WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher stalk positions

  1. Male sexual ornament size is positively associated with reproductive morphology and enhanced fertility in the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Tracey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exaggerated male ornaments and displays often evolve in species where males only provide females with ejaculates during reproduction. Although "good genes" arguments are typically invoked to explain this phenomenon, a simpler alternative is possible if variation in male reproductive quality (e.g. sperm number, ejaculate content, mating rate is an important determinant of female reproductive success. The "phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis" states that female preference for male ornaments or displays has been selected to ensure higher levels of fertility and has driven the evolution of exaggerated male traits. Females of the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni must mate frequently to maintain high levels of fertility and prefer to mate with males exhibiting large eyespan, a condition-dependent sexual ornament. If eyespan indicates male reproductive quality, females could directly increase their reproductive success by mating with males with large eyespan. Here we investigate whether male eyespan indicates accessory gland and testis length, and then ask whether mating with large eyespan males affects female fertility. Results Male eyespan was a better predictor of two key male reproductive traits – accessory gland and testis length – than was body size alone. This positive relationship held true over three levels of increasing environmental stress during the maturation of the adult accessory glands and testes. Furthermore, females housed with a large eyespan male exhibited higher levels of fertility than those with small eyespan males. Conclusion Male eyespan in stalk-eyed flies is subject to strong directional mate preference and is a reliable indicator of male reproductive quality – both because males with larger eyespan have bigger accessory glands and testes, and also as they confer higher fertility on females. Fertility enhancement may have arisen because males with larger eyespan mated more often and/or because

  2. Stalking and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermeyer, Britta; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Sorrentino, Renee; Booth, Brad D

    2016-12-01

    The three widely known stalker classifications assist in categorizing stalkers, which allows for better management of violence risk. Although 80% of stalking is done by men, women also engage in stalking, and their violence risk should not be underestimated. Juvenile stalkers do exist and juvenile stalking is also associated with violence. Clinicians can become a victim of stalking and may become victims of stalking by proxy, a special type of stalking behavior where the stalker involves other people or agencies to communicate with or track their victim. A careful stalking violence risk assessment is essential in the intervention and risk management process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Positioning Theory and Higher Education Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Musaeus, Peter; Petersen, Eva Bendix

    The aim of this symposium is to connect scholars who use positioning theory in their research on very diverse issues in higher education and to open up the analytic to others who may be interested in taking it up. Positioning theory is a social constructionist approach and it emerged in the 1980s...... available. After this introduction, four paper presentations will follow (see abstracts below), and the session will conclude with a whole-group discussion of the potentials and pitfalls of the approach.......The aim of this symposium is to connect scholars who use positioning theory in their research on very diverse issues in higher education and to open up the analytic to others who may be interested in taking it up. Positioning theory is a social constructionist approach and it emerged in the 1980s...... in gender studies and social psychology. It is concerned with theorising and analysing how people position themselves and others, and the personal, relational, cultural, moral, political, and institutional effects hereof. Positioning theory is most commonly used in studies of the discursive constitution...

  4. Stalking: Criminological and criminal law aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimovski Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the historical aspects of stalking crime, the author first provides an overview of different definitions of this socially negative behavior in the legal documents of countries where such conduct was first criminalized. The author presents statistical data on the scope of stalking in the United States and Australia. The second part of the paper discusses different types of stalkers, whose distinctive features are analyzed in more detail. In particular, the author focuses on the causal link between the stalking crime and violence, as well as the victims' responses to their own victimization. In the next part of this article, the author provides a detailed analysis of a wide range of consequences of stalking crime. In some cases, the victim of stalking may become the perpetrator of a criminal act of murder, whereas the stalker becomes a victim of this serious form of homicide. Although these cases are not numerous, they call for further analysis and proposing new legal solutions related to the privileged forms of murder, which are aimed at improving the position of the victim of stalking who is the perpetrator of such homicide. Finally, the author argues in favour of incriminating a new type of felony - the crime of stalking (in line with the model envisaged in the criminal legislation of the Republic of Croatia, as well as a privileged homicide which may be designated as a murder of a stalker committed by a victim of stalking.

  5. Bioethanol production from dried sweet sorghum stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Ghoreishi, F.; Yosefi, F. [Biology Dept. Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Bioethanol as a renewable transportation fuel has a great potential for energy and clean environment. Among crops sweet sorghum is one of the best feedstock for ethanol production under hot and dry climatic conditions. Because it has higher tolerance to salt and drought comparing to sugarcane and corn that are currently used for bio-fuel production in the world. Generally mills are used to extract the juice from sweet sorghum stalks. Three roller mills extract around nearly 50 percent of the juice and more mills is needed to extract higher percentage of the juice. More over under cold weather the stalks become dry and juice is not extracted from the stalk, therefore reduce harvesting period. In this study stalks were harvested, leaves were stripped from the stalks and the stalks were chopped to nearly 4 mm length and sun dried. The dry stalks were grounded to 60 mesh powder by a mill. Fermentation medium consists of 15-35% (w/w) sweet sorghum powder, micronutrients and active yeast inoculum from 0.5-1% (w/w) by submerge fermentation method. The fermentation time and temperature were 48-72 hours and 30 deg, respectively. The results showed the highest amount of ethanol (14.5 % w/w sorghum) was produced with 10% sweet sorghum powder and 1% of yeast inoculum, three day fermentation at 30 deg.

  6. Stalking: a neurobiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Falaschi, Valentina; Lombardi, Amedeo; Mungai, Francesco; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays stalking is becoming a real social emergency, as it may often fuel severe aggressive behaviours. No exhaustive aetiological hypothesis is still available regarding this complex phenomenon. However, the detailed descriptions of some of its peculiar features allow to draw with cautions some general suggestions. Probably stalking may arise from the derangement of those neural networks subserving the so-called social brain and the pair bonding formation, in particular the processes of attachment/separation, attraction/romantic love/reward. In addition, it seems to be modulated by excessive functioning of the dopamine system coupled with decreased serotonin tone. It is believed that the investigation and deepening of its possible neurobiological substrates may be helpful in the prevention of the severe consequences of stalking.

  7. [Mental health impact of stalking in men and women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehner, Christine; Gass, Peter; Dressing, Harald

    2006-08-01

    Using data from the Mannheim stalking study, the present report analyses gender differences with regard to various mental health indicators and potential mediator effects of stalking victimization. Furthermore, we were interested in whether the impact of stalking on mental health was comparable for men and women. The study included a postal survey of 675 community residents on the experience of intruding harassment and on mental health indicators. In the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-D, Lowe et al. 2001), women scored higher on most of the subscales (depression, anxiety, somatic complaints, stress, psychosocial impairment) than men. Furthermore, more women fulfilled criteria for at least one threshold or subthreshold mental disorder syndrome according to DSM-IV, and more women were under psychotropic medication. However, the identified associations were completely mediated by the higher prevalence of stalking victims in women. In contrast, the associations of stalking victimization with poor mental health, psychosocial functioning, and use of medication were largely comparable across gender.

  8. Pituitary stalk craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Welling, Leonardo Christiaan; de Faria, Jose Weber Vieira; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2011-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are benign but aggressive neoplasms arising along the craniopharyngeal duct. It is frequently located in the suprasellar region. Primarily pituitary stalk craniopharyngioma is unusual and uncommonly early diagnosed, before it enlarges and extends to supra or parasselar region. This unusual location and the small size pose therapeutic dilemmas, since it has the ability to grow larger. Currently, no consensus exists regarding the optimal management. The authors have recommended complete resection. PMID:22715220

  9. [Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-yin; Zheng, Zheng; Zou, Xing-xing; Fang, Cai-xia; Luo, Yan

    2010-02-01

    The characteristics of corn stalk digested alone at different total solid (TS) loading rates and co-digestion of various proportions of corn stalk and vermicompost were investigated by batch model at 35 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C. The organic loading rates (OLRs) studied were in the range of 1.2%-6.0% TS and increasing proportions of vermicompost from 20% to 80% TS. A maximum methane yield of corn stalk digested alone was 217.60 mL/g obtained at the TS loading rate of 4.8%. However, when the TS loading rate was 6.0%, the anaerobic system was acidified and the lowest pH value was 5.10 obtained on day 4 and the biogas productivity decreased. Furthermore, co-digestion of vermicompost and corn stalk in varying proportions were investigated at constant of 6.0% TS. Co-digestion with vermicompost improved the biodegradability of corn stalk and the methane yield was improved by 4.42%-58.61%, and led to higher pH values, higher volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and lower alkalinity content compared with corn stalk digested alone. The maximum biogas yield and methane yield of 410.30 mL/g and 259. 35 mL/g were obtained for 40% vermicompost and 60% corn stalk respectively. Compared with corn stalk digested alone, co-digested with vermicompost didn' t affect methane content and the fermentation type, but promoted the destruction of crystalline of cellulose and the highest destruction rate was 29.36% for 40% vermicompost and 60% corn stalk. Therefore, adding vermicompost was beneficial for the decomposition and increasing the biotransformation rate of corn stalk.

  10. Nature & prevalence of stalking among New Zealand mental health clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Frances A; Thom, Katey; Dixon, Robyn

    2007-04-01

    Stalking involves recurrent and persistent unwanted communication or contact that generates fear for safety in the victims. This pilot study evaluated the nature and prevalence of stalking among New Zealand nurses and physicians working in mental health services. An anonymous questionnaire asking respondents to describe their experiences with 12 stalking behaviors was distributed to 895 clinicians. Results indicated that regardless of discipline, women were more likely than men to have experienced one or more stalking behaviors, including receiving unwanted telephone calls, letters, and approaches; receiving personal threats: and being followed, spied on, or subject to surveillance. Women also reported higher levels of fearfulness as a consequence of stalking behaviors. Nearly half of the stalkers were clients; the remaining were former partners, colleagues, or acquaintances. In client-related cases, the majority of respondents told their colleagues and supervisors first, and the majority found them to be the most helpful resource. The results of this pilot study indicate a need for further research focused on the stalking of mental health clinicians in New Zealand and for development of workplace policies for adequate response to the stalking of mental health clinicians.

  11. Predicting pituitary stalk position by in vivo visualization of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract in craniopharyngioma using diffusion tensor imaging tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuyu; Jiang, Jinli; Zhang, Jiashu; Wang, Qun

    2018-07-01

    The pituitary stalk (PS) is crucial to endocrine function and water-electrolyte equilibrium. Preservation of the PS during craniopharyngioma (CP) surgery is critical; however, in a pathological state, it is difficult to identify. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract (HHT) connects the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary gland and projects through the PS. Thus, visualization of the HHT can help locate the PS. Preoperative visualization of the neural fasciculus has been widely achieved using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography. Therefore, this study evaluated the use of DTI tractography to identify and characterize the human HHT. We used DTI tractography to track the HHT in 10 patients with CP and compared the location of the tract with the intraoperative view of the PS in these patients. We successfully tracked the HHT in nine patients, indicating that delineating and quantifying the tracked HHT using this method is feasible. In addition, we found that the tract was consistent with the intraoperative view of the PS in seven out of eight patients (87.50%). Finally, we found that the mean number of tracts was 7.11 ± 12.28, the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was 0.11 ± 0.04, and the mean tract length was 24.22 ± 9.39 mm. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the HHT can be visualized and characterized with DTI even in a clinical application, which may aid in preoperative identification of the PS. Characterization of the tracked HHT with this technique could also be used to advance our understanding of the HHT.

  12. [Effects of hot-NaOH pretreatment on Jerusalem artichoke stalk composition and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Qiu, Jingwen; Li, Yang; Shen, Fei

    2015-10-01

    In order to explore the possibility of Jerusalem artichoke stalk for bioenergy conversion, we analyzed the main composition of whole stalk, pitch, and core of the stalk. Meanwhile, these parts were pretreated with different NaOH concentrations at 121 degrees C. Afterwards, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. Jerusalem artichoke stalk was characterized by relatively high lignin content (32.0%) compared with traditional crop stalks. The total carbohydrate content was close to that of crop stalks, but with higher cellulose content (40.5%) and lower hemicellulose (19.6%) than those of traditional crop stalks. After pretreatment, the lignin content in the whole stalk, pitch, and core decreased by 13.1%-13.4%, 8.3%-13.5%, and 19.9%-27.2%, respectively, compared with the unpretreated substrates. The hemicellulose content in the whole stalk, pitch, and core decreased 87.8%-96.9%, 87.6%-95.0%, and 74.0%-90.2%, respectively. Correspondingly, the cellulose content in the pretreated whole stalk, pitch, and core increased by 56.5%-60.2%, 52.2%-55.4%, and 62.7%-73.2%, respectively. Moreover, increase of NaOH concentration for pretreatment could improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of the whole stalk and pitch by 2.3-2.6 folds and 10.3-18.5 folds, respectively. The hydrolysis of pretreated stalk core decreased significantly as 2.0 mol/L NaOH was employed, although the increased NaOH concentration can also improve its hydrolysis performance. Based on these results, hot-NaOH can be regarded as an option for Jerusalem artichoke stalk pretreatment. Increasing NaOH concentration was beneficial to hemicellulose and lignin removal, and consequently improved sugar conversion. However, the potential decrease of sugar conversion of the pretreated core by higher NaOH concentration suggested further optimization on the pretreatment conditions should be performed.

  13. Stalking the ultimate particle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you missed the ARTE programme entitled "L'Ultime Particule" broadcast in February, you have another chance to catch it in CERN's Main Auditorium on 13 March. "L'Ultime Particule" is a documentary by the French director Michel Andrieu that seeks to explain particle physics through a contemplative quest for the research physicists of matter of today and yesteryear. Invariably kitted out in a red parka and a soft hat, the programme's investigator scours the planet and the archives in search of the research physicists who are stalking the ultimate particle, the Higgs boson, in their quest to understand the structure of matter. Naturally enough, CERN is an important stage of his journey where Michel Andrieu and his team spent several days last year. Both from the physics and metaphysical points of view, "L'Ultime Particule" is worth seeing. The film's director, Michel Andrieu, will introduce his documentary and answer questions from the audience after the documentary has been shown. L'Ultime Particule by Mic...

  14. Yield survey and nutritional evaluation of garlic stalk for ruminant feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y H; Kim, Y I; Oh, Y K; Ahmadi, F; Kwak, W S

    2017-01-01

    Very limited information exists on the ruminal degradation kinetics of nutrients in garlic stalk. The present study aimed to survey the annual yield of garlic stalk in Korea and determine its feed-nutritive value for ruminants. In Experiment 1, garlic stalk was incubated in situ in the rumen of two Hanwoo steers (360 ± 15 kg body weight) and removed after 12, 24, or 48 h to determine the ruminal degradation kinetics of DM and NDF. Rice straw was also included for comparison. In Experiment 2, In Experiment 2, six male Corriedale sheep were randomized to two dietary treatments to determine the apparent digestibility of nutrients in garlic stalk. Diets included a control ration without garlic stalk (60% concentrate mix +40% ryegrass) or a treatment ration (70% control diet +30% garlic stalk). The Korean national yield of garlic stalk (sun-dried basis) in 2016 was estimated to be 31,910 tons, with the southern coastal regions producing the highest quantity. Compared with rice straw, garlic stalk had lower NDF, higher ADF, and greater effective degradabilities of DM and NDF, resulting in a greater TDN value (56.3%), which was higher than that obtained for rice straw (43.7%). These results provide basic information on the ruminal DM and NDF degradation kinetics of garlic stalk, which would be helpful for the efficient utilization of this by-product in ruminant diets.

  15. Yield survey and nutritional evaluation of garlic stalk for ruminant feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very limited information exists on the ruminal degradation kinetics of nutrients in garlic stalk. The present study aimed to survey the annual yield of garlic stalk in Korea and determine its feed-nutritive value for ruminants. Methods In Experiment 1, garlic stalk was incubated in situ in the rumen of two Hanwoo steers (360 ± 15 kg body weight and removed after 12, 24, or 48 h to determine the ruminal degradation kinetics of DM and NDF. Rice straw was also included for comparison. In Experiment 2, In Experiment 2, six male Corriedale sheep were randomized to two dietary treatments to determine the apparent digestibility of nutrients in garlic stalk. Diets included a control ration without garlic stalk (60% concentrate mix +40% ryegrass or a treatment ration (70% control diet +30% garlic stalk. Results The Korean national yield of garlic stalk (sun-dried basis in 2016 was estimated to be 31,910 tons, with the southern coastal regions producing the highest quantity. Compared with rice straw, garlic stalk had lower NDF, higher ADF, and greater effective degradabilities of DM and NDF, resulting in a greater TDN value (56.3%, which was higher than that obtained for rice straw (43.7%. Conclusion These results provide basic information on the ruminal DM and NDF degradation kinetics of garlic stalk, which would be helpful for the efficient utilization of this by-product in ruminant diets.

  16. The toll of stalking: the relationship between features of stalking and psychopathology of victims.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Winkel, F.W.; Arensman, E.; Sheridan, L.; Freeve, A.

    2002-01-01

    Information on the psychological consequences of stalking on victims is scarce. The present study aimed to investigate whether stalking victims have a heightened prevalence of psychopathology and the extent to which symptom levels are associated with stalking features. Stalking victims (N = 241)

  17. Structural characterization of lignin from grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozil, Sónia O; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Silva, Artur M S; Lopes, Luísa P C

    2014-06-18

    The chemical structure of lignin from grape stalks, an abundant waste of winemaking, has been studied. The dioxane lignin was isolated from extractive- and protein-free grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.) by modified acidolytic procedure and submitted to a structural analysis by wet chemistry (nitrobenzene and permanganate oxidation (PO)) and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained suggest that grape stalk lignin is an HGS type with molar proportions of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units of 3:71:26. Structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and PO indicates the predominance of β-O-4' structures (39% mol) in grape stalk lignin together with moderate amounts of β-5', β-β, β-1', 5-5', and 4-O-5' structures. NMR studies also revealed that grape lignin should be structurally associated with tannins. The condensation degree of grape stalks lignin is higher than that of conventional wood lignins and lignins from other agricultural residues.

  18. Stalking of psychiatrists: psychopathological characteristics and gender differences in an Italian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronardi, Vincenzo M; Pomilla, Antonella; Ricci, Serafino; D'Argenio, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    Research has indicated that medical doctors and paramedics are at higher risk of being stalked than the general population. In particular, mental health care professionals alone represent one third of the victims of harassment. Because of the lack of studies in this specific sector, especially in Italy, in this study, we examined the stalking of psychiatrists by their patients, considering gender differences and the incidence of stalking in private practice and public mental health clinics in Rome. We found that the rate of stalking in private mental health settings is higher than that in public settings and that the perpetrators of stalking are mainly women who mostly target mental health professionals working in private practice. Implications of the findings are noted and discussed.

  19. Engagement as a Brand Position in the Higher Education Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Jay

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine public engagement as a branding and public relations strategy at colleges and universities. Specifically, this paper posits the idea that engagement efforts require a focused and, if possible, centralized approach on the part of colleges and universities. Successful branding and marketing of engagement…

  20. Stalking the IQ Quark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1979-01-01

    An information-processing framework is presented for understanding intelligence. Two levels of processing are discussed: the steps involved in solving a complex intellectual task, and higher-order processes used to decide how to solve the problem. (MH)

  1. Evaluation of cotton stalks destroyers

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchini, Aloisio; Borges, Pedro H. de M.

    2013-01-01

    The destruction of the cotton crop residues (cotton stalks) is a mandatory procedure in Brazil for prophylactic issues, but is a subject unexplored by the research and there are few studies that deal with this issue. However, this is not encouraged in recent decades, studies aimed at developing and evaluating equipment for this purpose. The present study had the objective to evaluate six methods for mechanical destruction of cotton crop residues. Each method was defined based on the principle...

  2. Positive outcomes of office ergonomics in terms of higher productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terek Edit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the sciences which considers to human health, human performance and body activities is Ergonomics. Ergonomics is one of the modern sciences, drawing as much from the field as from the laboratory, and including elements of art and craft as well. Before designing the workplace it is necessary to determine its requirements, i.e., which it is intended for, what are the characteristics of the existing work equipment and the additional tools needed. However, there are some standards and with their application people will prevent the occurrence of modern office diseases. This paper is focused on the positive aspects of ergonomics in improvement of the working environment.

  3. Stalking: Notion, characteristics and social responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades stalking phenomenon is recognized and actualized in the world in professional, scientific circles, in media and the everyday talk. Recently, stalking is identified as specific and complex problem studied separately from domestic violence, workplace abuse, sexual harassment, threats, following, homicide, voyeurism and the other phenomenon to which stalking may or not be related. This paper is aimed to determine the notion of stalking and its relationship with similar phenomena, to review the research about the prevalence and nature of stalking, as well as to review the measures for its prevention, supporting victims and prosecution of offenders. Finally, the paper intend to contribute toward initiation of research and legal reforms regarding stalking victimisation in Serbia.

  4. Adolescent stalking and risk of violence✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Reidy, Dennis E.; Kernsmith, Poco D.

    2018-01-01

    Stalking perpetration and the associated risk for violence among adolescents has generally been neglected. In the present study, 1236 youth completed surveys assessing empirically established stalking indicators, threats and aggression toward stalking victims, dating violence, and violent delinquency. Latent Profile Analysis identified 3 latent classes of boys: non-perpetrators (NP), hyper-intimate pursuit (HIP), and comprehensive stalking perpetrators (CSP) and, and 2 classes for girls: NP and HIP. Boys in the CSP class were the most violent youth on nearly all indices with boys in the HIP class demonstrating an intermediate level of violence compared to NP boys. Girls in the HIP class were more violent than NP girls on all indices. These findings suggest stalking in adolescence merits attention by violence prevention experts. In particular, juvenile stalking may signify youth at risk for multiple forms of violence perpetrated against multiple types of victims, not just the object of their infatuation. PMID:27641644

  5. Collaborative Learning in Higher Education: Evoking Positive Interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scager, Karin; Boonstra, Johannes; Peeters, Ton; Vulperhorst, Jonne; Wiegant, Fred

    Collaborative learning is a widely used instructional method, but the learning potential of this instructional method is often underused in practice. Therefore, the importance of various factors underlying effective collaborative learning should be determined. In the current study, five different life sciences undergraduate courses with successful collaborative-learning results were selected. This study focuses on factors that increased the effectiveness of collaboration in these courses, according to the students. Nine focus group interviews were conducted and analyzed. Results show that factors evoking effective collaboration were student autonomy and self-regulatory behavior, combined with a challenging, open, and complex group task that required the students to create something new and original. The design factors of these courses fostered a sense of responsibility and of shared ownership of both the collaborative process and the end product of the group assignment. In addition, students reported the absence of any free riders in these group assignments. Interestingly, it was observed that students seemed to value their sense of achievement, their learning processes, and the products they were working on more than their grades. It is concluded that collaborative learning in higher education should be designed using challenging and relevant tasks that build shared ownership with students. © 2016 K. Scager et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. The Fear Factor: Exploring Predictors of Fear among Stalking Victims throughout the Stalking Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyns, Bradford W.; Englebrecht, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    The crime of stalking has received much research attention, yet there are still important questions to be explored surrounding this behavior. One such question relates to definitions of stalking, including the requirement that victims must express fear to qualify as victims of stalking. The current study addresses this issue by exploring the…

  7. The Reliability and Predictive Validity of the Stalking Risk Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Troy E; Shea, Daniel E; Daffern, Michael; MacKenzie, Rachel D; Ogloff, James R P; Mullen, Paul E

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed the reliability and validity of the Stalking Risk Profile (SRP), a structured measure for assessing stalking risks. The SRP was administered at the point of assessment or retrospectively from file review for 241 adult stalkers (91% male) referred to a community-based forensic mental health service. Interrater reliability was high for stalker type, and moderate-to-substantial for risk judgments and domain scores. Evidence for predictive validity and discrimination between stalking recidivists and nonrecidivists for risk judgments depended on follow-up duration. Discrimination was moderate (area under the curve = 0.66-0.68) and positive and negative predictive values good over the full follow-up period ( Mdn = 170.43 weeks). At 6 months, discrimination was better than chance only for judgments related to stalking of new victims (area under the curve = 0.75); however, high-risk stalkers still reoffended against their original victim(s) 2 to 4 times as often as low-risk stalkers. Implications for the clinical utility and refinement of the SRP are discussed.

  8. Comparative pulping of sunflower stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Barbash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of holocellulose content determination in non-wood plant raw materials was developed. The strength properties of pulp obtained from sunflower stalks by neutral-sulphite, soda, alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol and peracetic methods of delignification were studied. Methodology of comparison of plant materials delignification methods using new lignin-carbohydrate diagram was proposed. It was shown, that the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol method of pulping is characterized by the highest delignification degree and is the most efficient among the studied methods

  9. The prevalence of stalking in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, S.; Kunst, M.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Over eight years after the enactment of the Dutch anti-stalking provisions there are still no figures detailing the prevalence of stalking in The Netherlands. This article aims to estimate the lifetime and annual prevalence of this form of victimization within the Dutch population. Questionnaires

  10. Utilization of enzyme supplemented Telfairia occidentalis stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight (8) week feeding trial was carried out to assess the use of enzyme natuzyme supplemented Telfairia occidentalis stalk extract as growth inducer in the practical diet for Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. Five isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) diets at 0 ml of stalk extract and enzyme (TRT 1), 15 ml (TRT 2) and 30 ...

  11. Stalking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crime, Teens, and Trauma Assault Bullying and Harassment Child Sexual Abuse Dating Violence Sexual Assault Robbery and Property Crime ... and Victimization in the News Media Reporting on Child Sexual Abuse Reporting Do's and Don'ts Sandusky Criminal Trial & ...

  12. Body Stalk Syndrome: A Curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Javalgi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Limb body wall complex (LBWC /Body stalk syndrome anomaly refers to a rare complicated polymalformative fetal malformation syndrome of uncertain etiology firstly described by Van Allen et al in 1987. There are very few cases reported in literature and thus we report a rare case of LBWC. Twenty seven years female presented to labour room with 32 weeks of gestation with no prenatal care and delivered a low birth weight still born fetus weighing 1100gms. On fetal autopsy large abdominal wall defect was noted with difficulty in identifying abdomino-pelvic organs and ambiguous genitalia. Placenta weighed 250gms with attached short umbilical cord measuring 7cms, arising from periphery. A cyst noted attached to placental membrane measuring 9x5cms which on dissection retrieved partially maldeveloped organs. Post mortem radiological findings included Absence of right femur with short tibia and right fibula, Complex vestibral malformation, Craniosynostosis and Overcrowding of ribs.

  13. The special neuraminidase stalk-motif responsible for increased virulence and pathogenesis of H5N1 influenza A virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Zhou

    Full Text Available The variation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus results in gradually increased virulence in poultry, and human cases continue to accumulate. The neuraminidase (NA stalk region of influenza virus varies considerably and may associate with its virulence. The NA stalk region of all N1 subtype influenza A viruses can be divided into six different stalk-motifs, H5N1/2004-like (NA-wt, WSN-like, H5N1/97-like, PR/8-like, H7N1/99-like and H5N1/96-like. The NA-wt is a special NA stalk-motif which was first observed in H5N1 influenza virus in 2000, with a 20-amino acid deletion in the 49(th to 68(th positions of the stalk region. Here we show that there is a gradual increase of the special NA stalk-motif in H5N1 isolates from 2000 to 2007, and notably, the special stalk-motif is observed in all 173 H5N1 human isolates from 2004 to 2007. The recombinant H5N1 virus with the special stalk-motif possesses the highest virulence and pathogenicity in chicken and mice, while the recombinant viruses with the other stalk-motifs display attenuated phenotype. This indicates that the special stalk-motif has contributed to the high virulence and pathogenicity of H5N1 isolates since 2000. The gradually increasing emergence of the special NA stalk-motif in H5N1 isolates, especially in human isolates, deserves attention by all.

  14. The consequences of coping with stalking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Katrine Bindesbøl Holm; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to explore: (1) how victims of stalking experience the phenomenon in their daily life, (2) how the nature of stalking informs the victim's internal coping strategies, and (3) how the victims' internal coping strategies negatively affect their daily life...... and well-being. METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 victims of stalking. Thematic content analysis was employed, and themes were primarily identified inductively and broad into dialogue with concepts, such as Foucault's panopticism. RESULTS: The results of the study...

  15. The Intersection of Stalking and the Severity of Intimate Partner Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Patrick Q; Hayes, Brittany E

    2018-04-01

    Using data from the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study (N = 464), this study examined the intersection of stalking and the severity of intimate partner abuse while controlling for previously identified risk factors of intimate partner homicide. Findings indicate that (a) victims of life-threatening abuse by an intimate partner were significantly more likely to experience stalking than victims of nonlethal abuse; (b) after controlling for key risk factors, stalking increased the risk of life-threatening abuse; and (c) threats to kill the victim if she left was the only significant stalking-related behavior that increased the risk for life-threatening abuse. In addition, an offender's prior record and a higher number of previous abusive incidents increased the risk of life-threatening abuse. Implications for prevention and future directions for research are discussed.

  16. Identification of metastases in the pituitary stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubiger, O

    1982-09-01

    Two cases of metastasis in the pituitary stalk are presented. In both cases, presenting with diabetes insipidus, the demonstration of a small (under 1 cm) metastasis in the pituitary stalk was possible using a current generation scanner. Patients with known primary tumors presenting with a diabetes insipidus should be examined by CT before therapy with antidiuretic hormone is initiated. In cases of visible metastasis, a specific therapy together with the hormone-substitution should be discussed.

  17. [Nurses' experiences of stalking: a narrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparcini, Dania; Simonetti, Valentina; Lupo, Roberto; Cicolini, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    This narrative review aimed to synthetize the results of the main studies analysing nurses' experience of stalking in different clinical settings. We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE (through PubMed), CINAHL (through EBSCOhost) and the search engine "Google Scholar". Searches were limited to articles published in English and Italian, and published between 1999 and 2013. Stalking refers to a behavioural pattern characterized by persistent unwanted communications and contacts imposed to another person, which, consequently suffer from distress, fear, and anxiety. Several studies explored the risk of stalking in healthcare system, especially in doctors and psychiatrists. Some authors analysed nurses' experience of stalking with particular attention to mental health professionals as a group category with an increased risk of stalking by patients. Results of some studies carried out in different clinical settings (medical and surgical areas, and other healthcare settings) also revealed, even if in a minority, the presence of this phenomenon, showing the presence of staking's behaviours by patients and healthcare colleagues too. However, more researches with large sample size are needed to better understand the phenomenon of stalking in nurses working in different clinical areas.

  18. Some thoughts on the neurobiology of stalking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; Fisher, Helen

    2005-11-01

    The authors examine the crime of stalking, including the cognitive traits, emotional reactions, attachment pathology, violence patterns and sex differences of samples of stalking offenders. They focus on two common types of stalkers: 1) those who sustain pursuit of a former sexual intimate who has rejected them; and 2) those who pursue a stranger or acquaintance who has failed to return the stalker's romantic overtures. The authors discuss data from neuroimaging (fMRI) studies of romantic love which suggest that these forms of stalking may be associated with heightened activity of subcortical dopaminergic pathways of the "Reward System" of the brain, perhaps in combination with low activity of central serotonin. The authors propose that this set of neural correlates may contribute to the stalker's focused attention, increased energy, following behaviors, obsessive thinking about and impulsivity directed toward the victim. To further explore the neural systems associated with stalking behavior, they also discuss several biopsychological phenomena associated with romantic rejection, including the "protest response," "frustration attraction," "abandonment rage" and "mate guarding." They illustrate the parallels between stalking and addiction. They conclude that stalking may be associated with a specific set of biological components and they offer suggestions for further research into this pathological emotional/motivational state.

  19. Higher-order-mode damper as beam-position monitors; Higher-Order-Mode Daempfer als Stahllagemonitore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peschke, C.

    2006-03-15

    In the framework of this thesis a beam-position monitor was developed, which can only because of the signals from the HOM dampers of a linear-accelerator structure determine the beam position with high accuracy. For the unique determination of the beam position in the plane a procedure was developed, which uses the amplitudes and the start-phase difference between a dipole mode and a higher monopole mode. In order tocheck the suitability of the present SBLC-HOM damper as beam position monitor three-dimensional numerical field calculations in the frequency and time range and measurements on the damper cell were performed. For the measurements without beam a beam simulator was constructed, which allows computer-driven measurements with variable depositions of the simulated beam with a resolution of 1.23 {mu}m. Because the complete 6 m long, 180-cell accelerator structure was not available for measurements and could also with the available computers not be three-dimensionally simulated simulated, a one-dimensional equivalent-circuit based model of the multi-cell was studied. The equivalent circuits with 879 concentrated components regards the detuning from cell to cell, the cell losses, the damper losses, and the beam excitation in dependence on the deposition. the measurements and simulations let a resolution of the ready beam-position monitor on the 180-cell in the order of magnitude of 1-10 {mu}m and a relative accuracy smaller 6.2% be expected.

  20. [Stalking: From "romantic pursuit" to sexual predation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailleau, Virginie; Harika-Germaneau, Ghina; Delbreil, Alexia; Jaafari, Nematollah

    2018-06-01

    Deriving from the English verb "to stalk", stalking denotes an unwelcome, repetitive, and intrusive harassing and/or threatening behavior directed toward a specific individual, and can result in physical and/or sexual offending - even leading to homicide. French harassment legislation has evolved over the years, and the last law closest to the international anti-stalking laws had been promulgated in 2014. According to a review, up to 16% of women and 7% of men are stalked in their life, and 80% of the stalkers are known to their victims. Stalkers are a heterogeneous population, either seeking an intimate relationship with someone the stalker knows or with a celebrity, or being revenge-motivated, or tracking their victims with the aim of offending them. Stalkers threat their victims in about half of the cases, and physically offend them in a third of the cases, violence being more often directed against ex-intimates. Sexual offending would be the consequence of harassment behavior for some stalkers, and would be the initial aim of the stalking for others. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring the Current Position of ESD in UK Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiselier, Evelien S.; Longhurst, James W. S.; Gough, Georgina K.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the position of education for sustainable development in the UK Higher Education (HE) sector with respect to the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) and Higher Education Academy (HEA) Guidance for education for sustainable development (ESD). Design/methodology/approach: By means of a mixed-method…

  2. Sustainable Interventions in Enhancing Gender Parity in Senior Leadership Positions in Higher Education in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyoni, Watende Pius; He, Chen; Yusuph, Mashala Lameck

    2017-01-01

    Despite the international campaigns for gender equality and equity in Higher Education Institutions, studies conducted in several countries continue to show that women are underrepresented in senior leadership positions in universities. Women leaders in higher education subsector in Tanzania are very few. Of all the 60 and above universities and…

  3. Partner Positioning: Examining International Higher Education Partnerships through a Mutuality Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Mwangi, Chrystal A.

    2017-01-01

    Scholarship on international higher education partnerships is often framed by strategic management and organization theories. These approaches are useful, but can minimize how power dynamics and positioning of partners impact engagement and outcomes. This study uses qualitative inquiry to examine 60 international higher education partnerships…

  4. Researcher Creations? The Positioning of Policy Texts in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Paul; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore the way in which policy texts are positioned in a selection of higher education journal articles. Previous research has suggested that policy implementation studies have taken an uncritical approach to researching policies. Based on an analysis of articles published in higher education and policy journals in 2011, we…

  5. Multicellular stalk-like structures in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelberg, D.; Mimran, A.; Martinetto, H.; Otto, J.; Simchen, G.; Karin, M.; Fink, G.R.

    1998-01-01

    Stalk formation is a novel pattern of multicellular organization. Yeast cells which survive UV irradiation form colonies that grow vertically to form very long (0.5 to 3.0 cm) and thin (0.5 to 4 mm in diameter) multicellular structures. We describe the conditions required to obtain these stalk-like structures reproducibly in large numbers. Yeast mutants, mutated for control of cell polarity, developmental processes, UV response, and signal transduction cascades were tested and found capable of forming stalk-like structures. We suggest a model that explains the mechanism of stalk formation by mechanical environmental forces. We show that other microorganisms (Candida albicans, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Escherichia coli) also form stalks, suggesting that the ability to produce stalks may be a general property of microorganisms. Diploid yeast stalks sporulate at an elevated frequency, raising the possibility that the physiological role of stalks might be disseminating spores

  6. Stalking Behavior and the Cycle of Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Frances L.

    1997-01-01

    Refines the behavioral definition of stalking, investigates the role stalking plays in domestic violence, and develops demographic profiles of stalkers and their victims. Results based on information taken from 141 college women show that subjects who reported significantly more abuse during relationships were more likely to be stalked by former…

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL OF STALK LENGTH IN THE BLOOM-FORMING, FRESHWATER BENTHIC DIATOM DIDYMOSPHENIA GEMINATA (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, Cathy; Bothwell, Max

    2011-10-01

    Blooms of the freshwater stalked diatom Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngb.) M. Schmidt in A. Schmidt typically occur in oligotrophic, unshaded streams and rivers. Observations that proliferations comprise primarily stalk material composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) led us to ask whether or not the production of excessive EPS is favored under nutrient-limited, high-light conditions. We conducted experiments in outdoor flumes colonized by D. geminata using water from the oligotrophic, D. geminata-affected Waitaki River, South Island, New Zealand, to determine the relationship between D. geminata stalk length, cell division rates, and light intensity under ambient and nutrient-enriched conditions. Stalk lengths were measured in situ, and cell division rates were estimated as the frequency of dividing cells (FDC). FDC responded positively to increasing light intensity and to nutrient additions (N+P and P). Under ambient conditions, stalk length increased as light level increased except at low ambient light levels and temperature. Nutrient enrichment resulted in decreased stalk length and negative correlations with FDC, with this effect most evident under high light. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that extensive stalk production in D. geminata occurs when cell division rates are nutrient limited and light levels are high. Thus, photosynthetically driven EPS production in the form of stalks, under nutrient-limited conditions, may explain the development of very high biomass in this species in oligotrophic rivers. The responses of FDC and stalk length under nutrient-replete conditions are also consistent with occurrences of D. geminata as a nondominant component of mixed periphyton communities in high-nutrient streams. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  8. STALKED BARNACLES CONCHODERMA AURITUM ON AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lower jaw, the palate and the penis of the sperm whale - Carke 1966). The occurrence of. C. auritum on the body skin of an elephant seal is therefore ... It can be inferred from Sorensen's remark that "barnacles up to an inch in length have been seen ... " that a stalked barnacle was involved, and Laws indeed refers to those.

  9. Vulture worries stalk activists on Uttarayan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... Vulture worries stalk activists on Uttarayan. Anon. Ahmedabad – When kites take to the skies on Uttarayan, animal activists will be biting their nails in apprehension. Their main concern is the White-rumped. Vulture, a highly endangered species, of which only 137 birds are left in the city, according to figures ...

  10. Enkele kanttekeningen bij de strafbaarstelling van stalking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klink, B.M.J.; Royakkers, L.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    In dit artikel gaan wij nader in op het fenomeen stalking in het algemeen en het wetsvoorstel dienaangaande in het bijzonder. §2 biedt een conceptuele analyse van het begrip ¿belaging', dat door ons wordt opgevat als een vorm van geestelijke mishandeling. Beseft dient te worden dat het hierbij niet

  11. Spiraling through the Glass Ceiling: Seven Critical Lessons for Negotiating a Leadership Position in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Ronald A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses seven critical lessons for navigating a leadership position in higher education. The author focuses on developing a personal means of remaining centered regardless of circumstances or situations as well as building an ethical foundation for one's work. He uses spiraling as a metaphor to describe his own…

  12. Short-term Lost Productivity per Victim: Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, or Stalking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora; Liu, Yang; Kresnow, Marcie-Jo; Florence, Curtis; Merrick, Melissa T; DeGue, Sarah; Lokey, Colby N

    2018-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to estimate victims' lifetime short-term lost productivity because of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalking. U.S. nationally representative data from the 2012 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey were used to estimate a regression-adjusted average per victim (female and male) and total population number of cumulative short-term lost work and school days (or lost productivity) because of victimizations over victims' lifetimes. Victims' lost productivity was valued using a U.S. daily production estimate. Analysis was conducted in 2017. Non-institutionalized adults with some lifetime exposure to intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalking (n=6,718 respondents; survey-weighted n=130,795,789) reported nearly 741 million lost productive days because of victimizations by an average of 2.5 perpetrators per victim. The adjusted per victim average was 4.9 (95% CI=3.9, 5.9) days, controlling for victim, perpetrator, and violence type factors. The estimated societal cost of this short-term lost productivity was $730 per victim, or $110 billion across the lifetimes of all victims (2016 USD). Factors associated with victims having a higher number of lost days included a higher number of perpetrators and being female, as well as sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking victimization by an intimate partner perpetrator, stalking victimization by an acquaintance perpetrator, and sexual violence or stalking victimization by a family member perpetrator. Short-term lost productivity represents a minimum economic valuation of the immediate negative effects of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking. Victims' lost productivity affects family members, colleagues, and employers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Measurement of the heat of smoldering combustion in straws and stalks by means of simultaneous thermal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Fang; Yi, Weiming; Zha, Jianwen [School of Light Industry and Agricultural Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, Shandong 255049 (China)

    2009-01-15

    In order to investigate reaction heat of agro-stalks smoldering, wheat straw, corn stalk, cotton stalk, millet straw, sorghum stalk and sweet potato rattan powder were smoldered and pyrolyzed in a simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA). The samples were placed in a platinum crucible (5 mm x 5 mm) with a lid (with a 1 mm hole) on a high-accuracy differential scanning calorimetry-heat capacity (DSC-cp) holder in the furnace of an STA and heated from 303 to 1073 K at a heating rate of 10 K min{sup -1}. Sweeping gas with a flow rate of 25 ml min{sup -1} was air and nitrogen during smoldering and pyrolysis, respectively. Results showed that the heat emission characteristic of the smoldering process differed remarkably from the pyrolysis process. Based on the analysis of the DSC curves, oxidative polymer degradation heat and char oxidation heat were obtained from experimental data. It showed that the oxidative polymer degradation heat of the agro-stalks is more than 6.92 MJ kg{sup -1} consumed matter, higher than that of cellulose paper. And char oxidation heat is around 23 MJ kg{sup -1} consumed matter, similar to that of cellulose paper, but higher than that of cigarette. Total net heat emission of smoldering in STA was also obtained. These data can be used as reference data in analyzing smoldering of agro-stalks under similar conditions. (author)

  14. Stalking: A Multidimensional Framework for Assessment and Safety Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert

    2015-09-03

    Despite the high prevalence of stalking and the risk of harm it poses to victims, arrest rates, prosecutions, and convictions for stalking continue to be low in the United States. The overall goal of this article is to introduce a multidimensional framework of stalking that adds to the current literature by (1) providing a conceptual framework consistent with legal elements of many stalking statutes to facilitate assessment, communication, documentation, and safety planning for stalking several victims; (2) introducing a more systematic way of assessing course of conduct and the context of fear in stalking situations in order to increase the understanding of cumulative fear for stalking victims; (3) emphasizing the aspects of stalking harm that go beyond violence and that show how harm from stalking accumulates over time including life sabotage; and (4) discussing 12 risk factors derived from the overall multidimensional framework that can be used to describe the big picture of stalking and to facilitate safety planning for victims. Implications for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. The effect of Cerasus avium stalk extract on albumin glycation reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadeseh Abdoli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins is the major cause of diabetic complications. The inhibition of glycation process can reduce complications of diabetes. In the Iranian traditional medicine, the decoction (boiled extraction of Cerasus avium stalk is used as a hypoglycemic agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of decoction and ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Cerasus avium stalk on albumin glycation reaction. Methods: In this experimental study, first, the ethanolic, aqueous and decoction extracts of Cerasus avium stalk were prepared. Then, different concentrations of these extracts were prepared and added to albumin and glucose solutions. Finally, compared to control group that was not treated with any extracts, the albumin glycation rate in the groups treated with various concentrations of extracts was evaluated using TBA (thio-barbituric acid method. Results: The results showed that compared to control group, decoction of Cerasus avium stalk in the concentrations of 20, 10 and 2 mg/dl could reduce albumin glycation to 85.10±1.55, 72.35±1.75 and 51.25±1.22 %, respectively (P>0.001. Moreover, in the concentration of 20 mg/dl, the inhibitory effect of decoction of Cerasus avium stalk on the albumin glycation reaction was higher than those of aqueous (P=0.021 and ethanolic (P=0.009 extracts. Conclusion: The findings showed that the extracs of Cerasus avium stalk, in particular in the decoction form, could significantly reduce the rate of albumin glycation; therefore, it can be used for decreasing diabetes mellitus complications.

  16. Lo stalking, un reato senza genere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Iaccarino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An individual who watches, follows, tracks and controls the victim with the aim of intervening, in a more or less violent way, in their private life is called a stalker or a “prowler always on the lookout”, because they commit repeated actions or attempted contacts or real communications, not desired by the victim, which may cause discomfort, anxiety, nuisance, concern and fear to the victim. Stalking is a term that may apply to any gender. To Lombroso’s “monster woman” and Hart’s “old maids’ madness” it is necessary to add the phenomenon of stalking committed by women whose modus operandi, without doubt, is more sly and subtle than the one of men. It refers to the retrospective act analysed by classic theories.

  17. Briquetting of Charcoal from Sesame Stalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alula Gebresas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the easy availability of wood in Ethiopia, wood charcoal has been the main source fuel for cooking. This study has been started on sesame stalk biomass briquetting which can potentially solve the health problems and shortage of energy, which consequently can solve deforestation. The result of the data collection shows that, using 30% conversion efficiency of carbonizer, it was found that more than 150,000 tonnes of charcoal can be produced from the available sesame stalk in Humera, a place in north Ethiopia. The clay binders that are mixed with carbonized sesame stalk were found to have 69 liquid limits; thus, the optimum amount of clay that should be added as a binder is 15%, which results in better burning and heat holding capacity and better heating time. The developed briquetting machine has a capacity of producing 60 Kg/hr but the carbonization kiln can only carbonize 3.1 Kg in 2 : 40 hours; hence, it is a bottle neck for the briquette production. The hydrocarbon laboratory analysis showed that the calorific value of the charcoal produced with 15% clay content is 4647.75 Cal/gm and decreases as clay ratio increases and is found to be sufficient energy content for cooking.

  18. Stability study of the higher order mode beam position monitors at the Accelerating cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, L; Jones., R M

    2014-01-01

    erating cavities at FLASH linac, DESY, are equipped with electronics for beam position monitoring, which are based on HOM signals from special couplers. These monitors provide the beam position without additional vacuum components and at low cost. Moreover, they can be used to align the beam in the cavities to reduce the HOM effects on the beam. However, the HOMBPM (Higher Order Mode based Beam Position Monitor) shows an instability problem over time. In this paper, we will present the status of studies on this issue. Several methods are utilized to calibrate the HOMBPMs. These methods include DLR (Direct Linear Regression), and SVD (Singular Value Decomposition). We found that SVD generally is more suitable for HOMBPM calibration. We focus on the HOMBPMs at 1.3 GHz cavities. Techniques developed here are applicable to 3.9 ...

  19. Higher positive identification of malignant CSF cells using the cytocentrifuge than the Suta chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To define how to best handle cerebrospinal fluid (CSF specimens to obtain the highest positivity rate for the diagnosis of malignancy, comparing two different methods of cell concentration, sedimentation and cytocentrifugation. Methods A retrospective analysis of 411 CSF reports. Results This is a descriptive comparative study. The positive identification of malignant CSF cells was higher using the centrifuge than that using the Suta chamber (27.8% vs. 19.0%, respectively; p = 0.038. Centrifuge positively identified higher numbers of malignant cells in samples with a normal concentration of white blood cells (WBCs (< 5 cells/mm3 and with more than 200 cells/mm3, although this was not statistically significant. There was no lymphocyte loss using either method. Conclusions Cytocentrifugation positively identified a greater number of malignant cells in the CSF than cytosedimentation with the Suta chamber. However, there was no difference between the methods when the WBC counts were within the normal range.

  20. Do men and women differ in their perceptions of stalking: an exploratory study among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Eric G; Smith, Brad; Geistman, James; Cluse-Tolar, Terry; Jiang, Shanhe

    2013-01-01

    Stalking is a crime that can terrify its victims and ultimately take a severe emotional toll. Although a growing body of research has examined stalking experiences and reactions of victims, there has been far less research on whether men and women differ in their perceptions of stalking. Toward this end, a survey of college students at a large public 4-year Midwestern university was undertaken. We examined differences is how men and women view stalking and whether gender differences were moderated by prior stalking experience. Specifically, we examined whether there were gender differences in perceptions of the pervasiveness of stalking, the harm stalking does, who tends to be stalked, if stalking mainly involves former relational partners, possible motivations for stalking, the line between courtship and stalking, and notions of victim blaming. We found significant differences in stalking views between men and women on all the measures, except for perceptions of the line between courtship and stalking. Women tended to perceive stalking as more pervasive and harmful. Men were more likely to perceive stalking as involving strangers and to blame the victim for the stalking. Female and male respondents also differed in their perceptions of motivations for stalking. Prior victim stalking experience did not moderate the gender differences. Although being a prior stalking victim had a significant association with 4 of the 7 stalking perception variables, its effect sizes were smaller than that of gender.

  1. Status of maize stalk rot complex in western belts of Nepal and its integrated management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Subedi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize stalk rot complex is becoming a serious threat for maize growing areas of Nepal. A field monitoring for maize stalk rot complex was done during crop season (August, 2016 covering 10 farmers field each of Surkhet, Banke, Dang, Chitwan and Nawalparasi districts. Maize crop showed highly susceptible reaction to the disease at western belts of Dang and susceptible reaction was marked in Chitwan and Nawalparasi districts while the disease effect was mild at Banke and Surkhet district. Most of the plant diseases managed successfully through the application of bio-control agents, host resistance, chemicals and other different cultural control methods. The result of field experiment conducted at Dang showed that all the treatments had significant (P≤0.05 effect on percent disease index (PDI and crop yield over farmers practice to control maize stalk rot. The higher percent disease control (52.36% and yield increase (40.29% were recorded from the plot sprayed with streptocyclin @ 2 g L-1 and insecticide (cypermethrin + chloropyrifos @ 2.5 ml L-1 of water during knee height and subsequent spray after 15 days interval as compared to farmers practice. Out of 30 genotypes, Rampur composit, Arun 2, Rampur 34, RamS03F08, TLBRS07F16 and Rampur 24 were found resistant against stalk rot complex with higher yield at Rampur Chitwan.

  2. Higher-order stochastic differential equations and the positive Wigner function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, P. D.

    2017-12-01

    General higher-order stochastic processes that correspond to any diffusion-type tensor of higher than second order are obtained. The relationship of multivariate higher-order stochastic differential equations with tensor decomposition theory and tensor rank is explained. Techniques for generating the requisite complex higher-order noise are proved to exist either using polar coordinates and γ distributions, or from products of Gaussian variates. This method is shown to allow the calculation of the dynamics of the Wigner function, after it is extended to a complex phase space. The results are illustrated physically through dynamical calculations of the positive Wigner distribution for three-mode parametric downconversion, widely used in quantum optics. The approach eliminates paradoxes arising from truncation of the higher derivative terms in Wigner function time evolution. Anomalous results of negative populations and vacuum scattering found in truncated Wigner quantum simulations in quantum optics and Bose-Einstein condensate dynamics are shown not to occur with this type of stochastic theory.

  3. Positive Attitude toward Healthy Eating Predicts Higher Diet Quality at All Cost Levels of Supermarkets☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. PMID:23916974

  4. Organics and mineral fertilizers and biological control on the incidence of stalk rot and corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Blume

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of area under maize (Zea mays L. and the use of no tillage have favored the incidence of stalk rot on this crop. The study aimed to evaluate the organic fertilizers and the treatment of corn seeds with Trichoderma spp. on the production of dry matter (DM of shoot, incidence of stalk rot and corn yield. The experiment consisted in a factorial with split-plot in strips, on the randomized block design with four replicates, and the fertilization treatments (pig slurry; swine deep bedding; cattle slurry; mineral fertilizer; control treatment were applied to the plots and the seeds treatment (with and without Trichoderma spp. in the subplots. At the flowering stage, three corn plants per subplot were collected for the assessment of DM production. At physiological maturity stage, the incidence of stalk rot was assessed, and the ears of corn harvested for productivity assessment. The organic and mineral fertilizers increased the production of DM and productivity of corn. Trichoderma spp. increased the production of DM of corn, but had no reflection on productivity. The incidence of stalk rot in corn was higher in treatments with organic and mineral fertilization. Organic fertilizers increase dry matter production of shoot and corn yield, and Trichoderma spp. provides an increase in dry matter production of shoot.

  5. Carbohydrate Status of Tulip Bulbs during Cold-Induced Flower Stalk Elongation and Flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, H.; Rook, F.; Kolloffel, C.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of a cold treatment on the carbohydrate status of the scales and flower stalk of Tulipa gesneriana L. cv Apeldoorn bulbs during growth after planting was studied and compared with bulbs not given cold treatment. Bulbs were stored dry for 12 weeks at 5[deg]C (precooled) or 17[deg]C (noncooled). Only the 5[deg]C treatment led to rapid flower stalk elongation and flowering following planting at higher temperatures. Precooling enhanced mobilization of starch, fructans, and sucrose in the scales. The cold-stimulated starch breakdown was initially accompanied by increased [alpha]-amylase activity per scale. In noncooled bulbs, [alpha]-amylase activity slightly decreased or remained more or less constant. Cold-induced flower stalk elongation was partially accompanied by a decrease in the sucrose content and an increase in the glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight. The starch content in internodes initially decreased and subsequently increased; [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode showed a peak pattern during starch breakdown and increased thereafter. The internodes of noncooled bulbs, on the contrary, accumulated sucrose. Their glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight remained low. Starch breakdown was not found and [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode remained at a low level. Precooling of tulip bulbs thus favors reserve mobilization in the scales and flower stalk and glucose accumulation in the elongating internodes. PMID:12232100

  6. Polyharmonic boundary value problems positivity preserving and nonlinear higher order elliptic equations in bounded domains

    CERN Document Server

    Gazzola, Filippo; Sweers, Guido

    2010-01-01

    This monograph covers higher order linear and nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems in bounded domains, mainly with the biharmonic or poly-harmonic operator as leading principal part. Underlying models and, in particular, the role of different boundary conditions are explained in detail. As for linear problems, after a brief summary of the existence theory and Lp and Schauder estimates, the focus is on positivity or - since, in contrast to second order equations, a general form of a comparison principle does not exist - on “near positivity.” The required kernel estimates are also presented in detail. As for nonlinear problems, several techniques well-known from second order equations cannot be utilized and have to be replaced by new and different methods. Subcritical, critical and supercritical nonlinearities are discussed and various existence and nonexistence results are proved. The interplay with the positivity topic from the first part is emphasized and, moreover, a far-reaching Gidas-Ni-Nirenbe...

  7. Public Service Entrance Examinations for Executive Secretary Position in Federal Institutions of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Nunes de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The professional with a bachelor in Secretarial Science is increasingly placed on the labor market, both in the private and the public sector. However, recent public service entrance examination, on several occasions, offer positions for executive secretary – in which, neither the undergraduate degree in Secretarial Science nor the professional registry is mandatory, allowing undergraduates in different areas enter the public sector as executive secretaries. On the above, this article aims at identifying and introduce the public service entrance examinations for executive secretary, specifically in the Federal Institutions of Higher Education (IFES, from 2009 to 2015. It was identified 110 public service entrance examination rules which provided 531 positions. Of these, only 308 positions (from 57 public service entrance examination rules were exclusively intended for applicants professionally qualified according to the Law No 7.377 of September 30th, 1985. It was noted that some IFES did not demand, in their public service entrance examination rules, the professional qualification required by the Circular Letter No 015/2005 from MEC, causing a loss to the professionals with the professional qualification.

  8. Positive attitude toward healthy eating predicts higher diet quality at all cost levels of supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Antifungal properties of Musa paradisiaca (Plantain) peel and stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of plantain (Musa paradisiaca (L) AAB genomic group) peel and stalk extracts were investigated using percentage inhibition test. Complete inhibition of growth (100%) was observed for Aspergillusniger, Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus stolonifer at 1.0 mg/ml concentration of stalk extract. Peel extract inhibited A.

  10. Treatment of some Textile Industrial Effluents using Dry Corn Stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn stalk ground to various mesh sizes was used to treat textile effluents obtained from three different industries. These effluents were first pretreated with alum and then charcoal; passing the water through a column, (20cm long and 5cm diameter) containing the ground corn stalk of size diameters of 300mm, 355mm ...

  11. Stalking als Straftatbestand : Neue Tendenzen in den EU-Mitgliedstaaten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, Suzanne; Bachman, Roland; Ortiz-Müller, Wolf

    2017-01-01

    Article 34 of the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence obliges signatory states to criminalize stalking. This article provides an inventory of criminal anti-stalking legislation in the 28 EU Member States in order to see whether they

  12. 78 FR 1125 - National Stalking Awareness Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... some point in their lives, 1 in 6 women and 1 in 19 men will be stalked, and many of these crimes will.... It can include implied or explicit threats; harassment; or nonconsensual communication through phone..., stalking tends to escalate over time, and it is sometimes followed by sexual assault or homicide. My...

  13. The Concept of Alliance as an Image and Positioning Instrument for Institutions of Higher Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Alcántar Enríquez

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides a foundation for the concept of alliance which includes the ability of this to foster the university’s societal position as based on public perception of the institution. Accordingly, the work briefly addresses the development of the university’s collaboration with the productive sector, and emphasizes the need for institutions of higher learning to consider as well, those social sectors (including the government outside the realm of industry or technological expansion. The study concludes by affirming that alliance can become an effective instrument for promoting the university. It is therefore necessary to research the social perception of the university as a means of bolstering its relevance.

