WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher ses groups

  1. Fear, Sadness and Hope: Which Emotions Maximize Impact of Anti-Tobacco Mass Media Advertisements among Lower and Higher SES Groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Sarah; Bayly, Megan; Brennan, Emily; Biener, Lois; Wakefield, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    Emotive anti-tobacco advertisements can increase quitting. Discrete emotion theories suggest evoking fear may be more effective than sadness; less research has focused on hope. A weekly cross-sectional survey of smokers and recent quitters (N = 7683) measured past-month quit attempts. The main predictor was level of exposure to four different types of anti-tobacco advertisements broadcast in the two months prior to quit attempts: advertisements predominantly evoking fear, sadness, hope, or evoking multiple negative emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, and/or sadness). Greater exposure to fear-evoking advertisements (OR = 2.16, p < .01) increased odds of making a quit attempt and showed similar effectiveness among those in lower and higher SES areas. Greater exposure to advertisements evoking multiple negative emotions increased quit attempts (OR = 1.70, p < .01), but interactions indicated this was driven by those in lower SES, but not higher SES areas. Greater exposure to hope-evoking advertisements enhanced effects of fear-evoking advertisements among those in higher SES, but not lower SES areas. Findings suggest to be maximally effective across the whole population avoid messages evoking sadness and use messages eliciting fear. If the aim is to specifically motivate those living in lower SES areas where smoking rates are higher, multiple negative emotion messages, but not hope-evoking messages, may also be effective.

  2. Job Pressure and SES-contingent Buffering: Resource Reinforcement, Substitution, or the Stress of Higher Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Jonathan; Schieman, Scott

    2015-06-01

    Analyses of the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce demonstrate that job pressure is associated with greater anxiety and job dissatisfaction. In this paper we ask, What conditions protect workers? The conventional buffering hypothesis in the Job-Demands Resource (JD-R) model predicts that job resources should attenuate the relationship. We test whether the conventional buffering hypothesis depends on socioeconomic status (SES). Support for conventional buffering is evident only for job dissatisfaction--and that generalizes across SES. When anxiety is assessed, however, we observe an SES contingency: Job resources attenuate the positive association between job pressure and anxiety among workers with lower SES, but exacerbate it among those with higher SES. We discuss the implications of this SES-contingent pattern for theoretical scenarios about "resource reinforcement," "resource substitution," and the "stress of higher status." Future research should consider SES indicators as potential contingencies in the relationship between job conditions and mental health. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  3. Higher class groups of Eichler orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xuejun; Kuku, Aderemi

    2003-11-01

    In this paper, we prove that if A is a quaternion algebra and Λ an Eichler order in A, then the only p-torsion possible in even dimensional higher class groups Cl 2n (Λ) (n ≥ 1) are for those rational primes p which lie under prime ideals of O F at which Λ are not maximal. (author)

  4. Socioeconomic (SES) differences in language are evident in female infants at 7months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Laura M; Brodsky, Nancy L; Hurt, Hallam

    2015-12-01

    Language skills, strongly linked to academic success, are known to differ by socioeconomic status (SES), with lower SES individuals performing less well than higher SES. To examine the effect of SES on infant language at 7months of age and the relationship between maternal vocabulary skills and infant language function. To determine if the relationships between SES and infant language are mediated by maternal vocabulary skills. Longitudinal follow-up of healthy term female African American infants born to mothers in two SES groups: Low SES (income-to-needs≤1, no education beyond high school) and Higher SES (Income-to-Needs >1, at least a high school diploma). 54 infants tested at 7months of age; 54 mothers tested at infant age 7months. Preschool Language Scale-5 (PLS-5), Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV. Low SES infants (n=29) performed less well than Higher SES (n=25) on PLS-5 Total Language, Auditory Comprehension, and Expressive Communication (p≤0.012). Maternal Vocabulary subtest scores were lower in Low SES than Higher SES (p=0.002), but not related to infant PLS Language scores (p≥0.17). Maternal vocabulary did not mediate the relationship between SES and infant language skills at age 7months. In this single sex and race cohort of healthy, term, female infants, lower SES exerted negative effects on infant language by 7months of age. While maternal vocabulary scores showed no relation with infant language skills at 7months, continued study of the relations between SES, infant outcomes and maternal characteristics is needed to determine how low SES conditions impact early language. These findings underscore the importance of early interventions, as well as policies designed to improve socioeconomic conditions for infants and families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pathways Linking Childhood SES and Adult Health Behaviors and Psychological Resources in Black and White Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Cundiff, Jenny M; Jakubowski, Karen P; Pardini, Dustin A; Matthews, Karen A

    2018-03-13

    Exposure to low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood predicts increased morbidity and mortality. However, little prospective evidence is available to test pathways linking low childhood SES to adult health. In the current study, indirect effects through positive parenting in adolescence and adult SES were tested in the association between childhood SES and adult health behaviors and psychological resources. Men (n = 305; 53% Black) were followed longitudinally from ages 7 to 32. SES was measured annually in childhood (ages 7-9) and again in adulthood (age 32) using the Hollingshead index. Parenting was assessed annually (ages 13-16) using caregivers' and boys' self-report of supervision, communication, and expectations for their son's future. Health behaviors (cigarette and alcohol use, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity) and psychological resources (optimism, purpose in life, self-mastery, and self-esteem) were assessed in adulthood (age 32). Structural equation modeling showed that higher childhood SES was associated with more positive parenting in adolescence and higher adult SES. Higher childhood SES was indirectly associated with healthier behaviors and higher psychological resources in adulthood through pathways involving positive parenting during adolescence and SES in adulthood. Findings were consistent in both racial groups. Positive parenting in adolescence was an important pathway in understanding associations among childhood SES and health behaviors and psychological resources in adulthood. Low childhood SES was prospectively associated with healthier behaviors and greater psychological resources in part through more positive parenting in adolescence.

  6. SES2D user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.D.; Lyon, S.P.

    1982-04-01

    SES2D is an interactive graphics code designed to generate plots of equation of state data from the Los Alamos National Laboratory Group T-4 computer libraries. This manual discusses the capabilities of the code. It describes the prompts and commands and illustrates their use with a sample run

  7. Syndrome Evaluation System (SES) versus Blood Culture (BACTEC) in the Diagnosis and Management of Neonatal Sepsis--A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, B Vishnu; Prasad, P; Ravi Kumar, Venkata Banda; Harish, B N; Krishnakumari, K; Rekha, Anand; Manjunath, G; Adhisivam, B; Shruthi, B

    2016-05-01

    To compare the clinical outcome of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based molecular diagnostic method -- Syndrome Evaluation System (SES) directed treatment strategy vs. standard of care (blood culture) directed treatment strategy for neonatal sepsis. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) included 385 neonates with sepsis who were randomized into two groups -- SES and control (BACTEC). Both tests were performed for all the neonates. However, in the SES group, the results of SES test were revealed to the treating clinicians, while in the control group, SES results were withheld. Two ml of blood was drawn from each baby. One aliquot was sent for blood culture, whereas the remaining aliquot was sent for SES. Babies were then administered empirical IV antibiotics and given supportive care. Further antibiotic changes, if required were done in SES and control groups based on their respective reports. The microbiological profile, immediate outcome, duration of hospital stay, number of antibiotics used and readmission within a month in both groups were compared. SES was better than BACTEC in identifying the causative organism in both the groups (68 % vs. 18 % in SES group and 72 % vs. 18 % in control group). SES had 100 % concordance with blood culture by BACTEC. Detection of bacteria and fungi were four and ten-fold higher respectively with SES when compared to BACTEC culture. Microbiological diagnosis was rapid with SES compared to BACTEC (7 h vs. 72 h). Treatment based on SES resulted in significantly less mortality (3 % vs. 18 %). Readmission rate, duration of hospital stay and change in antibiotics were also significantly less in SES group. This new molecular based diagnostic system (SES) helps in rapid and accurate diagnosis of neonatal sepsis and reduces mortality and morbidity in affected neonates.

  8. Gender-heterogeneous working groups produce higher quality science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley G Campbell

    Full Text Available Here we present the first empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that a gender-heterogeneous problem-solving team generally produced journal articles perceived to be higher quality by peers than a team comprised of highly-performing individuals of the same gender. Although women were historically underrepresented as principal investigators of working groups, their frequency as PIs at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis is now comparable to the national frequencies in biology and they are now equally qualified, in terms of their impact on the accumulation of ecological knowledge (as measured by the h-index. While women continue to be underrepresented as working group participants, peer-reviewed publications with gender-heterogeneous authorship teams received 34% more citations than publications produced by gender-uniform authorship teams. This suggests that peers citing these publications perceive publications that also happen to have gender-heterogeneous authorship teams as higher quality than publications with gender uniform authorship teams. Promoting diversity not only promotes representation and fairness but may lead to higher quality science.

  9. Gender-heterogeneous working groups produce higher quality science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lesley G; Mehtani, Siya; Dozier, Mary E; Rinehart, Janice

    2013-01-01

    Here we present the first empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that a gender-heterogeneous problem-solving team generally produced journal articles perceived to be higher quality by peers than a team comprised of highly-performing individuals of the same gender. Although women were historically underrepresented as principal investigators of working groups, their frequency as PIs at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis is now comparable to the national frequencies in biology and they are now equally qualified, in terms of their impact on the accumulation of ecological knowledge (as measured by the h-index). While women continue to be underrepresented as working group participants, peer-reviewed publications with gender-heterogeneous authorship teams received 34% more citations than publications produced by gender-uniform authorship teams. This suggests that peers citing these publications perceive publications that also happen to have gender-heterogeneous authorship teams as higher quality than publications with gender uniform authorship teams. Promoting diversity not only promotes representation and fairness but may lead to higher quality science.

  10. "Low Income Doesn't Mean Stupid and Destined for Failure": Challenging the Deficit Discourse around Students from Low SES Backgrounds in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Jade; Devlin, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The discourse around students from low socio-economic backgrounds often adopts a deficit conception in which these students are seen as a "problem" in higher education. In light of recent figures pointing to an increase in the number and proportion of these students participating in higher education [Pitman, T. 2014. "More Students…

  11. Telematic Tools to Support Group Projects in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Johan (CTIT); Collis, Betty

    We describe ongoing evaluations and new research on the use of telematic tools to support project work in higher education. Practical experience at our University has shown that project work can be implemented using the World Wide Web for many aspects of the project activities. The possibilities

  12. Telematic tools to support group projects in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Johan (CTIT); Collis, Betty; Muldner, T.; Reeves, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    We describe ongoing evaluations and new research on the use of telematic tools to support project work in higher education. Practical experience at our University has shown that project work can be implemented using the World Wide Web for many aspects of the project activities. The possibilities

  13. Group Playing by Ear in Higher Education: The Processes That Support Imitation, Invention and Group Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how group playing by ear (GEP) through imitation of recorded material and opportunities for inventive work during peer interaction was used to support first year undergraduate western classical music students' aural, group creativity and improvisation skills. The framework that emerged from the analysis of the data describes…

  14. Comparison of Higher Fashion Involvement Group and Lower Fashion Involvement Group in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yu-Chiao

    2013-01-01

    Fashion collaboration becomes a common marketing strategy for many fashion brands in order to attract consumers’ attentions and stand out from competitors. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the formation of consumers’ attitudes toward fashion collaboration. First, it intends to distinguish different types of consumers, which are higher fashion involvement and lower fashion involvement. Second, by utiliseing four different variables, which are prior attitudes, product fit, brand, ...

