Qin, Ruqiong; Chen, Hong
With the development of rural construction and the improvement of the living standard of residents, the production of rural living waste is increasing day by day. These wastes not only pollute the environment, destroy the rural landscape, but also spread disease, threaten the life safety of human beings, and become one of the public hazards. The problem of rural living waste is a major environmental problem facing China and the world. This paper make a summary analysis about the present situation of municipal waste in China, this paper expounds the problems in rural garbage treatment, and in view of status quo of municipal waste in China put forward comprehensive countermeasures.
Luo, Liqun; Ding, Rui; Gao, Xiali; Sun, Jingjing; Zhao, Wei
According to the logic of the Trivers-Willard hypothesis, in a human population, if socioeconomic status is transmitted across generations to some extent, and if sons of high-status parents tend to have higher reproductive success than daughters, while daughters of low-status parents tend to have higher reproductive success than sons, then we should expect that offspring sex ratio is positively associated with socioeconomic status. This study examines whether the assumptions and prediction of this hypothesis apply to a rural population in northern China. Results show that (1) current family socioeconomic status is positively related to family head's father's socioeconomic status in around 1950, (2) low-status family heads have more grandchildren through their daughters than their sons, whereas high- or middle-status family heads have more grandchildren through sons, and (3) as family heads' status increases, they tend to produce a higher offspring sex ratio. Therefore, the assumptions and prediction of the hypothesis are met in the study population. These results are discussed in reference to past studies on sex ratio manipulation among humans.
Wang, Lin; Elder, Glen H; Spence, Naomi J
The U.S. Armed Forces offer educational and training benefits as incentives for service. This study investigates the influence of status configurations on military enlistment and their link to greater educational opportunity. Three statuses (socioeconomic status of origin, cognitive ability and academic performance) have particular relevance for life course options. We hypothesize that young men with inconsistent statuses are more likely to enlist than men with consistent status profiles, and that military service improves access to college for certain configurations. Analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) show (1. that several status configurations markedly increased the likelihood of military enlistment and (2. within status configurations, recruits were generally more likely to enroll in higher education than nonveterans, with associate degrees being more likely.
Wang, Lin; Elder, Glen H.; Spence, Naomi J.
The U.S. Armed Forces offer educational and training benefits as incentives for service. This study investigates the influence of status configurations on military enlistment and their link to greater educational opportunity. Three statuses (socioeconomic status of origin, cognitive ability and academic performance) have particular relevance for life course options. We hypothesize that young men with inconsistent statuses are more likely to enlist than men with consistent status profiles, and that military service improves access to college for certain configurations. Analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) show (1. that several status configurations markedly increased the likelihood of military enlistment and (2. within status configurations, recruits were generally more likely to enroll in higher education than nonveterans, with associate degrees being more likely. PMID:24511161
Fleming, Michele J.; Grace, Diana M.
Regional and rural students in Australia face unique challenges when aspiring to higher education. These challenges reflect systematic disadvantage experienced by rural and regional populations as a whole. In an effort to redress these inequities, and aided by the Australian Government's Higher Education Participation and Partnerships Program…
Rennison, Callie Marie; DeKeseredy, Walter S; Dragiewicz, Molly
Woman abuse varies across intimate relationship categories (e.g., marriage, divorce, separation). However, it is unclear whether relationship status variations in violence against women differ across urban, suburban, and rural areas. We test the hypothesis that rural females, regardless of their intimate partner relationship status, are at higher risk of intimate violence than their urban and suburban counterparts. Results indicate that marital status is an important aspect of the relationship between intimate victimization and geographic area and that rural divorced and separated females are victimized at rates exceeding their urban counterparts.
Fisher, Monica G.
Includes: On the Empirical Finding of a Higher Risk of Poverty in Rural Areas: Is Rural Residence Endogenous to Poverty?:COMMENT, by Thomas A. Hirschl; On the Empirical Finding of a Higher Risk of Poverty in Rural Areas: Is Rural Residence Endogenous to Poverty?: REPLY, by Monica Fisher. Research shows people are more likely to be poor in rural versus urban America. Does this phenomenon partly reflect that people who choose rural residence have unmeasured attributes related to human impoveris...
economic status of rural women. A comparison of adopters and non-adopters reveals that the adopters are generally more privileged and occupy a higher status because of adoption. In addition, education and awareness are crucial variables in the ...
The status of hygiene and sanitation practice among rural model families of the Health Extension Program (HEP) in Wolayta and Kembata Tembaro Zones of Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region of Ethiopia.
Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania: A Case of Onion ... Tanzania Journal of Development Studies ... Therefore the government, nongovernmental organisations and development programmes espousing to ...
This paper explores some of the unique issues in accessing Higher Education (HE) faced by pupils living in some Scottish rural communities in Argyll & Bute, Highland, Eilean Siar (Western Isles), Orkney Islands and Shetland Islands. Many of these communities are hard to reach and in some of the least deprived areas of Scotland. Despite this,…
Wang, Lin; Elder, Glen H., Jr.; Spence, Naomi J.
The U.S. Armed Forces offer educational and training benefits as incentives for service. This study investigates the influence of status configurations on military enlistment and their link to greater educational opportunity. Three statuses (socioeconomic status of origin, cognitive ability and academic performance) have particular relevance for…
Batsis, John A; Whiteman, Karen L; Lohman, Matthew C; Scherer, Emily A; Bartels, Stephen J
To ascertain whether rural status impacts self-reported health and whether the effect of rural status on self-reported health differs by obesity status. We identified 22,307 subjects aged ≥60 from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2004-2013. Body mass index (BMI) was categorized as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese. Physical and mental component scores of the Short Form-12 assessed self-reported health status. Rural/urban status was defined using metropolitan statistical area. Weighted regression models ascertained the relative contribution of predictors (including rural and BMI) on each subscale. Mean age was 70.7 years. Rural settings had higher proportions classified as obese (30.7 vs 27.6%; P rural residents had lower physical health status (41.7 ± 0.3) than urban (43.4 ± 0.1; P rural/urban by BMI. Individuals classified as underweight or obese had lower physical health compared to normal, while the differences were less pronounced for mental health. No differences in mental health existed between rural/urban status. A BMI * rural interaction was significant for physical but not mental health. Rural residents report lower self-reported physical health status compared to urban residents, particularly older adults who are obese or underweight. No interaction was observed between BMI and rural status. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.
Background: Food insecurity is a growing public health concern in Nigeria especially where all efforts towards achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 1) of eradicating extreme hunger and poverty by 2015 is yet to be realized. This cross sectional study was designed to assess food security status of rural ...
Household food security and HIV status in rural and urban communities in the Free State ... SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... In all areas, a high percentage of HIV-infected respondents relied on a limited number of foods to ...
Background: Addressing the nutritional needs of adolescents could be an important step towards breaking the vicious cycle of intergenerational malnutrition. Objective: Assess nutritional status of rural adolescent girls. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometric and socio-demographic information from 211 ...
Household food security status and coping strategies of rural dwellers in Irewole local government areas of Osun State. CG Ajala. Abstract. No Abstract. Bowen Journal of Agriculture Vol. 3 (2) 2006: pp. 192-199. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
agent (at P=0.01) while contact with extension and age of farmer and social participation and access to radio (at P=0.05). And, results of stepwise regression showed that age, level of education and farm size of farmers were significantly related to adoption (at P=0.05). Keywords: Improved maize, socio-economic status, rural ...
Ghara, Tushar Kanti
Women education and empowerment are the indicators of development. Women education ensures the holistic and long development. It includes equitable and increased access to technical and vocational education and training, higher education and research with due attention to quality assurance. This communication has taken a look on women…
Full Text Available In the article the interrelationships between the types of dominating values in the society and corresponding consequences for higher education aims and objectives. In the context of the mentioned interrelationships, there are given the examples of studies offered by the USA and Daugavpils University, as well as the access to value structuring and typology found in scientific literature. The surveyed study results render the public evaluation on the instrumental and terminal values of the higher education. Authors pay a special attention to systemic view or four quadrant matrix use in the analysis of value formation process. Semantic analysis of the concept “knowledge” and hermeneutic interpretation depict the direct connection of the education with individual and collective values. By determining the values dominating in the public, one can predict its expectations in the field of education and adapt it to the necessary changes.
Lizana, Pablo A; Simpson, Cristina; Yáñez, Lily; Saavedra, Karime
To determine the relation between the perceived and the real nutritional status in children from rural areas. The study comprehends 206 students from first to eighth year of primary school from rural institutions of the Valparaiso region, Chile (43% females). The real nutritional status was measured using the Body Mass Index (BMI), and the perceived status by means of corporeal figures. The Socioeconomic Status (SES) was determined using the modified Graffar scale. The analysis was carried out using the concordance correlation coefficient kappa, and the chi-square test was used for the association of variables. The subjects are concentrated in the low SES (82% male; 72% female). 49.5% of the students present overweight and obesity. Boys show higher prevalence of obesity (29%) than girls (20%). 62.5% of the females underestimate their weight, which surpasses the percentage of males (52.5%). 98.10% of the obese individuals underestimate their weight, as well as the 100% of the evaluated children with an overweight condition. Boys and girls from rural areas in conditions of overweight and obesity present a higher prevalence rate of an inappropriate perception of body image (underestimation), which has an important impact when recognizing their own condition of over nutrition. This status can have significant repercussions in public health, since it can be maintained to adult life and develop non-transmissible chronic diseases. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Backstrand, Jeffrey R; Allen, Lindsay H; Black, Anne K; de Mata, Margarita; Pelto, Gretel H
Few studies have examined the relation of iron status to diet in populations from developing countries with high levels of iron deficiency and diets of poor quality. The objective was to identify nutrients, dietary constituents, and foods that are associated with better iron status in a rural Mexican population. A prospective cohort study was conducted in rural central Mexico. The subjects were 125 nonpregnant women aged 16-44 y. During the 12 mo before blood collection, food intakes were assessed repeatedly by a combination of dietary recalls, food weighing, and food diaries [mean (+/-SD) days of food intake data: 18.8 +/- 5.9 d]. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and plasma ferritin were measured at the end of the study. Higher plasma ferritin concentrations were associated with greater intakes of nonheme iron and ascorbic acid after control for age, BMI, breast-feeding, season, and the time since the birth of the last child. Higher ascorbic acid intakes, but not higher intakes of heme and nonheme iron, predicted a lower risk of low hemoglobin and hematocrit values after control for the background variables. Consumption of the alcoholic beverage pulque predicted a lower risk of low ferritin and low hemoglobin values. Seasonal variation in ferritin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values was observed. Better iron status was associated with greater intakes of foods containing nonheme iron and ascorbic acid. PULQUE:a beverage containing iron, ascorbic acid, and alcohol-may influence the iron status of women in rural central Mexico.
Lee, Kiyoung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Hahn, Ellen J; Bratset, Hilarie; Robertson, Heather; Rayens, Mary Kay
The objective was to determine secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure with and without smoke-free laws in urban and rural communities. The research hypothesis was that SHS exposure in public places could be improved by smoke-free law regardless of urban and rural status. Indoor air quality in hospitality venues was assessed in 53 communities (16 urban and 37 rural) before smoke-free laws; 12 communities passed smoke-free laws during the study period. Real-time measurements of particulate matter with 2.5 µm aerodynamic diameter or smaller (PM2.5) were taken 657 times from 586 distinct venues; about 71 venues had both pre- and post-law measurements. Predictors of log-transformed PM2.5 level were determined using multilevel modeling. With covariates of county-level percent minority population, percent with at least high school education, adult smoking rate, and venue-level smoker density, indoor air quality was associated with smoke-free policy status and venue type and their interaction. The geometric means for restaurants, bars, and other public places in communities without smoke-free policies were 22, 63, and 25 times higher than in those with smoke-free laws, respectively. Indoor air quality was not associated with urban status of venue, and none of the interactions involving urban status were significant. SHS exposure in public places did not differ by urban/rural status. Indoor air quality was associated with smoke-free law status and venue type. This study analyzed 657 measurements of indoor PM2.5 level in 53 communities in Kentucky, USA. Although indoor air quality in public places was associated with smoke-free policy status and venue type, it did not differ by urban and rural status. The finding supports the idea that population in rural communities can be protected with smoke-free policy. Therefore, it is critical to implement smoke-free policy in rural communities as well as urban areas.
The aim of this work was to compare the basic food ingredient level and some nutritional status indices between the two groups of adolescents: the first one from the urban environment and the other one from the rural environment. A series of tests were conducted on a 400-teenager-group (200 girls and 200 boys), which was divided into two age groups: 10.5-year-olds and 13.5-year-olds. Nutritional status was estimated on the basis of the following anthropometric measurements: body height, body mass index, upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness. Food intake was assessed by means of a 24-h dietary recall. The analysis of the results of the investigation showed: rare overweight and obesity occur in rural children aged 10.5 years and a higher risk of undernutrition among rural children, especially boys; more frequent overweight and obesity in rural girls and urban boys aged 13.5 years; a lower protein consumption, especially animal protein, and a lower percentage of the accomplishment of the norm for many mineral components and vitamins in rural girls and boys.
economic status of rural dwellers in the study area. Policy makers and development workers should exploit the role of rural-urban interaction to bring about sustainable livelihood in the present changing perspective of extension system in ...
Ene-Obong, H N; Enugu, G I; Uwaegbute, A C
This study was undertaken to determine the effects of socioeconomic and cultural factors on the health and nutritional status of 300 women of childbearing age in two rural farming communities in Enugu State, Nigeria. The women were engaged in farming, trading, and teaching. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using both qualitative and quantitative data-collection methods. The study involved focus-group discussions (FGDs), interviews using a questionnaire, measurement of food/nutrient intake, assessment of activity patterns, anthropometry, and observations of clinical signs of malnutrition. The better-educated women had higher incomes than those with little or no education. Poor education was mainly attributed to lack of monetary support by parents (34%), marriage while in school (27%), and sex discrimination (21%). The teachers had significantly (p nutrition knowledge, food habits, nutrient intake, and self-concept, and adhered less to detrimental cultural practices. However, none of the women met their iron, riboflavin and niacin requirements. More cases of chronic energy deficiency were observed among the farmers (16%) and traders (13%) than among the teachers (5%). Generally, the women worked long hours with reported working hours (6-7 hours) being lower than the observed working hours (11 hours) for the traders and teachers. Income had a significant (p nutritional variables, except vitamin C, age-at-marriage (r = 0.719), and nutrition knowledge (r = 0.601). Age-at-marriage had a positive correlation with body mass index (BMI) and all nutritional variables but was significant (p teachers were dependent on the availability of food in the household. Food taboos had no effect on their nutrient intake, since only 5-11% of women adhered to taboos. Although most women gave their children and husbands preference in food distribution, not much difference was found in the amount of food consumed by these women. The ratio of wife's portion to husband's was 1:1.4 for
Seenivasan, M.; Kumar, N. Ashok
Libraries are the main sources of knowledge. They play a major role in fostering reading habit among school children. Hence, it is deemed interactive to study the status of higher secondary school libraries in Thiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu. For the Analysis 50 Higher Secondary Schools were selected randomly comprising of Government Higher…
S K Kaushal
Full Text Available Research question: What is the status of primary immunization of children in the age group of 12-23 month Objective: To assess the status of Primary immunization in age group of 12 to 23 month Children, To compare the primary immunization in intensive and twilight villages, To study the influence of socialfactors affecting immunization & Tofind out reasons for immunization default Study design: cross sectional study Setting and participants: rural block of.Kanpur District and mothers ofchildren in age group of 12-23 months. Study period: July to December 2005 Sample size: 280 mothers of study group children. Study variable: Immunization status, socialfactors, vaccine, reasons for immunization default Results : 32.85% of children were fully immunized. Highest (92.85% covered antigen were found as OPV-1 and lowest (41.78% covered antigen as DPT-3.Literacy and joint family had positive impact on immunization status. The main reasons were observed for immunization default as ignorance (about need/place/person/time and distance factor. Conclusion : Quantity1 wise coverage was quite satisfactory. High dropout rate due to ignorance and distance factors should be taken into
Feng, Danjun; Ji, Linqin; Xu, Lingzhong
This study aims to compare the prevalence of psychological distress between farmers and non-farmers of rural China. Further, this examines the effect of subjective economic status on psychological distress and whether this effect varies between farmers and non-farmers. The study design is a cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted in 27 villages of Dongying City in Shandong Province. Rural employed people included 1433 farmers and 584 non-farmers. Psychological distress was assessed by the Kessler 10 questionnaire, and subjective economic status was assessed by a single question. Overall, the farmers did not report significantly higher prevalence of psychological distress than non-farmers (31.13% versus 30.01%). However, the farmers aged 51-70 years did report significantly higher psychological distress than their non-farmer counterparts (33.4% versus 24.2%, P = 0.04). Second, subjective economic status had a significant (β = -0.28, P farmers (β = 0.30, P farmers (β = 0.20, P farmers had a comparable prevalence of psychological distress when compared with non-farmers in rural China. Subjective economic status exerted a significant effect on the psychological distress of rural employed people, and this effect was stronger for the farmers than for the non-farmers. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Morris, Patricia McGrath
The Food Stamp Program is the U.S. government's primary program to prevent the rural poor from going hungry. Food stamp allotments are set each year based on the cost of the "Thrifty Food Plan" (TFP), a minimally adequate diet defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which sets costs by examining average food prices in urban…
Full Text Available Health is an issue that manages to provide many top ics in various fields (medicine, geography, sociology, psychology. This study aims to highlight the territorial disparities in health status of Ialomi ţ a county, to identify the health determinants and to make a preliminary analysis of the relationships between the lifestyle and the health status, using an objective assessment (statistics and a subjective evaluation (health surveys. There were analyzed elements such as mortality and morbidity, using health indic ators (mortality rate, infant mortality rate, specific mortality rate and specific morbidity rate and an aggregate index (health index. Combining statistic analysis and spatial analysis, t he study offers the possibility of comparing the rural areas with urban area, and it can be a base f or further studies. The health services, ageing and the characteristics of lifestyle could explain the territorial disparities in health status. A health study can reveal important details about eco nomic features, social behavior, mentality and social environment.
Kidwell, Clara Sue
A study of the status of Native American women in higher education obtained questionnaires from 61 undergraduate women at 4 colleges and 9 women with advanced degrees, interviewed 6 women in or about to enter graduate programs, and reviewed previous research and available statistical data. Results indicated that: relatively few Native American…
Murray, J. Dennis; Keller, Peter A.
Rural people constitute about one-fourth of the U.S. population; their special mental health needs have largely been neglected. Psychologists are needed to practice in rural areas, to develop rural service models, and to support the development of state and federal policies that address rural needs. (DM)
Philip R. Blue
Full Text Available Promises are crucial for maintaining trust in social hierarchies. It is well known that not all promises are kept; yet the effect of social status on responses to promises being kept or broken is far from understood, as are the neural processes underlying this effect. Here we manipulated participants’ social status before measuring their investment behavior as Investor in iterated Trust Game (TG. Participants decided how much to invest in their partners, who acted as Trustees in TG, after being informed that their partners of higher or lower social status either promised to return half of the multiplied sum (4 × invested amount, did not promise, or had no opportunity to promise. Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded when the participants saw the Trustees’ decisions in which the partners always returned half of the time, regardless of the experimental conditions. Trustee decisions to return or not after promising to do so were defined as honesty and dishonesty, respectively. Behaviorally, participants invested more when Trustees promised than when Trustees had no opportunity to promise, and this effect was greater for higher status than lower status Trustees. Neurally, when viewing Trustees’ return decisions, participants’ medial frontal negativity (MFN responses (250–310 ms post onset were more negative when Trustees did not return than when they did return, suggesting that not returning was an expectancy violation. P300 responses were only sensitive to higher status return feedback, and were more positive-going for higher status partner returns than for lower status partner returns, suggesting that higher status returns may have been more rewarding/motivationally significant. Importantly, only participants in low subjective socioeconomic status (SES evidenced an increased P300 effect for higher status than lower status honesty (honesty – dishonesty, suggesting that higher status honesty was especially rewarding
Hanssen, Thor-Erik Sandberg; Mathisen, Terje Andreas
High school graduates in rural counties often move to urban areas to study at higher education institutions (HEIs). Because graduates from HEIs often settle in regions in which they graduate, the result is a permanent out-migration of young talent from rural areas. This study adds to the body of literature on student choice by addressing measures…
Somi, Masha F; Butler, James R G; Vahid, Farshid; Njau, Joseph D; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim
To determine the economic burden of malaria in a rural Tanzanian setting and identify any differences by socioeconomic status and season. Interviews of 557 households in south eastern Tanzania between May and December 2004, on consumption and malaria-related costs. Malaria-related expenses were significantly higher in the dry, non-malarious season than in the rainy season. Households sought treatment more frequently and from more expensive service providers in the dry season, when they have more money. Malaria expenses did not vary significantly across socioeconomic status quintiles, but poorer households spent a higher proportion of their consumption in both seasons. Poorer households bear a greater economic burden from malaria relative to their consumption than better-off households. Households are particularly vulnerable to malaria in the rainy season, when malaria prevalence is highest but liquidity is lower. Alternative strategies to assist households to cope with seasonal liquidity issues, including insurance, should be investigated.
Full Text Available Research Problem: What is the quality of life of the elderly people, as also the available support system, in rural areas? Objectives:i To determine the demographic profile of elderly ii To assess the socio-economic, nutritional, health, morbidity and dependency status, and health care utilization. Study Design: Population based cross sectional study. Setting: Community Development Block - Lakhanmajra Participants: Persons above the age of 65 years. Sample Size: 809 elderly above the age of 65 years. Study Variables: Demographic profile, Literacy, Occupation, Health, Nutrition, Mobility, Dependency, Substance abuse, Support system. Statistical Analysis: By simple proportions. Result: In this study, majority ofthe elderly were self reliant and mobile, being an asset to the family and led socially useful and productive lives. Their predominant problems were visual impairment, joint pains, respiratory diseases and hearing impairment. Joint family and government pension was the major support system to the elderly. However, there is an imperative need to organize education, training and special service programmes for the elderly at the village level.
Li, Haitao; Wei, Xiaolin; Ma, Aixia; Chung, Roger Y
This study analyzed inequalities in health status among different socioeconomic and demographic rural residents covered by the New Rural Cooperative Medical System in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lian Yungang City, China. A total of 337 respondents, who were selected by using a multistage stratified systematic random sampling method, completed the surveys. A questionnaire consisting of EQ-5D and demographic and socioeconomic information was adopted for data collection, and was administered by face-to-face interviews. Multiple regression models were employed to examine the differences in the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and the EQ-5D dimensions. Compared with those with lower education attainment, the respondents with higher education levels tended to report a higher VAS score (β = 2.666, 95% CI: 0.978 to 6.310), and were less likely to suffer from pain/discomfort (OR = 3.968; 95% CI: 1.447 to 10.880). The singles were more likely than the married to report moderate or extreme problems in usual activities (OR = 4.583; 95% CI: 1.188 to 17.676) and mobility (OR = 10.666; 95% CI: 2.464 to 6.171). However, no statistically significant differences were identified between the respondents with different income levels in the VAS score and EQ-5D dimensions. This study suggests that the singles and the people with lower education levels are high-risk groups for poorer health status in the Chinese rural population. The findings from this study warrant further investigation.
Mulugeta, A.; Hagos, F.; Stroecker, B.; Kruseman, G.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Zenebe, A.; Mekonen, Y.; Girmay, G.
Background: Addressing the nutritional needs of adolescents could be an important step towards breaking the vicious cycle of intergenerational malnutrition. Objective: Assess nutritional status of rural adolescent girls. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometric and socio-demographic
This research work reports on the food security status of rural farming households in ... in the study area and determine factors that affect household food security. ... in this research were Head Count Method, Food Insecurity Gap and Squared ...
Yang, Tingzhong; Xu, Xiaochao; Li, Mu; Rockett, Ian R H; Zhu, Waner; Ellison-Barnes, Alejandra
To explore mental health status and related characteristics in a sample of Chinese male rural-urban migrants. Subjects were 1,595 male rural-urban migrant workers selected though a multi-stage sample survey conducted in two cities (Hangzhou and Guangzhou). Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Both life and work stressors were examined. Stress and mental health status were measured by the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) and the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ), respectively. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with probable mental disorders. There are approximately 120 million rural-urban migrants in China. The prevalence of probable mental disorders in the sample population was 24.4% (95% CI: 23.3-25.5%), which was higher than among urban residents (20.2%, 95% CI: 18.8-21.7%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that five characteristics were positively associated with risk for probable mental disorders: originating in the South (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.02, 4.00), higher life stress (OR = 7.63; 95% CI = 5.88, 10.00), staying in the city for 5-9 months each year (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.67, 3.85), higher work stress (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.96, 3.33), and separation from wife (OR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.61, 3.57). Employment in machinery and transportation (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.36, 0.81) and higher self-worth (OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.62) were negatively associated. Findings support an urgent need to develop specific policies and programs to address mental health problems among Chinese rural-urban migrants.
Rodríguez-Escobar, Gilma; Vargas-Cruz, Sandra L; Ibáñez-Pinilla, Edgar; Matiz-Salazar, María I; Jörgen-Overgaard, Hans
Objective To determine the nutritional status and prevalence of malnutrition and overweight in students in rural schools and their relationship with school absence rates. Methods Descriptive study carried out in 34 rural schools in Anapoima and La Mesa in 2013. A sample of 785 (82.4 %) students was selected by convenience sampling. The inclusion criteria were students registered for the period 2013 in grades 0-5 (ages 5-16) with parental consent and student assent. Weight and height of all subjects were taken. Overall absence rates and illness-related absence rates were recorded. Results 422 pupils were male (53.8 %) and 524 (66.8 %) had between 5-9 years old. A lower than average height for age occurred in 10.1 %(n=79) of the students. The thinness was recorded at 1.75 %(n=13), the overweight at 14.3 %(n=112) and the obesity at 4.5 %(n=45) of the students. The number of absence episodes per child per year due to any reason and due to disease was 5.7 and 1.4, respectively. Stunted growth and overweight students had a significantly higher number of absence days compared to students with adequate nutritional status (p school absence days (both general and illness-related) and stunting and overweight in students.
This study was aimed at assessing the state of technical and vocational education in rural institutions in Delta State. Three research questions guided the study. A sample size of fifty (50) principals from 50 rural institutions in Delta State was used for the study. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The study reveals that ...
Emong, Paul; Eron, Lawrence
Uganda has embraced inclusive education and evidently committed itself to bringing about disability inclusion at every level of education. Both legal and non-legal frameworks have been adopted and arguably are in line with the intent of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on education. The CRPD, in Article 24, requires states to attain a right to education for persons with disabilities without discrimination and on the basis of equal opportunities at all levels of education. Despite Uganda's robust disability legal and policy framework on education, there is evidence of exclusion and discrimination of students with disabilities in the higher education institutions. The main objective of this article is to explore the status of disability inclusion in higher education and strategies for its realisation, using evidence from Emong's study, workshop proceedings where the authors facilitated and additional individual interviews with four students with disabilities by the authors. The results show that there are discrimination and exclusion tendencies in matters related to admissions, access to lectures, assessment and examinations, access to library services, halls of residence and other disability support services. The article recommends that institutional policies and guidelines on support services for students with disabilities and special needs in higher education be developed, data on students with disabilities collected to help planning, collaboration between Disabled Peoples Organisations (DPO's) strengthened to ensure disability inclusion and the establishment of disability support centres.
Senbanjo, Idowu O; Olayiwola, Ibiyemi O; Afolabi, Wasiu A O
Evidence shows that urban children generally have a better nutritional status than their rural counterparts. However, data establishing whether this difference in prevalence of undernutrition could be ascribed to difference in dietary practices are few. The aim of this study was to compare dietary practices and nutritional status of children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a comparative-analytical study conducted using the multistage sampling technique to select the study cases. A total of 300 mother-child pairs were studied, including 150 each from rural and urban communities. Data collected include demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, feeding practices and anthropometric measurements of the participants. Food intake data were collected using 24-h dietary recall. Malnutrition in children was determined by calculating the prevalence of low height-for-age (stunting), low weight-for-age (underweight), and low weight-for-height (wasting) using the World Health Organization cutoff points. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months (25.3% vs. 28.7%; P = 0.516), use of formula feeds (48.7% vs. 44%; P = 0.077), and mean age of child at introduction of semisolid foods (7.54 ± 4.0 months vs. 8.51 ± 7.3 months; P = 0.117) were not significantly different between urban and rural communities. The diversity of food choices and frequencies of consumption were similar between urban and rural communities. However, prevalence levels of underweight and stunted children were significantly higher in rural than that of urban communities (19.4% vs. 9.3%, P rural communities.
van Bodegom, D.; May, L.; Kuningas, M.; Kaptijn, R.; Thomese, G.C.F.; Meij, H.J.; Amankwa, J.; Westendorp, R.G.J.
Socio-economic status is an important determinant of health and survival in rural Africa and necessitates a practical and valid instrument to implement in health studies. Our objective was to investigate the validity of the rapid appraisal method to assess socio-economic status and its ability to
Robinson, Susan R.
Using recent discussions of Isaiah Berlin's two concepts of freedom as a starting point, this paper poses and attempts to answer the question, to what extent are those living in rural and remote communities "free" to pursue their dreams of higher education? What would count as adequate educational opportunity for those embracing regional and rural…
Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E; Grigorenko, Elena L
This study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the school factors (i.e., related to school organization and teacher and student body) associated with non-verbal intelligence (NI) and nutritional status (i.e., body mass index; BMI) of 4204 3 rd to 7 th graders in rural areas of Southern Province, Zambia. Results showed that 23.5% and 7.7% of the NI and BMI variance, respectively, were conditioned by differences between schools. The set of 14 school factors accounted for 58.8% and 75.9% of the between-school differences in NI and BMI, respectively. Grade-specific HLM yielded higher between-school variation of NI (41%) and BMI (14.6%) for students in grade 3 compared to grades 4 to 7. School factors showed a differential pattern of associations with NI and BMI across grades. The distance to a health post and teacher's teaching experience were the strongest predictors of NI (particularly in grades 4, 6 and 7); the presence of a preschool was linked to lower BMI in grades 4 to 6. Implications for improving access and quality of education in rural Zambia are discussed.
Pienaar, Michélle; van Rooyen, Francois C; Walsh, Corinna M
Higher socioeconomic status impacts profoundly on quality of life. Life-event stressors, such as loss of employment, marital separation/divorce, death of a spouse and food insecurity, have been found to accelerate disease progression among people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of this study was to determine significant independent sociodemographic and food security factors associated with HIV status in people from rural and urban communities in the Assuring Health for All study, which was undertaken in rural Trompsburg, Philippolis and Springfontein and urban Mangaung, in the Free State Province of South Africa. Sociodemographic and food security factors associated with HIV status were determined in 886 households. Logistic regression with forward selection (p rural participants, 97 (17.1%) were HIV-infected, and 172 (40.6%) of the 424 urban participants. A relatively high percentage of respondents had never attended school, while very few participants in all areas had a tertiary education. The unemployment rate of HIV-infected adults was higher than that of HIV-uninfected adults. A high percentage of respondents in all areas reported running out of money to buy food, with this tendency occurring significantly more among urban HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected respondents. In all areas, a high percentage of HIV-infected respondents relied on a limited number of foods to feed their children, with significantly more HIV-infected urban respondents compared to their uninfected counterparts reporting this. Most participants in all areas had to cut the size of meals, or ate less because there was not enough food in the house or not enough money to buy food. During periods of food shortage, more than 50% of respondents in all areas asked family, relatives or neighbours for assistance with money and/or food, which occurred at a higher percentage of HIV-infected rural participants compared to HIV-uninfected rural participants. More than half of all
Brown, P.; Bulte, E.H.; Zhang, X.
Focusing on a remote area in rural China, we use a panel census of households in 26 villages to show that socially observable spending has risen sharply in recent years. We demonstrate that such spending by households is highly sensitive to social spending by other villagers. This suggests that
This study analyzed the relationship between poverty and food security among rural faming households in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling was used to select respondents for the study. Questionnaire was administered to one hundred and eighty households who were randomly selected from three different Local ...
Department of Community Health, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION ... Low vaccination coverage in rural areas in Nigeria is associated with ... the requested information in addition to playing ... More than one-third, 109 .... Perceived benefits of vaccination and risks of vaccine-.
In Tanzania, HIV counselling and testing practices are now widely accepted as the cornerstone of HIV prevention programmes. Within HIV testing and counselling, emphasis is placed on the importance of individuals to disclose their HIV status. Despite increasing focus on disclosure of HIV status, relatively little is known ...
Full Text Available This paper seeks to describe the overall state of Rural Solid Waste Management (RSWM in China in three main areas: waste collection services, waste transportation services and waste disposal services. Given China’s urbanization, industrialization, and the subsequent improvement of household living standards, the amount of solid waste generated in rural China has increased rapidly. Based on primary data collected in 2016 from 100 villages across five provinces in China, we find that the proportion of villages with waste collection, waste transportation, and waste disposal services in 2015 is 80%, 55% and 22%, respectively. The differences in shares of villages with these services across provinces are statistically significant. Using descriptive and econometric analyses, the authors show that richer villages are more likely to provide rural solid waste (RSW collection and transportation services. Villages with new (newly elected or appointed village leaders are more likely to supply RSW disposal services. While the majority of villages report that they offer waste collection services (installing waste collection facilities and employing waste collection workers, the vast majority of villages do not transport their waste to treatment plants. Even fewer villages report using centralized disposal methods to dispose of waste, as required by law or regulation. This study represents the first effort to describe the state and determinants of waste management services in rural China in the wake of increased investment in and new policies regarding RSWM released in 2015. Additionally, we provide evidence-based suggestions that might be useful for policy makers interested in improving RSWM in China. These suggestions include increasing investments in waste collection facilities and worker services; encouraging local residents to classify and recycle waste; designing optimal waste transportation networks and routes; and improving on-site waste disposal
Sié, Ali; Tapsoba, Charlemagne; Dah, Clarisse; Ouermi, Lucienne; Zabre, Pascal; Bärnighausen, Till; Arzika, Ahmed M; Lebas, Elodie; Snyder, Blake M; Moe, Caitlin; Keenan, Jeremy D; Oldenburg, Catherine E
Burkina Faso has a seasonal malnutrition pattern, with higher malnutrition prevalence during the rainy season when crop yields are low. We investigated the association between dietary diversity and nutritional status among children aged 6-59 mo during the low crop yield season in rural Burkina Faso to assess the role of dietary diversity during the lean season on childhood nutritional status. Caregivers reported the dietary diversity of the past 7 d, consisting of 11 food groups, summed into a scale. Anthropometric measurements were taken from all children. Height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-height (WHZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) z-scores were calculated based on 2006 WHO standards. Stunting, wasting and underweight were defined as HAZ, WHZ and WAZ indices and dietary diversity. Of 251 children enrolled in the study, 20.6% were stunted, 10.0% wasted and 13.9% underweight. Greater dietary diversity was associated with greater HAZ (SD 0.14, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.25) among all children. There was no association between dietary diversity and wasting or mid-upper arm circumference in this study. Increasing dietary diversity may be an approach to reduce the burden of stunting and chronic malnutrition among young children in regions with seasonal food insecurity.
Full Text Available Methods and materials – A rural community was purposively selected in Sreepur thana of which four villages were selected randomly. The total population of all age groups was 14,165 and the eligible reproductive aged females were 3,820 based on age between 15 and 45 years. Sample size was estimated at 573 (15% of the eligible participants depending on the availability of time and logistic support. The study design was to use a questionnaire related to age, education, family income, housing and sanitation. Height (ht, weight (wt and blood pressure (BP were measured. Urine protein was estimated. Clinical examinations noted the presence of anemia, jaundice, edema, ring-worm, scabies, goiter, xerophthalmia and gum bleeding. Body mass index (BMI was calculated to determine their obesity or wasting. Results – Overall, 501 volunteered and the response rate was 87.4%. Of these participants, 30.3% were illiterate. Almost all of them had supply of tube-well water and 68% had sanitary latrines. Their mean (±SD age was 30.2 (±2.9y, wt was 46 (±8.5kg, ht was 149 (±5cm and BMI was 20.5 (±3.5. The poor women had significantly lower BMI than the rich [20.0 (2.93 vs. 21.2 (4.1, (p<0.05]. Their mean (±SD systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 116 (±17 and 73 (±12 mmHg, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, proteinuria and glycosuria were 16.6, 10.4 and 2.6%, respectively. The frequencies of proteinuria and ring-worm were significantly higher among the poor than among the rich social class (both cases p<0.05. Regarding nutritional deficiency, about half of the rural women (52% had some form of signs relating to Vit-A deficiency and 65% had signs of Vit-B complex deficiency either in the form of glossitis or of angular stomatitis or both. Conclusions – Despite time and logistic constraint, the study revealed that most of the rural women had a poor nutritional status (80% had BMI<23.0. The prevalence of hypertension and glycosuria were also
Liu, Jihong; Bennett, Kevin J.; Harun, Nusrat; Probst, Janice C.
Context: Few studies have examined the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among children and adolescents living in rural America. Purpose: We examined urban and rural differences in the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among US children. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2003 National Survey of…
Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Tishelman, Carol; Agüero-Torres, Hedda; Chowdhury, A M R; Winblad, Bengt; Höjer, Bengt
The study aims to (i) describe regional variation and gender differences in health status of older people (60 years and older) in Bangladesh, indicated by self-reported health problems and functional ability; (ii) explore influence of socio-economic factors on health status of older people. In a cross-sectional study in rural and urban Bangladesh, 696 older persons were asked about their health problems and ability to manage activities of daily living (ADL). More than 95% of older people reported health problems. Approximately 80% of elderly women in both the regions reported having four or more health problems compared with 42% and 63% elderly men in the urban and rural regions, respectively. More women (urban: 55%; rural: 36%) than men (urban: 32%; rural: 22%) also reported difficulties with ADL. Irrespective of age, sex and area of residence, those reporting greater number of health problems were more likely to report difficulty with at least one ADL task. Reporting pattern of specific health problems varied between urban and rural regions. Socio-economic indicators were found to have little influence on reporting of health problems, particularly in the rural region. Observed regional difference may be related to the influence of social and environmental factors, and level of awareness concerning certain health conditions.
Areekul, Wirote; Viravathana, Nantaporn; Aimpun, Pote; Watthanakijthavongkul, Khanin; Khruacharooen, Jakkapong; Awaiwanont, Abhinant; Khumtuikhrua, Chaowanan; Silsrikul, Pichayen; Nilrat, Pawarid; Saksoong, Saksit; Watthanatham, Jirawat; Suwannahitatorn, Picha; Sirimaneethum, Pornsirin; Meeprom, Natee; Somboonruangsri, Wuttiwong; Pongmanee, Koonphol; Rangsin, Ram
Nutritional status among adolescents is an important health indicator. The up-to-date information about nutritional status and food consumption pattern in the remote rural area is required for the effective public health intervention in the rural area of the country. The present study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of malnutrition, eating behavior and nutritional knowledge among secondary school students in a remote rural area in Thailand. Body weight and height data were collected from 298 secondary school students for nutritional status calculation using the Institute of Nutrition Research, Mahidol University, INMU-Thaigrowth program. Eating behavior and nutritional knowledge were observed by self-administrated questionnaires. The prevalence low height-for-age (instant noodles (64.4%). The prevalence of malnutrition was low among this population. The studied population had a fair knowledge about nutrition. The authoes found that regular consumption of highly commercialized snack products especially salted chips and instant noodles were at a high level in this remote rural area of Thailand. The pattern of nutritional problems in Thailand may have changed in which a public health program for children in rural areas of the country should recognize this transition.
Berheto, Tezera M; Mikitie, Wondafrash K; Argaw, Alemayehu
Malnutrition that occurs during adolescence has important consequences for the future growth and development of the individual, particularly in girls in developing countries. Besides limiting growth, adolescent malnutrition has important consequences for society. Despite this, there is a lack of information on the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Ethiopia. This study was therefore performed to help redress this lack of data and to provide information for future improvements by health planners and policy makers. A comparative cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the urban-rural disparity in nutritional status of adolescent school girls in the Mizan district in south-western Ethiopia. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to randomly select 622 adolescent girls, 311 each from urban and rural locations. Trained field workers used structured questionnaires to obtain the desired information from the respondents. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were collected using standard procedures and appropriate quality control measures. Height-for-age Z-scores and body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-scores were generated using AnthroPlus software. The independent sample t-test and χ2 test were used to determine statistical significance. There were no significant differences in the ages or physical activities of the two populations of girls studied. Consumption of cereal, vegetables, sweets, sugars, fats, meat, and eggs was similar between the two groups, although slight differences were found with regard to legumes, milk, and fruit consumption. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of mild underweight girls and overweight girls in the urban and rural groups (26.5% vs 22.3% and 7.5% vs 5.2%, respectively). Significant stunting was, however, present in the rural population (40.9% vs. 17.8% in the urban group). Although overall lower than the reference data provided by WHO, the mean BMI-for-age Z-scores and height-for-age Z
Samuel, Prasanna; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Raghupathy, Palani; Richard, Joseph; Fall, Caroline H D
We examined associations between socio-economic status (SES) indicators and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among urban and rural South Indians. Data from a population-based birth cohort of 2218 men and women aged 26-32 years from Vellore, Tamilnadu were used. SES indicators included a household possessions score, attained education and paternal education. CVD risk factors included obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, plasma total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio and triglyceride levels and consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between SES indicators and risk factors. Most risk factors were positively associated with possessions score in urban and rural men and women, except for tobacco use, which was negatively associated. Trends were similar with the participants' own education and paternal education, though weaker and less consistent. In a concurrent analysis of all the three SES indicators, adjusted for gender and urban/rural residence, independent associations were observed only for the possessions score. Compared with those in the lowest fifth of the score, participants in the highest fifth had a higher risk of abdominal obesity [odds ratio (OR) =6.4, 95% CI 3.4-11.6], high total cholesterol to HDL ratio (OR=2.4, 95% CI 1.6-3.5) and glucose intolerance (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.9-4.1). Their tobacco use (OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6) was lower. Except for hypertension and glucose intolerance, risk factors were higher in urban than rural participants independently of SES. In this young cohort of rural and urban south Indians, higher SES was associated with a more adverse CVD risk factor profile but lower tobacco use.
Allan, Elizabeth J.
This monograph emerges from the premise that discrimination on the basis of one's sex, gender, race, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, disability, religion, or ethnicity is harmful to advancing a civil society where all citizens have opportunities to contribute to their fullest potential. The chapters included in this monograph are…
PROF. BARTH EKWEME
This study was conducted to provide empirical evidence of the effect of farming on the poverty status of rural farm families in Uyo, Akwa ... Reducing poverty in developing economies is a ... is one of the poorest among the poor countries of the.
Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X.; Rohr, Julia K.; Houle, Brian C.; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Wagner, Ryan G.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F.; Tollman, Stephen M.; Bärnighausen, Till
Objective: To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. Methods: We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age–sex standardization. Results: HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age–sex standardization. Conclusions: Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27926667
Rosenberg, Molly S; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X; Rohr, Julia K; Houle, Brian C; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Wagner, Ryan G; Salomon, Joshua A; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F; Tollman, Stephen M; Bärnighausen, Till
To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age-sex standardization. HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age-sex standardization. Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa.
Nithya, D J; Bhavani, R V
SummaryDietary diversity is associated with household or individual food availability and intake of nutrients from different food groups and is an important component of nutritional outcome. This study examined the Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR) and the Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR) of three dietary diversity indices and their relationship with the nutritional status of adolescents and adults in rural regions of two states in India, Wardha district in Maharashtra and Koraput district in Odisha, in 2014. Individual dietary diversity was calculated using 24-hour diet recall (FS24hr) data and household dietary diversity was measured with food frequency data using Berry's index (DDI) and food scores (FSFFQ). The nutritional status of individuals was assessed using anthropometric indices. The diets in both locations were cereal dominated. It was observed that 51% of adolescent boys and 27% of adolescent girls had 'thinness' and stunting. The prevalence of undernutrition was higher among adult women (48%) than adult men (36%). The mean diversity indices were FS24hr of 8, DDI of 89-90 and FSFFQ of 64-66 in the two locations. The FS24hr was found to be positively correlated with the NAR of all nutrients while DDI and FSFFQ were correlated with seven and six nutrients, respectively. The DDI and FS24hr showed an association with MAR if the two locations were combined together. Sensitivity and specificity analysis showed that FS24hr gave more true positives than false positives and the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve was 0.68, implying that this measure truly differentiates individuals having low dietary diversity with low MAR from those with low dietary diversity and a high MAR. All three measures of dietary diversity showed a linear association with the nutritional outcomes of adults, while in the adolescent group only DDI showed a relationship. It is concluded that 24-hour diet recall is a good measure for studying the relationship between dietary
Kołłątaj, Witold; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Karwat, Irena Dorota; Kołłątaj, Barbara
The proper lifestyle of a child, including proper eating habits, should be monitored to ensure proper physical and psychological development. This applies particularly to rural areas which are economically, socially and educationally backward. The study included 1,341 rural schoolchildren and adolescents aged 9-13 years (734 females, 607 males). The representative survey research was conducted in 2008, making use of an original survey questionnaire. The results showed that the majority of respondents eat improperly. 83.2% of them have regular breakfast, and 62.6% have regular light lunch. Most respondents do not eat more than 4 meals a day (usually 3-4). It is worrying that the consumption of sweets is high (34.9% of the surveyed group eat them regularly), whereas fruit and vegetable consumption is low. In this study, relationships between types of diet and such descriptive variables as gender, parents' educational status, and economic situation of the households are described. In families where the parents have a higher education and the household situation is good, the eating habits are much better. The list of poor dietary habits of pupils from rural schools includes skipping breakfast and/or light lunch, high consumption of sweets and low consumption of fruit and vegetables. There are correlations between improper dietary habits and gender of the children and adolescents, educational status of parents, economic situation of households, and housing conditions.
Torres, Marion J.; Dorigny, Béatrice; Kuhn, Mirjam; Berr, Claudine; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Letenneur, Luc
Malnutrition is a frequent condition in elderly people, especially in nursing homes and geriatric wards. Its frequency is less well known among elderly living at home. The objective of this study was to describe the nutritional status evaluated by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) of elderly community-dwellers living in rural and urban areas in France and to investigate its associated factors. Methods Subjects aged 65 years and over from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Intégrée (AMI) cohort (692 subjects living in a rural area) and the Three-City (3C) cohort (8,691 subjects living in three large urban zones) were included. A proxy version of the MNA was reconstructed using available data from the AMI cohort. Sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the agreement between the proxy version and the standard version in AMI. The proxy MNA was computed in both cohorts to evaluate the frequency of poor nutritional status. Factors associated with this state were investigated in each cohort separately. Results In the rural sample, 38.0% were females and the mean age was 75.5 years. In the urban sample, 60.3% were females and the mean age was 74.1 years. Among subjects in living in the rural sample, 7.4% were in poor nutritional status while the proportion was 18.5% in the urban sample. Female gender, older age, being widowed, a low educational level, low income, low body mass index, being demented, having a depressive symptomatology, a loss of autonomy and an intake of more than 3 drugs appeared to be independently associated with poor nutritional status. Conclusion Poor nutritional status was commonly observed among elderly people living at home in both rural and urban areas. The associated factors should be further considered for targeting particularly vulnerable individuals. PMID:25133755
Marion J Torres
Full Text Available Malnutrition is a frequent condition in elderly people, especially in nursing homes and geriatric wards. Its frequency is less well known among elderly living at home. The objective of this study was to describe the nutritional status evaluated by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA of elderly community-dwellers living in rural and urban areas in France and to investigate its associated factors.Subjects aged 65 years and over from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Intégrée (AMI cohort (692 subjects living in a rural area and the Three-City (3C cohort (8,691 subjects living in three large urban zones were included. A proxy version of the MNA was reconstructed using available data from the AMI cohort. Sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the agreement between the proxy version and the standard version in AMI. The proxy MNA was computed in both cohorts to evaluate the frequency of poor nutritional status. Factors associated with this state were investigated in each cohort separately.In the rural sample, 38.0% were females and the mean age was 75.5 years. In the urban sample, 60.3% were females and the mean age was 74.1 years. Among subjects in living in the rural sample, 7.4% were in poor nutritional status while the proportion was 18.5% in the urban sample. Female gender, older age, being widowed, a low educational level, low income, low body mass index, being demented, having a depressive symptomatology, a loss of autonomy and an intake of more than 3 drugs appeared to be independently associated with poor nutritional status.Poor nutritional status was commonly observed among elderly people living at home in both rural and urban areas. The associated factors should be further considered for targeting particularly vulnerable individuals.
Against a United Kingdom policy background of attempts to widen higher education participation in a socially inclusive direction, this article analyses theory, policy and practice to understand why past efforts have had limited success and to propose an alternative: an "anchor institution" model. A university and a private training provider were the principal partners in this venture, known as the South-West Partnership (pseudonym); the model was developed by them to meet the particular needs of mature female students who want and/or need to study part-time in a rural, coastal and isolated area of south-west England. While the concept of "anchor institutions" has previously been used in government social policy, and in higher education to promote knowledge transfer, it has not yet been adopted as a method for widening participation. The research study presented in this article investigated the effectiveness of the model in widening higher education participation in the context of the South-West Partnership. The study was conducted within an interpretivist theoretical framework. It accessed student voices to illustrate the character of education required to widen participation in vocational higher education by mature female students in rural communities, through semi-structured qualitative interviews on a range of topics identified from relevant theoretical literature, and by drawing on the research team's professional knowledge and experience. These topics included student aspirations and career destinations, motivations, access, learning experiences, and peer and tutor support. It is hoped the findings will inform the future development of adult vocational higher education provision in rural areas, where opportunities have been limited, and encourage further application of the anchor institution model for widening participation elsewhere.
Oct 11, 2017 ... More than half of all participants reported feeling sad, blue or depressed ... and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary .... select significant independent factors associated with HIV status. Variables with a ...... the disability grant: A South African dilemma? Journal of the ...
Arun Singh Thakur
Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the oral health status and oral health behavior among 12-year-old urban and rural school children and to evaluate the relative effect of sociobehavioral risk factors on caries experience. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted which included urban and rural subgroups of 12-year-old school children. The final study population covered two groups: 12 years rural (n = 261 and urban school children (n = 264. Data were collected and compared using Chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was done to assess the importance of variables associated with dental caries. Results: Highly significant differences (P < 0.001 were observed between rural and urban school children for the use of oral hygiene aids, frequency of tooth brushing, and dental services utilization. Dental caries level was significantly higher (P < 0.03 for rural children. Decayed teeth (DT component constituted majority of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (FT in both population. 55.6% of the rural school children required treatment compared to 42.4% of urban school children. Mean Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified values, mean DT, and FT were statistically significant for urban and rural school children. Logistic regression analysis showed that government or private school, dental care utilization, socioeconomic status, and malocclusion status were significantly associated with dental caries. Conclusion: Poor oral health and high treatment needs of children belonging to low socioeconomic background is an alarming situation. Strengthening of oral health care in the rural and underprivileged section should be priority of the policymakers.
To harness the benefits of nuclear energy and the applications of radiation and radionuclides in various disciplines, a broad and deeply rooted nuclear education is essential. To cater to its needs, the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has established training institutes/centres of higher education. This paper briefly describes the programmes offered by these institutes/centres. (author)
Abdul-Sattar, Amal B; Abou El Magd, Sahar
To investigate the role of perceived neighborhood characteristics, socioeconomic status (SES) and rural residency in influencing the health status outcome of Egyptian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Eighty patients affected with SLE were consecutively included in this a single-center cross-sectional study from July, 2011 to July, 2013. Outcome measures included the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) score, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey physical functioning score and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D score of ≥ 19 points). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results from multivariate logistic regression analyses, a separate adjusted model of each perceived neighborhood characteristic, indicate associations of worse perceived social cohesion with higher SLAQ scores (P socioeconomic status and rural residency with health status outcomes, the results found association of poor socioeconomic status with the three health status outcome measures and association between rural residency and depression symptoms. Individuals had increased odds of depressive symptoms if they perceived worse neighborhood social cohesion (odds ratio [OR]: 2.14; CI: 1.42-2.80), if they perceived worse neighborhood safety (OR: 1.64; CI: 1.02-2.40) and if they perceived worse neighborhood aesthetic characteristics (OR: 2.79; CI: 1.84-3.38). Study findings indicate that poor socioeconomic status, rural residency and perceived neighborhood characteristics are associated with depression; worse perceived neighborhood aesthetics and safety are associated with lower SF-36 physical functioning, and worse neighborhood social cohesion is associated with higher disease activity among patients with SLE. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available The paper presents a characterisation of socio-professional status and socio-political activity of women in rural areas in Poland. Traditional, stereotypical approach was compared to the contemporary perception of the social roles performed by women in the countryside, and the results of recent empirical studies concerning the problems discussed were presented. The causes of the lack of socio-professional and political activity were discussed. The opportunities for the support that helps improve social activity of women from rural areas were also presented. The analysis carried out in the study revealed that the status of women in contemporary rural areas is close to traditional stereotypes used in this social category. The need for inclusion of the analysis of socio-professional situation of women in socio-economic strategies of development of rural areas was emphasized. The basis for writing the paper was analysis of the related literature and the results obtained in a national-level empirical research.
Pei, Leilei; Cheng, Yue; Kang, Yijun; Yuan, Shuyi; Yan, Hong
Background Understanding social disparities in obesity are presently an essential element in establishing public health priorities. However, the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity has not been assessed in rural Northwest China. This study aims to explore the effect of SES on overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity by gender and age in rural Northwest China. Methods A total of 3030 participants between the ages of 18 to 80?years from rural Hanzhong, Shaanxi province, N...
Lifschitz, Arik; Sauder, Michael; Stevens, Mitchell L.
Sociologists have focused almost exclusively on academic aspects of status in higher education, despite the prominence of nonacademic activities, specifically athletics, in U.S. colleges and universities. We use the case of football to investigate whether intercollegiate sports influence the distribution of status in U.S. higher education.…
Lee, Min-Ah; Kawachi, Ichiro
Socialising with higher-status individuals can be hypothesised to exert opposing influences on the mental health of the ego. On the one hand, socialising with higher-status alters might enable individuals to access valuable resources. On the other hand, status-discrepant friendships could be detrimental to mental health by engendering feelings of unfairness. We sought to examine the impact of status-discrepant social relationships on depressive symptoms in the 2012 Korean General Social Survey (KGSS), a nationally representative sample. We show that socialising with higher-status people is positively associated with depressive symptoms. There is no significant difference between those socialising with equivalent-status or with lower-status alters. Perceived unfairness also increase depressive symptoms. Respondents socialising with higher-status alters tend to report greater depressive symptoms as their perceived unfairness increases. Gender-stratified analyses reveal that the detrimental impact of status-discrepant relationships are observed for men only, not for women. These findings suggest that socialising with higher-status people can be a net detriment for mental wellbeing by increasing stress/frustration or decreasing psychological resources such as self-esteem, and that these effects are more pronounced for individuals who perceive that society is unfair. This pattern appears stronger for men, which might be associated with gender roles internalised through gender socialisation processes. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Luk, Ho Ting; Mondelli, Cecilia; Ferré, Daniel Curulla; Stewart, Joseph A; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier
Higher alcohols are important compounds with widespread applications in the chemical, pharmaceutical and energy sectors. Currently, they are mainly produced by sugar fermentation (ethanol and isobutanol) or hydration of petroleum-derived alkenes (heavier alcohols), but their direct synthesis from syngas (CO + H 2 ) would comprise a more environmentally-friendly, versatile and economical alternative. Research efforts in this reaction, initiated in the 1930s, have fluctuated along with the oil price and have considerably increased in the last decade due to the interest to exploit shale gas and renewable resources to obtain the gaseous feedstock. Nevertheless, no catalytic system reported to date has performed sufficiently well to justify an industrial implementation. Since the design of an efficient catalyst would strongly benefit from the establishment of synthesis-structure-function relationships and a deeper understanding of the reaction mechanism, this review comprehensively overviews syngas-based higher alcohols synthesis in three main sections, highlighting the advances recently made and the challenges that remain open and stimulate upcoming research activities. The first part critically summarises the formulations and methods applied in the preparation of the four main classes of materials, i.e., Rh-based, Mo-based, modified Fischer-Tropsch and modified methanol synthesis catalysts. The second overviews the molecular-level insights derived from microkinetic and theoretical studies, drawing links to the mechanisms of Fischer-Tropsch and methanol syntheses. Finally, concepts proposed to improve the efficiency of reactors and separation units as well as to utilise CO 2 and recycle side-products in the process are described in the third section.