  14. Bio-oil production from cotton stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jilu; Yi Weiming; Wang Nana

    2008-01-01

    Cotton stalk was fast pyrolyzed at temperatures between 480 deg. C and 530 deg. C in a fluidized bed, and the main product of bio-oil is obtained. The experimental result shows that the highest bio-oil yield of 55 wt% was obtained at 510 deg. C for cotton stalk. The chemical composition of the bio-oil acquired was analyzed by GC-MS, and its heat value, stability, miscibility and corrosion characteristics were determined. These results showed that the bio-oil obtained can be directly used as a fuel oil for combustion in a boiler or a furnace without any upgrading. Alternatively, the fuel can be refined to be used by vehicles. Furthermore, the energy performance of the pyrolysis process was analyzed. In the pyrolysis system used in our experiment, some improvements to former pyrolysis systems are done. Two screw feeders were used to prevent jamming the feeding system, and the condenser is equipped with some nozzles and a heat exchanger to cool quickly the cleaned hot gas into bio-oil

  15. Positive energy theorem in generalized Kaluza-Klein theories of higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreschi, O.M.

    1983-01-01

    The technique of using spinors in the proof of positive energy theorems in 4 dimensions is extended to the case of Kaluza-Klein theories in spaces of 4 + n dimensions. First a useful presentation of generalized Kaluza-Klein theories is introduced, in which just from the observation of conformal symmetries it is possible to detect a nice splitting of the Ricci tensor into a 4-dimensional Ricci part and a Yang-Mills part, among others. Consideration of linear dependence among the symmetries is not excluded in this treatment. Relevant to the introduction of spinors, a discussion of Clifford Algebras is presented. In particular a real representation of these algebras is introduced for spaces of higher dimensions and its structure is analyzed. The Lie derivative of spinors is presented probably more clearly than in former treatments. After the introduction of these preliminary themes, a brief review of the relevant aspects of positive energy theorems in 4 dimensions is presented, followed by the extension of these ideas to the case of 5 dimensions. Here an earlier result involving gravitational mass and electromagnetic charges is improved. Finally the results are generalized to spaces of 4 + n dimensions, and a more complicated condition to be satisfied by the usual matter tensor is discovered. This procedure leads to a natural definition of invariant Yang-Mills charges, which is compared with former studies

  16. Beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Baboi, Nicoleta

    2012-01-01

    Higher order modes (HOM) are electromagnetic resonant fields. They can be excited by an electron beam entering an accelerating cavity, and constitute a component of the wakefield. This wakefield has the potential to dilute the beam quality and, in the worst case, result in a beam-break-up instability. It is therefore important to ensure that these fields are well suppressed by extracting energy through special couplers. In addition, the effect of the transverse wakefield can be reduced by aligning the beam on the cavity axis. This is due to their strength depending on the transverse offset of the excitation beam. For suitably small offsets the dominant components of the transverse wakefield are dipole modes, with a linear dependence on the transverse offset of the excitation bunch. This fact enables the transverse beam position inside the cavity to be determined by measuring the dipole modes extracted from the couplers, similar to a cavity beam position monitor (BPM), but requires no additional vacuum instrum...

  17. Beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pei

    2013-02-01

    Higher order modes (HOM) are electromagnetic resonant fields. They can be excited by an electron beam entering an accelerating cavity, and constitute a component of the wakefield. This wakefield has the potential to dilute the beam quality and, in the worst case, result in a beam-break-up instability. It is therefore important to ensure that these fields are well suppressed by extracting energy through special couplers. In addition, the effect of the transverse wakefield can be reduced by aligning the beam on the cavity axis. This is due to their strength depending on the transverse offset of the excitation beam. For suitably small offsets the dominant components of the transverse wakefield are dipole modes, with a linear dependence on the transverse offset of the excitation bunch. This fact enables the transverse beam position inside the cavity to be determined by measuring the dipole modes extracted from the couplers, similar to a cavity beam position monitor (BPM), but requires no additional vacuum instrumentation. At the FLASH facility in DESY, 1.3 GHz (known as TESLA) and 3.9 GHz (third harmonic) cavities are installed. Wakefields in 3.9 GHz cavities are significantly larger than in the 1.3 GHz cavities. It is therefore important to mitigate the adverse effects of HOMs to the beam by aligning the beam on the electric axis of the cavities. This alignment requires an accurate beam position diagnostics inside the 3.9 GHz cavities. It is this aspect that is focused on in this thesis. Although the principle of beam diagnostics with HOM has been demonstrated on 1.3 GHz cavities, the realization in 3.9 GHz cavities is considerably more challenging. This is due to the dense HOM spectrum and the relatively strong coupling of most HOMs amongst the four cavities in the third harmonic cryo-module. A comprehensive series of simulations and HOM spectra measurements have been performed in order to study the modal band structure of the 3.9 GHz cavities. The dependencies of

  18. Beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pei

    2013-02-15

    Higher order modes (HOM) are electromagnetic resonant fields. They can be excited by an electron beam entering an accelerating cavity, and constitute a component of the wakefield. This wakefield has the potential to dilute the beam quality and, in the worst case, result in a beam-break-up instability. It is therefore important to ensure that these fields are well suppressed by extracting energy through special couplers. In addition, the effect of the transverse wakefield can be reduced by aligning the beam on the cavity axis. This is due to their strength depending on the transverse offset of the excitation beam. For suitably small offsets the dominant components of the transverse wakefield are dipole modes, with a linear dependence on the transverse offset of the excitation bunch. This fact enables the transverse beam position inside the cavity to be determined by measuring the dipole modes extracted from the couplers, similar to a cavity beam position monitor (BPM), but requires no additional vacuum instrumentation. At the FLASH facility in DESY, 1.3 GHz (known as TESLA) and 3.9 GHz (third harmonic) cavities are installed. Wakefields in 3.9 GHz cavities are significantly larger than in the 1.3 GHz cavities. It is therefore important to mitigate the adverse effects of HOMs to the beam by aligning the beam on the electric axis of the cavities. This alignment requires an accurate beam position diagnostics inside the 3.9 GHz cavities. It is this aspect that is focused on in this thesis. Although the principle of beam diagnostics with HOM has been demonstrated on 1.3 GHz cavities, the realization in 3.9 GHz cavities is considerably more challenging. This is due to the dense HOM spectrum and the relatively strong coupling of most HOMs amongst the four cavities in the third harmonic cryo-module. A comprehensive series of simulations and HOM spectra measurements have been performed in order to study the modal band structure of the 3.9 GHz cavities. The dependencies of

  19. Stalking Victimization in LGBTQ Adults: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenderfer-Magruder, Lisa; Walls, N Eugene; Whitfield, Darren L; Kattari, Shanna K; Ramos, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Stalking is often considered to be a form of interpersonal violence; yet, despite an increase in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ)-specific research on other forms of interpersonal violence, such as intimate partner violence and sexual assault, there is a relative lack of literature on stalking victimization of LGBTQ individuals, particularly as it relates to gender identity. This is problematic given the results of numerous studies indicating LGBTQ individuals, and transgender individuals in particular, experience victimization in various forms and contexts at alarming rates. In the current study, we examined secondary data to determine the prevalence of lifetime stalking victimization and subsequent police reporting in a large community-based sample of LGBTQ individuals living in Colorado ( N = 1,116). In addition, using chi-square analyses, we examined independence of stalking experiences and police reporting by both gender identity ( transgender, cisgender male, cisgender female) and sexual orientation ( gay, lesbian, bisexual, heterosexual, queer, other). Approximately 15% of the total sample reported ever experiencing stalking; yet, only about one quarter of those who were stalked reported it to police. Although no statistically significant differences emerged by gender identity or sexual orientation, transgender, bisexual, and queer participants had the highest prevalence of lifetime stalking victimization. Moreover, these groups reported the lowest prevalence of reporting their victimization to the police. We provide suggestions to improve the development of research on this topic including a need for an inclusive definition of stalking and studies using larger, representative samples to better discern potential significant differences in stalking experiences of LGBTQ persons.

  20. The prevalence and nature of stalking in the Australian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Rosemary; Pathé, Michele; Mullen, Paul E

    2002-02-01

    This study examines the extent and nature of stalking victimisation in a random community sample. A postal survey was distributed to 3700 adult men and women selected from the electoral roll in the State of Victoria. Outcome measures included the lifetime and annual cumulative incidence of stalking, the duration and methods of harassment, rates of associated violence and responses to victimisation. Almost one in four respondents (23.4%;432) had been stalked, the unwanted behaviour they were subjected to being both repeated and fear-provoking. One in 10 (197) had experienced a protracted course of stalking involving multiple intrusions spanning a period of at least one month. Women were twice as likely as men to report having been stalked at some time in their lives, though the rates of victimisation in the 12 months prior to the study did not differ significantly according to gender. Younger people were significantly more likely than older respondents to report having been stalked. Victims were pursued by strangers in 42% of cases. The most common methods of harassment involved unwanted telephone calls, intrusive approaches and following. Associated threats (29%) and physical assaults (18%) frequently arose out of the stalking. Significant social and economic disruption was created by the stalking for 63% of victims. Most sought assistance to manage their predicament (69%). The experience of being stalked is common and appears to be increasing. Ten percent of people have been subjected at some time to an episode of protracted harassment. Assaults by stalkers are disturbingly frequent. Most victims report significant disruption to their daily functioning irrespective of exposure to associated violence.

  1. Evaluation of elastic modulus and hardness of crop stalks cell walls by nano-indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan Wu; Siqun Wang; Dingguo Zhou; Cheng Xing; Yang Zhang; Zhiyong Cai

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural biomaterials such as crop stalks are natural sources of cellulosic fiber and have great potential as reinforced materials in bio-composites. In order to evaluate their potential as materials for reinforcement, the nano-mechanical properties of crop-stalk cell walls, i.e. those of cotton (Gossypium herbaceu) stalk, soybean (Glycine max) stalk, cassava (...

  2. Effect of Different Parts (Leaf, Stem and Stalk) and Seasons (Summer and Winter) on the Chemical Compositions and Antioxidant Activity of Moringa oleifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ming-Chih; Chang, Cheng-Ming; Kang, Sue-Ming; Tsai, Min-Lang

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, Lam. (Moringaceae) is grown world-wide in the tropics and sub-tropics of Asia and Africa and contains abundant various nutrients. This study describes the effect of different parts (leaf, stem and stalk) and seasons (summer and winter) on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of M. oleifera grown in Taiwan. The results showed that the winter samples of Moringa had higher ash (except the stalk part), calcium and phenolic compounds (except the leaf part) and stronger antioxidative activity than summer samples. The methanolic extract of Moringa showed strong scavenging effect of DPPH radicals and reducing power. The trend of antioxidative activity as a function of the part of Moringa was: leaf > stem > stalk for samples from both seasons investigated. The Moringa extract showed strong hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and high Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity except the stalk part. PMID:22016645

  3. Stalking: terrorism at our doors--how social workers can help victims fight back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Mary-Ann Leitz

    2003-10-01

    Stalking is a dangerous and devastating crime that irrevocably changes the lives of victims but is frequently misunderstood and minimized. Victims report that their lives are never the same after they have been stalked. Stalking is prevalent and gender-neutral and occurs across all socioeconomic lines and in all clinical settings. The prevalence of stalking provides many opportunities for social workers to intervene, but first they must recognize and understand the problem. This article explains common misconceptions about stalking, contains a brief discussion of the types of stalking, the elements necessary to criminally charge someone with stalking, strategies for the victims, and suggestions for future research.

  4. 75 FR 81085 - National Stalking Awareness Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... victimization than men. Stalking can be a difficult crime to recognize. The majority of survivors do not report... affects too many Americans to remain a hidden crime, and a strong stand is required in order to both...

  5. Stalking: The term, features and proposals de lege ferenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Višnja M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper author analyzes main features of stalking, which is recognized as a serious problem in many countries and provided as a criminal offense. There are presented comparative legela solutions of this criminal offense in the countries that have incriminated it firs, as well as in neighboring countries. In recent years in Republic of Serbia it has been indicated to prevalence of the stalking, especially among the former partners, and considering that there is a need for such behavior to be incriminated. Also, Serbia's ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence assumed an obligation to prescribe stalking as criminal offense. This paper proposes the possible way of prescribing stalking with analysis of certain elements of the legal description.

  6. Behavioral and Mental Health Correlates of Youth Stalking Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E.; Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Kernsmith, Poco D.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Although recognized as a public health problem, little attention has been paid to the problem of stalking among youth. Latent profile analysis was used to identify latent groups of adolescent stalking victims and their behavioral and mental health correlates. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 1,236 youths were randomly selected from 13 schools stratified by community risk level (i.e., low, moderate, and high risk) and gender. Students completed surveys assessing behavioral indicators of stalking victimization, as well as substance use, sexual behavior, dating violence, and psychiatric symptoms. Data were collected in 2013 and data analyses were performed in 2015. Results Analysis indicated the presence of a non-victim class, a minimal exposure class, and a victim class for boys and girls alike. Approximately 14% of girls and 13% of boys were in the stalking victim class. Adolescents in the victim class reported more symptoms of post-traumatic stress, mood disorder, and hopelessness, as well as more instances of alcohol use, binge drinking, and physical dating violence victimization. Girls in the victim class also reported engaging in sexting behaviors and oral sex with significantly more partners than their non-victim peers. Conclusions These findings provide valuable knowledge of the prevalence and pertinent health correlates of stalking victimization in adolescence. The data suggest a substantial proportion of adolescents are victims of stalking and are likewise at risk for a number of deleterious health outcomes. As such, this population merits further attention by prevention researchers and practitioners. PMID:27743623

  7. Stalk-length-dependence of the contractility of Vorticella convallaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul Chung, Eun; Ryu, Sangjin

    2017-12-01

    Vorticella convallaria is a sessile protozoan of which the spasmoneme contracts on a millisecond timescale. Because this contraction is induced and powered by the binding of calcium ions (Ca2+), the spasmoneme showcases Ca2+-powered cellular motility. Because the isometric tension of V. convallaria increases linearly with its stalk length, it is hypothesized that the contractility of V. convallaria during unhindered contraction depends on the stalk length. In this study, the contractile force and energetics of V. convallaria cells of different stalk lengths were evaluated using a fluid dynamic drag model which accounts for the unsteadiness and finite Reynolds number of the water flow caused by contracting V. convallaria and the wall effect of the no-slip substrate. It was found that the contraction displacement, peak contraction speed, peak contractile force, total mechanical work, and peak power depended on the stalk length. The observed stalk-length-dependencies were simulated using a damped spring model, and the model estimated that the average spring constant of the contracting stalk was 1.34 nN µm-1. These observed length-dependencies of Vorticella’s key contractility parameters reflect the biophysical mechanism of the spasmonemal contraction, and thus they should be considered in developing a theoretical model of the Vorticella spasmoneme.

  8. Well-Being, Leadership, and Positive Organizational Scholarship: A Case Study of Project-Based Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Nance; Goodman, Fallon R.

    2015-01-01

    The emerging fields of positive psychology and positive organizational scholarship (POS) contribute new perspectives and approaches for leadership education and leadership development in higher education. While there are emerging empirical studies in these new fields, little connection has been made to the intellectual and practical applications…

  9. Constructing a National Higher Education Brand for the UK: Positional Competition and Promised Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomer, Sylvie; Papatsiba, Vassiliki; Naidoo, Rajani

    2018-01-01

    This article examines national branding of UK higher education, a strategic intent and action to collectively brand UK higher education with the aim to attract prospective international students, using a Bourdieusian approach to understanding promises of capitals. We trace its development between 1999 and 2014 through a sociological study, one of…

  10. Flourishing for the Common Good: Positive Leadership in Christian Higher Education during Times of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlvig, Jolyn E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper argues that higher education should exist for society's common good, a focus that has been lost in recent years (Dorn, 2011; Eagan et al., 2015; Ford 2016; Habley, Bloom & Robbins, 2012). To explore how Christian higher education can provide leadership in returning to a focus on the common good, this paper traces the movement of…

  11. Existence of positive solutions for the system of higher order two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Mathematics, Gayatri Vidya Parishad College of Engineering ... In these applied settings, positive solutions are meaningful [1,9,13,21]. Due to ... In this paper, we shall consider the nonlinear system of differential equations,. ⎧.

  12. Light absorption of organic aerosol from pyrolysis of corn stalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghua; Chen, Yanju; Bond, Tami C.

    2016-11-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) can absorb solar radiation in the low-visible and ultra-violet wavelengths thereby modifying radiative forcing. Agricultural waste burning emits a large quantity of organic carbon in many developing countries. In this work, we improved the extraction and analysis method developed by Chen and Bond, and extended the spectral range of OC absorption. We examined light absorbing properties of primary OA from pyrolysis of corn stalk, which is a major type of agricultural wastes. Light absorption of bulk liquid extracts of OA was measured using a UV-vis recording spectrophotometer. OA can be extracted by methanol at 95%, close to full extent, and shows polar character. Light absorption of organic aerosol has strong spectral dependence (Absorption Ångström exponent = 7.7) and is not negligible at ultra-violet and low-visible regions. Higher pyrolysis temperature produced OA with higher absorption. Imaginary refractive index of organic aerosol (kOA) is 0.041 at 400 nm wavelength and 0.005 at 550 nm wavelength, respectively.

  13. A stalk of grain and light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erín Moure

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available "Stalk of Grain and Light" is an excerpt from O Resplandor (Toronto: Anansi, forthcoming 2010, a book of poetry that explodes notions of authorship and translation. In it, the heteronymic character Elisa Sampedrín translates from Nichita Stãnescu, though she knows no Romanian, and the orthonymic character Erín Moure translates Paul Celan, using not Celan but English transcreations from the language of Celan by Oana Avasilichioaei which she appropriates and reorganizes to create the true translation of a poem by Paul Celan, which exists only in her mind. In this world where corporations copyright human cells, where academics and libraries appropriate works of writers, and where writing itself - moreso than visual art - is limited by expanded notions of plagiarism and ownership, of continuity of copyright for decades that prevents works from influencing art's future, Moure refutes the idea that writing is inspired out of nowhere. Here it is rooted to human interaction, to love and loss, to the art of others, and is dedicated to creating a world where the free irruption of thought is possible, and lineages are acknowledged.

  14. A stalk of grain and light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erín Moure

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2009n56p33 "Stalk of Grain and Light" is an excerpt from O Resplandor (Toronto: Anansi, forthcoming 2010, a book of poetry that explodes notions of authorship and translation. In it, the heteronymic character Elisa Sampedrín translates from Nichita Stãnescu, though she knows no Romanian, and the orthonymic character Erín Moure translates Paul Celan, using not Celan but English transcreations from the language of Celan by Oana Avasilichioaei which she appropriates and reorganizes to create the true translation of a poem by Paul Celan, which exists only in her mind. In this world where corporations copyright human cells, where academics and libraries appropriate works of writers, and where writing itself - moreso than visual art - is limited by expanded notions of plagiarism and ownership, of continuity of copyright for decades that prevents works from influencing art's future, Moure refutes the idea that writing is inspired out of nowhere. Here it is rooted to human interaction, to love and loss, to the art of others, and is dedicated to creating a world where the free irruption of thought is possible, and lineages are acknowledged.

  15. Identification of sources of resistance to anthracnose stalk rot in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Nicoli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Adoption of resistant cultivars is the primary measure used to control anthracnose stalk rot. The goal of this study was to identify maize-resistant genotypes to anthracnose stalk rot, which are similar to the hybrid 2B710. Experiments were performed at Embrapa Maize and Sorghum experimental fields in Brazil. The first experimental trial evaluated 234 maize lines as well as two commercials hybrids, BRS1010 (susceptible and 2B710 (resistant. Artificial inoculations were performed with a strain at the blister (R2 phase, and evaluation of disease severity was performed after 30 days. The second experimental trial evaluated 48 maize lines and hybrids, inoculated with two Colletotrichum graminicola strains. In the first trial, eight resistance groups were formed, and the last lines were more resistant, as was the hybrid 2B710, with values between 11.50% and 23.0% of severity. In the second trial, there was an interaction between the two factors, lines and isolates, and the lines often showed the same reaction features as those obtained in the first trial. However, the disease severity was higher for most lines, even when using other isolates. These lines with effective levels of resistance could be used in future studies of inheritance, in programs to develop hybrids, and to identify molecular markers associated with resistance to anthracnose stalk rot in maize.

  16. Thermal Decomposition Properties of Materials from Different Parts of Corn Stalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwei Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To help better utilize corn stalk (CS, pyrolysis behavior of materials from different parts of the CS including corn stalk without pith, corn root, and corn leaf were analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA at heating rates of 5, 10, 20, and 25 °C/min. The apparent activation energies determined by the Friedman method for corn stalk without pith, corn root, and corn leaf were in the range of 26.4 to 103.6 kJ/mol, 37.6 to 69.5 kJ/mol, and 35.0 to 103.9 kJ/mol, respectively, depending on the conversion. The main thermal decomposition occurred within a temperature range of 200 to 350 °C (±10 °C. Most of the volatile materials decomposed at less than a 0.8 conversion rate. At greater than a 0.8 conversion rate, the remaining material was mainly char, and the decomposition of char proceeded at higher conversion rates. Different pyrolysis characteristics in the CS indicated that different treatments should be chosen according to different parts for achieving the optimum conversion rate in practical applications.

  17. Positive outcomes of participatory ergonomics in terms of greater comfort and higher productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Molenbroek, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Ergonomics sometimes has a negative connotation, as it is seen to be connected to illness or guidelines that limit innovations. This paper is focused on the positive aspects of ergonomics in improvement of the working environment. It consists of a part that studies the literature on success factors

  18. Universal Higher Education and Positional Advantage: Soviet Legacies and Neoliberal Transformations in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentseva, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The great expansion of participation in higher education in Russia in the post-Soviet period was the layered and contradictory result of both conditions established in the Soviet period, and the structuring of reforms after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1992. The Soviet government was strongly committed to the expansion of education across…

  19. Strategic Agency and System Diversity: Conceptualizing Institutional Positioning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumasoli, Tatiana; Huisman, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that the impact of individual higher education institutions' strategies on system diversity should be explored. By looking at how universities respond strategically to governmental policies as well as to the actions of other (competing) institutions, our understanding of determinants of diversity can be enriched. A conceptual…

  20. Pavlov's Position on Old Age within the Framework of the Theory of Higher Nervous Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, George

    1995-01-01

    In later life, I. P. Pavlov incorporated his findings on aging into his theory of higher nervous activity. Some of the major findings showed that salivary conditioning and stimulus differentiation were difficult to establish in old dogs, but that conditioned reflexes established earlier in life persisted into old age. Pavlov hypothesized that…

  1. The Application of Open Systems Theory and Organization Development to Higher Education: A Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Vicki; Mink, Oscar G.

    This monograph sets forth a portion of the research and theory base underlying the organization development program, 1 of the 3 major components of the National Laboratory for Higher Education''s Administrative and Organizational Systems program. It depicts some of the linkages among organization development, institutional research, information…

  2. Glocalization as an Alternative to Internationalization in Higher Education: Embedding Positive Glocal Learning Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Fay; Lynch, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    The notion of internationalization in higher education is understood as the recruitment of international students, marketing of academic programs and courses, and teaching English as a Second Language to student cohorts from Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Various models of internationalization (Knight, 2004, 2006; Leask, 2009; Pimpa, 2009;…

  3. Positioning libraries to support the goals of higher education institutions: The Peabody Academic Library Leadership Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Weiner, Sharon A.; Breivik, Patricia Senn; Caboni, Timothy; Clark, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the genesis of Vanderbilt University's Peabody Academic Library Leadership Institute as an outcome of a particular philosophy. That philosophy is based on the concept that to fulfill their potential contributions, academic libraries need to direct their planning, resources, and services to support the priorities of their parent institutions. This article addresses the need for campus-focused leadership training; higher education leadership training for academic libraria...

  4. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzagh Mahmoudi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L. is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredients by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS method. Results from disc diffusion assay indicated that water extract of root, leaf and stalk had the highest antimicrobial activity respectively and caused significant inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, L. monocytogenes and K. pneumoniae cultures. Antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts was higher in root extract which caused high growth inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus cultures. MBC and MIC experiments of the ethanol extract illustrated that the most powerful antimicrobial effect was related to the stem organ extract on K. pnuomonae and S. aureus bacteria. Highest level of antibacterial effects in root can be due to its higher concentration of contents compared to other organs. Based on these results it can be suggested that Urtica dioica and its water and ethanol extracts have noticeable antimicrobial effects against gram negative, positive and Candida albicans fungi that may be applicable as a prophylactic or therpeutic antimicrobial agent in both human and animals.

  5. Health Care Professionals as Victims of Stalking: Characteristics of the Stalking Campaign, Consequences, and Motivation in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquadro Maran, Daniela; Varetto, Antonella; Zedda, Massimo; Franscini, Monica

    2015-07-05

    Stalking is a phenomenon characterized by a set of repetitive behaviors, intrusive surveillance, control, communication, and search of contact with a victim who is afraid and/or worried and/or annoyed by such unwanted attention. Literature analysis shows that Health Care Professionals (HCPs) are at greater risk of being stalked than the general population. As described by Mullen, Pathé, Purcell, and Stuart, stalkers may have different motives: relational rejection, an infatuation, an inability to express their own emotions and recognize those of others, or a desire for revenge. The aim of this study was to explore stalkers' motivation as perceived by their victims, characteristics of stalking campaigns, and consequences. A copy of the Italian modified version of The Network for Surviving Stalking (NSS) Questionnaire on Stalking, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State Trait Inventory (STAI) Y1-Y2 scales were distributed in six Italian state hospitals. Participants included 1,842 HCPs, 256 (13.9%) of which had been victims. The majority of victims reported that stalkers were Rejected (96, 37.5%), Intimacy seekers (41, 16%), Incompetent suitors (60, 23.4%), and/or Resentful (43, 16.8%; χ 2 = 163.3, p = .001). Stalking campaigns were characterized by several behaviors, principally contact (by telephone calls, text message) and following. The stalking campaign caused in victims both physical and emotional consequences, the most frequent being weight changes, sleep disorders, weakness, apprehension, anger, and fear. The most used coping strategies were moving away and moving toward, the less used was moving inward. Intervention programs and preventive measures (both individual and organizational) for HCP victims and those who could be considered at risk are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Selective Predation of a Stalking Predator on Ungulate Prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Heurich

    Full Text Available Prey selection is a key factor shaping animal populations and evolutionary dynamics. An optimal forager should target prey that offers the highest benefits in terms of energy content at the lowest costs. Predators are therefore expected to select for prey of optimal size. Stalking predators do not pursue their prey long, which may lead to a more random choice of prey individuals. Due to difficulties in assessing the composition of available prey populations, data on prey selection of stalking carnivores are still scarce. We show how the stalking predator Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx selects prey individuals based on species identity, age, sex and individual behaviour. To address the difficulties in assessing prey population structure, we confirm inferred selection patterns by using two independent data sets: (1 data of 387 documented kills of radio-collared lynx were compared to the prey population structure retrieved from systematic camera trapping using Manly's standardized selection ratio alpha and (2 data on 120 radio-collared roe deer were analysed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Among the larger red deer prey, lynx selected against adult males-the largest and potentially most dangerous prey individuals. In roe deer lynx preyed selectively on males and did not select for a specific age class. Activity during high risk periods reduced the risk of falling victim to a lynx attack. Our results suggest that the stalking predator lynx actively selects for size, while prey behaviour induces selection by encounter and stalking success rates.

  7. Positioning Industrial Design Education within Higher Education: How to face increasingly challenging market forces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Liem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how Industrial Design Education should be adapted to pressing future challenges of higher education with respect to promoting high quality mentorship and scholarship, as well as being more economically self-sufficient through stronger collaborative engagements with industry. The four (4 following trends will be presented on how prospective design programs are to be developed: (1 Mass-education and rationalisation, (2 Links between education and research, (3 Globalisation and internationalisation, and (4 Collaboration with industry and research commercialisation.Given the challenges of market forces within academia, a consensus within the design education community should be established in order to expose students more to “active learning” and to vice-versa commute from generic to specialist and from abstract to concrete modes of working. Comprehensive and collaborative studio projects should be implemented as platforms, where social, interdisciplinary and inquiry-based learning can be developed in line with selected design themes, processes and methods.

  8. Workforce Diversity in Higher Education: Career Support Factors Influencing Ascendancy of African American Women to Senior-Level Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tondelaya K.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was how knowledge of the barriers to advancement for African American women (AAW) and key career support factors (KCSFs) influence the career advancement of African American women (AAW) to senior-level positions in higher education. The research method for this study consisted of the triangulation of evidence from multiple…

  9. The Role of Ethnic Culture in Work-Family Balance among Armenian Women in Leadership Positions in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Hasmig

    2012-01-01

    In contemporary society women leaders in education have struggled to balance work and family. While some women have succeeded in finding that balance, many others are still struggling. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of three Armenian women in senior-level leadership positions in higher education in the United…

  10. The advantages of creating a positive radiation safety culture in the higher education and research sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldwell, T; Cole, P; Edwards, C; Makepeace, J; Murdock, C; Odams, H; Whitcher, R; Willis, S; Yates, L

    2015-01-01

    The safety culture of any organisation plays a critical role in setting the tone for both effective delivery of service and high standards of performance. By embedding safety at a cultural level, organisations are able to influence the attitudes and behaviours of stakeholders. To achieve this requires the ongoing commitment of heads of organisations and also individuals to prioritise safety no less than other competing goals (e.g. in universities, recruitment and retention are key) to ensure the protection of both people and the environment.The concept of culture is the same whatever the sector, e.g. medical, nuclear, industry, education, and research, but the higher education and research sectors within the UK are a unique challenge in developing a strong safety culture.This report provides an overview of the challenges presented by the sector, the current status of radiation protection culture, case studies to demonstrate good and bad practice in the sector and the practical methods to influence change. (practical matter)

  11. Contribution to the discussion on the criminalization of stalking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović-Stefanović Dušica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The serious and complex nature of stalking, as a social phenomenon, is reflected in diverse forms of this illicit act, the severity of consequences caused by its commission, and the likelihood of being turned into violence. Whereas it may be observed from different perspectives, in this paper stalking is examined from the aspect of substantive criminal law. In the first part of this article, the author provides an overview of legal provisions on the crime of stalking as envisaged in selected European legislations. In the second part of the paper, the author re-examines the capacity of the existing Serbian criminal legislation to respond to this problem, especially through the envisaged criminal offence of endangering safety of another. In conclusion, the author discusses the inadequacy of the existing legislation and the need for further legislative intervention in this area.

  12. Body Stalk Anomaly in a 9-Week Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio E. Quijano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Body stalk anomaly is a rare and severe malformation syndrome in which the exact pathophysiology and trigger factors are still unknown. This is a case of a 30-year-old patient who underwent ultrasound at 9 weeks of gestation. It revealed an abnormal location of the inferior body of the embryo in the coelomic space. The findings suggested a short umbilical cord syndrome. In order to confirm the diagnosis, the patient was scheduled for a second ultrasonography at 11 weeks of gestation. The obtained images, confirmed the location of the inferior body in the coelomic space with no visible bladder, absence of the right leg, severe abdominal wall defect, consistent with an omphalocele, and a short 5 mm umbilical cord. These last ultrasonographic findings were consistent with body stalk anomaly. Because of severe malformation incompatible with life, the patient was offered termination of pregnancy. Pathologic examination confirmed the suspected pathology of body stalk anomaly.

  13. Characteristic and kinetics of corn stalk pyrolysis in a high pressure reactor and steam gasification of its char

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guojie; Sun, Yinghui; Shi, Yuliang; Jia, Yong; Xu, Ying; Zhao, Peiyu; Zhang, Yongfa

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis characteristics of the corn stalk were investigated at different temperatures and pressures, with focus mainly on the releasing profiles and forming behaviors of gas. The results show that a higher pressure was conducive to the yield of H2 and CH4, and was not conducive to the generation of CO. Combustible gas components increase with the increase temperature. H2 concentration was affected significantly by temperature, was mainly released at higher temperatures (>500 °C). At 700 °C,...

  14. Perceptual advertisement by the prey of stalking or ambushing predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Mark; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2012-12-21

    There has been previous theoretical explorations of the stability of signals by prey that they have detected a stalking or ambush predator, where such perceptual advertisement dissuades the predator from attacking. Here we use a game theoretical model to extend the theory to consider some empirically-motivated complexities: (i) many perceptual advertisement signals appear to have the potential to vary in intensity, (ii) higher intensity signals are likely to be most costly to produce, and (iii) some high-cost signals (such as staring directly at the predator) can only be utilised if the prey is very confident of the existence of a nearby predator (that is, there are reserved or unfakable signals). We demonstrate that these complexities still allow for stable signalling. However, we do not find solutions where prey use a range of signal intensities to signal different degrees of confidence in the proximity of a predator; with prey simply adopting a binary response of not signalling or always signalling at the same fixed level. However this fixed level will not always be the cheapest possible signal, and we predict that prey that require more certainty about proximity of a predator will use higher-cost signals. The availability of reserved signals does not prohibit the stability of signalling based on lower-cost signals, but we also find circumstances where only the reserved signal is used. We discuss the potential to empirically test our model predictions, and to develop theory further to allow perceptual advertisement to be combined with other signalling functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Static and dynamic mechanical properties of alkali treated unidirectional continuous Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fiber/jute fiber reinforced hybrid polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, D.; Thiruchitrambalam, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • New type of hybrid composite with Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fibers (PPLSF) and jute. • Composites fabricated with continuous, unidirectional fibers. • Alkali treatment and hybridizing jute imparted good static and dynamic properties. • Properties are comparable with well know natural/glass fiber composites. • New hybrid composite can be an alternative in place of synthetic fiber composites. - Abstract: Alkali treated continuous Palmyra Palm Leaf Stalk Fiber (PPLSF) and jute fibers were used as reinforcement in unsaturated polyester matrix and their static and dynamic mechanical properties were evaluated. Continuous PPLSF and jute fibers were aligned unidirectionally in bi-layer arrangement and the hybrid composites were fabricated by compression molding process. Positive hybrid effect was observed for the composites due to hybridization. Increasing jute fiber loading showed a considerable increase in tensile and flexural properties of the hybrid composites as compared to treated PPLSF composites. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) of the fractured surfaces showed the nature of fiber/matrix interface. The impact strength of the hybrid composites were observed to be less compared to pure PPLSF composites. Addition of jute fibers to PPLSF and alkali treatment of the fibers has enhanced the storage and loss modulus of the hybrid composites. A positive shift of Tan δ peaks to higher temperature and reduction in the peak height of the composites was also observed. The composites with higher jute loading showed maximum damping behavior. Overall the hybridization was found to be efficient showing increased static and dynamic mechanical properties. A comparative study of properties of this hybrid composite with other hybrids made out of using natural/glass fibers is elaborated. Hybridization of alkali treated jute and PPLSF has resulted in enhanced properties which are comparable with other natural/glass fiber composites thus increasing the scope of

  16. Pituitary stalk compression by the dorsum sellae: possible cause for late childhood onset growth disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Iwasaki, Satoru; Okamoto, Shingo; Sakamoto, Masahiko; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Otake, Shoichiro; Fujioka, Masayuki; Hirohashi, Shinji; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pituitary stalk compression by the dorsum sellae and clinical or laboratory findings in short stature children. We retrospectively reviewed magnetic resonance images of the pituitary gland and pituitary stalk for 34 short stature children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency and 24 age-matched control cases. We evaluated the degree of pituitary stalk compression caused by the dorsum sellae. Body height, GH level, pituitary height and onset age of the short stature were statistically compared between cases of pituitary stalk compression with associated stalk deformity and cases without compression. Compression of the pituitary stalk with associated stalk deformity was seen in nine cases within the short stature group. There were no cases observed in the control group. There were no significant differences found for body height, GH level and pituitary height between the cases of pituitary stalk compression with associated stalk deformity and cases without compression. However, a significant difference was seen in the onset age between cases with and without stalk compression. Pituitary stalk compression with stalk deformity caused by the dorsum sellae was significantly correlated with late childhood onset of short stature.

  17. Shift of the pituitary stalk in intrasellar pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Jusuke; Tokiguchi, Susumu; Nakamori, Akitoshi; Watanabe, Akira; Yokoyama, Motoharu.

    1982-01-01

    Fifty-one patients from a group of 344 patients undergoing the evaluation of intrasellar or parasellar tumors were diagnosed on CT as having an intrasellar pituitary adenoma. Axial transverse sections were performed at -10 0 to Reid's basal line, using 1.5-mm-thick slices and sagittal and coronal reformation. Of these 51 patients, 17 showed a shift of the pituitary stalk. The area where a tumor was thought to be located within the sella turcica on preoperative CT became defective on CT after transsphenoidal surgery in all cases. Histological verification was obtained in all cases. Also, the shift of the pituitary stalk was normalized or markedly improved after surgery in all cases. In functioning tumors, all cases except two showed an endocrinologically normal state or a marked improvement after transsphenoidal surgery. On the basis of the above-mentioned facts, it was concluded that the shift of the pituitary stalk in intrasellar pituitary adenomas indicated the evidence of a mass and its location in the sella turcica. However, a shift of the pituitary stalk was also observed under other conditions, such as empty sella and tuberculum sellae meningioma, and so it is not a pathognomonic finding in intrasellar pituitary adenomas. (author)

  18. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet sorghum (sugar sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) is one kind of non-grain energy crops. As a novel green regenerated high-energy crop with high utility value, high yield of biomass, the sweet sorghum is widely used and developed in China. Stalk juice of sweet sorghum was used as the main substrate for ethanol ...

  19. Deactivation of tannins in raisin stalk by polyethylene glycol-600 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6000) and urea on dry and organic matter digestibility (IVDMD and IVOMD, respectively) and gas production in vitro. Raisin stalk contained 8.6% crude protein, 85% dry matter, 7% ash, 13.95% total extractable phenol (TEPH) and 2.13% total ...

  20. Comparative Study of Root, Stalk and Leaf Essential Oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-03-03

    Mar 3, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. The root, stalk and leaf essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus grown in Kaduna, North Central Nigeria were extracted separately by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS. The chemical composition analysis by. GC-MS of the oils allowed the identification of 34, 26 and 16 compounds ...

  1. Stalking on Campus: Ensuring Security with Rights and Liberties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Julie; Longo, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    College campuses are often perceived as idyllic communities. While there is much truth in such perceptions, not surprisingly there are many complicated issues on college campuses. Stalking is one such problem that seems to persist and thrive in the cloistered college setting. Campus safety efforts must temper security practices with civil rights…

  2. Evaluation of cotton stalk hydrolysate for xylitol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapcı, Burcu; Akpinar, Ozlem; Bolukbasi, Ufuk; Yilmaz, Levent

    2016-07-03

    Cotton stalk is a widely distributed and abundant lignocellulosic waste found in Turkey. Because of its rich xylose content, it can be a promising source for the production of xylitol. Xylitol can be produced by chemical or biotechnological methods. Because the biotechnological method is a simple process with great substrate specificity and low energy requirements, it is more of an economic alternative for the xylitol production. This study aimed to use cotton stalk for the production of xylitol with Candida tropicalis Kuen 1022. For this purpose, the combined effects of different oxygen concentration, inoculum level and substrate concentration were investigated to obtain high xylitol yield and volumetric xylitol production rate. Candida tropicalis Kuen 1022 afforded different concentrations of xylitol depending on xylose concentration, inoculum level, and oxygen concentration. The optimum xylose, yeast concentration, and airflow rate for cotton stalk hydrolysate were found as 10.41 g L(-1), 0.99 g L(-1), and 1.02 vvm, respectively, and under these conditions, xylitol yield and volumetric xylitol production rate were obtained as 36% and 0.06 g L(-1) hr(-1), respectively. The results of this study show that cotton stalk can serve as a potential renewable source for the production of xylitol.

  3. 77 FR 211 - National Stalking Awareness Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ..., tragically, stalking can be a precursor to more violent offenses, including sexual assault and homicide. The... Federal agencies, we are promoting new tools to decrease the incidence of domestic violence, sexual... and harmful behavior. This month, let us come together to prevent abuse, violence, and harassment in...

  4. Two unusual causes of pituitary stalk thickening in children without clinical features of diabetes insipidus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Furlan, Gisella; Fieggen, Anthony G.; Wilmshurst, Jo

    2003-01-01

    Pituitary stalk thickening has a wide differential diagnosis, but almost all infundibular diseases present with diabetes insipidus (DI). We present a child with metastatic involvement of the pituitary stalk from a primary pontine tumour and a child with tuberculous infiltration of the pituitary stalk and associated meningeal inflammation. Neither child presented with DI. Even though both metastatic disease and tuberculous infiltration of the stalk have been reported in adults, these are the first reports with accompanying cross-sectional images of pituitary stalk involvement by these diseases in children. (orig.)

  5. Two unusual causes of pituitary stalk thickening in children without clinical features of diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Furlan, Gisella; Fieggen, Anthony G.; Wilmshurst, Jo [Department of Paediatric Neuroradiology, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, 7700, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, 7700, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, 7700, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2003-07-01

    Pituitary stalk thickening has a wide differential diagnosis, but almost all infundibular diseases present with diabetes insipidus (DI). We present a child with metastatic involvement of the pituitary stalk from a primary pontine tumour and a child with tuberculous infiltration of the pituitary stalk and associated meningeal inflammation. Neither child presented with DI. Even though both metastatic disease and tuberculous infiltration of the stalk have been reported in adults, these are the first reports with accompanying cross-sectional images of pituitary stalk involvement by these diseases in children. (orig.)

  6. HIV positivity but not HPV/p16 status is associated with higher recurrence rate in anal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joshua E; Panico, Vinicius J A; Marconato, Heloisa M F; Sherr, David L; Christos, Paul; Pirog, Edyta C

    2013-12-01

    .06). The regional and distant failure rate was not related to HPV/p16 positivity or histologic differentiation of ACA; however, HIV positivity appeared to be associated with a higher recurrence rate and worse recurrence-free survival.

  7. Increased visfatin levels are associated with higher disease activity in anti-Jo-1-positive myositis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulejová, Hana; Kryštůfková, Olga; Mann, Heřman; Klein, Martin; Pavlíčková, Klára; Zámečník, Josef; Vencovský, Jiří; Šenolt, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of visfatin in anti-Jo-1-positive myositis patients, its expression in muscle tissue and to investigate potential relationships between visfatin, B-cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF), disease activity and anti-Jo-1 autoantibody levels. Serum levels of visfatin and BAFF were measured in 38 anti-Jo-1 positive myositis patients and 35 healthy subjects. Disease activity was evaluated by myositis disease activity assessment tool (MYOACT) using visual analogue scales (VAS) and by serum muscle enzymes. Visfatin expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in muscle tissue of myositis patients (n=10) and compared with non-inflammatory control muscle tissue samples from patients with myasthenia gravis (n=5). Serum visfatin and BAFF levels were significantly higher in myositis patients compared to healthy subjects and were associated with clinical muscle activity assessed by VAS. Only serum BAFF levels, but not visfatin levels, positively correlated with muscle enzyme concentrations and anti-Jo1 antibody levels. There was a positive correlation between visfatin and BAFF serum levels in myositis patients but a negative correlation was observed in healthy subjects. Visfatin expression was up-regulated in endomysial and perimysial inflammatory infiltrates of muscle tissue from myositis patients. Up-regulation of visfatin in myositis muscle tissue and an association between increased visfatin levels and muscle disease activity evaluated by MYOACT in anti-Jo-1 positive myositis patients could support possible role of visfatin in the pathogenesis of myositis.

  8. Mediators and Moderators of the Association Between Stalking Victimization and Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Connor R; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J; Goodnight, Jackson A

    2017-03-01

    The current study aims to understand mediators and moderators of the relationship between stalking victimization and depression. Based on the reformulated learned helplessness theory, which emphasizes the role of internal, global, and stable attributions for negative events in the development of depression, we predicted that the association between stalking victimization and depression would be mediated by attributions for the stalking and characterological self-blame. We predicted that the association between stalking victimization and helplessness attributions or characterological self-blame, in turn, would be moderated by gender, sex-role identity, and length of stalking. Specifically, we hypothesized that female victims, victims possessing a feminine sex-role identity, and victims experiencing longer stalking episodes would be more likely to experience depression in comparison with male victims, victims possessing a masculine sex-role identity, and victims experiencing shorter stalking episodes. The results indicated that global attributions for the cause of stalking significantly mediated the relationship between stalking victimization and depression. The results for stable attributions, internal attributions, and characterological self-blame were nonsignificant. Furthermore, gender, sex-role identity, and length of stalking did not moderate the association between stalking and attributional style or characterological self-blame. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  9. Stalking by patients: doctors' experiences in a Canadian urban area (Part II)--physician responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Karen M; Robinson, Gail Erlick

    2013-07-01

    Stalking involves recurrent unwanted communication, harassment, and intrusive behaviors. The aim of this study was to examine physicians' experiences of being stalked by their patients, with particular attention to the emotional impact on the physicians and their actions taken. A questionnaire designed to study the nature and the impact of stalking experiences among physicians was sent to 3159 randomly chosen physicians in the Greater Toronto Area. Approximately 15% (14.9%) of the 1190 physicians who responded reported having been stalked. The physicians reported feeling angry, frustrated, anxious, frightened, lacking control, and helpless. The physicians coped in a number of ways including terminating the physician-patient relationship, but many just ignored the problem. Most had no previous knowledge about stalking. Physicians experience a range of emotions as a result of being a victim of stalking. In view of the prevalence and the impact, physicians may benefit from education to help prepare them for the possibility of being stalked.

  10. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome in Chinese people: clinical characteristic analysis of 55 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Guo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS is characterized by the absence of pituitary stalk, pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic posterior pituitary. Due to the rarity of PSIS, clinical data are limited, especially in Chinese people. Herein, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with PSIS from our center over 10 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical manifestations and laboratory and MRI findings in 55 patients with PSIS. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients with PSIS, 48 (87.3% were male. The average age was 19.7±6.7 years and there was no familial case. A history of breech delivery was documented in 40 of 45 patients (88.9% and 19 of 55 patients (34.5% had a history of dystocia. Short stature was found in 47 of 55 patients (85.5% and bone age delayed 7.26±5.37 years. Secondary sex characteristics were poor or undeveloped in most patients. The prevalence of deficiencies in growth hormone, gonadotropins, corticotropin, and thyrotropin were 100%, 95.8%, 81.8%, 76.3%, respectively. Hyperprolactinemia was found in 36.4% of patients. Three or more pituitary hormone deficiencies were found in 92.7% of the patients. All patients had normal posterior pituitary function and absent pituitary stalk on imaging. The average height of anterior pituitary was 28 mm, documented anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Midline abnormalities were presented in 9.1% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features of our Chinese PSIS patients seem to be different from other reported patients in regarding to the higher degree of hypopituitarism and lower prevalence of midline defects. In addition, our patients were older at the time of case detection and the bone age was markedly delayed. We also had no cases of familial PSIS.

  11. [Phenolic foam prepared by lignin from a steam-explosion derived biorefinery of corn stalk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanhua; Chen, Hongzhang

    2014-06-01

    To increase the integral economic effectiveness, biorefineries of lignocellulosic materials should not only utilize carbohydrates hydrolyzed from cellulose and hemicellulose but also use lignin. We used steam-exploded corn stalk as raw materials and optimized the temperature and alkali concentration in the lignin extraction process to obtain lignin liquor with higher yield and purity. Then the concentrated lignin liquor was used directly to substitute phenol for phenolic foam preparation and the performances of phenolic foam were characterized by microscopic structure analysis, FTIR, compression strength and thermal conductivity detection. The results indicated that, when steam-exploded corn stalk was extracted at 120 degrees C for 2 h by 1% NaOH with a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10, the extraction yield of lignin was 79.67%. The phenolic foam prepared from the concentrated lignin liquor showed higher apparent density and compression strength with the increasing substitution rate of lignin liquor. However, there were not significant differences of thermal conductivity and flame retardant properties by the addition of lignin, which meant that the phenolic foam substituted by lignin liquor was approved for commercial application. This study, which uses alkali-extracted lignin liquor directly for phenolic foam preparation, provides a relatively simple way for utilization of lignin and finally increases the overall commercial operability ofa lignocellulosic biorefinery derived by steam explosion.

  12. Post-harvest treatments in smooth-stalked meadow grass (Poa pratensis L.) - effect on carbohydrates and tiller development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte

    2007-01-01

    Temperate grass species require a period of short days/low temperature to respond to flower induction stimuli. The same environmental conditions stimulate the increase in carbohydrate concentration in aboveground biomass and the accumulation of reserve carbohydrates in the basal plant parts....... The present investigation was initiated to investigate the effect of post-harvest treatments on dry matter production in autumn, carbohydrate content, the number of reproductive tillers and seed yield in a turf-type cultivar ‘Conni' of smooth-stalked meadow grass. The results show that post-harvest treatments...... harvest and all residues removed. The results from plant samples in autumn indicate that decreasing aboveground biomass production leads to a higher carbohydrate concentration which may stimulate the reproductive development in smooth-stalked meadow grass....

  13. Status of higher order mode beam position monitors in 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Jones, R M; Flisgen, T; Van Rienen, U; Shinton, I R R

    2013-01-01

    Higher order mode (HOM) beam position monitors (BPM) are being developed for the 3.9 GHz third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH. The transverse beam position in a cavity can be determined utilizing beam-excited HOMs based on dipole components. The existing couplers used for HOM suppression provide necessary signals. The diagnostics principle is similar to a cavity BPM, but requires no additional vacuum instruments on the linac. The challenges of HOM-BPM for 3.9 GHz cavities lie in the dense HOM spectrum arising from the coupling of the majority HOMs amongst the four cavities in the cryo-module ACC39. HOMs with particularly promising diagnostics features were evaluated using a spectrum analyzer and custom-built test electronics with various data analysis techniques, data reduction was focused on. After careful theoretical and experimental assessment of the HOM spectrum, multi-cavity modes in the region of 5 GHz were chosen to provide a global position over the complete module with superi...

  14. Decision of pedagogical tasks as mean of forming of pedagogical position of students of higher education physical establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanchenko N.I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article one of terms of forming of pedagogical position for the students of higher education physical establishments - decision of educational-pedagogical situations (EPS is examined. Monitoring of progress from pedagogical disciplines confronted with the results of experiment on determination of levels of decision of EPS by students is conducted. It is set that the traditional model of studies provides the high level of capture students theoretical knowledge, but does not influence on forming of them pedagogical position. Most students were shown by the medium-and-low levels of formed of abilities to decide EPS. It is set that the traditional model of teaching provides the high level of capture students theoretical knowledge's, but substantially does not influence on forming of their pedagogical position. Basic difficulties are certain at a decision the students of EPS, which allow to define the basic going near development of methodical accompaniment of EPS, which must include: educational material which is based on integration of pedagogical and sporting preparation with support on context approach; algorithm of decision of tasks; questions of cognitive character.

  15. Clinical and radiological features of pituitary stalk lesions in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Chul Yoon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe diagnosis of pituitary stalk lesion has been based on clinical feature, radiologic assessment for its critical location and role. This study aimed to investigate clinical symptoms, endocrine disturbance, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of pituitary stalk lesions in children and adolescents and to evaluate differences between neoplastic lesions with the others.MethodsWe performed a retrospective review of patients under 18 years old with pituitary stalk lesions diagnosed at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital between 2000 and 2013, by a text search for head MRI reports by using 'pituitary stalk', 'infundibulum', and 'infundibular stalk', as keywords.ResultsFor the 76 patients, sixteen patients (21.1% had congenital lesions, and 52 (68.4% had neoplasms. No inflammatory lesions were found. Diabetes insipidus (DI was the most common endocrine defect, diagnosed in 38 patients (50%. There was male predominance especially in neoplastic group. Thickened pituitary stalk was, but enhancement of lesion was not, associated with neoplasm. DI was more prevalent in neoplastic stalk lesions. Anterior pituitary dysfunction such as growth hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiencies were less prevalent in neoplastic lesions of pituitary stalk.ConclusionIn conclusion, the etiology of pituitary stalk lesions in children and adolescents is diverse and different from that in adults. Neoplastic pituitary stalk lesions can be differentiated from nonneoplastic lesions by systemic evaluation of clinical, hormonal, radiological findings.

  16. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Otles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Types of nettles (Urtica dioica were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET.

  17. Phenolic compounds analysis of root, stalk, and leaves of nettle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves) samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET).

  18. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves) samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET). PMID:22593694

  19. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    OpenAIRE

    Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts ...

  20. Pituitary gland and its stalk observed by high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Fukami, Tsuneharu; Matsumoto, Keizo.

    1982-01-01

    It seemed to be important to recognize the CT findings of normal pituitary gland and the stalk for the acurate morphological diagnosis of pituitary microadenoma. In a consecutive series of normal 103 cases, the CT scans obtained by high resolution CT (CE-CT, Metrizamide CT) were analized and compared with 6 cases of microadenoma. The pituitary stalk demonstrated by the reconstructed coronal CT was examined and the inclination of the stalk was measured. The mean value of the inclination of pituitary stalk was 1.4 +- 1.7 0 in normal group and 9.3 +- 2.4 0 in microadenoma group. The form of the pituitary gland demonstrated by a reconstructed mid-saggital CT were classified into the following 3 types. Type I : The gland filling the whole pituitary fossa. Type II : The gland filled with small CSF space localized in the upper-anterior part in the pituitary fossa. Type III : The enlarged CSF space of more than half of the depth of pituitary fossa and the gland localized in the retro-lower part. As for the shape of pituitary gland, type I was revealed in 26 cases (7 cases in male and 19 cases in female), Type II was revealed in 31 cases (12 cases in male and 19 cases in female), Type III was revealed in 46 cases (25 cases in male and 21 cases in female). Type I was shown in female, especially in 10 years old young female. In 19 cases of 30 years to 40 years female, Type II was shown in 9 cases. In 44 male cases, Type I and Type II were shown in all ages. In the aged, Type III was shown in more than the other types. On the other hand, Type I was noted in 5 out of 6 cases of microadenoma group. (author)

  1. CHARACTERISTICS OF CORN STALK HEMICELLULOSE PYROLYSIS IN A TUBULAR REACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Gao-Jin Lv; Shu-Bin Wu; Rui Lou

    2010-01-01

    Pyrolysis characteristics of corn stalk hemicellulose were investigated in a tubular reactor at different temperatures, with focus mainly on the releasing profiles and forming behaviors of pyrolysis products (gas, char, and tar). The products obtained were further identified using various approaches (including GC, SEM, and GC-MS) to understand the influence of temperature on product properties and compositions. It was found that the devolatilization of hemicellulose mainly occurred at low tem...

  2. Ethanol production from concentrated food waste hydrolysates with yeast cells immobilized on corn stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Shoubao [Huainan Normal Univ., Anhui (China). School of Life Science; Chen, Xiangsong; Wu, Jingyong; Wang, Pingchao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China). Key Lab. of Ion Beam Bio-engineering of Inst. of Plasma Physics

    2012-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine ethanol production from concentrated food waste hydrolysates using whole cells of S. cerevisiae immobilized on corn stalks. In order to improve cell immobilization efficiency, biological modification of the carrier was carried out by cellulase hydrolysis. The results show that proper modification of the carrier with cellulase hydrolysis was suitable for cell immobilization. The mechanism proposed, cellulase hydrolysis, not only increased the immobilized cell concentration, but also disrupted the sleek surface to become rough and porous, which enhanced ethanol production. In batch fermentation with an initial reducing sugar concentration of 202.64 {+-} 1.86 g/l, an optimal ethanol concentration of 87.91 {+-} 1.98 g/l was obtained using a modified corn stalk-immobilized cell system. The ethanol concentration produced by the immobilized cells was 6.9% higher than that produced by the free cells. Ethanol production in the 14th cycle repeated batch fermentation demonstrated the enhanced stability of the immobilized yeast cells. Under continuous fermentation in an immobilized cell reactor, the maximum ethanol concentration of 84.85 g/l, and the highest ethanol yield of 0.43 g/g (of reducing sugar) were achieved at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.10 h, whereas the maximum volumetric ethanol productivity of 43.54 g/l/h was observed at a HRT of 1.55 h. (orig.)

  3. Enhancement of Cotton Stalks Composting with Certain Microbial Inoculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Abdel-Twab Seoudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of inoculation with Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Azotobacter chrococcum microbes on cotton stalks composting was studied in an attempt to achieve rapid maturity and desirable characteristics of produced compost. Composting process was maintained for 16 weeks under aerobic conditions with proper moisture content and turning piles. The C/N ratio of the mixtures was adjusted to about 30:1 before composting using chicken manure. Temperature evolution and its profile were monitored throughout the composting period. Mineralization rates of organic matter and changes in nitrogen content during composting stages were evaluated. Total plate count of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, cellulose decomposers and Azotobacter were determined during composting periods. The treatment of cotton stalks inoculated with both P. chrysosporium and Azotobacter gave the most desirable characteristics of the final product with respect to the narrow C/N ratio, high nitrogen content and high numbers of Azotobacter. The phytotoxicity test of compost extracts was evaluated. The use of P. chrysosporium in composting accelerated markedly decomposition process, so that 16 weeks composting enough to produce a stable and mature compost suitable for use as fertilizer while the fertilizer obtained by composting cotton stalks mixed with chicken manure and inoculated with microorganisms is highest quality Compost.

  4. H2O2 can Increase Lignin Disintegration and Decrease Cellulose Decomposition in the Process of Solid-State Fermentation (SSF by Aspergillus oryzae Using Corn Stalk as Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicai Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available H2O2 is both bactericidal and the main oxidant responsible for lignin degradation reaction catalyzed by manganese peroxidase (MnP and lignin peroxidase (LiP. Thus, H2O2 treatment of corn stalk and the implementation of solid-substrate fermentation (SSF is possible to increase the removal rate of lignin from stalk in the process of SSF and after SSF, while avoiding the need to sterilize the raw materials. To demonstrate this approach, SSF was initially carried out using corn stalk pretreated with different concentrations of H2O2 as a substrate. A. oryzae was found to grow well in the 3% H2O2-pretreated corn stalk. H2O2-pretreated corn stalk showed increased MnP and LiP synthesis and disintegration of lignin, but inhibited cellulase synthesis and cellulose degradation. Production of the SSF (200 g on the 10th day was hydrolyzed in the presence of additional 600 mL different concentration of H2O2 aqueous solution. The total removal of lignin (73.15% of hydrolysis for 10 h at 3% H2O2 solution was highest and far higher than that at the 12th day, as achieved by conventional SSF. Applying this strategy in practice may shorten the time of lignin degradation, increase the removal of lignin, and decrease the loss of cellulose. Thus, this study has provided a foundation for further study saccharification of corn stalk.

