01

    Several properties of wood are affected by moisture content-weight, fuel value, electrical conductivity, strength, and shrinkage. Differences in these properties are commonly observed in wood in service. For example, a green 2 X 4 weighs more than a kiln-dried 2 X 4, dried wood burns more easily and hotter than green wood, etc.

  7. The growth of hydroxyapatite on alkaline treated Ti-6Al-4V soaking in higher temperature with concentrated Ca2+/HPO42- simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, F.-H.; Hsu, Y.-S.; Lin, S.-H.; Chen, T.-M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, calcium and phosphorous ions in the simulated body fluid (SBF) was be increased to increase the rate of precipitation of hydroxyapatite (HA). The soaking temperature in concentrated calcium and phosphorous ion-SBF (CP-SBF) was increased to reduce the nucleation energy of the HA, which lead to an early precipitation to shorten the treatment process. When the metallic substrates treated with 10 M NaOH aqueous solution and subsequently heated at 600 deg. C, a thin sodium titanium oxide layer was formed on the surfaces as the linking layer for HA and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. After Ti-6Al-4V alloys treated with alkali solution, it would soak into a simulated body fluid with higher concentration of calcium and phosphorous ions (CP-SBF) to increase the possibility of nucleation of HA. When Ti-6Al-4V alloys treated with alkali solution, subsequently heated at 600 deg. C, and then soaked into CP-SBF at a temperature of 80 deg. C, it could form a dense and thick (50 μm) bone-like hydroxyapatite layer on the surface. The HA layer was appeared on the surface of the Ti-alloy at the first week soaking, which was greatly shorten the coating process. In the research, the characteristics of the coating layer will be analyzed by the results of X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR)

  8. Thermal denaturation of sunflower globulins in low moisture conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouilly, A.; Orliac, O.; Silvestre, F.; Rigal, L.

    2003-01-01

    DSC analysis in pressure resisting pans of sunflower oil cake makes appear the endothermic peak of sunflower globulins denaturation. Its temperature decreases from 189.5 to 119.9 deg. C while the corresponding enthalpy increases from 2.6 to 3.3 J/g of sample, or from 6.7 to 12.2 J/g of dry protein, when the samples moisture content varies from 0 to 30.0% of the total weight. The plot of the denaturation temperature versus the moisture content is not linear but has a rounded global shape and seems to follow the hydration behavior of the proteins, modeled with the sorption isotherm. As it can be seen on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, protein corpuscles 'melt' after such a thermal treatment and large aggregates form by coagulation. Moisture dependence of the 'fusion' temperature of native proteic organization, in low moisture conditions, offers so a new characterization method for the use of vegetable proteins in agro-materials

  9. Thermal denaturation of sunflower globulins in low moisture conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouilly, A.; Orliac, O.; Silvestre, F.; Rigal, L

    2003-03-05

    DSC analysis in pressure resisting pans of sunflower oil cake makes appear the endothermic peak of sunflower globulins denaturation. Its temperature decreases from 189.5 to 119.9 deg. C while the corresponding enthalpy increases from 2.6 to 3.3 J/g of sample, or from 6.7 to 12.2 J/g of dry protein, when the samples moisture content varies from 0 to 30.0% of the total weight. The plot of the denaturation temperature versus the moisture content is not linear but has a rounded global shape and seems to follow the hydration behavior of the proteins, modeled with the sorption isotherm. As it can be seen on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, protein corpuscles 'melt' after such a thermal treatment and large aggregates form by coagulation. Moisture dependence of the 'fusion' temperature of native proteic organization, in low moisture conditions, offers so a new characterization method for the use of vegetable proteins in agro-materials.

  10. Assessment of the SMAP Passive Soil Moisture Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Steven K.; Bindlish, Rajat; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Njoku, Eni; Jackson, Tom; Colliander, Andreas; Chen, Fan; Burgin, Mariko; Dunbar, Scott; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; hide

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission was launched on January 31, 2015. The observatory was developed to provide global mapping of high-resolution soil moisture and freeze-thaw state every two to three days using an L-band (active) radar and an L-band (passive) radiometer. After an irrecoverable hardware failure of the radar on July 7, 2015, the radiometer-only soil moisture product became the only operational Level 2 soil moisture product for SMAP. The product provides soil moisture estimates posted on a 36 kilometer Earth-fixed grid produced using brightness temperature observations from descending passes. Within months after the commissioning of the SMAP radiometer, the product was assessed to have attained preliminary (beta) science quality, and data were released to the public for evaluation in September 2015. The product is available from the NASA Distributed Active Archive Center at the National Snow and Ice Data Center. This paper provides a summary of the Level 2 Passive Soil Moisture Product (L2_SM_P) and its validation against in situ ground measurements collected from different data sources. Initial in situ comparisons conducted between March 31, 2015 and October 26, 2015, at a limited number of core validation sites (CVSs) and several hundred sp