Mukesh Eswaran; Bharat Ramaswami; Wilima Wadhwa
We argue that women may be disinclined to participate in market work in the rural areas of India because of family status concerns in a culture that stigmatizes market work by married women. We set out a theoretical framework that offers predictions regarding the effects of caste-based status concerns on the time allocation of women. We then use the all-India National Sample Survey data for the year 2004-5 and the Time Use Survey for six states of India for the year 1998-99 to empirically tes...
Koricich, Andrew; Chen, Xi; Hughes, Rodney P.
This study seeks to update past studies of rural youth by examining college attendance and choice decisions for students who graduated from rural high schools, while also conducting an examination of how the effects of socioeconomic status manifest differently by locale. Logistic regression is used to study the postsecondary attendance and…
Pakistan's nuclear power program was formally launched in 1959 with the establishment of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). The first research reactor, the Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR1), went critical in 1965, while the first nuclear power plant, the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), was connected to the grid in 1972. PARR1, a 5 MW highly enriched uranium swimming pool reactor, has been upgraded to 10 MW low enriched reactor and KANUPP is a 137 MWe CANDU reactor. Later during the mid eighties PAEC added another small research reactor, PARR2, a miniature neutron source, and in 2000 a 325 MW PWR at Chashma, the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant (CHASHNUPP). Thus PAEC currently owns and operates two nuclear power plants and two research reactors. KANUPP has completed its design life of 30 years and is now undergoing the re-licensing process. CHASNUPP has just completed its first refuelling outage. Negotiations for the third nuclear power plant, also a 300 MW PWR from China, are continuing. The training and education programs in nuclear technology were initiated in the early 1960's soon after the establishment of PAEC. Initially the cream of fresh graduates in engineering, medicine and natural sciences, who were inducted in PAEC were given short training before they were sent for higher studies abroad. The availability of a nucleus of highly qualified professionals in nuclear power and allied disciplines, the lack of adequate facilities in the local educational institutions in these fields and the realization that many more professionals will be needed than could be trained abroad led to the establishment of coherent indigenous training and education program in the late sixties. Given below is a brief description of the centers set up by the PAEC for providing manpower for its nuclear power program
Howard Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for the Study of Educational Policy.
This report analyzes the status of black Americans in higher education from 1975-1977. The book opens with a review of basic concepts of equal educational opportunity and the Federal role in guaranteeing equal opportunity. The social and economic context for higher education is then examined with a focus on the national commitment to higher…
Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of malnutrition among school going rural adolescent boys?Objective: To assess the diet and nutritional status of school going rural adolescent boys.Study design: Cross sectional study.Setting: Rural Intermediate Colleges.Participants: 660 study subjects (adolescents boys. 10-19 years, of classes 6th to 12th from 8 rural intermediate colleges in two blocks of Allahabad.Study period: One year (From April 2002 to May 2003.Statistical Analysis: Chi square lestResults: Overall mean height. BM1 and Haemoglobin level of adolescents were 1 56.97+9.84cm. 18.59+2.20 kg/m2 and 12.12+1.31 gm/dl respectively. Prevalence of malnutrition in terms of Stunting (24.1 % Thinness (10.5% and Overweight (1.4% was observ ed. Maximum calorie deficit was seen in thirteen-year-old boys, it was 42.5% below the RDA and minimum deficit (25.7% was observed among nineteen-year-old boys. Overall mean caloric deficit among 10 to 19 years’ adolescents was 839.57 Kcal/day. Prevalence of anaemia was observed in 371(56.3% adolescent boys. Prevalence of Vit. A deficiency. Vitamin B - complex and Vitamin C deficiency were found to be 3.5%. 25.3% and 6.8% respectively.Conclusion: Nutritional status of school going adolescent boys in rural areas of Allahabad is not satisfactory and there is a strong need for a programme especially for adolescent boys to fulfill their nutritional needs.
Pant, Krishna Prasad [Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Vidhya Lane, Devnagar, Kathmandu (Nepal)], email: email@example.com
Biomass fuels are used by the majority of resource poor households in low-income countries. Though biomass fuels, such as dung-briquette and firewood are apparently cheaper than the modern fuels indoor pollution from burning biomass fuels incurs high health costs. But, the health costs of these conventional fuels, mostly being indirect, are poorly understood. To address this gap, this study develops probit regression models using survey data generated through interviews from households using either dung-briquette or biogas as the primary source of fuel for cooking. The study investigates factors affecting the use of dung-briquette, assesses its impact on human health, and estimates the associated household health costs. Analysis suggests significant effects of dung-briquette on asthma and eye diseases. Despite of the perception of it being a cheap fuel, the annual health cost per household due to burning dung-briquette (US$ 16.94) is 61.3% higher than the annual cost of biogas (US$ 10.38), an alternative cleaner fuel for rural households. For reducing the use of dung-briquette and its indirect health costs, the study recommends three interventions: (1) educate women and aboriginal people, in particular, and make them aware of the benefits of switching to biogas; (2) facilitate tree planting in communal as well as private lands; and (3) create rural employment and income generation opportunities.
Mansur, D I; Haque, M K; Sharma, K; Mehta, D K; Shakya, R
Background Childhood is a time of active growth in terms of physical size, mental, emotional and psychological development. Normal growth is dependent on adequate nutrition and encompasses major transformations from birth to adulthood. Nutrition is a focal point for health and well being; and has special significance in countries with disadvantages in socioeconomic and hygienic standards. Objective The objective of the present study was to assess the nutritional status in terms of prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness among rural school going children. Method The present study was cross-sectional study, conducted on 438 rural school going children (169 male and 259 female) with the age group 4-16 years, during the period from April 2014 to July 2014. Age was recorded in year; height and weight were measured in centimeter and kilogram respectively. BMI was calculated by using standard equation. Result The present study concluded that the nutritional status in terms of prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness were found to be 30.85%, 24.54% and 10.05% respectively among rural school going children of Kavre district. It was revealed that 37.87% was underweight, 29.59% was stunted and 11.25% was thinness among male children whereas in female children, 26.27% was underweight, 21.24% was stunted and 9.27% was thinness. Hence, high prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness were observed in male than in female children. Conclusion The present study has successfully documented the nutritional status in terms of prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness among the rural school going children of Kavre district. The results of the present study will be useful for policy makers in their endeavor to formulate various developmental and health care programs.
Alyona Aleksandrovna Antipova
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the difficulties of adaptation of rural students to the various spheres of life of the modern city. These difficulties are considered as a field of activity of higher educational institution, acting as the subject of adaptation of students coming to study from rural areas to the terms of the city. The authors ' point of view on this issue is substantiated by the analysis of data of several sociological surveys conducted in various regions of theRussian Federation. Also the experience of assistance in adaptation of the Mordovia state University named after N. P. Ogarev of the city ofSaransk, which is the largest in the Republic of Mordovia University and which accommodates a large number of rural youth. The relevance and scientific novelty of research consists in allocation of areas of adaptation support of students from rural areas by the higher educational institution.
Li, Jian; Chen, Li-Li; Chen, Shu-Zhen; Cen, Ming-Yang; Zhao, Nai-Qing; Qian, Xu
To understand the situation of institutional delivery of rural pregnant women in Guangxi Autonomous Region in the period of 1998 - 2003 and to identify the determinants on institutional delivery utilization. Using Andersen's behavioral model as analytical framework and Guangxi databank of the 3rd National Health Service Survey as data source, we described the status of institutional delivery with the rural women having had live birth history in the period of 1998 - 2003 as subjects, while and the univariate analysis and multivariate logistic analysis were done to identify determinants of institutional delivery utilization. Among a total number of 407 women with live birth history, 39.80 percent of them delivered at the health-care facilities. The rate of institutional delivery increased annually in 1998 - 2003 (Pdelivery in township health centers increased and the proportion of home delivery decreased by year (Pdelivery etc. were determinants of delivery utilization. The OR value were 1.749 for multipara, 1.995 for those going to the nearest healthcare facilities by the most convenient traffic in less than 10 minutes, 3.011 for those drinking tap water, 5.435 for those with the education of high school, 29.149 for those with over 5 times in terms of frequency of prenatal checkup and 37.822 for those being advocated on institutional delivery. Socio-economic situation, status of maternal health care and parity made main contribution to institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance for women in rural Guangxi.
Wang, Hong; Yip, Winnie; Zhang, Licheng; Hsiao, William C
Despite widespread efforts to expand health insurance in developing countries, there is scant evidence as to whether doing so actually improves people's health. This paper aims to fill this gap by evaluating the impact of Rural Mutual Health Care (RMHC), a community-based health insurance scheme, on enrollees' health outcomes. RMHC is a social experiment that was conducted in one of China's western provinces from 2003 to 2006. The RMHC experiment adopted a pre-post treatment-control study design. This study used panel data collected in 2002, 1 year prior to the intervention, and followed up in 2005, 2 years after the intervention, both in the intervention and control sites. We measured health status using both a 5-point Categorical Rating Scale and the EQ-5D instruments. The estimation method used here is difference-in-difference combined propensity score matching. The results show that RMHC has a positive effect on the health status of participants. Among the five dimensions of EQ-5D, RMHC significantly reduces pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression for the general population, and has a positive impact on mobility and usual activity for those over 55-years old. Our study provides useful policy information on the development of health insurance in developing countries, and also identifies areas where further research is needed.
Luna-González, Diana V; Sørensen, Marten
Child undernutrition remains one of the greatest challenges for public health nutrition in rural areas in developing countries. Interventions aiming to increase and conserve agrobiodiversity seem to be promising alternatives to improve child nutrition. However, the existing literature on these interventions is not conclusive about their effectiveness in combating child undernutrition. We tested the hypothesis that 'higher agrobiodiversity is associated with greater dietary diversity and better anthropometric status' in rural Guatemala.Design/Setting/SubjectsIn the summer of 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample of 154 children (6-60 months). We conducted dietary recalls and structured interviews, measured children's weight and height, and visited food production systems (Milpas, home gardens, coffee plantations). Crop species richness, nutritional functional diversity, dietary diversity scores and anthropometric status were calculated. Higher food self-sufficiency, nutritional functional diversity and dietary diversity scores were positively correlated with higher crop and animal species richness. Contrarily, remoteness to the local market was negatively correlated with dietary diversity scores. However, higher dietary diversity scores were not correlated with better child anthropometric status. Better child anthropometric status was positively correlated with improved sanitary conditions and maternal education; and negatively correlated with large household size and frequent child morbidity. Agricultural diversification could diversify diets, increase nutrient availability and improve child anthropometry. However, these interventions need to be accompanied by sanitation improvements, family planning, nutritional education and women's empowerment to strengthen their positive effect on diet and nutrition.
Wang, Qing; Shen, Jay J
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are among the top health problems of the Chinese population. Although mounting evidence suggests that early childhood health status has an enduring effect on late life chronic morbidity, no study so far has analyzed the issue in China. Using nationally representative data from the 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a Probit model and Two-Stage Residual Inclusion estimation estimator were applied to analyze the relationship between childhood health status and adulthood cardiovascular disease in rural China. Good childhood health was associated with reduced risk of adult CVDs. Given the long-term effects of childhood health on adulthood health later on, health policy and programs to improve the health status and well-being of Chinese populations over the entire life cycle, especially in persons' early life, are expected to be effective and successful.
Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are among the top health problems of the Chinese population. Although mounting evidence suggests that early childhood health status has an enduring effect on late life chronic morbidity, no study so far has analyzed the issue in China. Using nationally representative data from the 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, a Probit model and Two-Stage Residual Inclusion estimation estimator were applied to analyze the relationship between childhood health status and adulthood cardiovascular disease in rural China. Good childhood health was associated with reduced risk of adult CVDs. Given the long-term effects of childhood health on adulthood health later on, health policy and programs to improve the health status and well-being of Chinese populations over the entire life cycle, especially in persons’ early life, are expected to be effective and successful.
Mathew A. Mwanyangala
Full Text Available Background: Increasingly, human populations throughout the world are living longer and this trend is developing in sub-Saharan Africa. In developing African countries such as Tanzania, this demographic phenomenon is taking place against a background of poverty and poor health conditions. There has been limited research on how this process of ageing impacts upon the health of older people within such low-income settings. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the impacts of ageing on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older people in a rural population of Tanzania. Design: A short version of the WHO Survey on Adult Health and Global Ageing questionnaire was used to collect information on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older adults living in Ifakara Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Tanzania, during early 2007. Questionnaires were administered through this framework to 8,206 people aged 50 and over. Results: Among people aged 50 and over, having good quality of life and health status was significantly associated with being male, married and not being among the oldest old. Functional ability assessment was associated with age, with people reporting more difficulty in performing routine activities as age increased, particularly among women. Reports of good quality of life and well-being decreased with increasing age. Women were significantly more likely to report poor quality of life (odds ratio 1.31; p<0.001, 95% CI 1.15–1.50. Conclusions: Older people within this rural Tanzanian setting reported that the ageing process had significant impacts on their health status, quality of life and physical ability. Poor quality of life and well-being, and poor health status in older people were significantly associated with marital status, sex, age and level of education. The process of ageing in this setting is challenging and raises public health concerns.
Schmid, M A; Egeland, G M; Salomeyesudas, B; Satheesh, P V; Kuhnlein, H V
To describe prevalence of malnutrition and their correlates of nutrient and traditional food consumption in rural Dalit mothers. In a cross-sectional study, we used socio-cultural questionnaires, anthropometric measurements and clinical eye examinations during the rainy season in 2003. Food frequency questionnaires and 24-h recalls were conducted during both summer and rainy seasons. Dalit mothers with young children were recruited from 37 villages in the Medak District of rural Andhra Pradesh, India. Dalit mothers (n = 220) participated. The prevalence of chronic energy-deficient (CED) mothers (body mass index women and active women were more likely to have CED than those literate and non-active (relative risks (RR) = 1.6 and 1.4, respectively, P Dalit women are predominant problems in this area. Increased consumption of local traditional Dalit food (particularly sorghum, pulses, vegetables and animal source food) should be incorporated as an important component of intervention strategies to improve nutritional status.
Nawawi, Hapizah M; Nor, Idris M; Noor, Ismail M; Karim, Norimah A; Arshad, Fatimah; Khan, Rahmattullah; Yusoff, Khalid
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in Malaysia, despite its status as a developing country. The rural population is thought to be at low risk. To investigate the prevalence of risk factors and global risk profile among rural Malays in Malaysia. We studied 609 rural Malay subjects (346 females, 263 males; age range 30-65 years). Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), smoking habits and family history of premature CHD were documented. Fasting blood samples were analysed for serum lipids, lipoprotein (a), plasma glucose and fibrinogen. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed using 75 g anhydrous glucose. The prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia for total cholesterol concentrations of > or = 5.2, > or =6.5 and > or =7.8 mmol/l were 67.3, 30.5 and 11.8% respectively. There was a high prevalence of low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (13.1%), hypertension (30.3%), smokers (24.4%), diabetes (6.4%), impaired fasting glucose or glucose tolerance (13.9%), overweight or obesity (44.7%) and increased WHR (48.5%). Global risk assessment showed that 67.3% of the study population were at risk, with 15.9, 18.9 and 32.5% in the mild, moderate and high risk categories respectively. Prevalence of risk factors was high in the rural population. Global risk assessment showed a high-risk profile with two-thirds being at risk, and one-third being categorized into the high-risk group. Although rural communities were considered at low risk of developing CHD, this is changing fast, possibly due to the rapid socio-economic development, in addition to underlying genetic predisposition.
Kenneth N. Opara, PhD
Full Text Available Objectives:Intestinal parasitic infection and undernutrition are still major public health problems in poor and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal parasitic infection and nutritional status in 405 primary school children from rural and urban areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.Methods:This cross-sectional survey in 2009 obtained anthropometric data, height-for-age (HA, weight-for-height (WH and weight-for-age (WA Z-scores from each child and fecal samples were also collected and screened for intestinal parasites using standard parasitological protocols.Results:The prevalence of infection with any intestinal parasite was 67.4%. A total of six intestinal parasites were detected; hookworm (41.7% had the highest prevalence. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and undernutrition was significantly higher in rural than in urban children (P<0.001. The prevalence of stunting (HAZ < -2, underweight (WAZ < -2 and wasting (WHZ < -2 for rural and urban children were 42.3% vs. 29.7%; underweight 43.2% vs. 29.6% and wasting 10.9% vs. 6.4%, respectively. With respect to nutritional indicators, the infected children had significantly (P<0.05 higher z-scores than the uninfected children. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only Hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides were each significantly (P<0.05 associated with stunting, wasting, and underweight.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Since intestinal parasitic infections are associated with malnutrition, controlling these parasites could increase the physical development and well-being of the affected children.
Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.
This study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the school factors (i.e., related to school organization and teacher and student body) associated with non-verbal intelligence (NI) and nutritional status (i.e., body mass index; BMI) of 4204 3rd to 7th graders in rural areas of Southern Province, Zambia. Results showed that 23.5% and 7.7% of the NI and BMI variance, respectively, were conditioned by differences between schools. The set of 14 school factors accounted for 58.8% and ...
Hamid, Jan J M; Amal, Mitra K; Hasmiza, H; Pim, C D; Ng, L O; Wan, Manan W M
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gender, birth weight, nutritional status, and iron status of children with their academic performance and cognitive function. Two hundred and forty-nine children, seven to nine years of age, were recruited by systematic sampling from six primary schools in a rural area in Malaysia. Cognitive function was assessed by using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (R-CPM). Academic performance of the children was recorded from their school final examination results in four subjects including Malay language, English, Mathematics, and Science. Birth weight was recorded from the birth certificate, and nutritional status was determined by weight-for-age z score and height-for-age z score. Girls had a significantly higher score in all the academic tests, but a lower cognitive score compared to boys. Nutritional status was found to be correlated significantly with academic performance. Academic and cognitive function scores were also found to be correlated significantly with birth weight, parents' education, and family income. In a multivariate analysis, gender remained the significant predictor of academic function, and iron status and haemoglobin were the significant predictors of cognitive function, after controlling for other variables. The study showed that girls performed better academically than boys in rural Malaysia. Nutritional status, parents' education and family income could be additional modifiable factors to improve academic performance of the children. More attention is needed to improve academic achievements of boys at their early school years.
Full Text Available Background: The incidence of riboflavin deficiency is high in women and children in developing countries and the deficiency almost invariably occurs in combination with deficiencies of other water soluble vitamins. The objective of this study was the assessment of riboflavin status of rural school children in Kerman province and its relationship with riboflavin, protein and energy intake. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 327 primary school children were randomly selected by the stratified multistage cluster sampling method. Variables for classifications were sex and socio-economic status (according to the educational level. This study was conducted by the Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry of School of Public Health in Tehran University in the winter of 2001. A twenty-four hour recall questionnaire was completed by and 5 cc of venous blood was taken from each student. Riboflavin status was assessed by measuring the glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGR – AC of the red blood cells. Chi-Square and Pearson’s correlation coefficient tests were used to determine correlations. Student’s t–test was used to show the differences in the mean of EGR – AC between the classifications of independent factors. Results: The relationship between riboflavin status and its independent variables including the status of riboflavin, protein and calorie intake were assessed. Outputs of the study indicated that 39.7% of the boys and 43.6% of the girls (41.8% together were marginally riboflavin deficient. Furthermore, 37.7% of the boys, 33.4% of the girls (35.4% together were frankly riboflavin deficient. An average of 67.2% of the children (70.1% boys, 63.7% girls had enough intake of riboflavin, and 76.2% of the children (79.9%, boys, 72.5% girls had adequate intake of protein. However, only 22% of the children (24.5% boys, 19.3% girls had sufficient caloric intake. Outputs of this dietary evaluation reveal that there is a relationship
Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Ranjan-Dash, Shishir; Mukhopadhyay, Alok; Guha-Sapir, Debarati
alternative adjusted models and in propensity score matching analyses. For similar analyses, no significant associations were found for child stunting, and more moderate effects were observed in the case of child underweight. Conclusions: Particularly in low-resource or subsistence-farming rural settings, long-lasting nutritional response in the aftermath of floods should be seriously considered to counteract the long-term nutritional effects on children, particularly infants, and include their mothers on whom they are dependent. The systematic monitoring of nutritional status in these groups might help to tailor efficient responses in each particular context. PMID:26861372
Zhang, X-J; Wang, G-Y; Shen, Q; Yu, Y-L; Sun, Y-H; Yu, G-B; Zhao, D; Ye, D-Q
This study aims to explore the current status of married women in regard of their use of contraceptive methods (permanent methods versus non-permanent methods) and to find out factors that affect the use of contraceptive methods in rural areas of Anhui Province of China. Survey. Anhui, China. A total of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. A multistage probability sampling method was used to identify a representative sample of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. All women were asked to provide detailed information by completing detailed questionnaires. Contraceptive prevalence and influence factors. The total birth control rate of the sample was 95.2%. Samples choosing the permanent and nonpermanent contraceptive methods have taken up 46.7 and 48.5% respectively. Female sterilisation was the first choice with a usage rate of 43.6%, followed by intrauterine device (IUD), which was used by 41.1% of samples. Single-variable analysis showed that the choice of contraceptive methods was associated with age, education level, parity, frequency of sex intercourses in a month, contraceptive knowledge, RTI symptom and the gender of the last child of rural married women. A significant increase in contraceptive use of rural married women in Anhui Province of China. Female sterilisation and IUD still play the dominant role. Effective family planning methods should be advocated through adequate counselling on the correct use and proper management, with consideration of the background of custom and belief.
Bloch, Roland; Mitterle, Alexander
This article seeks to shed light on current dynamics of stratification in changing higher education and proposes an analytical perspective to account for these dynamics based on Martin Trow's work on "the analysis of status." In research on higher education, the term "stratification" is generally understood as a metaphor that…
Wang, Naixia; Morgan, W. John
This article examines an important and yet neglected aspect of the relationship between higher education and the labour market in contemporary China. It does this through a detailed case study of student motivations, quality and status in adult higher education (AHE) in the city of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province. This is a region which has seen major…
Opara, Kenneth N; Udoidung, Nsima I; Opara, Dominic C; Okon, Okpok E; Edosomwan, Evelyn U; Udoh, Anietie J
Intestinal parasitic infection and undernutrition are still major public health problems in poor and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal parasitic infection and nutritional status in 405 primary school children from rural and urban areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This cross-sectional survey in 2009 obtained anthropometric data, height-for-age (HA), weight-for-height (WH) and weight-for-age (WA) Z-scores from each child and fecal samples were also collected and screened for intestinal parasites using standard parasitological protocols. The prevalence of infection with any intestinal parasite was 67.4%. A total of six intestinal parasites were detected; hookworm (41.7%) had the highest prevalence. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and undernutrition was significantly higher in rural than in urban children (Prural and urban children were 42.3% vs. 29.7%; underweight 43.2% vs. 29.6% and wasting 10.9% vs. 6.4%, respectively. With respect to nutritional indicators, the infected children had significantly (Pmalnutrition, controlling these parasites could increase the physical development and well-being of the affected children.
RANJIT SINGH GHUMAN
Full Text Available The paper highlights a case study of a rural girls college located in a remote village of Gurdaspur district in Indian Punjab. The idea of this unique college was conceptualised by one Baba Aya Singh, a social and religious activist, from a village near the college way back in 1925. It was really a revolutionary idea because female education in India, particularly higher education, was a distant dream at that time. The college was, however, started with only 14 rural girls after about half-a-century when the great visionary Baba Aya Singh had a dream to educate the rural girls. Access to and affordability of higher education is the uniqueness of this college. The student has to pay only Rs. 5800 (about US $ 65 per annum, which includes both the tuition fee and boarding and lodging. It is equally significant to note that the entire expenses of the college are met by this and the produce of agricultural land of the college. The college does not take any outside help. The meritorious senior class students teach the junior class students. The college in its own humble, but significant, way made a revolutionary contribution to the education of poor rural girls who, otherwise, would not have dreamt of college education. Apart from, class-room teaching and bookish knowledge, the students are taught social, ethical and management skills in a most natural manner. The product of the college has proved to be the agents of change and rural transformation.
Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, A M Shamsir
This study estimated the levels and differentials in nutritional status and dietary intake and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh using data from the Baseline Survey 2004 of the National Nutrition Programme. A stratified two-stage random cluster-sampling was used for selecting 4,993 unmarried adolescent girls aged 13-18 years in 708 rural clusters. Female interviewers visited girls at home to record their education, occupation, dietary knowledge, seven-day food-frequency, intake of iron and folic acid, morbidity, weight, and height. They inquired mothers about age of their daughters and possessions of durable assets to divide households into asset quintiles. Results revealed that 26% of the girls were thin, with body mass index (BMI)-for-age 95th percentile), and 32% stunted (height-for-age knowledge was low. More than half could not name the main food sources of energy and protein, and 36% were not aware of the importance of taking extra nutrients during adolescence for growth spurt. The use of iron supplement was 21% in nutrition-intervention areas compared to 8% in non-intervention areas. Factors associated with the increased use of iron supplements were related to awareness of the girls about extra nutrients and their access to mass media and education. Community-based adolescent-friendly health and nutrition education and services and economic development may improve the overall health and nutritional knowledge and status of adolescents.
Walcott, Melonie M; Hatcher, Abigail M; Kwena, Zachary; Turan, Janet M
Women's ability to safely disclose their HIV-positive status to male partners is essential for uptake and continued use of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. However, little is known about the acceptability of potential approaches for facilitating partner disclosure. To lay the groundwork for developing an intervention, we conducted formative qualitative research to elicit feedback on three approaches for safe HIV disclosure for pregnant women and male partners in rural Kenya. This qualitative acceptability research included in-depth interviews with HIV-infected pregnant women (n = 20) and male partners of HIV-infected women (n = 20) as well as two focus groups with service providers (n = 16). The participants were recruited at health care facilities in two communities in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya, during the period June to November 2011. Data were managed in NVivo 9 and analyzed using a framework approach, drawing on grounded theory. We found that facilitating HIV disclosure is acceptable in this context, but that individual participants have varying expectations depending on their personal situation. Many participants displayed a strong preference for couples HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) with mutual disclosure facilitated by a trained health worker. Home-based approaches and programs in which pregnant women are asked to bring their partners to the healthcare facility were equally favored. Participants felt that home-based CHCT would be acceptable for this rural setting, but special attention must be paid to how this service is introduced in the community, training of the health workers who will conduct the home visits, and confidentiality. Pregnant couples should be given different options for assistance with HIV disclosure. Home-based CHCT could serve as an acceptable method to assist women and men with safe disclosure of HIV status. These findings can inform the design and implementation of programs geared at promoting HIV
Netshandama, V. O.
The premise of this article is that the "jury is still out" to describe what effective Community Engagement entails in South African higher education institutions. The current discussions about community engagement and service learning do not cover the primary objective of adding value to the community, particularly of the rural-based…
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate elderly "hygienestatus" in Golestan provice (MaravehTapeh in Iranian ordertoapply such information for health policy makers toplan appropriate health programs. Methods & Materials: In This descriptive-analyticalstudy, 119 males and females rural elderly over 60 years of age (mean 67.53±5.64 were selected through multi-stage sampling. Mean scores of hygiene status obtained on the basis of current questionnaire. Data were collected, completed through home interviews and analyzed via SPSS 17. Results: The mean age was 67.53±5.64 years. Score mean of “hygiene” status on the basis of current questionnaire was 60.59±16 (out of 100.There were not statistically significant relation between "hygiene status" and age, gender, education, job and living conditions But there was statistically significant difference between “hygiene status” and marital status. Conclusion: Present “hygiene status” of elderly is not desirable. As elderly population is growing more and more, undesirable hygiene and its consequences will create health problems. Appropriate educational planning initiations from health policy makers should be considered for such tar get population in Iran.
Bamji, Mahtab S; V S Murthy, P V; Williams, Livia; Vardhana Rao, M Vishnu
Despite a vast network of primary health centres and sub-centres, health care outreach in rural parts of India is poor. The Dangoria Charitable Trust (DCT), Hyderabad, has developed a model of health care outreach through trained Village Health and Nutrition Entrepreneur and Mobilisers (HNEMs) in five villages of Medak district in Andhra Pradesh, not serviced by the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) of the Government of India. Impact of such a link worker on perinatal/ neonatal mortality has been positive. The present study attempts to examine the association of maternal nutrition and related factors with perinatal, and neonatal mortality in these villages. Women from five selected villages who had delivered between June 1998 and September 2003, were identified. Those who had lost a child before one month (28 days), including stillbirths, (group 1- mortality group), who could be contacted and were willing to participate, were compared with those who had not lost a child (group II- no mortality), through a structured questionnaire and physical examination for anthropometric status and signs and symptoms of nutritional deficiency. Categorical data were analysed using Pearson chi square analysis. Continuous data were analysed using Student's t test. Mortality during perinatal, neonatal period was 8.2 per cent of all births. Malnutrition was rampant. Over 90 per cent women had 3 or more antenatal check-ups, had taken tetanus injections and had complied with regular consumption of iron-folic acid tablets. Higher percentage of women in group I (mortality group) tended to have height less than 145 cm (high risk) and signs and symptoms of micronutrient deficiencies. However, differences between groups I and II were not statistically significant. Pre-term delivery, difficult labour (use of forceps), first parity, birth asphyxia (no cry at birth) and day of initiating breastfeeding showed significant association with mortality. Significant association between signs
Full Text Available Olarinde Jeffrey Ogunmola,1 Yusuf Olatunji Oladosu,2 Michael Adeyemi Olamoyegun31Cardiac Care Centre, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, 3Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Ladoke-Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, NigeriaBackground: There is a scarcity of data in rural health centers in Nigeria regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and HIV infection. We investigated this relationship using indicators of SES.Methods: An analytical case-control study was conducted in the HIV clinic of a rural tertiary health center. Data collection included demographic variables, educational attainment, employment status, monthly income, marital status, and religion. HIV was diagnosed by conventional methods. Data were analyzed with the SPSS version 16 software.Results: A total of 115 (48.5% HIV-negative subjects with a mean age of 35.49±7.63 years (range: 15–54 years, and 122 (51.5% HIV-positive subjects with a mean age of 36.35±8.31 years (range: 15–53 years were involved in the study. Participants consisted of 47 (40.9% men and 68 (59.1% women who were HIV negative. Those who were HIV positive consisted of 35 (28.7% men and 87 (71.3% women. Attainment of secondary school levels of education, and all categories of monthly income showed statistically significant relationships with HIV infection (P=0.018 and P<0.05, respectively after analysis using a logistic regression model. Employment status did not show any significant relationship with HIV infection.Conclusion: Our findings suggested that some indicators of SES are differently related to HIV infection. Prevalent HIV infections are now concentrated among those with low incomes. Urgent measures to improve HIV prevention among low income earners are
Kesterton, Amy J; Cleland, John; Sloggett, Andy; Ronsmans, Carine
Skilled attendance at delivery is an important indicator in monitoring progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. In addition to professional attention, it is important that mothers deliver their babies in an appropriate setting, where life saving equipment and hygienic conditions can also help reduce the risk of complications that may cause death or illness to mother and child. Over the past decade interest has grown in examining influences on care-seeking behavior and this study investigates the determinants of place of delivery in rural India, with a particular focus on assessing the relative importance of community access and economic status. A descriptive analysis of trends in place of delivery using data from two national representative sample surveys in 1992 and 1998 is followed by a two-level (child/mother and community) random-effects logistical regression model using the second survey to investigate the determinants. In this investigation of institutional care seeking for child birth in rural India, economic status emerges as a more crucial determinant than access. Economic status is also the strongest influence on the choice between a private-for-profit or public facility amongst institutional births. Greater availability of obstetric services will not alone solve the problem of low institutional delivery rates. This is particularly true for the use of private-for-profit institutions, in which the distance to services does not have a significant adjusted effect. In the light of these findings a focus on increasing demand for existing services seems the most rational action. In particular, financial constraints need to be addressed, and results support current trials of demand side financing in India.
Gao, Xiao-Li; McGrath, Colman; Lin, Huan-Cai
In China, there is a massive rural-urban migration and the children of migrants are often unregistered residents (a 'floating population'). This pilot study aimed to profile the oral health of migrant children in South China's principal city of migration and identify its socio-demographic/behavioural determinants. An epidemiological survey was conducted in an area of Guangzhou among 5-year-old migrant children (n = 138) who received oral examinations according to the World Health Organization criteria. Parents' oral health knowledge/attitude, child practices, and impact of children's oral health on their quality-of-life (QoL) were assessed. The caries rate and mean (SD) dmft were 86% and 5.17 (4.16), respectively, higher than those national statistics for both rural and urban areas (P Oral hygiene was satisfactory (DI-S Oral health impacts on QoL were considerable; 60% reported one or more impacts. 58% variance in 'dmft' was explained by 'non-local-born', 'low-educated parents', 'bedtime feeding', 'parental unawareness of fluoride's effect and importance of teeth', and 'poor oral hygiene' (all P oral health-related QoL (both P Oral health is poor among rural-urban migrant children and requires effective interventions in targeted sub-groups. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2010 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Engelaer, Frouke M; Koopman, Jacob J E; van Bodegom, David; Eriksson, Ulrika K; Westendorp, Rudi G J
Many African countries experience a protracted epidemiologic transition, different from the classical transition in western societies. The factors driving this protracted transition are largely unknown. In northeast Ghana, we studied an ongoing epidemiologic transition and investigated the effects of socioeconomic status and drinking water source on the transition. During a 9-year period, we followed a cohort of almost 30 000 individuals and collected information on mortality and fertility rates. In addition, using the standards set out by the WHO, we obtained the causes of death by verbal autopsy. Individuals were stratified according to their socioeconomic status and the households' use of an improved or unimproved drinking water source. Mortality rates decreased by -5.0% annually (pwater source. Factors other than socioeconomic status and drinking water source are responsible for the observed declines in mortality and fertility observed during the protracted epidemiologic transition. Identifying the specific determinants of the ongoing transition is of importance, as they could be targeted in order to further improve public health in rural African countries. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
bin Tareef, Atif
This study aimed at identifying the status and obstacles of scientific research in Jordanian higher education institutions. And defined by being an attempt to increase faculty member's, researcher's and educational leader's attention to the necessity of improving research planning or strategies, professional development, working conditions,…
Cunningham, Kenda; Ploubidis, George B; Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie; Kadiyala, Suneetha; Uauy, Ricardo; Ferguson, Elaine
To examine the association between women's empowerment in agriculture and nutritional status among children under 2 years of age in rural Nepal. Cross-sectional survey of 4080 households conducted in 2012. Data collected included: child and maternal anthropometric measurements; child age and sex; maternal age, education, occupation and empowerment in agriculture; and household size, number of children, religion, caste and agro-ecological zone. Associations between the Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI)'s Five Domains of Empowerment (5DE) sub-index and its ten component indicators and child length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ) were estimated, using ordinary least-squares regression models, with and without adjustments for key child, maternal and household level covariates. Two hundred and forty rural communities across sixteen districts of Nepal. Children under 24 months of age and their mothers (n 1787). The overall WEAI 5DE was positively associated with LAZ (β=0·20, P=0·04). Three component indicators were also positively associated with LAZ: satisfaction with leisure time (β=0·27, Pempowerment in agriculture was associated with WLZ. Women's empowerment in agriculture, as measured by the WEAI 5DE and three of its ten component indicators, was significantly associated with LAZ, highlighting the potential role of women's empowerment in improving child nutrition in Nepal. Additional studies are needed to determine whether interventions to improve women's empowerment will improve child nutrition.
Kalomo, Eveline Ndii; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lightfoot, Elizabeth; Freeman, Rachel
Namibia has one of the highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence rates and one of the highest rates of orphanhood in the world, and older caregivers provide much of the care to Namibians living with HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (UNAIDS, 2014). In this study, the authors explore how financial status, social support, and health were related to the resilience of caregivers caring for people affected by HIV and AIDS in rural northern Namibia, Africa. Data were collected through a structured interview from (N = 147) caregivers from the Zambezi region. Findings from this study show that employment and physical health were significantly associated with increased resilience in older caregivers. Our findings point to the need for employment assistance and health services to improve the resilience of caregivers caring for people living with HIV and AIDS. We conclude that there is a need for more vigorous concerted efforts from public and private sector practitioners and policy makers to create more sustained formal employment opportunities and intervention programs aimed at improving the overall health of older HIV caregivers, especially those residing in rural HIV endemic communities in developing countries.
Erica L. Kryst
Full Text Available Disparities in educational outcomes exist between students in rural areas as compared to students in urban settings. While there is some evidence that these rural disparities are present in eastern Europe, little is known about young peoples’ lives in the rural areas of this region. This paper presents an analysis of science achievement by location (rural v. urban using all available waves of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS. We examined the eighth grade data from five countries: Lithuania, Romania, the Russian Federation, Hungary, and Slovenia. Findings demonstrated that students attending rural schools had significantly lower science scores and that the rural disadvantage grew between 1995 and 2011 in some countries, but became non-significant in others. Overall, family socioeconomic status played an important role in determining the educational outcomes of rural students. The implications of these findings are explored in relation to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO 2015 Education for All goals.
Minaei, Mina; Zarei, Maryam
Full text: Nutrition counseling is one of the nutritional activities for improving child nutrition. It is the best way for decreasing malnutrition in children. Goal: To improve nutritional status of children under 6 through nutrition counseling in rural area with high prevalence of malnutrition. Methods: An international study with a total of 660 children with their mothers and with duration of seven months started in Lali district (in Khozestan province of Iran). Data gathered with using a demographic questionnaire and anthropometric measurements in children. Afterwards, malnourished children determined and referred to nutrition counseling centers. After training mothers, planning a diet and monitoring nutritional status were determined. Results: The prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in studied children at the beginning of the study were 9.6%, 6.2% and 4.8% respectively, which reached 8.7%, 3.3% and 2.4% by the end of the project (P<0.05). The intervention was most efficient in children suffering growth retardation, with a cure rate of 91%; only 48.6% of malnourished children referred to the center health were cured. Conclusion: Results obtained from this study showed that over 90% of children suffering growth retardation were cured. This means establishing nutrition counseling centers to encourage proper nutrition behaviors, evaluate current issues and find possible solutions, persuade mothers to improve child nutrition status making use of practical and specific methods appropriate with the tradition of the region has had an important role in improving the nutrition status of the children in the region. (author)
Rent, Priyanka Dsouza; Kumar, Sudeep; Dmello, Mackwin Kenwood; Purushotham, Jagannath
The elderly who will constitute 10% of the Indian population by 2021 face problems such as deteriorating healthcare status, loneliness, and economic constraints among others. All these factors together may affect the psychosocial status of the elderly and their health-seeking behavior. With this background, the current study tried to evaluate the psychosocial status, economic dependence for health and nonhealth expenses and awareness regarding geriatric welfare services (GWS) among elderly patients. The study was carried out among 599 men and women aged above 60 who visited rural healthcare centers in two districts of Karnataka during September-December 2016. A semi-structured interview schedule was administered by a trained medical professional after taking informed consent. Majority of the respondents said that they had company at home, interacted with people outside home and that their advice was honored. About 75.8% of the respondents reported that they were either partially or completely financially dependent on someone else. The mean cost of hospitalization was reported to be Rs. 11,086. Majority of those hospitalized depended on their children to pay for healthcare (66.9%), whereas 16.9% had availed government insurance schemes and 14.6% paid out of pocket. Nearly 64.9% of the respondents were aware of the GWS while 32.6% had used them. The absence of financial risk pooling mechanisms and social support may cause elderly to forego treatment because of the need to pay for healthcare and further deteriorate their psychosocial status. Government initiatives to improve healthcare and social services to the elderly maybe advocated.
Priyanka Dsouza Rent
Full Text Available Introduction: The elderly who will constitute 10% of the Indian population by 2021 face problems such as deteriorating healthcare status, loneliness, and economic constraints among others. All these factors together may affect the psychosocial status of the elderly and their health-seeking behavior. With this background, the current study tried to evaluate the psychosocial status, economic dependence for health and nonhealth expenses and awareness regarding geriatric welfare services (GWS among elderly patients. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among 599 men and women aged above 60 who visited rural healthcare centers in two districts of Karnataka during September–December 2016. A semi-structured interview schedule was administered by a trained medical professional after taking informed consent. Results: Majority of the respondents said that they had company at home, interacted with people outside home and that their advice was honored. About 75.8% of the respondents reported that they were either partially or completely financially dependent on someone else. The mean cost of hospitalization was reported to be Rs. 11,086. Majority of those hospitalized depended on their children to pay for healthcare (66.9%, whereas 16.9% had availed government insurance schemes and 14.6% paid out of pocket. Nearly 64.9% of the respondents were aware of the GWS while 32.6% had used them. Conclusion: The absence of financial risk pooling mechanisms and social support may cause elderly to forego treatment because of the need to pay for healthcare and further deteriorate their psychosocial status. Government initiatives to improve healthcare and social services to the elderly maybe advocated.
Background Women’s ability to safely disclose their HIV-positive status to male partners is essential for uptake and continued use of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. However, little is known about the acceptability of potential approaches for facilitating partner disclosure. To lay the groundwork for developing an intervention, we conducted formative qualitative research to elicit feedback on three approaches for safe HIV disclosure for pregnant women and male partners in rural Kenya. Methods This qualitative acceptability research included in-depth interviews with HIV-infected pregnant women (n = 20) and male partners of HIV-infected women (n = 20) as well as two focus groups with service providers (n = 16). The participants were recruited at health care facilities in two communities in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya, during the period June to November 2011. Data were managed in NVivo 9 and analyzed using a framework approach, drawing on grounded theory. Results We found that facilitating HIV disclosure is acceptable in this context, but that individual participants have varying expectations depending on their personal situation. Many participants displayed a strong preference for couples HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) with mutual disclosure facilitated by a trained health worker. Home-based approaches and programs in which pregnant women are asked to bring their partners to the healthcare facility were equally favored. Participants felt that home-based CHCT would be acceptable for this rural setting, but special attention must be paid to how this service is introduced in the community, training of the health workers who will conduct the home visits, and confidentiality. Conclusion Pregnant couples should be given different options for assistance with HIV disclosure. Home-based CHCT could serve as an acceptable method to assist women and men with safe disclosure of HIV status. These findings can inform the design and
Mobley, Jennifer Scott; Rine, P. Jesse; Kemeny, P. C.; Messer, H. Collin
Evangelical colleges and universities situated in rural communities are uniquely positioned to bridge the ever-widening cultural, economic, and political divide that threatens American democracy. However, success in this endeavor will require an appreciation for what it means to be a neighbor in this particular context. Thus, this article begins…
Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Harrison, Sayward; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang
Children affected by HIV/AIDS have unique psychosocial needs that often go unaddressed in traditional treatment approaches. They are more likely than unaffected peers to encounter stigma, including overt discriminatory behaviors, as well as stereotyped attitudes. In addition, HIV-affected children are at risk for experiencing negative affect, including sadness and depression. Previous studies have identified a link between HIV stigma and the subsequent emotional status of children affected by HIV/AIDS. However, limited data are available regarding protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effects of HIV stigma and thus promote resiliency for this vulnerable population. Utilizing data from 790 children aged 6-17 years affected by parental HIV in rural central China this study aims to examine the association between HIV stigma, including both enacted and perceived stigma, and emotional status among HIV-affected children, as well as to evaluate the mediating effects of emotional regulation on the relationship between HIV stigma and emotional status. In addition, the moderating role of age is tested. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. We found that the experience of HIV stigma had a direct positive effect on negative emotions among children affected by HIV. Emotional regulation offers a level of protection, as it mediated the impact of HIV stigma on negative emotions. Moreover, age was found to moderate the relationship between perceived stigma and negative emotions. A significant interaction between perceived stigma and age suggested that negative emotions increase with age among those who perceived a higher level of stigmatization. Results suggest that children affected by HIV may benefit from interventions designed to enhance their capacity to regulate emotions and that health professionals should be aware of the link between stigma and negative emotion in childhood and adolescence and use the knowledge to inform their
Full Text Available Maternal nutritional status is an important predictor of birth outcomes, yet little is known about the nutritional status of HIV-infected pregnant women treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. We therefore examined the relationship between maternal BMI at study enrollment, gestational weight gain (GWG, and hemoglobin concentration (Hb among 166 women initiating cART in rural Uganda.Prospective cohort.HIV-infected, ART-naïve pregnant women were enrolled between 12 and 28 weeks gestation and treated with a protease inhibitor or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based combination regimen. Nutritional status was assessed monthly. Neonatal anthropometry was examined at birth. Outcomes were evaluated using multivariate analysis.Mean GWG was 0.17 kg/week, 14.6% of women experienced weight loss during pregnancy, and 44.9% were anemic. Adverse fetal outcomes included low birth weight (LBW (19.6%, preterm delivery (17.7%, fetal death (3.9%, stunting (21.1%, small-for-gestational age (15.1%, and head-sparing growth restriction (26%. No infants were HIV-infected. Gaining <0.1 kg/week was associated with LBW, preterm delivery, and a composite adverse obstetric/fetal outcome. Maternal weight at 7 months gestation predicted LBW. For each g/dL higher mean Hb, the odds of small-for-gestational age decreased by 52%.In our cohort of HIV-infected women initiating cART during pregnancy, grossly inadequate GWG was common. Infants whose mothers gained <0.1 kg/week were at increased risk for LBW, preterm delivery, and composite adverse birth outcomes. cART by itself may not be sufficient for decreasing the burden of adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected women.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00993031.
Mathad, Vijayashree; Metgud, Chandra; Mallapur, M D
Malnutrition is widely recognized as a major health problem in developing countries. It is wide spread in rural, tribal and urban slum areas. Growing children are most vulnerable to its consequences. Anthropometry is a simple field technique for evaluating physical growth and nutritional status of the children. To assess the nutritional status of under-fives'. This cross sectional study was conducted in Kakati-A sub-centre, under Primary Health Centre Vantamuri of Belgaum district. The sample size was 290. Data collection was done using pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Distribution of variables was assessed and comparison was done using chi square test and P value. The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was observed to be 26.55%, 31.38% and 7.59%, while severe degree of underweight, stunting and wasting was observed in 5.86%, 27.24% and 6.51% respectively according to World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 classification. According to the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) classification the prevalence of Grade I malnutrition was 121 (47.10%), Grade II was 29 (10.00%) and Grade III and IV were 4 (1.40%). Majority of the children's diet was not adequate for calories and proteins as per Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR) guidelines. Less than half of children were underweight, nearly one third were stunted and one fifth of children were wasted. No child was found to be overweight or obese.
Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik
In developing countries including rural India, undernutrition among preschool children is one of the main barriers of the national development. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of underweight and stunting and their socio-demographic predictors among preschool children in India and West Bengal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of underweight and stunting and the impact of two socio-demographic indicators, namely number of living rooms (NLR) and number of sibs (NS), on them among 1-5 year old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Centres. This cross sectional study was undertaken at 30 randomly selected ICDS centre of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 children, aged 1-5 years were studied. The overall (age and sex combined) rates of underweight and stunting were 54.40% and 39.20%, respectively. NLR was significantly associated with the prevalence of underweight (chi2 = 4.34, df = 1, p or = 2 NLR. Moreover, girls with > or = 3 NS had significant higher rate of underweight (OR = 2.03, CI = 1.32-3.146) or stunting (OR = 1.69, C.I = 1.09-2.63) than those with Gender discrimination could be a likely cause for this sex difference in the impact of NRL and NS. Moreover, logistic regression were also undertaken with underweight and stunting status (yes/ no) as dependent variables and NLR and NS (combined) as independent variables to identify their effects, when considered together, on undernutrition. Results showed that NS had significant impact on underweight (Wald = 8.28, p < 0.001) rather than NLR among girls. Results also demonstrated that NLR had significant impact on stunting (Wald = 6.874, p < 0.01) rather than NS.
Full Text Available Introduction: Under nutrition is a serious public health problem among children in the developing countries. Though the importance of girl child has been stressed time and again, yet a wide level of disparity still exists, whether implicit or explicit, in nutrition and child care both in the rural and urban areas. Different underlying factors are responsible for this disparity. Rationale: Girls face discrimination from the moment she is born. The UNICEF intergenerational cycle of malnutrition stresses on the fact that the problem of malnutrition spans generation and is a vicious cycle. Though the importance of girl child has been stressed time and again, yet a wide level of disparity still exists. Therefore this study is conducted to document the gender disparity in nutritional status and compare rural and urban differences. Objective: 1.To compare the gender disparity in nutritional status in children aged 0-5 years in rural and urban areas.2.To assess the different socio-demographic factors influencing the gender disparity. Materials and Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kamrup Rural and Kamrup Urban using a pre-tested schedule from August 2013-July 2014.A total of 400 children were examined and their mother’s interviewed. Data was entered into MS-Excel spread sheets for analysis. The statistical analyses were done using SPSS version 16 software. Percentages and Chi square tests were used to analyze epidemiological variables. Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting in rural area was 31%, 29%, 15.5% respectively whereas in urban it was 39.5%, 36% and 24.5% respectively. In rural area, male child were 32% underweight, 28% stunted and 19% wasted compared to female who were 30% underweight, 30% stunted and 12% wasted. In urban area 48% of female child were underweight, 39% stunted and 27% wasted compared to 31%, 33% and 22% in male child respectively. A significant higher proportion of
Full Text Available Introduction: Under nutrition is a serious public health problem among children in the developing countries. Though the importance of girl child has been stressed time and again, yet a wide level of disparity still exists, whether implicit or explicit, in nutrition and child care both in the rural and urban areas. Different underlying factors are responsible for this disparity. Rationale: Girls face discrimination from the moment she is born. The UNICEF intergenerational cycle of malnutrition stresses on the fact that the problem of malnutrition spans generation and is a vicious cycle. Though the importance of girl child has been stressed time and again, yet a wide level of disparity still exists. Therefore this study is conducted to document the gender disparity in nutritional status and compare rural and urban differences. Objective: 1.To compare the gender disparity in nutritional status in children aged 0-5 years in rural and urban areas.2.To assess the different socio-demographic factors influencing the gender disparity. Materials and Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kamrup Rural and Kamrup Urban using a pre-tested schedule from August 2013-July 2014.A total of 400 children were examined and their mother’s interviewed. Data was entered into MS-Excel spread sheets for analysis. The statistical analyses were done using SPSS version 16 software. Percentages and Chi square tests were used to analyze epidemiological variables. Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting in rural area was 31%, 29%, 15.5% respectively whereas in urban it was 39.5%, 36% and 24.5% respectively. In rural area, male child were 32% underweight, 28% stunted and 19% wasted compared to female who were 30% underweight, 30% stunted and 12% wasted. In urban area 48% of female child were underweight, 39% stunted and 27% wasted compared to 31%, 33% and 22% in male child respectively. A significant higher proportion of
Thalita L. A. Rocha
Full Text Available Taking into account that there are controversial antioxidative effects of inhalational anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane and absence of comparison of genotoxicity of both anesthetics in animal model, the aim of this study was to compare DNA damage and antioxidant status in Wistar rats exposed to a single time to isoflurane or sevoflurane. The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay was performed in order to evaluate DNA damage in whole blood cells of control animals (unexposed; n = 6 and those exposed to 2% isoflurane (n = 6 or 4% sevoflurane (n = 6 for 120 min. Plasma antioxidant status was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. There was no statistically significant difference between isoflurane and sevoflurane groups regarding hemodynamic and temperature variables (P > 0.05. Sevoflurane significantly increased DNA damage compared to unexposed animals (P = 0.02. In addition, Wistar rats anesthetized with isoflurane showed higher antioxidative status (MTT than control group (P = 0.019. There were no significant differences in DNA damage or antioxidant status between isoflurane and sevoflurane groups (P > 0.05. In conclusion, our findings suggest that, in contrast to sevoflurane exposure, isoflurane increases systemic antioxidative status, protecting cells from DNA damage in rats.
Full Text Available Background: The year 2012-2013 was declared as ‘Year of intensification of Routine Immunization (IRI in India. As per CES, DLHS and AHS, Full Immunization for the children of age group of 12-23 months of Uttar Pradesh is 30.2 (DLHS 2007, 40.9 (CES 2009 and 45.3 (AHS 2010-2011. Studies have been done to assess the primary immunization status i.e. BCG, OPV3, DTP3 and Measles. Data on the Booster doses and the additional vaccine is insufficient. Objectives: To assess the status of full Immunization, Complete Immunization and the status of Immunization with regard to different vaccine and reasons for partial and No Immunization. Design & Methodology: A community based cross sectional study was done (Aug to December 31th 2014 in the field practice area of rural health and training centre (RHTC of Muzaffarnagar Medical College, Muzaffarnagar. 50% of the villages i.e. 3 villages (Bilaspur, Shernagar and Dhandhera selected by simple random sampling technique and the age group selected were up to three years of age. The data was analyzed using MS excel sheet and the software used was software Epi-info version 7.1.3. Results and Conclusion: The Full Immunization in the age group of children between 12-23 months was 65% with antigen coverage maximum for BCG (93% and lowest for Measles (68%. Reason for partial and unimmunized children were majority due to non-availability of vaccine at the centre followed by fear of AEFI. Complete Immunization in the age group between 24-36 months was 46% with MCV 2 coverage being the lowest (34%. Full Immunization in the age group of 24-36 months is significantly more than 12-23 months age group. Tendency is to have less and less immunization as the age of the child grows (P<0.05.
Jacob, Amita; Thomas, Leah; Stephen, Kezia; Marconi, Sam; Noel, J; Jacob, K S; Prasad, Jasmin
There is a dearth of recent data on the relationship between nutritional status and intellectual development among children in India. To determine whether such a relationship exists, we studied children in a rural area of Tamil Nadu. We stratified villages in Kaniyambadi block, Tamil Nadu, and recruited consecutive children who satisfied the study criteria. We assessed nutritional status by measuring height and weight and recording chronological age, and calculated indices weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-forheight and their Z scores. We assessed intellectual development using the Indian adaptation of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale. We used a case-control framework to determine the relationship and logistic regression to adjust for common confounders. We recruited 114 children between the ages of 12 and 72 months. Z score means (weight-for-age -1.36; height-for-age -1.42; weight-for-height -0.78) were much less than 0 and indicate undernutrition. Z score standard deviations (weight-for-age 1.04; height-for-age 1.18; weightfor- height 1.06) were within the WHO recommended range for good quality of nutrition data suggesting reduced measurement errors and incorrect reporting of age. The frequency distributions of population Z scores suggest high undernutrition, wasting and medium stunting. A tenth of the population (9.6%) had values to suggest borderline/below average intelligence (social quotient social quotient. These relationships remained statistically significant after adjusting for sex and socioeconomic status using logistic regression. Chronic undernutrition, wasting and stunting and their association with lower intellectual development demand an urgent re-assessment of national food policies and programmes.