  5. The amino terminal end determines the stability and assembling capacity of eukaryotic ribosomal stalk proteins P1 and P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Hendricka; Nusspaumer, Gretel; Abia, David; Briceño, Verónica; Remacha, Miguel; Ballesta, Juan P G

    2011-05-01

    The eukaryotic ribosomal proteins P1 and P2 bind to protein P0 through their N-terminal domain to form the essential ribosomal stalk. A mutational analysis points to amino acids at positions 2 and 3 as determinants for the drastic difference of Saccharomyces cerevisiae P1 and P2 half-life, and suggest different degradation mechanisms for each protein type. Moreover, the capacity to form P1/P2 heterodimers is drastically affected by mutations in the P2β four initial amino acids, while these mutations have no effect on P1β. Binding of P2β and, to a lesser extent, P1β to the ribosome is also seriously affected showing the high relevance of the amino acids in the first turn of the NTD α-helix 1 for the stalk assembly. The negative effect of some mutations on ribosome binding can be reversed by the presence of the second P1/P2 couple in the ribosome, indicating a stabilizing structural influence between the two heterodimers. Unexpectedly, some mutations totally abolish heterodimer formation but allow significant ribosome binding and, therefore, a previous P1 and P2 association seems not to be an absolute requirement for stalk assembly. Homology modeling of the protein complexes suggests that the mutated residues can affect the overall protein conformation. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Remote sensing techniques for monitoring the Rio Grande Valley cotton stalk destruction program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, A.J.; Gerbermann, A.H.; Summy, K.R.; Anderson, G.L. (Department of Agriculture, Weslaco, TX (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Post harvest cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalk destruction is a cultural practice used in the Rio Grande Valley to suppress over wintering populations of boll weevils (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) without using chemicals. Consistent application of this practice could substantially reduce insecticide usage, thereby minimizing environmental hazards and increasing cotton production profits. Satellite imagery registered within a geographic information system was used to monitor the cotton stalk destruction program in the Rio Grande Valley. We found that cotton stalk screening procedures based on standard multispectral classification techniques could not reliably distinguish cotton from sorghum. Greenness screening for cotton plant stalks after the stalk destruction deadline was possible only where ground observations locating cotton fields were available. These findings indicate that a successful cotton stalk destruction monitoring program will require satellite images and earth referenced data bases showing cotton field locations.

  7. Psychological Impact of Stalking on Male and Female Health Care Professional Victims of Stalking and Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Acquadro Maran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate stalking experiences in a sample of Health Care Professionals, or HCPs, who experienced domestic violence in their previous relationships with an intimate romantic or non-romantic who had become their stalkers. A comparison between males and females was made to highlight the differences among the genders. The findings showed that, for the most part, the victims experienced stalking by a stalker that was not of the same gender. Moreover, the nature of the relationship was romantic, for the most part, for both female and male subjects, suggesting that the principal motivation of stalking is the disruption of an intimate relationship. Regarding domestic violence, females described the phenomenon from a different perspective, indicating verbal, physical, and sexual abuse, while males indicated only verbal abuse. Females tended to amplify, more than the males, depression, and state and trait anxiety. Even if all symptoms were expressed in both females and males, the males exhibited a lack of confidence in their bodies, and the emotional literacy made the expression of distress more difficult. At the same time, the expression of anxiety presented in the women permitted them to become progressively less victimized over time; depression and anxiety allow the recognition of these symptoms as signs of distress and to intervene to reduce them.

  8. Psychological Impact of Stalking on Male and Female Health Care Professional Victims of Stalking and Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquadro Maran, Daniela; Varetto, Antonella

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate stalking experiences in a sample of Health Care Professionals, or HCPs, who experienced domestic violence in their previous relationships with an intimate romantic or non-romantic who had become their stalkers. A comparison between males and females was made to highlight the differences among the genders. The findings showed that, for the most part, the victims experienced stalking by a stalker that was not of the same gender. Moreover, the nature of the relationship was romantic, for the most part, for both female and male subjects, suggesting that the principal motivation of stalking is the disruption of an intimate relationship. Regarding domestic violence, females described the phenomenon from a different perspective, indicating verbal, physical, and sexual abuse, while males indicated only verbal abuse. Females tended to amplify, more than the males, depression, and state and trait anxiety. Even if all symptoms were expressed in both females and males, the males exhibited a lack of confidence in their bodies, and the emotional literacy made the expression of distress more difficult. At the same time, the expression of anxiety presented in the women permitted them to become progressively less victimized over time; depression and anxiety allow the recognition of these symptoms as signs of distress and to intervene to reduce them.

  9. The Gender Pay Gap and the Representation of Women in Higher Education Administrative Positions: The Century so Far. A CUPA-HR Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichsel, Jacqueline; McChesney, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    This brief provides a nuanced interpretation of how higher education has paid women in administrative positions from 2001-2016, as well as the number of women holding top leadership positions in colleges and universities nationwide. Findings in this brief include the following: (1) In 2001, women administrators in higher education earned…

  10. The C-terminal helix of ribosomal P stalk recognizes a hydrophobic groove of elongation factor 2 in a novel fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzawa, Takehito; Kato, Koji; Girodat, Dylan; Ose, Toyoyuki; Kumakura, Yuki; Wieden, Hans-Joachim; Uchiumi, Toshio; Tanaka, Isao; Yao, Min

    2018-04-06

    Archaea and eukaryotes have ribosomal P stalks composed of anchor protein P0 and aP1 homodimers (archaea) or P1•P2 heterodimers (eukaryotes). These P stalks recruit translational GTPases to the GTPase-associated center in ribosomes to provide energy during translation. The C-terminus of the P stalk is known to selectively recognize GTPases. Here we investigated the interaction between the P stalk and elongation factor 2 by determining the structures of Pyrococcus horikoshii EF-2 (PhoEF-2) in the Apo-form, GDP-form, GMPPCP-form (GTP-form), and GMPPCP-form bound with 11 C-terminal residues of P1 (P1C11). Helical structured P1C11 binds to a hydrophobic groove between domain G and subdomain G' of PhoEF-2, where is completely different from that of aEF-1α in terms of both position and sequence, implying that such interaction characteristic may be requested by how GTPases perform their functions on the ribosome. Combining PhoEF-2 P1-binding assays with a structural comparison of current PhoEF-2 structures and molecular dynamics model of a P1C11-bound GDP form, the conformational changes of the P1C11-binding groove in each form suggest that in response to the translation process, the groove has three states: closed, open, and release for recruiting and releasing GTPases.

  11. Trajectories of higher- and lower-order dimensions of negative and positive affect relative to restrictive eating in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynos, Ann F; Berg, Kelly C; Cao, Li; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Peterson, Carol B; Crow, Scott J

    2017-07-01

    Despite robust support for the role of affect in the maintenance of binge eating and purging, the relationship between affect and restrictive eating remains poorly understood. To investigate the relationship between restrictive eating and affect, ecological momentary assessment data from 118 women with anorexia nervosa (AN) were used to examine trajectories of higher-order dimensions of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), as well as lower-order dimensions of NA (Fear, Guilt) and PA (Joviality, Self-Assurance) relative to restrictive eating. Affect trajectories were modeled before and after restrictive eating episodes and AN subtype was examined as a moderator of these trajectories. Across the sample, Guilt significantly increased before and decreased after restrictive eating episodes. Global NA, Global PA, Fear, Joviality, and Self-Assurance did not vary relative to restrictive eating episodes across the sample. However, significant subtype by trajectory interactions were detected for PA indices. Among individuals with AN restricting subtype, Global PA, Joviality, and Self-Assurance decreased prior to and Self-Assurance increased following restrictive eating episodes. In contrast, Global PA and Self-Assurance increased prior to, but did not change following, restrictive eating episodes among individuals with AN binge eating/purging subtype. Results suggest that dietary restriction may function to mitigate guilt across AN subtypes and to enhance self-assurance among individuals with AN restricting subtype. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. A comparison of soda and soda-AQ pulps from cotton stalks | Akgül ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, cotton stalks (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were cooked using soda and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) process. Nine soda cooks were conducted by changing cooking conditions including active alkali charge and pulping time. Soda-AQ cooks were obtained by adding 0.075, 0.10, 0.15, 0.2% AQ (based on o.d stalks) to ...

  13. study on the chopping and mixing of cotton stalks with soil | Sa glam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -type, splined-type and vertical-blade rotating dredge). Field experiments were conducted with each type to determine the proportion of non-uprooted cotton stalks; mean “post-chopping height” of the stalks, measured from soil surface; and the ...

  14. Stalking Victimization among College Women and Subsequent Help-Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhi, Eric R.; Clayton, Heather; Surrency, Heather Hepler

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the incidence of stalking victimization and subsequent help-seeking behaviors among college women. Participants and Methods: A stratified random sample of college women (N = 391) completed an anonymous Internet-based questionnaire in spring 2006. Results: One-fifth of women reported stalking victimization while…

  15. Radiation-induced grafting of sweet sorghum stalk for copper(II) removal from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Jing; Hu, Jun; Wang, Jianlong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Radiation-induced grafting was used to modify the stalk. • Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin participated in grafting reaction. • Both the structure and composition of stalk had influence on grafting. • The sorption capacity of the grafted stalk increased about five times. -- Abstract: The influence of main components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) of the sweet sorghum stalk on radiation-induced grafting reaction and adsorption of copper from aqueous solution was investigated. Sweet sorghum stalk was grafted with acrylic acid induced by γ-irradiation. The results showed that the grafted stalk contained 1.6 mmol/g carboxyl groups, and its maximal adsorption capacity was 13.32 mg/g. The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin of the raw materials were confirmed to involve in grafting reaction through comparing the grafting yield and the structure of the grafted materials. Both the structure and the composition of the sweet sorghum stalk had influence on the grafting reaction and adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacity of the grafted sweet sorghum stalk increased about five times, and the adsorption isotherm of the grafted materials conformed to the Langmuir model. The main mechanism for copper adsorption involved in ion exchange

  16. Victims of stalking in India: A study of girl college students in Tirunelveli City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaishankar Karuppannan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The word 'stalking' was not commonly known in India, until Priyadharshini Mattoo's case (1996 hit the headlines. Eve teasing, a colloquial word for gender harassment is popularly known and Tamil Nadu Prohibition of Eve-Teasing Act, 1998 on that was developed after the brutal killing of a girl named Sarika Shah in Chennai. Though, stalking is there in the past, it was not acknowledged with this terminology and it was always merged with Eve teasing. On the other hand, stalking is much graver than Eve teasing and it is an obsessive behaviour. After the Matoo's case, the Indian Criminal Justice System awoke and the National Commission for Women is ready with a draft Bill (Sexual Assault Prevention Bill to make the Indian Penal Code more effective against the menace of stalkers. Research studies related to stalking in India are sparse and there is a need to study this phenomenon in depth. This paper presents some results from a study of stalking victims among Girl College students at Tirunelveli City, Tamil Nadu, India. In-depth questionnaire data are drawn on to investigate the course and nature of prolonged stalking in 150 self-defined victims. Findings indicate a pattern of repeated intrusions, the stalking harassment methods, lack of reporting behaviour, and effects of stalking on the victims.

  17. Utilization of bio-waste cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalks and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... three-layer particleboard containing different cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalks and underutilized paulownia (paulownia fortunie) wood particle ratios (30, 50 and 70%) using urea formaldehyde resin. Addition of cotton stalk and paulownia wood in particleboard improved mechanical properties of resulting composites ...

  18. Case of pituitary stalk transection syndrome ascertained after breech delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Kaori; Hidaka, Takao; Ono, Yosuke; Kochi, Keiko; Yasoshima, Kuniaki; Arai, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Pituitary stalk transection syndrome (PSTS) is a rare complication that can accompany breech delivery. Early diagnosis of this syndrome is difficult, and it may cause a serious delay in the diagnosis. We present a case of PSTS ascertained after breech delivery. A 20-year-old woman presented with primary amenorrhea. The patient was born by breech delivery and had a history of treatment for pituitary dwarfism. Her laboratory findings showed pituitary hypothyroidism, and hormone replacement therapy was initiated. At 28 years old, she became pregnant and had a normal delivery at 38 weeks' gestation. One year after delivery, her thyroid hormone level changed. Laboratory test showed adrenocortical insufficiency, and magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland showed transection of the pituitary stalk and development of an ectopic posterior lobe. These findings were compatible with PSTS. When a patient who has been born by breech delivery presents with symptoms of pituitary deficiency, PSTS should be considered in the differential diagnosis. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Pyrolysis Characteristics of Corn Stalk with Solid Heat Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Guo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of corn stalk with a solid heat carrier was studied under temperatures ranging from 430 to 620 °C. The solid heat carrier used was high-temperature ash from a CFB boiler. The yields of three products and their characteristics were investigated. Moreover, the distributions of sulfur and nitrogen in the products were determined. The results indicate that with increasing temperature, the char yield decreased, gas yield increased, and calorific value of the gas increased from 10.13 to 16.65 MJ/m3. The yield of bio-oil reached a maximum, 14.24 wt.%, at 510 °C. Light-oil in the bio-oil accounted for more than 69.12 wt.%. The elemental composition of the char and char ash were analyzed. The distribution of sulfur and nitrogen in the char decreased to 60.44 and 46.52 wt.%, respectively, depending on the raw materials used. These results provide basic data for the possible industrial application of corn stalk.

  20. Hormonal regulation of the growth of leaves and inflorescence stalk in Muscari armeniacum Leichtl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that chilling of Muscari bulbs is necessary for the growth of the inflorescence stalk and flowering, but not for the growth of leaves. Gibberellic acid (GA accelerated stem growth and flowering in chilled Muscari bulbs. In the present experiment it was shown that in unchilled derooted Muscari bulbs the growth of leaves, but not the growth of the inflorescence stalk, was observed when bulbs were stored in water, GA at a concentration of 50 and 100 mg/L, benzyladenine (BA at a concentration of 25 and 50 mg/L, or a mixture of GA+BA (50+25 mg/L, but abscisic acid (ABA at a concentration of 10 mg/L greatly inhibited the growth of leaves. In chilled derooted Muscari bulbs the growth of leaves and inflorescence stalk was observed when bulbs were stored in water or GA, but BA and GA+BA treatments totally inhibited the growth of the inflorescence stalk without an effect on the growth of leaves. These results clearly showed that the growth of leaves and inflorescence stalk in Muscari bulbs are controlled by plant growth regulators in different ways. ABA totally inhibited the growth of leaves and inflorescence stalk in chilled derooted Muscari bulbs. It was shown that after the excision of the inflorescence bud in cultivated chilled Muscari bulbs, the inflorescence stalk died, but application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA 0.5% in the place of the removed inflorescence bud induced the growth of the inflorescence stalk. IAA applied under the inflorescence bud inhibited the development of flowers (flower-bud blasting and induced the growth of the inflorescence stalk below the treatment site. These results are discussed with reference to hormonal regulation of stem (stalk growth in tulip, narcissus, hyacinth, and Hippeastrum.

  1. Effect of urea and urea-gamma treatments on cellulose degradation of Thai rice straw and corn stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchorndhevakul, Siriwattana

    2002-01-01

    Cellulose degradation of 20% urea treated and 20% urea-10 kGy gamma treated Thai rice straw and corn stalk showed that combination effect of urea and gamma radiation gave a higher % decrease in neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and cutin in comparison with urea effect only for both room temperature storage and room temperature +258 K storage. The results also indicated that cellulose degradation proceeded with time, even at 258 K. A drastic drop to less than half of the original contents in NDF, ADF, and ADL could not be obtained in this study

  2. Effect of urea and urea-gamma treatments on cellulose degradation of Thai rice straw and corn stalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchorndhevakul, Siriwattana

    2002-08-01

    Cellulose degradation of 20% urea treated and 20% urea-10 kGy gamma treated Thai rice straw and corn stalk showed that combination effect of urea and gamma radiation gave a higher % decrease in neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and cutin in comparison with urea effect only for both room temperature storage and room temperature +258 K storage. The results also indicated that cellulose degradation proceeded with time, even at 258 K. A drastic drop to less than half of the original contents in NDF, ADF, and ADL could not be obtained in this study.

  3. Sex-biased gene expression during head development in a sexually dimorphic stalk-eyed fly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald S Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Stalk-eyed flies (family Diopsidae are a model system for studying sexual selection due to the elongated and sexually dimorphic eye-stalks found in many species. These flies are of additional interest because their X chromosome is derived largely from an autosomal arm in other flies. To identify candidate genes required for development of dimorphic eyestalks and investigate how sex-biased expression arose on the novel X, we compared gene expression between males and females using oligonucleotide microarrays and RNA from developing eyestalk tissue or adult heads in the dimorphic diopsid, Teleopsis dalmanni. Microarray analysis revealed sex-biased expression for 26% of 3,748 genes expressed in eye-antennal imaginal discs and concordant sex-biased expression for 86 genes in adult heads. Overall, 415 female-biased and 482 male-biased genes were associated with dimorphic eyestalk development but not differential expression in the adult head. Functional analysis revealed that male-biased genes are disproportionately associated with growth and mitochondrial function while female-biased genes are associated with cell differentiation and patterning or are novel transcripts. With regard to chromosomal effects, dosage compensation occurs by elevated expression of X-linked genes in males. Genes with female-biased expression were more common on the X and less common on autosomes than expected, while male-biased genes exhibited no chromosomal pattern. Rates of protein evolution were lower for female-biased genes but higher for genes that moved on or off the novel X chromosome. These findings cannot be due to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation or by constraints associated with dosage compensation. Instead, they could be consistent with sexual conflict in which female-biased genes on the novel X act primarily to reduce eyespan in females while other genes increase eyespan in both sexes. Additional information on sex-biased gene expression in other tissues and

  4. Higher order structure in the 3'-minor domain of small subunit ribosomal RNAs from a gram negative bacterium, a gram positive bacterium and a eukaryote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douthwaite, S; Christensen, A; Garrett, R A

    1983-01-01

    of additional higher order structure in the renatured free RNA. It can be concluded that a high level of conservation of higher order structure has occurred during the evolution of the gram negative and gram positive eubacteria and the eukaryote in both the double helical regions and the "unstructured" regions...

  5. MULTI-SENSORY BRANDING AS A TOOL FOR THE FORMATION OF A POSITIVE IMAGE OF THE HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya A. Spirina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study the relevance of the use of sensory branding in higher education and the development of an algorithm for educational brand, based on the use of the senses of the consumer: hearing, sight, touch, smell and taste.Methods. As a methodological basis author uses methods of scientific abstraction, modeling, analysis and synthesis, as well as the method of system analysis. Results. This article discusses the main directions of methodology for higher educationa...

  6. Effect of Banana Stalk Organic Fertilizer on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheli; DING; Lina; HAN; Zhiqiang; JIN; Bizun; WANG; Huicai; ZENG; Wei; ZHENG; Yingdui; HE; Xiaoping; ZANG

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of waste disposal after banana harvest,we use banana stalk to produce banana stalk organic fertilizer,through a plot experiment. We compare the influence of normal organic fertilizer( Wanlubao) and banana stalk organic fertilizer as base fertilizers on Chinese cabbage growth,and evaluate the economic benefits of banana stalk organic fertilizer. The results show that organic fertilizer has little effect on water content and nutrient content of Chinese cabbage,but has significant effect on plant height and leaf width. Using organic fertilizer can increase the production of Chinese cabbage by 22. 50%- 43. 10%. With 6750 kg / ha normal organic fertilizer,Chinese cabbage gets the highest yield,which reaches 30135 kg / ha,followed by the treatment of 6750 kg / ha stalk organic fertilizer. At farmers’ conventional fertilization level( 4500 kg / ha),stalk organic fertilizer can increase the yield by more than 3. 50% in comparison with the normal organic fertilizer,and the economic benefit increases by 1800 yuan / ha. As a kind of banana waste cycling product,banana stalk organic fertilizer is of low cost and good effect,and can be used instead of normal organic fertilizer.

  7. Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

    2011-07-01

    Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2 {micro}m h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger ({approx}100 nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature.

  8. Intracochlear Position of Cochlear Implants Determined Using CT Scanning versus Fitting Levels: Higher Threshold Levels at Basal Turn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, F.B. van der; Briaire, J.J.; Marel, K.S. van der; Verbist, B.M.; Frijns, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, the effects of the intracochlear position of cochlear implants on the clinical fitting levels were analyzed. DESIGN: A total of 130 adult subjects who used a CII/HiRes 90K cochlear implant with a HiFocus 1/1J electrode were included in the study. The insertion angle and

  9. Existence of Positive Solutions for a Coupled System of (p, q-Laplacian Fractional Higher Order Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Prasad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish the existence of at least three positive solutions for a system of (p,q-Laplacian fractional order two-point boundary value problems by applying five functionals fixed point theorem under suitable conditions on a cone in a Banach space.

  10. What Is and What Can Be: How a Liminal Position Can Change Learning and Teaching in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Sather, Alison; Alter, Zanny

    2011-01-01

    In this article we analyze what happens when undergraduate students are positioned as pedagogical consultants in a faculty development program. Drawing on their spoken and written perspectives, and using the classical anthropological concept of "liminality," we illustrate how these student consultants revise their relationships with their teachers…

  11. Victims of stalking in India: A study of girl college students in Tirunelveli City

    OpenAIRE

    Jaishankar Karuppannan; Kosalai Puthisigamani

    2007-01-01

    The word 'stalking' was not commonly known in India, until Priyadharshini Mattoo's case (1996) hit the headlines. Eve teasing, a colloquial word for gender harassment is popularly known and Tamil Nadu Prohibition of Eve-Teasing Act, 1998 on that was developed after the brutal killing of a girl named Sarika Shah in Chennai. Though, stalking is there in the past, it was not acknowledged with this terminology and it was always merged with Eve teasing. On the other hand, stalking is much graver t...

  12. Between Instrumental and Developmental Learning: Ambivalence in Student Values and Identity Positions in Marketized UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The move towards a market-driven HE system in the UK and active policy promotion of students as consumers has generated much commentary on the ways in which students' expectations and experiences have been transformed. This article introduces and develops a conceptualization of contemporary higher students' views of their relationship to higher…

  13. Intracochlear Position of Cochlear Implants Determined Using CT Scanning versus Fitting Levels: Higher Threshold Levels at Basal Turn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, Feddo B; Briaire, Jeroen J; van der Marel, Kim S; Verbist, Berit M; Frijns, Johan H M

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the intracochlear position of cochlear implants on the clinical fitting levels were analyzed. A total of 130 adult subjects who used a CII/HiRes 90K cochlear implant with a HiFocus 1/1J electrode were included in the study. The insertion angle and the distance to the modiolus of each electrode contact were determined using high-resolution CT scanning. The threshold levels (T-levels) and maximum comfort levels (M-levels) at 1 year of follow-up were determined. The degree of speech perception of the subjects was evaluated during routine clinical follow-up. The depths of insertion of all the electrode contacts were determined. The distance to the modiolus was significantly smaller at the basal and apical cochlear parts compared with that at the middle of the cochlea (p basal end of the cochlea (3.4 dB). Additionally, the M-levels, which were fitted in our clinic using a standard profile, also increased toward the basal end, although with a lower amplitude (1.3 dB). Accordingly, the dynamic range decreased toward the basal end (2.1 dB). No correlation was found between the distance to the modiolus and the T-level or the M-level. Furthermore, the correlation between the insertion depth and stimulation levels was not affected by the duration of deafness, age at implantation or the time since implantation. Additionally, the T-levels showed a significant correlation with the speech perception scores (p stimulation levels of the cochlear implants were affected by the intracochlear position of the electrode contacts, which were determined using postoperative CT scanning. Interestingly, these levels depended on the insertion depth, whereas the distance to the modiolus did not affect the stimulation levels. The T-levels increased toward the basal end of the cochlea. The level profiles were independent of the overall stimulation levels and were not affected by the biographical data of the patients, such as the duration of deafness, age at

  14. Discovery of dense aggregations of stalked crinoids in Izu-Ogasawara trench, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oji, Tatsuo; Ogawa, Yujiro; Hunter, Aaron W; Kitazawa, Kota

    2009-06-01

    Stalked crinoids are recognized as living fossils that typically inhabit modern deep-water environments exceeding 100 m. Previous records of stalked crinoids from hadal depths (exceeding 6000 m) are extremely rare, and no in-situ information has been available. We show here that stalked crinoids live densely on rocky substrates at depths over 9000 m in the Izu-Ogasawara Trench off the eastern coast of Japan, evidenced by underwater photos and videos taken by a remotely operated vehicle. This is the deepest in-situ observation of stalked crinoids and demonstrates that crinoid meadows can exist at hadal depths close to the deepest ocean floor, in a fashion quite similar to populations observed in shallower depths.

  15. Study of Nutrient Content Variation in Bulb And Stalk of Onions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Keywords: Onion bulbs and stalks, proximate, nutrient elements, vitamins A and C; oxalate. ... application of fertilizers, manure, compost and ..... iron products, the use of natural source of Fe such .... in Fish and Sediment from Kubanni River,.

  16. Endoscopic endonasal approach for craniopharyngioma: the importance of the relationship between pituitary stalk and tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dho, Yun-Sik; Kim, Yong Hwy; Se, Young-Bem; Han, Doo Hee; Kim, Jung Hee; Park, Chul-Kee; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Kim, Dong Gyu

    2017-09-29

    OBJECTIVE The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) is commonly used for the treatment of craniopharyngioma; therefore, it is essential to analyze outcomes in order to understand the benefits and drawbacks. The goal of this paper was to evaluate the clinical features and outcomes associated with this treatment approach. METHODS From July 2010 to March 2016, 82 adult craniopharyngioma patients underwent an EEA at the authors' institution. Of these cases, intraoperative records and immediate postoperative MR images were available for 68 patients. The patients underwent systemized endocrinological evaluation. Eighteen of 68 patients who underwent EEA for recurrence or regrowth of residual lesions after previous surgical management were excluded in the analysis of the anatomical tumor classification. The authors retrospectively analyzed preoperative clinical features and previous anatomical classifications, focusing on the relationship of the pituitary stalk and tumor, to determine predictive factors for the clinical outcome, such as the extent of resection, visual function, endocrinological function, recurrence rate, and complications. RESULTS The mean tumor size was 2.5 cm (3.1 cm for primary tumors and 1.9 cm for recurrent lesions). Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 62 (91.1%) patients (48 [96.0%] patients with primary tumors and 14 [77.8%] patients with recurrent tumors). The rate of GTR was higher in the primary group than in the group with recurrence (p = 0.038). The overall pre- and postoperative visual impairment scale (VIS) scores were 40.8 and 22.1, respectively (50.9 and 14.3 in the primary group and 30.7 and 29.9 in patients with recurrence, respectively). The improvement rate in VIS score was higher in the primary group than in the recurrent group (p = 0.001). Endocrinological function was improved in 4 patients (5.9%) and deteriorated in 32 of 68 patients (47.1%). Tumor invasion into the center of the pituitary stalk affected the postoperative

  17. MULTI-SENSORY BRANDING AS A TOOL FOR THE FORMATION OF A POSITIVE IMAGE OF THE HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya A. Spirina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study the relevance of the use of sensory branding in higher education and the development of an algorithm for educational brand, based on the use of the senses of the consumer: hearing, sight, touch, smell and taste.Methods. As a methodological basis author uses methods of scientific abstraction, modeling, analysis and synthesis, as well as the method of system analysis. Results. This article discusses the main directions of methodology for higher educational brand formation through the involvement of educational services’ consumers by using different sensory organs. The author presents the main advantages of the sensory branding over conventional not focused on the senses of consumers.Scientific novelty. The author proves the need for innovative approaches to educational branding in economy of values. Market congestion with advertising messages and information noises makes it impossible to win the commitment of consumers of educational services on the basis of the functional characteristics (high-quality education, focusing only on the vision or hearing of consumers (video and print advertising. It is necessary to focus on other senses of the consumer, such as touch, smell, taste. This will enhance the emotional connection with the consumer, make it possible to expand the range of services using an existing brand, and also allow defending against competitors. Multi-sensory branding creates a strong link with the consumer, since emotional commitment is stronger than functional. In other words, a sense of interaction with the brand persists much longer than simple physical satisfaction of needs.Practical significance. The author proposes a system of sensory perception channels of educational brand and their influence on the formation of the image of the higher education institution in the minds of consumers. The author also offers the algorithm of creation the educational brand, based on the five senses of

  18. Colonization of habitat islands in the deep sea: recruitment to glass sponge stalks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Stace E.

    2001-04-01

    Biogenic structures in the deep sea often act as hard substratum 'islands' for the attachment of encrusting fauna. At an abyssal station in the NE Pacific, stalks of hexactinellid sponges in the genus Hyalonema are habitat islands for species-rich epifaunal communities. An experimental study was conducted to (1) determine the colonization rates of artificial Hyalonema stalks, (2) compare the species composition and diversity of recruits to newly available substrata to that of the natural communities, and (3) examine the vertical distribution of recruits. Four sets of six artificial sponge stalks, constructed of Hyalonema spicules, were deployed at 4100 m depth for 3- to 5-month periods. There was no difference in net colonization or immigration rate among the four deployments. Colonization rates were similar to those reported for other deep-sea, hard substratum recruitment experiments. The taxa that recruited to the artificial stalks were a subset of the taxa found in natural communities. However, several taxa important in structuring natural communities did not recruit to the artificial stalks. The two taxa with the highest invasion rates, a calcareous foraminiferan ( Cibicides lobatulus) and a serpulid polychaete ( Bathyvermilia sp.), also were the two taxa with greatest relative abundance in natural communities. Vertical distributions of Cibicides and an agglutinated foraminiferan ( Telammina sp.) were skewed towards the top of the artificial stalks, potentially because of active habitat selection. These results have several implications for natural Hyalonema stalk communities. Most importantly, species composition and abundance of individuals in the stalk communities appear to be maintained by frequent recruitment of a few common taxa and infrequent recruitment of many rare taxa. An argument is presented for temporal-mosaic maintenance of diversity in these deep-sea, hard substratum communities.

  19. A Field Experiment on Enhancement of Crop Yield by Rice Straw and Corn Stalk-Derived Biochar in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochar, a green way to deal with burning and burying biomass, has attracted more attention in recent years. To fill the gap of the effects of different biochar on crop yield in Northern China, the first field experiment was conducted in farmland located in Hebei Province. Biochars derived from two kinds of feedstocks (rice straw and corn stalk were added into an Inceptisols area with different dosages (1 ton/ha, 2 ton/ha or 4 ton/ha in April 2014. The crop yields were collected for corn, peanut, and sweet potato during one crop season from spring to autumn 2014, and the wheat from winter 2014 to summer 2015, respectively. The results showed biochar amendment could enhance yields, and biochar from rice straw showed a more positive effect on the yield of corn, peanut, and winter wheat than corn stalk biochar. The dosage of biochar of 2 ton/ha or 1 ton/ha could enhance the yield by 5%–15% and biochar of 4 ton/ha could increase the yield by about 20%. The properties of N/P/K, CEC, and pH of soils amended with biochar were not changed, while biochar effects could be related to improvement of soil water content.

  20. Effect of Mowing Cotton Stalks and Preventing Plant Re-Growth on Post-Harvest Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard F.; Kemerait, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a major parasite of cotton in the U.S., and management tactics for this nematode attempt to minimize population levels. We compared three post-harvest practices for their ability to reduce nematode population levels in the field, thereby reducing initial nematode population for the next year's crop. The three practices tested were: 1) chemical defoliation before harvest plus cutting cotton stalks after harvest, 2) chemical defoliation plus applying a herbicide to kill plants prior to cutting the stalks, and 3) chemical defoliation without cutting stalks. Experiments were conducted in both the greenhouse and in the field. The greenhouse experiments demonstrated that M. incognita reproduction (measured as egg counts and root gall rating indices) was significantly greater when stalks were not cut. Cutting stalks plus applying herbicide to kill cotton roots did not significantly reduce nematode reproduction compared to cutting stalks alone. In field experiments, cutting stalks reduced egg populations and root galling compared to defoliation without stalk cutting. In a greenhouse bioassay which used soil from the field plots, plants grown in soil from the defoliation only treatment had greater root gall ratings and egg counts than in the stalk cutting plus herbicide treatment. Therefore, we conclude that cutting cotton stalks immediately after harvest effectively reduces M. incognita reproduction, and may lead to a lower initial population density of this nematode in the following year. PMID:22736845

  1. Time Course of Resolution of Hyperprolactinemia After Transsphenoidal Surgery Among Patients Presenting with Pituitary Stalk Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Hasan A; Cote, David J; Castlen, Joseph P; Burke, William T; Liu, Yong-Hui; Smith, Timothy R; Laws, Edward R

    2017-01-01

    Primary lactotroph disinhibition, or stalk effect, occurs when mechanical compression of the pituitary stalk disrupts the tonic inhibition by dopamine released by the hypothalamus. The resolution of pituitary stalk effect-related hyperprolactinemia postoperatively has not been studied in a large cohort of patients. We performed a retrospective review to investigate the time course of recovery of lactotroph disinhibition after transsphenoidal surgery. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for all patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery with the senior author from April 2008 to November 2014. Of 556 pituitary adenomas, 289 (52.0%) were eliminated: 77 (13.9%) had an immunohistochemically confirmed prolactinoma, 119 (21.4%) patients had previous surgery, 93 (16.7%) had incomplete medical records, leaving 267 patients (48.0%) for final analysis. Of these patients, 72 (27.0%) had increased serum prolactin levels (≥23.3 ng/mL), suggestive of pituitary stalk effect (maximum prolactin level = 148.0 ng/mL). Patients with stalk effect were more likely than those with normal serum prolactin levels to present with menstrual dysfunction (29.7% vs. 19.4%; P Transsphenoidal surgery can provide durable normalization of serum prolactin levels and related symptoms caused by pituitary stalk compression-related lactotroph disinhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavioral and Mental Health Correlates of Youth Stalking Victimization: A Latent Class Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Kernsmith, Poco D

    2016-12-01

    Although recognized as a public health problem, little attention has been paid to the problem of stalking among youth. Latent profile analysis was used to identify latent groups of adolescent stalking victims and their behavioral and mental health correlates. A cross-sectional sample of 1,236 youths were randomly selected from 13 schools stratified by community risk level (i.e., low, moderate, and high risk) and gender. Students completed surveys assessing behavioral indicators of stalking victimization, as well as substance use, sexual behavior, dating violence, and psychiatric symptoms. Data were collected in 2013 and data analyses were performed in 2015. Analysis indicated the presence of a non-victim class, a minimal exposure class, and a victim class for boys and girls alike. Approximately 14% of girls and 13% of boys were in the stalking victim class. Adolescents in the victim class reported more symptoms of post-traumatic stress, mood disorder, and hopelessness, as well as more instances of alcohol use, binge drinking, and physical dating violence victimization. Girls in the victim class also reported engaging in sexting behaviors and oral sex with significantly more partners than their non-victim peers. These findings provide valuable knowledge of the prevalence and pertinent health correlates of stalking victimization in adolescence. The data suggest a substantial proportion of adolescents are victims of stalking and are likewise at risk for a number of deleterious health outcomes. As such, this population merits further attention by prevention researchers and practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Enzymatic saccharification of high pressure assist-alkali pretreated cotton stalk and structural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shuang-kui; Su, Xia; Yang, Weihua; Wang, Yanqin; Kuang, Meng; Ma, Lei; Fang, Dan; Zhou, Dayun

    2016-04-20

    Cotton stalk is a potential biomass for bioethanol production, while the conversion of direct saccharification or biotransformation of cotton stalk is extremely low due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulose. To enhance the enzymatic conversion of cotton stalks, the enzymatic saccharification parameters of high pressure assist-alkali pretreatment (HPAP) cotton stalk were optimized in the present study. Results indicated that a maximum reducing sugar yield of 54.7g/100g dry biomass cellulose was achieved at a substrate concentration of 2%, 100rpm agitation, 0.6g/g enzyme loading, 40°C hydrolysis temperature, 50h saccharification time, and pH 5.0. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to identify structural changes in native, pretreated biomass and hydrolyzed residues. Structural analysis revealed large part of amorphous cellulose and partial crystalline cellulose in the HPAP cotton stalk were hydrolyzed during enzymatic treatment. HPAP cotton stalk can be used as a potential feed stock for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coarse-coded higher-order neural networks for PSRI object recognition. [position, scale, and rotation invariant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Reid, Max B.

    1993-01-01

    A higher-order neural network (HONN) can be designed to be invariant to changes in scale, translation, and inplane rotation. Invariances are built directly into the architecture of a HONN and do not need to be learned. Consequently, fewer training passes and a smaller training set are required to learn to distinguish between objects. The size of the input field is limited, however, because of the memory required for the large number of interconnections in a fully connected HONN. By coarse coding the input image, the input field size can be increased to allow the larger input scenes required for practical object recognition problems. We describe a coarse coding technique and present simulation results illustrating its usefulness and its limitations. Our simulations show that a third-order neural network can be trained to distinguish between two objects in a 4096 x 4096 pixel input field independent of transformations in translation, in-plane rotation, and scale in less than ten passes through the training set. Furthermore, we empirically determine the limits of the coarse coding technique in the object recognition domain.

  5. Solid-state fermentation from dried sweet sorghum stalk for bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Omidi, A. [Univ. of Isfahan, Biology Dept., Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Due to depletion of global crude oil, countries are interested to alternate fuel energy resources. Presently bioethanol as a source of energy has been a subject of great interest for the industrialized countries. Therefore, there is need for efficient bioethanol production with low cost raw material and production process. Among energy crops, sweet sorghum is the best candidate for bioethanol production. It has been identified as having higher drought tolerance, lower input cost and higher biomass yield than other energy crops. In addition it has wide adoptability and tolerance to abiotic stresses. Moreover due to the shortage of water in dry and hot countries there is a need to reduce water requirement for bioethanol production and solid state fermentation could be the best process for making bioethanol in these countries. The purpose of this study is to achieve the highest ethanol production with lowest amount of water in solid state fermentation using sweet sorghum stalk. In this study the sweet sorghum particles were used for solid state fermentation. Fermentation medium were: sweet sorghum particles with nutrient media, active yeast powder and different moisture contents. The fermentation medium was incubated for 2-3 days at 30 deg C temperature. The results showed sweet sorghum particles (15% w/w) fermented in medium containing 0.5% yeast inoculums, 73.5% moisture content and 3 days incubation period produced the highest amount of ethanol (13% w/w sorghum)

  6. Clinical presentation and outcome of children with central diabetes insipidus associated with a self-limited or transient pituitary stalk thickening, diagnosed as infundibuloneurohypophysitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefers, J; Cools, M; De Waele, K; Gies, I; Beauloye, V; Lysy, P; Francois, I; Beckers, D; De Schepper, J

    2017-08-01

    Despite lymphocytic or autoimmune infundibuloneurohypophysitis (INH) is an increasingly recognized aetiology in children with central diabetes insipidus (CDI); clinical data on epidemiology (clinical evolution, predisposing factors, complications), diagnosis and management of this entity are limited and mostly based on published case reports. The aim of this study was to gain a broader insight in the natural history of this disease by analysing the clinical presentation, radiological pituitary stalk changes, associated autoimmunity and hormonal deficiencies in children with CDI and a self-limiting or transient stalk thickening (ST), diagnosed as autoimmune infundibuloneurohypophysitis, during the last 15 years in four Belgian university hospitals. The medical files of nine CDI patients with a ST at initial presentation and no signs of Langerhans cell histiocytosis or germinoma at presentation and/or during follow-up of more than 1.5 years were reviewed. Age at presentation ranged from 3 to 14 years. Two patients had a positive family history of autoimmunity. Three children presented with associated growth failure, two with nausea and one with long-standing headache. Median maximal diameter of the stalk was 4.6 mm (2.7-10 mm). Four patients had extra-pituitary brain anomalies, such as cysts. One patient had central hypothyroidism, and another had a partial growth hormone deficiency at diagnosis. Within a mean follow-up of 5.4 (1.5-15) years, stalk thickening remained unchanged in two patients, regressed in one and normalized in six children. CDI remained in all, while additional pituitary hormone deficiencies developed in only one patient. In this series of children INH with CDI as initial presentation, CDI was permanent and infrequently associated with anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, despite a frequent association with nonstalk cerebral lesions. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Endocrinology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Extraction and Hydrophobic Modification of Cotton Stalk Bark Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Yu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton stalk bark fiber (CSBF was extracted at high temperature and under high pressure, under the condition of the alkali content of 11 wt%. Experimental results proved that the extraction yield of CSBF was 27.3 wt%, and the residual alkali concentration was 2.1 wt%. Then five kinds of modifiers including methyl methacrylate (MMA, MMA plus initiator, epoxy propane, copper ethanolamine, and silane coupling agent were chosen to modify the surface of CSBF. It was found by measuring water retention value (WRV that these five kinds of modifiers were all effective and the silane coupling agent was best modifier among all. The optimal modifying conditions of silane coupling agent were obtained: modifier concentration was 5%, the mixing temperature was 20°C, the mixing time was 1 h, and vacuum drying time was 1 h. Under the optimal condition, the WRV of the modified CSBF was 89%. It is expected that these modified CSBF may be a filler with strengthening effect in wood plastic composites (WPC fields.

  8. Gonadotrophic status in adolescents with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottembourg, Diane; Linglart, Agnès; Adamsbaum, Catherine; Lahlou, Najiba; Teinturier, Cécile; Bougnères, Pierre; Carel, Jean-Claude

    2008-07-01

    Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is a frequent cause of GH deficiency (GHD) and is commonly associated with other PH deficiencies (PHDs). Although previous reports have correlated multiple PHDs with severe anatomical lesions, the status of the gonadotrophic axis has not yet been thoroughly analysed. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 27 patients (15 males, 12 females) with GHD and PSIS defined by MRI findings. The status of the gonadotrophic axis was evaluated in children who were at least 14.5 years (boys) or 13 years (girls). Out of 27 patients, five displayed spontaneous full pubertal development with normal hormonal values at the final evaluation, whereas 22 of 27 patients (81%) had complete (n = 18) or partial pubertal deficiency. Three girls had primary amenorrhoea with normal gonadotrophin values, raising the possibility of subtle disturbances of gonadotrophin pulsatility. Of the 21 patients with TSH or ACTH deficiency, 17 (81%) had complete gonadotrophin deficiency. Two of our six patients with apparently isolated GHD during childhood had gonadotrophin deficiency. Cryptorchidism was present at birth in six boys (40%). Of these six boys, one had normal pubertal development. Ten of 11 boys with micropenis at birth had gonadotrophin deficiency. Gonadotrophin deficiency is a common finding in adolescents with PSIS and is frequently associated with other PHDs. However its severity is variable, ranging from complete gonadotrophin deficiency to normogonadotrophic amenorrhoea. The occurrence of gonadotrophin deficiency in 33% of children with apparently isolated GHD and PSIS has important implications for the counselling and follow-up of these patients.

  9. Fast pyrolysis product distribution of biopretreated corn stalk by methanogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tipeng; Ye, Xiaoning; Yin, Jun; Jin, Zaixing; Lu, Qiang; Zheng, Zongming; Dong, Changqing

    2014-10-01

    After pretreated by methanogen for 5, 15 and 25 days, corn stalk (CS) were pyrolyzed at 250, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 °C by Py-GC/MS and product distribution in bio-oil was analyzed. Results indicated that methanogen pretreatment changed considerably the product distribution: the contents of sugar and phenols increased; the contents of linear carbonyls and furans decreased; the contents of linear ketones and linear acids changed slightly. Methanogen pretreatment improved significantly the pyrolysis selectivity of CS to phenols especially 4-VP. At 250 °C, the phenols content increased from 42.25% for untreated CS to 79.32% for biopretreated CS for 5 days; the 4-VP content increased from 28.6% to 60.9%. Increasing temperature was contributed to convert more lignin into 4-VP, but decreased its content in bio-oil due to more other chemicals formed. The effects of biopretreatment time on the chemicals contents were insignificant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cytotoxic Triterpenoids from the Stalks of Microtropis triflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Kui-Wu; Zhou, Man-Qing

    2017-07-01

    Bioassay-guided phytochemical investigation of the stalks of Microtropis triflora Merr. & F.L. Freeman led to the isolation of ten triterpenes 1 - 10, including one novel compound 3,24-epoxy-2α,24-dihydroxyfriedelan-29-oic acid (1). Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including HR-ESI mass spectrometry, 1D- and 2D-NMR ( 1 H, 13 C, 1 H, 1 H-COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY), and by comparison with the data reported. The cytotoxicities of compounds 1 - 10 against a panel of cultured human tumor cell lines (Bcap37, SMMC7721, HeLa, CNE) were evaluated. The new compound 1 showed moderate anti-tumor activities with IC 50 values of 39.22, 29.24, 23.28, and 68.81 μm/ml, respectively. These results might be helpful for explaining the use of M. triflora in traditional medicine. Triterpenes are characteristic of Microtropis genus and could be useful as potential chemotaxonomic markers. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  11. Statistical methods for transverse beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pei, E-mail: pei.zhang@desy.de [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Cockcroft Institute of Science and Technology, Daresbury WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Baboi, Nicoleta [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Jones, Roger M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute of Science and Technology, Daresbury WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-11

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOMs) can be used to provide beam diagnostics. Here we focus on 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities. In particular we study dipole mode excitation and its application to beam position determinations. In order to extract beam position information, linear regression can be used. Due to a large number of sampling points in the waveforms, statistical methods are used to effectively reduce the dimension of the system, such as singular value decomposition (SVD) and k-means clustering. These are compared with the direct linear regression (DLR) on the entire waveforms. A cross-validation technique is used to study the sample independent precisions of the position predictions given by these three methods. A RMS prediction error in the beam position of approximately 50 μm can be achieved by DLR and SVD, while k-means clustering suggests 70 μm.

  12. Statistical methods for transverse beam position diagnostics with higher order modes in third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Jones, R M

    2014-01-01

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) can be used to provide beam diagnostics. Here we focus on 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities. In particular we study dipole mode excitation and its application to beam position determinations. In order to extract beam position information, linear regression can be used. Due to a large number of sampling points in the waveforms, statistical methods are used to effectively reduce the dimension of the system, such as singular value decomposition (SVD) and k-means clustering. These are compared with the direct linear regression (DLR) on the entire waveforms. A cross-validation technique is used to study the sample independent precisions of the position predictions given by these three methods. A RMS prediction error in the beam position of approximately 50 micron can be achieved by DLR and SVD, while k-means clustering suggests 70 micron.

  13. Cyber stalking victimisation of women: Evaluating the effectiveness of current laws in India from restorative justice and therapeutic jurisprudential perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halder Debarati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Victimisation of women through cyber stalking is one of the most serious crimes against women. Many countries including India have developed laws regulating cyber stalking. This article argues that since both, restorative justice (RJ and therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ are victim oriented, the issue of cyber stalking of women may be dealt with by RJ process and the laws in this regard must be analysed by the legal actors with a background in RJ and TJ philosophy. India had earlier taken up therapeutic punishment policy to enforce rights of the accused. But the modern principles of TJ have still not been considered in the RJ background in cyber stalking cases. This article therefore examines whether RJ and TJ principles can replace retributive principles for cyber stalking victimisation. It also examines the Indian cyber stalking law from RJ and TJ perspectives to assess its effectiveness for victims.

  14. Experimental co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost to improve biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guangyin; Zheng Zheng; Yang Shiguan; Fang Caixia; Zou Xingxing; Luo Yan

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost (VC) as well as mono-digestion of corn stalk were investigated. Batch mono-digestion experiments were performed at 35 ± 1 o C and initial total solid loading (TSL) ranged from 1.2% to 6.0%. Batch co-digestion experiments were performed at 35 ± 1 o C and initial TSL of 6% with VC proportions ranged from 20% to 80% of total solid (TS). For mono-digestion of corn stalk, a maximum methane yield of 217.60 ± 13.87 mL/g TS added was obtained at initial TSL of 4.8%, and acidification was found at initial TSL of 6.0% with the lowest pH value of 5.10 on day 4. Co-digestion improved the methane yields by 4.42-58.61% via enhancing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and pH value compared with mono-digestion of corn stalk. The maximum biogas yield of 410.30 ± 11.01 mL/g TS added and methane yield of 259.35 ± 13.85 mL/g TS added were obtained for 40% VC addition. Structure analysis by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that the lowest crystallinity of 35.04 of digested corn stalk was obtained from co-digestion with 40% VC, which decreased 29.4% compared to 49.6 obtained from un-treated corn stalk. It is concluded that co-digestion with VC is beneficial for improving biodigestibility and methane yield from corn stalk.

  15. OXIDATION AND SULFOMETHYLATION OF ALKALI-EXTRACTED LIGNIN FROM CORN STALK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiran Wu,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A lignosulfonate was prepared from alkali-extracted corn stalk lignin (AEL by oxidation under mild conditions and sulfomethylation. The oxidized AEL exhibited lower molecular weight, narrower molecular weight distribution, and higher phenolic hydroxyl content than AEL, demonstrating that oxidized AEL was more reactive than those before oxidation. The content of sulfonic groups was significantly increased with the increase in sodium sulphite to AEL ratio, while the content slightly decreased when the ratio was above 1:1. During the sulfomethylation, the content of sulfonic groups increased with time and then achieved a constant level with the increase in time. The content of sulfonic groups reached 1.29 mmol/g, the maximum value, at 5 h and a sodium sulphite to AEL ratio of 1:1. The solubility of AEL was obviously improved by sulfomethylation with the increase in the content of sulfonic groups. The surface activity of AEL was improved after sulfomethylation. The sulfomethylation products exhibited good dispersibility and showed potential for use as a dye dispersant.

  16. Effect of Pleurotus eryngii stalk residue on the oxidative status and meat quality of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Tai; Ciou, Jhih-Ying; Chiang, Ching-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng; Yu, Bi

    2012-11-07

    Pleurotus eryngii stalk residue (PESR) is a byproduct of the edible portion of the fruiting body. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of PESR on the oxidative status and meat quality of broilers. Two hundred fifty 1-d-old male broilers (Arbor Acre) were evenly divided by gender and randomly allocated into control (corn-soybean meal diet) or 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, or 20.0 g/kg dried PESR groups. The results revealed that at 35 d, the dried PESR groups displayed a significantly increased water-holding capacity and decreased storage loss of breast and thigh fillets when compared to the control group. Regarding fillets color, the L* (lightness) values were lower and the a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values were higher following dried PESR supplementation. In 5.0-20.0 g/kg PESR supplementation groups, the activities of antioxidative enzymes were significantly elevated in serum, liver, spleen, and fillet tissues when compared to control group. Additionally, malondialdehyde production was slightly decreased in the PESR supplementation groups. Lower crude fat contents were observed in fillet tissues of 5.0-20.0 g/kg PESR groups when compared with the control group. In conclusion, PESR may potentially be used as an antioxidant to decrease lipid peroxidation and improve meat quality in broilers.

  17. Microwave-assisted extraction of rutin and quercetin from the stalks of Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Yang, Yi; Su, Ping; Guo, Zhenku

    2009-01-01

    Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) has been used as one of traditional Chinese medicines for several thousand years. Conventional methods for the extraction of rutin and quercetin from E. alatus, including solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction and heat reflux extraction are characterised by long extraction times and consumption of large amounts of solvents. To develop a simple and rapid method for the extraction of rutin and quercetin from the stalks of Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique. MAE experiments were performed with a multimode microwave extraction system. The experimental variables that affect the MAE process, such as the concentration of ethanol solution, extractant volume, microwave power and extraction time were optimised. Yields were determined by HPLC. The results were compared with that obtained by classical Soxhlet and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE). From the optimised conditions for MAE of rutin and quercetin it can be concluded that the solvent is 50% ethanol (v/v) solution, the extractant volume is 40 mL, microwave power is 170 W and irradiation time is 6 min. Compared with Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic extraction, microwave extraction is a rapid method with a higher yield and lower solvent consumption. The results showed that MAE can be used as an efficient and rapid method for the extraction of the active components from plants.

  18. Kinetic Study of Cotton Stalk and Rice Husk Samples under an Inert and Oxy Combustion Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulamullah Mailto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass materials such as CS (Cotton Stalks and RH (Rice Husk are a renewable source of energy. As biomass resources have potential to offer a uninterpted supply of biofuels through thermal decomposition processes. Nevertheless, an appropriate understanding of reaction kinetics and thermal properties of biomasses play a vital role in designing of the commercial plants using biomass as a raw material for energy generation. The kinetic characteristics of the CS and RH samples under pure nitrogen 99.9% and pure oxygen 99.9% was performed. The temperature was raised from ambient to 900oC maintaining the heating rate of 10oC/min. CS and RH decomposition was noticed in three dissimilar regions. The kinetic characteristics such as (pre-exponential factor, the order of reaction and activation energy were calculated for both selected materials. The activation energies calculated under nitrogen environment for CS and RH was 68.77 and 72.31 kJ/mole, whereas the regression coefficient (R2 was 0.9877 and 0.9731 respectively. The activation energies under oxygen environment were higher, it was 106 and 118 kJ/mole. The regression coefficient (R2 under oxygen environment was 0.9987 and 0.99883 for above sample sequence.

  19. Stalk-dependent and Stalk-independent Signaling by the Adhesion G Protein-coupled Receptors GPR56 (ADGRG1) and BAI1 (ADGRB1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Ayush; Purcell, Ryan H; Nassiri-Toosi, Zahra; Hall, Randy A

    2016-02-12

    The adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) are a large yet poorly understood family of seven-transmembrane proteins. A defining characteristic of the aGPCR family is the conserved GAIN domain, which has autoproteolytic activity and can cleave the receptors near the first transmembrane domain. Several aGPCRs, including ADGRB1 (BAI1 or B1) and ADGRG1 (GPR56 or G1), have been found to exhibit significantly increased constitutive activity when truncated to mimic GAIN domain cleavage (ΔNT). Recent reports have suggested that the new N-terminal stalk, which is revealed by GAIN domain cleavage, can directly activate aGPCRs as a tethered agonist. We tested this hypothesis in studies on two distinct aGPCRs, B1 and G1, by engineering mutant receptors lacking the entire NT including the stalk (B1- and G1-SL, with "SL" indicating "stalkless"). These receptors were evaluated in a battery of signaling assays and compared with full-length wild-type and cleavage-mimicking (ΔNT) forms of the two receptors. We found that B1-SL, in multiple assays, exhibited robust signaling activity, suggesting that the membrane-proximal stalk region is not necessary for its activation. For G1, however, the results were mixed, with the SL mutant exhibiting robust activity in several signaling assays (including TGFα shedding, activation of NFAT luciferase, and β-arrestin recruitment) but reduced activity relative to ΔNT in a distinct assay (activation of SRF luciferase). These data support a model in which the activation of certain pathways downstream of aGPCRs is stalk-dependent, whereas signaling to other pathways is stalk-independent. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Thermal Stress Analysis for Ceramics Stalk in the Low Pressure Die Casting Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Nao-Aki; Hendra, Nao-Aki; Takase, Yasushi; Li, Wenbin

    Low pressure die casting (LPDC) is defined as a net shape casting technology in which the molten metal is injected at high speeds and pressure into a metallic die. The LPDC process is playing an increasingly important role in the foundry industry as a low-cost and high-efficiency precision forming technique. The LPDC process is that the permanent die and filling systems are placed over the furnace containing the molten alloy. The filling of the cavity is obtained by forcing the molten metal by means of a pressurized gas in order to rise into a ceramic tube, which connects the die to the furnace. The ceramics tube called stalk has high temperature resistance and high corrosion resistance. However, attention should be paid to the thermal stress when the stalk is dipped into the molten aluminum. It is important to develop the design of the stalk to reduce the risk of fracture because of low fracture toughness of ceramics. In this paper, therefore, the finite element method is applied to calculate the thermal stresses when the stalk is dipped into the crucible by varying the dipping speeds and dipping directions. It is found that the thermal stress can be reduced by dipping slowly if the stalk is dipped into the crucible vertically, while the thermal stress can be reduced by dipping fast if it is dipped horizontally.

  1. Mass transfer effect of the stalk contraction-relaxation cycle of Vorticella convallaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiazhong; Admiraal, David; Ryu, Sangjin

    2014-11-01

    Vorticella convallaria is a genus of protozoa living in freshwater. Its stalk contracts and coil pulling the cell body towards the substrate at a remarkable speed, and then relaxes to its extended state much more slowly than the contraction. However, the reason for Vorticella's stalk contraction is still unknown. It is presumed that water flow induced by the stalk contraction-relaxation cycle may augment mass transfer near the substrate. We investigated this hypothesis using an experimental model with particle tracking velocimetry and a computational fluid dynamics model. In both approaches, Vorticella was modeled as a solid sphere translating perpendicular to a solid surface in water. After having been validated by the experimental model and verified by grid convergence index test, the computational model simulated water flow during the cycle based on the measured time course of stalk length changes of Vorticella. Based on the simulated flow field, we calculated trajectories of particles near the model Vorticella, and then evaluated the mass transfer effect of Vorticella's stalk contraction based on the particles' motion. We acknowlege support from Laymann Seed Grant of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  2. Cultural Models Shaping Stalking From a Content Analysis of Italian Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caputo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing spread of stalking in recent years has captured the community’s and media’s interest and highlighted complex legal, clinical and cultural issues. This phenomenon, far from being an individual problem, can be considered as a product of a growing culture that seems to reveal the crisis of current rules of social coexistence. This work aims at detecting the cultural repertoires that organise the stalking discourse, from an analysis of Italian newspaper articles, within a socio-constructivist paradigm. Emotional text analysis was conducted on a corpus of headlines and subheadings derived from 496 articles. These articles were published in major national newspapers and helped to identify four cultural repertoires (clusters that characterise the social representation of stalking: gender violence and women’s social independence (Cluster 1, psychological violence and control as illusion of intimacy (Cluster 2, anomic violence and intolerant individualism (Cluster 3, domestic violence and women’s marital obligation (Cluster 4. These repertoires are conceived along three latent dimensions which respectively refer to the cultural functions of stalking (Factor 1, representations of the victim (Factor 2, and gender inequalities (Factor 3. The paper offers a key to a social contextualisation of stalking in Italy, in order to re-think work practices within institutional agencies that deal with this phenomenon.