  15. Stress at work: Differential experiences of high versus low SES workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaske, Sarah; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Smyth, Joshua M

    2016-05-01

    This paper asks whether workers with higher socioeconomic status (SES) experience different levels of stress at work than workers with lower SES and, if so, what might explain these differences. We collected innovative assessments of immediate objective and subjective measures of stress at multiple time points across consecutive days from 122 employed men and women. We find that in comparison to higher SES individuals, those with lower SES reported greater happiness at work, less self-reported stress, and less perceived stress; cortisol, a biological marker of stress, was unrelated to SES. Worker's momentary perceptions of the workplace were predicted by SES, with higher SES individuals more commonly reporting feeling unable to meet work demands, fewer work resources, and less positive work appraisals. In turn, perceptions of the workplace had a generally consistent and robust effect on positive mood, subjective stress, and cortisol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of mitigation evidence, ethnicity, and SES on death penalty decisions by European American and Latino venire persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Russ K E; Willis-Esqueda, Cynthia

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine whether European American and Latino mock jurors would demonstrate bias in death penalty decision making when mitigation evidence and defendant ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) were varied. A total of 561 actual venire persons acted as mock jurors and read a trial transcript that varied a defendant's case information (mitigating circumstances: strong/weak, defendant ethnicity: European American/Latino, and defendant SES: low/high). European American jurors recommended the death penalty significantly more often for the low SES Latino defendant when strength of mitigation evidence was weak. In addition, they also assigned this defendant higher culpability ratings and lower ratings on positive personality trait measures compared with all other conditions. Strong mitigation evidence contributed to lower guilt ratings by European American jurors for the high SES European American defendant. Latino jurors did not differ in their death penalty sentencing across defendant mitigation, ethnicity, or SES conditions. Discussion of in-group favoritism and out-group derogation, as well as suggestions for procedures to diminish juror bias in death penalty cases, is provided. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Conflict Management in Student Groups - a Teacher’s Perspective in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Borg; Joakim Kembro; Jesper Notander; Catarina Petersson; Lars Ohlsson

    2011-01-01

    Students working in groups is a commonly used method of instruction in higher education, popularized by the introduction of problem based learning. As a result, management of small groups of people has become an important skill for teachers. The objective of our study is to investigate why conflicts arise in student groups at the Faculty of Engineering at Lund University and how teachers manage them. We have conducted an exploratory interdepartmental interview study on teachers' views on this...

  18. Learning Groups in MOOCs: Lessons for Online Learning in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Mayende

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available when there is interaction within online learning groups, meaningful learning is achieved. Motivating and sustaining effective student interactions requires planning, coordination and implementation of curriculum, pedagogy and technology. For our aim to understand online learning group processes to identify effective online learning group mechanisms, comparative analysis was used on a massive open online course (MOOC run in 2015 and 2016. Qualitative (interaction on the platform and quantitative (survey methods were used. The findings revealed several possible ways to improve online learning group processes. This paper concludes that course organization helped in increasing individual participation in the groups. Motivation by peers helped to increase sustainability of interaction in the learning groups. Applying these mechanisms in higher education can make online learning groups more effective.

  19. Filipino students' reported parental socialization of academic achievement by socioeconomic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Allan B I

    2009-10-01

    Academic achievement of students differs by socioeconomic group. Parents' socialization of academic achievement in their children was explored in self-reports of 241 students from two socioeconomic status (SES) groups in the Philippines, using a scale developed by Bempechat, et al. Students in the upper SES group had higher achievement than their peers in the middle SES group, but had lower scores on most dimensions of parental socialization of academic achievement. Regression analyses indicate that reported parental attempts to encourage more effort to achieve was associated with lower achievement in students with upper SES.

  20. Esforço tecnológico da indústria de transformação brasileira: uma comparação com países selecionados Technical efforts of the Brazilian transformation industry: a comparison with a group of OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Ferrero Zucoloto

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa o esforço tecnológico da indústria de transformação brasileira, em comparação a um grupo de países da OECD. As principais conclusões são: (a o esforço tecnológico industrial nacional é limitado em comparação ao realizado pelos países selecionados; (b essa performance é válida para a maior parte dos setores nacionais; (c essa diferença é mais significativa entre setores intensivos em tecnologia: produtos químicos, eletrônicos e informática; (d a diferença entre a estrutura produtiva brasileira e das nações da OCDE também é responsável pelo baixo esforço tecnológico realizado pela indústria de transformação, porém com menor intensidade; (e foi identificada uma correlação positiva entre esforço tecnológico relativo e desempenho comercial, e uma correlação negativa entre esforço tecnológico relativo e contROLe estrangeiro na receita operacional líquida.This paper analyses technological efforts of Brazilian industry in comparison with a group of OECD countries. The main conclusions are: (a technological effort of Brazilian industry are lower than the effort implemented in OECD countries; (b this is true for most industrial sectors; (c this difference is higher in technology-intensive sectors: chemicals, electronics and computers; (d the difference between Brazilian and OECD productive structure is also responsible for the relatively low technological effort of Brazilian industry; (e there is a positive correlation between relative technological effort and commercial performance and a negative correlation between relative technological effort and foreign contROL in operational revenue.

  1. Exploring Peer Relationships, Friendships and Group Work Dynamics in Higher Education: Applying Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamas, Christoforos

    2018-01-01

    This study primarily applied social network analysis (SNA) to explore the relationship between friendships, peer social interactions and group work dynamics within a higher education undergraduate programme in England. A critical case study design was adopted so as to allow for an in-depth exploration of the students' voice. In doing so, the views…

  2. Peer Group Mentoring Programmes in Finnish Higher Education--Mentors' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaniakos, Terhi; Penttinen, Leena; Lairio, Marjatta

    2014-01-01

    Peer mentoring is one of the most important guidance practices for first-year students entering higher education and academic life. We are interested in mentors' roles and apply the ideas of group counseling in order to increase the understanding of peer mentoring. Other aspects of guidance--content, methods, and collaboration--are approached on…

  3. Compensatory Policies Attending Equality and Inequality in Mexico Educational Practice among Vulnerable Groups in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, René Pedroza; Monroy, Guadalupe Villalobos; Fabela, Ana María Reyes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an estimate of the prevalence of social inequality in accessing higher education among vulnerable groups in Mexico. Estimates were determined from statistical data provided by governmental agencies on the level of poverty among the Mexican population. In Mexico, the conditions of poverty and vulnerability while trying to access…

  4. Collaborative learning in higher education : design, implementation and evaluation of group learning activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hei, de M.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    In higher education, group learning activities (GLAs) are frequently implemented in online, blended or face-to-face educational contexts. A major problem for the design and implementation of good quality GLAs that lead to the desired learning outcomes is that many approaches to GLAs have been

  5. Group Decision Making in Higher Education Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Matthew J.; Nydick, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to group decision-making and evaluation situations in higher education. The approach is illustrated by (1) evaluation of academic research papers at Villanova University (Pennsylvania), and (2) a suggested adaptation for the more complex problem of institutionwide strategic planning.…

  6. Multicultural student group work in higher education: a study on challenges as perceived by students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov, V.; Brinkman, B.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Mulder, M.; Kuznetsov, A.M.; Noroozi, O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine challenges that are inherent in multicultural student group work (MCSG) in higher education and the differences between students from different cultural backgrounds in how they perceive the importance of challenges in MCSG. For this purpose, a 19-item survey was completed

  7. Ability Grouping's Effects on Grades and the Attainment of Higher Education: A Natural Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygren, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    To test the effect of ability grouping on grades and the attainment of higher education, this study examines a naturally occurring experiment--an admission reform that dramatically increased ability sorting between schools in the municipality of Stockholm. Following six cohorts of students (N = 79,020) from the age of 16 to 26, I find a mean…

  8. Web Environments for Group-Based Project Work in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andernach, J.A.; van Diepen, N.M.; Collis, Betty; Andernach, Toine

    1997-01-01

    We discuss problems confronting the use of group-based project work as an instructional strategy in higher education and describe two courses in which course-specific World Wide Web (Web) environments have evolved over a series of course sequences and are used both as tool environments for

  9. Incorporating social groups' responses in a descriptive model for second- and higher-order impact identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutheerawatthana, Pitch; Minato, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    The response of a social group is a missing element in the formal impact assessment model. Previous discussion of the involvement of social groups in an intervention has mainly focused on the formation of the intervention. This article discusses the involvement of social groups in a different way. A descriptive model is proposed by incorporating a social group's response into the concept of second- and higher-order effects. The model is developed based on a cause-effect relationship through the observation of phenomena in case studies. The model clarifies the process by which social groups interact with a lower-order effect and then generate a higher-order effect in an iterative manner. This study classifies social groups' responses into three forms-opposing, modifying, and advantage-taking action-and places them in six pathways. The model is expected to be used as an analytical tool for investigating and identifying impacts in the planning stage and as a framework for monitoring social groups' responses during the implementation stage of a policy, plan, program, or project (PPPPs).

  10. Nominal Group Technique and its Applications in Managing Quality in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafikul Islam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality management is an important aspect in all kinds of businesses – manufacturing or service. Idea generation plays a pivotal role in managing quality in organizations. It is thenew and innovative ideas which can help corporations to survive in the turbulent business environment. Research in group dynamics has shown that more ideas are generated by individuals working alone but in a group environment than the individuals engaged in a formal group discussion. In Nominal Group Technique (NGT, individuals work alone but in a group setting. This paper shows how NGT can be applied to generate large number of ideas to solve quality related problems specifically in Malaysian higher education setting. The paper also discusses the details of NGT working procedure andexplores the areas of its further applications.