Koltai, Jonathan; Schieman, Scott
Analyses of the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce demonstrate that job pressure is associated with greater anxiety and job dissatisfaction. In this paper we ask, What conditions protect workers? The conventional buffering hypothesis in the Job-Demands Resource (JD-R) model predicts that job resources should attenuate the relationship. We test whether the conventional buffering hypothesis depends on socioeconomic status (SES). Support for conventional buffering is evident only for job dissatisfaction--and that generalizes across SES. When anxiety is assessed, however, we observe an SES contingency: Job resources attenuate the positive association between job pressure and anxiety among workers with lower SES, but exacerbate it among those with higher SES. We discuss the implications of this SES-contingent pattern for theoretical scenarios about "resource reinforcement," "resource substitution," and the "stress of higher status." Future research should consider SES indicators as potential contingencies in the relationship between job conditions and mental health. © American Sociological Association 2015.
Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah; McFarland, Michael; Collins, Caitlyn
Using the 1957-2011 data from 3,682 White non-Hispanic women (297 incident breast cancer cases) in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, United States, we explore the effect of occupation in 1975 (at age 36) on breast cancer incidence up to age 72. Our study is motivated by the paradoxical association between higher-status occupations and elevated breast cancer risk, which presents a challenge to the consistent health advantage of higher social class. We found that women in professional occupatio...
Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah; McFarland, Michael; Collins, Caitlyn
Using the 1957-2011 data from 3682 White non-Hispanic women (297 incident breast cancer cases) in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, United States, we explore the effect of occupation in 1975 (at age 36) on breast cancer incidence up to age 72. Our study is motivated by the paradoxical association between higher-status occupations and elevated breast cancer risk, which presents a challenge to the consistent health advantage of higher social class. We found that women in professional occupations had 72122% and women in managerial occupations had 57-89% higher risk of a breast cancer diagnosis than housewives and women in lower-status occupations. We explored an estrogen-related pathway (reproductive history, health behaviors, and life-course estrogen cycle) as well as a social stress pathway (occupational experiences) as potential explanations for the effect of higher-status occupations. The elevated risk of breast cancer among professional women was partly explained by estrogen-related variables but remained large and statistically significant. The association between managerial occupations and breast cancer incidence was fully explained by job authority defined as control over others' work. Exercising job authority was related to higher breast cancer risk (HR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.18), especially with longer duration of holding the professional/managerial job. We suggest that the assertion of job authority by women in the 1970s involved stressful interpersonal experiences that may have promoted breast cancer development via prolonged dysregulation of the glucocorticoid system and exposure of the breast tissue to adverse effects of chronically elevated cortisol. Our study emphasizes complex biosocial pathways through which women's gendered occupational experiences become embodied and drive forward physiological repercussions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aliyu, Muktar H; Blevins, Meridith; Megazzini, Karen M; Parrish, Deidra D; Audet, Carolyn M; Chan, Naomi; Odoh, Chisom; Gebi, Usman I; Muhammad, Mukhtar Y; Shepherd, Bryan E; Wester, C William; Vermund, Sten H
We examined antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and retention by sex and pregnancy status in rural Nigeria. We studied HIV-infected ART-naïve patients aged ≥15 years entering care from June 2009 to September 2013. We calculated the probability of early ART initiation and cumulative incidence of loss to follow-up (LTFU) during the first year of ART, and examined the association between LTFU and sex/pregnancy using Cox regression. The cohort included 3813 ART-naïve HIV-infected adults (2594 women [68.0%], 273 [11.8%] of them pregnant). The proportion of pregnant clients initiating ART within 90 days of enrollment (78.0%, 213/273) was higher than among non-pregnant women (54.3%,1261/2321) or men (53.0%, 650/1219), both pPregnant women initiated ART sooner than non-pregnant women and men (median [IQR] days from enrollment to ART initiation for pregnant women=7 days [0-21] vs 14 days [7-49] for non-pregnant women and 14 days [7-42] for men; pPregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria were more likely to initiate ART but were no more likely to be retained in care. Our findings underscore the importance of effective retention strategies across all patient groups, regardless of sex and pregnancy status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Li, Xingming; Liu, Juyuan; Huang, Jianshi; Qian, Yunliang; Che, Lu
To analyse the educational status and future training needs of China's rural doctors and provide a basis to improve their future training. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was used for the analysis, and 17 954 rural doctors chosen randomly from the eastern, central and western regions of China in 2009-2010 were surveyed to ascertain their average training time and the methods used for and content of their training. In general, 8671/17 778 (48.77%) of respondents received less than 12 days of training in a year. Conference sessions seemed to be the major route of training, with 10 150/17 925 respondents (56.62%). Clinical skills, with a response rate of 14 441/17 926 (80.56%), seemed to be the most popular training content. With regard to the general needs for training time received, 6547/18 255 (35.86%) of respondents hoped the average training time received a year would be less than 12 days; on-site guidance from a senior doctor was the most popular training method with response rate of 10 109/17 976 (56.24%), and clinical skills was what rural doctors wished to study the most, with a positive response of 16 744/17 962 (93.22%). Statistically significant differences existed in the current status and training time, training method and training content needs of China's rural doctors. Our results suggest that the training status and needs of China's rural doctors are still disjointed; measures including the introduction of remote education and clinical further education, extended training time and more clinical skills training should be adopted.
Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Fahiminia M, Farrokhi M, Talebi M, Memary G, Fazlzadeh Davil M. Status, restrictions and suggested approaches in wastewater management in rural areas of Iran. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(1:12-9. Aims of the Study: The objective of this study was to appraise wastewater management approaches in rural areas of Iran, restrictions, effects on environment and also definition of suitable management approaches in wastewater for future. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was performed in 2010 in rural areas of Iran. A questionnaire was prepared with subjects such as available management approaches on wastewater, suggested approaches on collecting wastewater and its final disposal and was sent to rural area’s wastewater companies in each province. Study results of 4588 rural areas of Iran (with above 200 families were collected. Results were analyzed using mean and percentage. Results: The current available management systems were mainly based on absorption wells. The main problem in this system was high ground water levels, and low permeability of soil. The most important current problem of the absorbing wells was considerable damaging effects on surface and ground water. Conclusions: The current wastewater management in rural areas especially in the field of wastewater collection was improper and undesirable. To overcome the current problem, it is necessary to use collecting methods relative to that of region. Considerable attention is required for the application of reused wastewater in agriculture. References: 1. Wilderer PA, Schreff D. Decentralized and centralized wastewater management: a challenge for technology developers. Wat Sci Tech 2000; 41(1:1-8. 2. Jackson HB. Global needs and developments in urban sanitation. in: Mara D, editor. Low-Cost sewerage. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons; 1996. p. 77-90. 3. UNEP/GPA. Strategy options for sewage management to protect the marine environment. The Netherlands: UNEP
Muralidhar M Kulkarni
Full Text Available Introduction: Children are the foundation of a strong and healthy nation. Morbidity among school-going children adversely affects their normal growth and development and hence is a major public health concern. School health program was started as an important component of total health care delivery system in the country with a purpose of addressing the health needs of children. Aim: To assess the morbidity pattern and nutritional status among school children. Materials and Methods: Study design: A cross-sectional study. Study period: 1-year from 1 st July 2012 to 30 th June 2013. Study setting: 14 schools with a total strength of 909 children in a rural area of coastal Karnataka. Data collection: Health examination of the school children was carried out by a trained team. Data regarding anthropometric measurements, refractory error, medical problems and minor ailments were collected using a predesigned proforma. Results: A total of 797 children were examined. Dental caries was the most common ailment observed in 31.86% of children 43.32% of the children were underweight, 53.03% were normal, and 3.65% were overweight for age. Conclusion: The school health program provides a good opportunity to screen, identify and impart education regarding health related issues. The common morbidities found were dental caries, pallor, upper respiratory tract infection and refractory error. Overweight was also observed in the school children and needs to be addressed. There is a scope of providing comprehensive school health services by incorporating dental care.
The Association Between Physical Activity, Mental Status, and Social and Family Support with Five Major Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases Among Elderly People: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Rural Population in Southern China.
Huang, Xiang; Yang, Huajie; Wang, Harry H X; Qiu, Yongjun; Lai, Xiujuan; Zhou, Zhiheng; Li, Fangjian; Zhang, Liwei; Wang, Jiaji; Lei, Jimin
Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) have become the top threat in China. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of major NCDs among the elderly population in rural areas in southern China and explore its associated social determinants. A multistage cluster random sampling methodology was adopted to select a total of 9245 rural elderly people from 3860 rural households in Guangdong Province. Interviews and physical examinations were performed to collect patient information. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore factors associated with the presence of major NCDs. Over one-third (38.5%) of the study population suffered from five major NCDs. The grade of activities of daily living (ADL), mental status, and social relationship of elderly people without NCDs were better than those with NCDs. The major factors associated with the presence of NCDs among the elderly people included age (70-79 years group and 80-89 years group), education level (senior high/technical secondary school and junior college and above), mental status (concentration, enrichment and happy life and memory), relationship with neighbours, activities of daily living (ADL) (being able to climb three floors and bend over), physical activity, marital status (bereft), and living conditions (with offspring and family members). The study identified several social determinants associated with the presence of major NCDs. A higher level of family support and physical exercise might contribute to improved physical condition, mental status, and ADL among the elderly people in rural areas in southern China.
Chanda, Sanjoy Kumar; Howlader, Hasan; Nahar, Nasrin
The key focus of this study is to explain the level of education of married women and their participation in decision making process at different arena of rural household. To find out the nature of the reality, survey research design was used for this study. The study was conducted at Maharajpur, one of the unions of Jhenidah district in Bangladesh in 2011. The respondents of the study consisted of 120 married women who were purposively selected from the study area. Data were collected through direct interview method using an interview schedule. Data were shown on univariate, as well as bivariate statistical tables and then analyzed. The study reveals that a significant percent (93.3) of higher level of education completed women had their consent of getting married whereas no consent was made by illiterate women. In the same way 46.7 percent higher level of education completed women had high level of purchasing power in compare to illiterate (.0%) and primary (14.6%) level completed women for the same level of purchasing. In the political decision making 86.7 percent higher level of education completed women had own consent to vote for election in contrast to 77.8 percent illiterate and 70.7 percent primary level completed women were influenced by their husband to decide voting.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are a public health problem in developing countries such as Mexico. As a result, two governmental programmes have been implemented: a "National Deworming Campaign" and b "Opportunities" aimed at maternal care. However, both programmes are developed separately and their impact is still unknown. We independently investigated whether a variety of socio-economic factors, including maternal education and employment levels, were associated with intestinal parasite infection in rural school children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 rural communities in two Mexican states. The study sites and populations were selected on the basis of the following traits: a presence of activities by the national administration of albendazole, b high rates of intestinal parasitism, c little access to medical examination, and d a population having less than 2,500 inhabitants. A total of 507 schoolchildren (mean age 8.2 years were recruited and 1,521 stool samples collected (3 per child. Socio-economic information was obtained by an oral questionnaire. Regression modelling was used to determine the association of socio-economic indicators and intestinal parasitism. Results More than half of the schoolchildren showed poliparasitism (52% and protozoan infections (65%. The prevalence of helminth infections was higher in children from Oaxaca (53% than in those from Sinaloa (33% (p Giardia duodenalis and Hymenolepis nana showed a high prevalence in both states. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar showed low prevalence. Children from lower-income families and with unemployed and less educated mothers showed higher risk of intestinal parasitism (odds ratio (OR 6.0, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.6–22.6; OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.5–8.2; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5–7.4 respectively. Defecation in open areas was also a high risk factor for infection (OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.0–3
Kevany, Sebastian; Murima, Oliver; Singh, Basant; Hlubinka, Daniel; Kulich, Michal; Morin, Stephen F; Sweat, Michael
Zimbabwe's HIV epidemic is amongst the worst in the world, and disproportionately effects poorer rural areas. Access to almost all health services in Zimbabwe includes some form of cost to the client. In recent years, the socio-economic and employment status of many Zimbabweans has suffered a serious decline, creating additional barriers to HIV treatment and care. We aimed to assess the impact of i) socio-economic status (SES) and ii) employment status on the utilization of health services in rural Zimbabwe. Data were collected from a random probability sample household survey conducted in the Mutoko district of north-western Zimbabwe in 2005. We selected variables that described the economic status of the respondent, including: being paid to work, employment status, and SES by assets. Respondents were also asked about where they most often utilized healthcare when they or their family was sick or hurt. Of 2,874 respondents, all forms of healthcare tended to be utilized by those of high or medium-high SES (65%), including private (65%), church-based (61%), traditional (67%), and other providers (66%) (P=0.009). Most respondents of low SES utilized government providers (74%) (P=0.009). Seventy-one percent of respondents utilizing health services were employed. Government (71%), private (72%), church (71%), community-based (78%) and other (64%) health services tended to be utilized by employed respondents (P=0.000). Only traditional health services were equally utilized by unemployed respondents (50%) (P=0.000). A wide range of health providers are utilized in rural Zimbabwe. Utilization is strongly associated with SES and employment status, particularly for services with user fees, which may act as a barrier to HIV treatment and care access. Efforts to improve access in low-SES, high HIV-prevalence settings may benefit from the subsidization of the health care payment system, efforts to improve SES levels, political reform, and the involvement of traditional
Hilmers, A; Bernabé-Ortiz, A; Gilman, RH; McDermott, AY; Smeeth, L; Miranda, JJ
: To investigate whether socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation predict overweight/obesity risk as well as the mediating effect of physical activity (PA) in the context of internal migration. Cross-sectional study of 587 rural-to-urban migrants participating in the PERU MIGRANT study. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression and structured equation modeling. Interaction effects of SES and acculturation were tested. Models were controlled for age, gender and education. Only SES ...
Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Liu, Yazheng; McCann, Adrian; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Kroeun, Hou; Ward, Mary; McNulty, Helene; Lynd, Larry D; Kitts, David D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J
Thiamin deficiency in infancy is the underlying cause of beriberi, which can be fatal without rapid treatment. Reports of thiamin deficiency are common in Cambodia; however, population representative data are unavailable. Because B-complex vitamin deficiencies commonly occur in combination, riboflavin was also investigated. We determined the biomarker status of thiamin and riboflavin in women of childbearing age in rural and urban Cambodia. We measured thiamin (erythrocyte thiamin diphosphate; TDP) and riboflavin (erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient; EGRac) status in a representative sample of Cambodian women (aged 20-45 y) in urban Phnom Penh (n = 146) and rural Prey Veng (n = 156), Cambodia, and, for comparison purposes, in a convenience sample of women in urban Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (n = 49). Thiamin insufficiency (TDP ≤ 90 nmol/L) was common among both urban (39%) and rural (59%) Cambodian women (P Cambodia. The unexpected finding of high riboflavin inadequacy status in Vancouver women warrants further investigation. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Full Text Available One of the goals of the project called "The milky river", which deals with the integral development of the dairy production, is to initiate the development of the sustainable and profitable production of milk and dairy products through grouping producers and supporting their position in the society they live in. Women are more than men engaged in the dairy production chain and they have a direct view of the whole dairy production process. So it was necessary to adapt the grouping to their needs, as well as to make some practical mechanisms of their involvement in the project activities. In this way, the strategy of the project helped with offering equal chances to women and men, and by reducing the gender inequality, it also helped with making a chance for a new life perspective for women. Through interviews and by focus-grouping the data were collected which represented the first picture of the dairy production in the region of Niš, including its gender characteristics, among other things. Two years later, the qualitative analysis of the indicators of the rural women’s social status in this region in the context of the realization of the project activities, has shown that there has been an important movement forward towards the gender equality which can be attributed to the successful project implementation. Women, as an important factor in the dairy production chain, seem to be joined and encouraged. They seem to be empowered at the level of their knowledge decision making and autonomous activity taking through various forms of education, joint farmer group work, as well as through various forms of cooperation with supporting institutions and other partners within the project activity framework. The overwhelming impression seems to be that joint work and cooperation are necessary conditions for the development of any individual farmers’ production, as well as for the referent rural development which requires the support of all the
Zhang, Qi; Jones, Sonya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Andrews, Margaret
Children in food-insecure households are more likely to experience poorer health function and worse academic achievement. To investigate the relation between economic environmental factors and food insecurity among children, we examined the relation between general and specific food prices (fast food, fruits and vegetables, beverages) and risk of low (LFS) and very low food security (VLFS) status among low-income American households with children. Using information for 27,900 child-year observations from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 linked with food prices obtained from the Cost of Living Data of the Council for Community and Economic Research, formerly known as the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers' Association, fixed effects models were estimated within stratified income groups. Higher overall food prices were associated with increased risk of LFS and VLFS (coefficient = 0.617; P security status, even when controlling for general food prices. Thus, although food price changes were strongly related to food security status among low-income American households with children, the effects were not uniform across types of food. These relations should be accounted for when implementing policies that change specific food prices.
He, Zhonghu; Ji, Chengye
To assess the influence of orphanhood due to AIDS on children's nutritional status, psychological well-being and life quality, and to explore appropriate intervention strategies in China. In 2005, 186 children aged 8-15 years (93 AIDS orphans and 93 non-orphans) from a rural area of Henan Province were surveyed in a cross-sectional and matched pairs study on nutritional status, psychological health and life quality. We found no compelling evidence for poorer nutritional status in orphans. The nutritional status of both orphans and non-orphans was extremely poor according to the prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and anaemia. Depression, low self-esteem and lower quality of life were more frequent in orphans. These differences mainly existed in boys' groups. No significant differences were found between paternal, maternal and double orphans, or orphans in orphanages or extended families. Regression analysis revealed that orphanhood leads to low self-esteem and more depression which contributes to lower quality of life and mediates the association between orphanhood and quality of life. The high prevalence of poor nutritional status indicates that basic material needs of children, including AIDS orphans, are not met in rural China. Psychological problems were prominent among orphans and had become the most important contributor of lower life quality. Boys were at least as vulnerable as girls. The living conditions of all children in rural China must be improved; school-based care and support are crucial and would be a cost-effective way to improve the overall life quality of AIDS orphans.
Deng, Zhu-Juan; Mao, Guang-Xu; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Li; Chen, Yan
To investigate the nutritional status of school-age children in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015 and to evaluate the effectiveness of the "Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area" (hereinafter referred to as "Nutrition Improvement Program"). The nutritional status of school-age children aged 6-14 years was evaluated after the implementation of the "Nutrition Improvement Program" and the changing trend of the children's nutritional status was analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed on the monitoring data of the school-age children aged 6-14 years in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015, which came from "The Nutrition and Health Status Monitoring and Evaluation System of Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area". In 2015, female students aged 6-7 years in rural area in Hunan, China had a significantly greater body length than the rural average in China (PNutrition Improvement Program", the prevalence rate of growth retardation decreased (PNutrition Improvement Program" has achieved some success, but the nutritional status of school-age children has not improved significantly. Overweight/obesity and malnutrition are still present. Therefore, to promote the nutritional status of school-age children it is recommended to improve the measures for the "Nutrition Improvement Program".
Damle, Satyawan G; Patil, Anil; Jain, Saru; Damle, Dhanashree; Chopal, Nilika
To evaluate and compare the oral health status and the impact of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education among school children of urban and rural areas of Maharashtra, India. A total of 200 school children in the age group 12-15 years were selected by stratified random sampling technique from two schools and were further divided into two groups: Group A (urban school) and Group B (rural school). Both the groups were again subdivided into control group and study group. Supervised toothbrushing was recommended for both the groups. The toothbrushing teaching program included session on oral health education, individual toothbrushing instructions, and supervised toothbrushing. Dental caries increment, plaque scores, and gingival status were assessed as per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (1997), Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index, and Loe-Silness Gingival Index (1963), respectively. Cronbach's alpha, Chi-square test, paired t-test, and unpaired t-test were utilized for data analysis. The mean plaque and gingival score reduction was significantly higher in the study groups as compared to the control groups. An increase in the mean of Decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) and Decayed, missing, filled teeth and surfaces (DMFS) scores throughout the study period was seen in children who participated in study. Oral health education was effective in establishing good oral health habits among school children and also in enhancing the knowledge of their parents about good oral health.
Keegan Theresa HM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unprecedented declines in invasive breast cancer rates occurred in the United States between 2001 and 2004, particularly for estrogen receptor-positive tumors among non-Hispanic white women over 50 years. To understand the broader public health import of these reductions among previously unstudied populations, we utilized the largest available US cancer registry resource to describe age-adjusted invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence trends for non-Hispanic white women aged 50 to 74 years overall and by county-level rural/urban and poverty status. Methods We obtained invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence data for the years 1997 to 2004 from 29 population-based cancer registries participating in the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries resource. Annual age-adjusted rates were examined overall and by rural/urban and poverty of patients' counties of residence at diagnosis. Joinpoint regression was used to assess trends by annual quarter of diagnosis. Results Between 2001 and 2004, overall invasive breast cancer incidence fell 13.2%, with greater reductions among women living in urban (-13.8% versus rural (-7.5% and low- (-13.0% or middle- (-13.8% versus high- (-9.6% poverty counties. Most incidence rates peaked around 1999 then declined after second quarter 2002, although in rural counties, rates decreased monotonically after 1999. Similar but more attenuated patterns were seen for in situ cancers. Conclusion Breast cancer rates fell more substantially in urban and low-poverty, affluent counties than in rural or high-poverty counties. These patterns likely reflect a major influence of reductions in hormone therapy use after July 2002 but cannot exclude possible effects due to screening patterns, particularly among rural populations where hormone therapy use was probably less prevalent.
Hausauer, Amelia K; Keegan, Theresa H M; Chang, Ellen T; Glaser, Sally L; Howe, Holly; Clarke, Christina A
Unprecedented declines in invasive breast cancer rates occurred in the United States between 2001 and 2004, particularly for estrogen receptor-positive tumors among non-Hispanic white women over 50 years. To understand the broader public health import of these reductions among previously unstudied populations, we utilized the largest available US cancer registry resource to describe age-adjusted invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence trends for non-Hispanic white women aged 50 to 74 years overall and by county-level rural/urban and poverty status. We obtained invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence data for the years 1997 to 2004 from 29 population-based cancer registries participating in the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries resource. Annual age-adjusted rates were examined overall and by rural/urban and poverty of patients' counties of residence at diagnosis. Joinpoint regression was used to assess trends by annual quarter of diagnosis. Between 2001 and 2004, overall invasive breast cancer incidence fell 13.2%, with greater reductions among women living in urban (-13.8%) versus rural (-7.5%) and low- (-13.0%) or middle- (-13.8%) versus high- (-9.6%) poverty counties. Most incidence rates peaked around 1999 then declined after second quarter 2002, although in rural counties, rates decreased monotonically after 1999. Similar but more attenuated patterns were seen for in situ cancers. Breast cancer rates fell more substantially in urban and low-poverty, affluent counties than in rural or high-poverty counties. These patterns likely reflect a major influence of reductions in hormone therapy use after July 2002 but cannot exclude possible effects due to screening patterns, particularly among rural populations where hormone therapy use was probably less prevalent.
Shriver, Lenka H.; Harrist, Amanda W.; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie; Barrett, Aimee
Background: Rural children are at a particular high risk for obesity. Given the importance of exercise in obesity and chronic disease prevention, this study evaluated the level and relationship between physical activity and fitness in a sample of rural third graders. The second purpose of the study was to determine potential differences in…
Jiang, Xuran; Li, Dongguang; Boyce, William; Pickett, William
Context: The impact of alcohol consumption on risks for injury among rural adolescents is an important and understudied public health issue. Little is known about whether relationships between alcohol consumption and injury vary between rural and urban adolescents. Purpose: To examine associations between alcohol and medically attended injuries by…
Cesani, Maria Florencia; Garraza, Mariela; Bergel Sanchís, María Laura; Luis, María Antonia; Torres, María Fernanda; Quintero, Fabián Aníbal; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith
The purpose of this study was to analyze whether nutritional status and body composition varies according to the environment of residence (urban or rural) of children in the Brandsen district (Argentina). Weight, height, arm circumference and tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were performed in 1368 schoolchildren aged 3 to 14. NHANES III reference was used to estimate nutritional status -underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity- and to evaluate body composition -deficit and excess of adipose (DA, EA) and muscular (DM, EM) tissues of the arm-. Central fat distribution (CFD) was estimated using the subscapular-tricipital index. A structured questionnaire was implemented to evaluate socio-environmental characteristics. Nutritional categories based on body size and body composition were compared between urban and rural areas of residence using Chi-squared tests (χ2). The results indicated for the total sample: 1.1% underweight, 6.9% stunting, 0.4% wasting, 12.1% overweight, 9.7% obesity, 22.0% DM, 2.5% EM, 0.1% DA, 17.6% EA, and 8.5% CFD. Significant differences between urban and rural areas were found only for CFD. The socio-environmental analysis showed that while access to public services and housing quality was significantly better in the urban area, a considerable number of city households lived under deficient conditions, lacked health insurance and had low socioeconomic level. Fifty-three percent of the undernourished children had DM without urban-rural significant differences, and none of them showed DA. In the overweight plus obesity group, 62.8% presented EA, 6.4% EM, 4.7% DM, and 22.8% CFD. The highest percentages of DM and CFD were recorded in rural areas (p = 0.00). We conclude that the child population shows the "double burden" of malnutrition. The environment of residence does not promote any differentiation in the nutritional status. Nevertheless, the increment of central adiposity and, in some cases of muscle deficit in rural
Maria Florencia Cesani
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze whether nutritional status and body composition varies according to the environment of residence (urban or rural of children in the Brandsen district (Argentina. Weight, height, arm circumference and tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were performed in 1368 schoolchildren aged 3 to 14. NHANES III reference was used to estimate nutritional status -underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity- and to evaluate body composition -deficit and excess of adipose (DA, EA and muscular (DM, EM tissues of the arm-. Central fat distribution (CFD was estimated using the subscapular-tricipital index. A structured questionnaire was implemented to evaluate socio-environmental characteristics. Nutritional categories based on body size and body composition were compared between urban and rural areas of residence using Chi-squared tests (χ2. The results indicated for the total sample: 1.1% underweight, 6.9% stunting, 0.4% wasting, 12.1% overweight, 9.7% obesity, 22.0% DM, 2.5% EM, 0.1% DA, 17.6% EA, and 8.5% CFD. Significant differences between urban and rural areas were found only for CFD. The socio-environmental analysis showed that while access to public services and housing quality was significantly better in the urban area, a considerable number of city households lived under deficient conditions, lacked health insurance and had low socioeconomic level. Fifty-three percent of the undernourished children had DM without urban-rural significant differences, and none of them showed DA. In the overweight plus obesity group, 62.8% presented EA, 6.4% EM, 4.7% DM, and 22.8% CFD. The highest percentages of DM and CFD were recorded in rural areas (p = 0.00. We conclude that the child population shows the "double burden" of malnutrition. The environment of residence does not promote any differentiation in the nutritional status. Nevertheless, the increment of central adiposity and, in some cases of muscle deficit in
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Background: The current trend towards increasing urbanization due to urban migration among the scheduled tribes in developing countries like India should be reflected in differential nutritional outcomes and its associated factors. The aims of the present study are to investigate the nutritional status amongst Shabar children living in urban, rural and forest habitats and factors associated to nutritional state.
Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among 577 Shabar children (boys and girls aged 5 to 19 years (258 urban, 195 rural and 124 forest. The anthropometric nutritional indices, socio-economic condition and disease prevalence were used to evaluate the present conditions.
Results: The results revealed that children from forest regions had the highest prevalence of under-nutrition followed by their rural and urban counterparts, 33.87%, 24.62% and 20.16%, respectively. Malaria prevalence in forest areas and economic conditions in rural and urban habitats might have been significantly related to underweight and stunting.
Conclusions: To reduce the prevalence and the extent of under-nutrition, it is essential to improve the economic conditions and to simultaneously carry out measurements for reducing malaria specifically in forest habitats.
Yu, Jinbei; Luo, Nan; Wang, Zan; Lin, Weihong
To investigate the current status of epilepsy treatment and the efficacy and adverse effects of phenobarbital therapy in rural areas of Northern China. A total of 2192 patients diagnosed with convulsive epilepsy were recruited from seven different rural regions in Jilin Province, China to investigate the current status of epilepsy treatment, and 1379 of them were enrolled in a standard phenobarbital therapy trial. Patients were selected according to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, and medical records for all patients were collected and analyzed before the standard treatment was started. Patients were followed up monthly, and efficacy in 1218 patients was analyzed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. More patients had the initial seizure in juveniles than in adults, and 40.72% of the 2192 patients were not receiving any treatment before the treatment trial. The efficacy of phenobarbital increased and adverse effects decreased within the treatment period. Among the 349 patients who were followed up for 12 months from the beginning of the phenobarbital treatment, seizures were decreased by more than 75% in 71.3% of patients using a low-to-medium dose of phenobarbital. Major adverse effects of phenobarbital included mild exhaustion, drowsiness, dizziness and headache. Standardized long-term and regular administration of phenobarbital at a low-to-medium dose can be used as an effective, economic and safe treatment against epilepsy in rural areas.
Full Text Available China is an urban and rural social model country. In the past three decades, the developing speed of rural areas has been much slower than urban areas, which may lead to the differences in dietary patterns. This study aimed to investigate the disparities of dietary structures from urban and rural children, and to analyze the effects of different dietary patterns on their adverse outcome. Among 1590 students, aged 11 years to 17 years, from primary and middle schools, a cross-sectional study was conducted. There were three dietary patterns recognized: Westernization structure, meat diet structure, and Western and Chinese structure. Compared with rural students, more urban students were in the highest categories of the whole dietary patterns (p < 0.001. Overweight/obesity and central adiposity were more prevailing among urban students, while rural students had a more prevailing risk of bone fracture (p < 0.05. Through the adjustment for all confounding factors, the Westernization structure could increase the risk of overweight/obesity and central adiposity, the meat structure could increase the risk of elevated blood pressure/hypertension, while the risk of low bone mineral quality could be reduced by the Chinese and Western structure. In conclusion, a rural-urban disparity in dietary patterns was found in our study, and different dietary patterns were associated with the risk of some adverse outcomes. Therefore, there were different prevalences of the adverse outcomes between rural and urban students.
Schaefer, Andrew; Mattingly, Marybeth; Johnson, Kenneth M.
The negative consequences of growing up in a poor family are well known. Poor children are less likely to have timely immunizations, have lower academic achievement, are generally less engaged in school activities, and face higher delinquency rates in adolescent years. Each of these has adverse impacts on their health, earnings, and family status…
Tyoalumun, Kpurkpur; Abubakar, Sani; Christopher, Nongu
Intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent in developing countries, contributing to high incidence of malnutrition and morbidity. This study aimed to find the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and their association with nutritional status of children in Benue State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study conducted from January-June 2016, among 418 school children under-5 years of age. Anthropometric data, height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age Z-scores from each child and fecal samples were collected and screened for intestinal parasites using standard laboratory methods. Among the intestinal parasitic infections detected, the prevalence of E. histolytica was higher (51.0% and 29.0%) than all other parasites encountered in rural and urban pupils (Prural and urban pupils were 43.8% and 32.9%; 64.4% and 39.0% rural and urban pupils were underweight (WAZ<-2), while 30.3% and 24.3% were wasted (WHZ<-2). Infected children had significantly (P<0.05) higher z-scores than the uninfected children. Benue State is among the Nigerian states with the highest burden of tropical diseases with a current plan of elimination implemented through mass drug administration. This study identify/evaluate some essential information that will support the planning and implementation of the State's ongoing efforts.
Boulos, C; Salameh, P; Barberger-Gateau, P
This study aimed to assess the nutritional status, measured by MNA, and its association with socio-demographic indicators and health related characteristics of a representative sample of community dwelling elderly subjects. Cross-sectional study. Community dwelling elderly individuals living in rural communities in Lebanon. 1200 elderly individuals aged 65 years or more. Socio-demographic indicators and health related characteristics were recorded during a standardized interview. Nutritional status was assessed through Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). The 5-item GDS score and the WHO-5-A score were used to assess mood, whereas Mini Mental Status (MMS) was applied to evaluate cognitive status. The prevalence of malnutrition and risk of malnutrition was 8.0% respective 29.1% of the study sample. Malnutrition was significantly more frequent in elderly subjects aged more than 85 years, in females, widowed and illiterate people. Moreover, participants who reported lower financial status were more often malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Regarding health status, poor nutritional status was more common among those reporting more than three chronic diseases, taking more than three drugs daily, suffering from chronic pain and those who had worse oral health status. Also, depressive disorders and cognitive dysfunction were significantly related to malnutrition. After multivariate analysis following variables remained independently associated to malnutrition: living in the governorate of Nabatieh (ORa 2.30, 95% CI 1.35 -3.93), reporting higher income (ORa 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.97), higher number of comorbidities (ORa 1.22, 95% CI 1.12-1.32), chronic pain (ORa 1.72, 95% CI 1.24-2.39), and depressive disorders (ORa 1.66, 95% CI 1.47-1.88). On the other hand, better cognitive functioning was strongly associated with decreased nutritional risk (ORa 0.27, 95%CI 0.17-0.43). Our results highlighted the close relationship between health status and malnutrition. The
Eunice N. Toko
Full Text Available Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD status and its association with pregnancy outcomes in malaria holoendemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa is poorly defined. We examined this association and any potential interaction with malaria and helminth infections in an ongoing pregnancy cohort study in Kenya. The association of maternal plasma 25(OHD status with pregnancy outcomes and infant anthropometric measurements at birth was determined in a subset of women (n = 63. Binomial and linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between maternal plasma 25(OHD and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Fifty-one percent of the women had insufficient (<75 nmol/L and 21% had deficient (<50 nmol/L plasma 25(OHD concentration at enrollment. At birth, 74.4% of the infants had insufficient and 30% had deficient plasma 25(OHD concentrations, measured in cord blood. Multivariate analysis controlling for maternal age and body mass index (BMI at enrollment and gestational age at delivery found that deficient plasma 25(OHD levels were associated with a four-fold higher risk of stunting in neonates (p = 0.04. These findings add to the existing literature about vitamin D and its association with linear growth in resource-limited settings, though randomized clinical trials are needed to establish causation.
Srivastava, Tripti K; Waghmare, Lalitbhushan S; Jagzape, Arunita T; Rawekar, Alka T; Quazi, Nazli Z; Mishra, Ved Prakash
Higher education has undergone profound transformation due to recent technological advancements. Resultantly health profession students have a strong base to utilize information technology for their professional development. Studies over recent past reflect a striking change in pattern of technology usage amongst medical students expanding prospects exponentially by e-books, science apps, readymade power-point presentations, evidence based medicine, Wikipedia, etc. Aim & Objectives: The study was undertaken with an aim to explore the general perceptions of medical students and faculties about the role of Information Communication Technology in higher education and to gauge student's dependence on the same for seeking knowledge and information. Cross-sectional, mixed research design. The study was conducted in Department of Physiology, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University). Study population included students (n=150) and teaching faculty (n=10) of I(st) phase of medical curriculum. The survey questionnaire (10 closed ended and 5 open ended items) and Focus group discussion (FGD) captured the perceptions and attitudes of students and faculties respectively regarding the role and relevance of technology in higher education. Quantitative analysis of closed ended responses was done by percentage distribution and Qualitative analysis of open ended responses and FGD excerpts was done by coding and observing the trends and patterns respectively. Overall the observations were in favour of increasing usability and dependability on technology as ready reference tool of subject information. Learners valued text books and technology almost equally and regarded computer training as a desirable incorporation in medical curriculum. Role of technology in education should be anticipated and appropriate measures should be undertaken for its adequate and optimum utilization by proper training of students as well as facilitators.
Kalanda, B.F.; Buuren, S. van; Verhoeff, F.H.; Brabin, B.J.
Objective: To describe fetal growth centiles in relation to maternal malaria and HIV status, using cross sectional measurements at birth. Design: A cross sectional study of pregnant women and their babies. Data on maternal socioeconomic status and current pregnancy, including HIV status and newborn
Kulig, Judith C; Edge, Dana; Joyce, Brenda
Community resiliency is a theoretical framework useful for describing the process used by communities to address adversity. A mixed-method 2-year case study was conducted to gather information about community resiliency in 2 rural communities. This article focuses on the themes generated from qualitative interviews with 55 members of these communities. The participants viewed community as a place of interdependence and interaction. The majority saw community resiliency as the ability to address challenges. Characteristics included physical and social infrastructure, population characteristics, conceptual characteristics, and problem-solving processes. Barriers included negative individual attitudes and lack of infrastructure in rural communities. Nurses could play a key role in enhancing the resiliency of rural communities by developing and implementing programs based on the Community Resiliency Model, which was supported in this study.
Leonardo Vidal Andreato
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the level of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of Brazilian higher education institution servers. Method: 134 public servants (80 men and 54 women were evaluated to estimate body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist/hip ratio (WHR, aerobic fitness and blood pressure at rest. Results: most of the servers were classified as insufficiently active (62%. BMI results show a high prevalence of obesity (39% mild and 33% moderate. WC showed a prevalence of high (30% and very high risk (27%, and WHR showed a prevalence of high (28% or very high risk (12%. The ergometric test showed that 41% of the servers presented very poor (17% or poor (24% aerobic fitness and 23%, regular aerobic fitness. Considering blood pressure, 15% of the servers presented blood pressure considered as borderline and 30% considered as hypertension. No associations were found between physical condition (active or inactive with WC (χ2 = 3.4, p = 0.179, WHR (χ2 = 7.0, p = 0.073, aerobic fitness (χ2 = 4.3, p = 0.368 and blood pressure (χ2 = 2.9, p = 0.734. Although no association was observed between physical activity and BMI (χ2 = 7.6, p = 0.062, significance values (p < 0.07 suggested an association trend, with worse ratings for the sedentary group. Closing remarks: among higher education institution servers, there is high prevalence of physical inactivity, obesity and risk factors, and the majority of the sample had aerobic fitness below recommended levels.
Full Text Available Background: Iodine being an integral component of the thyroid hormones is crucial for physical and mental development. Iodine status & intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion, as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. Aims &Objectives: To investigate the body Iodine status of rural primary school children and its association with their intelligence level (IQ & academic achievement. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in three Government schools in the district of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India among 300 children (150 boys & 150 girls aged 6 to 8 years studying in class II to IV. Urinary iodine was estimated by the 'Wet Digestion Method (Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. IQ level was evaluated using Ravens Progressive Matrices test. Academic achievement was evaluated on the marks obtained in the term end examinations. Result: 12.34%, 15.6% & 24.3% of the children were in the severe, moderate & mild range of iodine deficiency in terms of urinary iodine excretion. It was found that 85.67% & 14.33% of the children were consumed iodated salt ≥15 ppm &< 15 ppm of iodine level. 0.67%, 5% & 27.34 % of them achieved A, B & C of IQ grades, respectively.62.34 % of the students achieved first three academic grades. Body Iodine status of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.01 with IQ grades and academic achievement. Academic achievement of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.05 with their intelligence level. Conclusions: Poor body Iodine status of the rural primary school children may be one of the causes for their poor intelligence level and academic achievement.
Full Text Available Background: Iodine being an integral component of the thyroid hormones is crucial for physical and mental development. Iodine status & intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion, as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. Aims &Objectives: To investigate the body Iodine status of rural primary school children and its association with their intelligence level (IQ & academic achievement. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in three Government schools in the district of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India among 300 children (150 boys & 150 girls aged 6 to 8 years studying in class II to IV. Urinary iodine was estimated by the 'Wet Digestion Method (Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. IQ level was evaluated using Ravens Progressive Matrices test. Academic achievement was evaluated on the marks obtained in the term end examinations. Result: 12.34%, 15.6% & 24.3% of the children were in the severe, moderate & mild range of iodine deficiency in terms of urinary iodine excretion. It was found that 85.67% & 14.33% of the children were consumed iodated salt ≥15 ppm &< 15 ppm of iodine level. 0.67%, 5% & 27.34 % of them achieved A, B & C of IQ grades, respectively.62.34 % of the students achieved first three academic grades. Body Iodine status of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.01 with IQ grades and academic achievement. Academic achievement of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.05 with their intelligence level. Conclusions: Poor body Iodine status of the rural primary school children may be one of the causes for their poor intelligence level and academic achievement.
Anaam, Mahyoub Ali; Alhammadi, Abdullah Othman; Kwairan, Abdulwahab Awadh
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the status of quality assurance and accreditation systems within higher education institutions in Yemen. The paper initially describes the stages of development and changes that have occurred in the field of quality and accreditation in Yemeni higher education. The paper shows that no formal…
Shalini, C N; Murthy, N S; Shalini, S; Dinesh, R; Shivaraj, N S; Suryanarayana, S P
The objective of the study was to assess the impact of the mid day meal program by assessing the nutritional status of school students aged 5-15 years receiving midday meals in rural schools and compare them with those in urban schools in Bengaluru, India. This cross sectional study involved a sample of 4378 students from government and aided schools. Weight and height were measured and compared with ''means'' and ''percentiles'' of expected standards as endorsed by the Indian Association of Pediatrics. Regression coefficients were also estimated to assess the rate of growth. In all age groups and in both sexes, the observed mean weight and height were below the expected standards. The study findings showed that 13.8% and 13.1% of the studied students were underweight and stunted, respectively (below the third percentile for weight and height for age). A higher proportion of rural students were below the third percentile for both weight and height compared with urban students (weight: 16.3% and 11.5%; height: 17.0% and 10.0%; P nutrition in children and indirectly impact school performance, attendance and literacy.
Jun 4, 2007 ... The vitamin A and ocular lesions in 98 rural Nigerians who excreted microfilariae in their skin tissues and had at least one ... rate of 18 (69.2%) occurred among adult males with leopard skin. ... E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ouattara, Seydou
%), 12 years (57%), 18 years (58%), 35-44 years (49%). In addition, 10% of 35-44-year-olds had CPI score 4. Rural participants had more severe periodontal scores than did urban individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of community-based oral disease prevention...
Crawford, Emily R.; Hairston, Sarah L.
This case study takes place in a Midwestern, politically conservative rural community shortly after a highly contested presidential election. Like other communities, Paisano has experienced demographic change in a relatively short time. Meat processing plants and construction jobs proliferate, attracting migrant workers. One day, secondary school…
Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Surin, Johari; Sallam, Atiya A.; Abdullah, Ariffin W.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.
A cross-sectional study was carried out on 241 primary schoolchildren in Pahang, Malaysia to update their vitamin A status and to investigate the association of poor vitamin A status with their health and socioeconomic factors. All children were screened for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood samples were collected and vitamin A status was assessed. Socioeconomic data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires. The results showed that 66 (27.4%) children had low serum retinol levels (Malaysia. Vitamin A supplementation and treatment of intestinal parasitic infections should be distributed periodically to these children to improve their health and nutritional status. PMID:20810815
Morris, Lorenzo; And Others
This fourth report of the Institute for the Study of Educational Policy examines the status of black Americans in higher education from 1970 to 1979, with special consideration to a discussion of a basis of parity which takes into account the rapid growth of the black population and to enrollment patterns in traditionally black institutions of…
Julia A. Dilley
Full Text Available Background . Tobacco use rates are exceptionally high among indigenous people in North America. Alaska Native, low socio-economic status (SES and rural communities are high-priority populations for Alaska's Tobacco Control program. Design . For the purpose of better informing tobacco control interventions, we conducted a descriptive study to describe high-priority groups using prevalence-based and proportion-based approaches. Methods . With data from 22,311 adults interviewed for Alaska's 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, we used stratified analysis and logistic regression models to describe the current use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (SLT (including iq'mik, a unique Alaska Native SLT product among the 3 populations of interest. Results . “Population segments” were created with combinations of responses for Alaska Native race, SES and community type. We identified the highest prevalence and highest proportion of tobacco users for each type of tobacco by “segment.” For cigarette smoking, while the largest proportion (nearly one-third of the state's smokers are non-Native, high SES and live in urban settings, this group also has lower smoking prevalence than most other groups. Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents had both high smoking prevalence (48% and represented a large proportion of the state's smokers (nearly 10%. Patterns were similar for SLT, with non-Native high-SES urban residents making up the largest proportion of users despite lower prevalence, and Alaska Native, low SES, rural residents having high prevalence and making up a large proportion of users. For iq'mik use, Alaska Native people in rural settings were both the highest prevalence and proportion of users. Conclusion . While Alaska Native race, low SES status and community of residence can be considered alone when developing tobacco control interventions, creating “population segments” based on combinations of factors may be
Martinez-Perez, Frances A.
Educational inequalities that exist due to socioeconomic status impact the academic achievement of students and contribute to the achievement gap. This study attempted to examine how the predictors of grade level and socioeconomic status impact the passing of state standardized reading and mathematics exams. The 2012-2013 State of Texas Academic…
Sparks, P. Johnelle; Sparks, Corey S.
This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults we...
Full Text Available during the 14-d exposure. The biochemical anti-oxidative status of the plant specimens were investigated using quantitative analysis of total antioxidant capacity, peroxidase and activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase. The anti-oxidative defence...
Moody, Lara; Satterwhite, Emily; Bickel, Warren K
The burden of substance use and especially the unmatched rates of overdoses in rural Central Appalachia highlight the need for innovative approaches to curb the initiation to drug misuse and to address current substance use disorders. Effective substance use interventions involve a thorough understanding of the region. In Central Appalachia, many of the barriers to treatment are shared with other rural and impoverished areas, including a lack of access to health care and lack of health care providers with specialized training. Parts of Appalachia also present their own considerations, including the challenges of fostering trust and encouraging treatment-seeking in communities with dense, long-term, place-based social and family networks. Current policies and interventions for substance use have been largely inadequate in the region, as evidenced by continued increases in substance use and substance-related deaths, especially related to nonmedical prescription drug use and increasing heroin use. The authors discuss ways in which rural life, poverty, identity, and values in Appalachia have influenced substance use and treatment and propose strategies and interventions to improve outcomes.
Full Text Available Maternal and child under nutrition is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries, resulting in substantial increases in mortality and overall disease burden. The aim of this baseline survey was to determine the association between selected maternal characteristics, maternal nutritional status and children's nutritional status.A survey with a cross sectional design was conducted between September and October 2012 in Hula, Ethiopia. The study subjects were 197 mothers of children between the ages of 6 and 23 months. Weight and height (mothers or recumbent length (children were measured using calibrated, standardized techniques. Seven percent of children were below -2 weight for height Z score (WHZ, 11.5% were below -2 height for age Z score (HAZ and 9.9% were below -2 weight for age Z score (WAZ. Maternal anthropometrics were associated with child nutritional status in the bivariate analysis. Maternal BMI (r = 0.16 P = 0.02 and educational status (r = 0.25 P = 0.001 were correlated with WHZ of children while maternal height (r = 0.2 P = 0.007 was correlated with HAZ of children. After multivariate analysis, children whose mothers had salary from employment had a better WHZ score (P = 0.001 and WAZ score (P<0.001. Both maternal BMI and maternal height were associated with WHZ (P = 0.04 and HAZ (P = 0.01 score of children.Having a mother with better nutritional status and salaried employment is a benefit for the nutritional status of the child. The interrelationship between maternal and child nutritional status stresses the value of improving maternal nutritional status as this should improve both maternal and child health outcomes. Therefore strategies to improve nutritional status of children should also include improving the nutritional status of the mother and empowering her financially.
Negash, Canaan; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J; Belachew, Tefera; Hailemariam, Tewodros G
Maternal and child under nutrition is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries, resulting in substantial increases in mortality and overall disease burden. The aim of this baseline survey was to determine the association between selected maternal characteristics, maternal nutritional status and children's nutritional status. A survey with a cross sectional design was conducted between September and October 2012 in Hula, Ethiopia. The study subjects were 197 mothers of children between the ages of 6 and 23 months. Weight and height (mothers) or recumbent length (children) were measured using calibrated, standardized techniques. Seven percent of children were below -2 weight for height Z score (WHZ), 11.5% were below -2 height for age Z score (HAZ) and 9.9% were below -2 weight for age Z score (WAZ). Maternal anthropometrics were associated with child nutritional status in the bivariate analysis. Maternal BMI (r = 0.16 P = 0.02) and educational status (r = 0.25 P = 0.001) were correlated with WHZ of children while maternal height (r = 0.2 P = 0.007) was correlated with HAZ of children. After multivariate analysis, children whose mothers had salary from employment had a better WHZ score (P = 0.001) and WAZ score (Pchildren. Having a mother with better nutritional status and salaried employment is a benefit for the nutritional status of the child. The interrelationship between maternal and child nutritional status stresses the value of improving maternal nutritional status as this should improve both maternal and child health outcomes. Therefore strategies to improve nutritional status of children should also include improving the nutritional status of the mother and empowering her financially.
Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the association between visual impairment (VI and mental health or social engagement in older adults living in rural Thailand. METHODS: Data for this cross-sectional study were drawn from a community survey conducted in 2015 in Saraburi Province, Thailand. Participants were 327 adults aged ≥50y. VI was assessed using presenting distance visual acuity. Mental health and social engagement were evaluated in face-to-face interviews using validated questionnaires. After determining the prevalence of VI and relevant sociodemographic characteristics, multivariate regression analysis was used to evaluate the impact of VI on mental health and social engagement. RESULTS: The prevalence of VI was 18.3%. Major causes were refractive error (58.3% and cataract (35%. Factors associated with VI in the crude analysis were: older age [odds ratio (OR 8.08], unemployment (OR 2.72, widowhood (OR 2.47, being divorced/separated (OR 3.27, smoking (OR 2.09 and disability in activities of daily living (OR 2.35. Protective factors were undergoing eye screening at least once a year (P=0.029 and obesity (P=0.005. VI was significantly associated with low social engagement (adjusted OR 4.13 but not with poor mental health (P>0.05. CONCLUSION: Although VI older adults reported less participation in social activities, there is no significant association between VI and poor mental health. Annual eye examinations may prevent VI in older adults. Information about employment and anti-smoking should be targeted to older adults with VI.
Wang, Cuili; Kane, Robert L; Xu, Dongjuan; Li, Lingui; Guan, Weihua; Li, Hui; Meng, Qingyue
Prior evidence suggests geographic disparities in the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status between countries, between regions and between urban and rural areas. We postulated its effect would also vary by micro-geographic locations (indicated by mountain areas, plain areas and the edge areas) in a Chinese minority area. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a multistage random sample of 1474 school children aged 5-12 years in Guyuan, China. Child nutritional status was measured by height-for-age z scores (HAZ). Linear mixed models were used to examine its association with place of residence and maternal education. Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status and the level of socioeconomic composition were found. Children living in mountain areas had poorer nutritional status, even after adjusting for demographic (plain versus mountain, β = 0.16, P = 0.033; edge versus mountain, β = 0.29, P = 0.002) and socioeconomic factors (plain versus mountain, β = 0.12, P = 0.137; edge versus mountain, β = 0.25, P = 0.009). The disparities significantly widened with increasing years of mothers' schooling (maternal education*plain versus mountain: β = 0.06, P = 0.007; maternal education*edge versus mountain: β = 0.07, P = 0.005). Moreover, the association between maternal education and child nutrition was negative (β = -0.03, P = 0.056) in mountain areas but positive in plain areas (β = 0.02, P = 0.094) or in the edge areas (β = 0.04, P = 0.055). Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status increase with increasing level of maternal education and the effect of maternal education varies by micro-geographic locations, which exacerbates child health inequity. Educating rural girls alone is not sufficient; improving unfavorable conditions in mountain areas might make such investments more effective in promoting child health. Nutrition programs targeting to the least educated groups in plain and in edge areas would be
Young, Sera; Murray, Katherine; Mwesigwa, Julia; Natureeba, Paul; Osterbauer, Beth; Achan, Jane; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Clark, Tamara; Ades, Veronica; Plenty, Albert; Charlebois, Edwin; Ruel, Theodore; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane; Cohan, Deborah
Objective Maternal nutritional status is an important predictor of birth outcomes, yet little is known about the nutritional status of HIV-infected pregnant women treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We therefore examined the relationship between maternal BMI at study enrollment, gestational weight gain (GWG), and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) among 166 women initiating cART in rural Uganda. Design Prospective cohort. Methods HIV-infected, ART-naïve pregnant women were enrolled between 12 and 28 weeks gestation and treated with a protease inhibitor or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based combination regimen. Nutritional status was assessed monthly. Neonatal anthropometry was examined at birth. Outcomes were evaluated using multivariate analysis. Results Mean GWG was 0.17 kg/week, 14.6% of women experienced weight loss during pregnancy, and 44.9% were anemic. Adverse fetal outcomes included low birth weight (LBW) (19.6%), preterm delivery (17.7%), fetal death (3.9%), stunting (21.1%), small-for-gestational age (15.1%), and head-sparing growth restriction (26%). No infants were HIV-infected. Gaining pregnancy, grossly inadequate GWG was common. Infants whose mothers gained <0.1 kg/week were at increased risk for LBW, preterm delivery, and composite adverse birth outcomes. cART by itself may not be sufficient for decreasing the burden of adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected women. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00993031 PMID:22879899
Kabir, M; Moslehuddin, M; Howlader, A A
The study provides the socioeconomic status of women and factors which affect their choice of contraception using data collected from 423 working women in the Savan Upazila, Bangladesh. 72% of the sample included women under 30 years old, and 53% of the sample and attended primary school and were equal to their husbands educationally. 46.1% were employed in the garment industry, 13.8% in construction, 14/45% in services, and 17% in farm or hand craft activities. 80% lived in rural areas and did not own land. 600% were from a nuclear family. The average husband's income was Taka 1501. 18% had an affiliation with some organization. 42% were using contraceptives, and 58% discussed use of family planning (FP). 66% shared decision making with their husbands about their children's education and marriage. Logistic analysis is used to determine the probability of contraceptive use on the following independent variables: age, wife's education, membership in a society, contract with FP workers, participation in income-generating activities, visit of FP workers, visit of health workers, family type, husband's education and monthly income, and ownership of electricity. The results indicate that women working outside the house have improved their status in the family and the community, and this more equal status and the presence of good husband and wife communication are intervening variables through which economic and demographic factors effect fertility. Contract with FP workers was very closely related to use of contraceptives.
Somi, Masha F; Butler, James R G; Vahid, Farshid; Njau, Joseph; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim
Malaria's relationship with socioeconomic status at the macroeconomic level has been established. This is the first study to explore this relationship at the microeconomic (household) level and estimate the direction of association. Malaria prevalence was measured by parasitemia, and household socioeconomic status was measured using an asset based index. Results from an instrumental variable probit model suggest that socioeconomic status is negatively associated with malaria parasitemia. Other variables that are significantly associated with parasitemia include age of the individual, use of a mosquito net on the night before interview, the number of people living in the household, whether the household was residing at their farm home at the time of interview, household wall construction, and the region of residence. Matching estimators indicate that malaria parasitemia is associated with reduced household socioeconomic status.
Smith, Paul H.
This paper discusses a piece of qualitative research that examined the narratives that a group of learners articulated when they discussed their experiences of studying on a relatively low-status, vocationally related higher education programme. These students were school-based teaching assistants who were undertaking foundation degree study at a…
Ziaei, S; Contreras, M; Zelaya Blandón, E; Persson, L.Å,; Hjern, A; Ekström, EC
To evaluate the associations of women's autonomy and social support with infant and young child feeding practices (including consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages) and nutritional status in rural Nicaragua. Cross-sectional study. Feeding practices and children's nutritional status were evaluated according to the WHO guidelines complemented with information on highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Women's autonomy was assessed by a seventeen-item...