  3. Higher risk sexual behaviour is associated with unawareness of HIV-positivity and lack of viral suppression - implications for Treatment as Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerga, Helena; Venables, Emilie; Ben-Farhat, Jihane; van Cutsem, Gilles; Ellman, Tom; Kenyon, Chris

    2017-11-23

    Efficacy of Treatment as Prevention Strategy depends on a variety of factors including individuals' likelihood to test and initiate treatment, viral load and sexual behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that people with higher risk sexual behaviour are less likely to know their HIV-positive status and be virologically suppressed. A cross-sectional population-based survey of individuals aged 15-59 years old was conducted in 2013 in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A two-stage cluster probability sampling was used. After adjustment for age and sex, lack of awareness of HIV-positivity was strongly associated with having more than one sexual partner in the preceding year (aOR: 2.1, 95%CI: 1.5-3.1). Inconsistent condom use was more common in individuals with more than one sexual partner (aOR: 16.6, 95%CI: 7.6-36.7) and those unaware (aOR: 3.7, 95%CI: 2.6-5.4). Among people aware of their HIV-positivity, higher risk sexual behaviour was associated with lack of viral suppression (aOR: 2.2, 95%CI: 1.1-4.5). Risky sexual behaviour seems associated with factors linked to poor health-seeking behaviour which may have negative implications for HIV testing and Treatment as Prevention. Innovative strategies, driven by improved epidemiological and anthropological understanding, are needed to enable comprehensive approaches to HIV prevention.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of thickened pituitary stalk proceeding to langerhans cell histiocytosis in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halefoglu, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has shown isolated pituitary stalk thickening in certain cases of idiopathic or secondary central diabetes insipidus (Dl) due to infiltrative processes. We present a 4-year-old boy who was initially diagnosed as having central Dl. The MRI showed isolated pituitary stalk thickening with prominent homogeneous contrast enhancement. The remaining findings on MRI were within normal limits. The patient's personal and family history and laboratory and clinical findings were unremarkable; therefore, he was initially diagnosed as having idiopathic Dl. Since central Dl and isolated pituitary stalk thickening may be considered to be the first manifestations of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, we decided to follow up the patient. After 5 months, following the initial diagnosis, on skeletal X-ray survey, the patient did indeed develop multiple lytic skull lesions which, on biopsy, were histologically typical bone lesions of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Copyright (2006) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer, 1889 (Staurozoa: Stauromedusae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Hui Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer (Staurozoa: Stauromedusae has been sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome comprises of 15,766 bp including 13 protein coding genes, 7 transfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The overall base of Antarctic stalked jellyfish constitutes of 26.5% for A, 19.6% for C, 19.8% for G, 34.1% for T and show 90% identity to Sessile Jelly, Haliclystus sanjuanensis, in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The complete mitogenome of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, contributes fundamental and significant DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for seahorse phylogeny. The complete sequence was deposited in DBBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number KU947038.

  6. Ecological and physiological aspects of aestivation-diapause in the larvae of two Pyralid stalk borers of maize in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltes, P.

    1978-01-01

    Stalk borers are highly destructive to a large number of important graminaceous crops all over the world. Some examples of economically important stalk borers and a general description of their life-cycle are mentioned in chapter 1. In the same chapter difficulties in controlling the insects are

  7. Entre les violences conjugales et le harcèlement moral : le stalking .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Desurmont

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ce livre de la criminologue Murielle Anteo est le premier publié en langue française sur le stalking si l’on excepte les travaux encore inédits de Virginie Léon (2004. Comme le rappelle l’auteure, le terme est emprunté à l’anglais to stalk (hanter, rôder, et désigne un comportement menaçant, initié par un individu dont l’objectif conscient ou inconscient est l’objectivation de sa victime à des fins de domination. L’agression prend différentes formes : ...

  8. Body stalk anomaly in Denmark during 20 years (1970-1989)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Body stalk anomaly is a severe defect of the abdominal wall with uncovered thoracic and/or abdominal organs. The umbilical cord is absent or very short. Here I present epidemiological and clinical data on 16 infants with body stalk anomaly. The 16 infants represent 3.4% of the 469 infants...... ascertained in an almost complete nationwide data set of live- and stillborn infants born with abdominal wall defects during the two decades 1970-1989 in Denmark. The prevalence was 0.12 per 10,000 live- and stillborn. Nine of the infants were stillbirths, seven were live births, and they all died shortly...

  9. Preparation of nitrogen-doped cotton stalk microporous activated carbon fiber electrodes with different surface area from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk for electrochemical degradation of methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunquan Li

    Full Text Available Cotton-stalk activated carbon fibers (CSCFs with controllable micropore area and nitrogen content were prepared as an efficient electrode from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk by steam/ammonia activation. The influence of microporous area, nitrogen content, voltage and initial concentration on the electrical degradation efficiency of methylene blue (MB was evaluated by using CSCFs as anode. Results showed that the CSCF electrodes exhibited excellent MB electrochemical degradation ability including decolorization and COD removal. Increasing micropore surface area and nitrogen content of CSCF anode leaded to a corresponding increase in MB removal. The prepared CSCF-800-15-N, which has highest N content but lowest microporous area, attained the best degradation effect with 97% MB decolorization ratio for 5 mg/L MB at 12 V in 4 h, implying the doped nitrogen played a prominent role in improving the electrochemical degradation ability. The electrical degradation reaction was well described by first-order kinetics model. Overall, the aforesaid findings suggested that the nitrogen-doped CSCFs were potential electrode materials, and their electrical degradation abilities could be effectively enhanced by controlling the nitrogen content and micropore surface area. Keywords: Cotton stalk, Nitrogen content, Electrode, Surface area, Methylene blue

  10. Concentration of cadmium, zinc and manganese in root, stalk and leaf of spinach and tomato in Hamedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghobadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are considers as significant environment pollutants. Their entrance into food chain is a serious health hazard to humans. This study was conducted to determine the concentrations of Cadmium, Zinc and Manganese in root, stalk and leaf portions of spinach and tomato. For this reason, during 2014 in Hamedan city, 3 farms with 5 repetitions from each farm were sampled. Samples were subjected to acid-digestion and the concentrations of the elements were assayed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP. According to the results, the average concentrations of heavy metals in root, stalk and leaf of spinach was estimated at: cadmium, 0.14, 0.24, 0.34 mg/kg, zinc, 15.53, 24.82, 35 mg/kg and manganese, 26.59, 24.42, 45.38 mg/kg, respectively. The data for the tomato samples were: cadmium, 16.20, 24.42, 33.81 mg/kg, Zinc, 21.48, 39.74, 52.92 mg/kg and manganese, 26.60, 42.41, 61.90 mg/kg, respectively. The mean concentration of cadmium and manganese in spinach and tomato showed a significant difference with the WHO/FAO standard limit. However, in the case of zinc the difference was insignificant. It was concluded that in this experiment the spinach and tomato samples were polluted with higher concentration of cadmium and manganese than the approved limit of WHO/FAO and therefore was found risky for the consumers.

  11. Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli in Sugarcane Stalk Juice Using a Real-Time Fluorescent (TaqMan PCR Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Ying Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ratoon stunting disease (RSD of sugarcane, one of the most important diseases seriously affecting the productivity of sugarcane crops, was caused by the bacterial agent Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx. A TaqMan probe-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assay was established in this study for the quantification of Lxx detection in sugarcane stalk juice. A pair of PCR primers (Pat1-QF/Pat1-QR and a fluorogenic probe (Pat1-QP targeting the Part1 gene of Lxx were used for the qPCR assay. The assay had a detection limit of 100 copies of plasmid DNA and 100 fg of Lxx genomic DNA, which was 100-fold more sensitive than the conventional PCR. Fifty (28.7% of 174 stalk juice samples from two field trials were tested to be positive by qPCR assay, whereas, by conventional PCR, only 12.1% (21/174 were tested to be positive with a published primer pair CxxITSf#5/CxxITSr#5 and 15.5% (27/174 were tested to be positive with a newly designed primer pair Pat1-F2/Pat1-R2. The new qPCR assay can be used as an alternative to current diagnostic methods for Lxx, especially when dealing with certificating a large number of healthy cane seedlings and determining disease incidence accurately in commercial fields.

  12. A comparison of soda and soda-AQ pulps from cotton stalks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Duzce University, Faculty of Forestry, Konuralp Campus, 81620 Düzce, Turkey. ... two in Latin America and three in Africa and Middle East. (Casey, 1990). ... After that the cotton stalks were dried in the laboratory atmosphere, ...

  13. Thermal Stress and Heat Transfer Coefficient for Ceramics Stalk Having Protuberance Dipping into Molten Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Nao-Aki; Hendra; Li, Wenbin; Takase, Yasushi; Ogura, Hiroki; Higashi, Yusuke

    Low pressure die casting is defined as a net shape casting technology in which the molten metal is injected at high speeds and pressure into a metallic die. The low pressure die casting process plays an increasingly important role in the foundry industry as a low-cost and high-efficiency precision forming technique. In the low pressure die casting process is that the permanent die and filling systems are placed over the furnace containing the molten alloy. The filling of the cavity is obtained by forcing the molten metal, by means of a pressurized gas, to rise into a ceramic tube having protuberance, which connects the die to the furnace. The ceramics tube, called stalk, has high temperature resistance and high corrosion resistance. However, attention should be paid to the thermal stress when the stalk having protuberance is dipped into the molten aluminum. It is important to reduce the risk of fracture that may happen due to the thermal stresses. In this paper, thermo-fluid analysis is performed to calculate surface heat transfer coefficient. The finite element method is applied to calculate the thermal stresses when the stalk having protuberance is dipped into the crucible with varying dipping speeds. It is found that the stalk with or without protuberance should be dipped into the crucible slowly to reduce the thermal stress.

  14. Gene duplication, tissue-specific gene expression and sexual conflict in stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard H; Narechania, Apurva; Johns, Philip M; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2012-08-19

    Gene duplication provides an essential source of novel genetic material to facilitate rapid morphological evolution. Traits involved in reproduction and sexual dimorphism represent some of the fastest evolving traits in nature, and gene duplication is intricately involved in the origin and evolution of these traits. Here, we review genomic research on stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae) that has been used to examine the extent of gene duplication and its role in the genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism. Stalk-eyed flies are remarkable because of the elongation of the head into long stalks, with the eyes and antenna laterally displaced at the ends of these stalks. Many species are strongly sexually dimorphic for eyespan, and these flies have become a model system for studying sexual selection. Using both expressed sequence tag and next-generation sequencing, we have established an extensive database of gene expression in the developing eye-antennal imaginal disc, the adult head and testes. Duplicated genes exhibit narrower expression patterns than non-duplicated genes, and the testes, in particular, provide an abundant source of gene duplication. Within somatic tissue, duplicated genes are more likely to be differentially expressed between the sexes, suggesting gene duplication may provide a mechanism for resolving sexual conflict.

  15. A rare cause of hyperprolactinemia: persistent trigeminal artery with stalk-section effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekinci, G.; Baltacioglu, F.; Cimsit, C.; Akpinar, I.; Erzen, C.; Kilic, T.; Pamir, N.

    2001-01-01

    The primitive trigeminal, otic, hypoglossal, and proatlantal intersegmental arteries are fetal anastomoses between the carotid and vertebrobasilar systems. Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most frequent embryonic communication between the vertebrobasilar and carotid systems in adults. We report a case of PTA compressing the left side of the pituitary gland and stalk, in a patient with elevated blood prolactin level. (orig.)

  16. Synergistic effect on co-pyrolysis of capsicum stalks and coal | Niu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the depletion of fossil fuel and the concern about environmental issues, the utilization of biomass resources has attracted increasing worldwide interest. The pyrolysis behavior of capsicum stalks and Baoji coal mixtures was investigated by TG-DSC. Results show that the thermal degradation temperature range of ...

  17. Biochemical response and host-pathogen relation of stalk rot fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stalk rot is a destructive disease in maize caused by Fusarium and Macrophomina species. A study was carried out to understand the mode of infection, host biochemical response and comparison of inoculation techniques in Fusarium verticillioides and Macrophomina phaseolina in maize. In seed inoculation experiment, ...

  18. Stalking. Part II: Victims' problems with the legal system and therapeutic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, K M; Robinson, G E

    1998-06-01

    This paper is the second of 2 parts reviewing the topic of stalking. It focuses on victims difficulties with the legal system and the psychotherapeutic tasks for victims and therapists. Computerized literature searches were used to identify relevant papers from psychiatric and legal journals. Publications by victims' and women's organizations provided additional information. Victims suffer emotional consequences from being stalked. Additional stress is caused by the legal system's lack of understanding of the causes and consequences of stalking and inadequate and unenforced laws. The treatment of victims requires a comprehensive approach, including education, supportive psychotherapy, and discussion of practical measures. Therapists may overidentify with the patient's powerlessness or hesitate to take on a case out of fear of the stalker. Female therapists may protect themselves against the realization of their own vulnerability by blaming the victim, while male therapists may feel defensive or overprotective. Stalking is a crime with major mental health consequences which is often poorly understood by society. Therapists need to be aware of the victim's emotional reactions, the types of legal and practical supports available, and the possible biases of society. Further education and research should be encouraged.

  19. Transection of the pituitary stalk: evaluation of two cases by computerized tomography and magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, L.L.F. do; Mendonca, R.A.; Natal, M.R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The authors present two cases of pituitary dwarfism where the study by high resolution computed tomography and by magnetic resonance imaging show transection of the pituitary stalk as the cause of the endocrine disturb. The importance of these methods on the investigation of disturbs of the hypothalamus-hypophyseal axis is stressed. (author)

  20. A study on the chopping and mixing of cotton stalks with soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... INTRODUCTION ... porating plant residues into soil reduces the risk of soil ... stalks into soil increases the productivity of the field. ... producers were asked about the total area of their agricultural fields .... are made of forged steel in one piece. ... maintenance works such as thinning, weeding and irrigation.

  1. Continuous ethanol production using yeast immobilized on sugar-cane stalks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, J.N. de [Alagoas Univ., Maceio, AL (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: jnunes@ctec.ufal.br; Lopes, C.E. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos; Franca, F.P. de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Dept. de Engenharia Bioquimica

    2004-09-01

    Sugar-cane stalks, 2.0 cm long, were used as a support for yeast immobilization envisaging ethanol production. The assays were conducted in 38.5 L fermenters containing a bed of stalks with 50% porosity. The operational stability of the immobilized yeast, the efficiency and stability of the process, as well as the best dilution rate were evaluated. Molasses from demerara sugar production was used in the medium formulation. It was diluted to obtain 111.75 {+-} 1.51 g/L without any further treatment. Sulfuric acid was used to adjust the pH value to around 4.2. Every two days Kamoran HJ (10 ppm) or with a mixture containing penicillin (10 ppm) and tetracycline (10 ppm), was added to the medium. Ethanol yield and efficiency were 29.64 g/L.h and 86.40%, respectively, and the total reducing sugars conversion was 74.61% at a dilution rate of 0.83 h{sup -1}. The yeast-stalk system was shown to be stable for over a 60 day period at extremely variable dilution rates ranging from 0.05 h{sup -1} to 3.00 h{sup -1}. The concentration of immobilized cell reached around 109 cells/gram of dry sugar-cane stalk when the fermenter was operating at the highest dilution rate (3.00 h{sup -1}). (author)

  2. Effects of fistular onion stalk extract on the level of NO and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... In this study, we investigated the effects of fistular onion stalk extracts on nitric oxide ... and flavonoids in onion (Knekt et al., 1996). ... cells lie between blood flow and smooth muscle cells. ... strated by a reduction in the blood vessel dilation factors .... raw onion inhibits platelet-mediated thrombosis in dogs.

  3. Wet Oxidation Pretreatment of Tobacco Stalks and Orange Waste for Bioethanol Production. Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Carlos; Fernandez, Teresa; Garcia, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Wet oxidation (WO) was used as a pretreatment method prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of tobacco stalks and orange waste. The pretreatment, performed at 195 degrees C and an oxygen pressure of 1.2 MPa, for 15 min, in the presence of Na2CO3, increased the cellulose content of the materials and gave c...

  4. Retrospective data suggests that the higher prevalence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in individuals with type 2 diabetes is mediated by hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Linda J; Staecker, Hinrich; Lin, James; Sykes, Kevin J; Phadnis, Milind A; McMahon, Tamara M; Connolly, Dan; Sabus, Carla H; Whitney, Susan L; Kluding, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) has been linked to comorbidities like diabetes and hypertension. However, the relationship between type 2 diabetes (DM) and BPPV is unclear. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the relationship between DM and BPPV in the presence of known contributors like age, gender and hypertension. A retrospective review of the records of 3933 individuals was categorized by the specific vestibular diagnosis and for the presence of type 2 DM and hypertension. As the prevalence of BPPV was higher in people with type 2 DM compared to those without DM, multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify variables predictive of BPPV. The relationship between type 2 DM, hypertension and BPPV was analyzed using mediation analysis. BPPV was seen in 46% of individuals with type 2 DM, compared to 37% of individuals without DM (pdiabetes affects the vestibular system. Individuals with complaints of dizziness, with comorbidities including hypertension and diabetes, may benefit from a screening for BPPV.

  5. Colchicine affects cell motility, pattern formation and stalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium by altering calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloz, Yekaterina; O'Day, Danton H

    2012-04-01

    Previous work, verified here, showed that colchicine affects Dictyostelium pattern formation, disrupts morphogenesis, inhibits spore differentiation and induces terminal stalk cell differentiation. Here we show that colchicine specifically induces ecmB expression and enhances accumulation of ecmB-expressing cells at the posterior end of multicellular structures. Colchicine did not induce a nuclear translocation of DimB, a DIF-1 responsive transcription factor in vitro. It also induced terminal stalk cell differentiation in a mutant strain that does not produce DIF-1 (dmtA-) and after the treatment of cells with DIF-1 synthesis inhibitor cerulenin (100 μM). This suggests that colchicine induces the differentiation of ecmB-expressing cells independent of DIF-1 production and likely through a signaling pathway that is distinct from the one that is utilized by DIF-1. Depending on concentration, colchicine enhanced random cell motility, but not chemotaxis, by 3-5 fold (10-50 mM colchicine, respectively) through a Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathway involving phospholipase C, calmodulin and heterotrimeric G proteins. Colchicine's effects were not due to microtubule depolymerization as other microtubule-depolymerizing agents did not have these effects. Finally normal morphogenesis and stalk and spore cell differentiation of cells treated with 10 mM colchicine were rescued through chelation of Ca2+ by BAPTA-AM and EDTA and calmodulin antagonism by W-7 but not PLC inhibition by U-73122. Morphogenesis or spore cell differentiation of cells treated with 50 mM colchicine could not be rescued by the above treatments but terminal stalk cell differentiation was inhibited by BAPTA-AM, EDTA and W-7, but not U-73122. Thus colchicine disrupts morphogenesis and induces stalk cell differentiation through a Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathway involving specific changes in gene expression and cell motility. Copyright © 2011 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B

  6. Does a higher income have positive health effects? Using the earned income tax credit to explore the income-health gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrimore, Jeff

    2011-12-01

    The existence of a positive relationship between income and morbidity has been well documented in the literature. But it is unclear whether the relationship is positive because increased income allows individuals to purchase more health inputs that improve their health, because healthy individuals are more productive and thus can earn higher wages in the labor market, or because a third factor is improving health and increasing income. This article explores whether increases in income improve the health of the low-income population. Because health status may affect income, this article uses an "instrumental variable" strategy that considers income variations over seventeen years of changes in the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credits (EITC, a measure that should be exogenous to health status). I measured health status using both the self-reported health status and the functional limitations indicated on the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), as well as the self-reported health status indicated on the March Current Population Survey (CPS). I found only limited support for the theory that the relationship between income and morbidity is derived from shifts in income. Although I did observe a correlation between income and self-reported health, I found no evidence that increases in income significantly improve self-reported health statuses. In addition, while increases in income appear to reduce the prevalence of hearing limitations when using corrective measures, these increases did not have a significant effect on most of the other functional limitations considered here. These findings suggest that the ability to improve short-term health outcomes through public transfer payments may be limited. However, the lifetime effects on the health of people with higher incomes would still be a valuable avenue for future research. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  7. Higher baseline viral diversity correlates with lower HBsAg decline following PEGylated interferon-alpha therapy in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Zhang, Li; Ren, Hong; Hu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Viral diversity seems to predict treatment outcomes in certain viral infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between baseline intra-patient viral diversity and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) decline following PEGylated interferon-alpha (Peg-IFN-α) therapy. Twenty-six HBeAg-positive patients who were treated with Peg-IFN-α were enrolled. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning, and sequencing of the hepatitis B virus S gene were performed on baseline samples, and normalized Shannon entropy (Sn) was calculated as a measure of small hepatitis B surface protein (SHBs) diversity. Multiple regression analysis was used to estimate the association between baseline Sn and HBsAg decline. Of the 26 patients enrolled in the study, 65.4% were male and 61.5% were infected with hepatitis B virus genotype B. The median HBsAg level at baseline was 4.5 log 10 IU/mL (interquartile range: 4.1-4.9) and declined to 3.0 log 10 IU/mL (interquartile range: 1.7-3.9) after 48 weeks of Peg-IFN-α treatment. In models adjusted for baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and HBsAg, the adjusted coefficients (95% CI) for ΔHBsAg and relative percentage HBsAg decrease were -1.3 (-2.5, -0.2) log 10 IU/mL for higher SHBs diversity (Sn≥0.58) patients and -26.4% (-50.2%, -2.5%) for lower diversity (Sndiversity. Baseline intra-patient SHBs diversity was inverse to HBsAg decline in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients receiving Peg-IFN-α monotherapy. Also, more sequence variations within the "a" determinant upstream flanking region and the first loop of the "a" determinant were the main sources of the higher SHBs diversity.

  8. Does a Higher Income Have Positive Health Effects? Using the Earned Income Tax Credit to Explore the Income-Health Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrimore, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Context The existence of a positive relationship between income and morbidity has been well documented in the literature. But it is unclear whether the relationship is positive because increased income allows individuals to purchase more health inputs that improve their health, because healthy individuals are more productive and thus can earn higher wages in the labor market, or because a third factor is improving health and increasing income. This article explores whether increases in income improve the health of the low-income population. Methods Because health status may affect income, this article uses an “instrumental variable” strategy that considers income variations over seventeen years of changes in the generosity of state and federal Earned Income Tax Credits (EITC, a measure that should be exogenous to health status). I measured health status using both the self-reported health status and the functional limitations indicated on the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), as well as the self-reported health status indicated on the March Current Population Survey (CPS). Findings I found only limited support for the theory that the relationship between income and morbidity is derived from shifts in income. Although I did observe a correlation between income and self-reported health, I found no evidence that increases in income significantly improve self-reported health statuses. In addition, while increases in income appear to reduce the prevalence of hearing limitations when using corrective measures, these increases did not have a significant effect on most of the other functional limitations considered here. Conclusions These findings suggest that the ability to improve short-term health outcomes through public transfer payments may be limited. However, the lifetime effects on the health of people with higher incomes would still be a valuable avenue for future research. PMID:22188352

  9. Growth of wheat and lettuce and enzyme activities of soils under garlic stalk decomposition for different durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2017-07-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) stalk is a byproduct of garlic production that is normally thought of as waste but is now considered a useful biological resource. It is necessary to utilize this resource efficiently and reasonably to reduce environmental pollution and achieve sustainable agricultural development. The effect of garlic stalk decomposed for different durations was investigated in this study using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa L.) as test plants. Garlic stalk in early stages of decomposition inhibited the shoot and root lengths of wheat and lettuce, but it promoted the shoot and root lengths in later stages; longer durations of garlic stalk decomposition significantly increased the shoot and root fresh weights of wheat and lettuce, whereas shorter decomposing durations significantly decreased the shoot and root fresh weights; and garlic stalk at different decomposition durations increased the activities of urease, sucrase and alkaline phosphatase in soil where wheat or lettuce was planted. Garlic stalk decomposed for 30 or 40 days could promote the growth of wheat and lettuce plants as well as soil enzyme activities. These results may provide a scientific basis for the study and application of garlic stalk. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Higher order mode spectra and the dependence of localized dipole modes on the transverse beam position in third harmonic superconducting cavities at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pei [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baboi, Nicoleta [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Jones, Roger M. [The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    An electron beam entering an accelerating cavity excites a wakefield. This wakefield can be decomposed into a series of multi-poles or modes. The dominant component of the transverse wakefield is dipole. This report summarizes the higher order mode (HOM) signals of the third harmonic cavities of FLASH measured at various stages: transmission measurements in the single cavity test stand at Fermilab, at CMTB (Cryo- Module Test Bench) and at FLASH, and beam-excited measurements at FLASH. Modes in the first two dipole bands and the fifth dipole band have been identified using a global Lorentzian fit technique. The beam-pipe modes at approximately 4 GHz and some modes in the fifth dipole band have been observed as localized modes, while the first two dipole bands, containing some strong coupling cavity modes, propagate. This report also presents the dependence of the localized dipole modes on the transverse beam position. Linear dependence for various modes has been observed. This makes them suitable for beam position diagnostics. These modes, together with some propagating, strong coupling modes, have been considered in the design of a dedicated electronics for beam diagnostics with HOMs for the third harmonic cavities.

  11. [Effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial community structure and function of continuous cropping cotton rhizosphere soil in Xinjiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mei-ying; Tang, Guang-mu; Liu, Hong-liang; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Xiao-wei; Xu, Wan-li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, field trials were conducted to examine the effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial population, function and structural diversity of microorganisms in rhizosphere soil of continuous cotton cropping field in Xinjiang by plate count, Biolog and DGGE methods. The experiment was a factorial design with four treatments: 1) normal fertilization with cotton stalk removed (NPK); 2) normal fertilization with cotton stalk powdered and returned to field (NPKS); 3) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 22.50 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₁); and 4) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 45.00 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₂). The results showed that cotton stalk biochar application obviously increased the numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizospheric soil. Compared with NPK treatment, the number of fungi was significantly increased in the NPKB₁treatment, but not in the NPKB₂ treatment. However, the number of fungi was generally lower in the biochar amended (NPKB₁, NPKB₂) than in the cotton stalk applied plots (NPKS). Application of cotton stalk biochar increased values of AWCD, and significantly improved microbial richness index, suggesting that the microbial ability of utilizing carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids, especially phenolic acids was enhanced. The number of DGGE bands of NPKB₂ treatment was the greatest, with some species of Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria being enriched. UPGMC Cluster analysis pointed out that bacterial communities in the rhizospheric soil of NPKB₂ treatment were different from those in the NPK, NPKS and NPKB₁treatments, which belonged to the same cluster. These results indicated that application of cotton stalk biochar could significantly increase microbial diversity and change soil bacterial community structure in the cotton rhizosphere soil, thus improving the health of soil ecosystem.

  12. Higher B-cell activating factor levels at birth are positively associated with maternal dairy farm exposure and negatively related to allergy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundell, Anna-Carin; Hesselmar, Bill; Nordström, Inger; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E; Rudin, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A high proportion of circulating immature/naive CD5(+) B cells during early infancy is a risk factor for allergy development. B-cell activating factor (BAFF) is an important cytokine for B-cell maturation. We sought to investigate whether BAFF levels are related to environmental exposures during pregnancy and early childhood and whether BAFF levels are associated with postnatal B-cell maturation and allergic disease. In the FARMFLORA study, including both farming and nonfarming families, we measured BAFF levels in plasma from mothers and their children at birth and at 1, 4, 18, and 36 months of age. Infants' blood samples were also analyzed for B-cell numbers and proportions of CD5(+) and CD27(+) B cells. Allergic disease was clinically evaluated at 18 and 36 months of age. Circulating BAFF levels were maximal at birth, and farmers' children had higher BAFF levels than nonfarmers' children. Higher BAFF levels at birth were positively associated with proportions of CD27(+) memory B cells among farmers' children and inversely related to proportions of CD5(+) immature/naive B cells among nonfarmers' children. Children with allergic disease at 18 months of age had lower cord blood BAFF levels than nonallergic children. At birth, girls had higher BAFF levels and lower proportions of CD5(+) B cells than boys. Farm exposure during pregnancy appears to induce BAFF production in the newborn child, and high neonatal BAFF levels were associated with more accelerated postnatal B-cell maturation, which lend further strength to the role of B cells in the hygiene hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A facile template method to synthesize significantly improved LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 using corn stalk as a bio-template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guiyang; Kong, Xin; Sun, Hongyan; Wang, Baosen; Yi, Zhongzhou; Wang, Quanbiao

    2014-01-01

    In order to simplify the template method for the synthesis of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, a facile template method using plant stalks as bio-templates has been introduced. Based on this method, LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 spinel with a significantly improved electrochemical performance has been synthesized using corn stalk as a template. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared pectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been used to investigate the phase composition and micro-morphologies of the products. Charge-discharge measurements in lithium cells, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) have been used to study the electrochemical performance of the products. The results indicate that the templated product exhibits higher crystallinity than that of non-templated product. Both of the templated product and the non-templated product are combination of the ordered space group P4 3 32 and the disordered Fd-3 m. The specific BET surface area of the templated product is about twice larger than that of the non-templated product. Moreover, the electrochemical performances of the templated product including specific capacity, cycling stability and rate capability are significantly improved as compared with the non-templated product, due to its higher crystallinity, larger Li + diffusion coefficient and lower charge transfer resistance

  14. Crystal Structure of the 23S rRNA Fragment Specific to r-Protein L1 and Designed Model of the Ribosomal L1 Stalk from Haloarcula marismortui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azat Gabdulkhakov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the 92-nucleotide L1-specific fragment of 23S rRNA from Haloarcula marismortui (Hma has been determined at 3.3 Å resolution. Similar to the corresponding bacterial rRNA fragments, this structure contains joined helix 76-77 topped by an approximately globular structure formed by the residual part of the L1 stalk rRNA. The position of HmaL1 relative to the rRNA was found by its docking to the rRNA fragment using the L1-rRNA complex from Thermus thermophilus as a guide model. In spite of the anomalous negative charge of the halophilic archaeal protein, the conformation of the HmaL1-rRNA interface appeared to be very close to that observed in all known L1-rRNA complexes. The designed structure of the L1 stalk was incorporated into the H. marismortui 50S ribosomal subunit. Comparison of relative positions of L1 stalks in 50S subunits from H. marismortui and T. thermophilus made it possible to reveal the site of inflection of rRNA during the ribosome function.

  15. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T Kennedy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%, in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, Body Mass Index percentile range: 5.16-99.56. Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ. After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = -0.338, left: r -0.404, medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = -0.339, anterior cingulate (partial r = -0.312, bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = -0.368, left: r= -0.316, and uncus (partial r = -0.475 as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = -0.34, left: r = -0.386, extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = -0.384. PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329. These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration.

  16. Performance of Pleurotus pulmonarius mushroom grown on maize stalk residues supplemented with various levels of maize flour and wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senzosenkosi Surprise MKHIZE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of supplemented agricultural waste in mushroom cultivation can be one of the environmentally friendly strategies for poverty alleviation. The study evaluated the performance of Pleurotus pulmonarius mushroom grown on maize stalk supplemented with varying levels of wheat bran (WB and maize flour (MF. A completely random design was used for the experiments. It was observed that Pleurotus pulmonarius was significantly affected by varying levels of supplementation, as 20% WB supplementation encountered higher contamination. The lower supplementation levels gave significantly shorter colonisation period with better mycelial growth rate (MGR. The 2% MF, 2% WB and 4% WB gave significantly higher MGR and faster colonisation. The shortest pinning time (TP was observed at the first flush with the minimum of 2 days. Higher supplementation levels gave maximum yield and biological efficiency (BE. With further increase of supplementation above a 12% WB and 14% MF, the BE and yield declined. Lower supplementation levels resulted in quicker colonisation period and improved growth rate, whereas high supplementation gave better production in terms of yield and BE. Therefore, for the purpose of maximum production, 12% WB and 14% MF may be recommended while for fast production time, 2% MF and 2% WB are recommended.

  17. Performance of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom grown on maize stalk residues supplemented with various levels of maize flour and wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senzosenkosi Surprise MKHIZE

    Full Text Available Abstract Improving the performance of mushroom in terms of high production and fast growth rate is essential in mushroom cultivation. In the present study the performance of Pleurotus ostreatus was evaluated using varying levels of wheat bran (WB and maize flour (MF. The results indicated that Pleurotus ostreatus was highly influenced by different levels of supplementation, with 8% WB, 18% WB and 2% MF having higher contamination rate. The low levels of supplementation gave significantly better mycelial growth rate (MGR and shorter colonisation period as observed that the control had highest MGR whereby 20% MF had lowest MGR. The pinning time (TP was shortest at the first flush with minimum of 3 days (12% MF. The higher levels of supplementation showed maximum biological efficiency (BE such as 14% MF, 12% WB and 14% WB. The yield was also higher at high levels of supplementation such as 20% MF and 8% MF being the exception in the lower levels. Based on the results it was observed that for fast production of oyster mushroom there is no need to supplement the maize stalk substrate but for improved productivity supplements can be added up to certain limits such as 14% MF and 12 WB.

  18. Comparative study of wet and dry torrefaction of corn stalk and the effect on biomass pyrolysis polygeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianhua; Wu, Jing; Chen, Yingquan; Pattiya, Adisak; Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping

    2018-06-01

    Wet torrefaction (WT) possesses some advantages over dry torrefaction (DT). In this study, a comparative analysis of torrefied corn stalk from WT and DT was conducted along with an investigation of their pyrolysis properties under optimal conditions for biomass pyrolysis polygeneration. Compared with DT, WT removed 98% of the ash and retained twice the amount of hydrogen. The impacts of DT and WT on the biomass macromolecular structure was also found to be different using two-dimensional perturbation correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-PCIS). WT preserved the active hydroxyl groups and rearranged the macromolecule structure to allow cellulose to be more ordered, while DT removed these active hydroxyl groups and formed inter-crosslinking structures in macromolecules. Correspondingly, the bio-char yield after WT was lower than DT but the bio-char quality was upgraded due to high ash removal. Furthermore, higher bio-oil yield, higher sugar content, and higher H 2 generation, were obtained after WT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hypothalamic-pituitary vascularization in pituitary stalk transection syndrome: is the pituitary stalk really transected? The role of gadolinium-DTPA with spin-echo T1 imaging and turbo-FLASH technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genovese, E. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Maghnie, M. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Beluffi, G. [Dept. of Radiodiagnosis, Section of Pediatric Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Villa, A. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Sammarchi, L. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Severi, F. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Campani, R. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    We examined 14 patients, aged 10-25 years, with idiopathic hypopituitarism. All presented an ectopic posterior pituitary at the median eminence with a hypoplastic anterior pituitary on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eight patients had isolated growth hormone deficit (IGHD) and six had multiple hormone deficits (MPHD). Unenhanced MRI showed the pituitary stalk, which was extremely thin, in only three patients, while T1-weighted images obtained after intravenous injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) showed a thin pituitary stalk in seven patients (six with IGHD and one with MPHD), demonstrating a preserved vascular component of the stalk. MRI with Gd-DTPA was more sensitive than unenhanced MRI in detecting the pituitary stalk in patients with hypopituitarism with an ectopic posterior pituitary: the stalk was demonstrated in 50 % of the cases (seven patients), versus 21.4 % (three patients) by unenhanced MRI. The dynamic study of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis performed with turbo-FLASH sequences after bolus injection of Gd-DTPA showed the residual anterior pituitary to have arterial enhancement times, which suggests that an arterial system compensates for the absent or diminished blood supply from the portal system, independent of stalk detection. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Hypothalamic-pituitary vascularization in pituitary stalk transection syndrome: is the pituitary stalk really transected? The role of gadolinium-DTPA with spin-echo T1 imaging and turbo-FLASH technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genovese, E.; Maghnie, M.; Beluffi, G.; Villa, A.; Sammarchi, L.; Severi, F.; Campani, R.

    1997-01-01

    We examined 14 patients, aged 10-25 years, with idiopathic hypopituitarism. All presented an ectopic posterior pituitary at the median eminence with a hypoplastic anterior pituitary on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eight patients had isolated growth hormone deficit (IGHD) and six had multiple hormone deficits (MPHD). Unenhanced MRI showed the pituitary stalk, which was extremely thin, in only three patients, while T1-weighted images obtained after intravenous injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) showed a thin pituitary stalk in seven patients (six with IGHD and one with MPHD), demonstrating a preserved vascular component of the stalk. MRI with Gd-DTPA was more sensitive than unenhanced MRI in detecting the pituitary stalk in patients with hypopituitarism with an ectopic posterior pituitary: the stalk was demonstrated in 50 % of the cases (seven patients), versus 21.4 % (three patients) by unenhanced MRI. The dynamic study of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis performed with turbo-FLASH sequences after bolus injection of Gd-DTPA showed the residual anterior pituitary to have arterial enhancement times, which suggests that an arterial system compensates for the absent or diminished blood supply from the portal system, independent of stalk detection. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab

  1. Exploring of Agro Waste (Pineapple Leaf, Corn Stalk, and Napier Grass) by Chemical Composition and Morphological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Angzzas Sari Mohd Kassim; Halizah Awang; Ashuvila Mohd Aripin

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia is a country that is a rich source of agricultural waste material. Three different crops were studied here, including pineapple (Ananas comosus) leaf, corn (Zea mays) stalk, and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum). These crops are characterized as agricultural waste materials in Malaysia and have a high potential to be used as alternative fibers for the paper making industry. The objective of this work was to analyze the chemical composition of pineapple leaf, corn stalk, and Napier ...

  2. Effect of Preserving the Pituitary Stalk During Resection of Craniopharyngioma in Children on the Diabetes Insipidus and Relapse Rates and Long-Term Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing; Fan, Yanqin; Cen, Bo

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of preserving an infiltrated pituitary stalk during the resection of craniopharyngioma of pituitary stalk origin on postoperative outcomes and thus provide a theoretical basis for microsurgical treatment and prognosis. We screened the clinical data of all 103 pediatric patients with craniopharyngioma undergoing surgical treatment at our department between January 2006 and January 2013 and conducted a retrospective analysis of 82 patients with craniopharyngioma originating in the pituitary stalk. The patients were followed up from 12 months to 8 years. We analyzed the effect of preserving the pituitary stalk on the early and persistent diabetes insipidus rates, postoperative relapse rate, and mortality. In the total resection group (n = 67), the early and persistent diabetes insipidus rates were significantly lower in the 46 patients (68.7%) with a pituitary stalk than in those whose pituitary stalk was removed (P  0.05). In the subtotal resection group (n = 15), a significant difference was observed in the early and persistent diabetes insipidus rates (P  0.05). For children with craniopharyngioma of pituitary stalk origin, preserving the pituitary stalk has a significant effect on the early and persistent diabetes insipidus rates. When intraoperative exploration showed excessive adhesion between the tumor and pituitary stalk, we opted to preserve the pituitary stalk, which significantly reduced the early and persistent postoperative diabetes insipidus rates, without significantly increasing the relapse or mortality rate.

  3. Stalk yield of sugarcane cultivars under different water regimes by subsurface drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderson S. de Andrade Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the stalk yield of ten sugarcane cultivars (RB962962, RB931011, RB931530, RB98710, RB92579, RB867515, RB863129, SP791011, RB72545 and VAT90212 subjected to water deficit, full irrigation and water surplus by subsurface drip irrigation, during three cropping seasons (2011-2014. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Field of Embrapa Meio-Norte, Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, in dystrophic Red Yellow Argisol. The cultivars RB962962 (162.3 Mg ha-1 and RB867515 (158.5 Mg ha-1 have better stalk yield compared with other cultivars in all water regimes and cropping seasons.

  4. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium on modified corn stalk using different cross-linking agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suhong; Zhu, Yi; Han, Zhijun; Feng, Gao; Jia, Yuling; Fu, Kaifang; Yue, Qinyan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, four different types of adsorbents modified from corn stalk were synthesized after the reaction with epichlorohydrin, N,N-dimethylformamide, triethylamine and different cross-linking agents. The surface functional groups and thermal stability of modified corn stalk (MCSs) were characterized using FTIR and TG analysis, respectively. The feasibility of using MCSs to remove Cr(VI) were evaluated. Adsorption isotherms were determined and modeled with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin equations. The experimental results showed that MCS modified using diethylenetriamine (DETA) had the best modification effect, and the adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) reached as high as 227.27 mg/g at 323 K. Thermodynamic study showed that the Cr(VI) adsorption onto MCSs was endothermic processes. As a result, MCS by using DETA as cross-linking agent has good potential for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions.

  5. Mesoporous activated carbon from corn stalk core for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Li, Chun; Qi, Hui; Yu, Kaifeng; Liang, Ce

    2018-04-01

    A novel mesoporous activated carbon (AC) derived from corn stalk core is prepared via a facile and effective method which including the decomposition and carbonization of corn stalk core under an inert gas atmosphere and further activation process with KOH solution. The mesoporous activated carbon (AC) is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements. These biomass waste derived from activated carbon is proved to be promising anode materials for high specific capacity lithium ion batteries. The activated carbon anode possesses excellent reversible capacity of 504 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.2C. Compared with the unactivated carbon (UAC), the electrochemical performance of activated carbon is significantly improved due to its mesoporous structure.

  6. Thermogravimetric kinetics of corn stalk pretreated by oleaginous fungi Cunninghamella echinulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianguo; Gao, Shi; Wan, Jilin; Zeng, Yelin; Ma, Fuying; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2011-04-01

    The thermogravimetric and composition of corn stalk pretreated by oleaginous fungi Cunninghamella echinulata had been studied in this paper. Results indicated that pretreatment by oleaginous fungi C. echinulata could decrease the activation energy and make the pyrolysis more efficient and energy-saving. By bio-pretreatment, the contents of elements agreed with the weight loss, sugar content, and oil contents, especially the sulfur content was greatly decreased, greatly eliminating the inventory of gas contamination such as the emission of SOx and making the pyrolysis more environmentally friendly. Therefore, corn stalk with sugar pretreated by oleaginous fungi C. echinulata should be a good pyrolysis material to obtain high quality bio-oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Delayed diagnosis of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome with severe recurrent hyponatremia caused by adrenal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Mi Jang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS involves the occurrence of a thin or absent pituitary stalk, hypoplasia of the adenohypophysis, and ectopic neurohypophysis. Diagnosis is confirmed using magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with PSIS have a variable degree of pituitary hormone deficiency and a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. The clinical course of the disease in our patient is similar to that of a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. This is thought to be caused by failure in the suppression of vasopressin secretion due to hypocortisolism. To the best of our knowledge, there is no case report of a patient with PSIS presenting with hyponatremia as the first symptom in Korean children. Herein, we report a patient with PSIS presenting severe recurrent hyponatremia as the first symptom, during adolescence and explain the pathophysiology of hyponatremia with secondary adrenal insufficiency.

  8. Microstructure and nanomechanical properties of single stalks from diatom Didymosphenia geminata and their change due to adsorption of selected metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgłobicka, Izabela; Chlanda, Adrian; Woźniak, Michał; Łojkowski, Maciej; Szoszkiewicz, Robert; Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, Marta; Święszkowski, Wojciech; Wyroba, Elżbieta; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J

    2017-08-01

    We present topographical and nanomechanical characterization of single Didymosphenia geminata stalk. We compared the samples before and after adsorption of metal ions from freshwater samples. Transmission electron microscopy studies of single stalk cross-sections have shown three distinct layers and an additional thin extra coat on the external layer (called "EL"). Using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), we found that topography of single stalks after ionic adsorption differed significantly from topography of pristine stalks. AFM nanoindentation studies in ambient conditions yielded elastic moduli of 214 ± 170 MPa for pristine stalks and 294 ± 108 MPa for stalks after ionic adsorption. Statistical tests showed that those results were significantly different. We conducted only preliminary comparisons between ionic adsorption of several stalks in air and in water. While the stalks with ions were on average stiffer than the pristine stalks in air, they became more compliant than the pristine stalks in water. We also heated the stalks and detected EL softening at 50°C ± 15°C. AFM nanoindentation in air on the softened samples yielded elastic moduli of 26 ± 9 MPa for pristine samples and 43 ± 22 MPa for stalks with absorbed metal ions. Substantial decrease of the EL elastic moduli after heating was expected. Significantly different elastic moduli for the samples after ionic adsorption in both cases (i.e., for heated and nonheated samples), as well as behavior of the stalks immersed in water, point to permanent structural EL changes due to ions. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  9. Size reduction of high- and low-moisture corn stalks by linear knife grid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igathinathane, C. [Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, 130 Creelman Street, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 (United States); Womac, A.R. [Department of Biosystems Engineering and Soil Science, 2506 E. J. Chapman Drive, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Sokhansanj, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge, P. O. Box 2008, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Narayan, S. [First American Scientific Company, 100 Park Royal South West Vancouver, British Columbia, V7T 1A2 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    High- and low-moisture corn stalks were tested using a linear knife grid size reduction device developed for first-stage size reduction. The device was used in conjunction with a universal test machine that quantified shearing stress and energy characteristics for forcing a bed of corn stalks through a grid of sharp knives. No published engineering performance data for corn stover with similar devices are available to optimize performance; however, commercial knife grid systems exist for forage size reduction. From the force-displacement data, mean and maximum ultimate shear stresses, cumulative and peak mass-based cutting energies for corn stalks, and mean new surface area-based cutting energies were determined from 4-5 refill runs at two moisture contents (78.8% and 11.3% wet basis), three knife grid spacings (25.4, 50.8, and 101.6 mm), and three bed depths (50.8, 101.6, and 152.4 mm). In general, the results indicated that peak failure load, ultimate shear stress, and cutting energy values varied directly with bed depth and inversely with knife grid spacing. Mean separation analysis established that high- and low-moisture conditions and bed depths {>=} 101.6 mm did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) for ultimate stress and cutting energy values, but knife grid spacing were significantly different. Linear knife grid cutting energy requirements for both moisture conditions of corn stalks were much smaller than reported cutting energy requirements. Ultimate shear stress and cutting energy results of this research should aid the engineering design of commercial scale linear knife gird size reduction equipment for various biomass feedstocks. (author)

  10. Corn stalk as matrix in decomposting toilet for treating urine and feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintawardani, N.; Nilawati, D.; Astuti, J. T.

    2017-03-01

    Bio-Toilet technology (BT) which is appropriate for the habits of Indonesian people has been studied and developed. BT is a dry toilet technology commonly uses ligno-cellulosic waste materials as matrix to facilitate the growth of natural microbes. In aerobic condition, microbes degrade feces and urine. Mineral as the leftover of feces and urine, such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) remain in the rest of matrix waste. After certain period. matrix can be harvested and used as soil conditioner. BT uses much less water, mobile, and very useful to be applied in areas where water availability is limited. BT type with different capacities, user amounts and mixing systems has been developed using sawdust for matrix. Since corn stalk is categorized as useless and priceless waste, its application in BT is challenging. Performance of BT with corn stalk as matrix to degrade feces and urine of carnivore imitating the human waste was observed. BT M-15 manual mixing type with paddle was filled with chopped corn stalk as much as 45% of total volume. This BT was designed for 15 person as users per day if 80% reactor volume was filled with ligno-cellulosic matrix. It is assumed that 150 g of feces are discharged once per person/day and 1000 mL of urine 6-8 times per day. Start up process was made in the beginning to initialize the needed microbes in the reactor (matrix). The discharge of feces and urine were increased slowly and gradually the users were increased from 1 to 4 users per day. Performance of BT was indicated by the change in the pile that showed by moisture content, temperature and pH. C/N ratio in matrix decreased significantly from 43 to 17. This result showed that the corn stalk could be used as matrix in BT.

  11. Is nectar reabsorption restricted by the stalk cells of floral and extrafloral nectary trichomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, P; Davis, A R

    2015-01-01

    Reabsorption is a phase of nectar dynamics that occurs concurrently with secretion; it has been described in floral nectaries that exude nectar through stomata or unicellular trichomes, but has not yet been recorded in extrafloral glands. Apparently, nectar reabsorption does not occur in multicellular secretory trichomes (MST) due to the presence of lipophilic impregnations - which resemble Casparian strips - in the anticlinal walls of the stalk cells. It has been assumed that these impregnations restrict solute movement within MST to occur unidirectionally and exclusively by the symplast, thereby preventing nectar reflux toward the underlying nectary tissues. We hypothesised that reabsorption is absent in nectaries possessing MST. The fluorochrome lucifer yellow (LYCH) was applied to standing nectar of two floral and extrafloral glands of distantly related species, and then emission spectra from nectary sections were systematically analysed using confocal microscopy. Passive uptake of LYCH via the stalk cells to the nectary tissues occurred in all MST examined. Moreover, we present evidence of nectar reabsorption in extrafloral nectaries, demonstrating that LYCH passed the stalk cells of MST, although it did not reach the deepest nectary tissues. Identical (control) experiments performed with neutral red (NR) demonstrated no uptake of this stain by actively secreting MST, whereas diffusion of NR did occur in plasmolysed MST of floral nectaries at the post-secretory phase, indicating that nectar reabsorption by MST is governed by stalk cell physiology. Interestingly, non-secretory trichomes failed to reabsorb nectar. The role of various nectary components is discussed in relation to the control of nectar reabsorption by secretory trichomes. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. LOFT reactor vessel 290/sup 0/ downcomer stalk instrument penetration flange stress analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finicle, D.P.

    1978-06-06

    The LOFT Reactor Vessel 290/sup 0/ Downcomer Stalk Instrument Penetration Flange Stress Analysis has been completed using normal operational and blowdown loading. A linear elastic analysis was completed using simplified hand analysis techniques. The analysis was in accordance with the 1977 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, for a Class 1 component. Loading included internal pressure, bolt preload, and thermal gradients due to normal operating and blowdown.

  13. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure at a higher rate improve oxygenation in the early period after cardiac surgery--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urell, Charlotte; Emtner, Margareta; Hedenström, Hans; Tenling, Arne; Breidenskog, Marie; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2011-07-01

    In addition to early mobilisation, a variety of breathing exercises are used to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery. The optimal duration of the treatment is not well evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 30 versus 10 deep breaths hourly, while awake, with positive expiratory pressure on oxygenation and pulmonary function the first days after cardiac surgery. A total of 181 patients, undergoing cardiac surgery, were randomised into a treatment group, performing 30 deep breaths hourly the first postoperative days, or into a control group performing 10 deep breaths hourly. The main outcome measurement arterial blood gases and the secondary outcome pulmonary function, evaluated with spirometry, were determined on the second postoperative day. Preoperatively, both study groups were similar in terms of age, SpO(2), forced expiratory volume in 1s and New York Heart Association classification. On the second postoperative day, arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) was 8.9 ± 1.7 kPa in the treatment group and 8.1 ± 1.4 kPa in the control group (p = 0.004). Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) was 92.7 ± 3.7% in the treatment group and 91.1 ± 3.8% in the control group (p = 0.016). There were no differences in measured lung function between the groups or in compliance to the breathing exercises. Compliance was 65% of possible breathing sessions. A significantly increased oxygenation was found in patients performing 30 deep breaths the first two postoperative days compared with control patients performing 10 deep breaths hourly. These results support the implementation of a higher rate of deep breathing exercises in the initial phase after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Protective intraoperative ventilation with higher versus lower levels of positive end-expiratory pressure in obese patients (PROBESE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, T; Teichmann, R; Kiss, T; Bobek, I; Canet, J; Cinnella, G; De Baerdemaeker, L; Gregoretti, C; Hedenstierna, G; Hemmes, S N; Hiesmayr, M; Hollmann, M W; Jaber, S; Laffey, J G; Licker, M J; Markstaller, K; Matot, I; Müller, G; Mills, G H; Mulier, J P; Putensen, C; Rossaint, R; Schmitt, J; Senturk, M; Serpa Neto, A; Severgnini, P; Sprung, J; Vidal Melo, M F; Wrigge, H; Schultz, M J; Pelosi, P; Gama de Abreu, M

    2017-04-28

    Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) increase the morbidity and mortality of surgery in obese patients. High levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with lung recruitment maneuvers may improve intraoperative respiratory function, but they can also compromise hemodynamics, and the effects on PPCs are uncertain. We hypothesized that intraoperative mechanical ventilation using high PEEP with periodic recruitment maneuvers, as compared with low PEEP without recruitment maneuvers, prevents PPCs in obese patients. The PRotective Ventilation with Higher versus Lower PEEP during General Anesthesia for Surgery in OBESE Patients (PROBESE) study is a multicenter, two-arm, international randomized controlled trial. In total, 2013 obese patients with body mass index ≥35 kg/m 2 scheduled for at least 2 h of surgery under general anesthesia and at intermediate to high risk for PPCs will be included. Patients are ventilated intraoperatively with a low tidal volume of 7 ml/kg (predicted body weight) and randomly assigned to PEEP of 12 cmH 2 O with lung recruitment maneuvers (high PEEP) or PEEP of 4 cmH 2 O without recruitment maneuvers (low PEEP). The occurrence of PPCs will be recorded as collapsed composite of single adverse pulmonary events and represents the primary endpoint. To our knowledge, the PROBESE trial is the first multicenter, international randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of two different levels of intraoperative PEEP during protective low tidal volume ventilation on PPCs in obese patients. The results of the PROBESE trial will support anesthesiologists in their decision to choose a certain PEEP level during general anesthesia for surgery in obese patients in an attempt to prevent PPCs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02148692. Registered on 23 May 2014; last updated 7 June 2016.

  15. Recovery from diabetes insipidus and preservation of thyroid function after craniopharyngioma removal and pituitary stalk sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-11-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a slow-growing tumor, but long-term tumor control with maintenance of quality of life is sometimes very difficult to achieve, and hypothalamic disturbance should be strictly avoided in the treatment. However, management of the pituitary gland and/or pituitary stalk varies among surgeons and institutions. This retrospective review identified 44 patients, 24 males and 20 females with craniopharyngiomas who were initially treated by surgery through the extended transsphenoidal approach with pituitary stalk sectioning at a single institute. If the tumor bed involved the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, pituitary stalk, anterior and/or mid portion of the third ventricle floor, these structures were removed en-bloc together with the tumor. The closest attention was paid to preserve fine arteries running along the surface of optic chiasm and the lateral walls of the third ventricle. Surgical outcome and changes in postoperative endocrinological status were investigated. Gross total removal was achieved in 40 of 44 patients (91%), and all patients could discharge without autonomic and/or thermal disturbances. Tumor remnants were identified with tight adhesion to the perforating arteries in 2 cases, tight adhesion to mammillary bodies in 1, and optic chiasm in 1. Administration of anti-diuretic hormone could be discontinued in 23 of 44 patients (52.3%) with improved diabetes insipidus (DI), although no patient could discontinue glucocorticoid administration. Preservation of thyroid function was achieved in another 23 of 44 patients (52.3%), and recovery from DI was correlated with preservation of thyroid function (p=0.016). Pituitary dysfunction is partially reversible even with pituitary stalk sectioning. Regrowth of tumor in the anterior and/or mid portion of the third ventricle floor including pituitary stalk can possibly be prevented by aggressive tumor removal, and co-achievement of long-term tumor control with maintenance of quality of life

  16. Innovative Prototype for Separate Harvesting of Cynara Cardunculus Achenes and Stalks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pari, L.; Fedrizzi, M.; Pansini, L. (Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Unita di Ricerca per l' Ingegneria Agraria, Monterotondo, RM (Italy))

    2008-10-15

    The CRA-ING took part to the Cynara cardunculus harvesting tests organized in Spain in 2007, where UPM has experimental cultivations in the Instituto Madrileno de Investigacion y Desarrollo Rural, Agrario y Alimentario (IMIDRA) de la Consejeria de Economia y Innovacion Tecnologica de la Comunidad de Madrid in El Encin, near Alcala De Henarez. The harvesting tests were carried out in week 33 (August 13th-17th); the cultivation was found part in good condition of maturity, part still not ready for harvesting. The test was carried out on the dried part of the crops. The tests aimed at evaluating a new mechanical equipment (head) working connected to a selfpropelled combine for separated harvesting of the different fractions obtainable by the cultivation assigned to different transformation: oil extraction from seeds and energy production from epigeous biomass combustion. During the tests carried out in 2006 in Portugal and Spain, it was observed how a combine harvester with a maize head was able to separate the seed with good accuracy. Likewise the difficulty of collecting the lignocellulosic fraction after its passage was highlighted. A combine with a wheat head could cut the stalk in an appropriate height range, but could not separate the head from the stalk. A sunflower head cut the capitula, but not the stalk. The project concept, supplied to a Firm that already builds heads for maize, wheat, sunflowers, soybean and so on, included the upper devices of a maize head and a classic wheat head (without the paddle wheel) in the lower part, to obtain capitula detachment and effective threshing and, at the same time, the stalk cut. Some modifications were specified to allow the cut of the stalk next to the ground and its successive tier in the space between the front wheels, where the discharge system of the threshing device would then provide to drop the remains of the capitula threshing. The basic concept of the machine, to separate and thresh the capitula and to drop

  17. Neuraminidase stalk length and additional glycosylation of the hemagglutinin influence the virulence of influenza H5N1 viruses for mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yumiko; Swayne, David E; Thomas, Colleen; Rameix-Welti, Marie-Anne; Naffakh, Nadia; Warnes, Christine; Altholtz, Melanie; Donis, Ruben; Subbarao, Kanta

    2009-05-01

    Following circulation of avian influenza H5 and H7 viruses in poultry, the hemagglutinin (HA) can acquire additional glycosylation sites, and the neuraminidase (NA) stalk becomes shorter. We investigated whether these features play a role in the pathogenesis of infection in mammalian hosts. From 1996 to 2007, H5N1 viruses with a short NA stalk have become widespread in several avian species. Compared to viruses with a long-stalk NA, viruses with a short-stalk NA showed a decreased capacity to elute from red blood cells and an increased virulence in mice, but not in chickens. The presence of additional HA glycosylation sites had less of an effect on virulence than did NA stalk length. The short-stalk NA of H5N1 viruses circulating in Asia may contribute to virulence in humans.