  11. Le Valais et ses Reines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Campi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Combat de ReinesAu premier plan (la corde dans la main, un propriétaire de vaches. Dans l'arène se trouve le rabatteur. Les Reines sur la photo sont des reines de première catégorie (ainsi que le montre le « I » sur leur cuisse .Dimanche 6 mai 2012, « Schakira », la vache numéro 42, a gagné, non sans polémique, le titre de Reine. Elle peut donc être considérée comme la Reine des Reines, titre qu’elle a gagné en se battant contre ses rivales dans différents combats, qui ont commencé pour Sch...

  12. Appraisal of Students Experience Survey (SES) as a Measure to Manage the Quality of Higher Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Institutional Study Using Six Sigma Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kuwaiti, Ahmed; Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Students' Evaluating Teaching Effectiveness is one of the most widely accepted methods of measuring the Quality of Higher Education worldwide. The University of Dammam is currently performing several evaluations by students as required for academic accreditation by the National Commission for Academic Accreditation and Assessment. Of these, two of…

  13. Adaptive grouping for the higher-order multilevel fast multipole method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An alternative parameter-free adaptive approach for the grouping of the basis function patterns in the multilevel fast multipole method is presented, yielding significant memory savings compared to the traditional Octree grouping for most discretizations, particularly when using higher-order basis...... functions. Results from both a uniformly and nonuniformly meshed scatterer are presented, showing how the technique is worthwhile even for regular meshes, and demonstrating that there is no loss of accuracy in spite of the large reduction in memory requirements and the relatively low computational cost....

  14. Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoble, Naomi B.; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Hossain, Md Jobayer

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a complex construct of multiple indicators, known to impact cancer outcomes, but has not been adequately examined among pediatric AML patients. This study aimed to identify the patterns of co-occurrence of multiple community-level SES indicators and to explore associations between various patterns of these indicators and pediatric AML mortality risk. A nationally representative US sample of 3,651 pediatric AML patients, aged 0–19 years at diagnosis was drawn from 17 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database registries created between 1973 and 2012. Factor analysis, cluster analysis, stratified univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used. Four SES factors accounting for 87% of the variance in SES indicators were identified: F1) economic/educational disadvantage, less immigration; F2) immigration-related features (foreign-born, language-isolation, crowding), less mobility F3) housing instability; and, F4) absence of moving. F1 and F3 showed elevated risk of mortality, adjusted hazards ratios (aHR) (95% CI): 1.07(1.02–1.12) and 1.05(1.00–1.10), respectively. Seven SES-defined cluster groups were identified. Cluster 1: (low economic/educational disadvantage, few immigration-related features, and residential-stability) showed the minimum risk of mortality. Compared to Cluster 1, Cluster 3: (high economic/educational disadvantage, high-mobility) and Cluster 6: (moderately-high economic/educational disadvantages, housing-instability and immigration-related features) exhibited substantially greater risk of mortality, aHR(95% CI) = 1.19(1.0–1.4) and 1.23 (1.1–1.5), respectively. Factors of correlated SES-indicators and their pattern-based groups demonstrated differential risks in the pediatric AML mortality indicating the need of special public-health attention in areas with economic-educational disadvantages, housing-instability and immigration-related features. PMID:27543948

  15. Conflict Management in Student Groups - a Teacher’s Perspective in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Borg

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Students working in groups is a commonly used method of instruction in higher education, popularized by the introduction of problem based learning. As a result, management of small groups of people has become an important skill for teachers. The objective of our study is to investigate why conflicts arise in student groups at the Faculty of Engineering at Lund University and how teachers manage them. We have conducted an exploratory interdepartmental interview study on teachers' views on this matter, interviewing ten university teachers with different levels of seniority. Our results show that conflicts frequently arise in group work, most commonly caused by different levels of ambition among students. We also found that teachers prefer to work proactively against conflicts and stress the student’s responsibility. Finally, we show that teachers at our faculty tend to avoid the more drastic conflict resolution strategies suggested by previous research. The outcome of our study could be used as input to future guidelines on conflict management in student groups.

  16. Entanglement Properties of a Higher-Integer-Spin AKLT Model with Quantum Group Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikashi Arita

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the entanglement properties of a higher-integer-spin Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki model with quantum group symmetry in the periodic boundary condition. We exactly calculate the finite size correction terms of the entanglement entropies from the double scaling limit. We also evaluate the geometric entanglement, which serves as another measure for entanglement. We find the geometric entanglement reaches its maximum at the isotropic point, and decreases with the increase of the anisotropy. This behavior is similar to that of the entanglement entropies.

  17. 78 FR 60321 - SES Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ...: Emily T. Carroll, Chief, Human Resources Division, Office of Administration, National Transportation... accordance with regulations prescribed by the Office of Personnel Management, one or more SES Performance... Strategic Employee and Organizational Development, Department of the Interior. David L. Mayer, Managing...

  18. 76 FR 70169 - SES Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ...: Emily T. Carroll, Chief, Human Resources Division, Office of Administration, National Transportation..., in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Office of Personnel Management, one or more SES... and Space Administration. Jerold Gidner, Deputy Director, Office of Strategic Employee and...

  19. Using Multiple-hierarchy Stratification and Life Course Approaches to Understand Health Inequalities: The Intersecting Consequences of Race, Gender, SES, and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tyson H; Richardson, Liana J; Hargrove, Taylor W; Thomas, Courtney S

    2016-06-01

    This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  20. Adding to the mix: Students use of Facebook groups and blackboard discussion forums in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Kent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a case study of the use of Facebook in learning and teaching in higher education. Facebook was used as a venue for online discussion to support the existing Learning Management System (in this case Blackboard in the unit Internet Collaboration and Organisation as part of the Internet Communications degree taught fully online through Open Universities Australia (OUA. Students’ posts to both Facebook and the Blackboard discussion forum were analysed for content, length, and when throughout the study period they were posted. This is significant as much of the previous work in this area has relied on students self-reporting, rather than direct observation of student behaviour. These results were then compared to earlier instances of the same unit that ran within the previous twelve months, one fully online with OUA only using the Blackboard discussion group, and a second taught at Curtin University with both blended learning for students at the University’s Bentley campus as well as fully online for external students, that utilised both Blackboard and Facebook. The results show that Facebook greatly increases the level of student activity in online discussions, both absolutely and in the level of sustained activity across the unit’s study period. Facebook groups also had a different pattern of content from Blackboard. In Blackboard discussion is more focused on the set unit learning content, in Facebook students were using the groups to discuss administration and assignments and also bring in additional material from outside the units set learning materials. Facebook posts, while more sustained over the semester, were shorter in length. This study found that the addition of a Facebook discussion forum does not noticeably impact on the use of Blackboard’s discussion forum, but rather adds a new dimension to the mix of online interaction. The paper concludes that there is value in using both of these forums for student

  1. GPP Webinar: Solar Utilization in Higher Education Networking & Information Sharing Group: Financing Issues Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation from a Solar Utilization in Higher Education Networking and Information webinar covers financing and project economics issues related to solar project development in the higher education sector.

  2. A lunguistica pour ses quarante ans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvik Horvat Le Doyen

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available En tant que doyen de la Faculté des Lettres de l'Universite de Ljubljana, j'ai l'honneur d'introduire le volume qui celebre les quarante ans de publication de cette revue linguistique. La parution de la revue conçua à l' origine comme supplàment pour la linguistique non slave de la revue Slavistična revija (dont la renommée était déjà affirmée, eut lieu en 1958. Ses inspirateurs, ses fondateurs et ses premiers directeurs, auxquels nous gardons une profonde reconnaissance, furent l'italianiste Stanko Škerlj et le latiniste Milan Grošelj, professeurs de notre Faculté. Des sa quatrieme année ce modeste supplement devint revue autonome, telle que nous la connaissons aujourd'hui.

  3. Infant SES as a predictor of personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although research into the continuity and change of personality traits during a lifespan has been fairly extensive, little research has been conducted on childhood predictors of adult personality. PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the association between infant socioeconomic status (SES......), and Eysenck personality traits in adulthood. An additional aim was to investigate whether intelligence and education may mediate this association. METHODS: SES of 9125 children in the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort was recorded at a 1-year examination. A subsample of this cohort, comprising 1182 individuals......, participated in a follow-up at 20-34 years and was administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) which includes measures of neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism and the so-called lie-scale. Associations of SES with each of the four personality traits were analysed by bivariate and partial...

  4. Group work in higher education: a mismanaged evil or a potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theoretically speaking, group work has a wealth of potential to offer to the lecturer and the learner. The complexity of the phenomenon leaves the lecturer with no choice but to take great care in the use of group work. The fact that group work is not viewed as a mismanaged evil leaves the door open for further use of this ...

  5. Who Benefits from Group Work in Higher Education? An Attachment Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Shiri

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have pointed to the benefits of learning in groups. However, surprisingly little research has been conducted regarding what role relationship-related personality traits play in the effectiveness of this kind of student learning. Such personality factor can potentially buffer the students' effectiveness in groups. The present study…

  6. Effect of Group Work on EFL Students' Attitudes and Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taqi, Hanan A.; Al-Nouh, Nowreyah A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of group work in classroom activities is a method used for motivating learning and increasing the idea of pleasure through learning. The current study investigates the advantages of group work in exams in the English department, in the College of Basic Education. 40 students in two classes of "The Introduction of Phonetics and…

  7. Cardiovascular disease and ABO blood-groups in Africans. Are blood-group A individuals at higher risk of ischemic disease?: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Djibril Marie; Sow, Mamadou Saidou; Diack, Aminata; Dia, Khadidiatou; Mboup, Mouhamed Cherif; Fall, Pape Diadie; Fall, Moussa Daouda

    2017-12-01

    Since the discovery of the ABO blood group system by Karl Landsteiner in 1901, several reports have suggested an important involvement of the ABO blood group system in the susceptibility to thrombosis. Assessing that non-O blood groups in particular A blood group confer a higher risk of venous and arterial thrombosis than group O.Epidemiologic data are typically not available for all racial and ethnics groups.The purpose of this pilot study was to identify a link between ABO blood group and ischemic disease (ID) in Africans, and to analyze whether A blood group individuals were at higher risk of ischemic disease or not. A total of 299 medical records of patients over a three-year period admitted to the cardiology and internal medicine department of military hospital of Ouakam in Senegal were reviewed. We studied data on age, gender, past history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking, sedentarism, obesity, hyperlipidemia, use of estrogen-progestin contraceptives and blood group distribution.In each blood group type, we evaluated the prevalence of ischemic and non-ischemic cardiovascular disease. The medical records were then stratified into two categories to evaluate incidence of ischemic disease: Group 1: Patients carrying blood-group A and Group 2: Patients carrying blood group non-A (O, AB and B). Of the 299 patients whose medical records were reviewed, 92 (30.8%) were carrying blood group A, 175 (58.5%) had blood group O, 13 (4.3%) had blood group B, and 19 (6.4%) had blood group AB.The diagnosis of ischemic disease (ID) was higher in patients with blood group A (61.2%) than in other blood groups, and the diagnosis of non-ischemic disease (NID) was higher in patients with blood group O (73.6%) compared to other groups. In patients with blood group B or AB compared to non-B or non-AB, respectively there was no statistically significant difference in ID incidence.Main risk factor for ID was smoking (56.5%), hypertension (18.4%) and diabetes (14.3%).In our study