Hilmers, Angela; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; McDermott, Ann Y; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime
To investigate whether socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation predict overweight/obesity risk as well as the mediating effect of physical activity (PA) in the context of internal migration. Cross-sectional study of 587 rural-to-urban migrants participating in the PERU MIGRANT study. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression and structured equation modeling. Interaction effects of SES and acculturation were tested. Models were controlled for age, gender and education. Only SES was a significant predictor of overweight/obesity risk. Lower SES decreased the odds of being overweight/obese by 51.4 %. This association did not vary by gender nor was it explained by PA. Mechanisms underlying the relationship between SES and overweight/obesity may differ depending on the geographic location and sociocultural context of the population studied. Research on internal migration and health would benefit from the development of tailored acculturation measures and the evaluation of exploratory models that include diet.
Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency affects 1 billion people globally. It has an important role in bone homeostasis, brain development and modulation of the immune system and yet the impact of antenatal vitamin D deficiency on infant outcomes is poorly understood. We assessed the association of 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels (25-OHD in late pregnancy and early infant growth and developmental outcomes in rural Vietnam.A prospective cohort study of 960 women who had previously participated in a double-blind cluster randomized controlled trial of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in rural Vietnam was undertaken. Maternal 25-OHD concentration was measured at 32 weeks gestation, and infants were followed until 6 months of age. Main outcome measures were cognitive, motor, socio-emotional and language scores using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edition, and infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age.60% (582/960 of women had 25-OHD levels <75 nmol/L at 32 weeks gestation. Infants born to women with 25-OHD deficiency (<37.5 nmol/L had reduced developmental language scores compared to those born to women who were vitamin D replete (≥75 nmol/L (Mean Difference (MD -3.48, 95% Confidence Interval (CI -5.67 to -1.28. For every 25 nmol increase in 25-OHD concentration in late pregnancy, infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age decreased by 0.08 (95% CI -0.15 to -0.02.Low maternal 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels during late pregnancy are of concern in rural Vietnam, and are associated with reduced language developmental outcomes at 6 months of age. Our findings strengthen the evidence for giving vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy.
Hanieh, Sarah; Ha, Tran T; Simpson, Julie A; Thuy, Tran T; Khuong, Nguyen C; Thoang, Dang D; Tran, Thach D; Tuan, Tran; Fisher, Jane; Biggs, Beverley-Ann
Vitamin D deficiency affects 1 billion people globally. It has an important role in bone homeostasis, brain development and modulation of the immune system and yet the impact of antenatal vitamin D deficiency on infant outcomes is poorly understood. We assessed the association of 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels (25-OHD) in late pregnancy and early infant growth and developmental outcomes in rural Vietnam. A prospective cohort study of 960 women who had previously participated in a double-blind cluster randomized controlled trial of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in rural Vietnam was undertaken. Maternal 25-OHD concentration was measured at 32 weeks gestation, and infants were followed until 6 months of age. Main outcome measures were cognitive, motor, socio-emotional and language scores using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edition, and infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age. 60% (582/960) of women had 25-OHD levels language scores compared to those born to women who were vitamin D replete (≥75 nmol/L) (Mean Difference (MD) -3.48, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) -5.67 to -1.28). For every 25 nmol increase in 25-OHD concentration in late pregnancy, infant length-for-age z scores at 6 months of age decreased by 0.08 (95% CI -0.15 to -0.02). Low maternal 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels during late pregnancy are of concern in rural Vietnam, and are associated with reduced language developmental outcomes at 6 months of age. Our findings strengthen the evidence for giving vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the status of entrepreneurship courses offered in education schools. It provides recommendations for how to address the existing challenges by developing entrepreneurship initiatives in education schools. Design/Methodology/Approach: A survey was circulated to the management of all education schools…
Folds, Lea D.; Tanner, C. Kenneth
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations among socioeconomic status, highest-level mathematics course, absenteeism, student mobility and measures of work readiness of high school seniors in Georgia. Study participants were 476 high school seniors in one Georgia county. The full regression model explained 27.5% of the variance in…
Ritter, Zachary S.
International students add a great deal of cultural and intellectual diversity to college campuses, but they also bring racial stereotypes and socio-economic status hierarchies that can affect campus climate. Forty-seven interviews with Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean international students were conducted. Results indicated that a majority of…
Understanding the Relationships between Gender Inequitable Behaviours, Childhood Trauma and Socio-Economic Status in Single and Multiple Perpetrator Rape in Rural South Africa: Structural Equation Modelling.
Jewkes, Rachel; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama-Shai, Nwabisa; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin
Interventions to prevent rape perpetration must be designed to address its drivers. This paper seeks to extend understanding of drivers of single and multiple perpetrator rape (referred to here as SPR and MPR respectively) and the relationships between socio-economic status, childhood trauma, peer pressure, other masculine behaviours and rape. 1370 young men aged 15 to 26 were interviewed as part of the randomised controlled trial evaluation of Stepping Stones in the rural Eastern Cape. We used multinomial to compare the characteristics of men who reported rape perpetration at baseline. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine pathways to rape perpetration. 76.1% of young men had never raped, 10.0% had perpetrated SPR and 13.9% MPR. The factors associated with both MPR and SPR (compared to never having raped) were indicators of socio-economic status (SES), childhood trauma, sexual coercion by a woman, drug and alcohol use, peer pressure susceptibility, having had transactional sex, multiple sexual partners and being physically violent towards a partner. The SEM showed the relationship between SES and rape perpetration to be mediated by gender inequitable masculinity. It was complex as there was a direct path indicating that SES correlated with the masculinity variable directly such that men of higher SES had more gender inequitable masculinities, and indirect path mediated by peer pressure resistance indicated that the former pertained so long as men lacked peer pressure resistance. Having a higher SES conveyed greater resistance for some men. There was also a path mediated through childhood trauma, such that men of lower SES were more likely to have a higher childhood trauma exposure and this correlated with a higher likelihood of having the gender inequitable masculinity (with or without the mediating effect of peer pressure resistance). Both higher and lower socio-economic status were associated with raping. Prevention of rape perpetration must
Masa, Rainier; Chowa, Gina; Nyirenda, Victor
In Zambia, more people living with HIV now have access to lifesaving antiretroviral therapy than ever before. However, progress in HIV treatment and care has not always resulted in lower mortality. Adherence remains a critical barrier to treatment success. The objective of this study was to examine the barriers and facilitators of antiretroviral therapy adherence, particularly the role of household economic status. The study included a cross-sectional sample of 101 people living with HIV (PLHIV) in two rural communities in eastern Zambia. Adherence was measured using patient self-assessment and pharmacy information. Household economic status included components such as occupation, income, assets, food security, and debt. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to examine the associations between household economic factors and adherence. Our findings suggest that the role of economic status on adherence appears to be a function of the economic component. Debt and non-farming-related occupation were consistently associated with non-adherence. The association between assets and adherence depends on the type of asset. Owning more transportation-related assets was consistently associated with non-adherence, whereas owning more livestock was associated with self-reported adherence. Additionally, living in a community with fewer economic opportunities was associated with non-adherence. The associations between place of residence and pharmacy refill adherence and between transportation assets and self-reported adherence were statistically significant. Improving adherence requires a multifaceted strategy that addresses the role of economic status as a potential barrier and facilitator. Programmes that provide economic opportunities and life-skills training may help PLHIV to overcome economic, social, and psychological barriers.
Kaczmarek, M; Pacholska-Bogalska, J; Kwaśniewski, W; Kotarski, J; Halerz-Nowakowska, B; Goździcka-Józefiak, A
In recent years, more scholarly attention has been paid to a growing range of geographic characteristics as antecedents of inequalities in women's health and well-being. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in health-related quality of life between rural and urban Polish postmenopausal women. Using a data set from a reproductive health preventive screening of 660 postmenopausal women aged 48-60 years, inhabitants of Wielkopolska and Lublin provinces, the association of place of residence, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors with health-related quality of life (the SF-36 instrument) was evaluated using ANCOVA models and multiple logistic regression analysis with backward elimination steps. A consistent rural-to-urban gradient was found in all indices of physical health functioning and well-being but not in vitality, social functioning, emotional role and mental health scales with women in large cities being likely to enjoy the highest and those in villages the lowest quality of life. The rural-urban disparities in health-related quality of life were mediated by women's socioeconomic status. The likelihood of worse physical and mental functioning and well-being was 2-3 times greater for the low socioeconomic status rural women than their counterparts from more affluent urban areas. The educational attainment and employment status were the most powerful independent risk factors for health-related quality of life in both rural and urban women. Better understanding of the role of socioeconomic status that acts as a mediator in the association between area of residence and health-related quality of life may be useful in developing public health policies on health inequalities among women at midlife. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
The present study aims to find out the awareness of Higher Secondary School English teachers on Multiple Intelligences. Each teacher needs to be aware of different forms of intelligences. The objectives of the study are to find out the level of awareness of Higher Secondary School teachers on Multiple Intelligences and to compare the awareness on Multiple Intelligences among Higher Secondary School teachers based on gender and locality. Survey method is used for collecting data from 150 highe...
Public Voice for Food and Health Policy, Washington, DC.
Using five key indicators of nutritional status (dietary intake, biochemical tests for circulating levels of nutrients or their metabolites, anthropometric measures, low birth weight and infant mortality rates, and food, health, and income assistance program participation rates and benefit levels), this 1-year research project identified national,…
Clark, Samuel J.; Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier; Houle, Brian; Thorogood, Margaret; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Angotti, Nicole; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa; Williams, Jill; Menken, Jane; Tollman, Stephen
Background: To inform health care and training, resource and research priorities, it is essential to establish how non-communicable disease risk factors vary by HIV-status in high HIV burden areas; and whether long-term anti-retroviral therapy (ART) plays a modifying role. Methods: As part of a
Belesova, Kristine; Gasparrini, Antonio; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer; Wilkinson, Paul
Reduction of child undernutrition is one of the Sustainable Development Goals for 2030. Achievement of this goal may be made more difficult in some settings by climate change through adverse impact on agricultural productivity. However, there is only limited quantitative evidence on the link between household crop harvests and child nutrition. We examined this link in a largely subsistence farming population in rural Burkina Faso. Data on the middle-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of 975 children ≤5 years of age, household crop yields, and other parameters were obtained from the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Multilevel modelling was used to assess the relationship between MUAC and the household crop harvest in the year 2009 estimated in terms of kilocalories per adult equivalent per day (kcal/ae/d). Fourteen percent of children had a MUAC change.
Nagata, Jason M; Fiorella, Kathryn J; Salmen, Charles R; Hickey, Matthew D; Mattah, Brian; Magerenge, Richard; Milner, Erin M; Weiser, Sheri D; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship among socioeconomic status, social support, and food insecurity in a rural Kenyan island community. A cross-sectional random sample of 111 female heads of households representing 583 household members were surveyed in Mfangano Island, Kenya from August to October 2010 using adaptations of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. In multiple linear regression models, less instrumental social support, defined as concrete direct ways people help others (B = -0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.45 to -0.17), and decreased ownership scale based on owning material assets (B = -2.93; 95% CI -4.99 to -0.86) were significantly associated with increased food insecurity, controlling for age, education, marital status, and household size. Social support interventions geared at group capacity and resilience may be crucial adjuncts to improve and maintain the long term food security and health of persons living in low-resource regions.
C N Shalini
Full Text Available Background: The objective of the study was to assess the impact of the mid day meal program by assessing the nutritional status of school students aged 5-15 years receiving midday meals in rural schools and compare them with those in urban schools in Bengaluru, India. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study involved a sample of 4378 students from government and aided schools. Weight and height were measured and compared with ′′means′′ and ′′percentiles′′ of expected standards as endorsed by the Indian Association of Pediatrics. Regression coefficients were also estimated to assess the rate of growth. Results: In all age groups and in both sexes, the observed mean weight and height were below the expected standards. The study findings showed that 13.8% and 13.1% of the studied students were underweight and stunted, respectively (below the third percentile for weight and height for age. A higher proportion of rural students were below the third percentile for both weight and height compared with urban students (weight: 16.3% and 11.5%; height: 17.0% and 10.0%; P < 0.05 for both weight and height. Only 2.4% and 3.1% were above 97 th percentile for weight and height. The rate of growth of height for weight showed a declining trend with increasing age in all the groups. Discussion: The authors believe that the magnitude of the burden of undernourished students as seen in this study would have been much greater in the absence of the midday meal program. Conclusion: Greater involvement of the private sector to assist the government would help augment nutrition in children and indirectly impact school performance, attendance and literacy.
Bennett, Keisa; McElroy, Jane A; Johnson, Andrew O; Munk, Niki; Everett, Kevin D
Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) smoke cigarettes at higher rates than the general population. Historically, research in SGM health issues was conducted in urban populations and recent population-based studies seldom have sufficient SGM participants to distinguish urban from rural. Given that rural populations also tend to have a smoking disparity, and that many SGM live in rural areas, it is vitally important to understand the intersection of rural residence, SGM identity, and smoking. This study analyzes the patterns of smoking in urban and rural SGM in a large sample. We conducted an analysis of 4280 adult participants in the Out, Proud, and Healthy project with complete data on SGM status, smoking status, and zip code. Surveys were conducted at 6 Missouri Pride Festivals and online in 2012. Analysis involved descriptive and bivariate methods, and multivariable logistic regression. We used GIS mapping to demonstrate the dispersion of rural SGM participants. SGM had higher smoking proportion than the non-SGM recruited from these settings. In the multivariable model, SGM identity conferred 1.35 times the odds of being a current smoker when controlled for covariates. Rural residence was not independently significant, demonstrating the persistence of the smoking disparity in rural SGM. Mapping revealed widespread distribution of SGM in rural areas. The SGM smoking disparity persists among rural SGM. These communities would benefit from continued research into interventions targeting both SGM and rural tobacco control measures. Recruitment at Pride Festivals may provide a venue for reaching rural SGM for intervention.
Full Text Available Introduction: Infancy is the period of growth and development of a child. Inadequate care, malnutrition and infections in this crucial period lead to high neonatal and infant deaths and also high prevalence of morbidities. But data on childhood and infant mortality and morbidities are still not adequate in North Eastern part of India, so this cross sectional study was initiated. Objectives: To assess the nutritional status and morbidity profile of infants and to study the associated socio-economic factors. Material and methods: Total 450 singleton infants under 1 year of age in 30 cluster villages were selected for the study. Data collected about socioeconomic condition of the family, infants’ nutrition and morbidity status and anthropometric measurements were done. Results: Out of 450 infants 24% were found to be underweight while 13.3% were stunted and 7.1% were wasted. Female infants were found to be more malnourished. A statistically significant association was found between gender and nutritional status. ARI (20% and Diarrhoea (14% were the most common morbidities among the study population and 6 to 8 months age group was the most vulnerable for these common morbidities. Conclusion: the study revealed that high percentages of the infants were suffering from malnutrition with female predominance and respiratory diseases, diarrhoea and malnutrition were the major causes of morbidity during the first year of life.
J. C. Welman
Full Text Available This article reports on the academic success of 13 590 Technikon SA students and the importance of their "work status" (employed/unemployed in light of the co-operative education philosophy of technikons. The data was collected by means of the students’ registration records, and analysed using a CHAID-analysis. The results indicated that the variable "work status" features second last on the list of nine successful variables for predicting academic performance. Generally, it would appear that the employment practice for technikon students is not as important a requirement for academic success as the co-operative education philosophy would like it to be. Opsomming Hierdie artikel lewer verslag oor die akademiese sukses van 13 590 Technikon SA studente en die belangrikheid van hul “werkstatus” (werkend/werkloos in die lig van die koöperatiewe onderwysfilosofie van technikons. Die inligting wat deur middel van die studente se registrasierekords ingesamel is, is ontleed met ‘n CHAID-ontleding. Die resultate toon dat die veranderlike “werkstatus” tweede laaste op die lys van nege veranderlikes voorkom wat akademiese verrigting voorspel. Oor die algemeen blyk dit dat die indiensnemingpraktyk van technikonstudente nie so ‘n belangrike vereiste vir akademiese sukses is as wat die koöperatiewe onderwysfilosofie dit sou wou hê nie.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of influenza vaccination in Japan has declined over the past several decades. It is essential to identify community-specific factors that affect attitudes toward vaccination, but such parameters have not yet been fully determined in Japan. The present study used the Health Belief Model (HBM to identify perceptions of influenza vaccination in a rural Japanese community. Methods All subjects were residents of a rural town in the southern part of Kyoto, Japan. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 846 randomly chosen households (containing 2,665 subjects. The survey explored gender, age, history of influenza, and factors associated with obtaining influenza vaccination, based on the HBM. Results A total of 1,182 valid responses (response rate, 44.4% were received. Sources of information that were associated with vaccination decisions were medical facilities for children (OR = 4.21; 95% CI: 1.17-15.1, workplaces for adults (OR = 2.40; 95% CI: 1.22-4.75, medical facilities, town office and family for elderly subjects (OR = 6.18; 95% CI: 2.42-15.7, OR = 5.59; 95% CI: 2.26-13.8 and OR = 3.29; 95%CI: 1.01-10.6. Subjects, in all age groups, who strongly agreed that the vaccine was effective were significantly more likely to be vaccinated (OR = 10.5; 95%CI: 2.68-41.7 for children; OR = 8.85; 95%CI: 4.61-16.9 for adults; OR = 19.9; 95%CI: 8.28-48.0 for the elderly. The vaccination rate of elderly subjects who expressed concerns regarding adverse vaccine effects (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.15-0.78 or who were worried about practical barriers to the vaccination process (OR = 0.13; 95% CI: 0.05-0.31 was significantly lower than in other populations. Conclusions Our results indicate that vaccination coverage can be increased if accurate information on personal risk, severity of influenza illness, and efficacy of vaccination are provided by responsible information sources that are easily accessible. Such sources
Tran, Thach; Biggs, Beverley; Tran, Tuan; Dwyer, Terry; Casey, Gerard; Tho, Dang Hai; Hetzel, Basil
Abstract Objective To establish iodine status among pregnant women in rural northern Viet Nam and explore psychosocial predictors of the use of iodized salt in their households. Methods This prospective study included pregnant women registered in health stations in randomly-selected communes in Ha Nam province. At recruitment ( 28 weeks of gestation) a urine specimen was collected to measure urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and iodized salt use was assessed. Predictors were explored through univariable analyses and multivariable linear and logistic regression. Findings The 413 pregnant women who provided data for this study had a median UIC of 70 µg/l; nearly 83% had a UIC lower than the 150 µg/l recommended by the World Health Organization; only 73.6% reported using iodized salt in any form in their households. Iodized salt use was lower among nulliparous women (odds ratio, OR: 0.56; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.32–0.96); less educated women (OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.16–0.71); factory workers or small-scale traders (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.31–0.86), government workers (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.13–0.89) and women with common mental disorders at recruitment (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.38–0.98). Conclusion The decline in the use of iodized salt in Viet Nam since the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme was suspended in 2005 has placed pregnant women and their infants in rural areas at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. PMID:22084527
Cohen, Steven A; Cook, Sarah K; Sando, Trisha A; Sabik, Natalie J
Rural-urban health disparities are well-documented and particularly problematic for older adults. However, determining which specific aspects of rural or urban living initiate these disparities remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess associations between place-based characteristics of rural-urban status and health among adults age 65+. Data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were geographically linked to place-based characteristics from the American Community Survey. Self-reported health (SRH), obesity, and health checkup within the last year were modeled against rural-urban status (distance to nearest metropolitan area, population size, population density, percent urban, Urban Influence Codes [UIC], Rural-Urban Continuum Codes [RUCC], and Rural-Urban Commuting Area [RUCA]) using generalized linear models, accounting for covariates and complex sampling, overall, and stratified by area-level income. In general, increasing urbanicity was associated with a reduction in negative SRH for all 7 measures of rural-urban status. For low-income counties, this association held for all measures and characteristics of rural-urban status except population density. However, for high-income counties, the association was reversed-respondents living in areas of increasing urbanicity were more likely to report negative SRH for 4 of the 7 measures (RUCC, UIC, RUCA, and percent urban). Findings were mixed for the outcome of obesity, where rural areas had higher levels, except in low-income counties, where the association between rurality and obesity was reversed (OR 1.033, 95%CI: 1.002-1.064). These results suggest that rural-urban status is both a continuum and multidimensional. Distinct elements of rural-urban status may influence health in nuanced ways that require additional exploration in future studies. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.
Ongley, Edwin D.; Zhang Xiaolan; Yu Tao
Estimates of non-point source (NPS) contribution to total water pollution in China range up to 81% for nitrogen and to 93% for phosphorus. We believe these values are too high, reflecting (a) misuse of estimation techniques that were developed in America under very different conditions and (b) lack of specificity on what is included as NPS. We compare primary methods used for NPS estimation in China with their use in America. Two observations are especially notable: empirical research is limited and does not provide an adequate basis for calibrating models nor for deriving export coefficients; the Chinese agricultural situation is so different than that of the United States that empirical data produced in America, as a basis for applying estimation techniques to rural NPS in China, often do not apply. We propose a set of national research and policy initiatives for future NPS research in China. - Estimation techniques used in China for non-point source pollution are evaluated as a basis for recommending future policies and research in NPS studies in China.
Scott, Jean Pearson; Kivett, Vira R.
Examined effect of sex differences on morale of 257 older rural widows and widowers. Sex of respondent was not found to affect morale; however, perceived financial status and self-rated health had significant direct effects. Widows and widowers reporting higher morale had higher perceived financial status and rated their health as good.…
Kryst, Erica L.; Kotok, Stephen; Bodovski, Katerina
Disparities in educational outcomes exist between students in rural areas as compared to students in urban settings. While there is some evidence that these rural disparities are present in eastern Europe, little is known about young peoples' lives in the rural areas of this region. This paper presents an analysis of science achievement by…
Ortagus, Justin C.
Research has suggested that changes in rankings have an impact on admissions outcomes at colleges and universities. This study incorporates organization theory to explain these mechanisms and other external forces driving the pursuit of prestige in higher education. Beyond updating and replicating previous findings related to the impact of college…
Tang, Shangfeng; Hossain, Akmal; Fan, Yang; Akter, Mahmuda
In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p = 0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036–1.378) and microcredit membership (p = 0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037–1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p < 0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981–2.460) were more likely to be anemic. PMID:27517045
Full Text Available In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p=0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036–1.378 and microcredit membership (p=0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037–1.386. Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p<0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981–2.460 were more likely to be anemic.
Song, Xiaolei; Zou, Guanyang; Chen, Wen; Han, Siqi; Zou, Xia; Ling, Li
To describe the self-reported health status and service utilisation of employed, retired and unemployed migrants in Guangzhou, a megacity in southern China. A cross-sectional study adapted from the National Health Service Survey was conducted between September and December in 2014. Based on the distribution of occupation of migrants, multistage sampling was used to recruit individuals. Logistic regression was applied to explore the factors influencing their service utilisation. Of 2906 respondents, 76.6% were employed, 9.2% retired and 14.2% unemployed. Only 8.1% reported having an illness in the previous 2 weeks, and 6.5% reported having been hospitalised in the previous year. Employed migrants had the lowest recent physician consultation rate (3.4%) and the lowest annual hospitalisation rate (4.5%) (P rates (6.8% and 14.5% respectively, P employed (1.5%) and unemployed migrants (3.4%) (P gender, employment status remained significant in explaining the recent two-week treatment-seeking behaviour of migrants (P Employed migrants make the least use of health services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bishwajit, Ghose; Yaya, Sanni; Tang, Shangfeng; Hossain, Akmal; Fan, Yang; Akter, Mahmuda; Feng, Zhanchun
In Bangladesh, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and remains a significant public health concern. Being a high anemia prevalent country, numerous efforts have been made to confront the issue especially among women and children by both local and international actors. Though the situation has substantially improved in recent years, a staggering number of adult women are currently living with anemia. The etiology of anemia is a multifactorial problem and has been proposed to be associated with various household, societal, economic, cultural factors apart from dietary habits. However, evidence regarding the household arrangements and socioeconomic determinants of anemia is scarce, especially in the context of Bangladesh. To this end, we utilized the 2011 demographic and health survey data to explore the association between anemia status and selected demographic, socioeconomic, and household characteristics. Our result showed significant correlation of anemia with both sociodemographic and household characteristics. Among the sociodemographic variables the following were found to be significantly associated with anemia status: age (p = 0.014; OR = 1.195; 95% CI = 1.036-1.378) and microcredit membership (p = 0.014; OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.037-1.386). Regarding the household arrangements, women utilizing biomass fuel for cooking (p < 0.019; OR = 1.82; 95% CI = 0.981-2.460) were more likely to be anemic.
Niu Shuwen; Zhang Xin; Zhao Chunsheng; Niu Yunzhu
As energy consumption is closely related to all aspects of human life, it becomes the standard by which to measure people's quality of life and the national development level. Based on the “energy ladder” hypothesis, we conducted questionnaire surveys in the Western Loess Plateau of China, and accessed a considerable amount of information about the energy usage of rural and urban households. The results show that the per capita effective heat is 323.3, 282.8, 250.0 and 123.6 kgce in the provincial capital, medium-sized cities, county towns and rural areas, respectively. The energy ladder feature is obvious. Using 719 sample data, the multiple regression analysis was conducted between per capita effective heat and two independent variables including per capita income and the attributes of energy used, the parameter estimation of the cross-quadratic model produced more significant effects. The three-dimensional graph clearly shows the differences in living standards and survival status between urban and rural households. High-income residents in urban areas consume more high-quality energy, they enjoy an affluent lifestyle. While low-income households in rural areas obtain less effective heat, and use poor quality fuels, they are still at the level of basic survival. - Highlights: ► The per capita effective heat is 323.3.4, 282.8, 250.0 and 123.6 kgce in four types of region. ► The energy attributes score of a rural resident is 60% of that of an urban resident. ► The energy ladder feature is obvious. ► The effective heat is the result of two independent variables interacting together. ► The differences in living standards and survival status between urban and rural households are great.
Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, Jose Antonio; Usuanlele, Mary-Theresa; Rueda, Maria Mercedes; Canales, Maritza; Gyorkos, Theresa W
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Honduras and efforts are underway to decrease their transmission. However, current evidence is lacking in regards to their prevalence, intensity and their impact on children's health. To evaluate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections and their association with nutritional status in a sample of Honduran children. A cross-sectional study was done among school-age children residing in rural communities in Honduras, in 2011. Demographic data was obtained, hemoglobin and protein concentrations were determined in blood samples and STH infections investigated in single-stool samples by Kato-Katz. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height-for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) to determine stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively. Among 320 children studied (48% girls, aged 7-14 years, mean 9.76 ± 1.4) an overall STH prevalence of 72.5% was found. Children >10 years of age were generally more infected than 7-10 year-olds (p = 0.015). Prevalence was 30%, 67% and 16% for Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms, respectively. Moderate-to-heavy infections as well as polyparasitism were common among the infected children (36% and 44%, respectively). Polyparasitism was four times more likely to occur in children attending schools with absent or annual deworming schedules than in pupils attending schools deworming twice a year (pHonduras and despite current efforts were highly prevalent in the studied community. The role of multiparasite STH infections in undermining children's nutritional status warrants more research.
A. S. Cobets’
Full Text Available Perspective directions of integration state policy of Ukraine Higher Education into the European educational space and steps of implementation are determined. It is analysed the current state of higher agricultural education and integration current state policy of Ukraine Higher Education into the European educational space which allowed to identify problems and highlighted areas for further development. It is considered that it is necessary to establish cooperation in the triangle «production education – science», extend the impact of scientists and experts on the content of educational sector, come educational standards to needs and challenges of the real economy, as upgrades of industry standards for higher education, forming curricula, new teaching methods. Professionals training is possible only in a simulation of modern production principles, including the European Union. It is necessary to strengthen the position of agricultural universities as international educational and scientific centers in the framework of the European educational space. This refers to the practice and teaching students abroad, teachers training, participation in international programs, joint research. Ukrainian agricultural education system has competitive advantages despite the general neglect and can be considered unique in the educational market, it has conditions for the creation and testing of innovative products for different agroclimatic zones within a region. This provides the results of knowledgebased real conditions of agricultural production. Among the weaknesses of the education system it is possible to note a lack of cooperation with employers, lack of logistical and information and communication resources, mismatch of modern innovative designs and high technologies. It is therefore necessary to overcome the gap between the content of education and the real needs of innovation economy. In general, you need to ensure longterm practice
Balogun, Titilola B; Yakubu, Alhassan M
Good nutrition is necessary for the growth and development of preschool children. In sub-Saharan Africa, however, data on the determinants of their nutritional status are lacking. A cross-sectional survey of 366 preschool children was conducted in a rural community in northern Nigeria. Anthropometric measurements of the children were taken and information about feeding practices, immunization and parental education was obtained from their mothers. Fifty-two percent were stunted, 30% were underweight and 25% were wasted. Recent history of diarrhea was associated with wasting (OR = 2.66, p Children whose fathers had postsecondary education were less likely to be stunted (OR = 0.45, p = 0.01) or underweight (OR = 0.37, p = 0.005). Promoting exclusive breastfeeding, preventing recurrent diarrhea and including fathers in community interventions will improve the health of children in this community. © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Probst, Janice C; Barker, Judith C; Enders, Alexandra; Gardiner, Paula
Children's health is influenced by the context in which they live. We provide a descriptive essay on the status of children in rural America to highlight features of the rural environment that may affect health. We compiled information concerning components of the rural environment that may contribute to health outcomes. Areas addressed include the economic characteristics, provider availability, uniquely rural health risks, health services use, and health outcomes among rural children. Nearly 12 million children live in the rural United States. Rural counties are economically disadvantaged, leading to higher rates of poverty among rural versus urban children. Rural and urban children are approximately equally likely to be insured, but Medicaid insures a higher proportion of children in rural areas. While generally similar in health, rural children are more likely to be overweight or obese than urban children. Rural parents are less likely to report that their children received preventive medical or oral health visits than urban parents. Rural children are more likely to die than their urban peers, largely due to unintentional injury. Improving rural children's health will require both increased public health surveillance and research that creates solutions appropriate for rural environments, where health care professionals may be in short supply. Most importantly, solutions must be multisectoral, engaging education, economic development, and other community perspectives as well as health care. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.
Das, V N R; Siddiqui, N A; Kumar, N; Verma, N; Verma, R B; Dinesh, D S; Kar, S K; Das, P
A pilot study of lymphatic filariasis was conducted in two contiguous villages of Patna district in Bihar situated at the side of the river Ganges, known to be endemic for lymphatic filariasis, to study present status of transmission parameters of filariasis. Of the 1872 persons examined, 8.4% were found asymptomatic but microfilaraemic. Morbidity pattern due to filarial infection showed an increase with advancement of age and significantly high in males as compared to female (p < 0.001). Acute and chronic filarial disease was observed as 0.5% and 9% respectively. Microfilaria was found in 10% of acute and 11.2% of chronic filarial cases. The Mf rate was found to be 9.9% in males and 9.0% in females respectively. The parasite species was identified as W. bancrofti. The vector fauna surveyed show highest prevalence of vector species of Cx. quinquefasciatus (43%) in both domestic as well as predomestic area in the community. Other species like Cx. vishnui and Ma. uniformis were also seen. Each household and predomestic area was searched for mosquito fauna at night. The infection rate in vectors was found to be 14% and infectivity rate (L3) was 8%. The filariasis cases detected in the study were treated with 12 days course of DEC 6 mg/kg body weight.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the current situation and the main challenges in existing Business Intelligence (BI and Data Warehouse (DW curricula. On the base of this research, certain recommendations for their improvement are made. At the same time, the paper gives concrete guidelines for the development of a clear and comprehensive graduate profile with knowledge, skills and social competence in the field of BI and DW. This is particularly beneficial for universities and other higher education institutions, that seek to offer courses with high quality content and tendencies, adequate to the latest education, in the concerned area. The paper is written within the Erasmus plus KA2 project “Developing the innovative methodology of teaching Business Informatics” (DIMBI, 2015-1-PL01-KA203-0016636.
Shi, William Y; Yap, Cheng-Hon; Newcomb, Andrew E; Hayward, Philip A; Tran, Lavinia; Reid, Christopher M; Smith, Julian A
We examined whether socioeconomic status and rurality influenced outcomes after coronary surgery. We identified 14,150 patients undergoing isolated coronary surgery. Socioeconomic and rurality data was obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and linked to patients' postcodes. Outcomes were compared between categories of socioeconomic disadvantage (highest versus lowest quintiles, n= 3150 vs. 2469) and rurality (major cities vs. remote, n=9598 vs. 839). Patients from socioeconomically-disadvantaged areas experienced a greater burden of cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes, obesity and current smoking. Thirty-day mortality (disadvantaged 1.6% vs. advantaged 1.6%, p>0.99) was similar between groups as was late survival (7 years: 83±0.9% vs. 84±1.0%, p=0.79). Those from major cities were less likely to undergo urgent surgery. There was similar 30-day mortality (major cities: 1.6% vs. remote: 1.5%, p=0.89). Patients from major cities experienced improved survival at seven years (84±0.5% vs. 79±2.0%, p=0.010). Propensity-analysis did not show socioeconomic status or rurality to be associated with late outcomes. Patients presenting for coronary artery surgery from different socioeconomic and geographic backgrounds exhibit differences in their clinical profile. Patients from more rural and remote areas appear to experience poorer long-term survival, though this may be partially driven by the population's clinical profile. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of the present analyze is to underline the importance of a systemic approach of knowledge communication in eLearning academic sphere, in order to improve the efficiency and quality of research. Atthe same time, we intend to notice and shape the evolution of both teacher and learner status in higher education. The rhetoric about knowledge is often associated with organization and transfer of information. To provide students with a modern understanding of the „shared values” in higher education has become an important objective. The teachers have to adapt new forms of e-delivery of discipline content, form and inform about e-resources for learning. We have to develop national strategies and add value to the role ofuniversity as a key factor in e-learning. The knowledge transfer at academic level, can be fully realized only when information encounters in the student the optimal set of tools designed to facilitate learning, and an individual style of thinking, so as to analyze fundamental questions and to be able to validate or invalidate the information. The teacher status evolves from content expert to metacognition expert, from guide in valuable information search to knowledge communicator. The present analyze reflects some aspects of the consequences that new forms of communication evolved during transition from traditional to e-academic environment.
WHO has released prescriptive child growth standards for, among others, BMI-for-age (BMI-FA), mid-upper arm circumference-for-age, and weight velocity. The ability of these indices to predict child mortality remains understudied, although growth velocity prognostic value underlies current growth monitoring programs. The study aims were first to assess, in children under 2, the independent and combined ability of these indices and of stunting to predict all-cause mortality within 3 mo, and second, the comparative abilities of weight-for-length (WFL) and BMI-FA to predict short-term (<3 mo) mortality. We used anthropometry and survival data from 2402 children aged between 0 and 24 mo in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo with high malnutrition and mortality rates and limited nutritional rehabilitation. Analyses used Cox proportional hazard models and receiver operating characteristic curves. Univariate analysis and age-adjusted analysis showed predictive ability of all indices. Multivariate analysis without age adjustment showed that only very low weight velocity [HR = 3.82 (95%CI = 1.91, 7.63); P < 0.001] was independently predictive. With age adjustment, very low weight velocity [HR = 3.61 (95%CI = 1.80, 7.25); P < 0.001] was again solely retained as an independent predictor. There was no evidence for a difference in predictive ability between WFL and BMI-FA. This paper shows the value of attained BMI-FA, a marker of wasting status, and recent weight velocity, a marker of the wasting process, in predicting child death using the WHO child growth standards. WFL and BMI-FA appear equivalent as predictors.
Hadley, Craig; Belachew, Tefera; Lindstrom, David; Tessema, Fasil
Several related demographic trends are occurring in developing countries: youth comprise a large portion of populations, fertility rates are declining, and urban dwellers are increasing. As fertility rates decline and populations age, the decline in the ratio of young dependents to working age adults is expected to free up household resources, which can be invested in human capital, including youth nutritional wellbeing. We test this hypothesis in a sample of youth (n = 1,934) in Southwestern Ethiopia. Multiple measures of achieved growth and nutritional status are explored (weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), body mass index (BMI) and body mass index for age z-score (BMIZ), weight for age z-score (WAZ), and height for age z-score (HAZ)). In multivariable models controlling for the effects of income, age, gender, and youth is workloads, youth living in rural settings had significantly lower weight (1.24 kg lighter), MUAC (0.67 cm lower), BMI (0.45 BMI lower), BMIZ (0.27 lower), HAZ (0.14 HAZ lower), and WAZ (0.3 WAZ lower) than urban youth (all P dependency ratio households, results show that youth in households with the highest dependency ratios were estimated to be 1.3 kg lighter, have 0.67 cm smaller MUAC, and BMI that was 0.59 lower (all Pdependency. These results may point toward increasing levels of human capital investments in Ethiopian youth as fertility levels decline and populations urbanize. Am J Phys Anthropol 144:643–652, 2011. PMID:21404240
Comparing a small, rural school with sometimes less than 100 students to a massive inner-city school with greater than 2,500 students is crude and untenable. There are simply too many variables. Nonetheless, the No Child Left Behind Act treats these two very different schools the same. When urban and rural schools cannot meet AYP or highly…
Empowering women to control and change their lives continues to be an important goal for many nations. This article examines the empowering effects of being selected and trained to lead rural schools in Bangladesh, using survey and interview data from 152 village women working with the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee education programme.…
Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Ranjan-Dash, Shishir; Mukhopadhyay, Alok; Guha-Sapir, Debarati
year). In flooded communities, households dedicated to activities other than agriculture, a 50-51% lower prevalence of child wasting was estimated, suggesting farmers and fishermen as the most vulnerable livelihoods under flooding. In flooded areas, lower rank castes were at higher odds of both child wasting and stunting. Conclusions. In the short-term, protracted nutritional response in the aftermath of floods should be urgently implemented and target agricultural livelihoods and low-rank castes. Education promotion and schooling up to 14 years should have positive impacts on improving children nutritional health in the long run, especially under flooding. Policies effectively helping sustainable livelihood economic development and delayed motherhood are also recommended.
Full Text Available Although previous investigations have agreed that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants’ socioeconomic status (SES increases with their migration, the association between SES and subjective well-being is uncertain. To address this research gap, the present study proposed that the association between objective SES and subjective well-being is mediated by subjective SES. This model was tested with a sample of 432 Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. The results indicate a significant association between objective SES and subjective well-being and a partial mediating effect of subjective SES. Furthermore, subjective social mobility, which is one’s expectation about the possibility to move upward in the social hierarchy, was found to moderate both the direct path from objective SES to subjective well-being and the indirect path from subjective SES to subjective well-being. These findings suggest that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants gained in subjective well-being not only because of direct financial achievement but also because of their perceptions and beliefs about their relative social status.
Babu, Abraham Samuel; Ikbal, Faizal M; Noone, Manjula Sukumari; Joseph, Anupama Naomi; Danda, Debashish
The presence of more than one musculoskeletal disease has been found to impair quality of life (QoL). The influence of low bone mineral density (BMD) on symptoms and function in those with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is unknown. A cross sectional study was carried out on 158 patients attending camps in rural South India. BMD was determined using quantitative ultrasound of the distal radius. Symptoms and function were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Low BMD was seen in 81.6% (129/158) of the persons screened. FMS was seen in 37/158 persons, of which 31/37 (83.7%) had low BMD. FMS with low bone density leads to higher levels of pain and a poorer QoL compared to those without FMS. Coexisting musculoskeletal problems could also contribute to this. Therefore, medical practitioners and rehabilitation specialists should consider screening for bone density among those with FMS and should use this information to decide appropriate therapies to reduce pain and improve QoL. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Álvarez-Salvago, Francisco; Galiano-Castillo, Noelia; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Cruz-Fernández, Mayra; Lozano-Lozano, Mario; Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene
The aims of this study were to evaluate the health status of long-term breast cancer survivors (LTBCS) suffering from higher levels of fatigue, to highlight their needs, and to establish the key points of intervention support programs. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the Sport and Health Joint University Institute (iMUDS) between September 2016 and July 2017 with 80 LTBCS that were classified into non-fatigued (≤ 3.9) or fatigued (≥ 4) according to the Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS) total score. The instruments used were the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core 30 and its breast cancer (BC) module, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Scale for Mood Assessment (EVEA), the International Fitness Scale (IFIS), and the Charlson Comorbidity Index. The analysis revealed that 41.2% of LTBCS were considered moderately fatigued and showed significantly higher levels for the categories of "nausea and vomiting" (P = .005), "pain," "dyspnea" and "insomnia" (P < .001), "appetite loss" (P = .002), "financial difficulties" (P = .010), "systemic therapy side effects" (P < .001), "breast symptoms" and "arm symptoms" (P = .002), and "upset by hair loss" (P = .016). In addition, LTBCS presented significantly higher levels of pain in the affected and non-affected arm, "sadness-depression." "anxiety," "anger/hostility" (All: P < .001), and lower general physical fitness (P < .001). The rest of the variables did not show significant differences. LTBCS suffering from higher levels of fatigue had lower QoL, higher level of pain, worse mood state, and lower physical fitness.
Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Schauer, James J; Huang, Wei; Wang, Yuqin; Ezzati, Majid
Air pollution in China and other parts of Asia poses large health risks and is an important contributor to global climate change. Almost half of Chinese homes use biomass and coal fuels for cooking and heating. China's economic growth and infrastructure development has led to increased emissions from coal-fired power plants and an expanding fleet of motor vehicles. Black carbon (BC) from incomplete biomass and fossil fuel combustion is the most strongly light-absorbing component of particulate matter (PM) air pollution and the second most important climate-forcing human emission. PM composition and sources may also be related to its human health impact. We enrolled 280 women living in a rural area of northwestern Yunnan where biomass fuels are commonly used. We measured their blood pressure, distance from major traffic routes, and daily exposure to BC (pyrolytic biomass combustion), water-soluble organic aerosol (organic aerosol from biomass combustion), and, in a subset, hopane markers (motor vehicle emissions) in winter and summer. BC had the strongest association with systolic blood pressure (SBP) (4.3 mmHg; P water-soluble organic mass. The effect of BC on SBP was almost three times greater in women living near the highway [6.2 mmHg; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.6 to 8.9 vs. 2.6 mmHg; 95% CI, 0.1 to 5.2]. Our findings suggest that BC from combustion emissions is more strongly associated with blood pressure than PM mass, and that BC's health effects may be larger among women living near a highway and with greater exposure to motor vehicle emissions.
Cengiz Hakan Aydin
Full Text Available This manuscript intends to elaborate the current status of MOOC movement in the world and to reveal the results of a survey study in which the Turkish higher education institutions’ reactions to this movement was investigated. The survey was actually a part of a larger survey study that, as a deliverable of the EU funded HOME project, was conducted to contribute to the literature by providing an insight about European perspectives on MOOCs, to gain a better understanding of the strategic reasons why a higher education institution is or isn’t involved in MOOCs, and to compare these reasons with the results of similar studies in U.S. After a brief background and history of MOOC movement, following sections of the manuscript present the details (methodology and results of the survey study on the Turkish HE institutions’ strategies regarding adaptation of MOOCs. The final part of the manuscript consists of discussions and conclusions drawn in the light of the results of the study.
Dribe, Martin; Lundh, Christer
This article studies partner selection according to three dimensions: social origin, age, and place of birth. The authors use micro-level data from local population registers in five parishes in southern Sweden from 1815 to 1895. The results confirm that all three aspects were important but that socioeconomic status was the most important characteristic, structuring much of the selection process. The importance of social and age homogamy remained stable over the period, while geographic exogamy became more frequent, which could be interpreted in terms of an increasing openness of rural society. The authors also find some indications of exchange of characteristics in the partner selection process.
Leser, C; Tisch, A; Tophoven, S
Background: The number of older employees in shift and night work has increased significantly in recent years. Furthermore, the proportion of women in shift and night work has increased markedly. This is due to the aging workforce and the expansion of shift work in the tertiary sector. Previous research shows that shift work is often associated with health risks. Against this background, the aim of the present study is to examine the situation of working men and women on the threshold to higher working age with regard to the relationship between shift work and physical health. Methods: We employed data from the study "lidA - leben in der Arbeit" German Cohort Study on Work, Age and Health, a survey of the German baby boom cohorts born in 1959 and 1965 (n=5 637). Linear regression models are used to study the effect of shift work - with and without night work - and of further work exposures on the baby boomers' physical health status. The models control for sleep and health-related behaviour and are stratified by gender. Among women, also the scope of work was taken into account. Results: The results show that male shift workers are burdened by their on average lower occupational status and by physical exposure; female shift workers additionally suffer from high personal effort and low rewards and female part-time shift workers also from overcommitment. Conclusion: Working conditions of shift workers are strongly characterised by work stress. In order to preserve aging shift workers' work ability, some organisational measures seem necessary. In this context, occupational safety and health management as well as opportunities for recovery and encouraging leadership should be considered. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Ali Ghasemi Ardahaee
Full Text Available Entrepreneurship and sustainable rural employment are the main concerns of rural planners. One of the most basic requirements for this is that young people remain in the rural areas. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to identify individual and structural factors that are effective in keeping young people in rural areas. Statistical results of the bivariate and multilevel modeling (HLM shows that rural youth are not willing to stay in rural regions. One may cite the following individual factors contributing to this lack of interest in staying in rural areas: age, marital status, education, communication with relatives in the city, as well as employment status and job skills. People with higher human capital who have technical skills and building related non-agricultural skills are not interested in staying in rural areas. Moreover, the increased population in the villages and lack of social welfare facilities in village are highly effective in reducing the tendency of young people to stay in the villages.
Ferdous, Tamanna; Cederholm, Tommy; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Hamadani, Jena Derakhshani; Wahlin, Ake
To investigate the association between nutritional status and general and specific (fluid and crystallized) cognitive functioning in a group of older people living in a rural area in Bangladesh. Cross-sectional study. Matlab, Bangladesh. Four hundred fifty-seven randomly selected persons aged 60 and older (mean age 69.5 +/- 6.8), 55% female. Nutritional status was evaluated using a modified form of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). General cognitive function was assessed using the Bangla Adaptation of the Mini-Mental State Examination, and a word synonym test was used to test semantic memory function (a crystallized ability). To assess cognitive processing speed (a fluid ability), "cross balls" and "complete boxes" tests (scores/time unit) were used. Clinical diagnoses were registered. Structured questionnaires were used to assess demographic and socioeconomic status of the participants. Twenty-six percent of the participants were undernourished, and 62% were at risk of malnutrition according to the MNA. The MNA scores were significantly lower in women than in men (P=.01). Women performed worse than men in all three cognitive tasks (Pperformance was independently associated with older age, female sex, illiteracy, visual impairment, severity of disease, and depressive symptoms. There were significant associations between better nutritional status and better cognitive performance tests of general ability and processing speed, whereas semantic memory appeared to be less affected. The association between nutritional status and cognitive function involves general and specific cognitive abilities, with fluid ability seeming to be affected but crystalized functions being relatively spared.
Roba, Alemzewed C; Gabriel-Micheal, Kebebush; Zello, Gordon A; Jaffe, Joann; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J
Poor nutrition in adolescent girls poses critical health risks on future pregnancy and birth outcomes especially in developing countries. Our purpose was to assess nutritional status and dietary intake of rural adolescent girls and determine pulse and food intake patterns associated with poor nutritional status. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a traditional pulse growing region of southern Ethiopia on 188 girls between 15 to 19 years of age, with 70% being from food insecure families. Prevalence of stunting (30.9%) and underweight (13.3%) were associated with low food and nutrient intake. Diets were cereal-based, with both animal source foods and pulses rarely consumed. Improving dietary intakes of female adolescents with nutrient dense foods would ensure better health for themselves and for the next generation.
Postiglione, Gerard A.; Ailei, Xie; Jung, Jisun; Yanbi, Hong
New preferential policies in China promise to increase the number of rural students entering top-tier universities, where there is a wider path to a higher social status. While a substantial body of literature has investigated rural students' trajectories to university, there is a dearth of systematic empirical studies on the academic success of…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent obesity is prevalent in Pacific region ethnic groups (European, Melanesian and Polynesian living in both urban and rural areas. Although body perception is an important factor of weight gain or loss, little is known about the body self-perceptions of Pacific region adolescents. This study therefore evaluated adolescent perceptions of body weight according to ethnicity (European, Melanesian or Polynesian, socioeconomic status (low, intermediate or high and living area (rural or urban in New Caledonia. Methods Sociodemographic and anthropomorphic data from 737 adolescents (351 boys and 386 girls with ages ranging from 11 to 16 years were collected and analysed. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF standards were used to define weight status as normal-weight, underweight or overweight/obese. Weight perception was assessed from detailed questionnaires, with adolescents rating their own weight with the following descriptors: ‘about the right weight’, ‘too heavy’, or ‘too light’. Results Results showed that only 8.5% of normal-weight adolescents (7% boys and 10% girls identifying themselves as ‘too heavy’. Normal-weight Melanesian adolescents were less likely than their European counterparts to assess themselves as too heavy (OR = 0.357. However, half the overweight/obese adolescents underestimated their weight status (53% boys and 48% girls. Weight misperception was associated with ethnicity, socioeconomic status and living area, with gender-specific differences. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that these sociodemographic factors should be taken into account when designing public health policies and health education school programmes in New Caledonia and, more broadly, the Pacific region.
Torres, M J; Féart, C; Samieri, C; Dorigny, B; Luiking, Y; Berr, C; Barberger-Gateau, P; Letenneur, L
Falling and fractures are a public health problem in elderly people. The aim of our study was to investigate whether nutritional status is associated with the risk of falling or fracture in community-dwelling elderly. Poor nutritional status was significantly associated with a higher risk of both falling and fractures. Nutrition could play a role to prevent falls and fractures. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a poor nutritional status is associated with the risk of falling and of fracture in community dwelling elderly. Baseline nutritional status of participants was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). After a follow-up of 12 years, 6040 individuals with available data for falls and 6839 for fracture were included. People who presented the outcomes at baseline were excluded. Cox models were used to evaluate the associations between nutritional status and the risks of fall or fracture. The frequency of poor nutritional status (MNA ≤ 23.5), at baseline, was respectively 12.0% in the "fall study sample" and 12.8% in the "fracture study sample." Incident fall and fracture over 12 years were reported in 55.8 and 18.5% of the respective samples, respectively. In multivariate models controlled for sociodemographic data and several baseline health indicators, poor nutritional status was significantly associated with a higher risk of falling (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.66, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.35-2.04 in men and HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.34 in women) and with a higher risk of fracture (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.09-1.49). Poor nutritional status was associated with a higher risk of both falling and fractures in French elderly community-dwellers. Early screening and management of the nutritional status may be useful to reduce the frequency of these events in older people.
... community has a significant impact on the local economy. In rural areas, Medicare reimbursement is a critical source of that healthcare spending, particularly since the higher percentage of elderly population in rural areas mean that Medicare accounts for ...
Noor Hassim, I; Norazman, M R; Diana, M; Khairul Hazdi, Y; Rosnah, I
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) caused significant burden to Malaysia as it accounted for 36% of total deaths. This study aims to evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian adult and assess the difference between urban and rural population in the selected communities. This study is part of the ongoing Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) database, whereby the baseline data were collected since June 2008. CVD risk was measured using INTERHEART risk score which comprised of eleven risk factors i.e. age and gender, family history of heart attack, smoking status, exposure to second hand smoke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension status, waist-hip ratio, self-reported stress, depression, dietary habits and physical activity status. Majority of the studied participants had low cardiovascular risk (57%). Participants from rural area were generally older, had lower educational status, higher prevalence of smokers, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and more likely to be depressed. In comparison, urbanites had lower physical activities and more likely to be stressful. Mean INTERHEART score among rural participants were higher, especially for male, in comparison to urbanite (11.5±5.83 vs. 10.01±5.74, p<0.001). Contradict to common beliefs, participants in rural areas generally have higher cardiovascular risk factors compared to their urban counterparts. The rural population should be targeted for focused preventive interventions, taking account the socioeconomic and cultural context.
Rubin, Mark; Denson, Nida; Kilpatrick, Sue; Matthews, Kelly E.; Stehlik, Tom; Zyngier, David
This review provides a critical appraisal of the measurement of students' social class and socioeconomic status (SES) in the context of widening higher education participation. Most assessments of social class and SES in higher education have focused on objective measurements based on the income, occupation, and education of students'…
Ziaei, Shirin; Contreras, Mariela; Zelaya Blandón, Elmer; Persson, Lars-Åke; Hjern, Anders; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
To evaluate the associations of women's autonomy and social support with infant and young child feeding practices (including consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages) and nutritional status in rural Nicaragua. Cross-sectional study. Feeding practices and children's nutritional status were evaluated according to the WHO guidelines complemented with information on highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Women's autonomy was assessed by a seventeen-item questionnaire covering dimensions of financial independence, household-, child-, reproductive and health-related decision making and freedom of movement. Women's social support was determined using the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire. The scores attained were categorized into tertiles. Los Cuatro Santos area, rural Nicaragua. A total of 1371 children 0-35 months of age. Children of women with the lowest autonomy were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and continue to be breast-fed, while children of women with middle level of autonomy had better complementary feeding practices. Children of women with the lowest social support were more likely to consume highly processed snacks and/or sugar-sweetened beverages but also be taller. While lower levels of autonomy and social support were independently associated with some favourable feeding and nutrition outcomes, this may not indicate a causal relationship but rather that these factors reflect other matters of importance for child care.
Murimi, Mary W.; Chrisman, Matthew S.; Hughes, Kelly; Taylor, Chris; Kim, Yeonsoo; McAllister, Tiffany L.
Objective: Rural areas may suffer from a lack of access to health care and programmes to promote behaviours such as healthy eating and physical activity. Point-of-testing counselling is a method of promoting a healthy lifestyle during an individual's most "teachable moment". Design/Setting: This longitudinal study examined the effects of…
Quandt, Sara A.; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Kohrman, Teresa; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Purpose: Dietary variation is important for health maintenance and disease prevention among older adults. However, oral health deficits impair ability to bite and chew foods. This study examines the association between oral health and foods avoided or modified in a multiethnic rural population of older adults. It considers implications for…
In this article, the author documents the learning disadvantage of rural primary school students in sub-Saharan Africa and attempts to identify the factors underlying such disadvantages. Analyzing data from 14 school systems participating in the second study of the Southern and Western Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ…
Bae, Jisuk; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Park, Pil Sook; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung; Shin, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Seong-Kyu
The clinical implication of sugar-sweetened soft drinks on the risk of hyperuricemia has increased, especially in Western population studies. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks made from oranges and apples and the risk of hyperuricemia in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort. A total of 9400 subjects were enrolled in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study, and a cross-sectional analysis was performed. Five quintiles (Q1-Q5) according to consumption of soft drinks and other fruit/fruit juices were classified and then categorized into three groups (Q1-Q3, Q4, and Q5) to assess the risk of hyperuricemia. Information on dietary intake was collected by well-trained interviewers using validated food frequency questionnaires. Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (Q5) increased the risk of hyperuricemia in males (adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.07-1.71) with a linear trend (p for trend = 0.01) and in females (adjusted OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.03-1.90) with no linear trend (p for trend = 0.09), compared to lower consumption (Q1-Q3). However, there were no significant differences of serum uric acid level according to the three categories of soft drink consumption, Q1-Q3, Q3, and Q5, in males (p = 0.21) or in females (p = 0.16), whereas all subjects showed statistical significance of serum uric acid level within the categories (p Korean population, showing a differential linear trend for hyperuricemia according to gender. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Gant, C.M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Binnenmars, S.H.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Navis, G.; Laverman, G.D.