  18. Neuraminidase Stalk Length and Additional Glycosylation of the Hemagglutinin Influence the Virulence of Influenza H5N1 Viruses for Mice▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yumiko; Swayne, David E.; Thomas, Colleen; Rameix-Welti, Marie-Anne; Naffakh, Nadia; Warnes, Christine; Altholtz, Melanie; Donis, Ruben; Subbarao, Kanta

    2009-01-01

    Following circulation of avian influenza H5 and H7 viruses in poultry, the hemagglutinin (HA) can acquire additional glycosylation sites, and the neuraminidase (NA) stalk becomes shorter. We investigated whether these features play a role in the pathogenesis of infection in mammalian hosts. From 1996 to 2007, H5N1 viruses with a short NA stalk have become widespread in several avian species. Compared to viruses with a long-stalk NA, viruses with a short-stalk NA showed a decreased capacity to elute from red blood cells and an increased virulence in mice, but not in chickens. The presence of additional HA glycosylation sites had less of an effect on virulence than did NA stalk length. The short-stalk NA of H5N1 viruses circulating in Asia may contribute to virulence in humans. PMID:19225004

  19. Joint approach based on clinical and imaging features to distinguish non-neoplastic from neoplastic pituitary stalk lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Ye Lee

    Full Text Available Distinguishing non-neoplastic pituitary stalk lesions (non-NPSLs from neoplastic pituitary stalk lesions (NPSLs is a major concern in guiding treatment for a thickened pituitary stalk. Our study aimed to aid provide preoperative diagnostic assistance by combining clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings to distinguish non-NPSLs from NPSLs.We recruited 158 patients with thickened pituitary stalk lesions visible on MRI. Laboratory findings included hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus (DI, and hyperprolactinemia. MR images were assessed for anterior-posterior thickness (mm, diffuse pituitary stalk thickening, cystic changes, a high T1 signal, and glandular or extrasellar involvement. A diagnostic model was developed using a recursive partitioning logistic regression analysis. The model was validated in an independent dataset comprising 63 patients, and its diagnostic performance was compared with that of the original radiological reports.A univariate analysis found significant associations of DI (P = 0.006, absence of extrasellar involvement (P = 0.002, and lower stalk thickness (P = 0.031 with non-NPSLs. A diagnostic model was created using the following parameters (in order of priority: 1 lack of extrasellar involvement, 2 stalk thickness < 5.3 mm, and 3 presence of DI. The diagnostic performance (area under the curve; AUC of this model in the independent set was 0.813, representing a significant improvement over the original radiological reports (AUC: 0.713, P = 0.029.The joint diagnostic approach based on clinical and imaging-based factors robustly distinguished non-NPSLs from NPSLs. This approach could guide treatment strategies and prevent unnecessary surgery in patients with non-NPSL.

  20. Evaluation of humic substances during co-composting of sewage sludge and corn stalk under different aeration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuyan; Li, Danyang; Li, Jijin; Li, Guoxue; Zhang, Bangxi

    2017-12-01

    Sewage sludge and corn stalk were co-composted under different aeration rates 0.12 (AR0.12), 0.24 (AR0.24), 0.36 (AR0.36)L·kg -1 DMmin -1 , respectively. Transformation of humic substance was evaluated by a series of chemical and spectroscopic methods to reveal compost humification. Results showed that aeration rate could significantly affect compost stability and humification process. Humic acid contents in AR0.24 were significantly higher than those in the other two treatments. The final humic acid/fulvic acid ratios in AR0.12, AR0.24 and AR0.36 treatment were 1.0, 1.9 and 0.8, respectively, corresponding to the final E 4 /E 6 of 4.7, 3.2 and 5.5. Moreover, compost in AR0.24 treatment had a high stability degree due to the low C/N atom ratio and high C/H atom ratio. However, it is noteworthy that composting could not significantly affect the structure of HA in a 35-day period. These results indicate that composting with the aeration rate of 0.24L·kg -1 DMmin -1 could accelerated the humification process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Growth rate variation of the stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes (Crustacea: Cirripedia using calcein as a chemical marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jacinto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the use of calcein as a chemical tagging methodology to estimate growth rate variation of the stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes, an ecologically important intertidal species and economic resource, in SW Portugal. Calcein tagging had a high success rate (94% in marking both juvenile and adult barnacles for a period of 2.5 months, providing a valuable method for obtaining reliable data in growth studies of P. pollicipes. Growth rate decreased with barnacle size and was highly variable amongst individuals, particularly in smaller barnacles. No effect of shore level on barnacle growth was detected. Growth rates were higher in smaller juvenile barnacles, peaking at a 1.1-mm monthly increment in rostro-carinal length (RC for individuals with RC=5 mm, and decreased with barnacle size (monthly growth rates of 0.5 mm for adult barnacles with RC~12.5 mm. Growth rates observed in adults with commercial interest (RC ≥ 18 mm was < 0.25 mm per month. The advantages of tagging P. pollicipes with calcein were the possibility of mass marking individual barnacles of different size cohorts within a short period (less than 1 day of manipulation; and reduced time of fieldwork, which is very important because this species inhabits very exposed rocky shores.

  2. US Higher Education in a Budgetary Vortex--1992-2007: Tracing the Positioning of Academe in the Context of Growing Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliver, Miguel; Briscoe, Felecia M.

    2011-01-01

    Through comparative statistical data of public investment trends in higher education, the institution of higher education in the US is contemporarily contextualized within the growing milieu of disparity. Specifically, this study focuses on the period from 1992 to 2007 to see if a mitigation of the growing economic disparity projected per the…

  3. Stability of the 'L12 stalk' in ribosomes from mesophilic and (hyper)thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, D; Dontsova, M; Tribus, M; Garber, M; Piendl, W

    2006-01-01

    The ribosomal stalk complex, consisting of one molecule of L10 and four or six molecules of L12, is attached to 23S rRNA via protein L10. This complex forms the so-called 'L12 stalk' on the 50S ribosomal subunit. Ribosomal protein L11 binds to the same region of 23S rRNA and is located at the base of the 'L12 stalk'. The 'L12 stalk' plays a key role in the interaction of the ribosome with translation factors. In this study stalk complexes from mesophilic and (hyper)thermophilic species of the archaeal genus Methanococcus and from the Archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, as well as from the Bacteria Escherichia coli, Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Thermus thermophilus, were overproduced in E.coli and purified under non-denaturing conditions. Using filter-binding assays the affinities of the archaeal and bacterial complexes to their specific 23S rRNA target site were analyzed at different pH, ionic strength and temperature. Affinities of both archaeal and bacterial complexes for 23S rRNA vary by more than two orders of magnitude, correlating very well with the growth temperatures of the organisms. A cooperative effect of binding to 23S rRNA of protein L11 and the L10/L12(4) complex from mesophilic and thermophilic Archaea was shown to be temperature-dependent.

  4. Ribosomal Stalk Protein Silencing Partially Corrects the ΔF508-CFTR Functional Expression Defect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Veit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common cystic fibrosis (CF causing mutation, deletion of phenylalanine 508 (ΔF508 or Phe508del, results in functional expression defect of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR at the apical plasma membrane (PM of secretory epithelia, which is attributed to the degradation of the misfolded channel at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Deletion of phenylalanine 670 (ΔF670 in the yeast oligomycin resistance 1 gene (YOR1, an ABC transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenocopies the ΔF508-CFTR folding and trafficking defects. Genome-wide phenotypic (phenomic analysis of the Yor1-ΔF670 biogenesis identified several modifier genes of mRNA processing and translation, which conferred oligomycin resistance to yeast. Silencing of orthologues of these candidate genes enhanced the ΔF508-CFTR functional expression at the apical PM in human CF bronchial epithelia. Although knockdown of RPL12, a component of the ribosomal stalk, attenuated the translational elongation rate, it increased the folding efficiency as well as the conformational stability of the ΔF508-CFTR, manifesting in 3-fold augmented PM density and function of the mutant. Combination of RPL12 knockdown with the corrector drug, VX-809 (lumacaftor restored the mutant function to ~50% of the wild-type channel in primary CFTRΔF508/ΔF508 human bronchial epithelia. These results and the observation that silencing of other ribosomal stalk proteins partially rescue the loss-of-function phenotype of ΔF508-CFTR suggest that the ribosomal stalk modulates the folding efficiency of the mutant and is a potential therapeutic target for correction of the ΔF508-CFTR folding defect.

  5. Digenic Inheritance of PROKR2 and WDR11 Mutations in Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Shana E; Li, Dong; Kim, Yeon Joo; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Rapaport, Robert; Levine, Michael A

    2017-07-01

    Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS, ORPHA95496) is a congenital defect of the pituitary gland characterized by the triad of a very thin/interrupted pituitary stalk, an ectopic (or absent) posterior pituitary gland, and hypoplasia or aplasia of the anterior pituitary gland. Complex genetic patterns of inheritance of this disorder are increasingly recognized. The objective of this study was to identify a genetic cause of PSIS in an affected child. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed by using standard techniques, with prioritized genetic variants confirmed via Sanger sequencing. To investigate the effects of one candidate variant on mutant WDR11 function, Western blotting and coimmunofluorescence were used to assess binding capacity, and leptomycin B exposure along with immunofluorescence was used to assess nuclear localization. We describe a child who presented in infancy with combined pituitary hormone deficiencies and whose brain imaging demonstrated a small anterior pituitary, ectopic posterior pituitary, and a thin, interrupted stalk. WES demonstrated heterozygous missense mutations in two genes required for pituitary development, a known loss-of-function mutation in PROKR2 (c.253C>T;p.R85C) inherited from an unaffected mother, and a WDR11 (c.1306A>G;p.I436V) mutation inherited from an unaffected father. Mutant WDR11 loses its capacity to bind to its functional partner, EMX1, and to localize to the nucleus. WES in a child with PSIS and his unaffected family implicates a digenic mechanism of inheritance. In cases of hypopituitarism in which there is incomplete segregation of a monogenic genotype with the phenotype, the possibility that a second genetic locus is involved should be considered. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  6. Fracture line index of fibular stalk and the ankle joint bone in the classification of the ankle joint trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jun; Zhang Qiang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the fracture line index of fibular stalk and the ankle joint bone in the classification of the ankle joint trauma. Methods: Measure fracture line index of fibular stalk and the ankle joint in 217 adult cases of fracture and dislocation of ankle joint. And the cases were classified by the results of the measurement. Results: Measurement was unavailable in 9 cases of tearing fracture. In 31 cases, the lesions could not be particularly classified. And in the rest 176 cases the trauma were precisely classified. The over all successful rate was 81.6%. Conclusion: Fracture line index of fibular stalk and the ankle joint bone are valuable in classification of the trauma of the angle joint. While the specificity of this method is low in differentiating the adducting and abducting fracture of the medial angle, in which a combined investigation is recommended

  7. The Effect of Different Treatments on Seed Dormancy Breaking of Weed Stalked Bur Grass Tragus racemosus (L. AlI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam reza doraki

    2017-01-01

    observed under wet chilling treatment at 4°C for 4 weeds and the lowest one (6% was observed in control. The highest germination percentage under H2SO4 treatment was 41% obtained at the level of 80 seconds, under KNO3 treatment was 69% obtained at the level of 0.8%, and under GA3 treatment was 62% obtained at the level of 400 ppm. The highest germination rate (18.24 seeds per day was observed at KNO3 treatment (0.8% and the lowest one (0.91 seeds per day was observed in control. In addition, the highest germination rate under H 2SO4 treatment was 15.28 seeds per day obtained at the level of 80 seconds, under wet chilling was 13.25 seeds per day obtained at the level of 3 weeks, and under GA3 treatment was 12.08 seeds per day obtained at the level of 200 ppm. Wet chilling enhances the production of such stimulants as gibberellins. On the other hand, chilling treatment may reduce ABA amount or the sensitivity of embryo to ABA which can play a role in seeds dormancy breaking. KNO3 is likely to increase the sensitivity of germinating seeds to light acting as a complement factor for phytochrome which results in higher germination of the seeds. Most researchers believe that dormancy is broken by the balance between growth inhibitors like abscisic acid and growth stimulators like gibberellins. In addition, gibberellins activate a special signaling pathway that reduces abscisic acid in seeds and in contrast, auxins and cytokinins of the seeds are increased to a level enough for inducing dormancy break. Conclusion: In the present study, the germinated seeds were counted for 21 days. The highest germination percentage (76% was observed under wet chilling treatment for 4 weeks and the lowest one (6% was observed under control treatment. The highest germination rate (18.24 seeds per day was observed under KNO3treatment (0.8% and the lowest rate (0.91 seeds per day was reported under control treatment. According to the results it can be concluded that the dormancy of Stalked Bur Grass

  8. Evidence of the most stretchable egg sac silk stalk, of the European spider of the year Meta menardi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Lepore

    Full Text Available Spider silks display generally strong mechanical properties, even if differences between species and within the same species can be observed. While many different types of silks have been tested, the mechanical properties of stalks of silk taken from the egg sac of the cave spider Meta menardi have not yet been analyzed. Meta menardi has recently been chosen as the "European spider of the year 2012", from the European Society of Arachnology. Here we report a study where silk stalks were collected directly from several caves in the north-west of Italy. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM images showed that stalks are made up of a large number of threads, each of them with diameter of 6.03 ± 0.58 µm. The stalks were strained at the constant rate of 2 mm/min, using a tensile testing machine. The observed maximum stress, strain and toughness modulus, defined as the area under the stress-strain curve, are 0.64 GPa, 751% and 130.7 MJ/m(3, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, such an observed huge elongation has never been reported for egg sac silk stalks and suggests a huge unrolling microscopic mechanism of the macroscopic stalk that, as a continuation of the protective egg sac, is expected to be composed by fibres very densely and randomly packed. The Weibull statistics was used to analyze the results from mechanical testing, and an average value of Weibull modulus (m is deduced to be in the range of 1.5-1.8 with a Weibull scale parameter (σ(0 in the range of 0.33-0.41 GPa, showing a high coefficient of correlation (R(2 = 0.97.

  9. Evidence of the most stretchable egg sac silk stalk, of the European spider of the year Meta menardi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Emiliano; Marchioro, Andrea; Isaia, Marco; Buehler, Markus J; Pugno, Nicola M

    2012-01-01

    Spider silks display generally strong mechanical properties, even if differences between species and within the same species can be observed. While many different types of silks have been tested, the mechanical properties of stalks of silk taken from the egg sac of the cave spider Meta menardi have not yet been analyzed. Meta menardi has recently been chosen as the "European spider of the year 2012", from the European Society of Arachnology. Here we report a study where silk stalks were collected directly from several caves in the north-west of Italy. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images showed that stalks are made up of a large number of threads, each of them with diameter of 6.03 ± 0.58 µm. The stalks were strained at the constant rate of 2 mm/min, using a tensile testing machine. The observed maximum stress, strain and toughness modulus, defined as the area under the stress-strain curve, are 0.64 GPa, 751% and 130.7 MJ/m(3), respectively. To the best of our knowledge, such an observed huge elongation has never been reported for egg sac silk stalks and suggests a huge unrolling microscopic mechanism of the macroscopic stalk that, as a continuation of the protective egg sac, is expected to be composed by fibres very densely and randomly packed. The Weibull statistics was used to analyze the results from mechanical testing, and an average value of Weibull modulus (m) is deduced to be in the range of 1.5-1.8 with a Weibull scale parameter (σ(0)) in the range of 0.33-0.41 GPa, showing a high coefficient of correlation (R(2) = 0.97).

  10. High-resolution heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic neurohypophysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanharawi, Imane El; Tzarouchi, Loukia [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Cardoen, Liesbeth [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Martinerie, Laetitia; Leger, Juliane; Carel, Jean-Claude [Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France); Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service d' Endocrinologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Elmaleh-Berges, Monique [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France); Alison, Marianne [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France)

    2017-05-15

    In anterior pituitary deficiency, patients with non visible pituitary stalk have more often multiple deficiencies and persistent deficiency than patients with visible pituitary stalk. To compare the diagnostic value of a high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence to 1.5-mm-thick unenhanced and contrast-enhanced sagittal T1-weighted sequences to assess the presence of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland. We retrospectively evaluated the MRI data of 14 children diagnosed with ectopic posterior pituitary gland between 2010 and 2014. We evaluated the presence of a pituitary stalk using a sagittal high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence and a 1.5-mm sagittal T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence before and after contrast medium administration. A pituitary stalk was present on at least one of the sequences in 10 of the 14 children (71%). T2-weighted sequence depicted the pituitary stalk in all 10 children, whereas the 1.5-mm-thick T1-weighted sequence depicted 2/10 (20%) before contrast injection and 8/10 (80%) after contrast injection (P=0.007). Compared with 1.5-mm-thick contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence demonstrates better sensitivity in detecting the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland, suggesting that contrast injection is unnecessary to assess the presence of a pituitary stalk in this setting. (orig.)

  11. High-resolution heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic neurohypophysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sanharawi, Imane; Tzarouchi, Loukia; Cardoen, Liesbeth; Martinerie, Laetitia; Leger, Juliane; Carel, Jean-Claude; Elmaleh-Berges, Monique; Alison, Marianne

    2017-05-01

    In anterior pituitary deficiency, patients with non visible pituitary stalk have more often multiple deficiencies and persistent deficiency than patients with visible pituitary stalk. To compare the diagnostic value of a high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence to 1.5-mm-thick unenhanced and contrast-enhanced sagittal T1-weighted sequences to assess the presence of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland. We retrospectively evaluated the MRI data of 14 children diagnosed with ectopic posterior pituitary gland between 2010 and 2014. We evaluated the presence of a pituitary stalk using a sagittal high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence and a 1.5-mm sagittal T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence before and after contrast medium administration. A pituitary stalk was present on at least one of the sequences in 10 of the 14 children (71%). T2-weighted sequence depicted the pituitary stalk in all 10 children, whereas the 1.5-mm-thick T1-weighted sequence depicted 2/10 (20%) before contrast injection and 8/10 (80%) after contrast injection (P=0.007). Compared with 1.5-mm-thick contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence demonstrates better sensitivity in detecting the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland, suggesting that contrast injection is unnecessary to assess the presence of a pituitary stalk in this setting.

  12. The effectiveness of peer mentoring in promoting a positive transition to higher education for first-year undergraduate students: a mixed methods systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragher, Jean; McGaughey, Jennifer

    2016-04-22

    The global transfer of nursing and midwifery education to higher education institutes has led to student nurses and midwives experiencing challenges previously faced by traditional third-level students, including isolation, loneliness, financial difficulties and academic pressure. These challenges can contribute to increased stress and anxiety levels which may be detrimental to the successful transition to higher education, thus leading to an increase in attrition rates. Peer mentoring as an intervention has been suggested to be effective in supporting students in the transition to third-level education through enhancing a sense of belongingness and improving student satisfaction, engagement and retention rates. This proposed systematic review aims to determine the effectiveness of peer mentoring in enhancing levels of student engagement, sense of belonging and overall satisfaction of first-year undergraduate students following transition into higher education. MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, Embase, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO and CENTRAL databases will be searched for qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies on the implementation of peer assessment strategies in higher education institutes (HEIs) or universities for full-time, first-year adult students (>17 years). Included studies will be limited to the English language. The quality of included studies will be assessed using a validated Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). The findings will be presented as a narrative synthesis or meta-analysis as appropriate following sequential explanatory synthesis. The review will provide clear, non-biased evidence-based guidance to all third-level educators on the effectiveness of peer-mentoring programmes for first-year undergraduates. The review is necessary to help establish which type of peer mentoring is most effective. The evidence from qualitative and quantitative studies drawn from the international literature will be utilised to illustrate the best way

  13. Effect of Piper betel leaf stalk extract on protein metabolism in reproductive tissues of male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    V Vengaiah; A Govardhan Naik; C Changamma

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To know the impact of Piper betel leaf stalk (P. betel) extract on Protein and energy metabolism and its role in male albino rats. Methods: Healthy adult (3-4 months old) male Wistar strain albino rats were administered with betel leaf stalk extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg/day through oral gavages for 15 days. Twenty four hours after the last dose, the animals were autopsied. In order to assess antifertility effect in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland, esti...

  14. Effect of thermal and high pressure processing on stability of betalain extracted from red beet stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Cláudia Destro; Ismail, Marliya; Cassini, Aline Schilling; Marczak, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira; Tessaro, Isabel Cristina; Farid, Mohammed

    2018-02-01

    Red beet stalks are a potential source of betalain, but their pigments are not widely used because of their instability. In the present work, the applicability of high pressure processing (HPP) and high temperature short time (HTST) thermal treatment was investigated to improve betalain stability in extracts with low and high concentrations. The HPP was applied at 6000 bar for 10, 20 and 30 min and HTST treatment was applied at 75.7 °C for 80 s, 81.1 °C for 100 s and 85.7 °C for 120 s, HPP treatment did not show any improvement in the betalain stability. In turn, the degradation rate of the control and the HTST thermal treatment at 85.7 °C for 120 s of the sample with high initial betalain concentration were 1.2 and 0.4 mg of betanin/100 ml of extract per day respectively. Among the treatments studied, HTST was considered the most suitable to maintain betalain stability from red beet stalks.

  15. Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant against Fusarium verticillioides to Control Stalk and Ear Rot Disease of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Narayan Borah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of rhamnolipids (RLs has been widely studied against many plant pathogenic fungi, but not against Fusarium verticillioides, a major pathogen of maize (Zea mays L.. F. verticillioides causes stalk and ear rot of maize or asymptomatically colonizes the plant and ears resulting in moderate to heavy crop loss throughout the world. F. verticillioides produces fumonisin mycotoxins, reported carcinogens, which makes the contaminated ears unsuitable for consumption. In this study, the RL produced using glucose as sole carbon source was characterized by FTIR and LCMS analyses and its antifungal activity against F. verticillioides was evaluated in vitro on maize stalks and seeds. Further, the effect of RL on the mycelia of F. verticillioides was investigated by scanning electron microscopy which revealed visible damage to the mycelial structure as compared to control samples. In planta, treatment of maize seeds with a RL concentration of 50 mg l-1 resulted in improved biomass and fruiting compared to those of healthy control plants and complete suppression of characteristic disease symptoms and colonization of maize by F. verticillioides. The study highlights the potential of RLs to be used for an effective biocontrol strategy against colonization of maize plant by F. verticillioides.

  16. Modification of Sorghum Starch-Cellulose Bioplastic with Sorghum Stalks Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Darni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the feasibility of bioplastics production by various ratio of sorghum starch and cellulose from red seaweed Eucheuma spinossum, and the use of glycerol as plasticizer and sorghum stalks as filler. Solid-liquid matrix transition should be far over the operating temperature of gelatinization and extracted at 95oC in order to avoid the loss of conductivity. The analyzed variables were starch and cellulose seaweed Eucheuma spinossum and the addition of variation of filler. Sorghum stalk could be expected to affect the mechanical and physical properties of bioplastics. A thin sheet of plastic (plastic film was obtained as a result that have been tested mechanically to obtain the best condition for the formulation of starch-cellulose 8.5:1.5 (g/g. From the result of morphological studies, the fillers in the mixture composites were more randomly in each product and the addition of filler can increase mechanical properties of bioplastics. Chemical modification had a major effect on the mechanical properties. The phenomena of degradation and thermoplasticization were visible at chemical changes that can be observed in FTIR spectrum test results.

  17. Stalk and sucrose yield in response to nitrogen fertilization of sugarcane under reduced tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Fortes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the agroindustrial production of sugarcane (millable stalks and sucrose yield after successive nitrogen fertilizations of plant cane and ratoons in a reduced tillage system. The experiment was carried out at Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, on a Rhodic Eutrustox soil, during four consecutive crop cycles (March 2005 to July 2009. Plant cane treatments consisted of N-urea levels (control, 40, 80, and 120 kg ha-1 N + 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 and K2O in furrow application. In the first and second ratoons, the plant cane plots were subdivided in N-ammonium nitrate treatments (control, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha-1 N + 150 kg ha-1 K2O as top dressing over rows. In the third ratoon, N fertilization was leveled to 100 kg ha-1 in all plots, including controls, to detect residual effects of previous fertilizations on the last crop's cycle. Sugarcane ratoon was mechanically harvested. A weighing truck was used to evaluate stalk yield (TCH, and samples were collected in the field for analysis of sugar content (TSH. Increasing N doses and meteorological conditions promote significant responses in TCH and TSH in cane plant and ratoons, in the average and accumulated yield of the consecutive crop cycles.

  18. Maize Cob Rot in Kenya and Its Association with Stalk Borer Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanga, S.I.

    2002-01-01

    Cob rots are a major cause of crop loss in areas such as western Kenya that experience prolonged rainfall during the period of crop maturation. Cob rot fungi cause spoilage of the grain and some of them produce mycotoxins which can pose a health risk to humans and animals consuming foods prepared from contaminate grain. survey conducted in western Kenya in 1998 showed that cob rot incidence exceeded 20%. In the following year when rainfall was greater around the harvest period, cob rot fungi affected 68% of cobs. in 1998 stalk borer larvae (mainly Busseola fusca) damaged 20% of the cobs and there was a strong correlation (R= 0.87) between cob rot incidence and borer damage. In 1999 almost half of the cobs sampled showed evidence of borer damage. The result indicate that the high cob rot incidence in this pert of Kenya is due to stalk bore damage, which predisposes the cobs to fungal infection, and that management of the borer would greatly decrease cob rot incidence

  19. Saccharification of sunflower stalks using lignocellulases from a fungal consortium comprising Pholiota adiposa and Armillaria gemina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Priyadharshini; Kim, Tae-Su; Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Li, Jinglin; Park, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Joon-Ho; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Dongwook; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2015-09-01

    Lignocellulases from Armillaria gemina and Pholiota adiposa are efficient in hydrolyzing aspen and poplar biomass, respectively. In the present study, lignocellulosic enzymes obtained from a fungal consortium comprising P. adiposa and A. gemina were used for the saccharification of sunflower stalks. Sunflower stalks were thermochemically pretreated using 2 % NaOH at 50 °C for 24 h. The saccharification process parameters including substrate concentration, enzyme loading, pH, and temperature were optimized using response surface methodology to improve the saccharification yield. The highest enzymatic hydrolysis (84.3 %) was obtained using the following conditions: enzyme loading 10 FPU/g-substrate, substrate 5.5 %, temperature 50 °C, and pH 4.5. The hydrolysis yield obtained using the enzymes from the fungal consortium was equivalent to that obtained using a mixture of commercial enzymes Celluclast and Novozyme β-glucosidase. Addition of up to 500 ppm of heavy metal ions (As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) during saccharification did not significantly affect the saccharification yield. Thus, the biomass grown for phytoremediation of heavy metals can be used for the production of reducing sugars followed by ethanol fermentation.

  20. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome presenting as short stature: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Nanik; Ali, Syed Ahsan; Hussain, Syed Zubair

    2014-12-19

    Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome is a rare congenital abnormality of the pituitary that is responsible for anterior pituitary deficiency. It is characterized by a classic triad of interrupted pituitary stalk, absent or ectopic posterior pituitary, and anterior pituitary hypoplasia or aplasia. Clinical presentation varies according to age. In adults it presents as short stature and anterior pituitary deficiency. Without early diagnosis and treatment, mortality and morbidity in these patients is high. Early diagnosis and treatment of this rare disease can prevent permanent short statue of the patient. We report the first case of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome from Pakistan. A 17-year-old Pakistani young man presented with short stature and underdeveloped secondary sexual characters. His siblings and parents were healthy, with normal height. An examination showed his blood pressure was 90/60 mmHg, and his height, weight, and body mass index were 142 cm, 34.5 kg, and 17.10 kg/m2, respectively. He had no hair growth on his face, axilla, or pubis. His testes were between 1 and 2 mL in size, with a 4 cm-at-stretch micropenis. His lab investigations showed that his thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was 8.58 uIU/mL (0.4 to 4.2), his free thyroid hormone level FT4 was 0.46 ng/dL (0.89 to 1.76), his prolactin was 21.1 ng/mL (3.0 to 14.7), and his baseline cortisol was 0.30 ug/dL (4.3 to 22.4). His cortisol level after 60 minutes of cosyntropin injection was 3.5 ug/dL (4.3 to 22.4), his insulin like growth factor IGF-1 was 31.56 ng/mL (247.3 to 481.7), his testosterone level was under 2.5 ng/dL (2 to 800), his follicle stimulating hormone FSH was 0.41 uIU/mL (0.0 to 10.0), and his leutinizing hormone LH was under 0.1 uIU/mL (1.2 to 7.8). His bone age was 10 years according to the Greulich and Pyle method, as shown by X-rays. The results from his pituitary magnetic resonance imaging scan were consistent with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome. We describe a young

  1. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, Kevin B

    2015-07-09

    In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group's National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during 2011-2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group's Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week); n = 2584, Average Can Users (3-5 canned items/week); n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week); n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients-potassium, calcium and fiber-when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  2. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET® database during 2011–2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group’s Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week; n = 2584, Average Can Users (3–5 canned items/week; n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week; n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients—potassium, calcium and fiber—when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  3. Are women positive for the One Step but negative for the Two Step screening tests for gestational diabetes at higher risk for adverse outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissutti, Claudia; Khalifeh, Adeeb; Saccone, Gabriele; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if women meeting criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by the One Step test as per International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria but not by other less strict criteria have adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with GDM-negative controls. The primary outcome was the incidence of macrosomia, defined as birthweight > 4000 g. Electronic databases were searched from their inception until May 2017. All studies identifying pregnant women negative at the Two Step test, but positive at the One Step test for IADPSG criteria were included. We excluded studies that randomized women to the One Step vs. the Two Step tests; studies that compared different criteria within the same screening method; randomized studies comparing treatments for GDM; and studies comparing incidence of GDM in women doing the One Step test vs. the Two Step test. Eight retrospective cohort studies, including 29 983 women, were included. Five study groups and four control groups were identified. The heterogeneity between the studies was high. Gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and large for gestational age, as well as in some analyses cesarean delivery, macrosomia and preterm birth, were significantly more frequent, and small for gestational age in some analyses significantly less frequent, in women GDM-positive by the One Step, but not the Two Step. Women meeting criteria for GDM by IADPSG criteria but not by other less strict criteria have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and large for gestational age, compared with GDM-negative controls. Based on these findings, and evidence from other studies that treatment decreases these adverse outcomes, we suggest screening for GDM using the One Step IADPSG criteria. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Extraction of Glucuronoarabinoxylan from Quinoa Stalks (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and Evaluation of Xylooligosaccharides Produced by GH10 and GH11 Xylanases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Veizaga, Daniel Martin; Villagomez, Rodrigo; Linares-Pastén, Javier A; Carrasco, Cristhian; Álvarez, María Teresa; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Nordberg Karlsson, Eva

    2017-10-04

    Byproducts from quinoa are not yet well explored sources of hemicellulose or products thereof. In this work, xylan from milled quinoa stalks was retrieved to 66% recovery by akaline extraction using 0.5 M NaOH at 80 °C, followed by ethanol precipitation. The isolated polymer eluted as a single peak in size-exclusion chromatography with a molecular weight of >700 kDa. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) combined with acid hydrolysis to monomers showed that the polymer was built of a backbone of β(1 → 4)-linked xylose residues that were substituted by 4-O-methylglucuronic acids, arabinose, and galactose in an approximate molar ratio of 114:23:5:1. NMR analysis also indicated the presence of α(1 → 5)-linked arabinose substituents in dimeric or oligomeric forms. The main xylooligosaccharides (XOs) produced after hydrolysis of the extracted glucuronoarabinoxylan polymer by thermostable glycoside hydrolases (GHs) from families 10 and 11 were xylobiose and xylotriose, followed by peaks of putative substituted XOs. Quantification of the unsubstituted XOs using standards showed that the highest yield from the soluble glucuronoarabinoxylan fraction was 1.26 g/100 g of xylan fraction, only slightly higher than the yield (1.00 g/100 g of xylan fraction) from the insoluble fraction (p 0.05). This study shows that quinoa stalks represent a novel source of glucuronoarabinoxylan, with a substituent structure that allowed for limited production of XOs by GH10 or GH11 enzymes.

  5. Comparison of the degradation of 14C-labeled DHP and corn stalk lignins by micro- and macrofungi and bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, K.; Trojanowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    To what extent and by which mode microfungi and bacteria from soil are able to degrade lignin have been investigated and their activity compared with those of white and brown rot Basidiomycetes. The experiments were made by means of specifically 14C-labeled DHPs prepared by polymerization of correspondingly labeled coniferyl alcohol. Also, a corn stalk material was used which was specifically labeled in the lignin part. This material was prepared by infusion of specifically labeled cinnamic acid compounds into growing maize plants. The potential of the organisms to degrade several specifically labeled phenols was determined and compared. White and brown rot fungi, as well as several microscopic fungi, were able to degrade phenolcarboxylic and cinnamic acids and even some phenolic compounds with completely alkylated phenolic hydroxl groups. They could also introduce hydroxl groups into benzoic and pi-hydroxybenzoic acids before ring cleavage. As compared to brown rot, the white rot fungi released higher amounts of CO2 from the aromatic and side chain carbons of DHP and plant lignins. Some brown rot fungi, however, had similar capacities in degrading DHP lignin as white rot fungi. They especially released more CO2 from methoxyl groups. This release was dependent upon the added carbohydrate source and could be either repressed or enhanced. Several bacteria, especially Nocardia spp. and Pseudomonas spp., were tested for their potential to degrade the labeled lignins or phenols. Most of these bacteria did not appreciably degrade lignins, although they were highly active in the metabolization of phenols. Some Nocardia spp., however, were found to have a noteworthy capacity in the degradation of lignins and phenols. Preliminary studies of the potentials of the organisms to attack labeled lignin sulfonates either in liquid or soil cultures are presented. (Refs. 100)

  6. Simulation with models of increasing complexity of CO2 emissions and nitrogen mineralisation, after soil application of labelled pig slurry and maize stalks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechini, Luca; Marino Gallina, Pietro; Geromel, Gabriele; Corti, Martina; Cavalli, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    High amounts of nitrogen are available per unit area in regions with intensive livestock operations. In swine farms, pig slurries are frequently incorporated in the soil together with maize stalks. Simulation models may help to understand nitrogen dynamics associated with animal manure and crop residue decomposition in the soil, and to support the definition of best management practices. The objective of this work was to test the ability of different models to simulate CO2 emissions and nitrogen mineralisation during a laboratory incubation (under optimal soil water content and constant temperature) of maize stalks (ST) and pig slurry (PS). A loam soil was amended with labelled (15N) or unlabelled maize stalks and pig slurries, in the presence of ammonium sulphate (AS). These treatments were established: unfertilised soil; ST15 + AS + PS; ST + AS15 + PS; and ST + AS + PS15. During 180 days, we measured CO2 emissions; microbial biomass C, N, and 15N; and soil mineral N (SMN and SM-15N). Three models of increasing complexity were calibrated using measured data. The models were two modifications of ICBM 2B/N (Kätterer and Andrén, 2001) and CN-SIM (Petersen et al., 2005). The three models simulated rather accurately the emissions of CO2 throughout the incubation period (Relative Root Mean Squared Error, RRMSE = 8-25). The simplest model (with one pool for ST and one for PS) strongly overestimated SMN immobilisation from day 3 to day 21, both in the treatments with AS15 and PS15 (RRMSE = 27-30%). The other two models represented rather well the dynamics of SMN in the soil (RRMSE = 21-25%), simulating a fast increase of nitrate concentration in the first days, and slower rates of nitrification thereafter. Worse performances were obtained with all models for the simulation of SM-15N in the treatment with ST15 (RRMSE = 64-104%): experimental data showed positive mineralization of stalk-derived N from the beginning of the incubation, while models strongly underestimated

  7. Prediction of postoperative diabetes insipidus using morphological hyperintensity patterns in the pituitary stalk on magnetic resonance imaging after transsphenoidal surgery for sellar tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Kita, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takuya; Fukui, Issei; Sasagawa, Yasuo; Oishi, Masahiro; Tachibana, Osamu; Ueda, Fumiaki; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) remains a complication of transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for sellar and parasellar tumors. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) appears as hyper intensity (HI) in the pituitary stalk and the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Its disappearance from the posterior lobe occurs with DI, indicating a lack of ADH. The appearance of HI in the pituitary stalk indicates disturbances in ADH transport. This retrospective study included 172 patients undergoing TSS for sellar tumors at our institute from 2006 to 2014. Sequential T1-weighted MR images without enhancement were evaluated for HI in the pituitary stalk and the posterior lobe to assess the localization of ADH before and at intervals after TSS. DI was assessed pre- and postoperatively. HI in the pituitary stalk showed the following morphology: (1) ovoid in the distal end of the pituitary stalk (group A), (2) linear in the distal part of the pituitary stalk (group B), (3) linear in the whole pituitary stalk (group C). Preoperative DI occurred in 6 patients (3.5 %) with no HI observed in the posterior lobe. Postoperative DI was transient in 82 patients (47.7 %), and permanent in 11 (6.4 %). One week after surgery, HI was absent in the posterior lobe in 74 patients (43.0 %), and present in the pituitary stalk in 99 patients (57.6 %); both were significantly correlated with postoperative DI (p < 0.001). The absence of HI in the posterior lobe (A, 48.9 %; B, 68.3 %; C, 92.3 %), persistence of DI (A, 3.7 days; B, 45.9 days; C, 20.5 months), and duration until HI recovery in the posterior lobe (A, 3.6 months; B, 6.8 months; C, 22.9 months) were greatest in group C, followed by group B, and then group A. Fourteen group A patients did not have postoperative DI despite having HI in the pituitary stalk and the posterior lobe. Four group C patients developed permanent DI with persistence HI in the pituitary stalk. HI in the pituitary stalk and its

  8. Production of charcoal briquettes from cotton stalk in malawi: methodology for feasibility studies using experiences in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onaji, P.B.; Siemons, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of charcoal production from cotton stalks in Malawi was studied based on experience from Sudan. The country relies considerably on biomass fuels. Of the total energy consumption in Malawi of 2.376 MTOE in 1989, 92% was met by biomass (fuelwood: 83.6% and charcoal: 8.3% Petroleum

  9. Modeling of kinetics of Cr(VI) sorption onto grape stalk waste in a stirred batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero, Carlos; Fiol, Nuria; Poch, Jordi; Villaescusa, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Cr(VI) removal by grape stalks has been postulated to follow two mechanisms, adsorption and reduction to trivalent chromium. Nevertheless, the rate at which both processes take place and the possible simultaneity of both processes has not been investigated. In this work, kinetics of Cr(VI) sorption onto grape stalk waste has been studied. Experiments were carried out at different temperatures but at a constant pH (3 ± 0.1) in a stirred batch reactor. Results showed that three steps take place in the process of Cr(VI) sorption onto grape stalk waste: Cr(VI) sorption, Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) and the adsorption of the formed Cr(III). Taking into account the evidences above mentioned, a model has been developed to predict Cr(VI) sorption on grape stalks on the basis of (i) irreversible reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) reaction, whose reaction rate is assumed to be proportional to the Cr(VI) concentration in solution and (ii) adsorption and desorption of Cr(VI) and formed Cr(III) assuming that all the processes follow Langmuir type kinetics. The proposed model fits successfully the kinetic data obtained at different temperatures and describes the kinetics profile of total, hexavalent and trivalent chromium. The proposed model would be helpful for researchers in the field of Cr(VI) biosorption to design and predict the performance of sorption processes.

  10. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm line HA-BSR1 highly tolerant to Sclerotinia basal stalk rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a devastating disease that causes a significant damage to worldwide sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production by reducing seed yield and quality. The objective of this research was to develop highly BSR tolerant sunflower g...

  11. 24 CFR 5.2005 - Protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking in public and Section 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking in public and Section 8 housing. 5.2005 Section 5.2005 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Protection for...

  12. The subcellular distribution of the human ribosomal "stalk" components: P1, P2 and P0 proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchórzewski, Marek; Krokowski, Dawid; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    The ribosomal "stalk" structure is a distinct lateral protuberance located on the large ribosomal subunit in prokaryotic, as well as in eukaryotic cells. In eukaryotes, this ribosomal structure is composed of the acidic ribosomal P proteins, forming two hetero-dimers (P1/P2) attached...

  13. Determining the minimum conditions for soda-anthraquinone pulping of kenaf bast, core, and whole stalk fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Han; Thomas A. Rymsza

    1999-01-01

    Chemical pulping of kenaf fiber is comparatively new. In this study, bast, core, and whole stalk kenaf fibers were pulped using a soda-AQ pulping process and various pulping conditions. Handsheets were evaluated for density, Canadian standard freeness, brightness, opacity, smoothness, and tensile, burst, and tear indexes and strength. The results indicate that...

  14. Shea meal and cotton stalk as potential fuels for co-combustion with coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, S; Nimmo, W; Gibbs, B M

    2010-10-01

    The efficient management of waste biomass is an important environmental problem in agricultural countries. Often land-fill is the main disposal route with ramifications including CH(4) release having 21 times greater global warming potential per molecule than CO(2). Biomasses are considered to be CO(2)-neutral fuels when combusted. Moreover, they are renewable and covered by the renewable obligation scheme and eligible for certificates in the UK. The overall objective of the investigation is to assess the performance of selected biomass and coal co-firing under two different modes of operation, air-staging and fuel-staging with the benefit of reduced-NO(x) and SO(2) emissions in power plant. The biomasses chosen for the study, shea meal (SM) and cotton stalk (CS) have very different cellulose/lignin compositions and different reported thermal behaviour. A series of experiments have been carried out in a 20 kW, down fired combustor using coal, shea meal-coal and cotton stalk-coal blends under un-staged, air-staged and fuel-staged co-combustion configurations. For air-staging, an optimum value of primary zone stoichiometry SR(1)=0.9 was found. Keeping it fixed, the shea meal and cotton stalk content in the coal-biomass blends was set to 5%, 10% and 15% on thermal basis. NO reductions of 51% and 60% were achieved using SM and CS, respectively, with an optimum thermal biomass blending ratio (BBR) of 10%. The results obtained were compared with un-staged and air-staged results for coal without the addition of biomass. Similarly for fuel-staging, keeping the length of the reburn and burnout zone fixed, SM and CS were evaluated as reductive fuel using different reburn fuel fractions (R(ff)) of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. NO reductions of 83% and 84% were obtained with an optimum R(ff) of 15% with an optimum reburn zone stoichiometry of SR(2)=0.8 for both SM and CS, respectively. SO(2) reduction and char burnout efficiency were also evaluated. It was found that addition of

  15. Antifertility effect of betal leaf stalk (Tambul patrabrint): a preliminary experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, P V; Chaturvedi, C; Dixit, S N

    1970-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine possible antifertility properties of the stalk of the betel plant, Piper betle, which is extensively cultivated in warm moist parts of India for its leaves. The thin stalks were dried, powdered, and extracted with alcohol; the residue was used in the study and named betel leaf stalk extract (BLSE). It was macerated with gum acacia, suspended in distilled water, and diluted to 25 mg/ml. The drug was fed by oral intubation. Initially 20 rats were used in 2 groups, one receiving BLSE 50 mg/kg body weight for 10 days and the other vehicle only. Both were caged with males for 15 days. Only 2 of 10 rats receiving BLSE gave birth to litters while 9 of 10 controls delivered. Number of pups was also reduced. In another experiment using 60 female rats to 30 while BLSE at 50 mg/100 gm body weight was fed for 3 days during diestrus to 30 while 30 controls received vehicle only. Successful mating was confirmed by sperm in vaginal smears. 8 of 30 treated rats delivered 3.5 pups each while 29 of 30 controls delivered 7 pups per rat. In a third experiment 10 female rats were given BLSE 50mg/100 gm body weight, 10 vehicle only, and 10 neoclinesterol 150 mcg/100 gm body weight for 4 consecutive days. On Day 5 the animals were sacrificed and weights of uterus and ovaries recorded. Antiestrogenic properties were studied in oophorectomized rats given stilbestrol 150 mcg/100 gm body weight by injection, then fed 150 mcg/100 gm body weight of neoclinesterol or BLSE, 50 mg/100 gm, but the neoclinesterol. Vaginal smears were examined for cornification on Days 2, 3, and 4. Progestational activity was studied in 12 immature female rabbits injected with stilbestrol then treated with BLSE or leutocycline. Tests for estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of BLSE were negative. A mild progestational activity was found in immature estrogen-primed rabbits but some follicle depressant type action was noted as several graffian follicles were seen in their

  16. Positioning end-of-life care education within the pre-registration therapeutic radiography curriculum: A survey of current practices amongst UK higher education institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, N.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: It is essential that all health professionals who come into contact with patients with terminal diagnoses are equipped to effectively and competently provide end of life care. This study aims to investigate the manner in which Higher Education Institutions address this requirement with their programmes of pre-registration therapeutic radiography education. Method: A structured survey was administered electronically to all UK universities with responsibility for therapeutic radiography education. The scope of the survey addressed mode and duration of end of life care education, its location, curricular assessment, identifiable barriers and best practice. Results: All respondents confirmed the presence of dedicated end of life care education within their curriculum. Variation in the duration and location of this education is reported as are approaches to assessment of associated skills and knowledge. Analysis of respondent commentary has identified three themes-preparedness for the clinical role, dissonance between technology and care, and holistic approaches to course design. Conclusion: Respondents have highlighted the importance of end of life care instruction with their programmes of study and identified aspects of the mode and duration of its delivery. Inclusion of this aspect of study may be problematic in the face of competing demands arising from the volume and complexity of the curriculum. Practical experience of end of life care predominantly occurs within the radiotherapy department, although there is scope to explore opportunities within the hospice and community care setting. - Highlights: • Effective end of life care training within radiotherapy radiography programmes is necessary. • Universities confirm the inclusion of end of life care training in their curriculum. • Variations in contact time and mode of delivery are reported. • The majority of end of life care practice experience is gained within the radiotherapy department. • Wider

  17. Podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblast recruitment within cancer stroma is associated with a higher number of single nucleotide variants in cancer cells in lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasone, Shoko; Mimaki, Sachiyo; Ichikawa, Tomohiro; Aokage, Keiju; Miyoshi, Tomohiro; Sugano, Masato; Kojima, Motohiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Kuwata, Takeshi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Goto, Koichi; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Ishii, Genichiro

    2018-05-01

    Podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play an essential role in tumor progression. However, it is still unclear whether specific genomic alterations of cancer cells are required to recruit podoplanin-positive CAFs. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the mutation status of lung adenocarcinoma cells and the presence of podoplanin-positive CAFs. Ninety-seven lung adenocarcinomas for which whole exome sequencing data were available were enrolled. First, we analyzed the clinicopathological features of the cases, and then, evaluated the relationship between genetic features of cancer cells (major driver mutations and the number of single nucleotide variants, SNVs) and the presence of podoplanin-positive CAFs. The presence of podoplanin-positive CAFs was associated with smoking history, solid predominant subtype, and lymph node metastasis. We could not find any significant correlations between major genetic mutations (EGFR, KRAS, TP53, MET, ERBB2, BRAF, and PIC3CA) in cancer cells and the presence of podoplanin-positive CAFs. However, cases with podoplanin-positive CAFs had a significantly higher number of SNVs in cancer cells than the podoplanin-negative CAFs cases (median 84 vs 37, respectively; p = 0.001). This was also detected in a non-smoker subgroup (p = 0.037). Multivariate analyses revealed that the number of SNVs in cancer cells was the only statistically significant independent predictor for the presence of podoplanin-positive CAFs (p = 0.044). In lung adenocarcinoma, the presence of podoplanin-positive CAFs was associated with higher numbers of SNVs in cancer cells, suggesting a relationship between accumulations of SNVs in cancer cells and the generation of a tumor-promoting microenvironment.

  18. Choosing an Oronasal Mask to Deliver Continuous Positive Airway Pressure May Cause More Upper Airway Obstruction or Lead to Higher Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Requirements than a Nasal Mask in Some Patients: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Justin R; Aiyappan, Vinod; Mercer, Jeremy; Catcheside, Peter G; Chai-Coetzer, Ching Li; McEvoy, R Doug; Antic, Nick

    2016-09-15

    The choice of mask interface used with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy can affect the control of upper airway obstruction (UAO) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We describe a case series of four patients with paradoxical worsening of UAO with an oronasal mask and the effect of changing to a nasal mask. We retrospectively reviewed the case histories of 4 patients and recorded patient demographics, in-laboratory and ambulatory CPAP titration data, CPAP therapy data, type of mask interface used and potential confounding factors. The 4 cases (mean ± SD: age = 59 ± 16 y; BMI = 30.5 ± 4.5 kg/m(2)) had a high residual apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) (43 ± 14.2 events/h) and high CPAP pressure requirements (14.9 ± 6.6 cmH2O) with an oronasal mask. Changing to a nasal mask allowed adequate control of UAO with a significant reduction in the average residual AHI (3.1 ± 1.5 events/h). In two of the four cases, it was demonstrated that control of UAO was obtained at a much lower CPAP pressure compared to the oronasal mask (Case one = 17.5 cmH2O vs 12cmH2O; Case two = 17.9 cmH2O vs 7.8 cmH2O). Other potential confounding factors were unchanged. There are various physiological observations that may explain these findings but it is uncertain which individuals are susceptible to these mechanisms. If patients have OSA incompletely controlled by CPAP with evidence of residual UAO and/or are requiring surprisingly high CPAP pressure to control OSA with an oronasal mask, the choice of mask should be reviewed and consideration be given to a trial of a nasal mask. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1209. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  19. Study on loading coefficient in steam explosion process of corn stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Wenjie; Chen, Hongzhang

    2015-03-01

    The object of this work was to evaluate the effect of loading coefficient on steam explosion process and efficacy of corn stalk. Loading coefficient's relation with loading pattern and material property was first revealed, then its effect on transfer process and pretreatment efficacy of steam explosion was assessed by established models and enzymatic hydrolysis tests, respectively, in order to propose its optimization strategy for improving the process economy. Results showed that loading coefficient was mainly determined by loading pattern, moisture content and chip size. Both compact loading pattern and low moisture content improved the energy efficiency of steam explosion pretreatment and overall sugar yield of pretreated materials, indicating that they are desirable to improve the process economy. Pretreatment of small chip size showed opposite effects in pretreatment energy efficiency and enzymatic hydrolysis performance, thus its optimization should be balanced in investigated aspects according to further techno-economical evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solution by corn stalk graft copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liuchun; Dang, Zhi; Zhu, Chaofei; Yi, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Congqiang

    2010-08-01

    Corn stalk was modified using graft copolymerization to produce absorbent (AGCS), which was characterized by elemental analysis, fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, solid-state CP/MAS (13)C NMR spectra, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimeter. AGCS, having cyano group (-CN) after grafted successfully, exhibits more high adsorption potential for Cd(II) than unmodified forms. The efficiency of AGCS for removal of cadmium ions was evaluated. Factors affecting Cd(II) adsorption such as pH value and adsorbent dosage were investigated. More than 90% removal was achieved at pH 3.0-7.0 and the adsorption increased from 16.0% to 99.2% with increase of adsorbent dose. In addition, two isotherm models, namely, Langmuir and Freunlich were also analyzed to determine the best fit equation for adsorption of Cd(II) on AGCS. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical constituents from roots and leaf stalks of acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart., Arecaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galotta, Ana Lucia Queiroz de Assis; Boaventura, Maria Amelia Diamantino

    2005-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of roots and leaf stalks of Euterpe precatoria Mart. (acai), afforded stigmast-4-en-6β-ol-3-one (3); p-hydroxy benzoic acid (4); 3β-O-D-glucopyranosyl-sitosterol (5); β-sitosterol palmitate (6); mixtures of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (1 and 2), α-, β-amyrin and lupeol (7, 8 and 9), friedelin-3-one and 28-hydroxy-friedelin-3-one (10 and 11) and α-, β-D-glucose (12, 13). Except for 1, 2 and 4, the other isolated constituents are described in the genus for the first time. Compounds 3 and 5 gave good results in the brine shrimp bioassay, which detects compounds with potential uses as antitumor agents, pesticides, etc.. (author)

  2. Pyrolysis of corn stalk biomass briquettes in a scaled-up microwave technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salema, Arshad Adam; Afzal, Muhammad T; Bennamoun, Lyes

    2017-06-01

    Pyrolysis of corn stalk biomass briquettes was carried out in a developed microwave (MW) reactor supplied with 2.45GHz frequency using 3kW power generator. MW power and biomass loading were the key parameters investigated in this study. Highest bio-oil, biochar, and gas yield of 19.6%, 41.1%, and 54.0% was achieved at different process condition. In terms of quality, biochar exhibited good heating value (32MJ/kg) than bio-oil (2.47MJ/kg). Bio-oil was also characterised chemically using FTIR and GC-MS method. This work may open new dimension towards development of large-scale MW pyrolysis technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Removal of insecticide carbofuran from aqueous solutions by banana stalks activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, J.M.; Hameed, B.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, activated carbon was prepared from banana stalks (BSAC) waste to remove the insecticide carbofuran from aqueous solutions. The effects of contact time, initial carbofuran concentration, solution pH and temperature (30, 40 and 50 deg. C) were investigated. Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics of carbofuran on BSAC were studied. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models and the data best represented by the Langmuir isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy (ΔH o ), standard entropy (ΔS o ) and standard free energy (ΔG o ) were evaluated. Regeneration efficiency of spent BSAC was studied using ethanol as a solvent. The efficiency was found to be in the range of 96.97-97.35%. The results indicated that the BSAC has good regeneration and reusability characteristics and can be used as alternative to present commercial activated carbon.

  4. Biological Control of Fusarium Stalk Rot of Maize Using Bacillus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Hee Han

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is an economically important crop in worldwide. While the consumption of the maize is steadily increasing, the yield is decreasing due to continuous mono-cultivation and infection of soil-borne fungal pathogens such as Fusarium species. Recently, stalk rot disease in maize, caused by F. subglutinans and F. temperatum has been reported in Korea. In this study, we isolated bacterial isolates in rhizosphere soil of maize and subsequently tested for antagonistic activities against F. subglutinans and F. temperatum. A total of 1,357 bacterial strains were isolated from rhizosphere. Among them three bacterial isolates (GC02, GC07, GC08 were selected, based on antagonistic effects against Fusarium species. The isolates GC02 and GC07 were most efficient in inhibiting the mycelium growth of the pathogens. The three isolates GC02, GC07 and GC08 were identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. thuringiensis using 16S rRNA sequence analysis, respectively. GC02 and GC07 bacterial suspensions were able to suppress over 80% conidial germination of the pathogens. GC02, GC07 and GC08 were capable of producing large quantities of protease enzymes, whereas the isolates GC07 and GC08 produced cellulase enzymes. The isolates GC02 and GC07 were more efficient in phosphate solubilization and siderophore production than GC08. Analysis of disease suppression revealed that GC07 was most effective in suppressing the disease development of stalk rot. It was also found that B. methylotrophicus GC02 and B. amyloliquefaciens GC07 have an ability to inhibit the growth of other plant pathogenic fungi. This study indicated B. methylotrophicus GC02 and B. amyloliquefaciens GC07 has potential for being used for the development of a biological control agent.

  5. Harassment, stalking, threats and attacks targeting New Zealand politicians: A mental health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every-Palmer, Susanna; Barry-Walsh, Justin; Pathé, Michele

    2015-07-01

    Due to the nature of their work, politicians are at greater risk of stalking, harassment and attack than the general population. The small, but significantly elevated risk of violence to politicians is predominantly due not to organised terrorism or politically motivated extremists but to fixated individuals with untreated serious mental disorders, usually psychosis. Our objective was to ascertain the frequency, nature and effects of unwanted harassment of politicians in New Zealand and the possible role of mental illness in this harassment. New Zealand Members of Parliament were surveyed, with an 84% response rate (n = 102). Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on Parliamentarians' experiences of harassment and stalking. Eighty-seven percent of politicians reported unwanted harassment ranging from disturbing communications to physical violence, with most experiencing harassment in multiple modalities and on multiple occasions. Cyberstalking and other forms of online harassment were common, and politicians felt they (and their families) had become more exposed as a result of the Internet. Half of MPs had been personally approached by their harassers, 48% had been directly threatened and 15% had been attacked. Some of these incidents were serious, involving weapons such as guns, Molotov cocktails and blunt instruments. One in three politicians had been targeted at their homes. Respondents believed the majority of those responsible for the harassment exhibited signs of mental illness. The harassment of politicians in New Zealand is common and concerning. Many of those responsible were thought to be mentally ill by their victims. This harassment has significant psychosocial costs for both the victim and the perpetrator and represents an opportunity for mental health intervention. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  6. Adhesive proteins of stalked and acorn barnacles display homology with low sequence similarities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimie-Leigh Jonker

    Full Text Available Barnacle adhesion underwater is an important phenomenon to understand for the prevention of biofouling and potential biotechnological innovations, yet so far, identifying what makes barnacle glue proteins 'sticky' has proved elusive. Examination of a broad range of species within the barnacles may be instructive to identify conserved adhesive domains. We add to extensive information from the acorn barnacles (order Sessilia by providing the first protein analysis of a stalked barnacle adhesive, Lepas anatifera (order Lepadiformes. It was possible to separate the L. anatifera adhesive into at least 10 protein bands using SDS-PAGE. Intense bands were present at approximately 30, 70, 90 and 110 kilodaltons (kDa. Mass spectrometry for protein identification was followed by de novo sequencing which detected 52 peptides of 7-16 amino acids in length. None of the peptides matched published or unpublished transcriptome sequences, but some amino acid sequence similarity was apparent between L. anatifera and closely-related Dosima fascicularis. Antibodies against two acorn barnacle proteins (ab-cp-52k and ab-cp-68k showed cross-reactivity in the adhesive glands of L. anatifera. We also analysed the similarity of adhesive proteins across several barnacle taxa, including Pollicipes pollicipes (a stalked barnacle in the order Scalpelliformes. Sequence alignment of published expressed sequence tags clearly indicated that P. pollicipes possesses homologues for the 19 kDa and 100 kDa proteins in acorn barnacles. Homology aside, sequence similarity in amino acid and gene sequences tended to decline as taxonomic distance increased, with minimum similarities of 18-26%, depending on the gene. The results indicate that some adhesive proteins (e.g. 100 kDa are more conserved within barnacles than others (20 kDa.