  8. School Choice Options Limit Access to Higher Education for Various Groups of Students in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, Julie; Gaudreault, Marco; Picard, France

    2017-01-01

    The choice of selected school options by pupils in secondary school, particularly mathematics and physical sciences, have implications for future educational pathways in higher education [Felouzis, G. (1997). "L'efficacité des enseignants, Sociologie de la relation pédagogique." Paris: Presses Universitaires de France; Moreau, G. (2005).…

  9. E-Learning in Higher Education: Focus Groups and Survey among Students in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuševljak, Marko; Majcen, Lucija; Mervar, Lara; Stepankina, Taisiya; Cater, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Despite a great deal of time and energy went into digitalisation of the world around us, education has been lagging behind. A question therefore arises to what extent higher education institutions should introduce e-learning as part of their programmes. The purpose of this study is to add to the body of knowledge on e-learning by examining…

  10. Small Group Teaching in Undergraduate Science. Higher Education Learning Project (h.e.l.p.) - Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogborn, Jon, Ed.; And Others

    While this book is focused primarily on the tutorials held in the British universities, it offers many insights that can improve the teaching in the discussion sections so common in our large universities. Introductions to analyses of group processes of technical language, and of questions are given. Lesson plans for skill building sessions are…

  11. Cooperative Learning in Higher Education: Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Undergraduates' Reflections on Group Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Bobbette M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to share reflections from 140 non-Hispanic undergraduate students and 83 Hispanic students who have participated in cooperative written examinations for group grades. Reflections are clustered by themes identified from the students' comments using Van Manen's (1990) hermeneutic phenomonological approach, which is how…

  12. SES, Chronic Kidney Disease, and Race in the U.S. : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vart, Priya; van Zon, Sander K. R.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bültmann, Ute; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2017-01-01

    Context: The risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the U.S. is higher in individuals with low SES than in those with high SES. However, differences in these risks between African Americans and whites are unclear. Evidence acquisition: Studies published through August 30, 2016 in Medline and EMBASE

  13. Postnatal Growth Patterns in a Chilean Cohort: The Role of SES and Family Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang Sim, D. E.; Cappiello, M.; Castillo, M.; Lozoff, B.; Martinez, S.; Blanco, E.; Gahagan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study examined how family environmental characteristics served as mediators in the relationship between socioeconomic conditions and infant growth in a cohort of Chilean infants. Methods. We studied 999 infants, born between 1991 and 1996, from a longitudinal cohort which began as an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial. SES (Graffar Index), the Life Experiences Survey, and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) were assessed in infancy. Using path analysis, we assessed the relationships between the social factors, home environment, and infant growth. Results. During the first year, weight and length gain averaged 540 grams/month and 6.5 cm/month, respectively. In the path analysis model for weight gain, higher SES and a better physical environment were positively related to higher maternal warmth, which in turn was associated with higher average weight gain. Higher SES was directly related to higher average length gain. Conclusions. In our cohort, a direct relationship between SES and length gain developed during infancy. Higher SES was indirectly related to infant weight gain through the home environment and maternal warmth. As the fastest growing infants are at risk for later obesity, new strategies are needed to encourage optimal rather than maximal growth. PMID:22666275

  14. Postnatal Growth Patterns in a Chilean Cohort: The Role of SES and Family Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Kang Sim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined how family environmental characteristics served as mediators in the relationship between socioeconomic conditions and infant growth in a cohort of Chilean infants. Methods. We studied 999 infants, born between 1991 and 1996, from a longitudinal cohort which began as an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial. SES (Graffar Index, the Life Experiences Survey, and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME were assessed in infancy. Using path analysis, we assessed the relationships between the social factors, home environment, and infant growth. Results. During the first year, weight and length gain averaged 540 grams/month and 6.5 cm/month, respectively. In the path analysis model for weight gain, higher SES and a better physical environment were positively related to higher maternal warmth, which in turn was associated with higher average weight gain. Higher SES was directly related to higher average length gain. Conclusions. In our cohort, a direct relationship between SES and length gain developed during infancy. Higher SES was indirectly related to infant weight gain through the home environment and maternal warmth. As the fastest growing infants are at risk for later obesity, new strategies are needed to encourage optimal rather than maximal growth.

  15. Le Feu et ses Usages Militaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finó, J. F.

    1970-12-01

    Full Text Available LE feu a toujours été une arme puissante. L'homme préhistorique, les Assyriens, les Grecs, les Byzantins, les Arabes, les bombes incendiaires de notre aviation, autant d'exemples de son usage militaire dans des pays et des temps fort divers. De plus, une de ses variantes, le feu grégeois pulvérulent, a été à l'origine de la poudre à canon. Il a donc paru intéressant de rassembler quelques données à ce sujet et de rappeler briévement la production des feux de guerre, leur lancement et la défense contre ses effets. Accessoirement, de dire quelques mots sur une autre branche de la chimie de guerre: les gaz asphyxiants.

  16. Peer mentored teams to support undergraduate group work in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinderey, Lynn Elizabeth

    This research starts with a set of practical research questions to investigate a problem which occurs in some computing undergraduate modules that use group work as part of the learning and assessment strategy. In this study final year students with experience in information systems project work and trained in team processes met with small groups of first year computing students with the aim of turning the first year project group into a team. This study seeks to explore the experience of the final year students as they take on the role of peer tutor looking at the problems they perceive within the first year teams and the skills and knowledge they use to help them. The study includes the recruitment and training of final year students (n=9) and allocation to first year teams. The final year students acted as co-researchers and team leaders in L4 Information Systems project work and recorded their thoughts and observations in a diary during the first semester of 2008/9 academic year. Diary data was supplemented by interview data from a sample of final year students (n=4). The sample was selected based on the richness of the data provided in the diaries and the number of meetings held with their teams. Rich data and thick descriptions were essential for a phenomenological examination of the experience of the final year students. A number of findings emerged. A critical approach to analysis revealed ongoing conflicts occurred across cultural divides within the first year teams that final year leaders did not articulate or appear fully aware of. This had important implications for individual team members. Other findings which relate to issues of changing levels of motivation in the teams over the ten weeks, roles adopted by the leaders, ability to systematize the project or team processes and the ability to reflect on unsuccessful strategies also had implications for peer mentoring training and support. The picture that emerged from the data suggested that lack of

  17. Fucoidan cytotoxicity against human breast cancer T47D cell line increases with higher level of sulfate ester group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saepudin, Endang; Alfita Qosthalani, Fildzah; Sinurat, Ellya

    2018-01-01

    The anticancer activity of different sulfate ester group content in different molecular weight was examined. The anticancer activity was achieved in vitro on human breast cancer T47D cell line. Fucoidan with lower molecular weight (5.79 kDa) tends to have lower sulfate ester group content (8.69%) and resulted in higher IC50 value (184.22 μg/mL). While fucoidan with higher molecular weight (785.12 kDa) tends to have higher sulfate level (18.63%) and achieved lower IC50 value (75.69 μg/mL). The result showed that in order to maintain fucoidan cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer T47D cell line, the sulfate content should be remain high. Keywords: fucoidan, sulfate ester group, human breast cancer

  18. The Problem Analysis of Existing FSES of Higher Education for the Enlarged Group of Specialties"the Service and Tourism"

    OpenAIRE

    Marina A. Maznichenko; Nataliya I. Neskoromnykh

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of aspect analysis of the current federal state educational standards of higher education for the enlarged group of specialties"Service and tourism". There are analyzed the conformity of educational standards of higher education to the requirements of employers, the requirements for development results, to the structure and terms of realization of educational programs of undergraduate/graduate. The authors outline the key problems for each aspect, also identif...

  19. The Web as process tool and product environment for group-based project work in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Andernach, Toine; van Diepen, N.M.; Maurer, Hermann

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses problems confronting the use of group-based project work as an instructional strategy in higher education, and describes two technical courses (i.e., courses in online learning and applications of business information technology) at the University of Twente (Netherlands) in

  20. International Conference SES 2006. Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The International Conference SES 2006 (Secure Energy Supply, Bezpecna dodavka energie) was realised in Bratislava, during September 26 - 29, 2006 in the hotel Crowne Plaza and deals with most important problems of world and Slovak energetics. In work of Conference took part 108 slovak and 33 foreign participant from 11 countries of the world. Negotiations were realised in five sessions. First two days were devoted to lectures and second two days were visits of selected slovak energetic equipment. On the Conference has resounded matter of fact, that secure energy supply is extremely important subject for economy, but also for population

  1. A large-scale examination of the effectiveness of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences in higher education assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Hinton

    Full Text Available The present research aims to more fully explore the issues of performance differences in higher education assessment, particularly in the context of a common measure taken to address them. The rationale for the study is that, while performance differences in written examinations are relatively well researched, few studies have examined the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing these performance differences, particularly in modern student populations. By examining a large archive (N = 30674 of assessment data spanning a twelve-year period, the relationship between assessment marks and factors such as ethnic group, gender and socio-environmental background was investigated. In particular, analysis focused on the impact that the implementation of anonymous marking for assessment of written examinations and coursework has had on the magnitude of mean score differences between demographic groups of students. While group differences were found to be pervasive in higher education assessment, these differences were observed to be relatively small in practical terms. Further, it appears that the introduction of anonymous marking has had a negligible effect in reducing them. The implications of these results are discussed, focusing on two issues, firstly a defence of examinations as a fair and legitimate form of assessment in Higher Education, and, secondly, a call for the re-examination of the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences.

  2. A large-scale examination of the effectiveness of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences in higher education assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Daniel P; Higson, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The present research aims to more fully explore the issues of performance differences in higher education assessment, particularly in the context of a common measure taken to address them. The rationale for the study is that, while performance differences in written examinations are relatively well researched, few studies have examined the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing these performance differences, particularly in modern student populations. By examining a large archive (N = 30674) of assessment data spanning a twelve-year period, the relationship between assessment marks and factors such as ethnic group, gender and socio-environmental background was investigated. In particular, analysis focused on the impact that the implementation of anonymous marking for assessment of written examinations and coursework has had on the magnitude of mean score differences between demographic groups of students. While group differences were found to be pervasive in higher education assessment, these differences were observed to be relatively small in practical terms. Further, it appears that the introduction of anonymous marking has had a negligible effect in reducing them. The implications of these results are discussed, focusing on two issues, firstly a defence of examinations as a fair and legitimate form of assessment in Higher Education, and, secondly, a call for the re-examination of the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences.