In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), the handling of magnesium is disturbed. Magnesium deficiency may be associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated the associations between (1) dietary magnesium intake; (2) 24 h urinary magnesium excretion; and (3) plasma magnesium
Kazeem, Aramide; Jensen, Leif; Stokes, C. Shannon
This article presents a research which examines the impact of religion, gender, and parental socioeconomic status on school attendance in Nigeria. Researchers found that both gender and parental socioeconomic status have significant impacts on school attendance. Although gender is an important determinant of school attendance, indicators of…
Martin, Julie L; Boyd, Linda D; Tapias-Perdigón, Helena; LaSpina, Lisa M
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the oral health needs of community-dwelling older adults participating in congregate meal centers and to determine whether differences exist in the oral health needs of older adult populations residing in urban versus rural communities in the state of Texas. Methods: Study participants were recruited at 6 congregate meal centers located in identified rural and urban communities in the greater metropolitan area of Austin, Texas. (N=78) Participants completed a validated, modified questionnaire containing 20 items on the following topics: self-reported oral health, tooth loss, dental insurance, frequency of dental visits, time since last dental visit, access to dental care, dry mouth, and oral cancer screening. Each participant received an oral health screening based on the Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors Basic Screening Survey for Older Adults. The examiners received hands-on training prior to the study to ensure the validity of their findings and to test for inter-examiner reliability.The chi-square test of independence was performed to analyze the participants' responses on the Basic Screening Survey to identify any relationships between the variables. Results: There were no significant differences in oral health conditions of older adults residing in urban versus rural communities. Over 50% of the participants (64.9% urban; 56.1% rural) reported incomes below $15,000 and lacked dental insurance to cover all or a portion of their oral health care needs. Eighty-seven percent of the participants reported tooth loss due to dental caries, 35% required periodontal care, and 37% reported occasional and 43% reported frequent oral pain over the last 12 months. Conclusions: Oral health promotion and disease prevention is an emergent need for older adult populations residing in urban and rural communities of the state of Texas. Analysis revealed that the majority of the older adult populations in both
Moran, Michael J.; Lapham, Wayne W.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Zogorski, John S.
Samples of untreated ground water from 1,926 rural, self-supplied domestic wells were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1986-99. This information was used to characterize the occurrence and status of VOCs in domestic well water. The samples were either collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program occurrence-assessment studies or were compiled by NAWQA from existing ambient ground-water or source-water-quality monitoring programs conducted by local, State, and other Federal agencies. Water samples were collected at the wellhead prior to treatment or storage. In most samples, 55 target VOCs were analyzed, and occurrence and status information generally was computed at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L (microgram per liter). At least one VOC was detected in 12 percent of samples (232 samples) at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L. This detection frequency is relatively low compared to the 26 percent detection frequency of at least one VOC in public sup-ply wells sampled by NAWQA, and the difference may be due, in part, to the higher pumping rates, pumping stress factors, and larger contributing areas of public supply wells. Samples with detections of at least one VOC were collected from wells located in 31 of 39 States. Solvents were the most frequently detected VOC group with detections in 4.6 percent of samples (89 samples) at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L. The geographic distribution of detections of some VOC groups, such as fumigants and oxygenates, relates to the use pattern of com-pounds in that group. With the exception of com-pounds used in organic synthesis, detection frequencies of VOCs by group are proportional to the average half-life of compounds in the group. When the organic synthesis group is excluded from the analysis, a good correlation exists between the detection frequency of VOCs by group and average half-life of compounds in the group. Individually, VOCs were not commonly
Umar Ijaz Ahmed
Full Text Available In most of the developing countries, lack of resources and little market accessibility are among the major factors that affect small farming household food security. This study aims to investigate the status of small farming households' food security, and its determinants including the role of market accessibility factors in enhancing food security at household level. In addition, this study also determines the households' perception about different kinds of livelihoods risks. This study is based on a household survey of 576 households conducted through face-to-face interviews using structured interviews in Punjab, Pakistan. Food security status is calculated using dietary intake method. The study findings show that one-fourth of the households are food insecure. The study findings reveal that farm households perceive increase in food prices, crop diseases, lack of irrigation water and increase in health expenses as major livelihood risks. Further, the results of logistic regression show that family size, monthly income, food prices, health expenses and debt are main factors influencing the food security status of rural households. Furthermore, the market accessibility factors (road distance and transportation cost do significantly affect the small farming household food security. The results suggest that local food security can be enhanced by creating off-farm employment opportunities, improved transportation facilities and road infrastructure.
Miranda, J. Jaime; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam
Objectives To assess differences in cardiovascular risk profiles among rural-to-urban migrants and non-migrant groups. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Ayacucho and Lima, Peru Participants rural (n=201); rural-urban migrants (n=589) and urban (n=199). Main outcome measures Cardiovascular risk factors were assessed according to migrant status (migrants vs. non-migrants), age at first migration, length of residency in an urban area and lifetime exposure to an urban area. Results For most risk factors, the migrant group had intermediate levels of risk between those observed for the rural and urban groups. Prevalences, for rural, migrant and urban groups, was 3%, 20% and 33% for obesity and 0.8%, 3% and 6% for type-2 diabetes. This gradient of risk was not observed uniformly across all risk factors. Blood pressure did not show a clear gradient of difference between groups. The migrant group had similar systolic blood pressure (SBP) but lower diastolic blood pressure (DBP) than the rural group. The urban group had higher SBP but similar DBP than rural group. Hypertension was more prevalent among the urban (29%) compared to both rural and migrant groups (11% and 16% respectively). For HbA1c, although the urban group had higher levels, the migrant and rural groups were similar to each other. No differences were observed in triglycerides between the three groups. Within migrants, those who migrated when aged older than 12 years had higher odds of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and metabolic syndrome compared to people who migrated at younger ages. Adjustment for age, sex and socioeconomic indicators had little impact on the patterns observed. Conclusions The impact of rural to urban migration on cardiovascular risk profile is not uniform across different risk factors, and is further influenced by the age at which migration occurs. A gradient in levels was observed for some risk factors across study groups. This observation indicates that urbanization is indeed
Meyer, Joshua E; Panico, Vinicius J A; Marconato, Heloisa M F; Sherr, David L; Christos, Paul; Pirog, Edyta C
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a pathogenic factor of squamous cell carcinoma in various mucosal locations, including anal carcinoma (ACA). It is also known that patients positive for HIV are at high risk of ACA. The goal of this study was to examine clinical outcome in ACA in relation to HPV/p16 positivity, histologic tumor differentiation, and HIV status. Patients with oropharyngeal cancers that are positive for HPV and show overexpression of p16 as well as having non-keratinizing/basaloid histology have been reported to have better outcomes following chemoradiation (CRT). However, such relationships in ACA remain unknown. Forty-two patients with SCC of the anus treated with CRT between 1997 and 2009 were identified. The tumors were subclassified as either non-keratinizing (including basaloid) or keratinizing categories. HPV testing was performed using SPF10-PCR, and all cases were immunostained for p16. There were 23 men and 19 women; 43% of men and 11% of women were HIV-positive (p = 0.04). Fifty-five percent of patients had local disease (stages I and II) and 41% were stages III and IV, with 4% stage unknown. All tumors were positive for high-oncogenic risk HPVs, and all were positive with p16 immunostain. Sixty-four percent of tumors were non-keratinizing/basaloid and 36 % were keratinizing. The keratinizing tumors were more common in HIV-positive patients (67%), whereas non-keratinizing/basaloid tumors were more common in HIV-negative patients (77%) (p = 0.008). Thirty-one percent of patients had recurrence of disease, including 50% HIV-positive patients and 23% HIV-negative patients (p = 0.09). There was no difference in the recurrence rate between non-keratinizing and keratinizing tumor subtypes (p = 0.80). The 24-month recurrence-free survival for the cohort was 66% (95% CI = 46%, 81%), with HIV-positive patients having worse recurrence-free survival compared to HIV-negative patients (HR = 2.85, 95% CI = 0.95, 8.53; p = 0
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the current status of e-Learning in Korean higher education and find ways to encourage the further use and development of e-Learning systems that aim to enhance Korea's academic competitiveness. A total of 201 universities in Korea (27 national and public, 163 private, and 11 national universities of education were examined in this study. At the time of the study, 85 percent of the universities and colleges had investigated implementing e-Learning. There were special e-Learning teams in most national and public universities, as well as private universities and colleges. Findings from this study found that both teachers and learners alike, lacked meaningful support systems and opportunities to actively participate in e-Learning programs. Although such lack of support was found to be endemic, such lack of support and opportunity was found to be more accute in private universities, private colleges, universities of education, than mid-sized, small-sized, and provincial universities and colleges. Except for a few mid- and small-sized universities and colleges, most large universities and colleges were equipped with technical support such as infrastructure and operational platforms. These same schools, however, did not provide institutional support, nor did they employ appropriate policies needed to further the quality and enhancement of e-Learning offerings. Also, there was no meaningful link found between schools and industry, nor was there adequate financial support in place for the implementation of e-Learning systems, simply because many universities failed to allocate sufficient funding for e-Learning.In conclusion, the strategies for enhancing university competitiveness through e-Learning are as follows: 1 establishing support strategies according to the types of universities; 2 developing quality assurance systems for e-Learning; 3 enhancing support systems for professors and learners; 4 developing
Full Text Available This qualitative study was conducted in some selected rural communities within the Birim South District between March to June 2017 with the main aim of teasing out insights into Ghana’s perspective of pregnant women’s attitudes and perceptions about modern and traditional midwives and perceptional impact on health seeking behaviour and status. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first known study in Ghana that has provided empirical evidence on this subject. The study found that pregnant women have good attitudes and perceptions toward traditional midwives based on their personal experiences, beliefs and philosophies. Thus, pregnant women only see the need to seek the service of modern midwives when serious complications occur during childbirth and predominantly have their deliveries supervised by traditional midwives. These results call for, specifically two main policy interventions. First, behavioral change interventions through education, community sensitisation and awareness, is required. This should target family members, especially husbands and mothers in-law who are key household decision makers. This will radically help change the conservative attitudes and perceptions about modern midwives by pregnant women. Second, based on the support offered and willingness showed by the study participants, effective intercultural midwifery system will help maximise the utilisation of our midwifery and health delivery systems. Traditional and modern midwives need to work together to ensure safe birth. We consider collaboration among healthcare providers as critical, especially in the rural areas where the number of modern midwives are limited. Keywords: Traditional midwife, Modern midwife, Intercultural midwifery system, Behavioral change, Rural Ghana
Sathish Chandra MR
Full Text Available Introduction: The Global Positioning System (GPS is a satellite based navigation system which is of late being used in the health field. Objectives: 1.To describe the geographical distribution of anaemia and malnutrition with GPS; 2.To assess the prevalence of anaemia and malnutrition in children aged 5-10 years. Subjects and methods: This exploratory study was conducted over a period of 2 months in the rural field practice area of a medical college situated in Bangalore during the months of June - July, 2012. Children in the age group of 5-10 years of age were the study subjects. Results: GPS was used for the describing the geographical distribution of anaemia and nutrition status on the Google earth map. The prevalence of anaemia in the study subjects was 8.7%.The prevalence of underweight, stunting, thinness and severe thinness among the study subjects was 52.8%, 28.5%, 23.5 % and 29.1% respectively, however overweight and obesity was observed only in 0.9 % and 1.2% of the study subjects respectively. Conclusion: GPS was easy to use and was able to demonstrate the actual distribution of morbidity at the household level in the rural area.
Hassani, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Seyyed Jamal Mir
This study was carried out in order to explore the status of stratification within higher education through measuring cultural, economic and social capital of students in major academic disciplines across universities in Urmia, Northwestern Iran. The findings indicate that there are stratification structures in the presence of students in…
Naotunna, N P G C R; Dayarathna, M; Maheshi, H; Amarasinghe, G S; Kithmini, V S; Rathnayaka, M; Premachandra, L; Premarathna, N; Rajasinghe, P C; Wijewardana, G; Agampodi, T C; Agampodi, S B
Nutritional status of pre adolescent children is not widely studied in Sri Lanka. The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional status among pre-adolescent school children in a rural province of Sri Lanka. A school based cross sectional study was carried out in North Central Province in 100 rural schools, selected using multi stage cluster sampling with probability proportionate to size. Children in grade one to five were enrolled with a maximum cluster size of fifty. Anthropometric measurements were done by trained data collectors and venesection was done at site by trained nurses. WHO AnthoPlus was used to calculate the BMI, height for age and weight for age Z scores. Survey design adjusted prevalence estimates with linearized standard errors were generated using svy function of STATA. Mean haemoglobin concentration (Hb) was calculated using methaeamoglobin method. Screening for iron deficiency and thalassemia trait was done using peripheral blood films. Height and weight measurements were done for 4469 of children and the Hb data was available for 4398 children. Based on the survey design adjusted estimates, prevalence of severe thinness, thinness, overweight and obesity in this population was 8.60% (SE 0.94), 2.91%(SE 0.74), 2.95%(0.26) and 2.43%(SE 0.92) respectively. Similarly, survey design adjusted prevalence of underweight and stunting were, 25.93% (95% CI 24.07-27.89%) and 43.92%(95% CI 40.55-47.56%). Adjusted mean estimates for hemoglobin was 12.20 (95% CI 12.16-12.24) g/dL. Prevalence of anemia was 17.3% (n = 749). Prevalence of mild and moderate anemia was 9.4 and 7.6% respectively. This study confirms that malnutrition is still a major problem in North Central Province, Sri Lanka.
/or single among .... labour supply, consumer demand, pcr capita income, productivity, etc. ..... The respondents were asked to state the reasons for their status in the social ..... purehase grains from the market for consumption, rural dwellers are.
Hu, Yue; Han, Juan; Chen, Xinguang; Yang, Senbei; Xu, Yanghuan; Xie, Shu; Liu, Weiwei
To understand the status of mental health among left-behind children in rural area and to explore its relationship with social capital. A sample of 1 031 left behind children, aged 10-18 years, was randomly selected from six schools of two townships in Macheng city of Hubei province where large number of rural parents were working in the urban area. Data from a cross-sectional survey was collected among the sampled students from primary, middle and high schools, using self-designed questionnaires which targeting the 'left-behind' condition and social capital Mental Health Inventory of Middle-School Students (MMHI-60). Chi-square test was used to compare the differences in mental health among different groups. Spearman correlation and logistical regression analysis were applied to assess the relationship between social capital and mental health. The prevalence of mental problems was 54.12%. Results from linear χ² test indicated that the detection rates of mental problems were parallel with the monthly pocket money and the reduction in the frequency of contacting migrant father/mother (P < 0.01). Results from the multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that students who were senior(OR = 2.410-2.682, P < 0.001), and who reported not caring about their parents (OR = 2.048-2.420, P < 0.001)were at increased risks for mental health problems. After controlling the demographic characteristics and conditions of staying relevant factors, family social capital(OR = 0.845, 95%CI:0.801-0.891), neighborhood social capital (OR = 0.867, 95%CI:0.826-0.910)and school social capital(OR = 0.893, 95%CI:0.863-0.923) were all associated with declined risks of mental health problems, in which the family social capital was the most important one. The prevalence of mental health problems was high among the left-behind children in rural area. Much attention should be paid to assist these children in improving their mental health status. One promising approach appeared to be
Weaver, Lesley Jo; Trainer, Sarah
Stigma is a powerful determinant of physical and mental health around the world, a perennial public health concern that is particularly resistant to change. This article builds from sociologist Erving Goffman's classic conception of stigma as a unitary social phenomenon to explore the stigma attached to two seemingly dissimilar conditions: food insecurity in rural Brazil, and obesity in the urban United Arab Emirates. Our analyses underscore that both conditions are stigmatized because they represent a departure from a deeply-held social norm, and in both cases, self-stigma plays an important role. Furthermore, in both cases, the stigma associated with food insecurity and obesity is likely at least as harmful to personal wellbeing as are the biological consequences of these conditions. Finally, evidence increasingly links obesity and food insecurity causally. Our analyses suggest that these forms of stigma transcend individuals and are largely structural in their origins, and therefore that they are most likely to be improved through structural change.
Zahrou, Fatima Ezzahra; Azlaf, Mehdi; El Menchawy, Imane; El Mzibri, Mohamed; El Kari, Khalid; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Mouzouni, Fatima-Zahra; Barkat, Amina; Aguenaou, Hassan
Iodine is required for the production of the thyroid hormones essential for the growth and development of the brain. All forms of iodine deficiency (ID) affect the mental development of the child. Our study aims to assess the impact of ID on the intellectual development of Moroccan schoolchildren and to evaluate the effect of consumption of fortified milk on reducing ID. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted on schoolchildren, children were divided into two groups to receive fortified milk (30% of cover of RDI iodine) or nonfortified milk for 9 months. Urinary iodine was analyzed using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, a dynamic cognitive test using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices to assess learning potential was performed at baseline and end line, and anthropometric assessment was done only at baseline. The study included schoolchildren who were severely iodine deficient. The prevalence of malnutrition was high in both groups; in this study, we found improvements in iodine status and in cognitive abilities among Moroccan schoolchildren. Our study showed that the consumption of fortified milk led to a clear improvement in iodine status and also appeared to have a favorable effect on the cognitive ability of Moroccan schoolchildren in a rural mountainous region.
Fatima Ezzahra Zahrou
Full Text Available Iodine is required for the production of the thyroid hormones essential for the growth and development of the brain. All forms of iodine deficiency (ID affect the mental development of the child. Our study aims to assess the impact of ID on the intellectual development of Moroccan schoolchildren and to evaluate the effect of consumption of fortified milk on reducing ID. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted on schoolchildren, children were divided into two groups to receive fortified milk (30% of cover of RDI iodine or nonfortified milk for 9 months. Urinary iodine was analyzed using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, a dynamic cognitive test using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices to assess learning potential was performed at baseline and end line, and anthropometric assessment was done only at baseline. The study included schoolchildren who were severely iodine deficient. The prevalence of malnutrition was high in both groups; in this study, we found improvements in iodine status and in cognitive abilities among Moroccan schoolchildren. Our study showed that the consumption of fortified milk led to a clear improvement in iodine status and also appeared to have a favorable effect on the cognitive ability of Moroccan schoolchildren in a rural mountainous region.
Peyronel, Anthony C.
Discusses the importance of higher education public relations professionals playing a key role in institutional decision making and not being limited to the role of communication technician or information processor. Reviews studies on relationships between higher education and the media and between public relations professionals and…
P Ravi Shankar
Full Text Available Introduction: Rural residents of the United States (US and Canada face problems in accessing healthcare. International medical graduates (IMGs play an important role in delivering rural healthcare. IMGs from Caribbean medical schools have the highest proportion of physicians in primary care. Xavier University School of Medicines admits students from the US, Canada and other countries to the undergraduate medical (MD course and also offers a premedical program. The present study was conducted to obtain student perception about working in rural US/Canada after graduation. Methods: The study was conducted among premedical and preclinical undergraduate medical (MD students during October 2014. The questionnaire used was modified from a previous study. Semester of study, gender, nationality, place of residence and occupation of parents were noted. Information about whether students plan to work in rural US/Canada after graduation, possible reasons why doctors are reluctant to work in rural areas, how the government can encourage rural practice, possible problems respondents anticipate while working in rural areas were among the topics studied. Results: Ninety nine of the 108 students (91.7% participated. Forty respondents were in favor of working in rural US/Canada after graduation. Respondents mentioned good housing, regular electricity, water supply, telecommunication facilities, and schools for education of children as important conditions to be fulfilled. The government should provide higher salaries to rural doctors, help with loan repayment, and provide opportunities for professional growth. Potential problems mentioned were difficulty in being accepted by the rural community, problems in convincing patients to follow medical advice, lack of exposure to rural life among the respondents, and cultural issues. Conclusions: About 40% of respondents would consider working in rural US/Canada. Conditions required to be fulfilled have been
Pyle Donald N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Appalachia is characterized by poor health behaviors, poor health status, and health disparities. Recent interventions have not demonstrated much success in improving health status or reducing health disparities in the Appalachian region. Since one's perception of personal health precedes his or her health behaviors, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the self-rated health of Appalachian adults in relation to objective health status and current health behaviors. Methods Appalachian adults (n = 1,576 were surveyed regarding health behaviors - soda consumer (drink ≥ 355 ml/d, or non-consumer (drink 30 min > 1 d/wk and sedentary (exercise Results Respondents reported being healthy, while being sedentary (65%, hypertensive (76%, overweight (73%, or hyperlipidemic (79%. Between 57% and 66% of the respondents who considered themselves healthy had at least two disease conditions or poor health behaviors. Jaccard Binary Similarity coefficients and odds ratios showed the probability of reporting being healthy when having a disease condition or poor health behavior was high. Conclusions The association between self-rated health and poor health indicators in Appalachian adults is distorted. The public health challenge is to formulate messages and programs about health and health needs which take into account the current distortion about health in Appalachia and the cultural context in which this distortion was shaped.
Full Text Available Caregivers of HIV-positive children were interviewed in the Mbarara and Isingiro districts of Uganda to identify current trends in practices related to HIV testing and the disclosure of HIV status to the child. A total of 28 caregivers of at least one HIV-positive child participated in semi-structured interviews exploring when and why they tested the child for HIV, when the child was informed of their positive status, and what the caregiver did to prepare themselves and the child for status disclosure. For a majority (96% of respondents, the decision to test the child for HIV was due to existing illness in either the child or a relative. Other common themes identified included the existence of stigma in the caregivers' communities and doubt that the children truly understood what was being explained to them when their status was disclosed. Most (65% children were informed of their HIV status between the ages of 5 and 9, with the mean age of disclosure occurring at the age of 7. General provision of HIV information typically began at the same age as disclosure, and as many as two thirds (64% of the caregivers sought advice from an HIV counsellor prior to disclosure. How a caregiver chose to prepare themselves and the child did not affect the caregiver's perception of whether the disclosure experience was beneficial or not. These findings suggest that the HIV disclosure experience in Mbarara and Isingiro districts differs from current guidelines, especially with respect to age of disclosure, how caregivers prepare themselves and the child, and approaching disclosure as an ongoing process. The doubts expressed by caregivers regarding the child's level of HIV understanding following the disclosure experience suggest the children may be insufficiently prepared at the time of the initial disclosure event. The findings also suggest that examining the content of pre-disclosure counselling and HIV education, and how health care professionals are trained
Wilson, Susan L; Gallivan, Amanda; Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup
Globesity (the global epidemic of obesity), like undernutrition at the opposite end of the malnutrition spectrum, affects virtually all age and socioeconomic groups in developed and developing countries. Genetics, comorbid diseases and lifestyle factors have been associated with obesity and weight gain for college students. Little is known about obesity and lifestyle factors of campus students and employees located in rural areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight/obesity and socioecological elements of the obesogenic environment at a rural-serving US-Mexico border university. Data were collected using a cross-sectional, convenience sample by anasynchronous electronic survey submitted to approximately 23 000 students, faculty and staff on the main campus of New Mexico State University. Self-reported anthropometric indicators were used as proxy measures of nutritional status. Factors analyzed include the prevalence overweight/obesity from calculated body mass index (BMI) and self-identified body image in the contexts of sex, age, ethnicity, role at the university (student or employee) and residence. Body mass index categories were analyzed for associations with reported prevalence of stress indicators such as clinically diagnosed anxiety or depression, and major diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, cancer and stroke. A total of 3962 completed surveys were analyzed. Self-reported respondent rates (n = 3962) of overweight and obese individuals (47.2%) were less than those reported for the state (60.7%) in a 2010 national survey. When BMI was analyzed by sex, there was a significant difference (p = 0.003) between males and females. More males were overweight and obese than females. When BMI and BMI categories were assessed by age, ethnicity, role at the university and residence, each variable was found to have statistically significant differences. No one demographic or socioecological factor appears to have a
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how affordability of healthy food varies with community characteristics in rural settings. We examined how the cost of fresh fruit and vegetables varies with the economic and demographic characteristics in six rural counties of Texas. Methods Ground-truthed data from the Brazos Valley Food Environment Project were used to identify all food stores in the rural region and the availability and lowest price of fresh whole fruit and vegetables in the food stores. Socioeconomic characteristics were extracted from the 2000 U.S. Census Summary Files 3 at the level of the census block group. We used an imputation strategy to calculate two types of price indices for both fresh fruit and fresh vegetables: a high variety and a basic index; and evaluated the relationship between neighborhood economic and demographic characteristics and affordability of fresh produce, using linear regression models. Results The mean cost of meeting the USDA recommendation of fruit consumption from a high variety basket of fruit types in our sample of stores was just over $27.50 per week. Relying on the three most common fruits lowered the weekly expense to under $17.25 per week, a reduction of 37.6%. The effect of moving from a high variety to a low variety basket was much less when considering vegetable consumption: a 4.3% decline from $29.23 to $27.97 per week. Univariate regression analysis revealed that the cost of fresh produce is not associated with the racial/ethnic composition of the local community. However, multivariate regression showed that holding median income constant, stores in neighborhoods with higher percentages of Black residents paid more for fresh fruits and vegetables. The proportion of Hispanic residents was not associated with cost in either the univariate or multivariate analysis. Conclusion This study extends prior work by examining the affordability of fresh fruit and vegetables from food stores in a large
Nemeth, Julianna M; Thomson, Tiffany L; Lu, Bo; Peng, Juan; Krebs, Valdis; Doogan, Nathan J; Ferketich, Amy K; Post, Douglas M; Browning, Christopher R; Paskett, Electra D; Wewers, Mary E
The social-contextual model of tobacco control and the potential mechanisms of the maintenance or cessation of smoking behavior among disadvantaged women, including rural residents, have yet to be comprehensively studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between selected individual, interpersonal, workplace, and neighborhood characteristics and smoking status among women in Appalachia, a US region whose residents experience a disproportionate prevalence of tobacco-related health disparities. These findings may assist in efforts to design and test scientifically valid tobacco control interventions for this and other disadvantaged populations. Women, 18 years of age and older, residing in three rural Ohio Appalachian counties, were recruited using a two-phase address-based sampling methodology for a cross-sectional interview-administered survey between August 2012 and October 2013 (N=408). Multinomial logistic regression was employed to determine associations between select multilevel factors (independent variables) and smoking status (dependent variable). The sample included 82 (20.1%) current smokers, 92 (22.5%) former smokers, and 234 (57.4%) women reporting never smoking (mean age 51.7 years). In the final multivariable multinomial logistic regression model, controlling for all other significant associations, constructs at multiple social-contextual levels were associated with current versus either former or never smoking. At the individual level, for every additional year in age, the odds of being a former or never smoker increased by 7% and 6% (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval(CI)): 1.07 (1.0-1.11) and 1.06 (1.02-1.09)), respectively, as compared to the odds of being a current smoker. With regard to depression, for each one unit increase in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score, the odds of being a former or never smoker were 5% and 7% lower (OR(95%CI): 0.95(0.91-0.999) and 0.93(0.88-0.98)), respectively
Full Text Available For the Longer term food-based approaches for controlling vitamin A deficiency and its consequences, become increasingly important. A nutrition survailance system in Central-Java, Indonesia assessed vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentration of lactating women with a child ≤36 mo old during crisis. Median vitamin A intake was 319 RE/d and night blindness 0,34%. Serum retinol concentration (mean : 1,23 µmol/L was related to vitamin A intake in a dose-concentration manner. The multiple logistic regression model for predicting the chance for a serum retinol concentration > observed median of the population (≥1,27 µ mol/L included determinant factors, vitamin A intake from plant foods (OR [95% CI] per quartile, 1st : 1.00, 2nd: 1,63 [0,99-2,80], 3rd: 1,99 [1,58-2,99], and 4th: 2,62 [1,68-4,04], from, animal foods (1st and 2nd: 1,00. 3rd: 1,37 [0,89-2,09] and 4th: 2,86 [1,59-3,98] . Homegardening (no 1,00, yes 1,88 [1,08-2,68] and woman’s education level (≤ primary school : 1,00 ≥ secondary school : 1,46 [1,00-2,16] . Thus, although contributing 16 times more to total vitamin A intake plant foods were as important for vitamin A status as animal foods. Homegardening and woman’s education level seem to reflect longer-term consumption of plant and animal foods respectively. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:259-66Keywords: Vitamin A intake, plant foods, animal foods, vitamin A status, homegardening, socio-economic status, crisis, Indonesia
Slattery, W.; Antonucci, C.; Myers, R. J.
The National Science Foundation funded project K-12 Students, Teachers, Parents, Administrators and Higher Education Faculty: Partners Helping Rural Disadvantaged Students Stay on the Pathway to a Geoscience Career is a research-based proof of concept track 1 pilot project that tests the effectiveness of an innovative model for simultaneous K-12 teacher professional development, student learning and workforce development. The project builds a network of science experiences designed to keep eighth and ninth grade students from the Ripley, Union, Lewis, Huntington (RULH) Ohio school district on the path to a geoscience career. During each summer of the ongoing two-year project teams of RULH students, parents, teachers, administrators and college faculty traveled to the facilities of the New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium at Sandy Hook, New Jersey to study science from an Earth system perspective. Teachers had the opportunity to engage in professional development alongside their students. Parents participated in the science activities alongside their children. Administrators interacted with students, parents and their teachers and saw them all learning science in an engaging, collaborative setting. During the first academic year of the project professional development was provided to RULH teachers by a team of university scientists and geoscience educators from the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), a National Science Foundation funded project. Teachers selected for professional development were from science disciplines, mathematics, language arts and civics. The teachers selected, taught and assessed ESSEA Earth system science modules to all eighth and ninth grade students, not just those that were selected to go on the summer trips to New Jersey. In addition, all ninth grade RULH students had the opportunity to take a course that includes Earth system science concepts that will earn them both high school and college science credits. Professional
Full Text Available Land in rural China has been under a separate and closed management system for decades even after the urban land reform that started in the late 1980s. The blurred property rights over rural land have been hindering the rural welfare as surplus rural land in sub-urban areas cannot be circulated into more economic use without first being requisitioned by the state. This traditional conversion process creates a lot of problems, among them are the compensation standard as well as displacement of rural residents to the city, where they cannot find adequate welfare protection. The prolonged disparity in economic outcomes for rural and urban residents in China in the process of urbanisation has made the authority realise that land-based local finance is no longer an option. Coordinated Urban and Rural Development (CURD ideology arises to set a level playing field by giving the rural residents comparable welfare status as their urban counterparts’ one. The CURD ideology is basically linked to the strategic development of the three main issues in the rural area of China, or in the Chinese terminology: San Nong. These three issues are rural villages, rural enterprises and rural farmers (nong cun, nong ye, nong min. CURD ideology is to preserve the livelihood of rural villages, facilitate and promote rural enterprises and increase the living standard of rural farmers. Most importantly, however, CURD policy package bestows rural residents with property rights over their farmland so that they could sub-co1ntract the user-rights to other urban commercial entities for higher benefits. While CURD policies are applied in a lot of different regions in China including Chongqing in the West, Qingdao in the North, Zhongshan in the South and Wuhan in the middle, we focus our examination in Chengdu as the Chengdu model has been widely documented and highly regarded as the most successful model in implementing the CURD strategies. From our case study, we find that
Ward, P R; Coveney, J; Verity, F; Carter, P; Schilling, M
As in many other countries, Australian consumers have recently had to accommodate increases in costs of basic food, and during the financial year 2007-2008 overall food prices rose by nearly 4%. Food costs are mediating factors in food choice, especially for low-income groups, where food security is often tenuous. There are reports that rural populations may have higher levels of food insecurity, although the evidence is often contradictory. To assess cost and affordability of food in rural areas this study used the Healthy Food Basket (HFB) methodology, which has been applied in a number of settings. The HFBs were costed at supermarkets and stores in different locations with different degrees of rurality. Compared with metropolitan areas, healthy food is more expensive in rural areas; costs are even higher in more remote areas. The overall affordability of HFB in rural areas was not significantly different from metro areas. The main difference concerned low socio-economic status (SES) groups, where the proportion of household income spent on the HFB was three times that of higher SES groups. The unaffordability of healthy food, or 'food stress' in low SES groups is a concern, especially when this group carries the greatest burden of diet-related disease. Findings suggest that there is a need to consider both rurality and SES when developing policy responses to decrease the cost and increase the affordability of healthy foods in rural and remote areas.
Saha, Sanjay Kumar; Sanyal, Debasish; Bhattacharyya, Agnihotri; Bhattacharyya, Ranjan; Barman, Neepamanjari; Mukherjee, Anindya
The prevalence of ageing population is increasing not only in developed countries but also in developing world like India. Epidemiological reports about cognitive impairment or dementia in elderly people from developing countries are scarce. To study the cognitive status of women more than 50 years of age and to study the relationship of sociodemographic factors with cognitive status of the study subjects a descriptive epidemiological, community based cross-sectional survey was done involving 179 old women of 50 years and above in the rural field practice area of All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Kolkata. The data were analysed using Epi-info 6.04, software packages. The mean age of the sample was 64.0 +/- 7.6 years. In the total sample, 53 subjects (29.6%) were in 50-59 years, 83 (43.4%) in 60-69 years, 34 (19%) in 70-79 years and 9 (5%) in women who were more than 80 years old. The cognitive defect was found to be 42.4% in elderly women .The variables like age > 70 years, widowhood, low per capita income, economic dependence, non-support from children, not staying with own children and having no satisfaction with life, were found to be significantly associated with cognitive defect. On (stepwise) multiple regression analysis these factors together contributed to 37% of cognitive impairment among these women. Prevalence of cognitive defect of more than 40% in the elderly women of this study emphasises the need for more attention and more social security measures for this neglected group.
Tzoumaka-Bakoula, C G; Lovel, H J
A household study of all families with children under age 6 in 3 villages in rural northwest Greece was conducted during August-September 1981. 94 mothers were interviewed about each of their children to find out who they had consulted seeking advice and care during pregnancy, for delivery, during the postnatal period, for child immunization, and in cases of mild or severe child illness. All 142 children were examined physically and developmentally. Information was also collected on the socioeconomic status of the family. Particular causes for concern were the findings that 30% of the mothers said they experienced at least 1 induced abortion; 5% had delivered without the help of any trained birth attendant; most of those who delivered in the district town (usually the more affluent) had not received postnatal care; 37% of the children had not seen a doctor during their 1st year of life either for sickness or for a developmental assessment. Only 41% of the children were fully immunized for their age, and 23% of those who should have begun their immunizations had not. Most of the 30 children who had been severely or chronically ill had bypassed the local doctor and sought services in the district town. There was clear variation in the pattern of health services use and socioeconomic status as shown by the availability of household facilities including water and electricity. The poorer mothers (30% of the sample) were more likely than the more affluent mothers to have delivered at home. Many had had the help of the local midwife, but those who had no help from a trained attendant came from poorer families. Postnatal care was provided to most (79%) of the families by the midwife. The poorer the family, the more likely that a sick child would be treated with a home remedy. Children from poor families were likely never to have seen a doctor and if a child did go, it was likely to be older at the time of the 1st visit. Very few poor families had ever consulted a
Harpreet Singh Grover
Full Text Available Background: Role of various etiologic factors in periodontal disease has been investigated by means of epidemiologic surveys and clinical studies. The community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN provides a picture of the public health requirements in the periodontal field, which is essential for national oral health policy-making and specific interventions. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 4000 individuals among rural, semi-urban, and metro population of Gurgaon District, Haryana State, to find out the oral health status and periodontal treatment needs (TNs using CPITN index. Results: An inference was drawn from the results that among 4000 participants from all the four population groups' maximum, i.e., 63.80% of individuals needed TN2 whereas 18.20% of individuals needed TN3 and 18.10% of individuals needed TN1. Conclusion: It can be concluded with a word of hope and a word of warning. Hope lies in the fact that the measurement of periodontal diseases by epidemiological study of this condition is improving and receiving wide spread attention. The warning lies in the varied nature of the condition which goes to make up periodontal disease and perplexing ways in which these conditions blend. In addition to dental practitioner, periodontist and public health workers must devote more time and effort toward controlling periodontal disease than they seem to be devoting at present.
Full Text Available Given increasing pressures upon biodiversity, identification of species’ traits related to elevated extinction risk is useful for more efficient allocation of limited resources for nature conservation. Despite its need, such a global analysis was lacking in the case of birds. Therefore, we performed this exercise for avian sister species using information about their global extinction risk from IUCN Red List. We focused on 113 pairs of sister species, each containing a threatened and an unthreatened species to factor out the effects of common evolutionary history on the revealed relationship. We collected data on five traits with expected relationships to species’ extinction risk based on previous studies performed at regional or national levels: breeding habitat (recognizing forest, grassland, wetland and oceanic species, latitudinal range position (temperate and tropics species, migration strategy (migratory and resident species, diet (carnivorous, insectivorous, herbivorous and omnivorous species and body mass. We related the extinction risk using IUCN threat level categories to species’ traits using generalised linear mixed effects models expecting lower risk for forest, temperate, omnivorous and smaller-bodied species. Our expectation was confirmed only in the case of latitudinal range position, as we revealed higher threat level for tropical than for temperate species. This relationship was robust to different methods of threat level expression and cannot be explained by a simple association of high bird species richness with the tropical zone. Instead, it seems that tropical species are more threatened because of their intrinsic characteristics such as slow life histories, adaptations to stable environments and small geographic ranges. These characteristics are obviously disadvantageous in conditions of current human-induced environmental perturbations. Moreover, given the absence of habitat effects, our study indicates that such
Sinharoy, Sheela S; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Cox, Kris; Clemence, Zachary; Mfura, Leodomir; Wendt, Ronald; Boisson, Sophie; Crossett, Erin; Grépin, Karen A; Jack, William; Condo, Jeanine; Habyarimana, James; Clasen, Thomas
To explore associations of environmental and demographic factors with diarrhoea and nutritional status among children in Rusizi district, Rwanda. We obtained cross-sectional data from 8847 households in May-August 2013 from a baseline survey conducted for an evaluation of an integrated health intervention. We collected data on diarrhoea, water quality, and environmental and demographic factors from households with children <5, and anthropometry from children <2. We conducted log-binomial regression using diarrhoea, stunting and wasting as dependent variables. Among children <5, 8.7% reported diarrhoea in the previous 7 days. Among children <2, stunting prevalence was 34.9% and wasting prevalence was 2.1%. Drinking water treatment (any method) was inversely associated with caregiver-reported diarrhoea in the previous 7 days (PR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.68-0.91). Improved source of drinking water (PR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.73-0.87), appropriate treatment of drinking water (PR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.80-0.96), improved sanitation facility (PR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82-0.97), and complete structure (having walls, floor and roof) of the sanitation facility (PR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.50-0.84) were inversely associated with stunting. None of the exposure variables were associated with wasting. A microbiological indicator of water quality was not associated with diarrhoea or stunting. Our findings suggest that in Rusizi district, appropriate treatment of drinking water may be an important factor in diarrhoea in children <5, while improved source and appropriate treatment of drinking water as well as improved type and structure of sanitation facility may be important for linear growth in children <2. We did not detect an association with water quality. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chetty, Terusha; Carter, Rosalind J; Bland, Ruth M; Newell, Marie-Louise
To determine the effect of infant feeding practices on postpartum weight change among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in South Africa. In a non-randomised intervention cohort study of antiretroviral therapy-naïve women in South Africa, infants were classified as exclusive (EBF), mixed (MF) or non-breastfed (NBF) at each visit. We analysed infant feeding cumulatively from birth to 5 months using 24-hour feeding history (collected weekly for each of the preceding 7 days). Using generalised estimating equation mixed models, allowing for repeated measures, we compared postpartum weight change (kg) from the first maternal postpartum weight within the first 6 weeks (baseline weight) to each subsequent visit through 24 months among 2340 HIV-infected and -uninfected women with live births and at least two postpartum weight measurements. HIV-infected (-0.2 kg CI: -1.7 to 1.3 kg; P = 0.81) and -uninfected women (-0.5 kg; 95% CI: -2.1 to 1.2 kg; P = 0.58) had marginal non-significant weight loss from baseline to 24 months postpartum. Adjusting for HIV status, socio-demographic, pregnancy-related and infant factors, 5-month feeding modality was not significantly associated with postpartum weight change: weight change by 24 months postpartum, compared to the change in the reference EBF group, was 0.03 kg in NBF (95% CI: -2.5 to +2.5 kg; P = 0.90) and 0.1 kg in MF (95% CI: -3.0 to +3.2 kg; P = 0.78). HIV-infected and -uninfected women experienced similar weight loss over 24 months. Weight change postpartum was not associated with 5-month breastfeeding modality among HIV-infected and -uninfected women. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua
The relationship between rural-to-urban migration and the spread of HIV is well described, although most studies focus on sexual risk behaviors among rural-to-urban migrants at the urban destination areas. Few studies have examined the sexual risk behaviors of migrants who have returned from urban areas to their rural homes (“return migrants”) in comparison with those of local rural residents who have never migrated to cities (“non-migrants”). This study examines the potential association between rural-to-urban migration and sexual risk behaviors by comparing sexual risk behaviors between 553 return migrants and 441 non-migrants from same rural communities in China. Findings reveal that, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, return migrants in rural areas had higher levels of sexual risk, including unprotected sex, than non-migrants. Among return migrants, sexual risk behaviors were associated with age, gender, marital status, and number of different jobs they had previously held in the cities. These findings underscore the importance for HIV/AIDS education and prevention efforts targeting the migrant population in urban destinations as well as the return migrant population in rural areas. PMID:17967110
Jowy Yi Hoong Seah
Full Text Available High arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 n − 6 status may have adverse effects on inflammation and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Concerns about high intake of n − 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are based on the premise that endogenous conversion from linoleic acid (LA; 18:2 n − 6 is an important source of AA, but few population-based studies have investigated dietary determinants of AA status. In this study, we examined habitual food consumption in relation to plasma concentrations of AA and other PUFAs in population-based studies. We used cross-sectional data from 269 healthy, ethnic Chinese participants (25–80 years old with contrasting intakes of fish and red meat from the Singapore Prospective Study Program and 769 healthy participants (44–74 years old from the Singapore Chinese Health Study as a validation set. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine PUFA intake (% energy and food sources of PUFA (fish, red meat, poultry, soy and cooking oils in relation to plasma PUFAs (AA, LA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3 n − 6, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n − 3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n − 3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n − 3 concentrations. Higher intake of red meat was associated with higher plasma AA concentrations. High intake of PUFA or PUFA-rich oils was associated with higher plasma ALA but not with plasma AA. Higher intakes of soy were associated with higher ALA and fish with higher DHA and EPA concentrations. These associations were statistically significant (p < 0.05 in both studies. Red meat consumption, but not PUFA or PUFA-rich cooking oil, was associated with circulating AA suggesting that intake of pre-formed AA rather than LA is an important determinant of AA status. A diet high in fish, soy products and polyunsaturated cooking oil, and low in red meat may be associated with an optimal plasma profile of PUFA in this Chinese population.
Zhang, P; Jones, R M; Flisgen, T; Van Rienen, U; Shinton, I R R
Higher order mode (HOM) beam position monitors (BPM) are being developed for the 3.9 GHz third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH. The transverse beam position in a cavity can be determined utilizing beam-excited HOMs based on dipole components. The existing couplers used for HOM suppression provide necessary signals. The diagnostics principle is similar to a cavity BPM, but requires no additional vacuum instruments on the linac. The challenges of HOM-BPM for 3.9 GHz cavities lie in the dense HOM spectrum arising from the coupling of the majority HOMs amongst the four cavities in the cryo-module ACC39. HOMs with particularly promising diagnostics features were evaluated using a spectrum analyzer and custom-built test electronics with various data analysis techniques, data reduction was focused on. After careful theoretical and experimental assessment of the HOM spectrum, multi-cavity modes in the region of 5 GHz were chosen to provide a global position over the complete module with superi...
Schøning, Signe Wedel
and take position within larger social structures of unequal power structures through such employment. The adolescents did not explicitly discuss power relations between urban and rural Denmark in their everyday social encounters, but when they employ Stylised vestjysk and Stylised københavnsk......This ethnographic project discerns how rural adolescents living in West Jutland, Denmark, carry out their daily lives under globalised conditions. The project shows how the young speakers (re)activate, align with and discard ideological perceptions of rural and urban Denmark. By investigating......, they continuously ascribe low social status to the former and high social status to the latter. Thus, the overall picture is one reproducing urban Denmark as a powerful and prestigious centre, whereas rural Denmark is disempowered....
The integration of women in rural development means something more than mere labor involvement, but there has never been a clear definition of what it means. 4 principal concerns of policy-makers are briefly described as they affect women: unemployment and inadequate employment; 2) the satisfaction of basic needs and women's participation in decision-making; 3) population issues; and 4) rural-to-urban migration. The actual inter-household and inter-personal distribution of more work and higher productivity work could result in some hard-working people working even longer hours because of additional tasks with others losing their intermittent employment opportunities due to mechanization. These contradictions can be particularly acute for women. The non-material basic need of decision-making powers is more important in the case of women than of men, yet the personal status of women is being threatened by the institution-building that accompanies peasant-based agricultural intensification plans and anti-poverty programs. The education of females has been seen as a possible factor favoring family planning. In addition, education for women can mean access to public information and new expectations from life for themselves. At this time more women than men seem to be migrating to towns and cities in a number of countries with varied economic structures. 3 cases studies of agricultural development in Kenya, Bangladesh and Java, Indonesia are presented.
El Manchawy, Imane; Baymou, El Mehdi; Amjed, Achour; Benjeddou, Kaoutar; El Haloui, Noureddine; Aguenaou, Hassan; Badahi, Ahmed; Rjimati, El Arbi
Full text: The micronutrients deficiencies cause considerable economic losses. In Morocco, iron deficiency alone leads to a shortfall of about two billion dirhams a year. Iodine deficiency costs Morocco 1.48% of GDP in terms of lost productivity, support for mentally retarded children, school dropouts and infant mortality. In line with the National program for fight against micronutrients deficiencies and the National Nutrition Strategy 2011 – 2019, an efficacy study was conducted jointly by the UMNRA, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of National Education and the ''Foundation CL for Child Nutrition''. It is a longitudinal, randomized, double-blinded efficacy study conducted for 9 months (2012) on school children (7 – 9y), without preliminary deworming, living in rural areas at high altitude. The population consisted of 380 children. One group of the children (FG) received daily 200ml of UHT fortified whole milk (Vitamin A, vitamin D3, iron and iodine)(30% RDA), the other control group(NFG) received daily 200ml of non fortified whole milk . Anthropometric, socio-economic, food consumption and morbidity data were collected. Biological tests included retinol, vitamin D, hemoglobin, ferritine and urinary iodine. Children also received a cognitive test (Raven test) at T0, T4 and T9months. Results showed 18% reduction of stunting in the fortified group. The results of serum analyses proved the efficacy of the fortification. In fact, after 9 months of intervention we noted : a- elimination of vitamin A deficiency (dropped from 50% to 4%), b- reduction of vitamin D deficiency (from 60% to 25.5%), d- reduction of iodine deficiency (from 74.7% to 29.4%). It was also observed that the non fortified whole milk contributed in the decrease of these deficiencies, but there was no impact on the iron status (ferritine). Cognitive tests showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: This study showed the efficacy of the consumption of fortified milk on
Katherine B. Gunter
Full Text Available Among rural families, rates of both child obesity and household food insecurity (FI are higher compared to non-rural families. These disparities result from a complex interplay of social and environmental conditions that influence behavior. The Transtheoretical Model suggests individual readiness to change underlies success in modifying obesity-preventing behaviors; however, whether an association between readiness to change obesity-related behaviors and FI status among rural families exists is unknown. We examined the association between readiness to change family-level nutrition and physical activity (PA behaviors that predict child obesity and family FI status within a sample of rural families to better understand these relationships. Families (n=144 were recruited from six rural Oregon communities in 2013. Families completed a FI screener and the Family Stage of Change Survey (FSOC, a measure of readiness to change family-level nutrition and PA behaviors associated with obesity. Demographic differences by FI status were explored, and regression was applied to examine relationships between FI and FSOC scores, adjusting for relevant covariates. Among FI families (40.2%, more were non-white (77.8% vs. 22.2%; p=0.036 and had lower adult education (30.4% vs. 11.8% with >high school degree; p=0.015 compared to non-FI families. After adjusting for education, race, ethnicity, and eligibility for federal meal programs, readiness to provide opportunities for PA was lower among FI families (p=0.002. These data highlight a need to further investigate how food insecurity and low readiness to provide PA opportunities, i.e. “physical activity insecurity” may be contributing to the higher obesity rates observed among rural children and families. Keywords: Food insecurity, Physical activity, Rural, Childhood obesity
Levin, Kate A; Leyland, Alastair H
Previous research suggests that there are significant differences in health between urban and rural areas. Health inequalities between the deprived and affluent in Scotland have been rising over time. The aim of this study was to examine health inequalities between deprived and affluent areas of Scotland for differing ruralities and look at how these have changed over time. Postcode sectors in Scotland were ranked by deprivation and the 20% most affluent and 20% most deprived areas were found using the Carstairs indicator and male unemployment. Scotland was then split into 4 rurality types. Ratios of health status between the most deprived and most affluent areas were investigated using all cause mortality for the Scottish population, 1979-2001. These were calculated over time for 1979-1983, 1989-1993, 1998-2001. Multilevel Poisson modelling was carried out for all of Scotland excluding Grampian to assess inequalities in the population. There was an increase in inequalities between 1981 and 2001, which was greatest in remote rural Scotland for both males and females; however, male health inequalities remained higher in urban areas throughout this period. In 2001 female health inequalities were higher in remote rural areas than urban areas. Health inequalities amongst the elderly (age 65+) in 2001 were greater in remote rural Scotland than urban areas for both males and females.
Rørth, Rasmus; Fosbøl, Emil L; Mogensen, Ulrik M
AIMS: Employment status at time of first heart failure (HF) hospitalization may be an indicator of both self-perceived and objective health status. In this study, we examined the association between employment status and the risk of all-cause mortality and recurrent HF hospitalization in a nation......AIMS: Employment status at time of first heart failure (HF) hospitalization may be an indicator of both self-perceived and objective health status. In this study, we examined the association between employment status and the risk of all-cause mortality and recurrent HF hospitalization...
Rebecca M Bedwell
Full Text Available Non-pregnant women from a rural town and its surrounding region were tested for anemia. During phase 1 (n = 181, anemic women received a written recommendation for low-cost purchase of iron pills at the nearest health center. They were subsequently interviewed on their actions and experiences.Estimated anemia prevalence among these non-pregnant women was 50% higher than the national average. Despite holding conceptualizations of anemia generally aligned with biomedical concepts, only 40% of anemic women attempted to obtain iron supplements from the health center. Town residents were about twice as likely to attempt to purchase pills as outside-town residents. Town women who were concurrently breastfeeding and menstruating, considered anemia most serious for women, and considered family health the shared responsibility of spouses were most likely to decide to purchase iron pills. Age, education, or native language did not negatively influence this health care behavior.Securing iron supplements involves individual trade-offs in the allocation of time, cost and effort. Nonetheless, suitably tailored programs can potentially harness local perceptions in the service of reducing anemia. Because of their comparatively high motivation to obtain iron supplements, targeting concurrently breastfeeding and menstruating women could have a positive cascade effect such that these women continue attending to their iron needs once they stop breastfeeding and if they become pregnant again. Because a sense of shared responsibility for family health appears to encourage women to attend to their own health, programs for women could involve their spouses. Complementing centralized availability, biomedical and traditional healers could distribute iron supplements on rotating visits to outlying areas and/or at highly attended weekly markets.
Bedwell, Rebecca M; Spielvogel, Hilde; Bellido, Diva; Vitzthum, Virginia J
Non-pregnant women from a rural town and its surrounding region were tested for anemia. During phase 1 (n = 181), anemic women received a written recommendation for low-cost purchase of iron pills at the nearest health center. They were subsequently interviewed on their actions and experiences. Estimated anemia prevalence among these non-pregnant women was 50% higher than the national average. Despite holding conceptualizations of anemia generally aligned with biomedical concepts, only 40% of anemic women attempted to obtain iron supplements from the health center. Town residents were about twice as likely to attempt to purchase pills as outside-town residents. Town women who were concurrently breastfeeding and menstruating, considered anemia most serious for women, and considered family health the shared responsibility of spouses were most likely to decide to purchase iron pills. Age, education, or native language did not negatively influence this health care behavior. Securing iron supplements involves individual trade-offs in the allocation of time, cost and effort. Nonetheless, suitably tailored programs can potentially harness local perceptions in the service of reducing anemia. Because of their comparatively high motivation to obtain iron supplements, targeting concurrently breastfeeding and menstruating women could have a positive cascade effect such that these women continue attending to their iron needs once they stop breastfeeding and if they become pregnant again. Because a sense of shared responsibility for family health appears to encourage women to attend to their own health, programs for women could involve their spouses. Complementing centralized availability, biomedical and traditional healers could distribute iron supplements on rotating visits to outlying areas and/or at highly attended weekly markets.
Zourkas, Elaine; Ward, Michael P; Kelman, Mark
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious and often fatal disease reported worldwide. Outbreaks occur throughout Australia, and it has been suggested that disproportionally more CPV cases occur in rural locations. However, evidence to support this suggestion-and possible reasons for such a predisposition-has not existed until now. In this study a total of 4870 CPV cases reported from an Australian disease surveillance system between September 2009 and July 2014 were analysed. Australian postcodes were classified as rural or urban (based on human population density) and reported CPV cases were then categorised as rural or urban based on their reported home postcode. Parvovirus cases were predominately young (<12 months), entire, unvaccinated, mixed-breed dogs. More than twice as many of the reported cases were from a rural area (3321 cases) compared to an urban area (1549 cases). The overall case fatality rate was 47.2%; it was higher for those CPV cases reported from urban areas (50.6%) than rural areas (45.5%). A greater proportion of rural cases were younger, entire dogs compared to urban cases. The final multivariable model of CPV cases being reported from a rural area included age (<12 months) and vaccination status (never vaccinated) as significant predictors. Poor socioeconomic status might be a reason for the decision of rural owners not to vaccinate their dogs as readily as urban owners. The excess reporting of rural CPV cases compared to urban cases and the predictive risk factors identified in this study can be used by veterinarians to reduce the incidence of CPV by educating owners about the disease and promoting better vaccination programs in rural areas. This study also supports that the increased risk of CPV in rural areas may necessitate a need for increased vigilance around preventing CPV disease spread, additional care with puppies which are the most susceptible to this disease and tighter vaccination protocols, compared to urban areas
Gernand, Alison D; Christian, Parul; Schulze, Kerry J; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Labrique, Alain B; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; West, Keith P
Plasma volume expansion has been associated with fetal growth. Our objective was to examine the associations between maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy and extracellular water (ECW), total body water (TBW), and percentage plasma volume change across pregnancy. In a subsample of 377 pregnant women participating in a cluster-randomized trial of micronutrient supplementation, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance were measured at ~10, 20, and 32 wk of gestation. In early pregnancy, women were short (mean ± SD, 148.9 ± 5.3 cm) and thin (19.5 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)). In mixed-effects multiple regression models, a 1-unit higher BMI at ~10 wk was associated with higher ECW and TBW (0.27 and 0.66 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P pregnancy BMI was negatively associated with gains in ECW and TBW (-0.06 and -0.14 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P pregnancy have lower ECW and TBW in early, mid, and late pregnancy and lower late pregnancy plasma volume expansion, potentially increasing risk of fetal growth restriction.