  7. Degradation of corn stalk by the composite microbial system of MC1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The composite microbial system of MC1 was used to degrade corn stalk in order to determine properties of the degraded products as well as bacterial composition of MC1. Results indicated that the pH of the fermentation broth was typical of lignocellulose degradatioin by MC1, decreasing in the early phase and increasing in later stages of the degradation. The microbial biomass peaked on the day 3 after degradation. The MC1 effeciently degraded the corn stalk by nearly 70% during which its cellulose content decreased by 71.2%, hemicellulose by 76.5% and lignin by 24.6%. The content of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in the fermentation broth increased progressively during the first three days, and decreased thereafter, suggesting an accumulation of WSC in the early phase of the degradation process. Total levels of various volatile products peaked in the third day after degradation , and 7 types of volatile products were detected in the fermentation broth. These were ethanol, acetic acid, 1,2-ethanediol, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, 3-methyl-butanoic acid and glycerine. Six major compounds were quantitatively analysed and the contents of each compound were ethanol (0.584 g/L), acetic acid (0.735 g/L), 1,2-ethanediol (0.772 g/L), propanoic acid (0.026 g/L), butanoic acid (0.018 g/L) and glycerine (4.203 g/L). Characterization of bacterial cells collected from the culture solution, based on 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE analysis of DNAs, showed that the composition of bacterial community in MC1 coincided basically with observations from previous studies. This indicated that the structure of MC1 is very stable during degradation of different lignocellulose materials.

  8. Permeability transition in human mitochondria persists in the absence of peripheral stalk subunits of ATP synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiuya; Carroll, Joe; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2017-08-22

    The opening of a nonspecific channel, known as the permeability transition pore (PTP), in the inner membranes of mitochondria can be triggered by calcium ions, leading to swelling of the organelle, disruption of the inner membrane and ATP synthesis, and cell death. Pore opening can be inhibited by cyclosporin A mediated via cyclophilin D. It has been proposed that the pore is associated with the dimeric ATP synthase and the oligomycin sensitivity conferral protein (OSCP), a component of the enzyme's peripheral stalk, provides the site at which cyclophilin D interacts. Subunit b contributes a central α-helical structure to the peripheral stalk, extending from near the top of the enzyme's catalytic domain and crossing the membrane domain of the enzyme via two α-helices. We investigated the possible involvement of the subunit b and the OSCP in the PTP by generating clonal cells, HAP1-Δb and HAP1-ΔOSCP, lacking the membrane domain of subunit b or the OSCP, respectively, in which the corresponding genes, ATP5F1 and ATP5O , had been disrupted. Both cell lines preserve the characteristic properties of the PTP; therefore, the membrane domain of subunit b does not contribute to the PTP, and the OSCP does not provide the site of interaction with cyclophilin D. The membrane subunits ATP6, ATP8, and subunit c have been eliminated previously from possible participation in the PTP; thus, the only subunits of ATP synthase that could participate in pore formation are e, f, g, diabetes-associated protein in insulin-sensitive tissues (DAPIT), and the 6.8-kDa proteolipid.

  9. A new stalked filter-feeder from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna J O'Brien

    Full Text Available Burgess Shale-type deposits provide invaluable insights into the early evolution of body plans and the ecological structure of Cambrian communities, but a number of species, continue to defy phylogenetic interpretations. Here we extend this list to include a new soft-bodied animal, Siphusauctum gregarium n. gen. and n. sp., from the Tulip Beds (Campsite Cliff Shale Member, Burgess Shale Formation of Mount Stephen (Yoho National Park, British Columbia. With 1,133 specimens collected, S. gregarium is clearly the most abundant animal from this locality.This stalked animal (reaching at least 20 cm in length, has a large ovoid calyx connected to a narrow bilayered stem and a small flattened or bulb-like holdfast. The calyx is enclosed by a flexible sheath with six small openings at the base, and a central terminal anus near the top encircled by indistinct openings. A prominent organ, represented by six radially symmetrical segments with comb-like elements, surrounds an internal body cavity with a large stomach, conical median gut and straight intestine. Siphusauctum gregarium was probably an active filter-feeder, with water passing through the calyx openings, capturing food particles with its comb-like elements. It often occurs in large assemblages on single bedding planes suggesting a gregarious lifestyle, with the animal living in high tier clusters. These were probably buried en masse more or less in-situ by rapid mud flow events.Siphusauctum gregarium resembles Dinomischus, another Cambrian enigmatic stalked animal. Principal points of comparison include a long stem with a calyx containing a visceral mass and bract-like elements, and a similar lifestyle albeit occupying different tiering levels. The presence in both animals of a digestive tract with a potential stomach and anus suggest a grade of organization within bilaterians, but relationships with extant phyla are not straightforward. Thus, the broader affinities of S. gregarium remain

  10. A study of beam position diagnostics with beam-excited dipole higher order modes using a downconverter test electronics in third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P.; Baboi, N.; Lorbeer, B.; Wamsat, T.; Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Wendt, M.; Jones, R.M.

    2012-08-01

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) in accelerating cavities contain transverse beam position information. Previous studies have narrowed down three modal options for beam position diagnostics in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz cavities at FLASH. Localized modes in the beam pipes at approximately 4.1 GHz and in the fifth cavity dipole band at approximately 9 GHz were found, that can provide a local measurement of the beam position. In contrast, propagating modes in the first and second dipole bands between 4.2 and 5.5 GHz can reach a better resolution. All the options were assessed with a specially designed test electronics built by Fermilab. The aim is to de ne a mode or spectral region suitable for the HOM electronics. Two data analysis techniques are used and compared in extracting beam position information from the dipole HOMs: direct linear regression and singular value decomposition. Current experiments suggest a resolution of 50 m accuracy in predicting local beam position using modes in the fifth dipole band, and a global resolution of 20 m over the complete module. Based on these results we decided to build a HOM electronics for the second dipole band and the fifth dipole band, so that we will have both high resolution measurements for the whole module, and localized measurements for individual cavity. The prototype electronics is being built by Fermilab and planned to be tested in FLASH by the end of 2012.

  11. A study of beam position diagnostics with beam-excited dipole higher order modes using a downconverter test electronics in third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baboi, N.; Lorbeer, B.; Wamsat, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Wendt, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Jones, R.M. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) in accelerating cavities contain transverse beam position information. Previous studies have narrowed down three modal options for beam position diagnostics in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz cavities at FLASH. Localized modes in the beam pipes at approximately 4.1 GHz and in the fifth cavity dipole band at approximately 9 GHz were found, that can provide a local measurement of the beam position. In contrast, propagating modes in the first and second dipole bands between 4.2 and 5.5 GHz can reach a better resolution. All the options were assessed with a specially designed test electronics built by Fermilab. The aim is to de ne a mode or spectral region suitable for the HOM electronics. Two data analysis techniques are used and compared in extracting beam position information from the dipole HOMs: direct linear regression and singular value decomposition. Current experiments suggest a resolution of 50 m accuracy in predicting local beam position using modes in the fifth dipole band, and a global resolution of 20 m over the complete module. Based on these results we decided to build a HOM electronics for the second dipole band and the fifth dipole band, so that we will have both high resolution measurements for the whole module, and localized measurements for individual cavity. The prototype electronics is being built by Fermilab and planned to be tested in FLASH by the end of 2012.

  12. Anatomic Dissection of Arachnoid Membranes Encircling the Pituitary Stalk on Fresh, Non-Formalin-Fixed Specimens: Anatomoradiologic Correlations and Clinical Applications in Craniopharyngioma Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappetta, Pasqualino; Pescatori, Lorenzo

    2017-12-01

    The anatomy of the arachnoid membranes and cisternal spaces around the pituitary stalk has not been yet exhaustively described and understood. In this study, we performed a detailed anatomic study on fresh, non-formalin-fixed cadavers of the arachnoid membranes encircling the pituitary stalk and correlate our anatomic findings with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten fresh, non-formalin-fixed, non-silicon-injected adult cadaveric heads were analyzed in this study. The membrane and cisterns that were studied for our study were as follows: 1) the diaphragma sellae and its dural components; 2) the basal arachnoid membrane; 3) the Liliequist membrane with its diencephalic and mesencephalic portion; 4) the medial carotid membrane; 5) the chiasmatic cistern; and 6) the pituitary stalk. MRI examinations of the sellar region were performed in 15 healthy volunteers (9 men, mean age 40 years; and 6 women mean age, 37 years) to visualize the arachnoid membrane encircling the pituitary stalk. MRI examinations were performed with a 3-T unit. A 3-dimensional constructive interference in steady state pulse magnetic resonance sequence was used. All the membranes examined were visualized clearly in all the dissections performed. Their 3-dimensional organization around the pituitary stalk was clarified and confirmed by MRI. Our study gives a detailed description of the pituitary stalk arachnoid sheets on fresh, non-formalin-fixed cadavers. This technique allowed us to clearly identify a funnel-shaped arachnoid collar encircling the pituitary stalk and delimiting a distinct cisternal space belonging to the stalk itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of A New Soil Amendment — Corn Stalk Sap on Loessial Soil Antierodibility%玉米秸秆汁土壤改良剂对黄绵土抗侵蚀能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃超; 郑粉莉; 刘沛峰; 徐锡蒙; 吴红艳; 汪怡珂

    2017-01-01

    controlling splash erosion and wind erosion.[Method] In this study,a new soil amendment consisting 95%~97% corn stalk sap and 3%~5% preservative (sodium benzoate) was tested in a field subjected to artificial rainfalls,winds and in situ observation to explore its effects of controlling splash,sheet,and wind erosion of loessial soil and their mechanisms.The experiment was designed to have two treatments for ingredient of the spray (corn stalk sap and tap water,the same in spraying volume),two treatments for standing time after spraying (7 and 14 d) and two treatments for soil tillage condition (with and without manual plough).[Result] Results show that corn stalk sap was quite effective in controlling water and wind erosion of loessial soil.Under simulated rainfalls,it reduced splash erosion by 24.7%~78.3%,runoff by 35.3% ~ 45.3% and sheet erosion by 20.9% ~ 34.5%.Under natural rainfalls,the effects varied with rainfall pattern.When the rain was short in duration and low in intensity its effects reached the highest,with runoff and sheet erosion reduced by 62.1% and 72.0%.But when the rain was long in duration and high in intensity,it reduced runoff and sheet erosion by 26.3% and 58.3% and when the rain was short in duration and high in intensity,it did by 41.0% and 69.6%,respectively.Under the same standing time and soil tillage condition,its effect of reducing sediment yield was higher than that of reducing runoff.Under the condition of 6,8 and 14 m s-1 in wind speed,it reduced wind erosion by 25.0%~ 64.6%,31.0%~ 52.9% and 24.5% ~ 43.2%,respectively,as compared with those in the control treatments.Manual tillage significantly increased water and wind erosion.Besides the effects of spraying corn stalk sap on various types of erosion varied with standing time and tillage.By increasing soil shear strength and soil hardness,promoting formation of soil micro-aggregates,spraying corn stalk sap reduced soil erosion of any

  14. Pituitary stalk transection syndrome: Comparison of clinico-radiological features in adults and children with review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Chinmay; Moorthy, Srikanth; Pullara, Sreekumar K; Rajeshkannan, R; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G

    2012-01-01

    Hypo-pituitarism results from impaired production of one or more of anterior pituitary trophic hormones. A rare cause of hypo-pituitarism is pituitary stalk transection syndrome. The MRI features of this condition in children and its association with hormonal deficiencies have been reported earlier. Reports on adults with this disorder are scarce, with only one small case series published in the recent literature. We studied the hormonal deficiency pattern and MRI findings of 12 patients with pituitary stalk transection syndrome who presented to our department between 2004 and 2011. Six patients were children and six were adults (≥18 years). This article compares the adult clinico-radiological phenotype of pituitary transection syndrome with the pediatric group of patients with same condition

  15. Central diabetes insipidus as a very late relapse limited to the pituitary stalk in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shunsuke; Shinkoda, Yuichi; Hazeki, Daisuke; Imamura, Mari; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Kawakami, Kiyoshi; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2016-07-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and relapse are frequently seen in multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). We present two females with multifocal LCH who developed CDI 9 and 5 years after the initial diagnosis, respectively, as a relapse limited to the pituitary stalk. Combination chemotherapy with cytarabine reduced the mass in the pituitary stalk. Although CDI did not improve, there has been no anterior pituitary hormone deficiency (APHD), neurodegenerative disease in the central nervous system (ND-CNS) or additional relapse for 2 years after therapy. It was difficult to predict the development of CDI in these cases. CDI might develop very late in patients with multifocal LCH, and therefore strict follow-up is necessary, especially with regard to symptoms of CDI such as polydipsia and polyuria. For new-onset CDI with LCH, chemotherapy with cytarabine might be useful for preventing APHD and ND-CNS.

  16. Optimization of pulsed electric field pre-treatments to enhance health-promoting glucosinolates in broccoli flowers and stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Suarez, Manuel; Plaza, Lucia; Hossain, Mohammad B; Brunton, Nigel; Lyng, James G; Rai, Dilip K

    2015-07-01

    The effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment variables (electric field strength and treatment time) on the glucosinolate content of broccoli flowers and stalks was evaluated. Samples were subjected to electric field strengths from 1 to 4 kV cm(-1) and treatment times from 50 to 1000 µs at 5 Hz. Data fitted significantly (P broccoli flowers (ranging from 187.1 to 212.5%) and stalks (ranging from 110.6 to 203.0%) respectively. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values, with low average mean deviations (E%) ranging from 0.59 to 8.80%. The use of PEF processing at moderate conditions could be a suitable method to stimulate production of broccoli with high health-promoting glucosinolate content. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Analysis of membrane fusion as a two-state sequential process: evaluation of the stalk model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, Gabriel; Lentz, Barry R

    2007-06-01

    We propose a model that accounts for the time courses of PEG-induced fusion of membrane vesicles of varying lipid compositions and sizes. The model assumes that fusion proceeds from an initial, aggregated vesicle state ((A) membrane contact) through two sequential intermediate states (I(1) and I(2)) and then on to a fusion pore state (FP). Using this model, we interpreted data on the fusion of seven different vesicle systems. We found that the initial aggregated state involved no lipid or content mixing but did produce leakage. The final state (FP) was not leaky. Lipid mixing normally dominated the first intermediate state (I(1)), but content mixing signal was also observed in this state for most systems. The second intermediate state (I(2)) exhibited both lipid and content mixing signals and leakage, and was sometimes the only leaky state. In some systems, the first and second intermediates were indistinguishable and converted directly to the FP state. Having also tested a parallel, two-intermediate model subject to different assumptions about the nature of the intermediates, we conclude that a sequential, two-intermediate model is the simplest model sufficient to describe PEG-mediated fusion in all vesicle systems studied. We conclude as well that a fusion intermediate "state" should not be thought of as a fixed structure (e.g., "stalk" or "transmembrane contact") of uniform properties. Rather, a fusion "state" describes an ensemble of similar structures that can have different mechanical properties. Thus, a "state" can have varying probabilities of having a given functional property such as content mixing, lipid mixing, or leakage. Our data show that the content mixing signal may occur through two processes, one correlated and one not correlated with leakage. Finally, we consider the implications of our results in terms of the "modified stalk" hypothesis for the mechanism of lipid pore formation. We conclude that our results not only support this hypothesis but

  18. Selected Abiotic and Biotic Environmental Stress Factors Affecting Two Economically Important Sugarcane Stalk Boring Pests in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in the United States is attacked by a number of different arthropod pests. The most serious among those pests are two stalk boring moths in the Family Crambidae: the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F., and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar. The two species are affected by abiotic and biotic environmental stress factors. Water deficit and excessive soil nitrogen alter physical and physiochemical aspects of the sugarcane plant that make the crop increasingly vulnerable to E. loftini. Weed growth can be competitive with sugarcane but it also supports enhanced abundances and diversity of natural enemies that can suppress infestations of D. saccharalis. In an instance where the stalk borer is considered a stress factor, proximity of vulnerable crops to sugarcane can influence levels of E. loftini infestation of sugarcane. The adverse effects of each stress factor, in terms of stalk borer attack, can be reduced by adopting appropriate cultural practices, such as adequate irrigation, judicious use of nitrogen fertilizer, using noncompetitive weed growth, and not planting vulnerable crops near sugarcane fields. Understanding the relationships between stress factors and crop pests can provide valuable insights for plant breeders and tools for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies.

  19. Influence of steaming explosion time on the physic-chemical properties of cellulose from Lespedeza stalks (Lespedeza crytobotrya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Jiang, Jian-Xin; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2009-11-01

    The synergistic effect of steam explosion pretreatment and sodium hydroxide post-treatment of Lespedeza stalks (Lespedeza crytobotrya) has been investigated in this study. In this case, Lespedeza stalks were firstly exploded at a fixed steam pressure (22.5 kg/m(2)) for 2-10 min. Then the steam-exploded Lespedeza stalks was extracted with 1 M NaOH at 50 degrees C for 3 h with a shrub to water ratio of 1:20 (g/ml), which yielded 57.3%, 53.1%, 55.4%, 52.8%, 53.2%, and 56.4% (% dry weight) cellulose rich fractions, comparing to 68.0% from non-steam-exploded material. The content of glucose in cellulose rich residues increased with increment of the steaming time and reached to 94.10% at the most severity. The similar increasing trend occurred during the dissolution of hemicelluloses. It is evident that at shorter steam explosion time, autohydrolysis mainly occurred on the hemicelluloses and the amorphous area of cellulose. The crystalline region of cellulose was depolymerized under a prolonged incubation time. The characteristics of the cellulose rich fractions in terms of FT-IR and CP/MAS (13)C NMR spectroscopy and thermal analysis were discussed, and the surface structure was also investigated by SEM.

  20. Improved enzymatic saccharification of steam exploded cotton stalk using alkaline extraction and fermentation of cellulosic sugars into ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshav, Praveen K; Naseeruddin, Shaik; Rao, L Venkateswar

    2016-08-01

    Cotton stalk, a widely available and cheap agricultural residue lacking economic alternatives, was subjected to steam explosion in the range 170-200°C for 5min. Steam explosion at 200°C and 5min led to significant hemicellulose solubilization (71.90±0.10%). Alkaline extraction of steam exploded cotton stalk (SECOH) using 3% NaOH at room temperature for 6h led to 85.07±1.43% lignin removal with complete hemicellulose solubilization. Besides, this combined pretreatment allowed a high recovery of the cellulosic fraction from the biomass. Enzymatic saccharification was studied between steam exploded cotton stalk (SECS) and SECOH using different cellulase loadings. SECOH gave a maximum of 785.30±8.28mg/g reducing sugars with saccharification efficiency of 82.13±0.72%. Subsequently, fermentation of SECOH hydrolysate containing sugars (68.20±1.16g/L) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 23.17±0.84g/L ethanol with 0.44g/g yield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of Fiber Bundle Morphology on the Mechanical and Bonding Properties of Cotton Stalk and Mulberry Branch Reconstituted Square Lumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of natural fiber composites can be strengthened in the longitudinal direction if the fiber is formed in a parallel manner. Reconstituted cotton stalk lumber and mulberry branch lumber were fabricated using hot-press technology, and the effects of fiber morphology on their mechanical and bonding properties were investigated. The fiber bundle size had a great influence on the mechanical and bonding properties of the final products. The maximum specific modulus of rupture (MOR and specific modulus of elasticity (MOE of the reconstituted lumber were obtained for medium-size fiber bundles, and the maximum MOR and MOE of reconstituted cotton stalk lumber was 130.3 MPa·g-1·cm-3 and 12.9 GPa·g-1·cm-3, respectively. The maximum MOR and MOE of the mulberry branch lumber was 147.2 MPa·g-1·cm-3 and 14.7 GPa·g-1·cm-3, respectively. Mechanical interlocking structures in the lumber were observed via fluorescence microscopy, showing that phenol-formaldehyde adhesive had penetrated into several cell layers of the fiber bundle under heating and pressure. The adhesive penetration capacity was stronger when the fiber bundles were smaller in size and density. The reconstituted lumber fabricated from both materials exhibited excellent mechanical performance in the parallel direction. Therefore, reconstituted cotton stalk and mulberry branch lumber are attractive potential materials for the construction industry.

  2. Co-composting of two-phase olive-mill pomace and poultry manure with tomato harvest stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sülük, Kemal; Tosun, İsmail; Ekinci, Kamil

    2017-04-01

    In this study, two-phase olive-mill pomace with poultry manure and chopped tomato harvest stalks were composted at different initial carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios with fixed free air space of 35%. Composting experiment was carried out in the 15 aerobic reactors made of stainless steel and was monitored for 28 days. During the composting process, temperature, moisture content, organic matter (OM), pH, electrical conductivity, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations, total carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), nitrate nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), and total phosphorus were monitored. Compost mass and volume changes were determined at the beginning, during remixings, and at the end of composting. While the stabilization period took less time for the mixtures containing a high amount of poultry manure, the mixtures having the high portion of two-phase olive-mill pomace took a longer time due to the structure of olive stone and its lignin content. Dry matter loss (range: 18.1-34.0%.) in the mixtures increased with an increase in the share of poultry manure and tomato stalks in the initial mixture. OM loss (range: 21.7-46.1%) for tomato stalks (measured separately) during composting increased due to an increase in the ratio of poultry manure in the initial mixtures.

  3. Extraction and HPLC analysis of phenolic compounds in leaves, stalks, and textile fibers of Urtica dioica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Patrizia; Ieri, Francesca; Vignolini, Pamela; Bacci, Laura; Baronti, Silvia; Romani, Annalisa

    2008-10-08

    In the present study the phenolic composition of leaves, stalks, and textile fiber extracts from Urtica dioica L. is described. Taking into account the increasing demand for textile products made from natural fibers and the necessity to create sustainable "local" processing chains, an Italian project was funded to evaluate the cultivation of nettle fibers in the region of Tuscany. The leaves of two nettle samples, cultivated and wild (C and W), contain large amounts of chlorogenic and 2- O-caffeoylmalic acid, which represent 71.5 and 76.5% of total phenolics, respectively. Flavonoids are the main class in the stalks: 54.4% of total phenolics in C and 31.2% in W samples. Anthocyanins are second in quantitative importance and are present only in nettle stalks: 28.6% of total phenolics in C and 24.4% in W extracts. Characterization of phenolic compounds in nettle extracts is an important result with regard to the biological properties (antioxidant and antiradical) of these metabolites for their possible applications in various industrial activities, such as food/feed, cosmetics, phytomedicine, and textiles.

  4. A novel solid state fermentation coupled with gas stripping enhancing the sweet sorghum stalk conversion performance for bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioethanol production from biomass is becoming a hot topic internationally. Traditional static solid state fermentation (TS-SSF) for bioethanol production is similar to the traditional method of intermittent operation. The main problems of its large-scale intensive production are the low efficiency of mass and heat transfer and the high ethanol inhibition effect. In order to achieve continuous production and high conversion efficiency, gas stripping solid state fermentation (GS-SSF) for bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stalk (SSS) was systematically investigated in the present study. Results TS-SSF and GS-SSF were conducted and evaluated based on different SSS particle thicknesses under identical conditions. The ethanol yield reached 22.7 g/100 g dry SSS during GS-SSF, which was obviously higher than that during TS-SSF. The optimal initial gas stripping time, gas stripping temperature, fermentation time, and particle thickness of GS-SSF were 10 h, 35°C, 28 h, and 0.15 cm, respectively, and the corresponding ethanol stripping efficiency was 77.5%. The ethanol yield apparently increased by 30% with the particle thickness decreasing from 0.4 cm to 0.05 cm during GS-SSF. Meanwhile, the ethanol yield increased by 6% to 10% during GS-SSF compared with that during TS-SSF under the same particle thickness. The results revealed that gas stripping removed the ethanol inhibition effect and improved the mass and heat transfer efficiency, and hence strongly enhanced the solid state fermentation (SSF) performance of SSS. GS-SSF also eliminated the need for separate reactors and further simplified the bioethanol production process from SSS. As a result, a continuous conversion process of SSS and online separation of bioethanol were achieved by GS-SSF. Conclusions SSF coupled with gas stripping meet the requirements of high yield and efficient industrial bioethanol production. It should be a novel bioconversion process for bioethanol production from SSS

  5. Lung recruitability is better estimated according to the Berlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome at standard 5 cm H2O rather than higher positive end-expiratory pressure: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caironi, Pietro; Carlesso, Eleonora; Cressoni, Massimo; Chiumello, Davide; Moerer, Onner; Chiurazzi, Chiara; Brioni, Matteo; Bottino, Nicola; Lazzerini, Marco; Bugedo, Guillermo; Quintel, Michael; Ranieri, V Marco; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    The Berlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome has introduced three classes of severity according to PaO2/FIO2 thresholds. The level of positive end-expiratory pressure applied may greatly affect PaO2/FIO2, thereby masking acute respiratory distress syndrome severity, which should reflect the underlying lung injury (lung edema and recruitability). We hypothesized that the assessment of acute respiratory distress syndrome severity at standardized low positive end-expiratory pressure may improve the association between the underlying lung injury, as detected by CT, and PaO2/FIO2-derived severity. Retrospective analysis. Four university hospitals (Italy, Germany, and Chile). One hundred forty-eight patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome according to the American-European Consensus Conference criteria. Patients underwent a three-step ventilator protocol (at clinical, 5 cm H2O, or 15 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure). Whole-lung CT scans were obtained at 5 and 45 cm H2O airway pressure. Nine patients did not fulfill acute respiratory distress syndrome criteria of the novel Berlin definition. Patients were then classified according to PaO2/FIO2 assessed at clinical, 5 cm H2O, or 15 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure. At clinical positive end-expiratory pressure (11±3 cm H2O), patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome had a greater lung tissue weight and recruitability than patients with mild or moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (pBerlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome assessed at 5 cm H2O allows a better evaluation of lung recruitability and edema than at higher positive end-expiratory pressure clinically set.

  6. Growth without growth hormone in combined pituitary hormone deficiency caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Soo Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is an essential element for normal growth. However, reports of normal growth without GH have been made in patients who have undergone brain surgery for craniopharyngioma. Normal growth without GH can be explained by hyperinsulinemia, hyperprolactinemia, elevated leptin levels, and GH variants; however, its exact mechanism has not been elucidated yet. We diagnosed a female patient aged 13 with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS. The patient has experienced recurrent hypoglycemic seizures since birth, but reached the height of 160 cm at the age of 13, showing normal growth. She grew another 8 cm for 3 years after the diagnosis, and she reached her final adult height of 168 cm which was greater than the midparental height, at the age of 16. The patient's blood GH and insulin-like growth factor-I levels were consistently subnormal, although her insulin levels were normal. Her physical examination conducted at the age of 15 showed truncal obesity, dyslipidemia, and osteoporosis, which are metabolic features of GH deficiency (GHD. Herein, we report a case in which a PSIS-induced CPHD patient attained her final height above mid parental height despite a severe GHD.

  7. Flute type micropores activated carbon from cotton stalk for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xun; Ma, Hongru; Li, Zhe; Yan, Shaocun; Ma, Lei; Yu, Feng; Wang, Gang; Guo, Xuhong; Ma, Yanqing; Wong, Chingping

    2017-08-01

    Flute type micropores activated carbon (FTMAC) has been successfully obtained from cotton stalk via KOH-chemical activation method. The synthesized carbon material exhibits an ordered pore structure with high specific surface area of 1964.46 m2 g-1 and pore volume of 1.03 m3 g-1. The assembled FTMAC-based electrode delivers a high specific capacitance of 254 F g-1 at a current density of 0.2 A g-1 in 1 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. It still can maintain 221 F g-1at a current density of 10 A g-1, demonstrating a good rate capacity (87% retention), as well as long cyclic stability of 96% capacitance retention after 10000 charging and discharging cycles at current density of 1 A g-1. Moreover, the symmetric supercapacitor can deliver a high energy density of 18.14 W h kg-1 and a power density of 450.37 W kg-1 which is operated in the voltage range of 0-1.8 V.

  8. Optimization of pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation for more efficient ethanol production by Jerusalem artichoke stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Qin, Jin-Cheng; Liu, Chen-Guang; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2016-12-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is a potential energy crop for biorefinery due to its unique agronomic traits such as resistance to environmental stresses and high biomass yield in marginal lands. Although JA tubers have been explored for inulin extraction and biofuels production, there is little concern on its stalk (JAS). In this article, the pretreatment of JAS by alkaline hydrogen peroxide was optimized using the response surface methodology to improve sugars yield and reduce chemicals usage. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis were applied to characterize the structures of the pretreated JAS to evaluate the effectiveness of the pretreatment. Furthermore, the feeding of the pretreated JAS and cellulase was performed for high solid uploading (up to 30%) to increase ethanol titer, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with 55.6g/L ethanol produced, 36.5% more than that produced through separate hydrolysis and fermentation, was validated to be more efficient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Continuous ethanol production from Jerusalem artichokes stalks using immobilized cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajpai, P.; Margaritis, A.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous production of ethanol from the extract of Jerusalem artichoke stalks was investigated in a packed bed bioreactor using Kluyveromyces marxianus cells immobilized in calcium alginate gel beds. Maximum conversion of the sugars to ethanol was achieved with a yield of about 98% of the theoretical. Volumetric ethanol productivities of 102 grams of ethanol per litre per hour and 92 grams ethanol per liter per hour were obtained at 87% and 90% conversion respectively for an inlet substrate concentration of 100 gram sugars per liter. The maximum specific ethanol production rate and maximum specific total sugar uptake rate of the immobilized cells were found to be 0.96 gram ethanol per gram immobilized cells per hour and 2.06 gram sugars per gram immobilized cells per hour respectively. The immobilized cell bioreactor was run continuously at a dilution rate of 2.12 per hour for 30 days which resulted in a loss of 30% of the original activity. The half life of the bioreactor was estimated to be about 56 days.

  10. Reduced polymorphism associated with X chromosome meiotic drive in the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Christianson

    Full Text Available Sex chromosome meiotic drive has been suggested as a cause of several evolutionary genetic phenomena, including genomic conflicts that give rise to reproductive isolation between new species. In this paper we present a population genetic analysis of X chromosome drive in the stalk-eyed fly, Teleopsis dalmanni, to determine how this natural polymorphism influences genetic diversity. We analyzed patterns of DNA sequence variation at two X-linked regions (comprising 1325 bp approximately 50 cM apart and one autosomal region (comprising 921 bp for 50 males, half of which were collected in the field from one of two allopatric locations and the other half were derived from lab-reared individuals with known brood sex ratios. These two populations are recently diverged but exhibit partial postzygotic reproductive isolation, i.e. crosses produce sterile hybrid males and fertile females. We find no nucleotide or microsatellite variation on the drive X chromosome, whereas the same individuals show levels of variation at autosomal regions that are similar to field-collected flies. Furthermore, one field-caught individual collected 10 years previously had a nearly identical X haplotype to the drive X, and is over 2% divergent from other haplotypes sampled from the field. These results are consistent with a selective sweep that has removed genetic variation from much of the drive X chromosome. We discuss how this finding may relate to the rapid evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation that has been documented for these flies.

  11. Microbial pretreatment of cotton stalks by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been recognized as a widespread, potentially low cost renewable source of mixed sugars for fermentation to fuel ethanol. Pretreatment, as the first step towards conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol, remains one of the main barriers to technical and commercial success of the processing technology. Existing pretreatment methods have largely been developed on the basis of physiochemical technologies which are considered relatively expensive and usually involve adverse environmental impacts. In this study, an environmentally benign alternative, microbial pretreatment using Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was explored to degrade lignin in cotton stalks and facilitate their conversion into ethanol. Two submerged liquid pretreatment techniques (SmC), shallow stationary and agitated cultivation, at three inorganic salt concentrations (no salts, modified salts without Mn2+, modified salts with Mn2+) were compared by evaluating their pretreatment efficiencies. Shallow stationary cultivation with no salt was superior to other pretreatment conditions and gave 20.7% lignin degradation along with 76.3% solids recovery and 29.0% carbohydrate availability over a 14 day period. The influence of substrate moisture content (65%, 75% and 80% M.C. wet-basis), inorganic salt concentration (no salts, modified salts without Mn2+ , modified salts with Mn2+) and culture time (0-14 days) on pretreatment effectiveness in solid state (SSC) systems was also examined. It was shown that solid state cultivation at 75% M.C. without salts was the most preferable pretreatment resulting in 27.6% lignin degradation, 71.1% solids recovery and 41.6% carbohydrate availability over a period of 14 days. A study on hydrolysis and fermentation of cotton stalks treated microbially using the most promising SmC (shallow stationary, no salts) and SSC (75% moisture content, no salts) methods resulted in no increase in cellulose conversion with direct enzyme application (10.98% and 3

  12. No detectable fertility benefit from a single additional mating in wild stalk-eyed flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Harley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple mating by female insects is widespread, and the explanation(s for repeated mating by females has been the subject of much discussion. Females may profit from mating multiply through direct material benefits that increase their own reproductive output, or indirect genetic benefits that increase offspring fitness. One particular direct benefit that has attracted significant attention is that of fertility assurance, as females often need to mate multiply to achieve high fertility. This hypothesis has never been tested in a wild insect population.Female Malaysian stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni mate repeatedly during their lifetime, and have been shown to be sperm limited under both laboratory and field conditions. Here we ask whether receiving an additional mating alleviates sperm limitation in wild females. In our experiment one group of females received a single additional mating, while a control group received an interrupted, and therefore unsuccessful, mating. Females that received an additional mating did not lay more fertilised eggs in total, nor did they lay proportionately more fertilised eggs. Female fertility declined significantly through time, demonstrating that females were sperm limited. However, receipt of an additional mating did not significantly alter the rate of this decline.Our data suggest that the fertility consequences of a single additional mating were small. We discuss this effect (or lack thereof, and suggest that it is likely to be attributed to small ejaculate size, a high proportion of failed copulations, and the presence of X-linked meiotic drive in this species.

  13. Effects of biopretreatment on pyrolysis behaviors of corn stalk by methanogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tipeng; Ye, Xiaoning; Yin, Jun; Lu, Qiang; Zheng, Zongming; Dong, Changqing

    2014-07-01

    The study investigated the effects of methanogen pretreatment on pyrolysis behaviors of corn stalk (CS) by using Py-GC/MS analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Results indicated that biopretreatment changed considerably the pyrolysis behaviors of CS from four weight loss stages to two weight loss stages. Increasing biopretreatment time from 5 days to 25 days enhanced the kinds and contents of chemicals in volatile products. In pyrolysis products, the contents of sugars, linear ketones and furans decreased from 1.43%, 12.60% and 7.38% to 1.25%, 10.22% and 3.25%, respectively, and the contents of phenols increased from 15.08% to 27.84%. The most content change from 6.83% to 13.63% indicated that methanogen pretreatment improved the pyrolysis selectivity of CS to product the 4-VP, but it was disadvantageous to 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, levoglucose and furfural. The changes of chemical compositions and structure of CS after biopretreatment were the main reason of the differences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adsorption of cadmium by biochar produced from pyrolysis of corn stalk in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengfeng; Zhao, Baowei; Diao, Jingru

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate adsorption characteristic of corn stalk (CS) biochar for removal of cadmium ions (Cd 2+ ) from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of pH value of solution, adsorbent particle size, adsorbent dosage, and ionic strength of solution on the adsorption of Cd 2+ onto biochar that was pyrolytically produced from CS at 300 °C. The results showed that the initial pH value of solution played an important role in adsorption. The adsorptive amount of Cd 2+ onto the biochar decreased with increasing the adsorbent dosage, adsorbent particle size, and ionic strength, while it increased with increasing the initial pH value of solution and temperature. Cd 2+ was removed efficiently and quickly from aqueous solutions by the biochar with a maximum capacity of 33.94 mg/g. The adsorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.986. The adsorption isotherm could be well fitted by the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption of Cd 2+ onto the biochar was a spontaneous and exothermic process. The results indicate that CS biochar can be considered as an efficient adsorbent.

  15. KINETIC STUDY FOR THE THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF HEMICELLULOSE ISOLATED FROM CORN STALK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Jin Lv

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the thermal decomposition characteristics of hemicellulose, a highly efficient procedure was carried out to extract hemicellulose from corn stalk. Several different sugar units were observed by 13C NMR spectra to show the presence and species of hemicellulose. Following isolation of the hemicellulose, experimental research on its thermal behavior were carried out with a thermogravimetric analyzer under inert atmosphere at heating rates ranging from 10 to 50°C/min, and the kinetic parameters were calculated by the Kissinger and Ozawa methods, respectively. It was found that the thermal degradation of hemicellulose mainly occurred in the temperature range 180-340°C with a final residue yield of 24% at 700°C. An increase of the heating rate could slightly increase both the temperatures at which the peak weight loss rate was observed and the maximum value of weight loss rate. The activation energy (E and the pre-exponential factor (lnA obtained by the Kissinger and Ozawa methods were 213.3kJ mol-1, 211.6kJ mol-1 and 46.2min-1, 45.9min-1, respectively. Even though the data showed little difference, the fitting degree of the Ozawa method was better than that of the Kissinger method. The experimental results and kinetic parameters may provide useful data for effective design and improvement of thermochemical conversion units.

  16. [Stalking: clinical and criminological considerations through the results of a research contribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomilla, Antonella; D'Argenio, Alberto; Mastronardi, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Among the extensive results supplied by the psychiatric literature on the subject of stalking, few studies focus on the analysis of persecutory behaviors carried out against mental health professionals, who also identified as one of the most affected sample of victims. Particularly, for studies conducted in this way, further examination requires differentiation according to gender type into the social and personal characteristics of the authors' behavior patterns displayed towards the victims. Aim. To obtaine results by an epidemiological survey conducted in public and private psychiatric care structures in the city of Rome, to assess the incidence of the phenomenon as well as gender differences in behavior patterns practised out by the author for the two sample considered. Methods. Administration of a questionnaire to a sample make up by psychiatrists working in out-patient services for the Departments of Mental Health (ASL) of Rome and to a sample of psychiatrists who practise their professional activity in the private sector. Results. Regarding the incidence of the phenomenon, an increased presence has been found in private mental health care settings in comparison to the public service; regarding to the distribution of the phenomenon according to the sexual identity of the authors among the two samples analyzed, a statistical prevalence of female authors has been found in the sample of private sector. Discussion. The health's professionals, so much liable of victimization, are poorly formed on the phenomenon. So it's urgent to operate with integrated approaches (informative trainings; strengthening of administrative and clinical policies of the profession; multidimensional assessment).

  17. Energetic and exergetic aspects of cotton stalk production in establishing energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepbasli, Arif; Utlu, Zafer; Akdeniz, R. Cengiz

    2007-01-01

    Exergy analysis is important for energy resource utilization, because exergy, which is a way to a sustainable future, is a part of the energy analysis. Exergy analysis starts to play a role in several countries in developing energy policy. This paper deals with the exergetic assessment of the cotton stalk (CS) production. In this regard, Turkey, which is one of the eight countries producing 85% of the world's cotton, is given as an application country first. Energy and exergy relations used in the analysis are then presented. Finally, the Turkish CS production in 2003 is evaluated using energy and exergy analyses method, while the results obtained are discussed. The values for the net energy and exergy gained are obtained to be about 49,146 and 59,395 MJ/ha, respectively. Turkey's total energy and exergy are estimated to be 75.45 and 81.87 PJ. It may be concluded that this amount of energy is equal to 7.77% and 2.38% of Turkey's primary energy production and consumption in the same year, respectively. The overall mean energy and exergy efficiencies of the cotton production in the year studied are found to be 33.06% and 33.12%, respectively. It is also expected that the results of this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable and productive planning for energy policies

  18. Isolation and Characteristics of Cellulose and Nanocellulose from Lotus Leaf Stalk Agro-wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandan Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Valorization of lotus leaf stalks (LLS produced as an abundantly available agro-waste was achieved through the extraction of value-added nanocellulose. Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC was successfully prepared from LLS by using chemical pretreatment combined with high-intensity ultrasonication. The morphological characteristics of the chemically purified LLS cellulose microfibrils were characterized by optical microscopy and MorFi fiber analysis. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy indicated the extensive removal of non-cellulosic components after chemical pretreatment. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM results revealed agglomeration of the developed individual NFC, with a width of 20 ± 5 nm and length on a micron scale, into a network-like feature. X-ray diffraction results showed that the resulting NFC had a cellulose I crystal structure with a high crystallinity (70%. The NFC started to degrade at around 217 °C, and the peak rate of degradation occurred at 344 °C. Nanofibrils obtained from LLS have great potential as reinforcement agents in nanocomposites.

  19. Employing response surface methodology (RSM) to improve methane production from cotton stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Khalid, Habiba; Li, Wanwu; He, Yanfeng; Liu, Guangqing; Chen, Chang

    2018-03-01

    China is the largest cotton producer with the cotton output accounting for 25% of the total world's cotton production. A large quantity of cotton stalk (CS) waste is generated which is burned and causes environmental and ecological problems. This study investigated the anaerobic digestibility of CS by focusing on improving the methane yield by applying central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). The purpose of this study was to determine the best level of factors to optimize the desired output of methane production from CS. Thus, it was necessary to describe the relationship of many individual variables with one or more response values for the effective utilization of CS. The influences of feed to inoculum (F/I) ratio and organic loading (OL) on methane production were investigated. Results showed that the experimental methane yield (EMY) and volatile solid (VS) removal were calculated to be 70.22 mL/gVS and 14.33% at F/I ratio of 0.79 and organic loading of 25.61 gVS/L, respectively. Characteristics of final effluent showed that the anaerobic system was stable. This research laid a foundation for future application of CS to alleviate the problems of waste pollution and energy output.

  20. BIOSORPTION OF MN (II IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE (HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS L. STALKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetko PROKOPOV

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to tested Jerusalem artichoke stalks as a cheap biosorbent for its ability to remove Mn (II ions from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of pH, biosorbent particle size, dosage, initial metal concentration and contact time. The maximum removal efficiency of about 97.0 % was reached at pH 8.0 by using of biosorbent particle size 530-850  m, adsorbent dosage 30 g/L, initial metal concentration 10 mg/L, temperature 20 oC, agitation speed 120 rpm and contact time 90 min. Pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models were applied to describe the obtained kinetic data. The pseudo-second order model provided the best fit for experimental data with coefficient of determination R2 > 0.99. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were used to describe metal adsorption. Equilibrium data agreed well with Langmuir isotherm with R2 = 0.993.

  1. Selective recovery of Ag(I) coordination anion from simulate nickel electrolyte using corn stalk based adsorbent modified by ammonia–thiosemicarbazide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Ying, E-mail: xiongying_1977@hotmail.com; Wan, Li; Xuan, Jing; Wang, Yongwei; Xing, Zhiqing; Shan, Weijun; Lou, Zhenning

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • We developed a “green” corn stalk adsorbent treated by thiosemicarbazide–glutaraldehyde. • Adsorption mechanism of AgCl{sub i}{sup 1−i} could be electrostatic interaction with C−SH{sup +}−N and C=SH{sup +} group. • The gel could selectively adsorb AgCl{sub i}{sup 1−i} coordination anion from the Ag(I)–Cu(II)–Ni(II) simulate nickel electrolyte. - Abstract: In nickel electrolyte, Ag(I) was present at trace level concentration (10–20 mg L{sup −1}) and existed in the form of AgCl{sub i}{sup 1−i} coordination anion, instead of Ag{sup +} positive ion usually in several sources. In the present study, TSC-NH{sub 3}-OCS adsorbent based on natural corn stalk modified by ammonia (NH{sub 3})–thiosemicarbazide (TSC) was synthesized and characterized using some instrumental techniques. The TSC-NH{sub 3}-OCS adsorbent could selectively adsorb Ag(I) as AgCl{sub i}{sup 1−i} coordination anion from the Ag(I)–Cu(II)–Ni(II) simulate nickel electrolyte, especially in the case of the very high levels of Cu(II) and Ni(II), which significantly outperforms the commercial available resins. The adsorption mechanism was believed to be electrostatic interaction of the protonated bands of AgCl{sub 4}{sup 3−} with protonated thiol form of the thioamide units by FTIR and XPS analysis. The maximum adsorption capacity in the Ag(I) single and Ag(I)–Cu(II)–Ni(II) ternary system were obtained and calculated as 153.54 and 46.69 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. The reasons that the maximum adsorption capacity of AgCl{sub i}{sup 1−i} from the single and ternary system varied widely could be explained by adsorption kinetic and thermodynamic results. In addition, three successive sorption/desorption cycle runs from ternary system were performed which indicated that the TSC-NH{sub 3}-OCS adsorbent has a good performance for recovery Ag(I) from simulate nickel electrolyte.

  2. Rare case of Cushing's disease due to double ACTH-producing adenomas, one located in the pituitary gland and one into the stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendola, Marco; Dolci, Alessia; Piscopello, Lanfranco; Tomei, Giustino; Bauer, Dario; Corbetta, Sabrina; Ambrosi, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We describe a patient affected by Cushing's disease due to the presence of double pituitary adenomas, one located within the anterior pituitary and the other in the infundibulum associated with a remnant of Rakthe's pouch. Cure was achieved only after the infundibulum lesion was surgically removed. A 38-year-old female presented with unexplained weight gain, hirsutism, amenorrhea, asthenia, recurrent cutaneous micotic infections and alopecia. Hormonal studies indicated Cushing's disease and MRI showed an enlarged pituitary gland with a marked and homogeneous enhancement after injection of gadolinium and an enlarged infundibulum with a maximum diameter of 8 mm. As a venous sampling of the inferior petrosal sinus after 10 μg iv desmopressin stimulation revealed a central to peripheral ACTH ratio consistent with a pituitary ACTH-secreting tumor, transphenoidal explorative surgery was performed and a 4-mm pituitary adenoma immunopositive for ACTH was disclosed and removed. Since postoperative hormonal evaluation showed persistent hypercortisolism, confirmed by dynamic tests, the patient again underwent surgery by transcranial access and the infundibulum mass was removed. Histology and immunochemistry were consistent with an ACTH-secreting adenoma. A few months after the second operation, cushingoid features were significantly reverted and symptoms improved. Although Cushing's patients bearing multiple adenomas have already been documented, the presence of two adenomas both immunohistochemically positive for ACTH is a very rare cause of Cushing's disease and this is the first report of a case of double ACTH-producing adenomas, one located in the pituitary gland and one attached to the stalk.

  3. Optimization of properties of cement-bonded particleboard manufactured from cotton stalk and sawdust containing calcium chloride CaCl2 as an additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza nazerian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigation of hydration behavior and mechanical properties of cement-bonded particleboard manufactured from different ratio of cotton stalk to poplar wood particle, sawdust content and CaCl2 as additive at different weight ratios. At the first, curing time of cement paste containing different amount of additive (CaCl2 and wood and cotton fines was determined. Besides, the effect of additive (CaCl2 content, weight ratio of cotton to poplar wood particles and percentage of sawdust on modulus of rupture (MOR, modulus of elasticity (MOE and internal bonding (IB of cement-bonded particleboard was evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM. In order to optimize the properties of panels, a mathematical model equation (second order plan was done by a computer simulation program. According to results, there is a good coincidence between predicted values and actual values (R2 for MOR, MOE and IB was 0.93, 0.90 and 0.95, respectively. This study showed that the response surface methodology (RSM can be effectively used for modeling of panel properties. Results showed that using weight ratio of cotton to poplar particle 43:57 the MOR, MOE and IB of panels can be reached to maximum values (12.5, 2545 and 0.35 MPa, respectively. Simultaneously, application of 4.5% additive and 9% sawdust at had a positive effect on the properties of the panels.

  4. Rapid stalk elongation in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Apeldoorn) and the combined action of cold-induced invertase and the water-channel protein gammaTIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, P A; de Boer, A D

    1999-09-01

    Many bulbous plants need a low-temperature treatment for flowering. Cold, for example, affects the elongation of the stalk, thereby influencing the quality of the cut flower. How the elongation of the stalk is promoted by cold and which physiological and biochemical mechanisms are involved have remained obscure. As invertase has been shown to be involved in the cold-induced elongation of the flower stalks of tulips (Lambrechts et al., 1994, Plant Physiol 104: 515-520), we further characterized this enzyme by cloning the cDNA and analysing its expression in various tissues of the tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Apeldoorn) stalk. In addition, the role of sucrose synthase was investigated. Since turgor pressure is an important force driving cell elongation, the role of a water-channel protein (gammaTIP) was studied in relation to these two enzymes. The mRNA level of the invertase found was substantially up-regulated as a result of cold treatment. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of this invertase revealed the presence of a vacuolar targeting signal. Two different forms of sucrose synthase were found, the expression of one of them appeared to be restricted to the vascular tissue while the other form was present in the surrounding tissue. Both sucrose synthases were present in the stalk during the entire period of bulb storage and after planting, but their activities declined during stalk elongation. The expression of the gammaTIP gene was restricted mainly to the vascular tissue and its expression profile was identical to that of invertase. Simultaneous expression of invertase and gammaTIP possibly leads to an increase in osmotic potential and vacuolar water uptake, thus providing a driving force for stretching the stalk cells.

  5. Brittle stalk 2 encodes a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein that affects mechanical strength of maize tissues by altering the composition and structure of secondary cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Ada; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S; Appenzeller, Laura; Meeley, Robert; Bourett, Timothy M; Howard, Richard J; Rafalski, Antoni

    2006-10-01

    A spontaneous maize mutant, brittle stalk-2 (bk2-ref), exhibits dramatically reduced tissue mechanical strength. Reduction in mechanical strength in the stalk tissue was highly correlated with a reduction in the amount of cellulose and an uneven deposition of secondary cell wall material in the subepidermal and perivascular sclerenchyma fibers. Cell wall accounted for two-thirds of the observed reduction in dry matter content per unit length of the mutant stalk in comparison to the wildtype stalk. Although the cell wall composition was significantly altered in the mutant in comparison to the wildtype stalks, no compensation by lignin and cell wall matrix for reduced cellulose amount was observed. We demonstrate that Bk2 encodes a Cobra-like protein that is homologous to the rice Bc1 protein. In the bk2-ref gene, a 1 kb transposon-like element is inserted in the beginning of the second exon, disrupting the open reading frame. The Bk2 gene was expressed in the stalk, husk, root, and leaf tissues, but not in the embryo, endosperm, pollen, silk, or other tissues with comparatively few or no secondary cell wall containing cells. The highest expression was in the isolated vascular bundles. In agreement with its role in secondary wall formation, the expression pattern of the Bk2 gene was very similar to that of the ZmCesA10, ZmCesA11, and ZmCesA12 genes, which are known to be involved in secondary wall formation. We have isolated an independent Mutator-tagged allele of bk2, referred to as bk2-Mu7, the phenotype of which is similar to that of the spontaneous mutant. Our results demonstrate that mutations in the Bk2 gene affect stalk strength in maize by interfering with the deposition of cellulose in the secondary cell wall in fiber cells.

  6. Effect of operating parameters on production of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of maize stalk in bubbling fluidized bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Najaf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The yield and composition of pyrolysis products depend on the characteristics of feed stock and process operating parameters. Effect of particle size, reaction temperature and carrier gas flow rate on the yield of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of Pakistani maize stalk was investigated. Pyrolysis experiments were performed at temperature range of 360-540°C, feed particle size of 1-2 mm and carrier gas fl ow rate of 7.0-13.0 m3/h (0.61.1 m/s superficial velocity. Bio-oil yield increased with the increase of temperature followed by a decreasing trend. The maximum yield of bio-oil obtained was 42 wt% at a temperature of 490°C with the particle size of around 1.0 mm and carrier gas flow rate of 11.0 m3/h (0.9 m/s superficial velocity. High temperatures resulted in the higher ratios of char and non-condensable gas.

  7. Caracterização física, química e sensorial de cookies confeccionados com farinha de talo de couve (FTC e farinha de talo de espinafre (FTE ricas em fibra alimentar Phisical, chemical, and sensorial characterization of cookies made with kale stalk flour (KSF and spinach stalk flour (SSF rich in nourishing fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina Mauro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se utilizar Farinhas de Talos (FT na confecção de cookies. As farinhas foram obtidas a partir de talos de couve manteiga e espinafre desidratados. Confeccionaram-se 3 tipos de cookies por modificação da formulação padrão de sugar-sanap cookie, método 10-50D (AMERICAN..., 1995: cookie controle, cookie com 15% de FTC e com 15% de FTE. Realizou-se a composição centesimal nas FT segundo as metodologias descritas da AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1995, sendo as fibras alimentares analisadas pelo método de van Soest (1963. Nos cookies, procedeu-se às seguintes análises: peso, espessura, diâmetro, volume e densidade aparente segundo método 10-50D da AACC (AMERICAN..., 1995, acidez titulável e pH através da técnica do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (SÃO PAULO, 1985, rendimento e fator térmico. A composição centesimal dos cookies seguiu normas da AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1995 e, para aceitação dos experimentais, utilizou-se escala hedônica de 9 pontos. Constatou-se que as FT possuem baixa densidade energética e alto teor de fibra alimentar e cinzas. Os cookies experimentais apresentaram maior (p The objective of the study was to use Stalk Flours (SF to prepare cookies. The ST was made with dehydrated Kale Stalks (KSF and Spinach Stalks (SSF. Three kinds of cookies were prepared by modification of the sugar-snap cookie formula, 10-50D method (AMERICAN..., 1995: control cookie, cookie with 15% of KSF, and cookie with 15% of SSF. The centesimal composition was performed on the SF by the AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1995 and the nourishing fibers were prepared according to van Soest (1963. The following parameters were analyzed: weight, thickness, diameter, volume, and apparent density according to the 10-50D method of the AACC (AMERICAN..., 1995, titratable acidity and pH using the Adolfo Lutz Institute (2005 technique, and also revenue and caloric factor. The determination of the centesimal composition of the cookies followed the AOAC regulations

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the structure of corn stalks and their subsequent bioconversion into protein-rich mycelial biomass of pleurotus sajor-caju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awafo, V [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Lignocellulosic biomass like corn stalk is an abundant and renewable resource from which food, feed and chemicals may be derived. Enzymatic hydrolysis of native lignocellulosic material is prohibitively slow due to their compositional heterogeneity and structural complexity. In this work, ground corn stalks (20 mesh) were subjected to gamma irradiation (10-170 Mrads) as pretreatments to make them more susceptible for bioconversion into protein-rich mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju NRRL 18757. The irradiation was carried out in air in a {sup 60}Co Underwater Calibrator (UC-15, Nordion International) at a dose rate of 2.5 Mrads/h as measured by Fricke dosimetry. No apparent structural differences were observed under the light microscope. However, the protein synthesis and the proportion of mycelial biomass increased with the increase in both the dose of irradiation and time of fermentation during the bioconversion of 1% corn stalk into mycelial biomass of Pleurotus sajor-caju. Gamma irradiation at the dose of 50 Mrads or lower did not produce any appreciable increase in the amount of protein synthesised. At 170 Mrads, the final product contained 28% protein representing a 2-fold increase from non-irradiated corn stalk and an efficiency of 36% conversion of total utilizable polysaccharides of corn stalks into mycelial biomass. The lag phase during mycelial biomass production was much more prolonged at very high doses indicating possible production of some toxic substances during irradiation. (author). 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. Steam explosion distinctively enhances biomass enzymatic saccharification of cotton stalks by largely reducing cellulose polymerization degree in G. barbadense and G. hirsutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Wei, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Shiguang; Liu, Mingyong; Tu, Yuanyuan; Li, Ao; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yanting; Zhang, Xuewen; Tai, Hongzhong; Peng, Liangcai; Xia, Tao

    2015-04-01

    In this study, steam explosion pretreatment was performed in cotton stalks, leading to 5-6 folds enhancements on biomass enzymatic saccharification distinctive in Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum species. Sequential 1% H2SO4 pretreatment could further increase biomass digestibility of the steam-exploded stalks, and also cause the highest sugar-ethanol conversion rates probably by releasing less inhibitor to yeast fermentation. By comparison, extremely high concentration alkali (16% NaOH) pretreatment with raw stalks resulted in the highest hexoses yields, but it had the lowest sugar-ethanol conversion rates. Characterization of wall polymer features indicated that biomass saccharification was enhanced with steam explosion by largely reducing cellulose DP and extracting hemicelluloses. It also showed that cellulose crystallinity and arabinose substitution degree of xylans were the major factors on biomass digestibility in cotton stalks. Hence, this study has provided the insights into cell wall modification and biomass process technology in cotton stalks and beyond. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of genetically modified cotton stalks on antibiotic resistance genes, intI1, and intI2 during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Manli; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Sheqi; Yin, Yanan; Zhang, Ranran

    2018-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton production generates a large yield of stalks and their disposal is difficult. In order to study the feasibility of using GM cotton stalks for composting and the changes that occur in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during composting, we supplemented pig manure with GM or non-GM cotton stalks during composting and we compared their effects on the absolute abundances (AA) of intI1, intI2, and ARGs under the two treatments. The compost was mature after processing based on the germination index and C/N ratio. After composting, the AAs of ARGs, intI1, and intI2 were reduced by 41.7% and 45.0% in the non-GM and GM treatments, respectively. The ARG profiles were affected significantly by temperature and ammonia nitrogen. In addition, excluding tetC, GM cotton stalks had no significant effects on ARGs, intI1, and intI2 compared with the non-GM treatment (p composting with livestock manure, and the AAs of ARGs can be reduced. Furthermore, the results of this study provide a theoretical basis for the harmless utilization of GM cotton stalks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  12. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  13. Needle knife-assisted endoscopic polypectomy for a large inflammatory fibroid colon polyp by making its stalk into an omega shape using an endoloop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Chang; Cheon, Jae Hee; Lee, Sang Kil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Hoguen; Kim, Won Ho

    2008-08-30

    Colonic inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is an uncommon benign polypoid lesion, which is composed of fibroblasts, numerous small vessels and edematous connective tissue with marked eosinophilic inflammatory cell infiltration. This condition is frequently detected in the stomach and small intestine, but uncommon in the colon. Although IFP is a benign lesion, surgical resections are performed in most colonic cases because the polyps are usually too large to resect endoscopically. Only three patients underwent endoscopic polypectomy in our literature reviews. Here, we present a case of IFP in the descending colon successful endoscopically resected using a novel technique of trapping its stalk with an endoloop, forming the stalk into an omega shape, and then dissecting the stalk with a needle knife.