  3. The Intersection of NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach and Higher Education: A Special Interest Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Smith, D.; Schultz, G.; Bianchi, L.; Blair, W.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents highlights from a group discussion on how the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) education and public outreach (EPO) community could better support undergraduate astronomy education through EPO products and resources - current and future - targeted at the college level. The discussion was organized by the SMD Astrophysics EPO Forum through a Special Interest Group Meeting at the 2010 ASP Annual Meeting in Boulder. Our session took advantage of the simultaneous presence of EPO professionals and the Cosmos in the Classroom participants to seek out diverse perspectives on and experiences in higher education.

  4. PISTES fête ses 10 ans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cloutier

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Bonjour, PISTES fête ses 10 ans. Comme le temps passe vite n’est-ce pas ! Depuis le premier numéro en 1999 que de chemin parcouru : plusieurs problématiques de recherche s’intéressant aux liens entre la santé et le travail ont été abordées, le nombre de lecteurs a augmenté sans cesse, la revue a été indexée dans diverses bases de données de références importantes, plusieurs articles sont maintenant traduits en anglais avec des résumés français, anglais et espagnol, une rubrique de défricheur ...

  5. Road to the Future. General Aspects of Brazilian Higher Education and a Brief Comparison with Other Educational Modes. Yale Higher Education Research Group Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simao, Jose Veiga

    After a brief explanation of the economic and social background of Brazil, its educational system is described and the prospects for higher education there are explored. Like most nations, Brazil's higher education system is unique and adapted to its own needs. Its system bears similarities to both European and American traditions. In the near…

  6. Socioeconomic status (SES) and childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) mortality risk: Analysis of SEER data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoble, Naomi B; Alderfer, Melissa A; Hossain, Md Jobayer

    2016-10-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a complex construct of multiple indicators, known to impact cancer outcomes, but has not been adequately examined among pediatric AML patients. This study aimed to identify the patterns of co-occurrence of multiple community-level SES indicators and to explore associations between various patterns of these indicators and pediatric AML mortality risk. A nationally representative US sample of 3651 pediatric AML patients, aged 0-19 years at diagnosis was drawn from 17 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database registries created between 1973 and 2012. Factor analysis, cluster analysis, stratified univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used. Four SES factors accounting for 87% of the variance in SES indicators were identified: F1) economic/educational disadvantage, less immigration; F2) immigration-related features (foreign-born, language-isolation, crowding), less mobility; F3) housing instability; and, F4) absence of moving. F1 and F3 showed elevated risk of mortality, adjusted hazards ratios (aHR) (95% CI): 1.07(1.02-1.12) and 1.05(1.00-1.10), respectively. Seven SES-defined cluster groups were identified. Cluster 1 (low economic/educational disadvantage, few immigration-related features, and residential-stability) showed the minimum risk of mortality. Compared to Cluster 1, Cluster 3 (high economic/educational disadvantage, high-mobility) and Cluster 6 (moderately-high economic/educational disadvantages, housing-instability and immigration-related features) exhibited substantially greater risk of mortality, aHR(95% CI)=1.19(1.0-1.4) and 1.23 (1.1-1.5), respectively. Factors of correlated SES-indicators and their pattern-based groups demonstrated differential risks in the pediatric AML mortality indicating the need of special public-health attention in areas with economic-educational disadvantages, housing-instability and immigration-related features. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  7. Exploring the Limitations of Measures of Students' Socioeconomic Status (SES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Emily R.; Adelson, Jill L.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses a nationally representative student dataset to explore the limitations of commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES). Among the identified limitations are patterns of missing data that conflate the traditional conceptualization of SES with differences in family structure that have emerged in recent years and a lack of…

  8. Un brevet pour la vie : La propriété intellectuelle et ses effets sur le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Un brevet pour la vie : La propriété intellectuelle et ses effets sur le commerce, la biodiversité et le monde rural. Couverture du livre Un brevet pour la vie : La propriété intellectuelle et ses effets sur. Auteur(s):. The Crucible Group. Maison(s) d'édition: CRDI. 1 janvier 1994. ISBN : Épuisé. 120 pages. e-ISBN : 1552503917.

  9. Groups of integral transforms generated by Lie algebras of second-and higher-order differential operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, S.; Wolf, K.B.

    1979-01-01

    The authors study the construction and action of certain Lie algebras of second- and higher-order differential operators on spaces of solutions of well-known parabolic, hyperbolic and elliptic linear differential equations. The latter include the N-dimensional quadratic quantum Hamiltonian Schroedinger equations, the one-dimensional heat and wave equations and the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation. In one approach, the usual similarity first-order differential operator algebra of the equation is embedded in the larger one, which appears as a quantum-mechanical dynamic algebra. In a second approach, the new algebra is built as the time evolution of a finite-transformation algebra on the initial conditions. In a third approach, the algebra to inhomogeneous similarity algebra is deformed to a noncompact classical one. In every case, we can integrate the algebra to a Lie group of integral transforms acting effectively on the solution space of the differential equation. (author)

  10. Spontaneous analogising caused by text stimuli in design thinking: differences between higher- and lower-creativity groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Yang, Yu-Hsuan Sylvia; Liang, Chaoyun

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the cognitive processes used in creative practices is essential to design research. In this study, electroencephalography was applied to investigate the brain activations of visual designers when they responded to various types of word stimuli during design thinking. Thirty visual designers were recruited, with the top third and bottom third of the participants divided into high-creativity (HC) and low-creativity (LC) groups. The word stimuli used in this study were two short poems, adjectives with similar meanings, and adjectives with opposing meanings. The derived results are outlined as follows: (1) the brain activations of the designers increased in the frontal and right temporal regions and decreased in the right prefrontal region; (2) the negative association between the right temporal and middle frontal regions was notable; (3) the differences in activations caused by distinct word stimuli varied between HC and LC designers; (4) the spectral power in the middle frontal region of HC designers was lower than that of LC designers during the short love poem task; (5) the spectral power in the bilateral temporal regions of HC designers was higher than that of LC designers during the short autumn poem task; (6) the spectral power in the frontoparietal region of HC designers was lower than that of LC designers during the similar concept task; and (7) the spectral power in the frontoparietal and left frontotemporal regions of HC designers was higher than that of LC designers during the opposing concept task.

  11. Weight patterns in children with higher risk ALL: A report from the Children's Oncology Group (COG) for CCG 1961.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withycombe, Janice S; Post-White, Janice E; Meza, Jane L; Hawks, Ria G; Smith, Lynette M; Sacks, Nancy; Seibel, Nita L

    2009-12-15

    This retrospective analysis defined and described patterns and predictors of weight change during treatment in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) with high-risk features who received treatment on Children's Cancer Group protocol CCG 1961. Patients (1,638) were enrolled in CCG 1961 from November 1996 to May 2002. Weight was measured as BMI percent (%), specific for age and gender, and defined as 100 x ln(BMI/median BMI). By the end of treatment, 23% of children were obese (BMI >or=95%), compared with 14% at diagnosis. Children who received post-induction intensified therapy (arms C, D, SER with Doxorubicin or Idarubicin) had higher gastrointestinal toxicities and lower BMI% from consolidation through interim maintenance 1. BMI% then increased for all arms between delayed intensification and maintenance 1 or 2. Children who were of Black or Hispanic race, obese at diagnosis, or who had grade 3 or 4 pancreatitis/glucose toxicities during induction had higher BMI% throughout treatment. Children were more likely to be obese at the end of the study if they were aged 5-9 years at diagnosis or female gender. Cranial radiation was not a predictor of obesity. Successful treatment of higher risk childhood ALL was associated with obesity, independent of cranial irradiation. The beginning of maintenance therapy may be the best time to intervene with nutritional and behavioral interventions, particularly for children who are obese or aged 5-9 years at diagnosis, female, Black or Hispanic, or those with metabolic toxicities during induction. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Multi-criteria Group Decision Making Approach for Teacher Recruitment in Higher Education under Simplified Neutrosophic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Mondal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teacher recruitment is a multi-criteria group decisionmaking process involving subjectivity, imprecision, and fuzziness that can be suitably represented by neutrosophic sets. Neutrosophic set, a generalization of fuzzy sets is characterized by a truth-membership function, falsity-membership function and an indeterminacy-membership function. These functions are real standard or non-standard subsets of ] 0-, 1+[ .There is no restriction on the sum of the functions, so the sum lies between ]0-, 3+[. A neutrosophic approach is a more general and suitable way to deal with imprecise information, when compared to a fuzzy set. The purpose of this study is to develop a neutrosophic multi-criteria group decision-making model based on hybrid scoreaccuracy functions for teacher recruitment in higher education. Eight criteria obtained from expert opinions are considered for recruitment process. The criteria are namely academic performance index, teaching aptitude, subject knowledge, research experience, leadership quality, personality, management capacity, and personal values. In this paper we use the score and accuracy functions and the hybrid score-accuracy functions of single valued neutrosophic numbers (SVNNs and ranking method for SVNNs. Then, multi-criteria group decision-making method with unknown weights for attributes and incompletely known weights for decision makers is used based on the hybrid score-accuracy functions under single valued neutrosophic environments. We use weight model for attributes based on the hybrid score-accuracy functions to derive the weights of decision makers and attributes from the decision matrices represented by the form of SVNNs to decrease the effect of some unreasonable evaluations. Moreover, we use the overall evaluation formulae of the weighted hybrid scoreaccuracy functions for each alternative to rank the alternatives and recruit the most desirable teachers. Finally, an educational problem for teacher selection is

  13. A SES (sustainable energy security) index for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, Kapil; Reddy, B. Sudhakara

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the performance of the energy system of a country is a prerequisite for framing good energy polices. However, the existing indices which claim to measure energy security have limited applicability for developing countries. Energy sustainability is also increasingly gaining importance and countries are keen to measure it to tailor their energy policies. Therefore, the concept of SES (sustainable energy security) has been proposed as the goal for a developing country. This paper presents an analytical framework for the assessment of SES of an energy system and the methodology for constructing an SES index. A hierarchical structure has been proposed and the energy system has been divided into 'supply', 'conversion & distribution' and 'demand' sub-systems. Each subsystem is further divided into its components which are evaluated for four dimensions of SES, Availability, Affordability, Efficiency and (Environmental) Acceptability using quantitative metrics. Energy indices are constructed using 'scores' (objective values), and 'weights' (subjective values representing tradeoffs) which are then aggregated, bottom-up, to obtain an overall SES Index for a country. The proposed SES Index is multidimensional, quantitative, modular, systemic and flexible. Such a SES Index can be used to design policy interventions for transitioning to a sustainable and a secure energy future. - Highlights: • A SES (sustainable energy security) index is proposed for developing countries. • A hierarchical structure includes the entire energy system from supply to end use. • The performance of all energy sources, energy carriers and sectors is assessed. • Availability, affordability, efficiency and acceptability dimensions are evaluated. • The SES index is multidimensional, quantitative, modular, systemic and flexible.