Batra, Payal; Roberts, Susan; Saltzman, Edward; Balan, Ela; Pruzensky, William; Schlossman, Nina
Full text: Food insecurity in Guinea-Bissau is widespread and micronutrient deficiencies are anticipated among vulnerable groups. The objective: to test the efficacy of two Micronutrient-Rich Ready to Use Supplementary Foods (MNR-RUSF) in rural village children aged 6 to 24 months. This study was funded by the United States Department of Agriculture as part of a larger pilot project testing different supplements in pregnant and lactating women and infants and children aged 6-59 months. 411 children were randomly assigned to one of two intervention arms (46 g MNR-RUSF sachets containing 250 kcal/sachet and either 15% or 33% of dairy protein, collected 5 days per week from a supplement distribution center in the village) or to a control (C) group that received no MNR-RUSF. Weight, height and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), hemoglobin, and retinol-binding protein were measured at baseline and end-line. Randomization to the 33% supplement group was associated with significantly increased visits to the distribution center to collect supplement, as well as higher ratings for product taste and overall acceptability. The 15% supplement improved hemoglobin levels relative to controls (+0.81±1.43 vs. 0.07±1.47, P -2.0 at baseline. This study is the first to examine the effects of supplements containing different amounts of dairy protein in infants and young children in Guinea-Bissau and indicates that, while substitution of provided supplement for home food may have reduced the potential impact of the supplements on weight and height, the nutritional quality of the supplements was high relative to traditional food sources, with the result that both standard and high-dairy containing MNR-RUSF products improved hemoglobin and rates of reported diseases. Furthermore, the supplements containing a higher level of dairy protein had a very high rate of acceptability, leading to increased supplement usage, which, over time, may translate to additional health and cognitive
Systematic review and meta-analysis links autism and toxic metals and highlights the impact of country development status: Higher blood and erythrocyte levels for mercury and lead, and higher hair antimony, cadmium, lead, and mercury.
Saghazadeh, Amene; Rezaei, Nima
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that affects cognitive and higher cognitive functions. Increasing prevalence of ASD and high rates of related comorbidities has caused serious health loss and placed an onerous burden on the supporting families, caregivers, and health care services. Heavy metals are among environmental factors that may contribute to ASD. However, due to inconsistencies across studies, it is still hard to explain the association between ASD and toxic metals. Therefore the objective of this study was to investigate the difference in heavy metal measures between patients with ASD and control subjects. We included observational studies that measured levels of toxic metals (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, and thallium) in different specimens (whole blood, plasma, serum, red cells, hair and urine) for patients with ASD and for controls. The main electronic medical database (PubMed and Scopus) were searched from inception through October 2016. 52 studies were eligible to be included in the present systematic review, of which 48 studies were included in the meta-analyses. The hair concentrations of antimony (standardized mean difference (SMD)=0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.45) and lead (SMD=0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17 to 1.03) in ASD patients were significantly higher than those of control subjects. ASD patients had higher erythrocyte levels of lead (SMD=1.55, CI: 0.2 to 2.89) and mercury (SMD=1.56, CI: 0.42 to 2.70). There were significantly higher blood lead levels in ASD patients (SMD=0.43, CI: 0.02 to 0.85). Sensitivity analyses showed that ASD patients in developed but not in developing countries have lower hair concentrations of cadmium (SMD=-0.29, CI: -0.46 to -0.12). Also, such analyses indicated that ASD patients in developing but not in developed lands have higher hair concentrations of lead (SMD=1.58, CI: 0.80 to 2.36) and mercury (SMD=0
Labhardt, Niklaus Daniel; Cheleboi, Molisana; Faturyiele, Olatunbosun; Motlatsi, Mokete M; Pfeiffer, Karolin; Lejone, Thabo Ismael; Cerutti, Bernard; Muser, Jürgen; Gupta, Ravi Shankar; Lynen, Lutgarde; Hatz, Christoph
Due to its side effects stavudine (D4T) has been replaced by zidovudine (AZT) and tenofovir (TDF) in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In 2014 about 38% of adult first-line regimens contain AZT and 62% TDF . Whereas the unfavourable metabolic outcomes of D4T in comparison to TDF have been described extensively, studies from LMICs comparing metabolic profiles between patients on AZT and TDF are scarce. Given the high number of patients in LMICs still taking AZT, data on their metabolic profile are needed. We present rates of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adult patients taking either AZT- or TDF-containing first-line, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NNRTI)-based regimens. Data derived from a cross-sectional multi-disease screening conducted in ten facilities in two rural districts of Lesotho, Southern Africa . Patients were eligible if aged ≥25 years and on NNRTI-containing first-line ART ≥6 months. The MS definition for Africa of the International Diabetes Federation was applied . Assessed potential predictors for MS were age, time on ART, virologic suppression, body-mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, wealth quintile, NNRTI (nevirapine (NVP) or Efavirenz (EFV)), history of previous D4T exposure and ART-backbone (AZT or TDF). Statistical analyses - stratified for sex - comprised univariate logistic regression for each predictor variable with subsequent construction of a multivariate model including all predictors with an association to MS at a significance levelwomen. In women, aged ≥35 years, AZT-backbone, NVP-base, BMI ≥25kg/m2 and taking ART for ≥4.5 years were associated with MS in univariate analysis. In the multivariate model only AZT (adjusted odds-ratio: 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.6; p=0.001) and BMI ≥25kg/m2 (9.8; 2.8-34.1, pwomen who are on ART for ≥6 months predisposes to the development of metabolic syndrome. Given that, still 38% of first-line regimens in LMIC contain AZT, this finding needs to be verified in other
I I Meshram
Full Text Available Background: In spite of several national nutrition intervention programs that have been in operation since the past four decades, undernutrition continues to be an important public health problem in India. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the trends in food and nutrient intakes and nutritional status of children in India below 5 years of age. Setting and Design: A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in ten National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau states by adopting a multistage random sampling procedure. Methods: Data were collected on the household (HH socioeconomic and demographic particulars, and anthropometric measurements of the children, such as their length/height and weight, were noted. A 24-h dietary recall method was used for assessing dietary intake. Results: Intake of all the foodstuffs except pulses, vegetables, and fats and oils declined over a period of time (1975–1979 to 2011–2012 while the intake of all the micronutrients except Vitamins A and C declined during the same period. The prevalence of undernutrition, i.e. underweight, stunting, and wasting has declined from 76%, 82%, and 27%, respectively in 1975–1979 to 42%, 44%, and 19%,respectively, in 2011–2012 among 1-5 year children. The severe form of undernutrition has also declined during the same period. The prevalence of undernutrition was significantly (P < 0.01 higher among children of illiterate mothers, those belonging to lower socioeconomic status, and those living in nuclear families. Conclusions: The prevalence of undernutrition declined over the period despite the decrease in food and nutrient intake. However, the pace of decline was slower and it was attributed to improved health-care services coupled with control of communicable diseases and increase in the HHs income. Further efforts are needed to improve the literacy of parents, environmental and personal hygiene, along with the food security of HHs through a public
Department of Transportation — The Rural Airports database is the list of rural airports compiled annually by BTS for the Treasury Department/IRS. It is used by airlines to assist in establishing...
Ntila, Sithandiwe; Siwela, Muthulisi; Kolanisi, Unathi; Abdelgadir, Hafiz; Ndhlala, Ashwell
This study assessed the food and nutrition security status of children receiving complementary food in rural and peri-urban communities. A group of 106 mothers from Lebowakgomo village and Hammanskraal Township, respectively, participated in the survey. Additionally, six focus group discussions were conducted per study area to assess the mothers' perceptions about children's food access. The Children's Food Insecurity Access Scale (CFIAS) was used to assess the food security status (access) of the children. The Individual Dietary Diversity Score (IDDS) together with the unquantified food consumption frequency survey were used as a proxy measure of the nutritional quality of the children's diets. The age and weight of the children obtained from the children's clinic health cards were used to calculate Weight-for-Age Z scores (WAZ) in order to determine the prevalence of underweight children. The findings showed that a large percentage of children were severely food-insecure, 87% and 78%, in rural and peri-urban areas, respectively. Additionally, Lebowakgomo children (23.6%) and Hammanskraal children (17.9%) were severely underweight. Overall, children's diets in both study areas was characterized by nutrient-deficient complementary foods. Cheaper foods with a longer stomach-filling effect such as white maize meal and sugar were the most commonly purchased and used. Hence, the children consumed very limited amounts of foods rich in proteins, minerals, and vitamins, which significantly increased the risk of their being malnourished.
Exploring the association of urban or rural county status and environmental, nutrition- and lifestyle-related resources with the efficacy of SNAP-Ed (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education) to improve food security.
Rivera, Rebecca L; Dunne, Jennifer; Maulding, Melissa K; Wang, Qi; Savaiano, Dennis A; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Eicher-Miller, Heather A
To investigate the association of policy, systems and environmental factors with improvement in household food security among low-income Indiana households with children after a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) direct nutrition education intervention. Household food security scores measured by the eighteen-item US Household Food Security Survey Module in a longitudinal randomized and controlled SNAP-Ed intervention study conducted from August 2013 to April 2015 were the response variable. Metrics to quantify environmental factors including classification of urban or rural county status; the number of SNAP-authorized stores, food pantries and recreational facilities; average fair market housing rental price; and natural amenity rank were collected from government websites and data sets covering the years 2012-2016 and used as covariates in mixed multiple linear regression modelling. Thirty-seven Indiana counties, USA, 2012-2016. SNAP-Ed eligible adults from households with children (n 328). None of the environmental factors investigated were significantly associated with changes in household food security in this exploratory study. SNAP-Ed improves food security regardless of urban or rural location or the environmental factors investigated. Expansion of SNAP-Ed in rural areas may support food access among the low-income population and reduce the prevalence of food insecurity in rural compared with urban areas. Further investigation into policy, systems and environmental factors of the Social Ecological Model are warranted to better understand their relationship with direct SNAP-Ed and their impact on diet-related behaviours and food security.
Full Text Available Background Heart failure is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in adults, leading to prolonged morbidity, repeated hospitalizations, and placing tremendous economic burden on the healthcare system. Heart failure patients discharged from rural hospitals, or primarily critical access hospitals, have higher 30-day readmission and mortality rates compared to patients discharged from urban hospitals. Self-management improves heart failure patients’ health outcomes and reduces re-hospitalizations, but adherence to self-management guidelines is low. We propose a home based post-acute care service managed by advanced practice nurses to enhance patient activation and lead to the improvement of self-management adherence in heart failure patients discharged from rural hospitals. Objective This article describes the study design and research methods used to implement and evaluate the intervention. Method Our intervention is a 12-week patient activation (Patient AcTivated Care at Home [PATCH] to improve self-management adherence. Patients were randomized into two parallel groups (12-week PATCH intervention + usual care vs. usual care only to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention. Outcomes were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Discussion This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a rural theory based, advance practice nurse led, activation enhancing intervention on the self-management adherence in heart failure patients residing in rural areas. Our expectation is to facilitate adherence to self-management behaviors in heart failure patients following discharge from rural hospitals and decrease complications and hospital readmissions, leading to the reduction of economic burden. Clinical Trial Registration Information: ClinicalTrials.gov; https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/ NCT01964053
Full Text Available Background Heart failure is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in adults, leading to prolonged morbidity, repeated hospitalizations, and placing tremendous economic burden on the healthcare system. Heart failure patients discharged from rural hospitals, or primarily critical access hospitals, have higher 30-day readmission and mortality rates compared to patients discharged from urban hospitals. Self-management improves heart failure patients’ health outcomes and reduces re-hospitalizations, but adherence to self-management guidelines is low. We propose a home based post-acute care service managed by advanced practice nurses to enhance patient activation and lead to the improvement of self-management adherence in heart failure patients discharged from rural hospitals. Objective This article describes the study design and research methods used to implement and evaluate the intervention. Method Our intervention is a 12-week patient activation (Patient AcTivated Care at Home [PATCH] to improve self-management adherence. Patients were randomized into two parallel groups (12-week PATCH intervention + usual care vs. usual care only to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention. Outcomes were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Discussion This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a rural theory based, advance practice nurse led, activation enhancing intervention on the self-management adherence in heart failure patients residing in rural areas. Our expectation is to facilitate adherence to self-management behaviors in heart failure patients following discharge from rural hospitals and decrease complications and hospital readmissions, leading to the reduction of economic burden. Clinical Trial Registration Information: ClinicalTrials.gov; https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/ NCT01964053
Thompson, Erika L; Mahony, Helen; Noble, Charlotte; Wang, Wei; Ziemba, Robert; Malmi, Markku; Maness, Sarah B; Walsh-Buhi, Eric R; Daley, Ellen M
The national teen birth rate is higher in rural compared to urban areas. While national data suggest rural areas may present higher risk for adverse sexual health outcomes among adolescents, it is unknown whether there are differences within the state of Florida. Overall, Florida has poorer sexual health indicators for adolescents compared to national rates. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in sexual behaviors among Florida adolescents by rural-urban community location. This study includes baseline data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in Florida high schools. Of the 6316 participants, 74% were urban and 26% were rural. Participants responded to questions on sexual behaviors, sexual behavior intentions, and demographics. We estimated the effect of rural-urban status on risk outcomes after controlling for demographic variables using generalized linear mixed models. More teens from rural areas reported ever having sex (24.0%) compared to urban teens (19.7%). No significant differences were observed for most of sexual behaviors assessed. Nonetheless, urban participants were less likely to intend to have sex without a condom in the next year compared to rural participants (aOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.63-0.92). Overall, there were no major differences in sexual behaviors between rural and urban adolescents in Florida. However, sexual intentions differed between rural and urban adolescents; specifically, rural adolescents were more likely to intend to have sex without a condom in the next year compared to urban adolescents. Understanding the specific disparities can inform contraception and sexual health interventions among rural youth.
'It's because I like things… it's a status and he buys me airtime': exploring the role of transactional sex in young women's consumption patterns in rural South Africa (secondary findings from HPTN 068).
Ranganathan, Meghna; Heise, Lori; MacPhail, Catherine; Stöckl, Heidi; Silverwood, Richard J; Kahn, Kathleen; Selin, Amanda; Xavier Gómez-Olivé, F; Watts, Charlotte; Pettifor, Audrey
'Transactional sex', defined as a non-marital, non-commercial sexual relationship in which money or material goods are exchanged for sex, is associated with young women's increased vulnerability to HIV infection. Existing research illustrates that the motivations for transactional sex are complex. The fulfilment of psycho-social needs such as the need to belong to a peer group are important factors underlying young women's desires to obtain certain consumption items and thus engage in transactional sex. We use a mixed-methods approach to explore the relationship between transactional sex and consumption patterns among young women in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa. In the secondary analysis of 693 sexually active young women, we use factor analysis to group the different consumption items and we use multivariable logistic regression to demonstrate the relationship between transactional sex and consumption patterns. The qualitative study uses five focus group discussions and 19 in-depth interviews to explore further young women's motivations for acquiring different consumption items. The quantitative results show that young women that engage in transactional sex have higher odds of consuming items for entertainment (e.g., movie tickets) than on practical items (e.g., food and groceries). The qualitative findings also revealed that young women's perceptions of items that were considered a 'need' were strongly influenced by peer pressure and a desire for improved status. Further, there was a perception that emerged from the qualitative data that relationships with sugar daddies offered a way to acquire consumer goods associated with a 'modern lifestyle', such as items for personal enhancement and entertainment. However, young women seem aware of the risks associated with such relationships. More importantly, they also develop relationship with partners of similar age, albeit with the continued expectation of material exchange, despite engaging in the
Jiang, Ruoting; Bell, Michelle L
Biomass fuel is the primary source of domestic fuel in much of rural China. Previous studies have not characterized particle exposure through time-activity diaries or personal monitoring in mainland China. In this study we characterized indoor and personal particle exposure in six households in northeastern China (three urban, three rural) and explored differences by location, cooking status, activity, and fuel type. Rural homes used biomass. Urban homes used a combination of electricity and natural gas. Stationary monitors measured hourly indoor particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter urban kitchens, urban sitting rooms, and outdoors. Personal monitors for PM with an aerodynamic diameter urban kitchens during cooking. PM10 was 6.1 times higher during cooking periods than during noncooking periods for rural kitchens. Personal PM2.5 levels for rural cooks were 2.8-3.6 times higher than for all other participant categories. The highest PM2.5 exposures occurred during cooking periods for urban and rural cooks. However, rural cooks had 5.4 times higher PM2.5 levels during cooking than did urban cooks. Rural cooks spent 2.5 times more hours per day cooking than did their urban counterparts. These findings indicate that biomass burning for cooking contributes substantially to indoor particulate levels and that this exposure is particularly elevated for cooks. Second-by-second personal PM2.5 exposures revealed differences in exposures by population group and strong temporal heterogeneity that would be obscured by aggregate metrics.
指出农村创业有条件差、资金周转慢、效益低、变数多等特点,高等农业院校大学生毕业后应根据农村的创业特点,选择正确的农村创业之路。正确的创业之路,首先是创业能力的培养;其次要了解农村、掌握农业和农民的特点,与农民融为一体;三是要通过就职于农村企业,积累农村企业的经营和管理经验;四是灵活运用社会关系学,争取得到政府在政策和资金上的支持。%Rural business has the characteristics of poor conditions,fund turnover slow,low benefit,more variability etc.Higher agricultural college graduates should according to the characteristics of the business choose the correct road.The correct road of the business,the first is the cultivation of creative ability.Second,to understand the countryside,master the characteristics of agriculture and farmers,and integrate with farmers.Third,through working for the rural enterprise,accumulate the managerial experience.Fourth,flexible use of social relations to get the government＇s support in the policy and financial.
Taype-Rondan, Alvaro; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Alvarado, Germán F; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime
Previous studies have found mixed results about cigarette and alcohol consumption patterns among rural-to-urban migrants. Moreover, there are limited longitudinal data about consumption patterns in this population. As such, this study aimed to compare the smoking and heavy drinking prevalence among rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru, as well as the smoking and heavy drinking incidence in a 5-year follow-up. We analyzed the PERU MIGRANT Study data from rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrant populations in Peru. The baseline study was carried out in 2006-2007 and follow-up was performed five years later. For the baseline data analysis, the prevalence of lifetime smoking, current smokers, and heavy drinking was compared by population group using prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). For the longitudinal analysis, the incidence of smoking and heavy drinking was compared by population group with risk ratios (RR) and 95% CI. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to calculate both PRs and RRs. We analyzed data from 988 participants: 200 rural dwellers, 589 migrants, and 199 urban dwellers. Compared with migrants, lifetime smoking prevalence was higher in the urban group (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.64-3.20), but lower in the rural group (PR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31-0.99). Compared with migrants, the urban group had a higher current smoking prevalence (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.26-4.16), and a higher smoking incidence (RR = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.03-7.34). Current smoking prevalence and smoking incidence showed no significant difference between rural and migrant groups. The prevalence and incidence of heavy drinking was similar across the three population groups. Our results show a trend in lifetime smoking prevalence (urban > migrant > rural), while smoking incidence was similar between migrant and rural groups, but higher in the urban group. In addition, our results suggest that different
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have found mixed results about cigarette and alcohol consumption patterns among rural-to-urban migrants. Moreover, there are limited longitudinal data about consumption patterns in this population. As such, this study aimed to compare the smoking and heavy drinking prevalence among rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru, as well as the smoking and heavy drinking incidence in a 5-year follow-up. Methods We analyzed the PERU MIGRANT Study data from rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrant populations in Peru. The baseline study was carried out in 2006–2007 and follow-up was performed five years later. For the baseline data analysis, the prevalence of lifetime smoking, current smokers, and heavy drinking was compared by population group using prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. For the longitudinal analysis, the incidence of smoking and heavy drinking was compared by population group with risk ratios (RR and 95% CI. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to calculate both PRs and RRs. Results We analyzed data from 988 participants: 200 rural dwellers, 589 migrants, and 199 urban dwellers. Compared with migrants, lifetime smoking prevalence was higher in the urban group (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.64–3.20, but lower in the rural group (PR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31–0.99. Compared with migrants, the urban group had a higher current smoking prevalence (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.26–4.16, and a higher smoking incidence (RR = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.03–7.34. Current smoking prevalence and smoking incidence showed no significant difference between rural and migrant groups. The prevalence and incidence of heavy drinking was similar across the three population groups. Conclusions Our results show a trend in lifetime smoking prevalence (urban > migrant > rural, while smoking incidence was similar between migrant and rural groups, but higher in the
Yitayal Addis Alemayehu
Full Text Available The majority of Ethiopia’s people (85% reside in rural areas, deriving their livelihood from agriculture. Ethiopia’s energy system is characterized mainly by biomass fuel supply, with households being the greatest energy consumers. The household sector takes up nearly 94 % of the total energy supplies. Access to energy resources and technologies in rural Ethiopia is highly constrained which makes the energy supply and consumption pattern of the country to show many elements of un-sustainability. The concern on cooking practices, household economics, health, forest and agricultural resource management, and global greenhouse gas emissions has emerged as a transformative opportunity to improve individual lives, livelihoods, and the global environment. More decentralized renewable energy projects could play an important role in mitigating traditional biomass fuel use. Improved cooking stove (ICS dissemination projects have been launched involving the private sector in the production and commercialization of the stoves. In doing so, about 3.7 million ICSs have been disseminated in the country so far which benefited stove users, producers and the total environment as about 30 million hectare of forest per year can be conserved. Conversion of animal waste to biogas energy to replace traditional fuel and use of the slurry as a fertilizer is the other current focus of the government of Ethiopia and installed more than 860 biogas digesters. The benefits obtained from these technologies are considerable and promising. However, the programs are not that much benefited the rural households where it had been intended to address. So, due attention should be given for those of the rural households in order to address the fuel wood crisis, environmental degradation and their health condition.
Manser, W.W.T.; Zaki Hasan, K.; Iliyas, M.; Zaidi, Z.
In spite of the diversity of diet for rural and urban populations of Pakistan, anemias are very common. This paper contains a discussion of deficiencies of iron, zinc, selenium and magnesium in the population. Included are discussions on the bioavailability of these elements from the local diet, the various dietary interactions with other elements, and several methods used for identifying the trace element in blood samples from a test group. 28 refs, 7 tabs
Duma, Olga-Odetta; Roşu, Solange Tamara; Manole, M; Petrariu, F D; Constantin, Brânduşa
To identify the factors that may conduct to various forms of social exclusion of the population from the primary healthcare and to analyze health disparities as population-specific differences in the access to primary healthcare in rural compared to urban residence areas from Iasi, the second biggest county, situated in the North--East region of Romania. This research is a type of inquiry-based opinion survey of the access to primary healthcare in rural compared to urban areas of the county of Iasi. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews. There were taken into account the socioeconomic status (education level in the adult population, employment status, family income, household size) and two temporal variables (the interval of time spent to arrive at the primary healthcare office as a marker for the geographical access and the waiting time for a consultation). The study group consisted of two samples, from rural and urban area, each of 150 patients, all ages, randomly selected, who were waiting at the family doctor's practice. The study has identified disparities related to a poor economic status assessed through the employed status ("not working" 15% in urban and of 20% in rural).The income calculated per member of family and divided in terciles has recorded significant differences for "high" (36.7% urban and 14.7% rural) and "low", respectively (14.6% urban and 56.6% rural). High household size with more than five members represented 22.6% of the total subjects in rural and 15.3% in urban areas. The assessment of the education level in the adult population (> 18 years) revealed that in the rural areas more than a half (56%) of the sample is placed in the category primary and secondary incomplete, whereas the value for secondary complete and postsecondary was 37.3%. The proportion of respondents in the urban areas who have post-secondary education is five times higher than those in rural areas (15.4% vs. 2.7%). The reduced geographical access assessed as
Matz, Carlyn J; Stieb, David M; Davis, Karelyn; Egyed, Marika; Rose, Andreas; Chou, Benedito; Brion, Orly
Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2) was a national survey conducted in 2010-2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011) provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%), most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8%) or in a vehicle (5.3%). Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents.
Matz, Carlyn J.; Stieb, David M.; Davis, Karelyn; Egyed, Marika; Rose, Andreas; Chou, Benedito; Brion, Orly
Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2) was a national survey conducted in 2010–2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011) provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%), most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8%) or in a vehicle (5.3%). Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents. PMID:24557523
Carlyn J. Matz
Full Text Available Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2 was a national survey conducted in 2010–2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011 provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%, most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8% or in a vehicle (5.3%. Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents.
Phuong H Nguyen
Full Text Available Preconception micronutrient interventions may be a promising approach to reduce anemia and iron deficiency during pregnancy, but currently we have limited data to inform policies. We evaluated whether providing additional pre-pregnancy weekly iron-folic acid (IFA or multiple micronutrient (MM supplements compared to only folic acid (FA improves iron status and anemia during pregnancy and early postpartum.We conducted a double blind randomized controlled trial in which 5011 Vietnamese women were provided with weekly supplements containing either only 2800 μg FA (control group, IFA (60 mg Fe and 2800 μg FA or MM (15 micronutrients with similar amounts of IFA. All women who became pregnant (n = 1813 in each of the 3 groups received daily IFA (60 mg Fe and 400 μg FA through delivery. Hematological indicators were assessed at baseline (pre-pregnancy, during pregnancy, 3 months post-partum, and in cord blood. Adjusted generalized linear models were applied to examine the impact of preconception supplementation on anemia and iron stores, using both intention to treat and per protocol analyses (women consumed supplements ≥ 26 weeks before conception.At baseline, 20% of women were anemic, but only 14% had low iron stores (ferritin <30 μg/L and 3% had iron deficiency (ferritin <12 μg/L. The groups were balanced for baseline characteristics. Anemia prevalence increased during pregnancy and post-partum but was similar among intervention groups. In intention to treat analyses, prenatal ferritin was significantly higher among women receiving MM (geometric mean (μg/L [95% CI]: 93.6 [89.3-98.2] and IFA (91.9 [87.6-96.3] compared to control (85.3 [81.5-89.2]. In per protocol analyses, women receiving MM or IFA had higher ferritin 3 months postpartum (MM 118.2 [109.3-127.8], IFA 117.8 [108.7-127.7] vs control 101.5 [94.0-109.7] and gave birth to infants with greater iron stores (MM 184.3 [176.1-192.9], IFA 189.9 [181.6-198.3] vs control 175.1 [167
Julie C. Martin
Full Text Available Health disparities, including weight gain and obesity exist between urban and rural dwelling women. The primary aim was to compare diet quality in urban and rural women of reproductive age, and secondary analyses of the difference in macronutrient and micronutrient intake in urban and rural women, and the predictors of diet quality. Diet quality was assessed in urban (n = 149 and rural (n = 394 women by a modified version of the Dietary Guideline Index (DGI energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and predictors of diet quality. Diet quality did not significantly differ between urban and rural women (mean ± standard deviation (SD, 84.8 ± 15.9 vs. 83.9 ± 16.5, p = 0.264. Rural women reported a significantly higher intake of protein, fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, cholesterol and iron and a higher score in the meat and meat alternatives component of the diet quality tool in comparison to urban women. In all women, a higher diet quality was associated with higher annual household income (>$Australian dollar (AUD 80,000 vs. <$AUD80,000 p = 0.013 and working status (working fulltime/part-time vs. unemployed p = 0.043. Total diet quality did not differ in urban and rural women; however, a higher macronutrient consumption pattern was potentially related to a higher lean meat intake in rural women. Women who are unemployed and on a lower income are an important target group for future dietary interventions aiming to improve diet quality.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a cohort of British Columbian male sawmill workers, we conducted a nested case-control study of the impact of rural compared to urban residence as well as rural/urban migration patterns in relation to hospitalization for non-work injury. We postulate that for many types of non-work injuries, rates will be higher in rural communities than in urban ones and that rates will also be higher for workers who migrate from urban to rural communities. Methods Using conditional logistic regression, univariate models were first run with each of five non-work injury outcomes. These outcomes were hospitalizations due to assault, accidental poisoning, medical mis-adventure, motor vehicle trauma, and other non-work injuries. In multivariate models marital status, ethnicity, duration of employment, and occupation were forced into the model and associations with urban, compared to rural, residence and various urban/migration patterns were tested. Results Urban or rural residence and migration status from urban to other communities, and across rural communities, were not associated with hospitalization for medical misadventure, assault, or accidental poisoning. The likelihood of a rural resident being hospitalized for motor vehicle trauma is higher than for an urban resident. The likelihood that a rural resident is hospitalized for "other" non-work injury is higher than for an urban resident. Conclusion In a relatively homogenous group of workers, and using a rigorous study design, we have demonstrated that the odds of other non-work injury are much higher for workers resident in and migrating to rural regions of Canada than they are for workers resident in or migrating to urban places.
[Study on of the current status of volatile organic compounds pollution in typical rural drinking water and the relationship between its concentration and health of the population, in Huai'an, Jiangsu].
Pan, Enchun; Zhang, Qin; Yang, Fangying; Hu, Wei; Xu, Qiujin; Liang, Cunzhen; He, Yuan; Wang, Chuang
This study was to understand the status of pollution on drinking water, by volatile organic compounds (VOCs), among rural residents living in the basin of Huaihe River. Relationship between the morbidity, morbidity of cancers and VOCs were also explored. 28 villages were chosen from Xuyi,Jinhu, Chuzhou along the Huaihe River, with water samples collected from ditch pond water, shallow wells, deep wells in November-December 2010. VOCs indicators were evaluated according to the Standard Quality GB 5749-2006 for Drinking Water. Methylene chloride, chloroform, benzene and carbon tetrachloride were all detected in 76 water samples. The rates of chloroform, benzene, carbon tetrachloride which exceeding the quality standards were 3.95% , 21.05% and 22.37% , but no significant differences were found among these three water resources in chloroform, benzene or carbon tetrachloride. Results from the correlation analysis showed that benzene had positive correlation with tumor deaths (r = 0.24, P water resources (P > 0.05). Drinking waters for rural residents along the Huaihe River were polluted while VOCs might have related to tumor incidence with potential impact and risk to the health of local residents.
Fahey, Nisha; Soni, Apurv; Allison, Jeroan; Vankar, Jagdish; Prabhakaran, Anusha; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Byatt, Nancy; Phatak, Ajay; O'Keefe, Eileen; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar
Common mental disorders (CMD) are a constellation of mental health conditions that include depression, anxiety, and other related nonpsychotic affective disorders. Qualitative explanatory models of mental health among reproductive-aged women in India reveal that distress is strongly associated with CMD. The relationship of perceived stress and CMD might be attenuated or exacerbated based on an individual's sociodemographic characteristics. To screen for Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among reproductive-aged women from rural western India and explore how the relationship between perceived stress and CMD screening status varies by sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional survey of 700 women from rural Gujarat, India. CMD screening status was assessed using Self-Reported Questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20). Factors associated with CMD screening status were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Effect modification for the relationship of perceived stress and CMD screening status was assessed using interaction terms and interpreted in terms of predicted probabilities. The analytic cohort included 663 women, with roughly 1 in 4 screening positive for CMD (157, 23.7%). Poor income, low education, food insecurity, and recurrent thoughts after traumatic events were associated with increased risk of positive CMD screen. Perceived stress was closely associated with CMD screening status. Higher education attenuated the relationship between high levels of stress and CMD screening status (82.3%, 88.8%, 32.9%; P value for trend: 0.03). Increasing income and age attenuated the link between moderate stress and CMD. Our findings suggest a high burden of possible CMD among reproductive-aged women from rural western India. Higher education might mitigate the association between elevated stress and CMD. Future efforts to improve mental health in rural India should focus on preventing CMD by enhancing rural women's self-efficacy and problem-solving capabilities to overcome
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Although natural resources play a central role in rural livelihoods across the globe, little research has explored the relationship between migration and natural capital use, particularly in combination with other livelihood capitals (i.e., human, social, financial and physical. OBJECTIVE Grounded in the rural livelihood framework, this paper explores the association between the livelihood capital availability, especially natural capital, for migrants and non-migrants in rural Madagascar. METHODS Data from the 2008/2009 Demographic and Health Survey are used in combination with satellite imagery of vegetation coverage (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI to proxy natural resources. Hierarchical multilevel models allow for inclusion of cross-level interactions between migrant status and proximate natural resources as determinants of the status of livelihood assets. RESULTS Three key findings emerge. First, higher levels of proximate natural resources are associated with greater financial, human, and social capital for both migrants and non-migrants. Second, migrants have, on average, greater financial, physical, human, and social capital than non-migrants, and urban-to-rural migrants do exceptionally well on all capital asset categories. Third, migrants residing in areas with higher levels of natural capital tend to have significantly higher levels of human capital (education. CONCLUSIONS Although we cannot examine livelihood strategies per se, the results suggest variation in livelihood potential among migrants and non-migrants in rural Madagascar, with migrants tending to have greater capital assets. In addition, access to natural resources is a central livelihood strategy.
Mberu, Blessing U.; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C.
Background It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality
Mberu, Blessing U; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C
It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality outcomes. They bear a disproportionately
Blessing U. Mberu
Full Text Available Background: It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design: We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results: In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to
Full Text Available The paper analyse the role of rural tourism for the development of rural areas, on the comparison of two regions with different types of rural tourism. One area is of highly diversifi ed rural tourism with wide range of tourist products (rafting, hiking, cycling, farm tourism, skiing …. The tourism offer in the second area is much more uniform (mainly farm tourism and some spa. The study analysed how the two different types of tourist product diversifi cations influence the development possibilities of studied rural areas. We analysed how different systems are able to maintain its functions in the context of identifi ed perturbations (socio-economic and geophysical. We analysed the infl uence of different factors on systems stability, its resilience, robustness and integrity. The gained results show that only the higher level of diversifi cation is not a guarantee for systems higher stability, resilience, robustness and integrity, but there also other
Gómez-de-Tejada Romero, María-Jesús; Navarro Rodríguez, María-del-Carmen; Saavedra Santana, Pedro; Quesada Gómez, José-Manuel; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Sosa Henríquez, Manuel
First, to study the difference between two groups of postmenopausal women living in different population centres (rural vs urban) in the prevalence of osteoporosis, fragility fractures and factors which may influence them: hypovitaminosis D, bone mineral density, coexistence of other diseases which predispose to their appearance; secondly, to observe the influence of low socioeconomic status, categorised as poverty. 1229 postmenopausal women were studied, of whom 390 (31.7%), were living in rural areas and 839 (68.3%), in urban areas. Data regarding risk factors related to osteoporosis were obtained, and, among other biochemical measures, 25 hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone were determined. Bone densitometry was carried out in the lumbar spine and proximal femur, as well as lateral X-rays of the dorsal and lumbar spine. The women who lived in rural areas were older, shorter, heavier and had a higher body mass index than those from urban areas. Among the women from rural areas there was a higher prevalence of poverty, and higher levels of obesity, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus were observed, as well as a higher prevalence of densitometric osteoporosis. The rural women had lower values of bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and a higher prevalence of vertebral fractures and hypovitaminosis D. The variables which were associated independently with living in rural areas were poverty, obesity, vertebral fractures, BMD in the lumbar spine and levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D. In our study, postmenopausal women who live in rural populations have more poverty, lower values of vitamin D, lower BMD in the lumbar spine and a higher prevalence of vertebral fractures and of osteoporosis. The higher prevalence of obesity, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus observed in these women may be adjuvant factors, all fostered by their socioeconomic state of poverty. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Evans, Meredydd; Yu, Sha; Song, Bo; Deng, Qinqin; Liu, Jing; Delgado, Alison
Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China's total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to provide for basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China's success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation. - Highlights: • Building energy use is larger in rural China than in cities. • Rural buildings are very energy intensive, and energy use is growing with incomes. • A new design standard aims to help rural communities build more efficiently. • Important challenges remain with implementation
Alam, D.S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Yunus, M.; Wahed, M.A.; Fuchs, G.J.
Dietary fat intake is extremely low in most communities with vitamin A deficiency. However, its role in vitamin A status of pregnant and lactating women is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of supplementing women with fat from mid-/late pregnancy until six months
Mitchell, Jordan; Bennett, Kevin; Brock-Martin, Amy
To examine the differences in oral health status among residents of high-poverty counties, as compared to residents of other rural or urban counties, specifically on the prevalence of edentulism. We used the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the 2006 Area Resource File (ARF). All analyses were conducted with SAS and SAS-callable SUDAAN, in order to account for weighting and the complex sample design. Characteristics significantly related to edentulism include: geographic location, gender, race, age, health status, employment, insurance, not having a usual source of care, education, marital status, presence of chronic disease, having an English interview, not deferring care due to cost, income, and dentist saturation within the county. Significant associations between high-poverty rural and other rural counties and edentulism were found, and other socioeconomic and health status indicators remain strong predictors of edentulism. © 2012 National Rural Health Association.
Bettermann, Erika L; Hartman, Terryl J; Easley, Kirk A; Ferranti, Erin P; Jones, Dean P; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Vaccarino, Viola; Ziegler, Thomas R; Alvarez, Jessica A
Both systemic redox status and diet quality are associated with risk outcomes in chronic disease. It is not known, however, the extent to which diet quality influences plasma thiol/disulfide redox status. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of diet, as measured by diet quality scores and other dietary factors, on systemic thiol/disulfide redox status. We performed a cross-sectional study of 685 working men and women (ages ≥18 y) in Atlanta, GA. Diet was assessed by 3 diet quality scores: the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). We measured concentrations of plasma glutathione (GSH), cysteine, their associated oxidized forms [glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and cystine (CySS), respectively], and their redox potentials (EhGSSG and EhCySS) to determine thiol/disulfide redox status. Linear regression modeling was performed to assess relations between diet and plasma redox after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), sex, race, and history of chronic disease. MDS was positively associated with plasma GSH (β = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.03) and total GSH (GSH + GSSG) (β = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.03), and inversely associated with the CySS:GSH ratio (β = -0.02; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.004). There were significant independent associations between individual MDS components (dairy, vegetables, fish, and monounsaturated fat intake) and varying plasma redox indexes (P indexes and other diet factors of interest were not significantly correlated with plasma thiol and disulfide redox measures. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was significantly associated with a favorable plasma thiol/disulfide redox profile, independent of BMI, in a generally healthy working adult population. Although longitudinal studies are warranted, these findings contribute to the feasibility of targeting a Mediterranean diet to improve plasma redox status.
De Los Santos, Gilberto; Asgary, Nader; Nazemzadeh, Asghar; DeShields, Jr., Oscar W.
Some projections about Hispanic individuals point to a rosy picture regarding gains in higher educational enrollment. Other studies lament that these gains are, at best, minimal. Although the so-called higher education pie is undoubtedly expanding, this article concludes that Hispanic adults are losing, rather than gaining, educational attainment…
Hashizume, Cary T; Woloschuk, Wayne; Hecker, Kent G
There is a paucity of research regarding veterinary students' attitudes toward the rural environment and rural veterinary practice and how these attitudes might change over the course of a veterinary medicine program that includes rural clinical experience. Using a 23-item questionnaire, attitudes toward rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, opportunities for career and skill development in rural veterinary practice, and inter-professional teamwork in the rural environment were assessed at the beginning and completion of a four-year veterinary medicine program. Eighty-six students (74.4% female) were included in this Canadian study over a six-year period. Thirty-one participants (36.1%) were rural students. Overall, students' attitudes toward the rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, and inter-professional teamwork in rural veterinary practice all significantly decreased (pstudents, rural students had significantly higher rural lifestyle scores at both the beginning (pworking in a rural environment could influence students to exclude rural veterinary practice as a career choice. Rural clinical experiences designed to sustain or increase veterinary student interest in rural practice may not be sufficient to support positive rural attitudes. Given the demand for rural veterinary services in developed countries, the implications of this study may extend beyond Canada.
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Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M
This study examined the association of compositional measures of collective social functioning, composed of community and familial social capital and perceived personal disparity, with food security among older (aged 50-59 y) and senior (aged ≥ 60 y) adult residents of the largely rural Brazos Valley in Central Texas using data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment (analytic N = 1059, 74% response rate). Among older adults and seniors, 18.6% reported food insecurity (5.5% often and 13.1% sometimes), defined as running out of food and not having money to buy more. Low community social capital was reported by 22.4% of participants, and 30.8% indicated they were single, widowed, or divorced, an indicator of limited familial social capital. A robust multinomial regression model found the odds of reporting greater food insecurity increased for individuals who were women, African American, residents of a household with a low or poverty-level income, individuals who perceived themselves to be worse off than others within their community, and those who had low social capital. The odds of being food insecure decreased for older respondents, partnered respondents and persons with more education (pseudo r(2) = 0.27, p < 0.0000). Compositional level measures of collective social functioning are important associates of food insecurity among older adults and seniors, regardless of severity.
Prince, Martin J; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Uwakwe, Richard; Acosta, Isaac; Liu, Zhaorui; Gallardo, Sara; Guerchet, Maelenn; Mayston, Rosie; de Oca, Veronica Montes; Wang, Hong; Ezeah, Peter
Few data are available from middle income countries regarding economic circumstances of households in which older people live. Many such settings have experienced rapid demographic, social and economic change, alongside increasing pension coverage. Population-based household surveys in rural and urban catchment areas in Peru, Mexico and China. Participating households were selected from all households with older residents. Descriptive analyses were weighted back for sampling fractions and non-response. Household income and consumption were estimated from a household key informant interview. 877 Household interviews (3177 residents). Response rate 68 %. Household income and consumption correlated plausibly with other economic wellbeing indicators. Household Incomes varied considerably within and between sites. While multigenerational households were the norm, older resident's incomes accounted for a high proportion of household income, and older people were particularly likely to pool income. Differences in the coverage and value of pensions were a major source of variation in household income among sites. There was a small, consistent inverse association between household pension income and labour force participation of younger adult co-residents. The effect of pension income on older adults' labour force participation was less clear-cut. Historical linkage of social protection to formal employment may have contributed to profound late-life socioeconomic inequalities. Strategies to formalise the informal economy, alongside increases in the coverage and value of non-contributory pensions and transfers would help to address this problem.
Lerner, Alana G; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime
To determine the awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes by migration status. Cross-sectional study, secondary analyses of the PERU MIGRANT study. Rural, rural-to-urban migrants, and urban participants. Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes mellitus were calculated using weights to account for participant's group size. Of 205 of the 987 (weighted prevalence 24.1%, 95% confidence interval: 21.1%-27.1%) participants identified as hypertensive, 48.3% were aware of their diagnosis, 40% of them were receiving treatment, and 30.4% of those receiving treatment were controlled. Diabetes was present in 33 of the 987 (weighted prevalence 4.6%, 95% confidence interval: 3.1%-6%), and diabetes awareness, treatment, and control were 71.1%, 40.6%, and 7.7%, respectively. Suboptimal control rates, defined as those not meeting blood pressure or glycaemia targets among those with the condition, were 95.1% for hypertension and 97% for diabetes. Higher awareness, treatment, and control rates, for both hypertension and diabetes, were observed in rural-to-urban migrants and urban participants compared with rural participants. However, treatment rates were much lower among migrants compared with the urban group. These results identify major unmet needs in awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes. Particular challenges are lack of awareness of both hypertension and diabetes in rural areas, and poor levels of treatment and control among people who have migrated from rural into urban areas.
de Janvry, Alain; And Others
Discusses the status of rural labor and the performance of labor markets in Latin American agriculture. Points out the rapidly declining share of agriculture in the total labor force, weak capacity for creating nonagricultural employment, and rapidly increasing migration to towns. (JOW)
Zhou, Qiongjie; Zhang, Shikun; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Tian, Weidong; Chen, Jingqi; Acharya, Ganesh; Li, Xiaotian
Preconception care (PCC) is recommended for optimizing a woman's health prior to pregnancy to minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the impact of strategy and a novel risk classification model of China´s "National Preconception Health Care Project" (NPHCP) in identifying risk factors and stratifying couples' preconception health status. We performed a secondary analysis of data collected by NPHCP during April 2010 to December 2012 in 220 selected counties in China. All couples enrolled in the project accepted free preconception health examination, risk evaluation, health education and medical advice. Risk factors were categorized into five preconception risk classes based on their amenability to prevention and treatment: A-avoidable risk factors, B- benefiting from targeted medical intervention, C-controllable but requiring close monitoring and treatment during pregnancy, D-diagnosable prenatally but not modifiable preconceptionally, X-pregnancy not advisable. Information on each couple´s socio-demographic and health status was recorded and further analyzed. Among the 2,142,849 couples who were enrolled to this study, the majority (92.36%) were from rural areas with low education levels (89.2% women and 88.3% men had education below university level). A total of 1463266 (68.29%) couples had one or more preconception risk factors mainly of category A, B and C, among which 46.25% were women and 51.92% were men. Category A risk factors were more common among men compared with women (38.13% versus 11.24%; P = 0.000). This project provided new insights into preconception health of Chinese couples of reproductive age. More than half of the male partners planning to father a child, were exposed to risk factors during the preconception period, suggesting that an integrated approach to PCC including both women and men is justified. Stratification based on the new risk classification model demonstrated that a majority of the
Park, B C Ben; Lester, David
Suicide rates in 2005 in South Korea were higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Those in rural areas more often used pesticides and chemicals as a method for suicide, and there was a greater proportion of men and the elderly, both groups at higher risk for suicide in South Korea. These three factors may account for the high rural suicide rate in South Korea.
Haresh Rameshkumar Chandwani
Full Text Available Background: Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD creates major public health problems in India, including Gujarat. The Bharuch district is a known iodine deficiency endemic area. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of goiter in primary school children; to determine the median urinary iodine concentration; to assess the level of iodine in salt samples at the household and retail shop levels; and to study the profile of salt sold at retail shops. Methods: This study was carried out by using the 30-cluster survey method in the primary schools of the rural areas in Bharuch district. A total of 70 students, including five boys and five girls from the first to seventh classes, who were present in class on the day of the visit were selected randomly for goiter examination from each village. Urine samples were collected from one boy and one girl from each class in each cluster. From each community, a maximum of two boys and two girls from each standard in the same age group were examined and also salt samples were tested from their households. From each village, one retail shop was visited and the salt purchased from those shops was immediately tested for iodine with spot kits. Results: We found a goiter prevalence of 23.2% (grade 1 - 17.4% and grade 2 - 5.8%. As the age increased, the goiter prevalence decreased except in nine-year-olds. The median urinary iodine excretion level was 110 μg/L. An Iodine level > 15 ppm was found in 93% of the salt samples tested at the household level. Conclusion: The present study showed moderate goiter prevalence in primary school children in the Bharuch district of Gujarat and an inadequate iodine content of salt at some household levels.
以安徽省碧山村为例,从农村消费者行为视角出发,分析安徽省农村的广告传播现状与消费者的行为与心理特征,据此提出农村广告传播策略,以期为企业开拓农村市场、制定广告策略提供参考。%Taking the Bishan Village in Anhui Province as the case village,the status of rural advertising communication and consumption habits and phychological feature from the perspective of consumer behavior were analyzed. The strategies of rural advertising communication were proposed, so as to provide references for enterprise to develop rural market and establish advertising strategy.
Cai, Jiaoli; Coyte, Peter C; Zhao, Hongzhong
In recent decades, China has experienced tremendous economic growth and also witnessed growing socioeconomic-related health inequality. The study aims to explore the potential causes of socioeconomic-related health inequality in urban and rural areas of China over the past two decades. This study used six waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) from 1991 to 2006. The recentered influence function (RIF) regression decomposition method was employed to decompose socioeconomic-related health inequality in China. Health status was derived from self-rated health (SRH) scores. The analyses were conducted on urban and rural samples separately. We found that the average level of health status declined from 1989 to 2006 for both urban and rural populations. Average health scores were greater for the rural population compared with those for the urban population. We also found that there exists pro-rich health inequality in China. While income and secondary education were the main factors to reduce health inequality, older people, unhealthy lifestyles and a poor home environment increased inequality. Health insurance had the opposite effects on health inequality for urban and rural populations, resulting in lower inequality for urban populations and higher inequality for their rural counterparts. These findings suggest that an effective way to reduce socioeconomic-related health inequality is not only to increase income and improve access to health care services, but also to focus on improvements in the lifestyles and the home environment. Specifically, for rural populations, it is particularly important to improve the design of health insurance and implement a more comprehensive insurance package that can effectively target the rural poor. Moreover, it is necessary to comprehensively promote the flush toilets and tap water in rural areas. For urban populations, in addition to promoting universal secondary education, healthy lifestyles should be promoted
Byun, Soo-Yong; Irvin, Matthew J; Meece, Judith L
Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, this study documented college attendance patterns of rural youth in terms of the selectivity of first postsecondary institution of attendance, the timing of transition to postsecondary education, and the continuity of enrollment. The study also examined how these college attendance patterns among rural students differed from those among their non-rural counterparts and which factors explained these rural/nonrural differences. Results showed that rural youth were less likely than their nonrural counterparts to attend a selective institution. In addition, rural youth were more likely to delay entry to postsecondary education, compared to their urban counterparts. Finally, rural students were less likely than their urban counterparts to be continuously enrolled in college. Much of these rural/nonrural disparities in college attendance patterns were explained by rural/nonrural differences in socioeconomic status and high school preparation. Policy implications, limitations of the study, and future research directions are also discussed.
Full Text Available Hepcidin regulation by competing stimuli such as infection and iron deficiency has not been studied in infants and it's yet unknown whether hepcidin regulatory pathways are fully functional in infants. In this cross-sectional study including 339 Kenyan infants aged 6.0±1.1 months (mean±SD, we assessed serum hepcidin-25, biomarkers of iron status and inflammation, and fecal calprotectin. Prevalence of inflammation, anemia, and iron deficiency was 31%, 71%, 26%, respectively. Geometric mean (±SD serum hepcidin was 6.0 (±3.4 ng/mL, and was significantly lower in males than females. Inflammation (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 and iron status (serum ferritin, zinc protoporphyrin and soluble transferrin receptor were significant predictors of serum hepcidin, explaining nearly 60% of its variance. There were small, but significant differences in serum hepcidin comparing iron deficient anemic (IDA infants without inflammation to iron-deficient anemic infants with inflammation (1.2 (±4.9 vs. 3.4 (±4.9 ng/mL; P<0.001. Fecal calprotectin correlated with blood/mucus in the stool but not with hepcidin. Similarly, the gut-linked cytokines IL-12 and IL-17 did not correlate with hepcidin. We conclude that hepcidin regulatory pathways are already functional in infancy, but serum hepcidin alone may not clearly discriminate between iron-deficient anemic infants with and without infection. We propose gender-specific reference values for serum hepcidin in iron-replete infants without inflammation.
Falb, Kathryn L; Annan, Jeannie; Kpebo, Denise; Cole, Heather; Willie, Tiara; Xuan, Ziming; Raj, Anita; Gupta, Jhumka
Little is known about whether effectiveness of intimate partner violence prevention programming varies for women who were married as child brides, given their additional social vulnerabilities. This subanalysis sought to assess treatment heterogeneity based on child marriage status for an intervention seeking to reduce intimate partner violence. A randomized controlled trial assessing the incremental effectiveness of gender dialogue groups in addition to group savings on changing past-year intimate partner violence was conducted in Côte d'Ivoire (2010-2012). Stratified models were constructed based on child marriage status to assess for effect modification. Analysis was restricted to married women with data on age at marriage (n = 682). For child brides (N = 202), there were no statistically or marginally significant decreases in physical and/or sexual violence, physical violence, or sexual violence. The odds of reporting economic abuse in the past year were lower in the intervention arm for child brides relative to control group child brides (odds ratio [OR] = .33; 95% confidence interval [CI] = .13-.85; p = .02). For nonchild brides (N = 480), women were less likely to report physical and/or sexual violence (OR = .54; 95% CI = .28-1.04; p = .06), emotional violence (OR = .44; 95% CI = .25-.77; p = .004), and economic abuse (OR = .36; 95% CI = .20-.66; p = .001) in the combined intervention arm than their group savings-only counterparts. Findings suggest that intervention participants with a history of child marriage may have greater difficulty benefiting from interventions that seek to reduce intimate partner violence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
The rate of suicide amongst Australia's rural men is significantly higher than rural women, urban men or urban women. There are many explanations for this phenomenon including higher levels of social isolation, lower socio-economic circumstances and ready access to firearms. Another factor is the challenge of climate transformation for farmers. In recent times rural areas of Australia have been subject to intense climate change events including a significant drought that has lingered on for over a decade. Climate variability together with lower socio-economic conditions and reduced farm production has combined to produce insidious impacts on the health of rural men. This paper draws on research conducted over several years with rural men working on farms to argue that attention to the health and well-being of rural men requires an understanding not only of these factors but also of the cultural context, inequitable gender relations and a dominant form of masculine hegemony that lauds stoicism in the face of adversity. A failure to address these factors will limit the success of health and welfare programs for rural men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kent, Shia T; McClure, Leslie A; Zaitchik, Ben F; Gohlke, Julia M
Significant and persistent racial and income disparities in birth outcomes exist in the US. The analyses in this manuscript examine whether adverse birth outcome time trends and associations between area-level variables and adverse birth outcomes differ by urban-rural status. Alabama births records were merged with ZIP code-level census measures of race, poverty, and rurality. B-splines were used to determine long-term preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) trends by rurality. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the relationships between ZIP code-level percent poverty or percent African-American with either PTB or LBW. Interactions with rurality were examined. Population dense areas had higher adverse birth outcome rates compared to other regions. For LBW, the disparity between population dense and other regions increased during the 1991-2005 time period, and the magnitude of the disparity was maintained through 2010. Overall PTB and LBW rates have decreased since 2006, except within isolated rural regions. The addition of individual-level socioeconomic or race risk factors greatly attenuated these geographical disparities, but isolated rural regions maintained increased odds of adverse birth outcomes. ZIP code-level percent poverty and percent African American both had significant relationships with adverse birth outcomes. Poverty associations remained significant in the most population-dense regions when models were adjusted for individual-level risk factors. Population dense urban areas have heightened rates of adverse birth outcomes. High-poverty African American areas have higher odds of adverse birth outcomes in urban versus rural regions. These results suggest there are urban-specific social or environmental factors increasing risk for adverse birth outcomes in underserved communities. On the other hand, trends in PTBs and LBWs suggest interventions that have decreased adverse birth outcomes elsewhere may not be reaching
Ortiz, Johana; Van Camp, John; Wijaya, Sylviana; Donoso, Silvana; Huybregts, Lieven
To identify and compare the sociodemographic determinants of stunting, wasting and overweight among infants of urban and rural areas in the Ecuadorian highlands. Cross-sectional study. Nabon (rural) and Cuenca (urban) cantons, Azuay Province, Ecuador. A total of 703 children aged 0-24 months and their caregivers (227 rural and 476 urban) recruited during the period from June to September 2008. Stunting prevalence was significantly higher in the rural area (37·4 % v. 17·7 %; P child's age (OR = 1·04; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·07; P = 0·011), maternal education (OR = 0·95; 95 % CI 0·92, 0·99; P = 0·025) and facility-based delivery (OR = 0·57; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·74; P Rural determinants of stunting were maternal height (OR = 0·004; 95 % CI 0·00004, 0·39; P = 0·018), diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 2·18; 95 % CI 1·13, 4·21; P = 0·02), socio-economic status (OR = 0·79; 95 % CI 0·64, 0·98; P = 0·030) and child's age (OR = 1·07; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·11; P = 0·005). Urban determinants were: maternal BMI for stunting (OR = 0·91; 95 % CI 0·84, 0·99; P = 0·027), cough prevalence (OR = 0·57; 95 % CI 0·34, 0·96; P = 0·036) and facility-based delivery (OR = 0·25; 95 % CI 0·09, 0·73; P = 0·011) for overweight, and hygiene for wasting (OR = 0·57; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·89; P = 0·013). Infant malnutrition was associated with different sociodemographic determinants between urban and rural areas in the Ecuadorian highlands, a finding which contributes to prioritize the determinants to be assessed in nutritional interventions.