  14. Stalking and compensation for existential damage. Some remarks starting from the sentences of the Court of Cassation (Supreme Court of November 11, 2008 - Le stalking et l’indemnisation du dommage existentiel. Quelques considérations suite aux jugements de la Cour de Cassation en Chambres Unies du 11 novembre 2008 - Stalking e risarcimento del danno esistenziale. Alcune considerazioni alla luce delle sentenze della Corte di Cassazione a Sezioni Unite dell’11 novembre 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florio M.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A few days ago, a regulation against stalking was introduced into the Italian system, inserting the art. 612 bis into the Italian penal code. The author considers the new set of rules, aiming to defend the stalking victim, and the prospects of compensation for damage to the person. Above all, puts more emphasis on the analysis of compensation for existential damage, which is now accepted to be repayable as a result of the important sentences of the Court of Cassation in 2008, when definite criteria were established. From now on, such criteria for a systematic analysis of compensation for existential damage will be a reference point for the Italian Courts.

  15. Candidate gene association mapping of Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) uncovers the importance of COI1 homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Zahirul I; Hulke, Brent S; Qi, Lili; Scheffler, Brian E; Pegadaraju, Venkatramana; McPhee, Kevin; Gulya, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Functional markers for Sclerotinia basal stalk rot resistance in sunflower were obtained using gene-level information from the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Sclerotinia stalk rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most destructive diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) worldwide. Markers for genes controlling resistance to S. sclerotiorum will enable efficient marker-assisted selection (MAS). We sequenced eight candidate genes homologous to Arabidopsis thaliana defense genes known to be associated with Sclerotinia disease resistance in a sunflower association mapping population evaluated for Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance. The total candidate gene sequence regions covered a concatenated length of 3,791 bp per individual. A total of 187 polymorphic sites were detected for all candidate gene sequences, 149 of which were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 38 were insertions/deletions. Eight SNPs in the coding regions led to changes in amino acid codons. Linkage disequilibrium decay throughout the candidate gene regions declined on average to an r (2) = 0.2 for genetic intervals of 120 bp, but extended up to 350 bp with r (2) = 0.1. A general linear model with modification to account for population structure was found the best fitting model for this population and was used for association mapping. Both HaCOI1-1 and HaCOI1-2 were found to be strongly associated with Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance and explained 7.4 % of phenotypic variation in this population. These SNP markers associated with Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance can potentially be applied to the selection of favorable genotypes, which will significantly improve the efficiency of MAS during the development of stalk rot resistant cultivars.

  16. IMPORTANCE OF KNOWING ANGIOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TENSOR FASCIAE LATAE VASCULAR STALK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladjana Ugrenovic

    2006-07-01

    the most common site for infections in vascular surgery. Good cognition of angiographic characteristics of m. TFL vascular stalk is of great importance for prevention of its necrosis before its usage in surgical purposes.

  17. INDUCTION OF GONADAL MATURATION OF POND CULTURED MALE TIGER SHRIMP, Penaeus monodon WITH DIFFERENT DOSAGES OF GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE ANALOGUE AGAINST EYE STALK ABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Very low naturally mating rate of pond-reared tiger shrimp broodstock is probably due to the slow maturation of the male stock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the salmon gonadotrophin releasing hormone analoque (sGnRHa in stimulating the gonadal maturation of male stock of pond-reared tiger shrimp. The treatments were three dosages of sGnRHa at 0.1 (OV-1, 0.2 (OV-2, and 0.3 (OV-3 mL/kg of shrimp weight and control was eye stalk ablation (AB. The sGnRHa was administered via injection three times with one week interval. Male stocks with average initial body weight of 82.1 g were randomly distributed into four of 10 m3 concrete tanks, 26 males for each tank. Variables observed were performances of spermatophores and profiles of amino acid and fatty acid of muscle of the male stocks. After induction, number of male maturing indicated by spermatophores releasing from terminal ampullas was higher in shrimp induced with OV-1 (80.8% compared to control which was only 46.1%. Furthermore, shrimp treated OV-2 had the highest spermatophore weight of 0.16 g compared to control (0.11 g and other two groups. Amino acid profiles improved as the dose of sGnRHa increased up to 0.2 mL/kg from 61.23% for ablated male becoming 71.27% for OV-2. Total fatty acid also tended to improve by increasing the dose of hormone injection, however, the ablated male had higher total fatty acid content than that of OV-1. The present finding demonstrated that the dose of sGnRHa to stimulate the gonadal maturation of pond-reared male tiger shrimp could be applied at range between 0.1-0.2 mL/kg of shrimp weight.

  18. Two-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon composites derived from corn stalks for electrode materials with high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Haitao; Zhang, Huijuan; Ouyang, Ya; Liu, Li; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel 2D porous carbon sheets from cornstalks are obtained for the first time. • The hierarchical porous carbon nansheets are gained by chemical activation. • The porous structure facilitates ion transfer and Li-ion absorption. • The strategy are applied to both cathode and anode electrode materials. • The porous nanocomposites exhibit excellent electrochemical performance. - Abstract: Herein, we propose a novel and green strategy to convert crop stalks waste into hierarchical porous carbon composites for electrode materials of lithium-ion batteries. In the method, the sustainable crop stalks, an abundant agricultural byproduct, is recycled and treated by a simple and clean chemical activation process. Afterwards, the obtained porous template is adopted for large-scale production of high-performance anode and cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Due to the large surface area, hierarchical porous structures and subsize of the functional particles, the electrode materials manifest excellent electrochemical performance. In particular, the prepared TiO 2 /C composite presents a reversible specific capacity of 203 mAh g −1 after 200 cycles. Our results demonstrate that the sheetlike composites show remarkable cycling stability, high specific capacity and excellent rate ability, and thus hold promise for commercializing the high-performance electrode materials as the advanced lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Fabrication of the novel hydrogel based on waste corn stalk for removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongzhuo; Zhu, Baodong; Cao, Bo; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jianwei

    2017-11-01

    The novel hydrogel based on waste corn stalk was synthetized by aqueous solution polymerization technique with functional monomers in the presence of organic montmorillonite (OMMT) under ultrasonic. In this study, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to research the effect of initial dye concentration, the dosage of hydrogel, stirring speed, contact time and temperature on the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) dye. The adsorption process was best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, which confirmed that it should be a chemical process. Furthermore, we ascertained the rate controlling step by establishing the intraparticle diffusion model and the liquid film diffusion model. The adsorption and synthesis mechanisms were vividly depicted in our work as well. Structural and morphological characterizations by virtue of FTIR, FESEM, and Biomicroscope supported the relationship between the adsorption performance and material's microstructure. This research is a valuable contribution for the environmental protection, which not only converts waste corn stalks into functional materials, but improves the removal of organic dye from sewage water.

  20. Sequence Identification, Recombinant Production, and Analysis of the Self-Assembly of Egg Stalk Silk Proteins from Lacewing Chrysoperla carnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenfeldt, Martin; Scheibel, Thomas

    2017-06-13

    Egg stalk silks of the common green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea likely comprise at least three different silk proteins. Based on the natural spinning process, it was hypothesized that these proteins self-assemble without shear stress, as adult lacewings do not use a spinneret. To examine this, the first sequence identification and determination of the gene expression profile of several silk proteins and various transcript variants thereof was conducted, and then the three major proteins were recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli encoded by their native complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences. Circular dichroism measurements indicated that the silk proteins in aqueous solutions had a mainly intrinsically disordered structure. The largest silk protein, which we named ChryC1, exhibited a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior and self-assembled into fibers or film morphologies, depending on the conditions used. The second silk protein, ChryC2, self-assembled into nanofibrils and subsequently formed hydrogels. Circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed conformational changes of both proteins into beta sheet rich structures upon assembly. ChryC3 did not self-assemble into any morphology under the tested conditions. Thereby, through this work, it could be shown that recombinant lacewing silk proteins can be produced and further used for studying the fiber formation of lacewing egg stalks.

  1. Catalytic conversion of xylose and corn stalk into furfural over carbon solid acid catalyst in γ-valerolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingwei; Li, Wenzhi; Xu, Zhiping; Liu, Qiyu; Ma, Qiaozhi; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-min; Ma, Longlong

    2016-06-01

    A novel carbon solid acid catalyst was synthesized by the sulfonation of carbonaceous material which was prepared by carbonization of sucrose using 4-BDS as a sulfonating agent. TEM, N2 adsorption-desorption, elemental analysis, XPS and FT-IR were used to characterize the catalyst. Then, the catalyst was applied for the conversion of xylose and corn stalk into furfural in GVL. The influence of the reaction time, temperature and dosage of catalyst on xylose dehydration were also investigated. The Brønsted acid catalyst exhibited high activity in the dehydration of xylose, with a high furfural yield of 78.5% at 170°C in 30min. What's more, a 60.6% furfural yield from corn stalk was achieved in 100min at 200°C. The recyclability of the sulfonated carbon catalyst was perfect, and it could be reused for 5times without the loss of furfural yields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CX3CL1, a chemokine finely tuned to adhesion: critical roles of the stalk glycosylation and the membrane domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano A. Ostuni

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The multi-domain CX3CL1 transmembrane chemokine triggers leukocyte adherence without rolling and migration by presenting its chemokine domain (CD to its receptor CX3CR1. Through the combination of functional adhesion assays with structural analysis using FRAP, we investigated the functional role of the other domains of CX3CL1, i.e., its mucin stalk, transmembrane domain, and cytosolic domain. Our results indicate that the CX3CL1 molecular structure is finely adapted to capture CX3CR1 in circulating cells and that each domain has a specific purpose: the mucin stalk is stiffened by its high glycosylation to present the CD away from the membrane, the transmembrane domain generates the permanent aggregation of an adequate amount of monomers to guarantee adhesion and prevent rolling, and the cytosolic domain ensures adhesive robustness by interacting with the cytoskeleton. We propose a model in which quasi-immobile CX3CL1 bundles are organized to quickly generate adhesive patches with sufficiently high strength to capture CX3CR1+ leukocytes but with sufficiently low strength to allow their patrolling behavior.

  3. Exploring of Agro Waste (Pineapple Leaf, Corn Stalk, and Napier Grass by Chemical Composition and Morphological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angzzas Sari Mohd Kassim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a country that is a rich source of agricultural waste material. Three different crops were studied here, including pineapple (Ananas comosus leaf, corn (Zea mays stalk, and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum. These crops are characterized as agricultural waste materials in Malaysia and have a high potential to be used as alternative fibers for the paper making industry. The objective of this work was to analyze the chemical composition of pineapple leaf, corn stalk, and Napier grass and to investigate the fiber morphology of these crops. The chemical components analyzed include the following: cellulose (Kurshner-Hoffner method, holocellulose (chlorination method, hemicellulose (chlorination method, ash content (TAPPI method T211-om-93, lignin content (TAPPI method T222-om-98, and soluble sodium hydroxide (TAPPI method T203-om-98. All handsheets morphologies were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results indicated each crop has the potential for use as a fiber in paper making. SEM images indicated a condensed composition of the fiber structure. The observed chemical composition and morphology of these three crops indicate their suitability for use as fiber sources for the paper industry.

  4. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  5. Growth of Gypsophila paniculata According to the Pruning Time and Ridge Position in Sub-alpine Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, D.C.; Lim, H.C.; Song, Y.J.; Park, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the growth of Gypsophila paniculata affected by pruning time (July 10, July 18, and July 25) and ridge position (middle or window side) under south-north oriented plastic house in sub-alpine area. The average night temperature was similar between the two ridges, but the average day temperature and soil temperature were higher at the middle ridge; particularly, there was distinct difference after late October. Also the accumulative solar radiation was higher at the middle ridge than the window side ridge owing to the shading by neighboring plastic house and the structure of plastic house. The root activity, photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of plants surveyed in late October were inclined to be more increased at the middle than the window side ridge. The flowering traits at the pruning time of July 10 and July 18 were similar between the two ridges, but the flower malformation rate was higher at the middle ridge. On the other hand, in case of the pruning time of July 25, the blooming was advanced by 13 days, and the flowering traits such as flower stalk length and branch number were better; also, the flower malformation and rosette formation rate decreased at the middle ridge, because of its higher air and soil temperature and the accumulative solar radiation

  6. Management of the stalked barnacle (Pollicipes pollicipes fishery in the Berlengas Nature Reserve (Portugal: evaluation of bag and size limit regulation measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jacinto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes (Gmelin, 1790 is an important shellfish resource in Portugal. Due to the social-economic importance of barnacle harvesting, a management plan aimed at achieving a controlled and sustainable activity (including temporal and spatial closures, rotational harvesting, a limited number of harvesting licenses, bag and size limits for catches and catch reporting was implemented in 2000 at the Berlengas Nature Reserve (RNB in central Portugal. We evaluated the bag and size limits imposed by the management plan, performing observations on harvesting activity and asking licensed harvesters and RNB staff about these measures. Both inquiries and observations suggest that licensed harvesters are not following the bag and size limits imposed. Mean amounts captured in RNB varied from 14 to 24 kg per harvester/day, but 25% of the observations corresponded to higher catches per individual than the total amount allowed (20 kg. Only half of the sampled amounts (taken in autumn 2005 and 2006 were in agreement with the size limit regulation and 50% of the total biomass comprised individuals of maximal rostro-carinal length (RC ≥ 25 mm. For most harvesters, size limit is the most difficult management rule to fulfil. Both harvesters and RNB staff agree that surveillance is scarce and is a major problem of this fishing activity. In order to achieve a more sustainable use of this resource, we propose the implementation of a more effective surveillance and monitoring plan, the definition of a unique landing site, the maintenance of the bag limit (20 kg and a reduction of the size limit (50% of total biomass comprising individuals ≥ 22 mm RC.

  7. Genotyping-by-sequencing uncovers the introgression alien segments associated with Sclerotinia basal stalk rot resistance from wild species—I. Helianthus argophyllus and H. petiolaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR), caused by Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum, is a devastating disease in sunflower worldwide. The progress of breeding for Sclerotinia BSR resistance has been hampered due to the lack of effective sources of resistance for cultivated sunflower. Our objective was to transfer BSR resista...

  8. Analysis of microbial taxonomical groups present in maize stalks suppressive to colonization by toxigenic Fusarium spp.: A strategy for the identification of potential antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Moretti, A.; Bandyopadhyay, R.; Somma, S.; Kastelein, P.

    2015-01-01

    Pink ear rot of maize caused by Fusarium verticillioides, Fusariumproliferatum and Fusariumgraminearumcan lead to severe yield losses and contamination of grain with a range of mycotoxins. Maize stalks colonized by Fusarium spp. are the main primary inoculum source for Fusarium incited epidemics in

  9. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration by Court-Ordered Men: Distinctions and Intersections among Physical Violence, Sexual Violence, Psychological Abuse, and Stalking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Kathleen C.; Hall, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of two different measurement models of male partners' perpetration of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking against intimate partners. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner and court ordered into batterer…

  10. In vitro and in situ degradation of alkali treated sorghum wet distillers grains alone or in combination with corn stalks to increase their nutritive value

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of alkali treatment on in vitro and in situ digestibility of fiber sources. An in vitro and in situ experiment were conducted to determine the effects of treating sorghum WDG with solubles (SWDG) and corn stalks (CS) with calcium hydroxide on in ...

  11. Economic, environmental and social assessment of briquette fuel from agricultural residues in China – A study on flat die briquetting using corn stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jianjun; Lei, Tingzhou; Wang, Zhiwei; Yan, Xiaoyu; Shi, Xinguang; Li, Zaifeng; He, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Quanguo

    2014-01-01

    Biomass can be relatively easily stored and transported compared with other types of renewable energy sources. Crop straw can be converted into densified solid biofuel via briquette fuel technology to expand its possible applications and enhance its utilisation efficiency. However, the potential economic, environmental and social impacts of crop straw briquette fuel need to be assessed before its large-scale use. This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of these impacts for a fully-operating 2 × 10 4 t/a corn stalk briquette fuel plant in China. The results show that with a life time of 15 years, a purchase price of 150 RMB/t for corn stalk and the current sales price of 400 RMB/t for briquette fuel, the plant has a net present value of 9.6 million RMB or 1.5 million USD, an internal rate of return of 36% and a short investment payback period of 4.4 years. The life cycle greenhouse gas emissions are found to be 323 t CO 2 ,e/year or 1 kg CO 2 ,e/GJ, much lower than that of coal. Additionally, the process reduces pollution by decreasing the amount of corn stalk that is discarded or burnt directly in the field. In terms of social impacts, the use of corn stalk briquetting fuel plant is expected to play an important role in increasing local residents' income, improving rural ecological environments, alleviating energy shortages, guaranteeing energy security, and promoting socialism new rural reconstruction. - Highlights: • A fully-operating 2 × 10 4 t/a corn stalk briquette fuel plant in China is analysed. • The plant has net present value of $1.5 million and payback period of 4.4 years. • Life cycle GHG emissions are 323 t CO 2 ,e/year or 1 kg CO 2 ,e/GJ, much lower than coal. • The plant will also have significant social benefits

  12. Chromium sorption and Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) by grape stalks and yohimbe bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiol, Núria; Escudero, Carlos; Villaescusa, Isabel

    2008-07-01

    In this work, two low cost sorbents, grape stalks and yohimbe bark wastes were used to remove Cr(VI) and Cr(III) from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were designed to obtain Cr(VI) and Cr(III) sorption data. The mechanism of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) removal and Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) by the two vegetable wastes, has been investigated. Fourier transform infrared rays (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis on solid phase were performed to determine the main functional groups that might be involved in metal uptake and to confirm the presence of Cr(III) on the sorbent, respectively. Results put into evidence that both sorbents are able to reduce Cr(VI) to its trivalent form.

  13. Improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production from corn stalk by alkali and N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ling-Yan; Ma, Yu-Long; Ma, Xiao-Xia; Lv, Jun-Min

    2016-07-01

    A combinative technology of alkali and N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) was used to pretreat corn stalk (CS) for improving the efficiencies of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. The results showed that this strategy could not only remove hemicellulose and lignin but also decrease the crystallinity of cellulose. About 98.0% of enzymatic hydrolysis yield was obtained from the pretreated CS as compared with 46.9% from the untreated sample. The yield for corresponding ethanol yield was 64.6% while untreated CS was only 18.8%. Besides, xylose yield obtained from the untreated CS was only 11.1%, while this value was 93.8% for alkali with NMMO pretreated sample. These results suggest that a combination of alkali with 50% (wt/wt) NMMO solution may be a promising alternative for pretreatment of lignocellulose, which can increase the productions of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Infestation and morphological identification of the stalked epizoic barnacle Octolasmis on the blue crab Portunus pelagicus from the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi Khattab, Rafat

    2017-09-01

    The intensity of infestation of the epizoic stalked barnacle Octolasmis on the blue crab was calculated for a total of 180 individuals collected around Jeddah, the western Red Sea Saudi coast. More than 90% of the crabs were found bearing the Octolasmis at a prevalence rate of 92% and mean intensity of 18.5±18.6 (0-127 epibiont per host). The intensity of infestation increased with host size in the range 90-135 mm. Generally, females were more infested (69%) than the males (31%). Octolasmis angulata occurred mostly on the gills, and the lower side of the gill chambers was more infested (84%) than the upper side (16%) and the left side of gills was also more infested than the right side in both males and females. Further studies are still needed to examine the commensal relationship and its impact on the fishery market of the Red Sea blue crab populations.

  15. Structural features of dilute acid, steam exploded, and alkali pretreated mustard stalk and their impact on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Manali; Raj, Tirath; Vijayaraj, M; Chopra, Anju; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Kumar, Ravindra

    2015-06-25

    To overcome the recalcitrant nature of biomass several pretreatment methodologies have been explored to make it amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis. These methodologies alter cell wall structure primarily by removing/altering hemicelluloses and lignin. In this work, alkali, dilute acid, steam explosion pretreatment are systematically studied for mustard stalk. To assess the structural variability after pretreatment, chemical analysis, surface area, crystallinity index, accessibility of cellulose, FT-IR and thermal analysis are conducted. Although the extent of enzymatic hydrolysis varies upon the methodologies used, nevertheless, cellulose conversion increases from adsorption capacity. However, no such relationship is observed for xylose yield. Mass balance of the process is also studied. Dilute acid pretreatment is the best methodology in terms of maximum sugar yield at lower enzyme loading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Corn stalks char from fast pyrolysis as precursor material for preparation of activated carbon in fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqi; Wu, Jingli; He, Tao; Wu, Jinhu

    2014-09-01

    Corn stalks char from fast pyrolysis was activated by physical and chemical activation process in a fluidized bed reactor. The structure and morphology of the carbons were characterized by N2 adsorption and SEM. Effects of activation time and activation agents on the structure of activation carbon were investigated. The physically activated carbons with CO2 have BET specific surface area up to 880 m(2)/g, and exhibit microporous structure. The chemically activated carbons with H3PO4 have BET specific surface area up to 600 m(2)/g, and exhibit mesoporous structure. The surface morphology shows that physically activated carbons exhibit fibrous like structure in nature with long ridges, resembling parallel lines. Whereas chemically activated carbons have cross-interconnected smooth open pores without the fibrous like structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of thidiazuron and paclobutrazol on regeneration potential of tulip flower stalk explants in vitro and subsequent shoot multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Podwyszyńska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of TDZ and paclobutrazol on the primary regeneration on tulip flower stalk explants of six cultivars and subsequent shoot multiplication were examined. Explants, flower stalk slices, were excised from cooled and subsequently forced bulbs. The explants were incubated for two months in darkness on medium containing NAA and cytokinins, 2iP and BAP, as control, or TDZ (0.5-4 mg l-1 and paclobutrazol (0.05-0.4 mg l-1. Then, the regenerating explants were subcultured on medium with TDZ and NAA applied at low concentrations. Different regeneration capabilities were found depending on cultivar and growth regulators. The percentage of explants forming leaf-like structures ranged, on the control medium, from 80% in 'Blue Parrot' and 'Prominence' to below 30% in 'Apeldoorn' and 'Mirjoran'. TDZ, applied at optimum for each cultivar concentration, greatly increased the regeneration potential up to 70-100%. Paclobutrazol, added to the TDZ-containing medium, significantly enhanced the response of explants, resulting in high numbers of leaf-like structures formed per explant (13.7-22.8. The structures developed gradually into characteristic forms: the growing up cotyledonary leaf, the probable root primordium formed at its base, the growing downwards stolon and the shoot meristem developed finely on its tip. It is suggested that such primary regeneration may have a nature of somatic embryogenesis. Then, the adventitious shoots developed and formed clusters, which were divided into 2-3 smaller ones every two months. The growth regulators, used at initial stage, markedly influenced subsequent shoot multiplication. Thus, the most intensive shoot formation was noted with TDZ at concentrations of 0.5-2 mg l-1 and paclobutrazol of 0.05-0.1 mg l-1.

  18. Delayed Occurrence of Diabetes Insipidus After Transsphenoidal Surgery with Radiologic Evaluation of the Pituitary Stalk on Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Aida, Yasuhiro; Sasagawa, Yasuo; Oishi, Masahiro; Kita, Daisuke; Tachibana, Osamu; Ueda, Fumiaki; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2018-02-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a major complication of transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). DI usually occurs within a couple of days after TSS. Delayed occurrence of postoperative DI is rarely observed and its developing mechanisms remain unknown. Six patients were identified as having postoperative delayed DI, which was defined as DI that first occurred 2 or more weeks after TSS. They consisted of 1 male and 5 females, and their mean age was 38.3 years (range, 10-76 years). Five patients were histologically diagnosed with Rathke cleft cyst (RCC), and one had RCC coexisting with prolactin-secreting adenoma. Sequential T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was evaluated for hyperintensity (HI) in the pituitary stalk and the posterior lobe, indicating the location of antidiuretic hormone. No patients had any DI before TSS. Delayed DI occurred 2 weeks to 3 months after TSS and persisted for 2 weeks to 5 months. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed that the HI in the posterior lobe became faint but did not disappear after DI occurrence, and their intensities increased with recovery from DI. In contrast, the HI in the pituitary stalk was found faintly preoperatively and turned clear postoperatively and decreased with recovery from DI. The morphologic patterns were dependent on DI duration. In the delayed occurrence of DI, it was suggested that preoperative antidiuretic hormone transport was mildly congested yet not completely blocked when DI manifested postoperatively. Gradual spreading of inflammation to the infundibulum after RCC removal was considered as 1 possible mechanism of this delayed DI development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A transposon-directed epigenetic change in ZmCCT underlies quantitative resistance to Gibberella stalk rot in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Qin; Wang, Weixiang; Li, Yipu; Guo, Yanling; Zhang, Dongfeng; Ma, Xuena; Song, Wei; Zhao, Jiuran; Xu, Mingliang

    2017-09-01

    A major resistance quantitative trait locus, qRfg1, significantly enhances maize resistance to Gibberella stalk rot, a devastating disease caused by Fusarium graminearum. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. We adopted a map-based cloning approach to identify the resistance gene at qRfg1 and examined the dynamic epigenetic changes during qRfg1-mediated maize resistance to the disease. A CCT domain-containing gene, ZmCCT, is the causal gene at the qRfg1 locus and a polymorphic CACTA-like transposable element (TE1) c. 2.4 kb upstream of ZmCCT is the genetic determinant of allelic variation. The non-TE1 ZmCCT allele is in a poised state, with predictive bivalent chromatin enriched for both repressive (H3K27me3/H3K9me3) and active (H3K4me3) histone marks. Upon pathogen challenge, this non-TE1 ZmCCT allele was promptly induced by a rapid yet transient reduction in H3K27me3/H3K9me3 and a progressive decrease in H3K4me3, leading to disease resistance. However, TE1 insertion in ZmCCT caused selective depletion of H3K4me3 and enrichment of methylated GC to suppress the pathogen-induced ZmCCT expression, resulting in disease susceptibility. Moreover, ZmCCT-mediated resistance to Gibberella stalk rot is not affected by photoperiod sensitivity. This chromatin-based regulatory mechanism enables ZmCCT to be more precise and timely in defense against F. graminearum infection. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. H2O2 can Increase Lignin Disintegration and Decrease Cellulose Decomposition in the Process of Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) by Aspergillus oryzae Using Corn Stalk as Raw Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Zhicai Zhang; Jun Jia; Ming Li; Qiaoxia Pang

    2014-01-01

    H2O2 is both bactericidal and the main oxidant responsible for lignin degradation reaction catalyzed by manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP). Thus, H2O2 treatment of corn stalk and the implementation of solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) is possible to increase the removal rate of lignin from stalk in the process of SSF and after SSF, while avoiding the need to sterilize the raw materials. To demonstrate this approach, SSF was initially carried out using corn stalk pretreate...

  1. Higher Education Funding Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown-Moak, Mary P.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most critical components of the college or university chief financial officer's job is budget planning, especially using formulas. A discussion of funding formulas looks at advantages, disadvantages, and types of formulas used by states in budgeting for higher education, and examines how chief financial officers can position the campus…

  2. Circulating levels of dickkopf-1, osteoprotegerin and sclerostin are higher in old compared with young men and women and positively associated with whole-body bone mineral density in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulson, J.; Bagley, L.; Barnouin, Y.; Bradburn, S.; Butler-Browne, G.; Gapeyeva, H.; Hogrel, J. Y.; Maden-Wilkinson, T.; Maier, A. B.; Meskers, C.; Murgatroyd, C.; Narici, M.; Pääsuke, M.; Sassano, L.; Sipilä, S.; Al-Shanti, N.; Stenroth, L.; Jones, D. A.; McPhee, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Bone mineral density declines with increasing older age. We examined the levels of circulating factors known to regulate bone metabolism in healthy young and older adults. The circulating levels of dickkopf-1, osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin and sclerostin were positively associated with

  3. Could a deletion in neuraminidase stalk strengthen human tropism of the novel avian influenza virus H7N9 in China, 2013?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhu, Feng; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Lufang; Chen, Yue; Zhao, Genming; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-01-20

    Objective. A novel avian influenza A virus (AIV) H7N9 subtype which emerged in China in 2013 caused worldwide concern. Deletion of amino-acids 69 to 73 in the neuraminidase stalk was its most notable characteristic. This study is aimed to discuss the tropism and virulence effects of this deletion. Neuraminidase gene sequences of N9 subtype were collected from NCBI and GISAID. MEGA6.0, Stata12.0, and UCSF Chimera were employed for sequence aligning, significance testing, and protein tertiary structure homology modeling. A total of 736 sequences were obtained; there were 81 human isolates of the novel AIV H7N9, of which 79 had the deletion. Among all the 654 avian origin sequences, only 43 had the deletion (p deletion obviously changed the spatial direction of neuraminidase. The deletion in neuraminidase stalk could have strengthened human tropism of the novel AIV H7N9, as well as its virulence.

  4. The expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a subcomplex of the peripheral stalk of ATP synthase from bovine mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvester, Jocelyn A.; Kane Dickson, Veronica; Runswick, Michael J.; Leslie, Andrew G. W.; Walker, John E.

    2006-01-01

    A recombinant subcomplex of the peripheral stalk or stator domain of the ATP synthase from bovine mitochondria has been crystallized and a native data set has been collected to 2.8 Å resolution. A subcomplex of the peripheral stalk or stator domain of the ATP synthase from bovine mitochondria has been expressed to high levels in a soluble form in Escherichia coli. The subcomplex consists of residues 79–184 of subunit b, residues 1–124 of subunit d and the entire F 6 subunit (76 residues). It has been purified and crystallized by vapour diffusion. The morphology and diffraction properties of the crystals of the subcomplex were improved by the presence of thioxane or 4-methylpyridine in the crystallization liquor. With a synchrotron-radiation source, these crystals diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution. They belong to the monoclinic space group P2 1

  5. Pyrolysis of rice husk and corn stalk in auger reactor:Part 1. Characterization of char and gas at various temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yang; Yang, Yang; Cheng, Zhicai; Blanco, Paula H.; Liu, Ronghou; Bridgwater, A.V.; Cai, Junmeng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, rice husk and corn stalk have been pyrolyzed in an auger pyrolysis reactor at pyrolysis temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500, 550, and 600 °C in order to investigate the effect of the pyrolysis temperature on the pyrolysis performance of the reactor and physicochemical properties of pyrolysis products (this paper focuses on char and gas). The results have shown that the pyrolysis temperature significantly affects the mass yields and properties of the pyrolysis products. The mass ...

  6. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plewa, Carolin; Ho, Joanne; Conduit, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    Reputation is critical for institutions wishing to attract and retain students in today's competitive higher education setting. Drawing on the resource based view and configuration theory, this research proposes that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) need to understand not only the impact...... of independent resources but of resource configurations when seeking to achieve a strong, positive reputation. Utilizing fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), the paper provides insight into different configurations of resources that HEIs can utilize to build their reputation within their domestic...

  7. A novel wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain TSH1 in scaling-up of solid-state fermentation of ethanol from sweet sorghum stalks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Du

    Full Text Available The rising demand for bioethanol, the most common alternative to petroleum-derived fuel used worldwide, has encouraged a feedstock shift to non-food crops to reduce the competition for resources between food and energy production. Sweet sorghum has become one of the most promising non-food energy crops because of its high output and strong adaptive ability. However, the means by which sweet sorghum stalks can be cost-effectively utilized for ethanol fermentation in large-scale industrial production and commercialization remains unclear. In this study, we identified a novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, TSH1, from the soil in which sweet sorghum stalks were stored. This strain exhibited excellent ethanol fermentative capacity and ability to withstand stressful solid-state fermentation conditions. Furthermore, we gradually scaled up from a 500-mL flask to a 127-m3 rotary-drum fermenter and eventually constructed a 550-m3 rotary-drum fermentation system to establish an efficient industrial fermentation platform based on TSH1. The batch fermentations were completed in less than 20 hours, with up to 96 tons of crushed sweet sorghum stalks in the 550-m3 fermenter reaching 88% of relative theoretical ethanol yield (RTEY. These results collectively demonstrate that ethanol solid-state fermentation technology can be a highly efficient and low-cost solution for utilizing sweet sorghum, providing a feasible and economical means of developing non-food bioethanol.

  8. A novel wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain TSH1 in scaling-up of solid-state fermentation of ethanol from sweet sorghum stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ran; Yan, Jianbin; Feng, Quanzhou; Li, Peipei; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Sandra; Li, Shizhong

    2014-01-01

    The rising demand for bioethanol, the most common alternative to petroleum-derived fuel used worldwide, has encouraged a feedstock shift to non-food crops to reduce the competition for resources between food and energy production. Sweet sorghum has become one of the most promising non-food energy crops because of its high output and strong adaptive ability. However, the means by which sweet sorghum stalks can be cost-effectively utilized for ethanol fermentation in large-scale industrial production and commercialization remains unclear. In this study, we identified a novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, TSH1, from the soil in which sweet sorghum stalks were stored. This strain exhibited excellent ethanol fermentative capacity and ability to withstand stressful solid-state fermentation conditions. Furthermore, we gradually scaled up from a 500-mL flask to a 127-m3 rotary-drum fermenter and eventually constructed a 550-m3 rotary-drum fermentation system to establish an efficient industrial fermentation platform based on TSH1. The batch fermentations were completed in less than 20 hours, with up to 96 tons of crushed sweet sorghum stalks in the 550-m3 fermenter reaching 88% of relative theoretical ethanol yield (RTEY). These results collectively demonstrate that ethanol solid-state fermentation technology can be a highly efficient and low-cost solution for utilizing sweet sorghum, providing a feasible and economical means of developing non-food bioethanol.

  9. Investigation on the Effect of Kenaf Core and Stalk Fiber on the Medium Density Fiber Board Properties Made of Poplar Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh SH.Alizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the use of material non-forest resources, in this study the possibility of using the kenaf stalk fibers mixed with poplar fibers in producing medium density fiber board was considered. Variable factors such as density at two levels (0.55, 0.75 g/cm3 and the percentage incorporation of fiber (%50 poplar fibers, - %50 kenaf core fiber, %50 poplar fiber, -% 50 kenaf stalk fiber and %100 poplar fibers were considered. Steaming time and temperature (175°C, 10min, press time and temperature (5 min, 175°C, Pressing pressure (30 kg/cm3, fiber cake moisture (%12 and urea-formaldehyde resin with Concentration of %50 of the study factors were fixed. Results show that adding kenaf core fibers to the poplar fibers increases modulus of elasticity and water absorption but thickness swelling reduces. Increased density in board made with kenaf core has caused increase in bending strength, modulus of elasticity and internal bond strength and their water absorption and thickness swelling after 2 and 24 hours were competitive with poplar (MDF. On the other hand Populus fiber– kenaf stalk board mechanical and physical properties were competitive with (MDF board made of %100 poplar fibers. Finally we can say that according to the statistical analysis, the best treatment in this study was using kenaf core fibers, in making poplar (MDF with 0.75 g/cm3 density.

  10. Of Steeds and Stalking Horses: Academics Meet Publishers on the Field of Copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, James

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the issues involved in reforming the copyright law and redefining fair use as it applies to electronic documents. Highlights include access to and privileges of the Internet, technological development, the evolution of copyright, licenses and fees, the position of publishers and academics, costs, and conditions for creating a stable…

  11. Professional and Social Media Sites (SMSs): Motives and Positive Values of Accommodating Social Media Sites (SMSs) in Teaching Practices according to Indonesian Professional Educators: A Case Study in Two Indonesian Higher Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, J. Y.; Billy, Y. L.

    2017-09-01

    In millennium era, the proliferating Social Media Sites (SMSs) has not only brought increasing demands for all humans, but also creates positive values, specifically for the professional educators or lecturers in any ages. This study envisages the positive values of accommodating Social Media Sites (SMSs) in teaching practices according to the professional educators. Thirty professional educators, i.e. the lecturers, from two universities (i.e. Multimedia Nusantara University and Bina Nusantara University) has participated in this study. The data was collected from the survey by means of questionnaires, analysed using percentages, and exposed the results descriptively. The findings reflected that the positive values of accommodating Social Media Sites in teaching practices were to develop social skills and improve academic skills. However among the two values, the latter was highly influencing the professional educators because of the four reasons: enabling to do tutorial lessons, providing online discussion space with experts or guest lecturers, assisting in doing peer-review and peer-editing, and enhancing the receptive skills, the productive skills, and also the critical thinking skills of the users in SMSs, especially the professional educators or lecturers. Thus, accommodating Social Media Sites (SMSs) in teaching practices is essential for professional educators in Indonesia.

  12. Evolution of static allometries: adaptive change in allometric slopes of eye span in stalk-eyed flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voje, Kjetil L; Hansen, Thomas F

    2013-02-01

    Julian Huxley showed that within-species (static) allometric (power-law) relations can arise from proportional growth regulation with the exponent in the power law equaling the factor of proportionality. Allometric exponents may therefore be hard to change and act as constraints on the independent evolution of traits. In apparent contradiction to this, many empirical studies have concluded that static allometries are evolvable. Many of these studies have been based, however, on a broad definition of allometry that includes any monotonic shape change with size, and do not falsify the hypothesis of constrained narrow-sense allometry. Here, we present the first phylogenetic comparative study of narrow-sense allometric exponents based on a reanalysis of data on eye span and body size in stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae). Consistent with a role in sexual selection, we found strong evidence that male slopes were tracking "optima" based on sexual dimorphism and relative male trait size. This tracking was slow, however, with estimated times of 2-3 million years for adaptation to exceed ancestral influence on the trait. Our results are therefore consistent with adaptive evolution on million-year time scales, but cannot rule out that static allometry may act as a constraint on eye-span adaptation at shorter time scales. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Toxicity of essential oils from leaves of Piperaceae species in rice stalk stink bug eggs, Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Krinski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tibraca limbativentris to is an important rice pest and occurs in all rice-growing regions of Latin America. The control this insect is accomplished with synthetic chemical insecticides, however, new approaches are needed to reduce risks to the environment, to the natural enemies and also to avoid the onset of insecticides resistance. This study was designed to assess the toxicity of essential oils (EOs from leaves of Piper aduncum, P. gaudichaudianum, P. malacophyllum, P. marginatum and P. tuberculatum (Piperaceae on rice stalk stink bug eggs, T. limbativentris. Essential oils were extracted with steam distillation and dilutions were made for bioassays at concentrations of 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0%. Essential oils from all species of Piperaceae displayed ovicidal activity. The LC50 values indicated that both younger and older eggs were susceptible to these oils. Ovicidal activity is related to the potential toxicity of several compounds, especially dilapiolle, myristicin, cubebene, α-guaiene, longifolene, prezizane, spathulenol, sabinene and δ-2-carene. Thus, EOs tested showed promising results for use as biorational botanical insecticides.

  14. Removal of chromophore in enzymatic hydrolysis by acid precipitation to improve the quality of xylo-oligosaccharides from corn stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue-Hai; Zhang, Jie; Qu, Yong-Shui; Li, Hong-Qiang

    2018-02-01

    As the most representative functional sugar, the application areas and market demands of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) have been expanding year by year. Owing to the complex structure of corn stalk (CS), XOS obtained from CS are accompanied by problems such as low purity and high color value, which degrade the product. To improve the quality of XOS from CS, the enzymatic hydrolysis was precipitated by acid; then, the ethanol elution concentration was systematically investigated after optimizing the adsorption conditions. The results showed that the purity of XOS was increased to 87.28% from 67.31%, and the color value was decreased to 1050 from 4682 when the acid precipitation pH was 2. On the basis of acid precipitation, if the corresponding optimal conditions of XOS adsorption and elution were used, the highest purity of XOS was 97.87% obtained, with the lowest color value, 780, which reached the standard of the commercial XOS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Conversion of corn stalk into furfural using a novel heterogeneous strong acid catalyst in γ-valerolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiping; Li, Wenzhi; Du, Zhijie; Wu, Hao; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min; Ma, Longlong

    2015-12-01

    A novel solid acid catalyst was prepared by the copolymerization of p-toluenesulfonic acid and paraformaldehyde and then characterized by FT-IR, TG/DTG, HRTEM and N2-BET. Furfural was successfully produced by the dehydration of xylose and xylan using the novel catalyst in γ-valerolactone. This investigation focused on effects of various reaction conditions including solvent, acid catalyst, reaction temperature, residence time, water concentration, xylose loading and catalyst dosage on the dehydration of xylose to furfural. It was found that the solid catalyst displayed extremely high activity for furfural production. 80.4% furfural yield with 98.8% xylose conversion was achieved at 170°C for 10 min. The catalyst could be recycled at least five times without significant loss of activity. Furthermore, 83.5% furfural yield and 19.5% HMF yield were obtained from raw corn stalk under more severe conditions (190°C for 100 min). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Life cycle assessment of fuel ethanol produced from soluble sugar in sweet sorghum stalks in North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ning; Yang, Yang; Cai, Hao; Liu, Jingru; Ren, Lantian; Yang, Jianxin; Xie, Guang Hui

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes the results of a life cycle assessment of sweet sorghum stalk (SSS)-based ethanol in North China. We determined the environmental performance of SSS-based ethanol and examined its advantages and disadvantages, as compared to gasoline, focusing on the life cycle of feedstock production, transportation, ethanol production and distribution, and use. The GREET transportation model and the method developed by the Centre of Environmental Sciences at Leiden University (CML method) were used to compile a life cycle inventory and to assess environmental impacts. Results indicate that SSS-based ethanol has advantages in terms of energy consumption, with a well to wheel decrease of 85% fossil energy and 44% global warming potential, as compared with gasoline. Abiotic depletion potential, acidification potential, and photochemical ozone creation potential were also 50–90% lower than in the case of gasoline, while human health toxic potential was 36% lower. However, SSS-based sorghum did not have advantages over gasoline in terms of life cycle cost, land use, and water consumption. Results indicate that such an evaluation cannot just consider a few types of environmental impacts, researchers should promote systematic and comprehensive life cycle assessment of ethanol to guide the development of an energy strategy for China.

  17. Drying of restructured chips made from the old stalks of Asparagus officinalis: impact of different drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yuchuan

    2016-06-01

    Old stalks of Asparagus officinalis, which account for one third of the total length of each spear, are always discarded as waste. To make full use of the resource, a kind of restructured Asparagus officinalis chip was made. The effects of pulse-spouted microwave-assisted vacuum drying (PSMVD), microwave-assisted vacuum drying (MVD) and vacuum drying (VD) on texture, color and other quality parameters of restructured chips were then studied to obtain high-quality dried chips. Results indicated that the drying time was significantly affected by drying methods, and PSMVD had much better drying uniformity than MVD. The expansion ratio and crispness of chips increased with increasing microwave power and vacuum degree. The browning reaction of samples in VD was more serious, which was confirmed by the results of color test and electronic nose. The PSMVD drying method showed much better drying uniformity than MVD. The dried chips obtained by PSMVD showed optimal quality and were more readily accepted by consumers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Low-cost adsorbent prepared from sewage sludge and corn stalk for the removal of COD in leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Liao, Xiaofeng; Liao, Li; Shu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludge (SS) with corn stalk (CS) was used to prepare SS-based activated carbon (SAC) by pyrolysis with ZnCl2. The effects of mixing ratio on surface area and pore size distribution, elemental composition, surface chemistry, and morphology were investigated. The results demonstrated that the addition of CS into SS samples improved the surface area (from 92 to 902 m(2)/g) and the microporosity (from 1.2 to 4.1%) of the adsorbents and, therefore, enhancing the adsorption performance. The removal of leachate chemical oxygen demand (COD) was also determined. It was found that the COD removal rate reached 85% at pH 4 with the SAC (90 wt% CS) dosage of 2% (g/mL) and an adsorption time of 40 min. The adsorption experimental data were fitted by both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Long-chain alkanes and refractory organics were found in raw leachate, but could be removed by SAC largely.

  19. MoS2 Nanosheets Vertically Grown on Carbonized Corn Stalks as Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Luxiang; Zhao, Binglu; Wang, Xusheng; Yang, Junfeng; Zhang, Xinxiang; Zhou, Yuan; Chen, Jitao

    2018-06-25

    In this study, MoS 2 nanosheets are vertically grown on the inside and outside surfaces of the carbonized corn stalks (CCS) by a simple hydrothermal reaction. The vertically grown structure can not only improve the transmission rate of Li + and electrons but also avoid the agglomeration of the nanosheets. Meanwhile, a new approach of biomass source application is presented. We use CCS instead of graphite powders, which can not only avoid the exploitation of graphite resources, but also be used as a matrix for MoS 2 growth to prevent the electrode from being further decomposed during long cycles and at high current densities. Meanwhile, lithium-ion batteries show remarkable electrochemical performance. They demonstrate a high specific capacity of 1409.5 mA g -1 at 100 mA g -1 in the initial cycle. After 250 cycles, the discharge capacity is still as high as 1230.9 mAh g -1 . Even at 4000 mA g -1 , they show a high specific capacity of 777.7 mAh g -1 . Furthermore, the MoS 2 /CCS electrodes show long cycle life, and the specific capacity is still up to ∼500 mAh g -1 at 5000 mA g -1 after 1000 cycles.

  20. Evaluation of a hybrid anaerobic biofilm reactor treating winery effluents and using grape stalks as biofilm carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Mohamed Ali; Habouzit, Frédéric; Bernet, Nicolas; Jedidi, Naceur; Escudié, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Wine production processes generate large amount of both winery wastewater and solid wastes. Furthermore, working periods, volumes and pollution loads greatly vary over the year. Therefore, it is recommended to develop a low-cost treatment technology for the treatment of winery effluents taking into account the variation of the organic loading rate (OLR). Accordingly, we have investigated the sequential operation of an anaerobic biofilm reactor treating winery effluents and using grape stalks (GSs) as biofilm carrier with an OLR ranging from 0.65 to 27 gCOD/L/d. The result showed that, during the start-up with wastewater influent, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate ranged from 83% to 93% and was about 91% at the end of the start-up period that lasted for 40 days. After 3 months of inactivity period of the reactor (no influent feeding), we have succeeded in restarting-up the reactor in only 15 days with a COD removal of 82% and a low concentration of volatile fatty acids (1 g/L), which confirms the robustness of the reactor. As a consequence, GSs can be used as an efficient carrier support, allowing a fast reactor start-up, while the biofilm conserves its activity during a non-feeding period. The proposed hybrid reactor thus permits to treat both winery effluents and GSs.

  1. Degumming Pretreatment with Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Oxalate in the Process of Whole Cotton Stalk APMP Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Meng Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of degumming pretreatment on whole cotton stalk alkaline peroxide mechanical pulp (APMP was researched. Degumming pretreatment was used as the first stage of an APMP pulping process, replacing conventional hot water pretreatment. Two degumming agents of sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium oxalate (Na2C2O4 were researched separately. The efficiency of hot water pretreatment, NaOH pretreatment, and Na2C2O4 pretreatment on pectin and metal ions removal was compared. After pretreatment of hot water, NaOH, and Na2C2O4, pectin content was reduced to 4.0%, 2.1%, 1.6%, respectively, compared to original material (4.3%, at removal rates of 7%, 51%, and 64%, respectively. For metal ions, especially transition metal ions, the removal rate was up to 20% after degumming pretreatment. The brightness of the handsheets was 64% ISO, 68% ISO, and 73% ISO, respectively. The dirt count was 2674 mm2•m-2, 533 mm2•m-2, and 132 mm2•m-2, respectively. After Na2C2O4 pretreatment, the tension index and tear index were increased to 40.5 N•m•g-1 and 4.5 mN•m2•g-1, respectively. Through degumming pretreatment, pectin, metal ions, and dirt count were reduced efficiently, and the brightness and physical strength were improved significantly.

  2. Haldane’s Rule Is Linked to Extraordinary Sex Ratios and Sperm Length in Stalk-Eyed Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gerald S.; Christianson, Sarah J.; Brand, Cara L.; Ru, George; Shell, Wyatt

    2014-01-01

    We use three allopatric populations of the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni from Southeast Asia to test two predictions made by the sex chromosome drive hypothesis for Haldane’s rule. The first is that modifiers that suppress or enhance drive should evolve rapidly and independently in isolated populations. The second is that drive loci or modifiers should also cause sterility in hybrid males. We tested these predictions by assaying the fertility of 2066 males derived from backcross experiments involving two pairs of populations and found that the proportion of mated males that fail to produce any offspring ranged from 38 to 60% among crosses with some males producing strongly female-biased or male-biased sex ratios. After genotyping each male at 25–28 genetic markers we found quantitative trait loci (QTL) that jointly influence male sterility, sperm length, and biased progeny sex ratios in each pair of populations, but almost no shared QTL between population crosses. We also discovered that the extant XSR chromosome has no effect on sex ratio or sterility in these backcross males. Whether shared QTL are caused by linkage or pleiotropy requires additional study. Nevertheless, these results indicate the presence of a “cryptic” drive system that is currently masked by suppressing elements that are associated with sterility and sperm length within but not between populations and, therefore, must have evolved since the populations became isolated, i.e., in hybrid sterility. PMID:25164880

  3. Statistical optimization for tannase production by Aspergillus tubingensis in solid-state fermentation using tea stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anfeng Xiao

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: The result of the statistical approach was 2.09 times higher than the basal medium (40.22 U/gds. The results were fitted onto a second-order polynomial model with a correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.9340, which implied an adequate credibility of the model.

  4. Dominance of 'Gallionella capsiferriformans' and heavy metal association with Gallionella-like stalks in metal-rich pH 6 mine water discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabisch, Maria; Freyer, Gina; Johnson, Carol A.; Buchel, Georg; Akob, Denise M.; Neu, Thomas R.; Kusel, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal-contaminated, pH 6 mine water discharge created new streams and iron-rich terraces at a creek bank in a former uranium-mining area near Ronneburg, Germany. The transition from microoxic groundwater with ~5 mm Fe(II) to oxic surface water may provide a suitable habitat for microaerobic iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB). In this study, we investigated the potential contribution of these FeOB to iron oxidation and metal retention in this high-metal environment. We (i) identified and quantified FeOB in water and sediment at the outflow, terraces, and creek, (ii) studied the composition of biogenic iron oxides (Gallionella-like twisted stalks) with scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and (iii) examined the metal distribution in sediments. Using quantitative PCR, a very high abundance of FeOB was demonstrated at all sites over a 6-month study period. Gallionella spp. clearly dominated the communities, accounting for up to 88% ofBacteria, with a minor contribution of other FeOB such as Sideroxydans spp. and ‘Ferrovum myxofaciens’. Classical 16S rRNA gene cloning showed that 96% of the Gallionella-related sequences had ≥97% identity to the putatively metal-tolerant ‘Gallionella capsiferriformans ES-2’, in addition to known stalk formers such as Gallionella ferruginea and Gallionellaceae strain R-1. Twisted stalks from glass slides incubated in water and sediment were composed of the Fe(III) oxyhydroxide ferrihydrite, as well as polysaccharides. SEM and scanning TEM-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that stalk material contained Cu and Sn, demonstrating the association of heavy metals with biogenic iron oxides and the potential for metal retention by these stalks. Sequential extraction of sediments suggested that Cu (52–61% of total sediment Cu) and other heavy metals were primarily bound to the iron oxide fractions. These results show the importance of

  5. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  6. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  7. Ubiquitous positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mannings, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This groundbreaking resource offers a practical, in-depth understanding of Ubiquitous Positioning - positioning systems that identify the location and position of people, vehicles and objects in time and space in the digitized networked economy. The future and growth of ubiquitous positioning will be fueled by the convergence of many other areas of technology, from mobile telematics, Internet technology, and location systems, to sensing systems, geographic information systems, and the semantic web. This first-of-its-kind volume explores ubiquitous positioning from a convergence perspective, of

  8. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media......This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...

  9. Positioning health professional identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole; Krogh Christensen, Mette; Mørcke, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on positioning theory, the purpose of this paper is to characterize the activities and positions of students and supervisors at workplaces and on-campus skills training sites across the higher health professional educations of medicine, sports science, and nursing. Furthermore, the study ...... explored the impact of work-based learning (WBL) and skills training on students’ personal professional identity development....

  10. Role of MRI T2-DRIVE in the assessment of pituitary stalk abnormalities without gadolinium in pituitary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godano, Elisabetta; Morana, Giovanni; Di Iorgi, Natascia; Pistorio, Angela; Allegri, Anna Elsa Maria; Napoli, Flavia; Gastaldi, Roberto; Calcagno, Annalisa; Patti, Giuseppa; Gallizia, Annalisa; Notarnicola, Sara; Giaccardi, Marta; Noli, Serena; Severino, Mariasavina; Tortora, Domenico; Rossi, Andrea; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the role of T2-DRIVE MRI sequence in the accurate measurement of pituitary stalk (PS) size and the identification of PS abnormalities in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders without the use of gadolinium. This was a retrospective study conducted on 242 patients who underwent MRI due to pituitary dysfunction between 2006 and 2015. Among 135 eligible patients, 102 showed eutopic posterior pituitary (PP) gland and 33 showed 'ectopic' PP (EPP). Two readers independently measured the size of PS in patients with eutopic PP at the proximal, midpoint and distal levels on pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted as well as T2-DRIVE images; PS visibility was assessed on pre-contrast T1 and T2-DRIVE sequences in those with EPP. The length, height, width and volume of the anterior pituitary (AP), PP height and length and PP area were analyzed. Significant agreement between the two readers was obtained for T2-DRIVE PS measurements in patients with 'eutopic' PP; a significant difference was demonstrated between the intraclass correlation coefficient calculated on the T2-DRIVE and the T1-pre- and post-contrast sequences. The percentage of PS identified by T2-DRIVE in EPP patients was 72.7% compared to 30.3% of T1 pre-contrast sequences. A significant association was found between the visibility of PS on T2-DRIVE and the height of AP. T2-DRIVE sequence is extremely precise and reliable for the evaluation of PS size and the recognition of PS abnormalities; the use of gadolinium-based contrast media does not add significant information and may thus be avoided. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  11. Dissect Kif5b in nuclear positioning during myogenesis: The light chain binding domain and the autoinhibitory peptide are both indispensable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zai, E-mail: wangzai81@hotmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, China–Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (China); Xue, Wenqian; Li, Xiuling; Lin, Raozhou [Department of Biochemistry, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); Cui, Ju [Department of Biochemistry, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital, Ministry of Health (China); Huang, Jian-Dong, E-mail: jdhuang@hku.hk [Department of Biochemistry, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong)

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► Kif5b localizes at myonuclear membrane and is responsible for nuclear dispersion. ► Kif5b stalk/tail domain contains signal for nuclear membrane targeting. ► Kif5b stalk/tail domain directly binds to a nesprin 4 in vitro. ► KLC binding domain and autoinhibitory peptide are both functionally indispensable. -- Abstract: The microtubule motor kinesin-1 is responsible for the nuclear positioning during myogenesis. Here we show that the coiled-coil stalk/tail domain containing the kinesin light chain (KLC) binding sites targets to the perinuclear region like endogenous Kif5b, while the globular tail domain cannot. To investigate which fragments of kinesin heavy chain (Kif5b) is responsible for the myonuclear positioning, we transfect Kif5b expression constructs into Kif5b deficient myoblasts and test their ability to rescue the myonuclear phenotype. We find that the KLC binding domain and the autoinhibitory peptide in the globular tail region are both indispensable for the nuclear membrane localization of Kif5b and the kinesin-1-mediated myonuclear positioning. These results suggest that while the KLC binding domain may directly targets Kif5b to the myonuclear membrane, the autoinhibitory peptide may play an indirect role in regulating the kinesin-1-mediated myonuclear positioning.

  12. 碳酸钾添加比例对玉米秸秆生物炭表面特性的影响%Effect of Potassium Carbonate Addition Rate on Surface Characteristics of Corn Stalk Derived Biochar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝凌; 王月瑛; 吕贻忠

    2017-01-01

    在600℃的热解温度下通过添加不同比例的碳酸钾制备活性生物炭.对比分析了碳酸钾活化生物炭(KBC)和普通生物炭(BC)的特性,包括生物炭红外光谱特征、表面官能团、比表面积和孔径分布及吸附动力学过程等.结果表明,经碳酸钾活化的生物炭比表面积大为提高,最高达到566 m2 g-1(KBC-2-600),而普通生物炭(BC600)的比表面积仅为86.8 m2 g-1,KBC600系列的介孔容积和微孔容积均显著高于BC600,介孔容积平均扩大了16倍,微孔容积平均扩大了4倍,同时提高了微孔率.经碳酸钾活化的生物炭表面官能团的数量和饱和度发生改变,在1256 cm-1~3414 cm-1处,官能团的总体含量均低于普通生物炭,酯类羰基消失,形成氢键的能力减弱,非饱和醚类增加,芳香性和非极性提高,此表面特征更有利于吸附非极性芳香类污染物.对萘吸附的动力学实验表明,BC600和KBC-4-600均适合以二级动力学模型拟合,经碳酸钾活化后,生物炭的吸附性能提高,颗粒内扩散模型拟合结果表明,经碳酸钾活化后,生物炭内部孔隙复杂程度和数量均得到提高.碳酸钾活化的生物炭表面性质优良,作为高效吸附剂用于修复非极性芳香类污染有很大潜力.%[Objective]In recent years,biochar as an environment-friendly material has been arousing more and more attention the world over. The use of biochar as an adsorbent has been proved to be an effective way in managing polluted soil and water. Ordinary biochar is quite low in specific surface area and underdeveloped in internal pore structure,which greatly affects adsorption efficiency of the biochar. Therefore,usually biochar needs activating for higher adsorption capacity. In this study,effect of the amendment of potassium carbonate on surface properties of biochar was studied.[Method]Activated biochar was prepared under 600℃ from corn stalk amended with potassium carbonate at a varying ratio(stalk

  13. Implications of Using Corn Stalks as a Biofuel Source: A Joint ARS and DOE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, W. W.; Cushman, J.