  14. Momentary smoking context as a mediator of the relationship between SES and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnel, Tina; Ferguson, Stuart G; Shiffman, Saul; Thrul, Johannes; Schüz, Benjamin

    2018-08-01

    There is a well-established socioeconomic gradient in smoking behavior: those with lower socioeconomic status smoke more. However, much less is known about the mechanisms explaining how SES is linked to smoking. This study takes a social-ecological perspective by examining whether socioeconomic status affects smoking behavior by differential exposure to places where smoking is allowed. Exposure to smoking restrictions was assessed in real-time using Ecological Momentary Assessment methods. A sample of 194 daily smokers, who were not attempting to quit, recorded their smoking and information about situational and contextual factors for three weeks using an electronic diary. We tested whether a smoker's momentary context mediated the relationship between socioeconomic status (educational attainment) and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Momentary context was operationalized as the proportion of random assessments answered in locations where smoking was allowed versus where smoking was not allowed. Data were analysed using multilevel regression (measurements nested within participants) with a lower level mediation model (2-1-1 mediation). Although no significant direct effect of SES on CPD were observed, there was a significant indirect effect of SES on CPD via the momentary context. Compared to participants with higher education, lower educated participants were more likely to encounter places where smoking was allowed, and this in turn, was associated with a higher number of CPD. These findings suggest that SES is associated with smoking at least partially via differential exposure to smoking-friendly environments, with smokers from lower SES backgrounds accessing more places where smoking is allowed. Implications for current smoke-free legislation are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. GPP Webinar: Solar Utilization in Higher Education Networking & Information Sharing Group: RFP, Contract, and Administrative Issues Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation from a Solar Utilization in Higher Education Networking and Information webinar covers contracts, Request for Proposals (RFPs), and administrative issues related to solar project development in the higher education sector.

  16. Independent and Combined Effects of Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Bilingualism on Children's Vocabulary and Verbal Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Natalia; Armon-Lotem, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    The current study explores the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) and bilingualism on the linguistic skills and verbal short-term memory of preschool children. In previous studies comparing children of low and mid-high SES, the terms "a child with low-SES" and "a child speaking a minority language" are often interchangeable, not enabling differentiated evaluation of these two variables. The present study controls for this confluence by testing children born and residing in the same country and attending the same kindergartens, with all bilingual children speaking the same heritage language (HL-Russian). A total of 120 children (88 bilingual children: 44 with low SES; and 32 monolingual children: 16 with low SES) with typical language development, aged 5; 7-6; 7, were tested in the societal language (SL-Hebrew) on expressive vocabulary and three repetition tasks [forward digit span (FWD), nonword repetition (NWR), and sentence repetition (SRep)], which tap into verbal short-term memory. The results indicated that SES and bilingualism impact different child abilities. Bilingualism is associated with decreased vocabulary size and lower performance on verbal short-term memory tasks with higher linguistic load in the SL-Hebrew. The negative effect of bilingualism on verbal short-term memory disappears once vocabulary is accounted for. SES influences not only linguistic performance, but also verbal short-term memory with lowest linguistic load. The negative effect of SES cannot be solely attributed to lower vocabulary scores, suggesting that an unprivileged background has a negative impact on children's cognitive development beyond a linguistic disadvantage. The results have important clinical implications and call for more research exploring the varied impact of language and life experience on children's linguistic and cognitive skills.

  17. Chiral anomalies and constraints on the gauge group in higher-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, P.K.; Sierra, G.

    1983-01-01

    Chiral anomalies for gauge theories in any even dimension are computed and the results applied to supersymmetric theories in D=6, 8 and 10. For D=8 there is an anomalous chiral U(1) invariance, just as in D=4, except for certain special groups. For D=6 and D=10 there is no anomalous chiral U(1) symmetry, but the gauge current is anomalous except for certain ''anomaly-free'' groups. For D=6 the group is thereby constrained to be one of [SU(2), SU(3), exceptional], while for D=10 it is constrained to be one of [SU(n)n 8 ]. (orig.)

  18. Higher frequency of secretor phenotype in O blood group ? its benefits in prevention and/or treatment of some diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jaff, Mohamad Salih

    2010-01-01

    Mohamad Salih JaffPathology Department, Hawler Medical University (Formerly Salahaddin University), Erbil, Kurdistan Region, IraqAbstract: ABO blood groups and secretor status are important in clinical and forensic medicine and in relation to some diseases. There are geographic and racial differences in their frequencies, but the frequency of secretor status in different ABO blood group systems has not been determined yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was mainly to determine this point. B...

  19. Minority Language Issues in Chinese Higher Education: Policy Reforms and Practice among the Korean and Mongol Ethnic Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiyan XIONG; W.James JACOB; Huiyuan YE

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Korean and Mongol minorities in the People's Republic of China in terms of their native language preservation and educational experiences at the higher education level,and to investigate differences and similarities between Korean and Mongol minorities' language issues.Content area experts on Chinese minority education from China,South Korea,and the United States were interviewed for this study.Findings include suggestions for helping to formulate government educational policies regarding issues related to language in Chinese minority education at the higher education level.This information is helpful to better understand and educate others in school and home settings where Chinese ethnic minority students reside.The advancement of Chinese minority education knowledge related to higher education will significantly strengthen and empower individuals,families,and communities throughout the People's Republic of China.

  20. Low-SES children's eyewitness memory: the effects of verbal labels and vocabulary skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoojin; Kulkofsky, Sarah; Debaran, Francisco; Wang, Qi; Hart, Sybil L

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the verbal labels procedure and vocabulary skills on low-socioeconomic status (SES) preschool children's eyewitness memory. Children (N = 176) aged 3-5 years witnessed a conflict event and were then questioned about it in either a standard or a verbal labels interview. Findings revealed that children with higher rather than lower vocabulary skills produced more complete and accurate memories. Children who were given the verbal labels interview recalled more information, which included both correct and incorrect details. Overall, the verbal labels procedure did not improve children's performance on direct questions, but children with low vocabulary skills answered direct questions more accurately if they were given the verbal labels interview than when they were not. Implications of the findings for memory performance of low-SES children are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Minority Language Issues in Chinese Higher Education: Policy Reforms and Practice among the Korean and Mongol Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weiyan; Jacob, W. James; Ye, Huiyuan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Korean and Mongol minorities in the People's Republic of China in terms of their native language preservation and educational experiences at the higher education level, and to investigate differences and similarities between Korean and Mongol minorities' language issues. Content area experts on Chinese…

  2. Efficiency and Effectiveness in Higher Education: A Report by the Universities UK Efficiency and Modernisation Task Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness, efficiency and value for money are central concerns for the higher education sector. In England, decisions made by the current Government will effect a radical change in the funding for teaching. Institutions will be managing a reduction in public funding for teaching and the transition to the new system of graduate contributions,…

  3. Is Group Sex a Higher-Risk Setting for HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Compared With Dyadic Sex Among Men Who Have Sex With Men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boom, Wijnand; Davidovich, Udi; Heuker, José; Lambers, Femke; Prins, Maria; Sandfort, Theo; Stolte, Ineke G.

    2016-01-01

    Group sex has been suggested as a potential high-risk setting for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM). We investigated whether group sex is associated with lower condom use during anal sex and higher proportions of STIs compared with dyadic sex

  4. Communalism Predicts Maternal Affect, Stress, and Physiology Better than Ethnicity and SES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Campos, Belinda; Hilmert, Clayton J.; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Hobel, Calvin J.; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relevance of communalism, operationalized as a cultural orientation emphasizing interdependence, to maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology and distinguished its effects from those of ethnicity and childhood and adult SES. African American and European American women (N=297) were recruited early in pregnancy and followed through 32 weeks gestation using interviews and medical chart review. Overall, African American women and women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds had higher levels of negative affect, stress and blood pressure, but these ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were not observed among women higher in communalism. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that communalism was a more robust predictor of prenatal emotional health than ethnicity, childhood SES, and adult SES. Communalism also interacted with ethnicity and SES, resulting in lower blood pressure during pregnancy for African American women and women who experienced socioeconomic disadvantage over the life course. The effects of communalism on prenatal affect, stress, and physiology were not explained by depressive symptoms at study entry, perceived availability of social support, self-esteem, optimism, mastery, nor pregnancy-specific factors, including whether the pregnancy was planned, desired after conception, or how frequently the woman felt happy to be pregnant. This suggests that a communal cultural orientation benefits maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology over and above its links to better-understood personal and social resources in addition to economic resources. Implications regarding culture as a determinant of maternal prenatal health and well-being and as a potentially important lens for examining ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in health are discussed. PMID:20658883

  5. The chromosomal distributions of Ty1-copia group retrotransposable elements in higher plants and their implications for genome evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.S. (Pat) Heslop-Harrison; Andrea Brandes; Shin Taketa; Thomas Schmidt; Alexander V. Vershinin; Elena G. Alkhimova; Anette Kamm; Robert L. Doudrick; . [and others

    1997-01-01

    Retrotransposons make up a major fraction - sometimes more than 40% - of all plant genomes investigated so far. We have isolated the reverse transcriptase domains of theTyl-copia group elements from several species, ranging in genome size from some 100 Mbp to 23,000 Mbp, and determined the distribution patterns of these retrotransposons on metaphase chromosomes and...

  6. An Example of Large-group Drama and Cross-year Peer Assessment for Teaching Science in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Katherine; Thompson, Richard

    2010-09-01

    Undergraduate students pursuing a three-year marine biology degree programme (n = 86) experienced a large-group drama aimed at allowing them to explore how scientific research is funded and the associated links between science and society. In the drama, Year 1 students played the "general public" who decided which environmental research areas should be prioritised for funding, Year 2 students were the "scientists" who had to prepare research proposals which they hoped to get funded, and Year 3 students were the "research panel" who decided which proposals to fund with input from the priorities set by the "general public". The drama, therefore, included an element of cross-year peer assessment where Year 3 students evaluated the research proposals prepared by the Year 2 students. Questionnaires were distributed at the end of the activity to gather: (1) student perceptions on the cross-year nature of the exercise, (2) the use of peer assessment, and (3) their overall views on the drama. The students valued the opportunity to interact with their peers from other years of the degree programme and most were comfortable with the use of cross-year peer assessment. The majority of students felt that they had increased their knowledge of how research proposals are funded and the perceived benefits of the large-group drama included increased critical thinking ability, confidence in presenting work to others, and enhanced communication skills. Only one student did not strongly advocate the use of this large-group drama in subsequent years.