Swanoski Michael T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the signs and symptoms of heart attacks and strokes are important not only in saving lives, but also in preserving quality of life. Findings from recent research have yielded that the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors are higher in rural populations, suggesting that adults living in rural locales may be at higher risk for heart attack and/or stroke. Knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology as well as calling 911 for a suspected heart attack or stroke are essential first steps in seeking care. This study sought to examine the knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptoms among rural adults in comparison to non-rural adults living in the U.S. Methods Using multivariate techniques, a cross-sectional analysis of an amalgamated multi-year Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS database was performed. The dependent variable for this analysis was low heart attack and stroke knowledge score. The covariates for the analysis were: age, sex, race/ethnicity, annual household income, attained education, health insurance status, having a health care provider (HCP, timing of last routine medical check-up, medical care deferment because of cost, self-defined health status and geographic locale. Results The weighted n for this study overall was 103,262,115 U.S. adults > =18 years of age. Approximately 22.0% of these respondents were U.S. adults living in rural locales. Logistic regression analysis revealed that those U.S. adults who had low composite heart attack and stroke knowledge scores were more likely to be rural (OR = 1.218 95%CI 1.216-1.219 rather than non-rural residents. Furthermore, those with low scores were more likely to be: male (OR = 1.353 95%CI 1.352-1.354, >65 years of age (OR = 1.369 95%CI 1.368-1.371, African American (OR = 1.892 95%CI 1.889-1.894, not educated beyond high school (OR = 1.400 955CI 1.399-1.402, uninsured (OR = 1.308 95%CI 1
Dudley, M; Kelk, N; Florio, T; Waters, B; Howard, J; Taylor, D
The aim of this study is to compare the frequency of certain putative risk factors for youth suicide in New South Wales (especially use of alcohol, social class, unemployment, and internal migration) in metropolitan and rural settings. A review of 137 files for 10-19-year-old subjects judged by the Coroner to have committed suicide in 1988-1990 was carried out. One hundred and fifteen males and 21 females were identified (one subjects sex was unavailable). The male-female ratio was higher in rural (13.0) areas than non-rural (4.9 chi 2 = 12.14, p Australia, most migrated in a rural direction, and most to rural shires. Unemployment was somewhat more common among rural (38.5%) than non-rural (28.9%) subjects (chi 2 = 0.75, p = 0.39). Eleven of 50 non-rural parents of the deceased, but none of the 11 rural parents, were ranked as being in social classes 2 or 3. Alcohol consumption appeared more common in rural shires (44%) than metropolitan areas (32.9%), but this was not statistically significant. Medical services were less utilised prior to death in rural (15%) than non-rural (25%) areas (chi 2 = 1.69, p = 0.19), and a psychiatric diagnosis was recorded more commonly in non-rural areas. Incomplete coronial file data and relatively small numbers limit this study's conclusions. Male suicides, principally by firearms, predominated in rural areas. Youth firearm access remains highly relevant to rural communities. Possible trends among rural subjects toward rural migration, higher unemployment, lower social class and lower medical attendance may point to resource deprivation among this group; these matters require further investigation.
Wang, Jun; Liu, Ke; Zheng, Jing; Liu, Jiali; You, Liming
Rural-to-urban migration, which has achieved a huge scale during China's economic reform, is a potential risk factor for the mental health of migrant children. To test this hypothesis, this study assessed the mental health status of rural-to-urban migrant children. Guided by Andersen's behavioral model, the study explored the risk factors associated with mental health. The study recruited 1182 fifth/sixth-grade children from four private and four public primary schools in Guangzhou in 2014 in a descriptive cross-sectional design. Mental health status was measured by the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Predisposing characteristics including demographics (e.g., age, gender), social structure (e.g., education, occupation) and health beliefs (health attitude) were recorded. Enabling characteristics including family and community resources and the need for health services were analyzed to explore the risk factors. The results indicate that more rural-to-urban migrant children were classified in the abnormal (21.0%) or borderline (18.8%) categories based on the total difficulties scores, the proportions of which were much higher than those of local children (9.8% abnormal, 13.8% borderline). Factors associated with a greater likelihood of mental health problems included single-parent families, seeking health information actively, family income cannot meet basic needs and poor perceived health status. Compared with the local children, the rural-to-urban migrant children had relatively poor mental health, hence monitoring and supporting mental health for rural-urban migrant children is critical.
dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...
Full Text Available Chinese children are facing dual burden of malnutrition-coexistence of under-and over-nutrition. Little systematic evidence exists for explaining the simultaneous presence of under-and over-nutrition. This study aims to explore underlying mechanisms of under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. This study used a nationwide longitudinal dataset of children (N = 5,017 from 9 provinces across China, with four exclusively categories of nutritional outcomes including under-nutrition (stunting and underweight, over-nutrition (overweight only including obesity, paradox (stunted overweight, with normal nutrition as reference. Multinomial logit models (Level-1: occasions; Level-2: children; Level-3: villages were fitted which corrected for non-independence of observations due to geographic clustering and repeated observations of individuals. A mixture of risk factors at the individual, household and neighbourhood levels predicted under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. Improved socioeconomic status and living in more urbanised villages reduced the risk of stunted overweight among rural children in China. Young girls appeared to have higher risk of under-nutrition, and the risk decreased with age more markedly than for boys up to age 5. From age 5 onwards, boys tended to have higher risk of under-nutrition than girls. Girls aged around 12 and older were less likely to suffer from under-nutrition, while boys' higher risk of under-nutrition persisted throughout adolescence. Children were less likely to suffer from over-nutrition compared to normal nutrition. Boys tended to have an even lower risk of over-nutrition than girls and the gender difference widened with age until adolescence. Our results have important policy implications that improving household economic status, in particular, maternal education and health insurance for children, and living environment are important to enhance rural children's nutritional status in
Zhang, Nan; Bécares, Laia; Chandola, Tarani
Chinese children are facing dual burden of malnutrition-coexistence of under-and over-nutrition. Little systematic evidence exists for explaining the simultaneous presence of under-and over-nutrition. This study aims to explore underlying mechanisms of under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. This study used a nationwide longitudinal dataset of children (N = 5,017) from 9 provinces across China, with four exclusively categories of nutritional outcomes including under-nutrition (stunting and underweight), over-nutrition (overweight only including obesity), paradox (stunted overweight), with normal nutrition as reference. Multinomial logit models (Level-1: occasions; Level-2: children; Level-3: villages) were fitted which corrected for non-independence of observations due to geographic clustering and repeated observations of individuals. A mixture of risk factors at the individual, household and neighbourhood levels predicted under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. Improved socioeconomic status and living in more urbanised villages reduced the risk of stunted overweight among rural children in China. Young girls appeared to have higher risk of under-nutrition, and the risk decreased with age more markedly than for boys up to age 5. From age 5 onwards, boys tended to have higher risk of under-nutrition than girls. Girls aged around 12 and older were less likely to suffer from under-nutrition, while boys' higher risk of under-nutrition persisted throughout adolescence. Children were less likely to suffer from over-nutrition compared to normal nutrition. Boys tended to have an even lower risk of over-nutrition than girls and the gender difference widened with age until adolescence. Our results have important policy implications that improving household economic status, in particular, maternal education and health insurance for children, and living environment are important to enhance rural children's nutritional status in China
Full Text Available To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescents living in rural and urban areas, and to analyze the influence of demographic and anthropometric variables on body image dissatisfaction. A total of 629 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from urban and rural areas participated in the study. Demographic variables (gender, age, area of residence, anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, skinfold thickness and body image data were collected. BMI (underweight: 25 kg/m² and the sum of two skinfold thicknesses, Σ2SF (girls: low: 36 mm; boys: low: 25 mm were then calculated. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was similar (p≥0,05 among rural (64,2% and urban adolescents (62,8%. Boys wished to increase the size of their body silhouette (41,3%, whereas girls wished to reduce it (50,5% (p<0,001. Adolescents with low and excess weight based on BMI and with high Σ2SF presented a 3,14, 8,45 and 2,08 times higher chance of body image dissatisfaction, respectively. A high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was observed among adolescents from rural and urban areas. An unhealthy nutritional status and body adiposity increase the chances of body image dissatisfaction. These findings emphasize the social pressure on girls to remain slim and on boys to attain an athletic body.
Maninder, Kaur; Kochar, G K
A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 600 Jat women (rural=300, urban=300), aged 40 to 70 years from Haryana state in North India. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the dietary intake of rural and urban middle-aged (40-59 years) and older (60 and above) Jat women. The findings indicated that all the subjects exhibited a decline in the mean values of haemoglobin (Hb) concentration with advancement in age. The mean blood Hb concentration of urban middle-aged and older women was 10.1±1.3g/dl and 9.91.4g/dl respectively, which was higher than their rural counterparts at all age groups, although the differences were statistically non-significant (p>0.05). The overall prevalence of anaemia reached 88.7% (rural women= 91.3%, urban women =86%). Daily dietary intake of rural and urban subjects was below the recommended dietary allowances. Physical performance of both groups of the women showed a decline with a decrease in Hb concentration. A significant and positive correlation of Hb status was observed with grip strength and vital capacity while a negative association was witnessed with blood pressure and pulse rate in both the rural and urban women. Anaemia among these women may be attributed to inadequate dietary intake, illiteracy, and poor access to health services.
Full Text Available Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age.
70-90% of Africans still live in rural areas, and 25-30% of rural households are headed by women. Standards of living in rural areas are lower than in urban areas. Rural African women's involvement in development is in its initial stages, and social development for women is likely to be slow. Increasing women's opportunities for education is a means of promoting social justice and fairness. Schools should offer courses of practical value for those not planning on higher education and special programs and career counseling for gifted girls. Women's organizations, African leaders, and other influential parties should aggressively create awareness about the oppressive aspects of traditional attitudes, beliefs, and views about women. Laws on ownership of property, inheritance, access to credit, and employment must be equitable and enforced. Consciousness-raising among rural women is an effective means of encouraging rural women to seek and assume new roles and for questioning unreasonable expectations and norms. Women's professional associations serve important functions and fulfill the need for role models. The quality of rural women's life is effectively improved through formulation of policies relevant to women's needs and problems and improve rural conditions. Women should have fair representation at local and national levels of government. Women's role in agriculture is likely to be enhanced through improved transportation systems, electricity supply, and introduction of intermediate technology. This assessment of rural African women's contributions to economic growth emphasizes women's involvement in farming and the informal sector and their lack of equal remuneration or low wages. Illiteracy places women in a disadvantaged position when competing for employment in the formal sector. Lack of access to credit and limits on credit are other obstacles in the informal sector. The reduced participation of rural women in the formal and informal sector is due to lack of
Sarría-Santamera, A; Prado-Galbarro, J; Ramallo-Farina, Y; Quintana-Díaz, M; Martínez-Virto, A; Serrano-Aguilar, P
Describe the use of emergency departments (ED), and analyse the differences in use between residents in rural and urban areas. Using data from the National Health Survey of 2006 and 2011, the profiles of patients with ED visits by population size of place of residence were obtained. The variables associated with making one visit to the ED were also evaluated, in order to determine the effect of the population size of place of residence. A higher use of ED is observed in persons with a higher frequency of use of Primary Care and hospital admissions, and increases with worse self-perceived health and functional status, with more chronic diseases, in people from lower social classes, and younger ages. Adjusting for the other variables, residents in larger cities have a higher use of ED than residents in rural areas, who show a higher use of public and non-hospital based ED, than residents in urban areas. There is a higher use of ED by inhabitants of urban areas that cannot be justified by a worst health status of that population. This tends to indicate that the use of ED is not under-used in rural areas, but overused in urban areas. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Sule, S S; Onayade, A A; Abiona, T C; Fatusi, A O; Ojofeitimi, E O; Esimai, O A; Ijadunola, K T
This study evaluated the impact of nutritional education on knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of mothers concerning infants and young children feeding and their children's nutritional status in two semi-urban communities of south-west Nigeria. This is a community intervention study. We recruited 150 mothers of children aged 0-18 months independently from the intervention and control communities through a multi-stage sampling technique. We collected data with the aid of an interviewer-administered questionnaire at baseline and at six months after intervention from both communities to obtain information on feeding of infants and young children. In addition, we measured weights and heights of recruited children. Intervention involved group counselling of mothers and food demonstrations at designated health facilities. Data analysis for quantitative data was done using Epi-Info software, and for qualitative data, content analysis of major themes was used. Before intervention, recruited mothers and their children from the two communities were comparable in terms of all the parameters assessed (P>0.05 in all cases). After six months of intervention, mothers who had nutritional education demonstrated better knowledge and attitudes to key infant and young children feeding recommendations. There was also limited improvement in feeding practices. Mothers from the intervention community exclusively breastfed their infants longer with mean age at introduction of complementary foods at 5.3 months compared to 4.5 months in the control community (Pchildren longer (Pchildren. In this study, nutritional education of mothers only had positive impact on their level of KAP on infant and young children feeding.
This study examined the pattern and magnitude of urban-rural variation in anencephaly, spina bifida without anencephaly, and encephalocele in Texas using four different indicators of urban-rural status for the period 1999 to 2003.
Christoph, Mary J; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Baingana, Rhona; Ntambi, James M
Uganda is experiencing a dual burden of over- and undernutrition, with overweight prevalence increasing while underweight remains common. Potential weight-related factors, particularly physical activity, sleep, and rural/urban status, are not currently well understood or commonly assessed in Ugandan youth. The purpose of this study was to pilot test a survey measuring weight-related factors in rural and urban Ugandan schoolchildren. A cross-sectional survey measured sociodemographics, physical activity, sleep patterns, and dietary factors in 148 rural and urban schoolchildren aged 11-16 in central Uganda. Height and weight were objectively measured. Rural and urban youth were compared on these factors using χ 2 and t tests. Regression was used to identify correlates of higher body mass index (BMI) percentile in the full sample and nonstunted youth. Youth were on average 12.1 ± 1.1 years old; underweight (10%) was more common than overweight (1.4%). Self-reported sleep duration and subjective sleep quality did not differ by rural/urban residence. Rural children overall had higher BMI percentile and marginally higher stunting prevalence. In adjusted analyses in both the full and nonstunted samples, higher BMI percentile was related to living in a rural area, higher frequency of physical activity, and higher subjective sleep quality; it was negatively related to being active on weekends. In the full sample, higher BMI percentile was also related to female gender, whereas in nonstunted youth, higher BMI was related to age. BMI percentile was unrelated to sedentary time, performance of active chores and sports, and dietary factors. This study is one of the first to pilot test a survey assessing weight-related factors, particularly physical activity and sleep, in Ugandan schoolchildren. BMI percentile was related to several sociodemographic, sleep, and physical activity factors among primarily normal-weight school children in Uganda, providing a basis for
Kang, Yu; Meng, Hongdao; Miller, Nancy A
To evaluate the impact of rural geographic location on nursing home quality of care in the United States. The study used cross-sectional observational design. We obtained resident- and facility-level data from 12,507 residents in 1,174 nursing homes from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey. We used multilevel regression models to predict risk-adjusted rates of hospitalization, influenza and pneumococcal vaccination, and moderate to severe pain while controlling for resident and facility characteristics. Adjusting for covariates, residents in rural facilities were more likely to experience hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16-1.94) and moderate to severe pain (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.35-2.09). Significant facility-level predictors of higher quality included higher percentage of Medicaid beneficiaries, accreditation status, and special care programs. Medicare payment findings were mixed. Significant resident-level predictors included dementia diagnosis and being a "long-stay" resident. Rural residents were more likely to reside in facilities without accreditations or special care programs, factors that increased their odds of receiving poorer quality of care. Policy efforts to enhance Medicare payment approaches as well as increase rural facilities' accreditation status and provision of special care programs will likely reduce quality of care disparities in facilities.
Khan, Jahangir Am; Trujillo, Antonio J; Ahmed, Sayem; Siddiquee, Ali Tanweer; Alam, Nurul; Mirelman, Andrew J; Koehlmoos, Tracey Perez; Niessen, Louis Wilhelmus; Peters, David H
Little is known about long-term changes linking chronic diseases and poverty in low-income countries such as Bangladesh. This study examines how chronic disease mortality rates change across socioeconomic groups over time in Bangladesh, and whether such mortality is associated with households falling into poverty. Age-sex standardized chronic diseases mortality rates were estimated across socioeconomic groups in 1982, 1996 and 2005, using data from the health and demographic surveillance system in Matlab, Bangladesh. Changes in households falling below a poverty threshold after a chronic disease death were estimated between 1982-96 and 1996-2005. Age-sex standardized chronic disease mortality rates rose from 646 per 100 000 population in 1982 to 670 in 2005. Mortality rates were higher in wealthier compared with poorer households in 1982 [Concentration Index = 0.037; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.002, 0.072], but switched direction in 1996 (Concentration Index = -0.007; 95% CI: -0.023, 0.009), with an even higher concentration in the poor by 2005 (Concentration Index = -0.047; 95% CI: -0.061, -0.033). Between 1982-96 and 1996-2005, the highest chronic disease mortality rates were found among those households that fell below the poverty line. Households that had a chronic disease death in 1982 were 1.33 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.70) times more likely to fall below the poverty line in 1996 compared with households that did not. Chronic disease mortality is a growing proportion of the disease burden in Bangladesh, with poorer households being more affected over time periods, leading to future household poverty. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
Hwang, Jusun; Gottdenker, Nicole; Oh, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Hang; Chun, Myung-Sun
In this study, we examine prevalences of three infectious pathogens with different transmission modes ( Bartonella henselae , hemoplasma, and Toxoplasma gondii ) in feral cats from urban and rural habitats. Infection status of the three pathogens in blood samples (n = 117) was determined through molecular or serological diagnostic methods. Overall prevalence of hemoplasma, Toxoplasma gondii , and Bartonella henselae was 47.9%, 50%, and 35.7%, respectively. Comparing the two habitats, only seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae was significantly higher in urban cats. Based on the results, we discuss how pathogens with distinct transmission modes may show different prevalence between urban and rural habitat types.
Full Text Available In rural Kazakhstan, the credit and insurance services are limited and the state support is weak. Therefore, households’ saving is crucial to provide an insurance against the economic and social shocks. The main goal of this study is to contribute to the literature on financial literacy in emerging economies, namely, the effect of financial literacy on saving rates of rural population. Being well educated not always means to be financial literate and make efficient decisions regarding one’s own finance. People with a lower formal education level but with better experience in consuming financial products could be better prepared for making financial decisions including those related to savings. In this paper other socio-economic determinants of saving rates were taken into account, such as an income level, family size and an employment status. This research was carried out in Pavlodar region of Kazakhstan, and the data collection took place in spring 2014. In total, 405 households were surveyed. Results of the analysis show that if a respondent gives at least one correct answer, it positively affects the saving rates as well as one can observe that the higher the financial literacy level, the higher are the saving rates. Availability of state supported financial education programs for rural people will significantly contribute to the financial literacy improvement. At the same time, providing various and appropriate financial products in rural areas will motivate rural people to search for new knowledge and require authorities to intensify activities in this field.
Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health is an integral component of general health and is essential for well-being. India is one of the most populated countries in the world and majority of them resides in rural areas. Moradabad is one of the oldest cities of Uttar Pradesh with diverse culture and beliefs. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the periodontal health status of the rural Moradabad population. Materials and Methods: A representative transversal study on 550 adults aged 20-49 years of rural Moradabad was conducted from February 2011 to June 2011. The survey was carried out using a self-designed questionnaire. Periodontal health was assessed using WHO criteria (1997. Results: Overall the prevalence of periodontal diseases among study subjects was overall 91.6%. Males had a higher prevalence of periodontal disease (93.8% as compared to females (89.5%. Out of total subjects 37.8% had Community Periodontal Index (CPI score 4 and 32.5% had score 3. About 7.3% of subjects had loss of attachment (LOA with 20.2% of them having LOA score 1. Statistically, there was a significant difference (P 35 years, smoking, tobacco chewing (independent risk factors were significantly associated with CPI > 2 (dependent variable (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The current periodontal health status of rural adult population of Moradabad city can be attributed to low literacy along with socio economic status and oral habits. To improve the periodontal health status of the rural population of Moradabad, it is suggested that a community-based approach can be designed.
Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Hong, Yan; Fang, Xiaoyi; Qin, Xiong; Stanton, Bonita
Status-based discrimination and inequity have been associated with the process of migration, especially with economics-driven internal migration. However, their association with mental health among economy-driven internal migrants in developing countries is rarely assessed. This study examines discriminatory experiences and perceived social inequity in relation to mental health status among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,006 rural-to-urban migrants in 2004-2005 in Beijing, China. Participants reported their perceptions and experiences of being discriminated in daily life in urban destination and perceived social inequity. Mental health was measured using the symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90). Multivariate analyses using general linear model were performed to test the effect of discriminatory experience and perceived social inequity on mental health. Experience of discrimination was positively associated with male gender, being married at least once, poorer health status, shorter duration of migration, and middle range of personal income. Likewise, perceived social inequity was associated with poorer health status, higher education attainment, and lower personal income. Multivariate analyses indicate that both experience of discrimination and perceived social inequity were strongly associated with mental health problems of rural-to-urban migrants. Experience of discrimination in daily life and perceived social inequity have a significant influence on mental health among rural-to-urban migrants. The findings underscore the needs to reduce public or societal discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants, to eliminate structural barriers (i.e., dual household registrations) for migrants to fully benefit from the urban economic development, and to create a positive atmosphere to improve migrant's psychological well-being.
Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan
Due to the requirements of the competitive, market-oriented urban society, parents in urban and urbanized families are more likely than parents in rural families to encourage initiative-taking in child rearing in China. The socialization experiences of children from different types of families may be related to their adjustment. This study examined parental socialization attitudes, social and school adjustment, and their relations in Chinese children from rural, urban, and urbanized families. Participants were elementary school students (N = 1,033; M age = 11 years) and their parents in China. Data were obtained from parental reports, peer evaluations, teacher ratings, and school records. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that parents in urban and urbanized families had higher scores than parents in rural families on encouragement of initiative-taking. Urban children, particularly girls, were more sociable, obtained higher social status, and had fewer school problems than their rural counterparts. Children from urbanized families were different from rural children and similar to urban children in social and school adjustment. Moreover, multigroup invariance tests showed that parental encouragement of initiative-taking was associated more strongly with children's sociable-assertive behavior and social standing in the urban and urbanized groups than in the rural group. The results indicate that particular socialization attitudes may vary in their adaptive value in child development as a function of specific social and cultural requirements in changing societies. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease with various risks of permanent and progressive disabilities as well as deformities. This can lead to social stigma and discrimination. Methodology A cross sectional institution based study was conducted among the patient of a leprosy clinic in a tertiary care center. WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used after taking consent from each study individual. Results Majority (69.8% of the patients was male and 41.3% of the study population belonged to below poverty line. Majority (85.7% of the study population were suffering from multi-bacillary type of leprosy. Though Majority (96.8% of the patients was receiving MDT (multi drug therapy regularly but still 33.33% of them were leading a poor quality of life. It has been seen that literacy, family type and time gap between starting of symptoms and initiation of treatment were significantly associated with quality of life. Discussion Different previous studies showed QOL (quality of life was associated with factors like SES (socio economic status, literacy and male gender, the present study revealed higher literacy, staying in the joint family and early treatment initiation helped to improve the QOL. Conclusion Better QOL was associated with higher educational status, good family support and early initiation of treatment among the leprosy patients.
Siega-Riz, Anna M; Estrada Del Campo, Yaniré; Kinlaw, Alan; Reinhart, Gregory A; Allen, Lindsay H; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Heck, Jeff; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Bentley, Margaret E
Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) have been effective in the treatment of acute malnutrition among children. We evaluated the use of LNS supplementation for improving the micronutrient status of young children. A 12-month randomised controlled trial was conducted among children aged 6-18 months living in Intibucá, Honduras. Communities (n = 18) were randomised into clusters matched by poverty indicators (9 intervention, n = 160 and 9 controls, n = 140). Intervention participants received LNS. All children received food vouchers and nutrition education. Primary outcomes included measures of micronutrient status: at baseline, 6 and 12 months' blood were collected for assessment of folate, iron, zinc, riboflavin, and vitamin B12 status; haemoglobin was measured every 3 months; and dietary and anthropometry collected monthly. Longitudinal analyses were based on intent to treat and LNS adherence. Generalised estimating equations were used in the estimation of generalised linear regression models specified for the data. At 6-month follow-up, children in the intervention group had a lower proportion classified as deficient for B12 (43.6%) compared with the control (67.7%; P = 0.03). The intervention group had a higher mean concentration for folate at 6 months (P = 0.06), and improvements continued through 12 months for folate (P = 0.002) and vitamin A deficiency (P = 0.03). This pattern of results, with improved significance, remained in subanalysis based on LNS adherence. These data demonstrate that LNS improved select micronutrient status in young non-malnourished Honduran children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education.
Li Ying [Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing (China). Dept. of Hydropower and Rural Electrification
This document presents the status of the using small hydroelectric power plants (SHP) and rural electrification in China. The document approaches the general profile, role of small hydroelectric power plants in rural electrification and energy supply, background and factors back-sopping the fast development of SHP, concentrating on resources, SHP combined with water conservancy projects, policies and strategies, development of appropriate technology, timely development of SHP equipment manufacturing, economic justification of SHP development, and future prospects.
Madise, Nyovani Janet; Letamo, Gobopamang
We sought to demonstrate that the relationship between urban or rural residence and overweight status among women in Sub-Saharan Africa is complex and confounded by wealth status. We applied multilevel logistic regression to data from 30 sub-Saharan African countries which were collected between 2006 and 2012 to examine the association between women's overweight status (body mass index ≥ 25) and household wealth, rural or urban place of residence, and their interaction. Macro-level statistics from United Nations agencies were used as contextual variables to assess the link between progress in globalization and patterns of overweight. Household wealth was associated with increased odds of being overweight in nearly all of the countries. Urban/rural living and household wealth had a complex association with women's overweight status, shown by 3 patterns. In one group of countries, characterised by low national wealth (median per capita gross national income (GNI) = $660 in 2012) and lower overall prevalence of female overweight (median = 24 per cent in 2010), high household wealth and urban living had independent associations with increased risks of being overweight. In the second group of less poor countries (median per capita GNI = $870) and higher national levels of female overweight (median = 29), there was a cross-over association where rural women had lower risks of overweight than urban women at lower levels of household wealth, but in wealthier households, rural women had higher risks of overweight than urban women. In the final group of countries, household wealth was an important predictor of overweight status, but the association between urban or rural place of residence and overweight status was not statistically significant. The median per capita GNI for this third group was $800 and national prevalence of female overweight was high (median = 32% in 2010). As nations develop and household wealth increases, rural African women
... State Guides Rural Data Visualizations Rural Data Explorer Chart Gallery Maps Case Studies & Conversations Rural Health Models & ... services provided by state Medicaid programs might include dental care, physical therapy, home and community-based services, ...
Ran, Mao-Sheng; Chen, Sheying; Chen, Elaina Y; Ran, Bo-Yu; Tang, Cui-Ping; Lin, Fu-Rong; Li, Li; Li, Si-Gan; Mao, Wen-Jun; Hu, Shi-Hui
The long-term work performance of persons with schizophrenia in the community is unclear. This study examined the status of long-term work functioning and the predictors of poor work status among patients with schizophrenia in a Chinese rural area. A 10-year follow-up investigation (1994-2004) of a cohort (n = 510) of persons with schizophrenia was conducted in Xinjin County, Chengdu, China. Compared with baseline data, work functioning of patients with schizophrenia deteriorated after 10 years. The rates of not working increased significantly from 12.0% in 1994 to 23.0% in 2004. Bivariate analyses showed that the poor work functioning in 2004 was significantly associated with male gender, older age, older age of first onset, higher level of education, longer duration of illness, lower family economic status, lack of caregivers, poor work status in 1994, living in shabby or unstable house, marked symptoms, and higher score on the Social Disability Screening Schedule (SDSS). In multiple logistic regression analyses, higher score of SDSS and poor work status in 1994 were identified as unique predictors of poor work status in 2004. The status of work functioning of persons with schizophrenia decreased over the course of the illness. The risk factors for poor work functioning and specific socio-cultural environment should be considered in planning community mental health services and rehabilitation for these patients.
Ran, Mao-Sheng; Yang, Lawrence H; Liu, Yu-Jun; Huang, Debbie; Mao, Wen-Jun; Lin, Fu-Rong; Li, Jie; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan
Little is known about whether family economic status might influence the long-term (e.g. over 10 years) outcome of persons with schizophrenia in the community. To examine the differences in outcome at 14-year follow-up of persons with schizophrenia from high versus low family economic status backgrounds in a Chinese rural area. A prospective 14-year follow-up study was conducted in six townships in Xinjin County, Chengdu, China. All participants with schizophrenia ( n = 510) were identified in an epidemiological investigation of 123,572 people aged 15 years and older and followed up from 1994 to 2008. Individuals from low family economic status (economic status (⩾mean; 3.2% and 76.6%, respectively). Individuals from low family economic status had significantly lower rates of marriage and complete remission, higher mean scores on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and lower mean score on Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) than those from high family economic status in 2008. The predictors of low family economic status of individuals in 2008 encompassed the baseline low family economic status, poor families' attitude toward the patient, younger age, older age of first onset and longer duration of illness. Low family economic status is a predictive factor of poor long-term outcome of persons with schizophrenia in the rural community. Individuals' family economic status should be considered in making mental health policy and providing community-based mental health services.
Full Text Available Employment and economic growth in rural areas as a policy issue has been recently highlighted by the federal government. In August 2011, the White House released a report entitled “Jobs and Economic Security for Rural America”. While the document listed various programs and policies that have reportedly benefited rural America, it also stated that rural communities are still facing many challenges. For example, many rural communities have lower incomes and higher poverty rates than more urban areas. One possible reason for rural communities being at a disadvantage compared to urban areas involves transportation, especially in terms of journey to work. Thus, one can ask how employment rates vary with accessibility, as measured by journey to work times, as well as location (rural versus urban. Using 2007 state level data, OLS analysis is used to examine the relationship between employment rates and journey to work times and rurality. The analysis confirms that employment rates decrease with increased journey to work times. However, measures of rurality were only marginally significant and the negative coefficient on each measure indicates that employment rates decrease with greater urbanization. Improving accessibility between (very rural and larger areas might improve employment opportunities. Although weighing the benefits of such (reduced unemployment against the costs of providing better highways or public transit might lead to a different conclusion.
Lee, B S
Preliminary analysis of Cameroon fertility data suggests that rural stayers do not have a significantly higher fertility than rural-urban migrants in contrast to hypotheses suggested in the literature. Bongaarts and Caldwell both suggest that modernization plays a role in African fertility and migration patterns by increasing exposure to childbearing. Supply constraints are changed by higher levels of education, short duration of postpartum abstinence, less prevalence of polygamy, and more stable marriages. The influence of relatives may be weaker and the fear of losing a husband greater, which influence earlier returns to sexual relations. Because the levels of fertility of stayers and movers may be equal does not suggest that movers do not adapt fertility to urban norms. Analysis was conducted with d ata from the 1978 Cameroon World Fertility Survey on 8219 women aged 15-54 years for rural nonmigrants, rural-rural migrants, and rural-urban migrants. Rural-urban migrants were found to be better educated, have fewer cases of infertility, and have more stable first marriages. Descriptive statistics are provided for migrants and nonmigrants. Cross classification analysis shows that fertility is not lower for women with higher education, even when migration status is controlled for. Multivariate regression results in an autoregressive model in a first difference form indicated that the fertility rate of rural-urban migrant women was significantly higher than that of rural staryers during the period of 5-9 years after migration. The urban effect acts to reduce migrants' fertility by about .13 births. Comparisons are made with Mexican and Korean migration behavior, which reflect decreased fertility after migration of 1.5 births and 2.6 births, respectively. The suggestion is that the fertility-increasing effect of supply conditions in Cameroon is significantly offset by the fertility-depressing adaptation effect of migration to urban areas. It is expected that
Smith, H L; Haley, D; Piland, N F
Rural hospitals confront an inauspicious environment due to changes in patient reimbursement and medical practice. Facing a situation of declining revenues, marketing presents an option for rural hospitals to adapt to the growing constraints. This paper analyzes the determinants of marketing strategy emphasis in rural hospitals. The conceptual model adopted in this study predicts that prior performance and contextual variables explain marketing strategy emphasis. The relationships are examined in a case study of rural New Mexico hospitals. Results suggest that prior performance and several contextual variables explain variations in marketing strategy emphasis. In particular, higher gross patient revenues are associated with more emphasis on television and radio advertising. Furthermore, rural New Mexico hospitals with high numbers of licensed beds and medical staff members, or that are affiliated with a chain organization, place greater emphasis on market research and market planning. The implications for marketing practice in rural hospitals are discussed.
Tarasenko, Yelena N; Chen, Chen; Smalley, K Bryant; Warren, Jacob
Children and adolescents residing in rural environments with higher prevalence of an overweight population may develop inaccurate perceptions of a healthy weight. This study examines rural-urban differences in perceptions of child overweight among overweight (85 ≤ BMI percentile children (BMI percentile ≥ 95), their guardians and health care providers (HCPs), and children's concomitant weight control. The cross-sectional study was based on the 2005-2010 NHANES data (1,844 overweight and obese children and adolescents, aged 8-15 years). Rurality was defined using the 2003 RUCC. The weight status was based on the standardized measures of children's height and weight. Children reported whether they considered themselves overweight and whether they were trying to lose weight. Proxy respondents (ie, guardians) reported whether they considered their child to be overweight and whether an HCP had ever told them their child was overweight. Weighted percentages and predicted probabilities from multivariable logistic regressions were calculated, accounting for the complex, multistage, probability sampling design and nonresponse. Rural residents comprised 18.8% of the study population; 41.8% of them were overweight and 58.2% were obese compared to 46.7% and 53.3% of urban peers, respectively. Misperceptions of children's weight status were 11.3 and 6.0 percentage points higher in rural children and their guardians, respectively. Recall of an HCP identification of child overweight was 6.3 percentage points lower among rural versus urban guardians. Obesity prevention efforts may be fostered by improving accuracy of child overweight perceptions. This may be particularly impactful in rural settings, where weight misperceptions are high. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco use among adults in tobacco-cultivating regions of rural southwest China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8681 adults aged ≥18 years in rural areas of Yunnan Province, China from 2010 to 2011. A standardized questionnaire was administered to obtain data about participants’ demographic characteristics, individual socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-reported smoking habits, and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS. The socioeconomic predictors of current smoking, nicotine addiction, and SHS exposure were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results The prevalence rates of tobacco use were much higher in men compared with women (current smoking 68.5% vs. 1.3%; and nicotine dependence 85.2% vs. 72.7%. However, the rate of SHS exposure was higher in women compared with men (76.6% vs. 70.5%. Tobacco farmers had higher prevalence rates of current smoking, nicotine dependence, and SHS exposure compared with participants not engaged in tobacco farming (P Conclusions This study suggests that tobacco control efforts in rural southwest China must be tailored to address tobacco-cultivating status and socioeconomic factors.
Law, Chi-kin; Snider, Anne-Marie; De Leo, Diego
A trend of higher suicide rates in rural and remote areas as well as areas with low socioeconomic status has been shown in previous research. Little is known whether the influence of social deprivation on suicide differs between urban and rural areas. This investigation aims to examine how social deprivation influences suicide mortality and to identify which related factors of deprivation have a higher potential to reduce suicide risk in urban and rural Queensland, Australia. Suicide data from 2004 to 2008 were obtained from the Queensland Suicide Register. Age-standardized suicide rates (15+ years) and rate ratios, with a 95% confidence interval, for 38 Statistical Subdivisions (SSDs) in Queensland were calculated. The influence of deprivation-related variables on suicide and their rural-urban difference were modelled by log-linear regression analyses through backward elimination. Among the 38 SSDs in Queensland, eight had a higher suicide risk while eleven had a lower rate. Working-age males (15-59 years) had the most pronounced geographic variation in suicide rate. In urban areas, suicide rates were positively associated with tenant households in public housing, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, the unemployment rate and median individual income, but inversely correlated with younger age and households with no internet access. In rural areas, only tenant households in public housing and households with no internet access heightened the risk of suicide, while a negative association was found for younger and older persons, low-skilled workers or labourers, and families with low income and no cars. The extent to which social deprivation contributes to suicide mortality varies considerably between rural and urban areas.
Young, Louise; Lindsay, Daniel B; Ray, Robin A
found for positive views of the rural doctor role and negative views of rural practice. Participants from a capital city background reported a significantly higher percentage of responses related to negative views of rural practice than their regional and rural counterparts. Students from capital city areas had significantly more negative views about the rural doctor role, especially related to workload, limited resources and isolation than students from rural and regional areas. Students entering medical school already have both positive and negative views about the life and work of a rural doctor. Those students from capital city areas have significantly more negative views despite being selected to enter a medical course with a rural focus based on their expressed rural perceptions. Further work is required to refine selection criteria and the year level experiences and learning opportunities which may positively influence student perceptions about rural medical practice to overcome early negative perceptions at the beginning of medical school.
This report presents and analyzes the data collected in a Section 5311-funded survey. The survey included data on the kinds of services being delivered, sources of revenue, the composition and age of the fleet, maintenance operations, patterns of rid...
Full Text Available A study on workload and pattern of 300 rural women of different economic strata was undertaken. The women had a heavy workload from 14-17 hours a day. This sapped their energies and led to poor nutritional status and also affected the nutritional status and care of young children. Women busy in work were seldom available for organized activities and were thus not reached by health and welfare programmes. This calls for better intersectoral co-ordination and well-organized women groups in rural areas.
This paper introduces the definition of mental poverty and the status quo of mental poverty in China's rural areas. Mental poverty in China's rural areas embodies the following aspects: the sense of parochialism is serious; the small farmer consciousness is strong; there is misgiving about identity. This paper analyses the reason of Mental poverty influencing farmers' behavior model and rural economic development. Mental poverty influences the farmers' changing current situation; Mental pover...
Ahmed, Dr. Ashfaque
Rural markets offer a great scope for a concentrated marketing effort because of the recent increase in the rural incomes and the likelihood that such incomes will increase faster because of better production and higher prices for agricultural commodities. Rural Marketing is a developing concept, and as a part of any economy has untapped potential; marketers have realized the opportunity recently. Improvement in infrastructure and reach promise a bright future for those intending to go rural....
Chen, Ruoling; Hu, Zhi; Wei, Li; Wilson, Kenneth
People from lower socioeconomic groups have a higher risk of mortality. The impact of low socioeconomic status on survival among older adults with dementia and depression remains unclear. To investigate the association between socioeconomic status and mortality in people with dementia and late-life depression in China. Using Geriatric Mental Status - Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy (GMS-AGECAT) we interviewed 2978 people aged ⩾60 years in Anhui, China. We characterised baseline socioeconomic status and risk factors and diagnosed 223 people with dementia and 128 with depression. All-cause mortality was followed up over 5.6 years. Individuals with dementia living in rural areas had a three times greater risk of mortality (multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.96, 95% CI 1.45-6.04) than those in urban areas, and for those with depression the HR was 4.15 (95% CI 1.59-10.83). There were similar mortality rates when comparing people with dementia with low v. high levels of education, occupation and income, but individuals with depression with low v. high levels had non-significant increases in mortality of 11%, 50% and 55% respectively Older adults with dementia and depression living in rural China had a significantly higher risk of mortality than urban counterparts. Interventions should be implemented in rural areas to tackle survival inequality in dementia and depression. Royal College of Psychiatrists.
Full Text Available ZINC STATUS OF ANEMIC AND NON-ANEMIC MALE ELDERLY IN RURAL AND URBAN AREAS The elderly peoples are prone to micronutrients deficiency such as zinc. The impact of low intake of zinc is impaired functions of wound healing, immunity and taste and smell. The article presents the zinc state of elderly people with or without anemia. The age of subjects was 60 – 75 years. physically and clinically healthy, and agreed to participate in this study. Data collection including anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, mid-upper circumference, zinc, and Hb. Body Mass Index was calculated using ratio body weight to height. Hemoglobin level was analyzed using cyanmethemoglobin method and serum zinc was analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer method. The average Body weight, height and MUAC of urban elderly were statistically higher compared to rural elderly. The proportion of anemic among elderly in rural was 29.0 percent and 15.7 percent in urban. Serum zinc level showed that the proportion of elderly who have low serum zinc level was higher in rural compared to urban area (76.0% vs 54.9%. Out of 54 elderly whose anemic 87.1 percent have serum zinc level below 70 mg/L, while in urban area out of 64 anemic elderly 68.8 % have serum zinc level below 70 mg/L.The proportion of elderly who have suffered anemia and have low serum level were higher in rural compared to urban area. Keywords: anemia, zinc, elderly
The paper discusses the effects of the changes of rural income level on family planning practice based a survey of 200 rural families in a affluent vegetable producing area of suburban Beijing. In 1984, 99.7% of child birth followed the local birth planning, and 99.1% of families with one child received One Child Certificates. The annual per capita income of the 200 families was 1,092 yuan (1 US$ = 3.7 yuan) in 1984 even higher than the community average. The number of children was negatively associated with the per capita income and per capita consumption except families with 4 children, most of whom have grown up. The rural mechanization in the community has greatly increased the need for skills and technology rather than strong laborers. The provision of community welfare programs and the increased living standard changed the value of children and also changed people's perception in favor of gender equality. Among families with 1 or 2 children, most preferred to have girls. And among families with more children, the preferred family size is smaller than the actual size, which shows a tendency towards favoring a small family. Among 1 child families, 58.7% considered 1 boy and 1 girl to be ideal, and 37.7% was happy with the only child. As the community becomes richer, both the community and individual families increased their investment in education. The spending on education per child was over 2 times as high in 1 child families than the families with more children. The educational status of parents is positively associated with the exception of children's future education and current spending on education. The concern of parents over children's education is an important factor in improving the quality of labor force. Women of higher education status are more acceptable to contraception and family planning policy. The relatively high level of education of the community has been conducive to it fertility decline.
The study analyzed the effect of social capital on food security of rural farming households in Abia State, Nigeria with specific focus on measuring social capital dimensions among the rural farming households; determining the food security status of the households; analyzing the influence of socioeconomic characteristics of ...
Hansen, David O.; And Others
Growth and present status of graduate programs, major research interests, and potential for US-Brazilian collaboration indicate the present state of rural sociology in Brazil. In contrast to US rural sociology's identity crisis of the past decade, the field in Brazil has blossomed. Graduate programs are underway at universities of Rio Grande do…
McCullough, Jeffrey; Casey, Michelle; Moscovice, Ira; Burlew, Michele
Purpose: This study examines the current status of meaningful use of health information technology (IT) in Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs), other rural, and urban US hospitals, and it discusses the potential role of Medicare payment incentives and disincentives in encouraging CAHs and other rural hospitals to achieve meaningful use. Methods: Data…
Banerjee, Manjushree; Prasad, Rakesh; Rehman, Ibrahim H; Gill, Bigsna
As part of a programme on ‘access to clean cooking alternatives in rural India’, induction stoves were introduced in nearly 4000 rural households in Himachal Pradesh, one of the few highly electrified states in India. Analysis of primary usage information from 1000 rural households revealed that electricity majorly replaced Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG), generally used as a secondary cooking fuel, but did not influence a similar shift from traditional mud stoves as the primary cooking technology. Likewise, the shift from firewood to electricity as a primary cooking fuel was observed in only 5% of the households studied. Country level analysis indicates that rural households falling in lower monthly per capita expenditure (MPCE) classes have lesser access to electricity and clean cooking options than those falling in higher MPCE classes. Again, only three states in India with high levels of rural household electrification report consumption statuses more than 82 kWh per month (the estimated mean for electricity consumption by induction stoves). Overall, the results of the study indicate that induction stoves will have limited potential in reducing the consumption of firewood and LPG if included in energy access programmes, that too only in regions where high levels of electrification exist. - Highlights: • Primary survey of induction stove users was conducted in 1000 rural households. • In 84% households, electricity replaced LPG as the secondary cooking fuel. • In only 5% households, electricity replaced firewood as the primary cooking fuel. • Electricity as a cooking fuel for rural India still needs massive investments. • Currently, induction stoves are only able to reduce consumption of firewood and LPG.
With the gradual improvement of rural online shopping environment,rural online shop-ping has become a new increasing point of E-commerce industry.Due to the staggering in shopping ideas,internet access mode and logistic system,rural online shopping consumption has not popular-ized.Based on the study on rural online shopping on Taobao net,strategies for improving the rural online shopping are discussed.To promote the rural online shopping,it is essential to better the lo-gistic network,foster rural consumers’online shopping habit and establish rural online shopping service stations to propel the rapid popularization of rural online shopping consumption.%随着农村网上购物环境不断改善，农村网购成为电商行业新的增长点。农村在购物观念、互联网接入方式、物流体系存在明显滞后，农村网购消费方式尚未全面普及。通过淘宝网的农村网购消费行为的研究视角，探讨促进农村网购的发展策略。促进农村网购应完善物流网络，培养农村消费者的网购习惯，建立农村网购服务站，才能促进农村网购消费行为的快速普及。
Kozhimannil, Katy B.; Casey, Michelle M.; Hung, Peiyin; Han, Xinxin; Prasad, Shailendra; Moscovice, Ira S.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the types and combinations of clinicians who are delivering babies in rural hospitals, their employment status, the relationship between hospital birth volume and staffing models, and the staffing challenges faced by rural hospitals. Methods We conducted a telephone survey of 306 rural hospitals in 9 states: Colorado, Iowa, Kentucky, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Vermont, Washington, and Wisconsin, from November 2013-March 2014 to assess their obstetric workforce. Bivariate associations between hospitals’ annual birth volume and obstetric workforce characteristics were examined, as well as qualitative analysis of workforce changes and staffing challenges. Findings Hospitals with lower birth volume (< 240 births per year) are more likely to have family physicians and general surgeons attending deliveries, while those with a higher birth volume more frequently have obstetricians and midwives attending deliveries. Reported staffing challenges include scheduling, training, census fluctuation, recruitment and retention, and intra-hospital relationships. Conclusions Individual hospitals working in isolation may struggle to address staffing challenges. Federal and state policy makers, regional collaboratives, and health care delivery systems can facilitate solutions through programs such as telehealth, simulation training, and interprofessional education. PMID:25808202
Aim: To investigate the determinants of teenage pregnancies in a rural ... demographic status, age of sexual debut, use of condoms, pregnancy and its ... Teenage pregnancy was significantly associated with age, occupation, no education, ...
... the desired attitudinal and behavioral changes towards family planning is yet to be ... from selected rural areas in Ibadan towards family planning using the Health ... The study revealed that the socio-economic status of mothers significantly ...
from the random effects probit model suggest that determinants of poverty status in rural Ethiopia ... 1 School of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, ... security policies, strategies and programs in the last two decades (FDRE,. 2004 ...
Kingori, Caroline; Haile, Zelalem T; Ngatia, Peter; Nderitu, Ruth
Background In Kenya, HIV incidence and prevalence have declined. HIV rates are lower in rural areas than in urban areas. However, HIV infection is reported higher in men in rural areas (4.5%) compared to those in urban areas (3.7%). Objectives This study examined HIV knowledge, feelings, and interactions towards HIV-infected from 302 participants in rural Central Kenya. Methods Chi square tests and multivariable logistic regression analyzed variables of interest. Results Most participants exhibited positive feelings in their interaction with people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). Association between HIV knowledge and socio-demographic characteristics revealed that the proportion of participants with a correct response differed by gender, age, level of education, and marital status ( p risk populations from the general population is needed to reduce stigma.
US Department of Agriculture, 2016
Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…
Wang, Hong; Zhang, Licheng; Yip, Winnie; Hsiao, William
This study examines adverse selection in a subsidized voluntary health insurance scheme, the Rural Mutual Health Care (RMHC) scheme, in a poor rural area of China. The study was made possible by a unique longitudinal data set: the total sample includes 3492 rural residents from 1020 households. Logistic regression was employed for the data analysis. The results show that although this subsidized scheme achieved a considerable high enrollment rate of 71% of rural residents, adverse selection still exists. In general, individuals with worse health status are more likely to enroll in RMHC than individuals with better health status. Although the household is set as the enrollment unit for the RMHC for the purpose of reducing adverse selection, nearly 1/3 of enrolled households are actually only partially enrolled. Furthermore, we found that adverse selection mainly occurs in partially enrolled households. The non-enrolled individuals in partially enrolled households have the best health status, while the enrolled individuals in partially enrolled households have the worst health status. Pre-RMHC, medical expenditure for enrolled individuals in partially enrolled households was 206.6 yuan per capita per year, which is 1.7 times as much as the pre-RMHC medical expenditure for non-enrolled individuals in partially enrolled households. The study also reveals that the pre-enrolled medical expenditure per capita per year of enrolled individuals was 9.6% higher than the pre-enrolled medical expenditure of all residents, including both enrolled and non-enrolled individuals. In conclusion, although the subsidized RMHC scheme reached a very high enrollment rate and the household is set as the enrollment unit for the purpose of reducing adverse selection, adverse selection still exists, especially within partially enrolled households. Voluntary RMHC will not be financially sustainable if the adverse selection is not fully taken into account.
Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.
Indicadores sócio-econômicos, demográficos e estado nutricional de crianças e adolescentes residentes em um assentamento rural do Rio de Janeiro Socioeconomic and demographic indicators and nutritional status of children in a rural land settlement in Rio de Janeiro
Gloria Valeria da Veiga
Full Text Available Avaliou-se indicadores sócio-econômicos e perfil nutricional de 201 crianças e adolescentes do assentamento rural de São José da Boa Morte, Rio de Janeiro. Considerou-se déficit nutricional valores abaixo de -2 escore z da mediana da referência National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS para os índices peso para idade (P/I e estatura para idade (E/I para os menores de 5 anos e peso para estatura (P/E e E/I entre 5,0 a 9,9 anos. Para os adolescentes utilizou-se os cortes inferiores ao percentil 5 (magreza e superiores ao percentil 85 (sobrepeso da distribuição de índice de massa corporal (IMC da população brasileira. Encontrou-se: 53,8% dos domicílios com 4 a 6 moradores, 34,5% com fossa rudimentar, 31,2% sem água canalizada, 11,0% sem banheiro, 58,2% queimavam ou enterravam o lixo e 13,6% das mães eram analfabetas. A faixa de 0 a 4,9 anos não apresentou nenhum tipo de déficit nutricional e entre 5 a 9,9 anos apenas um apresentou baixo peso e três sobrepeso. Concluiu-se que a baixa prevalência de déficits nutricionais no grupo estudado, apesar da exposição a fatores de risco, pode relacionar-se com a presença de fatores de proteção como o acesso a serviços de saúde e que o sobrepeso em adolescentes (13,3% foi relevante.This study evaluated socioeconomic indicators and nutritional status in 201 children and adolescents in a rural land settlement in São José da Boa Morte, Rio de Janeiro. Nutritional deficit was defined as a value below -2 z score for the reference median from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS for weight-for-age (W/A and stature-for-age (S/A for children under five years of age and weight-for-stature (W/S and S/A for children from 5.0 to 9.9 years. For adolescents, the study used cut-off points at the 5th percentile (thin and 85th percentile (overweight from the distribution of body mass index (BMI in the Brazilian population. According to the study, 53.8% of the households had 4 to 6
Howley, Caitlin; Hambrick, Kimberly
Building on recent research, ICF sought to explore how socioeconomic status and attachment to place influence rural youths' educational and residential preferences across a wider geographic region. Our research questions included: What are rural high school students' educational and residential plans? And what factors influence rural youths' plans…
Tonelli, Marcello; Lloyd, Anita; Pannu, Neesh; Klarenbach, Scott; Ravani, Pietro; Jindal, Kailash; MacRae, Jennifer; Unsworth, Larry; Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda
Rural-dwelling hemodialysis patients have less frequent contact with nephrologists than urban-dwelling patients, and are known to have higher mortality. We hypothesized that rural-dwelling hemodialysis patients would have more evidence of poorly controlled extracellular fluid volume (ECVF) than otherwise similar urban-dwellers. We studied prevalent hemodialysis patients within a single renal program in Alberta, Canada and assessed ECFV using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). Our primary outcome was impedance vector length (ohm/m) as assessed by BIS using the Xitron Hydra 4200 device, where shorter vector length indicated poorer ECFV control. Because poor ECFV control can lead to hypertension, we also assessed pre- and post-dialysis blood pressure. We measured outcomes at baseline. We studied 228 hemodialysis patients, of whom 115 (50.4 %) and 113 (49.6 %) were urban- and rural-dwelling, respectively. There were no differences in volume control in urban versus rural participants; odds ratio (OR) for vector length in the lowest sex-specific quartile of vector length was 0.93 (95 % CI 0.54, 1.59) after adjusting for age, sex, diabetic status, years since dialysis initiation and phase angle. The odds of very poor blood pressure control (pre-dialysis blood pressure ≥180/100) did not differ between urban and rural participants [fully adjusted OR 0.96 (0.36, 2.60)]. Differences in ECFV control do not appear to explain higher mortality among remote- and rural- dwelling hemodialysis patients, compared to urban-dwellers.
Magadi, Monica A
The relationship between HIV and poverty is complex and recent studies reveal an urban-rural divide that is not well understood. This paper examines the urban-rural disparity in the relationship between poverty and HIV infection in Kenya, with particular reference to possible explanations relating to social cohesion/capital and other moderating factors. Multilevel logistic regression models are applied to nationally-representative samples of 13 094 men and women of reproductive age from recent Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys. The results confirm a disproportionate higher risk of HIV infection among the urban poor, despite a general negative association between poverty and HIV infection among rural residents. Estimates of intra-community correlations suggest lower social cohesion in urban than rural communities. This, combined with marked socio-economic inequalities in urban areas is likely to result in the urban poor being particularly vulnerable. The results further reveal interesting cultural variations and trends. In particular, recent declines in HIV prevalence among urban residents in Kenya have been predominantly confined to those of higher socio-economic status. With current rapid urbanization patterns and increasing urban poverty, these trends have important implications for the future of the HIV epidemic in Kenya and similar settings across the sub-Saharan Africa region. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Studies in populations unexposed to folic acid (FA fortification have demonstrated that MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with increased risk of higher grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+. However, it is unknown whether exposure to higher folate as a result of the FA fortification program has altered the association between MTHFR C677T and risk of CIN, or the mechanisms involved with such alterations. The current study investigated the following in a FA fortified population: 1 The association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and risk of CIN 2+; 2 The modifying effects of plasma folate concentrations on this association; and 3 The modifying effects of plasma folate on the association between the polymorphism and degree of methylation of long interspersed nucleotide elements (L1s, in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC DNA, a documented biomarker of CIN risk.The study included 457 US women diagnosed with either CIN 2+ (cases or ≤ CIN 1 (non-cases. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to test the associations after adjusting for relevant risk factors for CIN.The 677CT/TT MTHFR genotypes were not associated with the risk of CIN 2+. Women with CT/TT genotype with lower folate, however, were more likely to be diagnosed with CIN 2+ compared to women with CT/TT genotype with higher folate (OR = 2.41, P = 0.030. Women with CT/TT genotype with lower folate were less likely to have a higher degree of PBMC L1 methylation compared to women with CT/TT genotype with higher folate (OR = 0.28, P = 0.017.This study provides the first evidence that the MTHFR 677CT/TT genotype-associated lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation increases the risk of CIN 2+ in women in the US post-FA fortification era. Thus, even in the post-FA fortification era, not all women have adequate folate status to overcome MTHFR 677CT/TT genotype-associated lower degree of L1 methylation.
Asgari, M.M.; Dubois, A.; Beckett, W.S. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Asgari, M. [Shaheed Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gent, J. [John B. Pierce Lab., New Haven, CT (United States)
During the summer of 1994, a cross-sectional epidemiological study, in which the pulmonary function of children in Tehran was compared with pulmonary function in children in a rural town in Iran, was conducted. Four hundred children aged 5--11 y were studied. Daytime ambient nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter were measured with portable devices, which were placed in the children`s neighborhoods on the days of study. Levels of these ambient substances were markedly higher in urban Tehran than in rural areas. Children`s parents were questioned about home environmental exposures (including heating source and environmental tobacco smoke) and the children`s respiratory symptoms. Pulmonary function was assessed, both by spirometry and peak expiratory flow meter. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity--as a percentage of predicted for age, sex and height--were significantly lower in urban children than in rural children. Both measurements evidenced significant reverse correlations with levels of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter. Differences in spirometric lung function were not explained by nutritional status, as assessed by height and weight for age, or by home environmental exposures. Reported airway symptoms were higher among rural children, whereas reported physician diagnosis of bronchitis and asthma were higher among urban children. The association between higher pollutant concentrations and reduced pulmonary function in this urban-rural comparison suggests that there is an effect of urban air pollution on short-term lung function and/or lung growth and development during the preadolescent years.