    2003-12-01

    Corn stover is a readily source of biomass for cellulosic ethanol production, and may provide additional income for growers. Published research shows that residue removal changes the rate of soil physical, chemical, and biological processes, and in turn, crop growth. Building a sustainable cellulosic ethanol industry based on corn residue requires residue management practices that do not reduce long-term productivity. To develop such systems, impacts of stover removal on the soil and subsequent crops must be quantified. The ARS/DOE Biofuel Project is the cooperative endeavor among scientists from six western Corn Belt US Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) locations and US Dept. of Energy. The objectives of the project are to determine the influence of stover removal on crop productivity, soil aggregation, quality, carbon content, and seasonal energy balance, and carbon sequestration. When residue is removed soil temperatures fluctuate more and soil water evaporation is greater. Residue removal reduces the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC), but the degree of reduction is highly dependent on degree of tillage, quantity of stover removed, and frequency of stover removal. Of the three cultural factors (stover removal, tillage, and N fertilization) tillage had the greatest effect on amount of corn-derived SOC. No tillage tends to increase the fraction of aggregates in the 2.00 to 0.25 mm size range at all removal rates. Stover harvest reduces corn-derived SOC by 35% compared to retaining stover on the soil averaged over all tillage systems. Corn stover yield has not differed across stover removal treatments in these studies. In the irrigated study, grain yield increased with stover removal. In the rain-fed studies, grain yield has not differed among residue management treatments. Incorporating the biomass ethanol fermentation by-product into a soil with low SOC showed a positive relationship between the amount of lignin added and the subsequent

  14. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  15. The release of 35S from the cut hypothalamic end of the pituitary stalk following intravenous infusion of 35S-cysteine in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzek, J.W.; Tomas, T.

    1974-01-01

    The release of radioactive substances from the hypothalamic end of the cut pituitary stalk was determined following intravenous infusion of 35 S-cysteine in the rats dehydrated for 3 days. Intravenous injection of 5% sodium chloride, 1% of body weight, resulted in a distinct rise of radioactivity present in the fluid washing the cut infundibulum. In the same animals, the radioactivity of the hypothalamic tissue did not differ from that found in the controls (i.e., in animals simply dehydrated). The implications of these findings are discussed, as compared to the speed of axoplasmic transport in the infundibular axons. (author)

  16. Release of /sup 35/S from the cut hypothalamic end of the pituitary stalk following intravenous infusion of /sup 35/S-cysteine in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzek, J W; Tomas, T [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland)

    1974-01-01

    The release of radioactive substances from the hypothalamic end of the cut pituitary stalk was determined following intravenous infusion of /sup 35/S-cysteine in the rats dehydrated for 3 days. Intravenous injection of 5% sodium chloride, 1% of body weight, resulted in a distinct rise of radioactivity present in the fluid washing the cut infundibulum. In the same animals, the radioactivity of the hypothalamic tissue did not differ from that found in the controls (i.e., in animals simply dehydrated). The implications of these findings are discussed, as compared to the speed of axoplasmic transport in the infundibular axons.

  17. Knowing More by Knowing Less? A Reading of Give Me Everything You Have. On Being Stalked by James Lasdun, London: Jonathan Cape, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Neil

    2017-09-01

    James Lasdun's memoir of being stalked, Give Me Everything You Have, has provoked considerable controversy. Whilst the quality of the writing is widely praised, some critics object to the way Lasdun documents in unsparing detail his experiences without taking any account of the stalker's apparent mental health problems. There are ethical and conceptual problems with Lasdun's approach, but side-stepping medical knowledge and relying on what we might call common sense help Lasdun to find ways to interpret his stalker's actions as meaningful and human. I suggest three interlinked implications concerning: medicalization, stigma, and the relationship between ethics and scientific knowledge.

  18. Successful Pregnancies and Deliveries in a Patient With Evolving Hypopituitarism due to Pituitary Stalk Transection Syndrome: Role of Growth Hormone Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Miyako; Ieki, Yasuhiko; Takazakura, Eisuke; Fukuta, Kaori; Hidaka, Takao; Wakasugi, Takanobu; Shimatsu, Akira

    2017-01-01

    We herein report a 31-year-old Japanese woman with evolving hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk transection syndrome. She had a history of short stature treated with growth hormone (GH) in childhood and had hypothyroidism and primary amenorrhea at 20 years old. Levothyroxine replacement and recombinant follicle stimulating hormone-human chorionic gonadotropin (FSH-hCG) therapy for ovulation induction were started. GH replacement therapy (GHRT) was resumed when she was 26 years old. She developed mild adrenocortical insufficiency at 31 years old. She succeeded in becoming pregnant and delivered twice. GHRT was partially continued during pregnancy and stopped at the end of the second trimester without any complications. PMID:28250299

  19. Radiographic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.; Dennis, C.A.; May, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book concentrates on the routine radiographic examinations commonly performed. It details the wide variety of examinations possible and their place in initial learning and in the radiology department as references for those occasions when an unusual examination is requested. This book provides information ranging from basic terminology to skeletal positioning to special procedures. Positions are discussed and supplemented with a picture of a patient, the resulting radiograph, and a labeled diagram. Immobilization and proper shielding of the patient are also shown

  20. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, Vsevolod

    1975-01-01

    A circuitry for deriving the quotient of signal delivered by position-sensitive detectors is described. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10- to 12-bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words

  1. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, V.

    1975-05-01

    This paper describes circuitry for deriving the quotient of signals delivered by position-sensitive detectors. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10 to 12 bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less than 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words [fr

  2. Stalking: una ricerca sull’”ammonimento del Questore” nella provincia di Bologna in riferimento alla Legge 38/2009 / Le stalking : analyse du « rappel à la loi » par le préfet de Police du département de Bologne (Loi n°38 du 2009 / Stalking: analysis of restraining order issued by the Chief of Police in the province of Bologna (law n° 38/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salsi Giancarlo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The restraining order issued by the Chief of Police is a legal instrument that is used to protect the victim of stalking with the aim of dissuading the stalker from doing more persecutory acts. Neither executive decrees nor circulars are issued yet to define an equal national application procedure. For this reason, the author presents the procedure used by the Police headquarters of Bologna and the data concerning acts of stalking committed in Bologna and its province three years after the approval of the law n° 38/2009. La protection de la victime de harcèlement moral trouve dans le « rappel à la loi » de l’Autorité de Sécurité Publique un instrument juridique qui peut être utilisé afin de dissuader l’auteur de perpétrer d’autres actions criminelles. Compte tenu du de l’absence de décrets d’exécution et/ou de circulaires visant à une application uniforme de cet instrument au niveau national, nous présentons la procédure adoptée par le préfet de Police de Bologne, ainsi que les données relatives à ce phénomène concernent la ville et le département de Bologne, trois ans après la promulgation de la loi.

  3. Adsorption of nitrate from aqueous solution by magnetic amine-crosslinked biopolymer based corn stalk and its chemical regeneration property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Wen [Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Recycling (Shandong), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Gao, Baoyu, E-mail: bygao@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Recycling (Shandong), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Xu, Xing; Wang, Fang; Xue, Nan; Sun, Shenglei [Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Recycling (Shandong), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Song, Wuchang; Jia, Ruibao [Jinan Water and Wastewater Monitoring Center, 250033 Jinan (China)

    2016-03-05

    Graphical abstract: Scheme of mechanism for HCl and NaCl regeneration of MAB-CS. - Highlights: • Magnetic amine-crosslinked bio-adsorbent was prepared for nitrate uptake. • The characters of adsorbent were determined by VSM, TGA, XRD, SEM, TEM, FT-IR and XPS. • This novel bio-adsorbent could achieve rapid separation from effluents. • Chemical regeneration of the saturated magnetic bio-adsorbent was conducted. • The adsorption followed the pseudo second order model and Langmuir model. - Abstract: A novel adsorbent of magnetic amine-crosslinked biopolymer based corn stalk (MAB-CS) was synthesized and used for nitrate removal from aqueous solution. The characters and adsorption mechanisms of this bio-adsorbent were determined by using VSM, TGA, XRD, SEM, TEM, FT-IR and XPS, respectively. The results revealed that the saturated magnetization of MAB-CS reached 6.25 emu/g. Meanwhile, the studies of various factors indicated that this novel magnetic bio-adsorbent performed well over a considerable wide pH range of 6.0∼9.0, and the presence of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} would markedly decrease the nitrate removal efficiency. Furthermore, the nitrate adsorption by MAB-CS perfectly fitted the Langmuir isotherm model (R{sup 2} = 0.997–0.999) and pseudo second order kinetic model (R{sup 2} = 0.953–0.995). The calculated nitrate adsorption capacity of MAB-CS was 102.04 mg/g at 318 K by Langmuir model, and thermodynamic study showed that nitrate adsorption is an spontaneous endothermic process. The regeneration experiments indicated its merit of regeneration and stability with the recovery efficient of 118∼147%. By integrating the experimental results, it was found that the removal of nitrate was mainly via electrostatic attraction and ion exchange. And this novel bio-adsorbent prepared in this work could achieve effective removal of nitrate and rapid separation from effluents simultaneously.

  4. Essai de caractérisation des phénomènes de stalking dans un contexte juridique et politique : radiogoniométrie et filature On characterization of stalking phenomena in a juridical and political context: radiogoniometry and tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desurmont N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available De nos jours il est devenu impossible d’étudier les filatures comme on les pratiquait avant la naissance de la triangulation et de la radiogoniométrie, les observations satellitaires, les communications radios, etc. En effet l’usage de la radiogoniométrie et de d’autres techniques par les services des renseignements généraux et les forces de l’ordre biaisent aujourd’hui fortement l’analyse des filatures de ces organes en ayant recours qu’à l’analyse topologique et la géocriminologie. Le présent texte est une version abrégée d’une étude plus complète sur la représentation de l’espace criminel et sur la topographie policière par l’analyse des techniques de filature et de traçabilité. Il cherche à élargir le champ de l’activité de la police scientifique de telle manière à mieux diagnostiquer une série d’infractions impliquant des techniques de poursuites. Bien que beaucoup d’infractions nécessitent, pour être commises, la pratique de techniques de poursuite, c’est essentiellement en se basant sur des infractions telle la recherche et la poursuite, le stalking et le harcèlement moral en réseau (ou harcèlement organisationnel que nous avons pu énoncer les principes de la victimisation organisationnelle.Nowadays it has become impossible to study the technics of stalking as they were practiced before the birth of mobile phone localisation, satellite observations, communications radios, etc.. Indeed the use of mobile phone localization and other techniques by intelligence services and law enforcement officials today strongly distort the analysis of stalking of these organs by using only the topological analysis and geocriminology. This text is a reduced version of a more comprehensive study of the following technics of spatial representation and as well the analysis of police surveillance techniques and traceability. It seeks to broaden the scope of activity of forensic science in such a way as

  5. Collaborative Learning in Higher Education: Evoking Positive Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scager, Karin; Boonstra, Johannes; Peeters, Ton; Vulperhorst, Jonne; Wiegant, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative learning is a widely used instructional method, but the learning potential of this instructional method is often underused in practice. Therefore, the importance of various factors underlying effective collaborative learning should be determined. In the current study, five different life sciences undergraduate courses with successful…

  6. Positional games

    CERN Document Server

    Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.

  7. Carbon nanoparticles from corn stalk soot and its novel application as stationary phase of hydrophilic interaction chromatography and per aqueous liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuanyuan; Xu Luan; Chen Tong; Liu Xiaoyan; Xu Zhigang; Zhang Haixia

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Carbon nanoparticles (6–18 nm in size) were prepared from corn stalk soot. ► CNPs-based silica were used as novel chromatography stationary phase. ► The new phase shows good separation selectivity for polar compounds. ► The new phase had the similar retention for polar probes in HILIC and PALC modes. ► In contrast to PALC, under HILIC conditions high efficiencies were achieved. - Abstract: Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) (6–18 nm in size) were prepared by refluxing corn stalk soot in nitric acid. The obtained acid-oxidized CNPs are soluble in water due to the existence of carboxylic and hydroxyl groups. 13 C NMR measurement shows the CNPs are mainly of sp 2 and sp 3 carbon structure different from CNPs obtained from candle soot and natural gas soot. Furthermore, these CNPs exhibit unique photoluminescence properties. Interestingly, the CNPs might be exploited to immobilize on the surface of porous silica particles as chromatographic stationary phase. The resultant packing material was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography, indicating that the new stationary phase could be used in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and per aqueous liquid chromatography (PALC) modes. The separation of five nucleosides, four sulfa compounds and safflower injection was achieved by using the new column in the HILIC and PALC modes, respectively.

  8. Effect of dilute alkaline pretreatment on the conversion of different parts of corn stalk to fermentable sugars and its application in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Di; Li, Ping; Luo, Zhangfeng; Qin, Peiyong; Chen, Changjing; Wang, Yong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of dilute alkaline pretreatment on different parts of biomass, corn stalk was separated into flower, leaf, cob, husk and stem, which were treated by NaOH in range of temperature and chemical loading. The NaOH-pretreated solid was then enzymatic hydrolysis and used as the substrate for batch acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The results demonstrated the five parts of corn stalk could be used as potential feedstock separately, with vivid performances in solvents production. Under the optimized conditions towards high product titer, 7.5g/L, 7.6g/L, 9.4g/L, 7g/L and 7.6g/L of butanol was obtained in the fermentation broth of flower, leaf, cob, husk and stem hydrolysate, respectively. Under the optimized conditions towards high product yield, 143.7g/kg, 126.3g/kg, 169.1g/kg, 107.7g/kg and 116.4g/kg of ABE solvent were generated, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach with Narrow Stalk-Like Based, Uneven Protruding Appearance Presenting with Severe Acute Anemia despite Small Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomitsu Tahara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 56-year-old woman who had a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST of the stomach. She was admitted to our hospital for epigastric pain, nausea, and severe acute anemia (hemoglobin level 4.3 g/dl. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a narrow stalk-like based, hemorrhagic and uneven protruding lesion in the lesser curvature of the gastric upper corpus. Although the tumor was less than 2 cm in diameter and was probably a benign GIST according to histology, laparoscopy-assisted local resection was needed because the patient had continuous severe anemia and epigastric pain. Histological assessment showed that the elongated spindle-like tumor cells originated from the intrinsic muscle layer, and was shown with growth to the mucosal side, cropping out to the surface in most areas of the protruding lesion. Only a small part of the tumor was within nontumoral gastric mucosa. Most of the tumor cells demonstrated immunoreactivity for KIT and CD34 in the cytoplasm but not for αSMA, S100, and desmin. Mitotic activity (0/50 high power field and the labeling index for MIB-1 (about 1% were low. The GIST of the stomach described in this report was a rare case with a narrow stalk-like based, uneven protruding mass presenting with severe acute anemia despite small size.

  10. Researcher Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2009-01-01

    involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives onresearch and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance ofconstant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioningas a researcher influences the research process. Studying the other...

  11. Position detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Toshifumi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to detect the position of an moving object in a control rod position detector, stably in a digital manner at a high accuracy and free from the undesired effects of circumstantial conditions such as the reactor temperature. Constitution: Coils connected in parallel with each other are disposed along the passage of a moving object and variable resistors and relays are connected in series with each of the coils respectively. Light emitting diodes is connected in series with the contacts of the respective relays. The resistance value of the variable resistors are adjusted depending on the changes in the circumstantial conditions and temperature distribution upon carrying out the positional detection. When the object is inserted into a coils, the relevant relay is deenergized, by which the relay contacts are closed to light up the diode. In the same manner, as the object is successively inserted into the coils, the diodes are lighted-up successively thereby enabling highly accurate and stable positional detection in a digital manner, free from the undesired effects of the circumstantial conditions. (Horiuchi, T.)

  12. Stalking the Feast Beast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpey, Lois

    This paper discusses the use of Rational Recovery (RR) as a counseling technique in treating people who feel fat, particularly women. Fatness is viewed as a philosophy, not a physical condition. Cultural influences defining and stressing ideal femininity come down hard on women whose physiques or appearances do not measure up. RR gives people…

  13. Positioning Ballet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassing, Gayle, Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A series of articles discusses the development of ballet instruction in secondary and higher education, beginning ballet in high school and in college, teaching techniques, ballet for visually handicapped students, and methods for the prevention of injuries in beginning students. (JN)

  14. Maintaining positive

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Gh. IONESCU; Adina Letitia NEGRUSA

    2004-01-01

    Maintaining positive work-force relationships includes in effective labor-management relations and making appropriate responses to current employee issues. Among the major current employee issues are protection from arbitrary dismissal, drug and alcohol abuse, privacy rights and family maters and they impact work. In our paper we discus two problems: first, the meanings of industrial democracy; second, the three principal operational concepts of industrial democracy (1) industrial democracy t...

  15. Massive Galileon positivity bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rham, Claudia; Melville, Scott; Tolley, Andrew J.; Zhou, Shuang-Yong

    2017-09-01

    The EFT coefficients in any gapped, scalar, Lorentz invariant field theory must satisfy positivity requirements if there is to exist a local, analytic Wilsonian UV completion. We apply these bounds to the tree level scattering amplitudes for a massive Galileon. The addition of a mass term, which does not spoil the non-renormalization theorem of the Galileon and preserves the Galileon symmetry at loop level, is necessary to satisfy the lowest order positivity bound. We further show that a careful choice of successively higher derivative corrections are necessary to satisfy the higher order positivity bounds. There is then no obstruction to a local UV completion from considerations of tree level 2-to-2 scattering alone. To demonstrate this we give an explicit example of such a UV completion.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF A CONICAL-SCREW BRIQUETTING MACHINE FOR THE BRIQUETTING OF CARBONIZED COTTON STALKS IN SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOUSIF A. ABAKR

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Briquetting of the carbonized agricultural residues represents one of the possible solutions to the local energy shortages in many developing countries. It constitutes a positive solution to the problem of increasing rates of desertification in many areas worldwide. Agricultural residues are not attractive as a household fuel source for urban areas because they are very bulky and have low energy intensity. Also, to eliminate the smoke generation when burning agricultural residues requires processing it by carbonization before being used as a house-hold indoor fuel. Previously investigated, briquetting machines lacked high productivity and were of complicated designs. The present study puts forward a machine of simple design which could be manufactured locally in Sudan and of much higher productivity. The local Sudanese briquetting experience was overviewed, studying all the alternative available options and the market potential. The study presents a detailed design study of the new briquetting machine. The prototype was made and tested in the field at Al-Gazeera area in Sudan. The investigation results show that the new machine has a production rate better than all the previous alternatives. This low pressure screw briquetting machine was found to have a production rate equivalent to about eight times better than the production rate of the best local competitor. The production cost was found to be lower due to the lower binder requirement for the new machine, which is lower by about 65%. The initial moisture content of the feed stock required for this machine is lower by about 30 % compared to the best alternative, which results in shorter drying time for the fuel briquettes produced. The quality of the produced briquettes was found to be better and of lower smoke generation when burned due to the lower binder content.

  17. Influence of Sawdust Bio-filler on the Tensile, Flexural, and Impact Properties of Mangifera Indica Leaf Stalk Fibre Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heckadka Srinivas Shenoy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to have biodegradable composites is aloft in today’s market as they are environment friendly and are also easy to fabricate. In this study, mangifera indica leaf stalk fibres were used as reinforcement along with saw dust as bio-filler material. Unsaturated isophthalic polyester resin was used as the matrix. The fibres were treated with 6 % vol. NaOH and neutralized with 3 % vol. of dilute HCl. Treatment of sawdust fillers was done by using 2% vol. NaOH solution. Hand layup method and compression moulding technique was used to fabricate the composite laminates. Specimens for evaluating the mechanical properties were prepared by using water jet machining. The results indicated an increase in tensile, flexural and impact strength of composites with addition of sawdust upto 3%. Further addition of the bio-filler resulted in decrease of mechanical properties.

  18. Spontaneous rupture of pedunculate gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor into the gastrocelic ligament presenting as a stalked mass surrounded by loculated hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Ahn, Sung Eun; Park, Seong Jin; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Yong Ho [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is one of the most common mesenchymal tumors of the stomach, which may be asymptomatic or cause symptoms such as pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, and obstruction. Hemoperitoneum due to spontaneous rupture of the tumor is an extremely rare complication. We described a case of a 52-year-old man with a large pedunculated GIST causing loculated hematoma within the gastrocolic ligament. The patient visited our hospital due to a 3 week history of epigastric pain. A computed tomography scan revealed a 10.3 x 7.5 x 9.4 cm sized mass that was growing exophytically from the greater curvature of the stomach and was surrounded by loculated hematoma within the gastrocolic ligament. Laparotomy revealed a large stalked gastric mass surrounded by loculated hematoma within the gastrocolic ligament and blood fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Pathologic examination confirmed a GIST, of the high risk group.

  19. Gender-based violence, stalking and fear of crime: i principali risultati di una ricerca condotta su un campione di studentesse dell’Università di Perugia / Gender-based violence, stalking and fear of crime : les principaux résultats d’une recherche menée à partir d’un échantillon d’étudiantes universitaires de l’Université de Pérouse (Italie) / Gender-based violence, stalking and fear of crime: The main results of a research among female students of the University of Perugia

    OpenAIRE

    Barro Martina

    2013-01-01

    L’articolo presenta i principali risultati di una ricerca empirica condotta su un campione di studentesse universitarie dell’Università di Perugia. Il questionario verteva su episodi di molestie sessuale, di stalking e di atti sessuali non voluti che potevano essere capitati alle studentesse tanto nell’ambiente universitario che in generale. Oltre ai comportamenti citati, sono stati analizzati i dati sul contesto in cui sono avvenuti i fatti di molestia, sulle reazioni, sulle conseguenze e su...

  20. Globalisation and Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marginson, Simon; van der Wende, Marijk

    2007-01-01

    Economic and cultural globalisation has ushered in a new era in higher education. Higher education was always more internationally open than most sectors because of its immersion in knowledge, which never showed much respect for juridical boundaries. In global knowledge economies, higher education

  1. Changes of the surface structure of corn stalk in the cooking process with active oxygen and MgO-based solid alkali as a pretreatment of its biomass conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chunsheng; Xie, Tujun; Lin, Lu; Zhuang, Junping; Liu, Ying; Shi, Jianbin; Yang, Qiulin

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a novel, efficient and environmentally friendly process for the cooking of corn stalk that uses active oxygen (O2 and H2O2) and a recoverable solid alkali (MgO). The structural changes on the surface of corn stalk before and after cooking were characterized by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The results showed that lignin and extractives were effectively removed, especially those on the surface of corn stalk. Additionally, the changes included becoming fibrillar, the exposure of cellulose and hemi-cellulose and the pitting corrosion on the surface, etc. The results also showed that the removal reaction is from outside to inside, but the main reaction is possibly on the surface. Furthermore, the results of active oxygen cooking with a solid alkali are compared with those of alkaline cooking in the paper. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of sunflower stalk-carbon nitride nanosheets as a green sorbent in the solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi Khosrowshahi, Elnaz; Razmi, Habib

    2018-02-08

    A green biocomposite of sunflower stalks and graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets has been applied as a solid-phase extraction adsorbent for sample preparation of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different solutions using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Before the modification, sunflower stalks exhibited relatively low adsorption to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons extraction. The modified sunflower stalks showed increased adsorption to the analytes extraction due to the increase in surface and existence of a π-π interaction between the analytes and graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets on the surface. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection and quantification for five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds could reach 0.4-32 and 1.2-95 ng/L, respectively. The method accuracy was evaluated using recovery measurements in spiked real samples and good recoveries from 71 to 115% with relative standard deviations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in various samples-well water, tap water, soil, vegetable, and barbequed meat (kebab)-with analytes contents ranging from 0.065 to 13.3 μg/L. The prepared green composite as a new sorbent has some advantages including ease of preparation, low cost, and good reusability. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Higher Education and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger

    2018-01-01

    After climate change, rising economic inequality is the greatest challenge facing the advanced Western societies. Higher education has traditionally been seen as a means to greater equality through its role in promoting social mobility. But with increased marketisation higher education now not only reflects the forces making for greater inequality…

  4. Higher Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  5. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  6. Happiness in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwick, Alex; Cannizzaro, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms happiness and satisfaction interchangeably as if one were…

  7. Gender and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  8. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan

    is about constructing a more inclusive understanding of quality in higher education through combining the macro, meso and micro levels, i.e. from the perspectives of national policy, higher education institutions as organizations in society, individual teaching staff and students. It covers both......Quality in higher education was not invented in recent decades – universities have always possessed mechanisms for assuring the quality of their work. The rising concern over quality is closely related to the changes in higher education and its social context. Among others, the most conspicuous...... changes are the massive expansion, diversification and increased cost in higher education, and new mechanisms of accountability initiated by the state. With these changes the traditional internally enacted academic quality-keeping has been given an important external dimension – quality assurance, which...

  9. miR156-Targeted SBP-Box Transcription Factors Interact with DWARF53 to Regulate TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 and BARREN STALK1 Expression in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Cheng, Xiliu; Liu, Pan; Sun, Jiaqiang

    2017-07-01

    Genetic and environmental factors affect bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) plant architecture, which determines grain yield. In this study, we demonstrate that miR156 controls bread wheat plant architecture. We show that overexpression of tae-miR156 in bread wheat cultivar Kenong199 leads to increased tiller number and severe defects in spikelet formation, probably due to the tae-miR156-mediated repression of a group of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE ( SPL ) genes. Furthermore, we found that the expression of two genes TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 ( TaTB1 ) and BARREN STALK1 ( TaBA1 ), whose orthologous genes in diverse plant species play conserved roles in regulating plant architecture, is markedly reduced in the tae-miR156-OE bread wheat plants. Significantly, we demonstrate that the strigolactone (SL) signaling repressor DWARF53 (TaD53), which physically associates with the transcriptional corepressor TOPLESS, can directly interact with the N-terminal domains of miR156-controlled TaSPL3/17. Most importantly, TaSPL3/17-mediated transcriptional activation of TaBA1 and TaTB1 can be largely repressed by TaD53 in the transient expression system. Our results reveal potential association between miR156-TaSPLs and SL signaling pathways during bread wheat tillering and spikelet development. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Composition, Taste, Aroma, and Antioxidant Activity of Solidified Noncentrifugal Brown Sugars Prepared from Whole Stalk and Separated Pith of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ishmael, Mutanda; Asikin, Yonathan; Hirose, Naoto; Mizu, Masami; Shikanai, Takesi; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2016-10-25

    In this study, 2 types of solidified noncentrifugal brown sugars (W-NCS and P-NCS) were prepared from the whole stalk and separated pith, respectively, of raw sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). These products were discriminated in terms of their quality attributes, including color, sugars and minerals composition, taste, aroma, and antioxidant activity. The brown color of P-NCS was clearly different compared with that of W-NCS with a color difference value (ΔE * ) of 9.36. There was no difference in the sugars and minerals composition between the 2 types of sugar, which led to very similar taste profiles. However, P-NCS had a weaker aroma intensity than W-NCS did. Moreover, P-NCS retained more than 60% of the antioxidant activity of W-NCS. The information gleaned from this study might be used to select appropriate end-uses for these 2 types of sugars. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. 13C NMR and XPS characterization of anion adsorbent with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Wang, Zhenqian; Zeng, Qingling; Shen, Chunhua

    2016-12-01

    Despite amino groups modified crop straw has been intensively studied as new and low-cost adsorbent for removal of anionic species from water, there is still a lack of clear characterization for amino groups, especially quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw. In this study, we used 13C NMR and XPS technologies to characterize adsorbents with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse. 13C NMR spectra clearly showed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups in lignocelluloses structure of modified crop straw. The increase of nitrogen observed in XPS survey spectra also indicated the existence of quaternary ammonium group in the surface of the adsorbents. The curve fitting of high-resolution XPS N1s and C1s spectra were conducted to probe the composition of nitrogen and carbon contained groups, respectively. The results showed the proportion of quaternary ammonium group significantly increased in the prepared adsorbent's surface that was dominated by methyl/methylene, hydroxyl, quaternary ammonium, ether and carbonyl groups. This study proved that 13C NMR and XPS could be successfully utilized for characterization of quaternary ammonium modified crop straw adsorbents.

  12. Catalytic steam reforming of tar derived from steam gasification of sunflower stalk over ethylene glycol assisting prepared Ni/MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnjanakom, Surachai; Guan, Guoqing; Asep, Bayu; Du, Xiao; Hao, Xiaogang; Samart, Chanatip; Abudula, Abuliti

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ni/MCM-41 was prepared by EG-assisted co-impregnation method. • EG-assisted co-impregnation method resulted in Ni particles well dispersed on MCM-41. • Ni/MCM-41-EG catalyst had high catalytic activity for tar reforming. • The highest H 2 gas yield was obtained when using 20 wt.% Ni/MCM-41-EG. • The catalysts were reused up to 5 cycles without any serious deactivation. - Abstract: Ethylene glycol (EG) assisted impregnation of nickel catalyst on MCM-41 (Ni/MCM-41-EG) was performed and applied for steam reforming of tar derived from biomass. The catalyst was characterized by SEM–EDX, BET, XRD, and TPR. It is found that smaller nickel particles were well dispersed on MCM-41 and better catalytic activity was shown for the Ni/MCM-41-EG when compared with the catalyst of Ni/MCM-41 prepared by using the conventional impregnation method. H 2 yield increased approximately 8% when using 20 wt.% Ni/MCM-41-EG instead of 20 wt.% Ni/MCM-41 for the steam reforming of tar derived from sunflower stalk. The catalyst reusability was also tested up to five cycles, and no obvious activity reduction was observed. It indicates that EG assisted impregnation method is a good way to prepare metal loaded porous catalyst with high catalytic activity, high loading amount and long-term stability for the tar reforming

  13. Molecular characterization of Api g 2, a novel allergenic member of the lipid-transfer protein 1 family from celery stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermaier, Gabriele; Egger, Matthias; Girbl, Tamara; Erler, Anja; Harrer, Andrea; Vejvar, Eva; Liso, Marina; Richter, Klaus; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Mari, Adriano; Ferreira, Fatima

    2011-04-01

    Celery represents a relevant cross-reactive food allergen source in the adult population. As the currently known allergens are not typical elicitors of severe symptoms, we aimed to identify and characterize a non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP). MS and cDNA cloning were applied to obtain the full-length sequence of a novel allergenic nsLTP from celery stalks. The purified natural molecule consisted of a single isoallergen designated as Api g 2.0101, which was recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami. The natural and recombinant molecules displayed equivalent physicochemical and immunological properties. Circular dichroism revealed a typical α-helical fold and high thermal stability. Moreover, Api g 2 was highly resistant to simulated gastrointestinal digestion. As assessed by ELISA, thermal denaturation did not affect the IgE binding of Api g 2. Natural and recombinant Api g 2 showed similar allergenic activity in mediator release assays. Api g 2-specific IgE antibodies cross-reacted with peach and mugwort pollen nsLTPs. Based on our results, it can be anticipated that inclusion of recombinant Api g 2 in the current panel of allergens for molecule-based diagnosis will facilitate the evaluation of the clinical relevance of nsLTP sensitization in celery allergy and help clinicians in the management of food allergic patients. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Experimental investigation on combustion and heat transfer characteristics in a furnace fueled with unconventional biomass fuels (date stones and palm stalks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Omari, S.-A.B.

    2006-01-01

    The combustion of date stones and palm stalks in a small scale furnace with a conical solid fuel bed is investigated experimentally. This investigation (to the best of the knowledge of the author) is the first addressing date stones as a new renewable energy source. Different experimental conditions are investigated where different fuel feed conditions and different combustion air flow rates are considered. The major results are given in terms of the fuel reduction rates and the heat transferred to the cooling water flowing in a water jacket around the furnace as functions of time. Combustion of the biomass fuels considered here in the investigated furnace is initiated by using LPG fuel as a starter. The hot products of LPG combustion, which is taking place in a burner built prior to the investigated solid fuel furnace, are allowed to penetrate the conical fuel bed for 2-3 min from its bottom base in the upward direction, causing effective heating and gasification and pyrolysis of the solid fuel in the bed to take place. The resulting combustible gases mix with the combustion air and subsequently are ignited by an external ignition source. The results of the present study highlight date stones as a renewable energy source with a good potential

  15. Higher English for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann; Mitchell, John

    2015-01-01

    A brand new edition of the former Higher English: Close Reading , completely revised and updated for the new Higher element (Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation) - worth 30% of marks in the final exam!. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. Written by two highly experienced authors this book shows you how to practice for the Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation section of the new Higher English exam. This book introduces the terms and concepts that lie behind success and offers guidance on the interpretation of questions and targeting answer

  16. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Razzagh Mahmoudi; Kiumars Amini; Omid Fakhri; Mahsa Alem

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredie...

  17. Planning for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Caj-Gunnar

    1984-01-01

    Decision processes for strategic planning for higher education institutions are outlined using these parameters: institutional goals and power structure, organizational climate, leadership attitudes, specific problem type, and problem-solving conditions and alternatives. (MSE)

  18. Advert for higher education

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Provozin; А.S. Teletov

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the features advertising higher education institution. The analysis results of marketing research students for their choice of institutions and further study. Principles of the advertising campaign on three levels: the university, the faculty, the separate department.

  19. On higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt

  20. Higher Spins & Strings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The conjectured relation between higher spin theories on anti de-Sitter (AdS) spaces and weakly coupled conformal field theories is reviewed. I shall then outline the evidence in favour of a concrete duality of this kind, relating a specific higher spin theory on AdS3 to a family of 2d minimal model CFTs. Finally, I shall explain how this relation fits into the framework of the familiar stringy AdS/CFT correspondence.

  1. Benign positional vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertigo - positional; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; BPPV: dizziness- positional ... Benign positional vertigo is also called benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). It is caused by a problem in the inner ear. ...

  2. Higher prices, higher quality? Evidence from German nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Annika; Hottenrott, Hanna

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates the relationship between prices and quality of 7400 German nursing homes. We use a cross section of public quality reports for all German nursing homes, which had been evaluated between 2010 and 2013 by external institutions. Our analysis is based on multivariate regressions in a two stage least squares framework, where we instrument prices to explain their effect on quality controlling for income, nursing home density, demographics, labour market characteristics, and infrastructure at the regional level. Descriptive analysis shows that prices and quality do not only vary across nursing homes, but also across counties and federal states and that quality and prices correlate positively. Second, the econometric analysis, which accounts for the endogenous relation between negotiated price and reported quality, shows that quality indeed positively depends on prices. In addition, more places in nursing homes per people in need are correlated with both lower prices and higher quality. Finally, unobserved factors at the federal state level capture some of the variation of reported quality across nursing homes. Our results suggest that higher prices increase quality. Furthermore, since reported quality and prices vary substantially across federal states, we conclude that the quality and prices of long-term care facilities may well be compared within federal states but not across. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  4. Does Education Lead to Higher Generalized Trust?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Rothstein, Bo

    2016-01-01

    to ‘trust others'. We hypothesize that higher levels of education will lead to higher social trust in individuals, given that the context (country or regions within countries) in which they reside has a sufficiently impartial and non-corrupt institutional setting. However, the positive effect of education...

  5. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  6. INTERNATIONALIZATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Crisan-Mitra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization of higher education is one of the key trends of development. There are several approaches on how to achieve competitiveness and performance in higher education and international academic mobility; students’ exchange programs, partnerships are some of the aspects that can play a significant role in this process. This paper wants to point out the student’s perception regarding two main directions: one about the master students’ expectation regarding how an internationalized master should be organized and should function, and second the degree of satisfaction of the beneficiaries of internationalized master programs from Babe-Bolyai University. This article is based on an empirical qualitative research that was implemented to students of an internationalized master from the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. This research can be considered a useful example for those preoccupied to increase the quality of higher education and conclusions drawn have relevance both theoretically and especially practically.

  7. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan; Zhao, Yingsheng; Du, Xiangyun

    . This transformation involves a broad scale of change at individual level, organizational level, and societal level. In this change process in higher education, staff development remains one of the key elements for university innovation and at the same time demands a systematic and holistic approach.......This paper starts with a critical approach to reflect on the current practice of quality assessment and assurance in higher education. This is followed by a proposal that in response to the global challenges for improving the quality of higher education, universities should take active actions...... of change by improving the quality of teaching and learning. From a constructivist perspective of understanding education and learning, this paper also discusses why and how universities should give more weight to learning and change the traditional role of teaching to an innovative approach of facilitation...

  8. Optimizing anti-coking abilities of zeolites by ethylene diamine tetraacetie acid modification on catalytic fast pyrolysis of corn stalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Zhaoping; Song, Zuwei; Ding, Kuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-12-01

    In order to minimize coke yield during biomass catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) process, ethylene diamine tetraacetie acid (EDTA) chemical modification method is carried out to selectively remove the external framework aluminum of HZSM-5 catalyst. X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen (N2)-adsorption and ammonia-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) techniques are employed to investigate the porosity and acidity characteristics of original and modified HZSM-5 samples. Py-GC/MS and thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) experiments are further conducted to explore the catalytic effect of modified HZSM-5 samples on biomass CFP and to verify the positive effect on coke reduction. Results show that EDTA treatment does not damage the crystal structure of HZSM-5 zeolites, but leads to a slight increase of pore volume and pore size. Meanwhile, the elimination of the strong acid peak indicates the dealumination of outer surface of HZSM-5 zeolites. Treatment time of 2 h (labeled EDTA-2H) is optimal for acid removal and hydrocarbon formation. Among all modified catalysts, EDTA-2H performs the best for deacidification and can obviously increase the yields of positive chemical compositions in pyrolysis products. Besides, EDTA modification can improve the anti-coking properties of HZSM-5 zeolites, and EDTA-2H gives rise to the lowest coke yield.

  9. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Grønholdt, Lars

    2005-01-01

    leaders of higher education institutions to set strategic directions and support their decisions in an effort to create even better study programmes with a better reputation. Finally, managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.Keywords: Reputation, image, corporate identity......The purpose of this paper is to develop a reputation model for higher education programmes, provide empirical evidence for the model and illustrate its application by using Copenhagen Business School (CBS) as the recurrent case. The developed model is a cause-and-effect model linking image...

  10. Navigating in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Hanne Balsby; Reimer, David; Keiding, Tina Bering

    Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur, Informati......Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur...

  11. Épocas de colheita de umbelas e comprimento da haste floral no rendimento e no potencial fisiológico de sementes de cebola Harvesting period of umbels and seed stalk length on seed yield and on physiological potential of onion seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Y. Reghin

    2004-06-01

    ável proceder-se à colheita das umbelas no início da abertura das cápsulas, para evitar perdas por degrana ou doenças.The Paraná State (Brazil contributes significantly to the Brazilian onion production. However, this State imports all needed onion seeds. The effect of umbel's harvest period, and harvesting with or without the seed stalk were evaluated. Treatments resulted from the combination of three harvesting periods (with green capsules, at the beginning of capsule opening and with 10% opened capsules, combined with umbels on 15 cm long stalks or without stalks, arranged in a factorial scheme 3x2. The experimental design was a randomized blocks, with four replications. The bulbs of Crioula cultivar proceeded from EPAGRI, Santa Catarina State, and were planted on July/2002, in Imbituva, Paraná State, under protected cultivation. At flowering, four umbels per plot were marked to future use in the evaluations. The number of total of fertile flowers (capsules and unfertile flowers were counted on each harvested umbel. Seeds were detached from capsules and the number of seeds per capsule obtained, besides the yield per umbel, weight of 100 seeds, germination and vigor of the seeds. Harvesting umbels with the seed stalk had no effect on the seed yield and on seed physiological potential. The harvesting period presented significant effect on the amount and quality of the harvested seeds. The best harvesting period was at the beginning of capsule opening or when 10% of capsules were opened, resulting in higher number of seeds/umbel, higher seed yield/umbel and higher seed weight per capsule. The average yield was 2.9 g/umbel besides higher vigor (90.25% and germinability (85.25%. Harvesting at the beginning of capsule opening helps to avoid the lost of seeds by thresh or diseases.

  12. Exploring Higher Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Willis M.

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that the social studies reform movement includes a call for the de-emphasis of rote memory and more attention to the development of higher-order thinking skills. Discusses the "thinking tasks" concept derived from the work of Hilda Taba and asserts that the tasks can be used with almost any social studies topic. (CFR)

  13. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must be po...

  14. Inflation from higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.

    1987-01-01

    We argue that an inflationary phase in the very early universe is related to the transition from a higher dimensional to a four-dimensional universe. We present details of a previously considered model which gives sufficient inflation without fine tuning of parameters. (orig.)

  15. Liberty and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F.

    1989-01-01

    John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty is discussed with the view that it needs to be revised to guide moral judgments in higher education. Three key elements need to be modified: the action that is constrained; the constraint on the action; and the agent whose action is constrained. (MLW)

  16. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines

  17. Evaluation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Bungic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    One of the means of transforming classroom experience is by conducting action research with students. This paper reports about the action research with university students. It has been carried out within a semester of the course "Methods of Upbringing". Its goal has been to improve evaluation of higher education teaching. Different forms…

  18. Higher-level Innovization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2011-01-01

    we introduce the higher-level innovization task through an application of a manufacturing process simulation for the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process where commonalities among two different Pareto-optimal fronts are analyzed. Multiple design rules are simultaneously deciphered from each front...

  19. Benchmarking for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson…

  20. Creativity in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Drazena; Mabic, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research related to perception of creativity in higher education made by the authors at the University of Mostar from Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research was based on a survey conducted among teachers and students at the University. The authors developed two types of questionnaires, one for teachers and the other…

  1. California's Future: Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  2. Cyberbullying in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Maria A.; Smith, Gina S.; Brashen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has extended beyond the schoolyard into online forums in the form of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is a growing concern due to the effect on its victims. Current studies focus on grades K-12; however, cyberbullying has entered the world of higher education. The focus of this study was to identify the existence of cyberbullying in higher…

  3. Competitiveness - higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labas Istvan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of European Union plays an important role in the areas of education and training equally. The member states are responsible for organizing and operating their education and training systems themselves. And, EU policy is aimed at supporting the efforts of member states and trying to find solutions for the common challenges which appear. In order to make our future sustainable maximally; the key to it lies in education. The highly qualified workforce is the key to development, advancement and innovation of the world. Nowadays, the competitiveness of higher education institutions has become more and more appreciated in the national economy. In recent years, the frameworks of operation of higher education systems have gone through a total transformation. The number of applying students is continuously decreasing in some European countries therefore only those institutions can “survive” this shortfall, which are able to minimize the loss of the number of students. In this process, the factors forming the competitiveness of these budgetary institutions play an important role from the point of view of survival. The more competitive a higher education institution is, the greater the chance is that the students would like to continue their studies there and thus this institution will have a greater chance for the survival in the future, compared to ones lagging behind in the competition. Aim of our treatise prepared is to present the current situation and main data of the EU higher education and we examine the performance of higher education: to what extent it fulfils the strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth which is worded in the framework of Europe 2020 programme. The treatise is based on analysis of statistical data.

  4. 13C NMR and XPS characterization of anion adsorbent with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wei; Wang, Zhenqian; Zeng, Qingling; Shen, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 13 C NMR and XPS were successfully used to characterize quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw based anion adsorbents. • The results obtained from different kinds of crop straw material clearly confirmed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups. • The composition of C-groups and N-groups also were determined by curving fitting of high-resolution XPS C1 and N1 spectra. - Abstract: Despite amino groups modified crop straw has been intensively studied as new and low-cost adsorbent for removal of anionic species from water, there is still a lack of clear characterization for amino groups, especially quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw. In this study, we used 13 C NMR and XPS technologies to characterize adsorbents with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse. 13 C NMR spectra clearly showed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups in lignocelluloses structure of modified crop straw. The increase of nitrogen observed in XPS survey spectra also indicated the existence of quaternary ammonium group in the surface of the adsorbents. The curve fitting of high-resolution XPS N1s and C1s spectra were conducted to probe the composition of nitrogen and carbon contained groups, respectively. The results showed the proportion of quaternary ammonium group significantly increased in the prepared adsorbent’s surface that was dominated by methyl/methylene, hydroxyl, quaternary ammonium, ether and carbonyl groups. This study proved that 13 C NMR and XPS could be successfully utilized for characterization of quaternary ammonium modified crop straw adsorbents.

  5. Unexpected high species diversity among European stalked puffballs – a contribution to the phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Tulostoma (Agaricales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Jeppson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A three-gene data set was generated to explore species diversity and delimitations within the stalked puffballs (Tulostoma, Agaricales in Europe. Data on species from other parts of the world were included for comparison of species concepts and distribution ranges. Sequence data from 26 type specimens are included. The phylogenetic analyses support Tulostoma as monophyletic. Eleven major clades, 37 minor clades, and 20 single branches were recovered and found to correspond to 30 described species and 27 species without scientific names. Five species are here described as new to science: Tulostoma calcareum, T. calongei, T. eckbladii, T. grandisporum, and T. pannonicum. In total we report 26 described, and 19 undescribed, species from Europe. An epitype for T. fimbriatum with ITS sequence data is selected to fix the name. The recovered tree topology was not in congruence with the current infrageneric classification of Tulostoma, suggesting that many of the morphological characters used for segregation of taxa are plesiomorphic or homoplasious. Spore ornamentation and hyphal structure of the peridium are found to be reliable characters for delimitation of species. The majority of the species occur in the dry, arid areas of southern and east central Europe but a few are shown to be restricted to humid temperate regions in the North. The study confirms that species with smooth or sub-smooth spores are restricted to dry and arid habitats whereas species with more strongly ornamented spores occur in humid habitats. Areas with steppe vegetation in Hungary and Spain are here identified as hot spots for Tulostoma species diversity.

  6. {sup 13}C NMR and XPS characterization of anion adsorbent with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Wei, E-mail: weicao@hqu.edu.cn; Wang, Zhenqian; Zeng, Qingling; Shen, Chunhua

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • {sup 13}C NMR and XPS were successfully used to characterize quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw based anion adsorbents. • The results obtained from different kinds of crop straw material clearly confirmed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups. • The composition of C-groups and N-groups also were determined by curving fitting of high-resolution XPS C1 and N1 spectra. - Abstract: Despite amino groups modified crop straw has been intensively studied as new and low-cost adsorbent for removal of anionic species from water, there is still a lack of clear characterization for amino groups, especially quaternary ammonium groups in the surface of crop straw. In this study, we used {sup 13}C NMR and XPS technologies to characterize adsorbents with quaternary ammonium groups prepared from rice straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse. {sup 13}C NMR spectra clearly showed the presence of quaternary ammonium groups in lignocelluloses structure of modified crop straw. The increase of nitrogen observed in XPS survey spectra also indicated the existence of quaternary ammonium group in the surface of the adsorbents. The curve fitting of high-resolution XPS N1s and C1s spectra were conducted to probe the composition of nitrogen and carbon contained groups, respectively. The results showed the proportion of quaternary ammonium group significantly increased in the prepared adsorbent’s surface that was dominated by methyl/methylene, hydroxyl, quaternary ammonium, ether and carbonyl groups. This study proved that {sup 13}C NMR and XPS could be successfully utilized for characterization of quaternary ammonium modified crop straw adsorbents.

  7. Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) reveals a neo-X chromosome and biased gene movement in stalk-eyed flies (genus Teleopsis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard H; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2010-09-16

    Chromosomal location has a significant effect on the evolutionary dynamics of genes involved in sexual dimorphism, impacting both the pattern of sex-specific gene expression and the rate of duplication and protein evolution for these genes. For nearly all non-model organisms, however, knowledge of chromosomal gene content is minimal and difficult to obtain on a genomic scale. In this study, we utilized Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH), using probes designed from EST sequence, to identify genes located on the X chromosome of four species in the stalk-eyed fly genus Teleopsis. Analysis of log(2) ratio values of female-to-male hybridization intensities from the CGH microarrays for over 3,400 genes reveals a strongly bimodal distribution that clearly differentiates autosomal from X-linked genes for all four species. Genotyping of 33 and linkage mapping of 28 of these genes in Teleopsis dalmanni indicate the CGH results correctly identified chromosomal location in all cases. Syntenic comparison with Drosophila indicates that 90% of the X-linked genes in Teleopsis are homologous to genes located on chromosome 2L in Drosophila melanogaster, suggesting the formation of a nearly complete neo-X chromosome from Muller element B in the dipteran lineage leading to Teleopsis. Analysis of gene movement both relative to Drosophila and within Teleopsis indicates that gene movement is significantly associated with 1) rates of protein evolution, 2) the pattern of gene duplication, and 3) the evolution of eyespan sexual dimorphism. Overall, this study reveals that diopsids are a critical group for understanding the evolution of sex chromosomes within Diptera. In addition, we demonstrate that CGH is a useful technique for identifying chromosomal sex-linkage and should be applicable to other organisms with EST or partial genomic information.

  8. Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH reveals a neo-X chromosome and biased gene movement in stalk-eyed flies (genus Teleopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H Baker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal location has a significant effect on the evolutionary dynamics of genes involved in sexual dimorphism, impacting both the pattern of sex-specific gene expression and the rate of duplication and protein evolution for these genes. For nearly all non-model organisms, however, knowledge of chromosomal gene content is minimal and difficult to obtain on a genomic scale. In this study, we utilized Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH, using probes designed from EST sequence, to identify genes located on the X chromosome of four species in the stalk-eyed fly genus Teleopsis. Analysis of log(2 ratio values of female-to-male hybridization intensities from the CGH microarrays for over 3,400 genes reveals a strongly bimodal distribution that clearly differentiates autosomal from X-linked genes for all four species. Genotyping of 33 and linkage mapping of 28 of these genes in Teleopsis dalmanni indicate the CGH results correctly identified chromosomal location in all cases. Syntenic comparison with Drosophila indicates that 90% of the X-linked genes in Teleopsis are homologous to genes located on chromosome 2L in Drosophila melanogaster, suggesting the formation of a nearly complete neo-X chromosome from Muller element B in the dipteran lineage leading to Teleopsis. Analysis of gene movement both relative to Drosophila and within Teleopsis indicates that gene movement is significantly associated with 1 rates of protein evolution, 2 the pattern of gene duplication, and 3 the evolution of eyespan sexual dimorphism. Overall, this study reveals that diopsids are a critical group for understanding the evolution of sex chromosomes within Diptera. In addition, we demonstrate that CGH is a useful technique for identifying chromosomal sex-linkage and should be applicable to other organisms with EST or partial genomic information.

  9. Radiosensitivity of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhijie

    1992-11-01

    The general views on radiosensitivity of higher plants have been introduced from published references. The radiosensitivity varies with species, varieties and organs or tissues. The main factors of determining the radiosensitivity in different species are nucleus volume, chromosome volume, DNA content and endogenous compounds. The self-repair ability of DNA damage and chemical group of biological molecules, such as -SH thiohydroxy of proteins, are main factors to determine the radiosensitivity in different varieties. The moisture, oxygen, temperature radiosensitizer and protector are important external factors for radiosensitivity. Both the multiple target model and Chadwick-Leenhouts model are ideal mathematical models for describing the radiosensitivity of higher plants and the latter has more clear significance in biology

  10. Higher Education Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary of recommendations HEIs are encouraged, within the framework of their own societal context, mission, vision and strategies, to develop the aims and objectives of a Higher Education Language Policy (HELP) that allows them to implement these strategies. In this process, they may want......: As the first step in a Higher Education Language Policy, HEIs should determine the relative status and use of the languages employed in the institution, taking into consideration the answers to the following questions:  What is/are the official language(s) of the HEI?  What is/are the language...... and the level of internationalisation the HEI has or wants to have, and as a direct implication of that, what are the language proficiency levels expected from the graduates of these programme?  Given the profile of the HEI and its educational strategies, which language components are to be offered within...

  11. Position automatic determination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This book tells of method of position determination and characteristic, control method of position determination and point of design, point of sensor choice for position detector, position determination of digital control system, application of clutch break in high frequency position determination, automation technique of position determination, position determination by electromagnetic clutch and break, air cylinder, cam and solenoid, stop position control of automatic guide vehicle, stacker crane and automatic transfer control.

  12. Higher Education in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2015-01-01

    Higher education systems around the world have been undergoing fundamental changes through the last 50 years from more narrow self-sustaining universities for the elite and into mass universities, where new groups of students have been recruited and the number of students enrolled has increased...... an impact on the educational systems in Scandinavia, and what possible futures can be envisioned?...... dramatically. In adjusting to the role of being a mass educational institution, universities have been challenged on how to cope with external pressures, such as forces of globalization and international markets, increased national and international competition for students and research grants, increased...

  13. Higher engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    John Bird

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics principles required at higher engineering levelJohn Bird's approach to mathematics, based on numerous worked examples and interactive problems, is ideal for vocational students that require an advanced textbook.Theory is kept to a minimum, with the emphasis firmly placed on problem-solving skills, making this a thoroughly practical introduction to the advanced mathematics engineering that students need to master. The extensive and thorough topic coverage makes this an ideal text for upper level vocational courses. Now in

  14. Towards higher intensities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 2 weeks, commissioning of the machine protection system has advanced significantly, opening up the possibility of higher intensity collisions at 3.5 TeV. The intensity has been increased from 2 bunches of 1010 protons to 6 bunches of 2x1010 protons. Luminosities of 6x1028 cm-2s-1 have been achieved at the start of fills, a factor of 60 higher than those provided for the first collisions on 30 March.   The recent increase in LHC luminosity as recorded by the experiments. (Graph courtesy of the experiments and M. Ferro-Luzzi) To increase the luminosity further, the commissioning crews are now trying to push up the intensity of the individual proton bunches. After the successful injection of nominal intensity bunches containing 1.1x1011 protons, collisions were subsequently achieved at 450 GeV with these intensities. However, half-way through the first ramping of these nominal intensity bunches to 3.5 TeV on 15 May, a beam instability was observed, leading to partial beam loss...

  15. Teaching at higher levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Undergraduate physics programmes for the 21st century were under discussion at a recent event held in Arlington, USA, open to two or three members of the physics faculties of universities from across the whole country. The conference was organized by the American Association of Physics Teachers with co-sponsorship from the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society and Project Kaleidoscope. Among the various aims were to learn about physics departments that have successfully revitalized their undergraduate physics programmes with innovative introductory physics courses and multi-track majors programmes. Engineers and life scientists were to be asked directly how physics programmes can better serve their students, and business leaders would be speaking on how physics departments can help to prepare their students for the diverse careers that they will eventually follow. It was planned to highlight ways that departments could fulfil their responsibilities towards trainee teachers, to identify the resources needed for revitalizing a department's programme, and to develop guidelines and recommendations for a funding programme to support collaborative efforts among physics departments for carrying out the enhancements required. More details about the conference can be found on the AAPT website (see http://www.aapt.org/programs/rupc.html). Meanwhile the UK's Higher Education Funding Council has proposed a two-pronged approach to the promotion of high quality teaching and learning, as well as widening participation in higher education from 1999-2000. A total of £60m should be available to support these initiatives by the year 2001-2002. As part of this scheme the Council will invite bids from institutions to support individual academics in enhancing learning and teaching, as well as in recognition of individual excellence. As with research grants, such awards would enable staff to pursue activities such as the development of teaching materials

  16. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  17. Spiky higher genus strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Bellini, A.; Johnston, D.

    1990-10-01

    It is clear from both the non-perturbative and perturbative approaches to two-dimensional quantum gravity that a new strong coupling regime is setting in at d=1, independent of the genus of the worldsheet being considered. It has been suggested that a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase transition in the Liouville theory is the cause of this behaviour. However, it has recently been pointed out that the XY model, which displays a KT transition on the plane and the sphere, is always in the strong coupling, disordered phase on a surface of constant negative curvature. A higher genus worldsheet can be represented as a fundamental region on just such a surface, which might seem to suggest that the KT picture predicts a strong coupling region for arbitrary d, contradicting the known results. We resolve the apparent paradox. (orig.)

  18. Positive Psychology: Positive Emotions and Emotional Intelegence

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on the and emotional intelligence. We try to answer on some questions regarding the role which positive emotions have in our life’s. The broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) predicts that positive emotions are useful in several ways. They guide present behavior, by broadening one’s attention and cognition, setting the stage for creative, explorative, and innovative pursuits. As well, positive emotions build personal and social resources to help individuals achi...

  19. Learning higher mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontrjagin, Lev Semenovič

    1984-01-01

    Lev Semenovic Pontrjagin (1908) is one of the outstanding figures in 20th century mathematics. In a long career he has made fundamental con­ tributions to many branches of mathematics, both pure and applied. He has received every honor that a grateful government can bestow. Though in no way constrained to do so, he has through the years taught mathematics courses at Moscow State University. In the year 1975 he set himself the task of writing a series of books on secondary school and beginning university mathematics. In his own words, "I wished to set forth the foundations of higher mathematics in a form that would have been accessible to myself as a lad, but making use of all my experience as a scientist and a teacher, ac­ cumulated over many years. " The present volume is a translation of the first two out of four moderately sized volumes on this theme planned by Pro­ fessor Pontrjagin. The book begins at the beginning of modern mathematics, analytic ge­ ometry in the plane and 3-dimensional space. Refin...

  20. Want Positive Behavior? Use Positive Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chip; Freeman-Loftis, Babs

    2012-01-01

    Positive adult language is the professional use of words and tone of voice to enable students to learn in an engaged, active way. This includes learning social skills. To guide children toward choosing and maintaining positive behaviors, adults need to carefully choose the words and tone of voice used when speaking to them. Learning to use…