  7. Preschool Math Exposure in Private Center-Based Care and Low-SES Children's Math Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Heather J.; Degol, Jessica L.; Elliott, Leanne; Scharphorn, Laura; El Nokali, Nermeen E.; Palmer, Kalani M.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study examined the amount of exposure to math activities that children of low socioeconomic status (SES) encounter in private community-based preschool classrooms and whether greater time in these activities predicted higher math skills. Three cohorts of 4- to 5-year-old children were recruited from 30 private…

  8. Positive Attitude toward Healthy Eating Predicts Higher Diet Quality at All Cost Levels of Supermarkets☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. PMID:23916974

  9. Design of SES-10 nuclear reactor for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttler, J.M.

    1991-03-01

    The SES-10 units are unpressurized, pool-type nuclear reactors of 10MW rating, designed for supplying energy to hot water district heating systems, economically and without pollution. Water for heat distribution is brought to a maximum temperature of 85 degrees C. Conventional heating units supplement the output from SES-10 units for peak load and during maintenance. The SES-10 is housed in a low-cost building, with a double-walled pool in the ground. A naturally circulating primary system and a pumped secondary system transport heat from the reactor to the distribution system. The unit is fully automated and easy to maintain. Because of the many active and passive safety features, it is feasible to license the SES-10 for operation in a city and easy to explain it to the public for their acceptance. The core lasts approximately 43 months at a capacity factor of 70%, and the cost of heat is expected to be 2 to 2.5 cents/kWh

  10. Design of SES-10 nuclear reactor for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttler, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The SES-10 units are unpressurized, pool-type nuclear reactors of 10 MW rating, designed for supplying energy to hot water district heating systems, economically and without pollution. Water for heat distribution is brought to a maximum temperature of 85 o C. Conventional heating units supplement the output from SES-10 units for peak load and during maintenance. The SES-10 is housed in a low-cost building, with a double-walled pool in the ground. A naturally circulating primary system and a pumped secondary system transport heat from the reactor to the distribution system. The unit is fully automated and easy to maintain. Because of the many active and passive safety features, it is feasible to license the SES-10 for operation in a city and easy to explain it to the public for their acceptance. The core lasts approximately 43 months at a capacity factor of 70%, and the cost of heat is expected to be 2 to 2.5 cents/kWh. (author) 8 figs

  11. Garth Boomer Address 2017: Low SES Contexts and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    In this essay, I focus on the role of teacher-research in developing intellectual engagement in the context of low SES school communities and English. When the OECD after each round of PISA results declares that 'the socioeconomic background of students and schools does appear to have a powerful influence on performance', the understatedness of…

  12. 5 CFR 534.403 - SES rate range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... first day of the first applicable pay period beginning on or after January 1, 2004, the minimum rate of basic pay of the SES rate range is set at an amount equal to the minimum rate of basic pay under 5 U.S.C... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay and...

  13. 78 FR 44563 - Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board AGENCY... Management, one or more PRBs. The PRB shall review and evaluate the initial appraisal of a senior executive's performance by the supervisor, along with any response by the senior executive, and make recommendations to...

  14. 76 FR 55677 - Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Notice-CPO-2011-01; Docket 2011-0006; Sequence 15] Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board AGENCY: General Services Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the appointment of new members to the General Services Administration...

  15. Trajectories of BMI from early childhood through early adolescence: SES and psychosocial predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sean P; Bluestone, Cheryl; Burke, Christopher T

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the ways in which body mass index (BMI) percentile - an identified risk factor for overweight and cardiovascular disease in adulthood - develops from birth through early adolescence. In addition, we examined whether psychosocial factors, such as parenting style and maternal depression, mediated the link between socio-economic status (SES) and BMI growth. Design. Data were obtained from phases 1-3 of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) - a longitudinal study that followed children from 10 communities in the United States from birth to age 11. We applied growth mixture models to identify distinct subtypes of BMI development. Within these models, we performed between- and within-class mediation analyses to examine whether SES predicted class membership or differences in development within each class via maternal depression and parenting styles. Results identified three prototypic trajectories of BMI percentile growth, elevated, steady increase, and stable. We found evidence for both between- and within-class mediation, suggesting multiple pathways by which SES can affect BMI development. These findings add to the research that suggests that being in a family with a low SES is associated with falling into patterns of development characterized by early and lasting increases in BMI relative to one's peers, and that this association is partly accounted for by maternal depression and parenting styles. What is already known? Past research has found evidence that patterns of childhood overweight are impacted by socioeconomic status through psychosocial factors like parenting and depression. This evidence is often limited to individual points in time where neglectful, permissive, and authoritarian parenting and higher levels of maternal depression are associated with higher levels of overweight status among children from infancy to adolescence. However, little

  16. Higher quality of life and lower depression for people on ART in Uganda as compared to a community control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Faith; Russell, Steve; Seeley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Provision of antiretroviral treatment (ART) to people living with HIV (PLWH) has increased globally. Research measuring whether ART restores subjective well-being to "normal" levels is lacking, particularly in resource limited settings. The study objectives are to compare quality of life and depression symptoms for PLWH on ART to a general community population and to explore factors to explain these differences, including socio-economic status and the impact of urban or rural residence. PLWH on ART (n = 263) were recruited from ART delivery sites and participants not on ART (n = 160) were recruited from communities in Wakiso District, Uganda. Participants were interviewed using the translated World Health Organisation Quality of Life brief measure, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist depression section, and questions about socio-economic status, residence as urban or rural and, for PLWH on ART, self-reported adherence and use of HIV counselling. Compared to the community sample and controlling for location of residence, PLWH on ART had significantly higher quality of life (QOL) for physical, psychological and environment domains, but not the social domain. These differences were not due to socio-economic status alone. Depression scores were significantly lower for PLWH on ART. Both comparisons controlled for the effect of location of residence. People on ART self-reported high adherence and the majority had used HIV counselling services. Our findings show better QOL amongst PLWH on ART compared to a general community sample, which cannot be explained solely by differences in socio-economic status nor location of residence. The general community sample results point towards the challenges of life in this setting. Access to health services may underpin this difference and further research should explore this finding, in addition to identification of psychological mechanisms that relate to better QOL. ART provision infrastructure has clear benefits. Further work

  17. Higher quality of life and lower depression for people on ART in Uganda as compared to a community control group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Martin

    Full Text Available Provision of antiretroviral treatment (ART to people living with HIV (PLWH has increased globally. Research measuring whether ART restores subjective well-being to "normal" levels is lacking, particularly in resource limited settings. The study objectives are to compare quality of life and depression symptoms for PLWH on ART to a general community population and to explore factors to explain these differences, including socio-economic status and the impact of urban or rural residence. PLWH on ART (n = 263 were recruited from ART delivery sites and participants not on ART (n = 160 were recruited from communities in Wakiso District, Uganda. Participants were interviewed using the translated World Health Organisation Quality of Life brief measure, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist depression section, and questions about socio-economic status, residence as urban or rural and, for PLWH on ART, self-reported adherence and use of HIV counselling. Compared to the community sample and controlling for location of residence, PLWH on ART had significantly higher quality of life (QOL for physical, psychological and environment domains, but not the social domain. These differences were not due to socio-economic status alone. Depression scores were significantly lower for PLWH on ART. Both comparisons controlled for the effect of location of residence. People on ART self-reported high adherence and the majority had used HIV counselling services. Our findings show better QOL amongst PLWH on ART compared to a general community sample, which cannot be explained solely by differences in socio-economic status nor location of residence. The general community sample results point towards the challenges of life in this setting. Access to health services may underpin this difference and further research should explore this finding, in addition to identification of psychological mechanisms that relate to better QOL. ART provision infrastructure has clear benefits

  18. Individual-level movement bias leads to the formation of higher-order social structure in a mobile group of baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Tyler R; Clarke, Parry M; Henzi, S Peter; Barrett, Louise

    2017-07-01

    In mobile social groups, influence patterns driving group movement can vary between democratic and despotic. The arrival at any single pattern of influence is thought to be underpinned by both environmental factors and group composition. To identify the specific patterns of influence driving travel decision-making in a chacma baboon troop, we used spatially explicit data to extract patterns of individual movement bias. We scaled these estimates of individual-level bias to the level of the group by constructing an influence network and assessing its emergent structural properties. Our results indicate that there is heterogeneity in movement bias: individual animals respond consistently to particular group members, and higher-ranking animals are more likely to influence the movement of others. This heterogeneity resulted in a group-level network structure that consisted of a single core and two outer shells. Here, the presence of a core suggests that a set of highly interdependent animals drove routine group movements. These results suggest that heterogeneity at the individual level can lead to group-level influence structures, and that movement patterns in mobile social groups can add to the exploration of both how these structures develop (i.e. mechanistic aspects) and what consequences they have for individual- and group-level outcomes (i.e. functional aspects).

  19. A Multi Criteria Group Decision-Making Model for Teacher Evaluation in Higher Education Based on Cloud Model and Decision Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ting-Cheng; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a cloud multi-criteria group decision-making model for teacher evaluation in higher education which is involving subjectivity, imprecision and fuzziness. First, selecting the appropriate evaluation index depending on the evaluation objectives, indicating a clear structural relationship between the evaluation index and…

  20. The relationship between career mobility and occupational expertise. A retrospective study among higher-level Dutch professionals in three age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between two career-related variables and occupational expertise of higher-level employees from large working organisations in three different age groups. The factors in question are: total number of jobs that have been performed; and the average period

  1. Passive vandlåses resistens over for trykvariationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J.

    Dette notat beskriver en undersøgelse af vandlåses funktion i den siutation, hvor de ikke belastes af gennemstrømmende vand, men kan påvirkes af lufttrykvariationer i det rørnet, hvortil de er sluttet. En vandlås betegnes i denne situation som en passiv vandlås. Undersøgelsen er gennemført dels...