Lerner, Alana G.; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J. Jaime
Objective To determine the awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes by migration status. Design Cross-sectional study, secondary analyses of the PERU MIGRANT study. Patients Rural, rural-to-urban migrants, and urban participants. Main outcome measures Awareness, treatment and control of hypertension and diabetes mellitus were calculated using weights to account for participant’s group size. Results Of the 205/987 (weighted prevalence 24.1%, 95%CI: 21.1%–27.1%) participants identified as hypertensive 48.3% were aware of their diagnosis, 40% of them were receiving treatment, and 30.4% of those receiving treatment were controlled. Diabetes was present in 33/987 (weighted prevalence 4.6%, 95%CI: 3.1%–6%) and diabetes awareness, treatment and control were 71.1%, 40.6%, and 7.7%, respectively. Sub-optimal control rates, defined as those not meeting blood pressure or glycaemia targets among those with the condition, were 95.1% for hypertension and 97% for diabetes. Higher awareness, treatment and control rates, for both hypertension and diabetes, were observed in rural-to-urban migrants and urban participants compared to rural participants. However, treatment rates were much lower among migrants compared to the urban group. Conclusions These results identify major unmet needs in awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and diabetes. Particular challenges are lack of awareness of both hypertension and diabetes in rural areas, and poor levels of treatment and control among people who have migrated from rural into urban areas. PMID:23680809
& Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education
Ketlogetswe, C.; Mothudi, T.H.; Mothibi, J.
Rural areas, the world over, are characterised by low levels of connectivity to electrical energy, despite the fact that electricity has been universally acknowledged as one of the most important propellant for community and national development. Botswana is not immune to this trend. Consequently, available evidence puts the overall level of electrical connectivity in Botswana rural areas to just 12%. A plethora of factors are responsible for inhibiting high levels of access to electrical energy by rural communities. Some major impediments often cited as causing ineffective energy provision to rural-based communities include, among others, the following: (a)geographical set-ups of the concerned communities; (b)inappropriately conceived energy policies; (c)low-income status of most rural inhabitants. This paper, therefore, examines Botswana's policy on energy supply with the view to confirm or deny any correlation between the above factors and the low-levels of electrical connectivity in the country's rural communities, as well as many others that may have impacted on this state of affairs. The policy is evaluated by undertaking a comparative study of its implementation on two seemingly geographical contrasting rural communities within the country
Williams, Faustine; Thompson, Emmanuel
Despite the fact that black women have a lower incidence of breast cancer compared to white women, black women experience higher death rates than any other group. We examined the stage of breast cancer presentation by race and geographic region using population-based breast cancer incidence in all 115 counties in the state of Missouri. We used 2003-2008 breast cancer incidence data from Missouri Cancer Registry and Research Center. County of residence was categorized as urban or rural using the rural-urban continuum code. We computed the conditional proportion of stage at diagnosis by race and metropolitan status and also used Pearson's chi-squared test with Yates' continuity correction to determine statistical significance of association. Results of the study indicate that a greater proportion of black women (38.8 %) compared to white women (30.2 %) were diagnosed with more advanced breast metastasis. Our results further suggest that stage at diagnosis depended on county of residence or metropolitan status (p = .04). Women living in non-metropolitan counties were slightly more likely to have late-stage breast cancer than their metropolitan counterparts (32.0 vs 30.7 %). Overall, black women had 1.5-fold increased odds of late-stage breast cancer diagnosis compared to their white counterparts (OR = 1.50; 95 % CI, 1.39, 1.63; p diagnosis among women living in non-metropolitan or rural counties was over 11 % higher compared with their metropolitan or urban counterpart. The current study corroborates previous findings that the risk of late-stage breast cancer diagnosis was higher among women residing in non-metropolitan rural counties.
On a more general level, the results of the study suggest that market-oriented economic reform brought about diverse effects on Chinese women in terms of labor market status. Though the institutional barriers put Chinese female rural workers in a position of disadvantage, the performance of female rural-urban migrant workers suggests that they are active beings rather than passive victims merely adapting to the social transformation. Female rural-urban migrant workers have been and still are playing important and speci? c roles at the crossover between the emerging capitalist economy and the traditional rural society. In doing so they are positive participants of globalization in a wider development perspective.
McGrail, Matthew R; Russell, Deborah J
The aim of this study was to explore the association between career stage and rural medical workforce supply among Australian-trained medical graduates. Descriptive analysis using the national Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) longitudinal study. Australian-trained GPs and other specialists who participated in the MABEL study, 2008-2013. Proportions of GPs and specialists working in rural locations, according to career stage (establishing, early, mid and late), gender and childhood-origin type (rural versus metropolitan). Logistic regression models revealed that establishing- and early-career GPs had significantly higher likelihood (OR 1.67 and 1.38, respectively) of working rurally, but establishing and early-career doctors were significantly less likely (OR 0.34 and 0.43, respectively) to choose general practice, contributing proportionally fewer rural GPs overall (OR 0.77 and 0.75, respectively) compared to late-career doctors. For specialists, there were no significant associations between career cohorts and rural practice. Overall, there was a significantly lower likelihood (OR 0.83) of establishing-career doctors practising rurally. Women were similarly likely to be rural GPs but less likely to be rural specialists, while rural-origin was consistently associated with higher odds of rural practice. The supply of Australia's rural medical workforce from its medical schools continues to be challenging, with these data highlighting both their source and associations with doctors at different career stages. Despite large investments through rural medical training and rural workforce recruitment and retention policies, these data confirm continued reliance on internationally trained medical graduates for large proportions of rural supply is likely. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Hendrickson, Robert M.
This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…
Ran, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Tian-Ming; Wong, Irene Yin-Ling; Yang, Xin; Liu, Chang-Cheng; Liu, Bo; Luo, Wei; Kuang, Wei-Hong; Thornicroft, Graham; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan
It is unknown whether there are differences in self-stigma among persons with different types of severe mental illness (SMI) in rural communities. This study was to examine the differences of self-stigma and its correlates in persons with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder in a rural community in China. A total of 453 persons with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder in a rural community participated in the study. The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) was used to measure self-stigma. The t-test and analyses of variance (ANOVA) were used to examine the differences in mean scores of ISMI and subscales among the three diagnoses. Logistic regression was used to explore the contributing factors to the level of self-stigma among the three groups. Self-stigma was moderate and severe with 94.7% of the total sample. Persons with schizophrenia had significantly higher mean scores of total ISMI, alienation and discrimination experience than those with bipolar disorders. Lower family income was significantly associated with higher levels of self-stigma in persons with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. Factors predicting the level of self-stigma among the three groups were various. Self-stigma is common and severe in persons with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, especially those with lower income status in rural community in China. Persons with schizophrenia may have higher levels of self-stigma than those with bipolar disorder. Individual-level interventions should be developed to reduce self-stigma among persons with SMI in Chinese rural communities.
It is difficult to determine the social status or rank of women, since no uniform indicators of status have been approved. Currently, in most Asian and Pacific countries, women make up the majority of illiterates (75% in South Asia; 70% in China), even in areas that have expanded their educational facilities. East and Southeast Asia have succeeded so far in their attempts to increase the enrollment ratios for women (90% female enrollment ratio as opposed to less than 50% in South Asia). Male-female roles seem to be entrenched in the society of all the countries. Women have benefited from an improvement in health care in East and Southeast Asia. In South Asia, female mortality is still very high. In most of the Asian and Pacific countries, female participation in the labor force is relatively low. However, this may be a misnomer, since the estimates do not include domestic workers that produce familial income. Women in the labor force seem to group into 4 major areas: professional and technical, clerical, service, and production work--all of which are usually low paying, low status jobs. Population growth in developing countries seems to have slowed the advancement of women toward greater gender equality by increasing the dependency burden and limiting social and material resources. High fertility rates among women correlate with an increase in illiteracy and a decrease in status improvement through education. Child bearing and home-making place heavy burdens on those women who marry young because of social pressures. Males are normally educated first in these larger families. The correlation of mortality conditions and female status is not currently clear. Rural-to-urban migration of the husband causes a weakening of the wife's status. Migration of some women to urban areas relieves social pressures and allows them to seek employment, but isolates others from a life with which they are familiar. Higher education of women seems to postpone marriage and child
Kamalapur, G.D. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal (India); Udaykumar, R.Y. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Department of Electrical Engineering, Surathkal (India)
Rural electrification is an integral component of poverty alleviation and rural growth of a nation. A developing nation, like India has 72.2 percent people living in rural areas. Still, electricity has not played an effective role in the socio-economic growth of villages. The Government of India has an ambitious target of providing electricity to all villages by 2008 and all rural households by 2012. Steps are already initiated with Rural Electric Corporation, Rural Electricity Supply Technology Mission, State Electricity Boards led reforms, Reforms in Power Sector, Electricity Act 2003, Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana etc. An attempt has been made in this paper to assess the present status of rural electrification in India and the major factors contributing to rural electrical distribution. Steps initiated by the Government of India through Rural Electric Corporation (REC) and a successful case study of the people's participation model is presented. (orig.)
Jelsma, Jennifer; Maart, Soraya; Eide, Arne; Toni, Mzolisi; Loeb, Mitch
This study was to establish whether there was a difference in the characteristics of people who received a disability grant and those who did not in rural and urban samples of isiXhosa-speaking people with disability in South Africa. The sample was a convenience sample and was identified through a 'snowballing' process. A demographic survey and isiXhosa versions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and EQ-5D, a health-related quality of life measure were utilized. The sample consisted of 244 rural and 61 urban respondents, demonstrating a preponderance of physical disabilities. The groups who received or did not receive grants were equivalent in terms of age, gender, marital status and employment status. A significantly higher proportion of rural dwellers accessed the grant. The grant holders displayed significantly more problems related to mobility and to technology and policies and services relating to mobility and transport. Those who did not receive grants reported more barriers with regard to the attitudes of health workers but not with regard to any other aspect of social support. The majority of men and women with disability identified in this study received the grant, whether or not they lived in remote rural or in urban areas. As there were few differences between the groups, it is likely that several non-grant holders might qualify if they were informed of the grant and applied. The role of medical doctors as 'gatekeepers' to the grant might need to be examined.
Islam, M Mazharul; Azad, Kazi Md Abul Kalam
This paper analyses the levels and trends of childhood mortality in urban Bangladesh, and examines whether children's survival chances are poorer among the urban migrants and urban poor. It also examines the determinants of child survival in urban Bangladesh. Data come from the 1999-2000 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. The results indicate that, although the indices of infant and child mortality are consistently better in urban areas, the urban-rural differentials in childhood mortality have diminished in recent years. The study identifies two distinct child morality regimes in urban Bangladesh: one for urban natives and one for rural-urban migrants. Under-five mortality is higher among children born to urban migrants compared with children born to life-long urban natives (102 and 62 per 1000 live births, respectively). The migrant-native mortality differentials more-or-less correspond with the differences in socioeconomic status. Like childhood mortality rates, rural-urban migrants seem to be moderately disadvantaged by economic status compared with their urban native counterparts. Within the urban areas, the child survival status is even worse among the migrant poor than among the average urban poor, especially recent migrants. This poor-non-poor differential in childhood mortality is higher in urban areas than in rural areas. The study findings indicate that rapid growth of the urban population in recent years due to rural-to-urban migration, coupled with higher risk of mortality among migrant's children, may be considered as one of the major explanations for slower decline in under-five mortality in urban Bangladesh, thus diminishing urban-rural differentials in childhood mortality in Bangladesh. The study demonstrates that housing conditions and access to safe drinking water and hygienic toilet facilities are the most critical determinants of child survival in urban areas, even after controlling for migration status. The findings of the study may
People in rural areas face some different health issues than people who live in towns and cities. Getting health care can ... long distances to get routine checkups and screenings. Rural areas often have fewer doctors and dentists, and ...
Riha, Johanna; Karabarinde, Alex; Ssenyomo, Gerald; Allender, Steven; Asiki, Gershim; Kamali, Anatoli; Young, Elizabeth H; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Seeley, Janet
Urban living is associated with unhealthy lifestyles that can increase the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where the majority of people live in rural areas, it is still unclear if there is a corresponding increase in unhealthy lifestyles as rural areas adopt urban characteristics. This study examines the distribution of urban characteristics across rural communities in Uganda and their associations with lifestyle risk factors for chronic diseases. Using data collected in 2011, we examined cross-sectional associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors in rural communities in Uganda, with 7,340 participants aged 13 y and above across 25 villages. Urbanicity was defined according to a multi-component scale, and Poisson regression models were used to examine associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors by quartile of urbanicity. Despite all of the villages not having paved roads and running water, there was marked variation in levels of urbanicity across the villages, largely attributable to differences in economic activity, civil infrastructure, and availability of educational and healthcare services. In regression models, after adjustment for clustering and potential confounders including socioeconomic status, increasing urbanicity was associated with an increase in lifestyle risk factors such as physical inactivity (risk ratio [RR]: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.24), low fruit and vegetable consumption (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.23), and high body mass index (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.77). This study indicates that even across rural communities in SSA, increasing urbanicity is associated with a higher prevalence of lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. This finding highlights the need to consider the health impact of urbanization in rural areas across SSA. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Full Text Available Urban living is associated with unhealthy lifestyles that can increase the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where the majority of people live in rural areas, it is still unclear if there is a corresponding increase in unhealthy lifestyles as rural areas adopt urban characteristics. This study examines the distribution of urban characteristics across rural communities in Uganda and their associations with lifestyle risk factors for chronic diseases.Using data collected in 2011, we examined cross-sectional associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors in rural communities in Uganda, with 7,340 participants aged 13 y and above across 25 villages. Urbanicity was defined according to a multi-component scale, and Poisson regression models were used to examine associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors by quartile of urbanicity. Despite all of the villages not having paved roads and running water, there was marked variation in levels of urbanicity across the villages, largely attributable to differences in economic activity, civil infrastructure, and availability of educational and healthcare services. In regression models, after adjustment for clustering and potential confounders including socioeconomic status, increasing urbanicity was associated with an increase in lifestyle risk factors such as physical inactivity (risk ratio [RR]: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.24, low fruit and vegetable consumption (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.23, and high body mass index (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.77.This study indicates that even across rural communities in SSA, increasing urbanicity is associated with a higher prevalence of lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. This finding highlights the need to consider the health impact of urbanization in rural areas across SSA. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Chen, Yue; Rennie, Donna C; Karunanayake, Chandima P; Janzen, Bonnie; Hagel, Louise; Pickett, William; Dyck, Roland; Lawson, Joshua; Dosman, James A; Pahwa, Punam
Obesity is prevalent in rural communities in Canada, however little is known about the social determinants of health and obesity in rural populations. Socioeconomic status has been found to be inversely associated with the risk of obesity in developed countries. This study investigated the relationship between income adequacy, education and obesity in a rural setting. The study used data from 5391 adults aged 18-69 who participated in the Saskatchewan Rural Health Study in 2010. Participants completed a survey that included questions about location of residence, body weight, height, and socio-demographic and behavioral factors. Obesity was defined as body mass index being ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Logistic regression using generalized estimating equation was conducted to assess the associations of income adequacy and education level with the prevalence of obesity taking covariates into consideration. Approximately a third of the participants were obese and the prevalence of obesity was similar for men and women. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher for rural residents not living on farm compared with those living on farm (p education compared with those with > 12 years of education (aOR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.05-1.34). Low income adequacy was significantly associated with an increased risk of obesity but only among those not living on farm (aOR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.16-2.79). Home location was associated with obesity prevalence in rural Saskatchewan and modified the influence of income adequacy, but not the influence of education, on obesity. Adults not living on farm had an increased risk of obesity and showed a significant impact of income adequacy on obesity.
Aghajanian, A; Mehryar, A H; Ahmadnia, S; Kazemipour, S
By 1979 50 years of uneven development and modernization by governments prior to the Islamic Revolution had left rural parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran with extremely low economic and health status. This paper reports on the impact of the rural health development programme implemented as an effective and inexpensive way to improve the heath of the rural population, especially mothers and children. It describes the system of rural health centres, health houses and community health workers (behvarz) and demonstrates the effectiveness of the programme through declining measures of rural-urban disparities in health indicators. The implications of inexpensive rural health policies for other countries in the region such as Afghanistan and Central Asian countries with a similar sociocultural structure are discussed.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate five healthy dietary behaviours in a sample of rural and semi-urban South Africans. The sample consisted of 200 adults, 100 from an semi-urban area (Mankweng and 100 from a rural area (Tiberius in the central region of the Northern Province of South Africa. The two geographically different communities were chosen by convenience and the participants in the two communities were choosen by cluster sampling. Results indicate that about a third (30% in semi-urban and 34% in rural of the study sample are overweight and 18% are obese. A moderately high prevalence of six simple healthy dietary practices was found. However, there was a very low prevalence rate of eating fruits daily among both semi-urban (10% and rural dwellers (9%. Semi-urban dwellers showed significantly higher healthy diet behaviour than rural dwellers in regard to avoiding fat, trying to eat fiber, limiting red meat, and limiting salt. Men reported more than women that they tried to eat fiber and they had more often breakfast everyday. Being semi-urban and female were significantly associated with the healthy dietary index, whereas age, BMI, educational level and marital status were not. The results give insight into dietary health behaviour practices and the factors that influence them, which have practical implications for dietary health promotion.
González-Barranco, J; López-Alvarenga, J C; Roiz-Simancas, M; Bravo-García, A L; Fanghänel-Salmón, G; Laviada Arrigunaga, E; Castaño, L R; García Tapia, M P
Studies about migration to industrialized countries have shown an increased prevalence of diabetes, obesity and dyslipidaemias, all of them related to android body fat distribution. Migration status might be influence body fat distribution but it has not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between body fat distribution and migration from rural to urban areas in Mexico. This sequential sample of 433 women were seen in the outpatient obesity clinic of four federal states: Tabasco (n = 81), Mexico City (n = 166), Coahuila (n = 80), and Yucatan (n = 106). Migration history from rural to urban area, familial history of diabetes, ages of onset of obesity, height and weight circumferences were obtained. A regression logistic model was used and maintained as dependent variable body fat distribution. Age and federal state were considered as confounders and they adjusted the model. Migrating women from rural to urban area were 121 (27.9%). The waist circumference was higher in Tabasco (102.2 +/- 12 cm), and lesser in Yucatan (93.6 +/- 15 cm, p < 0.001); no differences were found for hip circumference. The logistic regression model showed that body fat distribution is associated to migration from rural to urban area, and also to diabetes of mother and age of onset of obesity. Migrating from rural to urban area is a risk factor for android body fat distribution and this risk increases with age, history of diabetes in mother and adulthood onset o obesity.
Full Text Available Research Question : - What is the magnitude of Diabetes mellitus in the urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Objectives:To study the prevalence of diabetes mellitus amongst high risk age group population in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To compare the magnitude of problem of diabetes mellitus between urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To study the possible associates and socio-demographic variables related to diabetes mellitus.Study Design : Cross sectional study.Setting : The study was performed on three thousand population each in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Participants : High risk age group population i.e. 45 years and above.Study variables : Age, Sex. impaired glucose tolerance. Body mass index, Education, Working status. Social class, family history of diabetes.Statistical analysis : Chi-square lest, percentagesResults From a total of 676 persons of high risk age group i.e. 45 years and above, the overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the study areas was observed lobe 7. l%with 9.94% in urban and 3.61% in rural areas, the maximum percetage of diabetes cases (41.66% was in the age group of 56-60 years. Higher prevalence of diabetes was observed in the obese (56.25% and sedentary (87.5% persons. The family history' of diabetes mellitus was present in (35.41% of diabetes mellitus cases.
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Badruddoza, Syed
Simultaneity of borrowing, withdrawal of savings, and loan defaults due to the pronounced seasonality of agriculture often leads to investment failure of rural financial institutions. Lack of borrowing leads to lack of in-come- and consumption-smoothing, and in turn, causes inefficient resource allocation by rural households. Financial institutions that are active in rural areas take diffe...
Full Text Available Background: Healthy population is indispensable for national development. Adequate food intake by people is the key determinant to keep up their health. Malnutrition nevertheless remains pervasive in developing countries, undermining people’s health, productivity, and often their survival. Food insecurity and hunger remain persistent in Nepal. Prevalence of low calories intake by rural family is widespread throughout the country population. Mainly marginalized communities, ethnic group with poor economic status, traditional societies and lower cast people are exposed to food defi cit. Objective: to investigate the prevalence of low calories intake by rural families and its associated determinants in Palpa district. Materials and methods: The cross-sectional study was designed to achieve objective of the research. A random sample of 339 families was selected from rural areas (DUMRE, DAMKADA, GORKHEKOT and TELGHA villages of this district. Data were analyzed by using the SPSS software for Windows (version 16.0. Results: The existence of inadequate food calorie intake among rural families was most common. Most of them were malnourished. Conclusion: low calorie intake by ethnic group was considerably higher than other groups in community.
Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S
Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security status. Baseline analysis using data from a randomized trial to increase school breakfast participation (SBP) in rural Minnesota high schools. Students completed a survey regarding food security, characteristics, and home and school environments. Schools provided academic data and staff measured height and weight. Food security was dichotomized as FS vs FIS. Bivariate analysis, multivariate linear/logistic regression, and testing for interaction of food security and sex were performed. Food-insecure adolescents reported poorer health, less exercise, had lower grades, and higher SBP (p breakfast (p = .05). All associations except reported benefits remained significant after adjustment. Interactions were identified with girls' grade point average and with boys' caloric and added sugar intake. Negative associations among food insecurity and positive youth development are identified in our sample. Policy and environmental strategies should address the complexities of these associations, including exploration of the role of school meals. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Compliance to the recommended use of folic acid supplements for women in Sweden is higher among those under treatment for infertility than among fertile controls and is also related to socioeconomic status and lifestyle.
Murto, Tiina; Yngve, Agneta; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta; Altmäe, Signe; Salumets, Andres; Wånggren, Kjell; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli
Background : Folate has been discussed in relation to fertility among women, but studies on women under treatment for infertility are lacking. Objective : The objective of this study was to investigate folic acid supplement use and folate status among women under treatment for infertility (hereafter infertile) and fertile women also in regard to socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Design : Lifestyle and dietary habits, and use of dietary supplements were assessed using a questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of folate status. 24-hour recall interviews were also performed. Results : Highly educated, employed and infertile women were most prone to using folic acid supplements. The infertile women had a significantly better folate status than the fertile women. Folate status did not correlate with socioeconomic or lifestyle factors. The infertile women were physically more active, smoked less and were employed. Our questionnaire data had only fair agreement with the data from 24-hour recalls, but the folate status data was clearly correlated to our questionnaire results. Conclusions : Infertile women were most prone to using folic acid supplements and had better folate status than the controls. High educational and employment status were found to be key factors for high compliance to the recommended use folic acid supplements.
Rivera Juan A
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of undernutrition and anemia in indigenous and non-indigenous children 0.05. The prevalence of anemia in indigenous children was one third greater than in non-indigenous children at the national level (p0.05 in rural areas. These differences were reduced to about half when adjusting for SES but remained significantly higher in indigenous children (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Indigenous children have higher probabilities of stunting and underweight than non-indigenous children. The differences are larger in urban areas and in higher socioeconomic geographic regions and are explained mostly by socioeconomic factors. The overall difference in the probability of anemia is small, is higher only in urban relative to rural areas, and is explained to a lesser degree by socioeconomic factors. Policy and programs should be designed and implemented to reduce the dramatic differences in nutritional status between indigenous and non-indigenous children in Mexico.
Zhang, Nan; Bécares, Laia; Chandola, Tarani
Chinese children are facing dual burden of malnutrition—coexistence of under-and over-nutrition. Little systematic evidence exists for explaining the simultaneous presence of under-and over-nutrition. This study aims to explore underlying mechanisms of under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. This study used a nationwide longitudinal dataset of children (N = 5,017) from 9 provinces across China, with four exclusively categories of nutritional outcomes including under-nutrition (stunting and underweight), over-nutrition (overweight only including obesity), paradox (stunted overweight), with normal nutrition as reference. Multinomial logit models (Level-1: occasions; Level-2: children; Level-3: villages) were fitted which corrected for non-independence of observations due to geographic clustering and repeated observations of individuals. A mixture of risk factors at the individual, household and neighbourhood levels predicted under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. Improved socioeconomic status and living in more urbanised villages reduced the risk of stunted overweight among rural children in China. Young girls appeared to have higher risk of under-nutrition, and the risk decreased with age more markedly than for boys up to age 5. From age 5 onwards, boys tended to have higher risk of under-nutrition than girls. Girls aged around 12 and older were less likely to suffer from under-nutrition, while boys’ higher risk of under-nutrition persisted throughout adolescence. Children were less likely to suffer from over-nutrition compared to normal nutrition. Boys tended to have an even lower risk of over-nutrition than girls and the gender difference widened with age until adolescence. Our results have important policy implications that improving household economic status, in particular, maternal education and health insurance for children, and living environment are important to enhance rural children’s nutritional status in China
Barker, Abigail; McBride, Timothy D; Kemper, Leah M; Mueller, Keith
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act established Health Insurance Marketplaces (HIMs) in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. This policy brief assesses the changes in HIMs from 2014 to 2015 in terms of choices offered and premiums charged, with emphasis on how these measures vary across rural and urban places. Key Findings. (1) In 74 percent of HIM rating areas, the number of firms operating increased by at least one, while the number of firms decreased in only about 6 percent of rating areas. Further, 64 percent of rating areas with fewer than 50 persons per square mile gained at least one firm. (2) There was no consistent pattern of premium increases with respect to rating area population density (used as a proxy here for the degree of "ruralness" of the rating areas). Nationally, rural areas are not experiencing higher premium increases than their urban counterparts. In fact, the lowest increases in second-lowest cost silver plan premiums occurred in the medium-density population rating areas of 51 to 300 persons per square mile. (3) Average adjusted premiums increased from 2014 to 2015 by 6.7 percent in Federally-Facilitated Marketplaces (FFMs) compared to just 1.4 percent in State-Based Marketplaces (SBMs). Regardless of SBM or FFM status, premium increases across the United States were negatively correlated with the number of firms entering the market. (4) Analysis of the most rural states, in terms of percentage of the population classified as nonmetropolitan, shows that, in general, premiums fell significantly in rural places where they had been rather high, and they increased in rural places where they had been rather low. The five rural states with the lowest premium increases had an average of 0.17 firms entering the market, while the five with the highest premium increases had an average of 0.50 firms exiting the market.
Malhotra, R C
Rural development should be viewed as the core of any viable strategy for national development in developing countries where an average 2/3 of the population live in rural areas. Rural development is multisectoral, including economic, sociopolitical, environmental, and cultural aspects of rural life. Initially, the focus is on the provision of basic minimum needs in food, shelter, clothing, health, and education, through optimum use and employment of all available resources, including human labor. The development goal is the total development of the human potential. The hierarchy of goals of development may be shown in the form of an inverted pyramid. At the base are basic minimum needs for subsistence whose fulfillment leads to a higher set of sociopolitical needs and ultimately to the goal of total developmentand the release of creative energies of every individual. If development, as outlined, were to benefit the majority of the people then they would have to participate in decision making which affects their lives. This would require that the people mobilize themselves in the people'ssector. The majority can equitably benefit from development only if they are mobilized effectively. Such mobilization requires raising the consciousness of the people concerning their rights and obligations. All development with the twin objectives of growth with equity could be reduced to restructuring the socioeconomic, and hence political relationships. Desinging and implementing an intergrated approach to rural development is the 1st and fundamental issue of rural development management. The commonly accepted goals and objectives of a target group oriented antipoverty development strategy include: higher productivity and growth in gross national product (GNP); equitable distribution of the benefits of development; provision of basic minimum needs for all; gainful employment; participation in development; self reliance or self sustaining growth and development; maintenance of
Full Text Available The increasing realization of the negative political, social and economic consequences stemming from the precariousness of youth’s livelihoods, underscores the need to understand their livelihood activities, which is a requisite for curbing social ills and reducing rural poverty. The paper examined the participation of rural youth in livelihood activities, their socio-personal characteristics, the relationship between their socio-personal characteristics and their participation in livelihood activities as well as the interrelationships among their socio-personal characteristics. Multi-stage random sampling was used to collect data from 247 respondents through interview schedule. Frequency counts and percentages were used to present data while Pearson product moment correction (PPMC was used to test relationships. The results revealed that majority of the respondents were from other backward caste (66%, married (72.10%, belonged to joint (57.90% and medium (50.60% size families as well as families that were self-employed in agriculture (59.50%. Higher percentages of the respondents and their fathers were educated up to higher school and above. Huge majority (75.71% of the respondents participated in cereal production while more than half of the respondents were involved in pulse production (56.28% and petty trading (53.44%. Marital status; fathers’ educational attainment; family type and family size had significant relationship with participation in livelihood activities. Inter-correlations among socio-personal characteristics showed that caste was related to marital status and educational attainment. It is concluded that socio-personal attributes of rural youth are related to their participation in livelihood activities. The study recommends that socio-personal variables of present study be considered by rural development policy makers when undertaking programmes aimed at enhancing rural youth’s livelihoods.
Farmer, Jane; Kilpatrick, Sue
Social entrepreneurs formally or informally generate community associations and networking that produces social outcomes. Social entrepreneurship is a relatively new and poorly understood concept. Policy promotes generating community activity, particularly in rural areas, for health and social benefits and 'community resilience'. Rural health professionals might be well placed to generate community activity due to their status and networks. This exploratory study, conducted in rural Tasmania and the Highlands and Islands of Scotland considered whether rural health professionals act as social entrepreneurs. We investigated activities generated and processes of production. Thirty-eight interviews were conducted with general practitioners, community nurses, primary healthcare managers and allied health professionals living and working rurally. Interviewees were self-selecting responders to an invitation for rural health professionals who were 'formally or informally generating community associations or networking that produced social outcomes'. We found that rural health professionals initiated many community activities with social outcomes, most related to health. Their identification of opportunities related to knowledge of health needs and examples of initiatives seen elsewhere. Health professionals described ready access to useful people and financial resources. In building activities, health professionals could simultaneously utilise skills and knowledge from professional, community member and personal dimensions. Outcomes included social and health benefits, personal 'buzz' and community capacity. Health professionals' actions could be described as social entrepreneurship: identifying opportunities, utilising resources and making 'deals'. They also align with community development. Health professionals use contextual knowledge to envisage and grow activities, indicating that, as social entrepreneurs, they do not explicitly choose a social mission, rather they
Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.
Two papers are presented that examine the barriers to women in academic decision making and identify a variety of effective strategies for improving the status of women in higher education administration. "Strategies for Advancing Women in Higher Education Administration," by Garry D. Hays, proposes that commitment to increasing the…
McRoy, Ian; Gibbs, Paul
This article considers the situation in the UK higher education system and investigates specifically the leadership practice in a cluster of UK institutions as they changed their status. The research goes further to advocate a form of contextualized leadership that is relevant to higher institutions under change. (Contains 1 figure.)
Korsgaard, Steffen; Müller, Sabine; Tanvig, Hanne Wittorff
Purpose: This article investigates how rural entrepreneurship engages with place and space. It explores the concept of “rural” in rural enterprise, and illustrates the importance of distinguishing between types of rural entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach: The constructs of “place” and ...... these processes are enabled and constrained by the immediate context or “place”. The paper weaves space and place in order to show the importance of context for entrepreneurship, which responds to the recent calls for contextualizing entrepreneurship research and theories....
Harmon, Lisa M
This article describes the pilot project development of a rural model Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) by a rural college nursing program and a rural hospital to increase student nurses' confidence and proficiency and improve recruitment of prepared rural staff nurses. Traditionally, for economies of scale, most student clinical rotations occurred in urban settings with the number of students per clinical instructor allowed by the state board of nursing. College budget constraints negated the placement of fewer than this mandated maximum number of students in a rural hospital with a clinical instructor; moreover, rural hospitals could not accommodate 10 students at one time. Rural nursing students were anxious in the urban settings, and this anxiety precluded learning in many instances. Rural hospitals face higher registered nurse vacancies than urban centers. Of the nurses applying for open positions, many were not prepared for the demands of rural nursing, resulting in increased turnover and high orientation costs. The rural model DEU addressed issues of both the nursing program and the hospital. The design and development of the rural model DEU and the advantages of the partnership for the college nursing program and the hospital are discussed. Initial outcomes and serendipitous findings from the pilot project are also discussed. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available Abstract Background China has been experiencing the largest rural to urban migration in history. Rural-to-urban migrants are those who leave their hometown for another place in order to work or live without changing their hukou status, which is a household registration system in China, categorizing people as either rural residents or urban residents. Rural-to-urban migrants typically find better job opportunities in destination cities, and these pay higher salaries than available in their home regions. This has served to improve the enrollment rates in the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS of rural families, protecting households from falling into poverty due to diseases. However, current regulations stipulate that people who are registered in China's rural hukou can only participate in their local NCMS, which in turn poses barriers when migrants seek medical services in the health facilities of their destination cities. To examine this issue in greater depth, this study examined the associations between migration, economic status of rural households, and NCMS enrollment rate, as well as NCMS utilization of rural-to-urban migrants. Methods A multistage cluster sampling procedure was adopted. Our sample included 9,097 households and 36,720 individuals. Chi-square test and T-test were used to examine differences between the two populations of migrants and non-migrants based on age, gender, marriage status, and highest level of education. Ordinal logistic regression was used to examine the association between migration and household economic status. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the associations between household economic status, migration and enrollment in the NCMS. Results Migration was positively associated with improved household economic status. In households with no migrants, only 11.3% of the population was in the richest quintile, whereas the percentage was more than doubled in households with family members who migrated
Pedro Javier Navarrete Mejía
Full Text Available Malnutrition and obesity / overweight associated with malnutrition generate infringement of the potential capabilities on the physical and educational development at school age. The National Household Survey 2008 is sufficient evidence to ensure that malnutrition has the greatest impact on rural areas and that obesity / overweight is higher in urban areas. In recent years the Peruvian government, as part of its modernization and economic growth, has been allocating significant resources to programs for food and nutritional assistance to school aged children in. The aim of the study was to compare anthropometric indicators in two primary schools in a rural and urban area with similar characteristics, to determine the trend of malnutrition and overweight in these areas. Materials and Methods: Analytical- comparative, prospective cross-sectional study. The research included 159 children form the Acobamba school district (Huancavelica and 280 children from the Carabayllo school district (Lima from two public schools in an inner city and rural area. Information on the study variables (age, sex, weight, height and BMI were collected using a pre prepared data collection sheet. The period of data collection was from April to May 2014 Result: higher prevalence of malnutrition was evident in Acobamba (10.06% and increased obesity/overweight in Carabayllo (16.79%; the mean BMI of children of Acobamba and Carabayllo are statistically equal. Conclusion: The epidemiological characteristics of the study population in both districts of Acobamba (Huancavelica and Carabayllo (Lima show relationship of malnutrition in rural areas, while obesity / overweight. Despite being two populations with different geographical characteristics (urban and rural they have similar characteristics around the nutritional status of the population - for the study sample, which would indicate changes in the profiles of food consumption in rural areas, so it is necessary to conduct
Syed Esam Mahmood
Full Text Available Background: Contraception is an important intervention to reduce burden of unwanted pregnancy and promote healthy living among women. Objectives: To find out the postpartum contraceptive usage and identify the different variables which affect the postpartum contraception among the rural females of Bareilly district. Methods: The cross sectional study was carried out in randomly selected villages of Bhojipura Block of Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh. All women who had delivered within last one year were interviewed by house to house survey to collect data regarding socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use by structured questionnaire. A total of 123 women participated in the study. Chi- square test was used to analyze data. Results: Only 13.8% mothers adopted postpartum contraception. Lack of knowledge (32.5% and young infant being breastfed (28.5% were the common reasons of not using any contraceptive method. Contraceptive use was higher amongst females aged less than 30 years and those belonging to middle socioeconomic class and nuclear families. The significant influence of the women’ educational status on utilization of family planning methods was observed (p<0.05. Conclusions: Low percent of postpartum contraceptive use indicates the need for improving awareness among the study population.
Jailane de Souza Aquino
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of food insecurity among schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas of Picos, Piauí associated with the socioeconomic profile of families and their food intake and nutritional status. Methods: Study participants were families with children aged 7-10 years enrolled in municipal schools, totaling 342 families/schoolchildren. The study was conducted at school facilities through interviews with mothers - or guardians - using a questionnaire based on the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and socioeconomic variables and food frequency questionnaire. The nutritional status of children was assessed using the following indexes: weight/age, height/age and body mass index/age. Results: The prevalence of food insecurity was high and similar for rural and urban areas, 84.3% and 83.3%, respectively. In general, lower income and consumption of untreated water was associated with greater frequency of food insecurity (p≤0.01. In urban areas, higher percentage of food insecurity was associated to lower educational levels (p≤0.05. Dietary intake and nutritional status of schoolchildren were not associated with food insecurity condition of families. Conclusion: The percentage of families at food insecurity, as well as the food consumption and nutritional status of schoolchildren were similar between urban and rural areas, characterized as a homogeneous population in terms of socioeconomic conditions.
Mega Seasty Handayani
Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to analyzed the association of percent body fat and nutritional status on sexual development in adolescence girls in urban and rural areas. A cross sectional study involved 100 students of 8th grade junior high school. Age of menarche and breast growth used as sexual development indicators. Results showed that proportion of subjects with stunting and severe stunting was higher in rural area (34% than urban area (14%. Subjects in urban area had earlier age of menarche (18%. Breast growth of subjects in urban and rural areas were in midpuberty phase. Statistical analysis showed a correlation between nutritional status (BMI/U and percent body fat, nutritional status and sexual development, as well as percent body fat and sexual development (p<0.05.Keywords: age of menarche, breast growth, percent body fatABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis hubungan persen lemak tubuh dan status gizi dengan perkembangan seksual pada remaja putri di perkotaan dan perdesaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain cross sectional yang melibatkan 100 siswi kelas VIII SMP. Usia menarche dan pertumbuhan payudara digunakan sebagai indikator perkembangan seksual. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan proporsi subjek pendek dan sangat pendek lebih banyak terdapat di SMP desa (34% dibandingkan SMP kota (14%. Subjek di SMP kota mengalami menarche lebih awal (18%. Pertumbuhan payudara subjek di SMP kota maupun di SMP desa berada pada fase midpubertas. Hasil analisis statistik menunjukkan terdapat hubungan antara status gizi (IMT/U dengan persen lemak tubuh, status gizi dengan perkembangan seksual dan persen lemak tubuh dengan perkembangan seksual (p<0.05.Kata kunci: persen lemak tubuh, pertumbuhan payudara, usia menstruasi
Full Text Available Tourism is one of the economic driving forces of Spain: the consolidation of existing tourist destinations and new market niches encourage an upward trend of tourism. The economic impacts produced by tourism are one of the major concerns of the authorities; the question is whether it is possible to continue growing without compromising our environment. This work attempts to answer this issue by analysing one of the tourism segments with higher growth in recent years: rural tourism. Using a model of partial least squares (PLS, we will analyse the environmental impacts from the point of view of the supply and its relationships with the environmental management conducted. We will also analyse the rural establishments from a global point of view and, depending on their category, explain the factors which determine the sustainable behaviour of providers, and identify that the establishments of low categories have a more sustainable conduct.
Full Text Available Purpose - the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the rural areas has market size and forecast its development as an economic activity. The present paper aims at analyzing the rural areas has in Danube Delta. In an enviable BAs which have responsibility for their particular isolated, such as the Danube Delta and the Danube that used, fishing and rural areas has the main activities that provide jobs and income sources for local populations. Design/methodology/approach - A survey was administered to customers’ rural hostel accommodation in Danube Delta. Descriptive statistics method was mainly adopted to calculate the mean with standard deviation of entry assumes variable, and to examine the different levels of consumers' awareness. The index values of product familiarity, the ratio between entries assumes product's familiarity value and the average value. Findings - the research results show hash has rural consumers have different perception and accomplished through behaviour. The information channels of brand hash mainly from friends, relatives and neighbours, so word of mouth spreading is very important for a brand. Women show a higher sensitivity in health and are currently operating the propensity than referred to follow the recommendations for nutrition. Research limitations/implications - This item is intended to synthesize developments and challenges," on June 13th rural market growth has. The results of this paper should be considered tentatively until has also features replicated by larger has rural consumers. Originality/value - members of rural areas has consumer's behavior would improve marketing and the development of rural areas has products, in order to reduce consumer confusion.
Robertson, E; Donnermeyer, J F
This article examines illegal drug use among adults living in nonmetropolitan and rural areas of the United States using data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Subjects were classified into three categories by residence: nonmetropolitan-urban, metropolitan-rural, and nonmetropolitan-rural. Respondents indicate about 10% of adults were current users of marijuana or other illegal drugs. Discriminant analysis was used to examine differences among groups of individuals classified as current users, past users, and nonusers. For both marijuana and other illegal drugs, the variables that accounted most for group differences were age, marital, status, employment status, occupation, and income. Only minor differences in drug use were exhibited across the three residential categories. It is recommended that future research on the rural and nonmetropolitan adult population incorporate both structural level measures of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of localities, and individual level measures of peer influence, work stress, family factors, and psychosocial characteristics.
... people with partial edentulism when compared to urban (Urban, 38.4%, High Poverty Rural 51.3%, Other Rural, 45%). Counties with high rates of full edentulism are also rural (Urban, 4.3%, High-Poverty Rural 10.5%, Other Rural, 8.2%). ( Mitchell, ...
Backman, Kenneth; And Others
This publication provides a variety of information on prevention and intervention programs for rural and urban children and adolescents. Drawing from a rural sociological perspective, the introductory paper defines "rural," discusses rural-urban economic and social differences, and lists indicators of risk for rural youth. It discusses the extent…
Liu, Yang-Yang; Wang, Xin-Ting; Qiu, Hui-Min; Xu, Ai-Qiang; Jia, Cun-Xian
This study aimed to clarify the relationship between functional and dysfunctional impulsivity and attempted suicide in rural China. Data of this study came from the investigation of 407 suicide attempters and their paired non-suicide attempters matched with the same gender, age (±3 years) and residence area in six counties in rural Shandong, China. Suicide attempters accounted for a lower proportion on high functional impulsivity, but a higher proportion on high dysfunctional impulsivity than non-suicide attempters. Dysfunctional impulsivity in the male denoted a significant risk factor for attempted suicide, even after adjustment for psychiatric disorder and demographic factors. Suicide attempters with high dysfunctional impulsivity had a higher percent of family suicide history than those with low dysfunctional impulsivity. High functional impulsivity was a significant protective factor for attempted suicide in the group aged 35-59 years, but a significant risk factor in the group aged 15-34 years. Suicide attempters with low functional impulsivity had poorer economic status and older age than those with high functional impulsivity. Our findings support the key roles of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity in attempted suicide among rural residents of China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fan, Jessie X; Wen, Ming; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
This research investigated participation rates in 3 modes of active commuting (AC) and their sociodemographic and physical environmental correlates in rural America. The 2000 Census supplemented with other data sets were used to analyze AC rates in percentage of workers walking, biking, and taking public transportation to work in 14,209 nonmetropolitan rural tracts identified by RUCA codes, including 4,067 small rural and 10,142 town-micropolitan rural tracts. Sociodemographic and physical environmental variables were correlated with 3 AC modes simultaneously using Seemingly Unrelated Regression for nonmetro rural, and for small rural and town-micropolitan rural separately. The average AC rates in rural tracts were 3.63%, 0.26%, and 0.56% for walking, biking, and public transportation to work, respectively, with small rural tracts having a higher rate of walking but lower rates of biking and public transportation to work than town-micropolitan tracts. In general, better economic well-being was negatively associated with AC but percentage of college-educated was a positive correlate. Population density was positively associated with AC but greenness and proximity to parks were negative correlates. However, significant differences existed for different AC modes, and between small rural and town-micropolitan rural tracts. Sociodemographic factors explained more variance in AC than physical environmental factors but the detailed relationships were complex, varying by AC mode and by degree of rurality. Any strategy to promote AC in rural America needs to be sensitive to the population size of the area and assessed in a comprehensive manner to avoid a "one size fits all" approach. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.
Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Pierce, Sherrie; Collins, Jennifer L
Obesity impacts the physical and psychological health of children and adolescents, and is a risk factor for development of episodic and chronic illness. Rural Mexican-American adolescents are at risk for obesity and associated chronic illnesses.The study used a retrospective chart review of data collected routinely in a rural health clinic setting from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2010 to assess incidence of overweight/obesity status and episodic or chronic illness among Mexican-American adolescents aged 12-18 years. Analyses included body mass index, age, gender, and episodic or chronic illness diagnoses. Two hundred twelve charts were audited; women (n = 114, 53.8%), men (n = 98 46.2%); normal (n = 105, 49.5%), overweight/obese (n = 107, 50.5%). There were more female normal (n = 61, 53.5%) vs. overweight/obese (n = 53, 46.5%). More male overweight/obese (n = 54, 55.1%) than normal weight (n = 44, 44.9%). Age at first documented overweight/obesity status occurred in early adolescence (median = 13 years, mode = 12 years). Chronic illness incidence was higher among men than women, and overweight/obese vs. normal weight adolescents and in sub-categorizations by weight and specific illness. Incidence of episodic illness was higher among women than men, with variation by weight and specific illness. Disproportionately high incidence of episodic or chronic illness and overweight/obesity identified among rural Mexican-American adolescents compels intervention modification to improve effectiveness. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Smith, Lisa C.; Ruel, Marie T.; Ndiaye, Aida
"While ample evidence documents that urban children generally have better nutritional status than their rural counterparts, recent research suggests that urban malnutrition is on the rise. The environment, choices, and opportunities of urbanites differ greatly from those of rural dwellers' from employment conditions to social and family networks to access to health care and other services. Given these differences, understanding the relative importance of the various determinants of child maln...
Li, Mei; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Litao; Chen, Kun
In China, the rapid rate of population aging and changes in the prevalence of disability among elderly people could have significant effects on the demand for long-term care. This study aims to describe the urban-rural differences in use and cost of long-term care of the disabled elderly and to explore potential influencing factors. This study uses data from a cross-sectional survey and a qualitative investigation conducted in Zhejiang province in 2012. The participants were 826 individuals over 60 years of age, who had been bedridden or suffered from dementia for more than 6 months. A generalized linear model and two-part regression model were applied to estimate costs, with adjustment of covariates. Pensions provide the main source of income for urban elderly, while the principal income source for rural elderly is their family. Urban residents spend more on all services than do rural residents. Those who are married spend less on daily supplies and formal care than the unmarried do. Age, incapacitation time, comorbidity number, level of income, and bedridden status influence spending on medical care (β=-0.0316, -0.0206, 0.1882, 0.3444, and -0.4281, respectively), but the cost does not increase as the elderly grow older. Urban residents, the married, and those with a higher income level tend to spend more on medical equipment. Urban residence and living status are the two significant factors that affect spending on personal hygiene products. The use of long-term care services varies by living area. Long-term care of the disabled elderly imposes a substantial burden on families. Our study revealed that informal care involves huge opportunity costs to the caregivers. Chinese policy makers need to promote community care and long-term care insurance to relieve the burden of families of disabled elderly, and particular attention should be given to the rural elderly.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In China, the rapid rate of population aging and changes in the prevalence of disability among elderly people could have significant effects on the demand for long-term care. This study aims to describe the urban-rural differences in use and cost of long-term care of the disabled elderly and to explore potential influencing factors. METHODS: This study uses data from a cross-sectional survey and a qualitative investigation conducted in Zhejiang province in 2012. The participants were 826 individuals over 60 years of age, who had been bedridden or suffered from dementia for more than 6 months. A generalized linear model and two-part regression model were applied to estimate costs, with adjustment of covariates. RESULTS: Pensions provide the main source of income for urban elderly, while the principal income source for rural elderly is their family. Urban residents spend more on all services than do rural residents. Those who are married spend less on daily supplies and formal care than the unmarried do. Age, incapacitation time, comorbidity number, level of income, and bedridden status influence spending on medical care (β=-0.0316, -0.0206, 0.1882, 0.3444, and -0.4281, respectively, but the cost does not increase as the elderly grow older. Urban residents, the married, and those with a higher income level tend to spend more on medical equipment. Urban residence and living status are the two significant factors that affect spending on personal hygiene products. CONCLUSIONS: The use of long-term care services varies by living area. Long-term care of the disabled elderly imposes a substantial burden on families. Our study revealed that informal care involves huge opportunity costs to the caregivers. Chinese policy makers need to promote community care and long-term care insurance to relieve the burden of families of disabled elderly, and particular attention should be given to the rural elderly.
Garraza, Mariela; Cesani, María F; Navone, Graciela T; Oyhenart, Evelia E
The aim of the present study was to analyze the nutritional status and body composition of children from San Rafael, Mendoza, avoiding urban and rural categorization by generating subpopulations as a function of their socio-environmental characteristics. A cross-sectional study was performed in 3,596 schoolchildren from 4.0 to 13.9 years of age. Body weight, height, upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfold were measured. Body mass index, total muscle, and fat areas of the arm were calculated. To estimate nutritional status and body composition, the NHANES III reference was used. The socio-environmental variables were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. These variables were processed by categorical principal-component analysis (catPCA). The catPCA allowed the differentiation of four groups, three with urban characteristics (high urban, medium urban, impoverished urban), and a rural group. Stunting occurred at a higher rate in the impoverished urban group, and the occurrence of underweight children was higher in the rural group. The prevalence of excess weight varied in the range of 20-26%. The latter value corresponded to children of the high urban group, who also did not show reduced muscle mass. Children from San Rafael presented differences in nutritional condition and body composition associated with pronounced socio-environmental heterogeneity. Thus, we could observe a gradient from the "high urban" group, with better social, economic, and sanitation conditions and at the same time a more obesogenic environment to the "impoverished urban" and "rural" groups, whose vulnerability reflected a higher prevalence of child undernutrition and the association with excess weight and reduced muscle mass. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:796-803, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Molinari, D L; Monserud, M A
The lack of rural nursing studies makes it impossible to know whether rural and urban nurses perceive personal and organizational factors of job satisfaction similarly. Few reports of rural nurse job satisfaction are available. Since the unprecedented shortage of qualified rural nurses requires a greater understanding of what factors are important to retention, studies are needed. An analysis of the literature indicates job satisfaction is studied as both an independent and dependent variable. In this study, the concept is used to examine the intention to remain employed by measuring individual and organizational characteristics; thus, job satisfaction is used as a dependent variable. One hundred and three rural hospital nurses, from hospitals throughout the Northwest region of the United States were recruited for the study. Only nurses employed for more than one year were accepted. The sample completed surveys online. The McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale, the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale, and two open-ended job satisfaction questions were completed. The qualitative analysis of the open-ended questions identified themes which were then used to support the quantitative findings. Overall alphas were 0.89 for the McCloskey/Mueller Scale and 0.96 for the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale. Rural nurses indicate a preference for rural lifestyles and the incorporation of rural values in organizational practices. Nurses preferred the generalist role with its job variability, and patient variety. Most participants intended to remain employed. The majority of nurses planning to leave employment were unmarried, without children at home, and stated no preference for a rural lifestyle. The least overall satisfied nurses in the sample were employed from 1 to 3 years. Several new findings inform the literature while others support previous workforce studies. Data suggest some job satisfaction elements can be altered by addressing organizational characteristics and by
The intent and purpose of this manual is to describe the various guideliness and administrative procedures associated with the Alberta Rural Gas Program and to consolidate and expand upon the legislation under which the Program has been developed. It is intended primarily for the use and information of rural gas distributors, their agents, and other private or government parties having an interest in the Rural Gas Program. Information is presented on: rural gas franchises, technical applications, contracts and tenders, determination of system capital costs for grant support, grants, Gas Alberta brokerage arrangements, insurance coverage, utility rights-of-way, and lien notes.
Lauridsen, Karen M.
Summary of recommendations HEIs are encouraged, within the framework of their own societal context, mission, vision and strategies, to develop the aims and objectives of a Higher Education Language Policy (HELP) that allows them to implement these strategies. In this process, they may want......: As the first step in a Higher Education Language Policy, HEIs should determine the relative status and use of the languages employed in the institution, taking into consideration the answers to the following questions: What is/are the official language(s) of the HEI? What is/are the language...... and the level of internationalisation the HEI has or wants to have, and as a direct implication of that, what are the language proficiency levels expected from the graduates of these programme? Given the profile of the HEI and its educational strategies, which language components are to be offered within...
Full Text Available In recent years changes have been noted in the motivations for acute suicidal poisonings among young people from various environments, which are due to psychosocial changes both in the urban and rural environments. Suicidal attempts are accompanied – especially in the rural environment – by low social status, difficulties with adapting to a free market economy, emotional tension within the family, at school, in the environment of young people, addiction to alcohol, drug overuse, including psychotropes. Based on clinical material concerning rural inhabitants hospitalized due to suicidal poisonings, the authors performed the analysis of attitudes, motivations and causes of acute poisonings among the young rural population. Among rural adolescents who continued school or university education the dominant causes of undertaking a suicidal attempt were: adolescent period problems, conflicts within the family, conflicts with mates, and disappointment in love. Among young adults the motivations were as follows: difficulties with finding employment in the place of residence, conflicts within the family, overuse of stimulants, and sometimes states of depression during the period of aggravation of a disease.
The study examined the influence of social capital dimensions on poverty status of rural farm households in Abia state, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was employed in collecting data from two hundred and four (204) rural farm households in local institutions using structured interview schedule. The data ...
Li, Changle; Supakankunti, Siripen
To estimate how tobacco consumption affects household expenditure on other goods and services in rural China and to assess the tobacco consumption affects self-rated health among rural household members in China. A Seemingly Unrelated Regression was used to assess the impact of tobacco consumption on rural household expenditure. To detect tobacco consumption causing heterogeneity in self-rated health among adults in rural China, this study employed a random effects generalized ordered probit model. 2010-2014 China Family Panel Studies was used for the analysis. The data set included 3,611 households and 10,610 adults in each wave. Tobacco consumption households assign significantly lower budget shares to food, health care, dress, and education in rural China. Moreover, self-rated health factor has a significantly positive coefficient with respect to non-smokers and ex-smokers, that is, when the individuals is a non-smoker or ex-smoker, he/ she will be more likely to report his/her health status as positive. The first analysis showed that tobacco consumption crowds out expenditures on food, dress, health care, and education for rural households in China, and the second analysis indicated that non-smokers and ex-smokers are more likely to report their health status as better compared with last year. The results of the present study revealed that Chinese policymakers might consider controlling tobacco consumption since tobacco control can improve not only rural household welfare but also rural household members' health status. Therefore, the tobacco tax policy and brief clinical interventions by the doctor should be implemented in rural China.
In 1999 the Victorian primary care and community support system began a process of substantial reform, involving purchasing reforms and a contested selection process between providers in large catchment areas across the State. The Liberal Government's electoral defeat in September 1999 led to a review of these reforms. This paper questions the reforms from a rural perspective. They were based on a generic template that did not consider rural-urban differences in health needs or other differences including socio-economic status, and may have reinforced if not aggravated rural-urban differences in the quality of and access to primary health care in Victoria.
Key words: nutrition, children, pastoral community, Tanzania. Introduction. Nutritional ... adequate diet, availability of education, health services and healthy environment ..... improve growth or hemoglobin status of rural. Tanzanian infants from ...