  2. Tertiary Gleason pattern in radical prostatectomy specimens is associated with worse outcomes than the next higher Gleason score group in localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Mehmet; D'Andrea, David; Moschini, Marco; Foerster, Beat; Abufaraj, Mohammad; Mathieu, Romain; Briganti, Alberto; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Roupret, Morgan; Seitz, Christian; Czech, Anna Katarzyna; Susani, Martin; Shariat, Shahrokh F

    2018-04-01

    To assess the predictive value of TGP on biochemical recurrence (BCR) and its association with clinicopathological outcomes in a large, multicenter cohort of patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) treated with radical prostatectomy (RP). Records of 6,041 patients who were treated with RP between 2000 and 2011 for clinically nonmetastatic PCa were, retrospectively, analyzed from prospectively collected datasets. BCR-free survival rates were assessed using univariable and multivariable cox-regression analyses. Median patient age was 61 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 57-66) with a median preoperative prostrate specific antigen of 6ng/ml (IQR: 4-9). Overall, 28% of patients had Gleason score (GS) 6, 0.3% GS 6 + TGP, 33% GS 7 (3 + 4), 0.2% GS 7 (3 + 4) + TGP, 22% GS 7 (4 + 3), 0.2% GS 7 (4 + 3) + TGP, 0.1% GS 8 and 0.4% GS 9 or 10. Median follow-up was 45 months (IQR: 31-57). Harboring a TGP was associated with higher rates of positive surgical margins, lymphovascular invasion, extraprostatic extension, and seminal vesicle invasion than their counterparts within the same GS group as well as in the next higher GS group (all P ≤ 0.05). At 5 years post-RP, BCR estimates were 5% for patients with GS 6, 13% for patients with GS 6 + TGP, 6% for patients with GS 7 (3 + 4), 22% for patients with GS 7 (3 + 4) + TGP, 16% for patients with GS 7 (4 + 3), 41% for patients with GS 7 (4 + 3) + TGP, 38% for patients with GS 8 (4 + 4) and 46% for patients with GS 9 or 10. Patients harboring a TGP had higher BCR rates than the patients in the next higher GS group: GS 6 + TGP vs. GS 7 (3 + 4), HR = 1.6, P = 0.02 and GS 7 (3 + 4)+TGP vs. GS 7 (4 + 3), HR = 1.4, P = 0.03. Patients with a TGP in the GS 7 (4 + 3) group had comparable BCR rates as patients with GS = 8 (P = 0.4) and GS 9 to 10 (P = 0.2). On multivariable analysis that adjusted for the effects of preoperative prostrate specific antigen, nodal involvement, positive surgical margin, extraprostatic disease (pT3a

  3. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, Kevin B

    2015-07-09

    In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group's National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during 2011-2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group's Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week); n = 2584, Average Can Users (3-5 canned items/week); n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week); n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients-potassium, calcium and fiber-when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  4. Los países en desarrollo y el Gatt

    OpenAIRE

    Manero Salvador, Ana María

    2008-01-01

    Ejemplar monográfico: 60 años del sistema GATT-OMC La preocupación por el impacto de las reglas comerciales multilaterales en el desarrollo es muy anterior a la Ronda de Doha de la OMC pues se remonta a la Carta de la Habana, negociada y adoptada en los albores del GATT (pero que nunca entró en vigor, como es sabido). Al analizar la evolución de esas reglas en los últimos 60 años se muestra la utilidad del concepto genérico de «trato desigual» (hacia los países en desarrollo...

  5. The validity of socioeconomic status measures among adolescents based on self-reported information about parents occupations, FAS and perceived SES; implication for health related quality of life studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Svedberg

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown inconsistencies in results and difficulties in conceptualization of assessment of socioeconomic status (SES among adolescents. The aim of this study was thus to test the validity of self-reported information on SES in two age-groups (11–13 and 14–16 years old in an adolescent population and to evaluate its relationship to self-reported health related quality of life (HRQOL. Different measures of SES commonly used in research in relation to HRQOL were tested in this study; parent’s occupations status, family material affluence status (FAS and perceived SES. Method A cross-sectional study, with a sample of 948 respondents (n = 467, 11–13 years old and n = 481, 14–16 years old completed questionnaires about SES and HRQOL. The adolescents’ completion rates were used, with chi2-test, to investigate differences between gender and age-group. Correlation was used for convergent validity and ANOVA for concurrent validity. Results We found a low completion rate for both fathers’ (41.7 % and mothers' (37.5 % occupation status, and a difference in completion rate between gender and age-groups. FAS had the highest completion rate (100 % compared to parent's occupations status and perceived SES. The convergent validity between the SES-indicators was weak (Spearman correlation coefficient below 0.3, suggesting that the indicators measured different dimensions of SES. Both FAS and perceived SES showed a gradient in mean HRQOL between low and high SES in relation to HRQOL, this was significant only for perceived SES (p < 0.01, both age-groups. Conclusion This study indicates the need for considering different approaches to measures of SES among adolescences and when evaluating SES in relation to HRQOL. Further research is needed to investigate sustainable ways to measure SES, delineating the relevance of tangible measures of education, occupation and income in relation to the perceived

  6. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET® database during 2011–2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group’s Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week; n = 2584, Average Can Users (3–5 canned items/week; n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week; n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients—potassium, calcium and fiber—when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  7. High adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with cardiovascular protection in higher but not in lower socioeconomic groups: prospective findings from the Moli-sani study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Pounis, George; Costanzo, Simona; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Cerletti, Chiara; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2017-10-01

    It is uncertain whether the cardiovascular benefits associated with Mediterranean diet (MD) may differ across socioeconomic groups. Prospective analysis on 18991 men and women aged ≥35 years from the general population of the Moli-sani cohort (Italy). Adherence to MD was appraised by the Mediterranean diet score (MDS). Household income (euros/year) and educational level were used as indicators of socioeconomic status. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated by multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Over 4.3 years of follow-up, 252 cardiovascular disease (CVD) events occurred. Overall, a two-point increase in MDS was associated with 15% reduced CVD risk (95% confidence interval: 1% to 27%). Such association was evident in highly (HR = 0.43; 0.25-0.72) but not in less (HR = 0.94; 0.78-1.14) educated subjects (P for interaction = 0.042). Similarly, CVD advantages associated with the MD were confined to the high household income group (HR = 0.39; 0.23-0.66, and HR = 1.01; 0.79-1.29 for high- and low-income groups, respectively; P for interaction = 0.0098). In a subgroup of individuals of different socioeconomic status but sharing similar MDS, diet-related disparities were found as different intakes of antioxidants and polyphenols, fatty acids, micronutrients, dietary antioxidant capacity, dietary diversity, organic vegetables and whole grain bread consumption. MD is associated with lower CVD risk but this relationship is confined to higher socioeconomic groups. In groups sharing similar scores of adherence to MD, diet-related disparities across socioeconomic groups persisted. These nutritional gaps may reasonably explain at least in part the socioeconomic pattern of CVD protection from the MD. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  8. Which countries pay more or less for their long term debt? A CART approach || ¿Qué países pagan más o menos por su deuda a largo plazo? Una aproximación a través de la metodología CART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Fernández, Marcos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to classify a group of EMU countries according to the main determinants of long-term sovereign bond yields. We apply the Classification and Regression Tree method (CART. According to the findings, countries with lower inflation, a lower debt to GDP ratio, a lower average income tax rate, higher public debt maturity and higher IPI growth are placed in classification groups that have lower bond yields. These results confirm the hypothesis that countries with better macroeconomic and fiscal indicators have lower sovereign bond yields.|| El objetivo de este artículo es clasificar un grupo de países de la UME teniendo en cuenta los principales determinantes de los tipos a largo plazo de la deuda soberana. Se aplica la metodología basada en árboles de decisión. Según los resultados, los grupos de países que tienen menor inflación, deuda pública, tipo impositivo medio y mayor vencimiento de la deuda pública y crecimiento económico pagan menos por su deuda soberana a largo plazo. Se confirma la hipótesis de que los países que tienen los mejores indicadores macroeconómicos y fiscales son los que presentan menores costes en su deuda soberana.

  9. Role of age, sex, and obesity in the higher prevalence of arthritis among lower socioeconomic groups: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busija, Lucy; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Osborne, Richard H

    2007-05-15

    To compare the prevalence of arthritis among population groups based on demographic, socioeconomic, and body mass index (BMI) characteristics; to investigate the combined influence of these factors on arthritis; and to assess the relationship between self-reported health and psychological distress and arthritis. Data from the Victorian Population Health Survey (n = 7,500) were used in the study. Psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress scale, and self-reported health was assessed by a single item. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the combined influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors and BMI on arthritis. Overall, 23% of Victorian adults (20% men and 26% women) reported having arthritis. The presence of arthritis was associated with high psychological distress (odds ratio [OR] 1.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.1-1.4) and poor self-reported health (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.7-2.1). Increased prevalence of arthritis was found in older age groups, lower education and income groups, and in people who were overweight or obese. Women had higher risk of arthritis, even after adjustment for age, residence, education, occupation, income, and BMI. Age and BMI independently predicted arthritis for men and women. For men, higher risk of arthritis was also associated with lower income. Arthritis is a highly prevalent condition associated with poor health and high psychological distress. Prevalence of arthritis is disproportionately high among women and individuals from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. As the prevalence of arthritis is predicted to increase, careful consideration of causal factors, and setting priorities for resource allocation for the treatment and prevention of arthritis are required.

  10. A randomized controlled trial of combined exercise and psycho-education for low-SES women: short- and long-term outcomes in the reduction of stress and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waerden, Judith E B; Hoefnagels, Cees; Hosman, Clemens M H; Souren, Pierre M; Jansen, Maria W J

    2013-08-01

    Exercise may have both a preventive and a therapeutic impact on mental health problems. The Exercise without Worries intervention aims to reduce stress and depressive symptoms in low-SES women by means of a group-based program combining physical exercise and psycho-education. Between September 2005 and May 2008, 161 Dutch low-SES women with elevated stress or depressive symptom levels were randomly assigned to the combined exercise/psycho-education intervention (EP), exercise only (E) or a waiting list control condition (WLC). The E condition provided low to moderate intensity stretching, strength, flexibility, and body focused training as well as relaxation, while the EP program integrated the exercise with cognitive-behavioral techniques. Depressive symptoms (CES-D) and perceived stress (PSS) were measured before and immediately after the intervention and at 2, 6 and 12 month follow-up. Multilevel linear mixed-effects models revealed no differential patterns in reduction of CES-D or PSS scores between the EP, E and WLC groups on the short (post-test and 2 month follow-up) or long term (6 and 12 months follow-up). Depressive symptom outcomes were moderated by initial depressive symptom scores: women from the EP and E groups with fewer initial symptoms benefited from participation on the short term. Further, women in the EP and E groups with the lowest educational level reported more stress reduction at post-test than women with higher educational levels. In the overall target population of low-SES women, no indications were found that the Exercise without Worries course reduced depressive symptom and stress levels on the short or long term. The findings do suggest, however, that exercise alone or in combination with psycho-education may be a viable prevention option for certain groups of disadvantaged women. Especially those low-SES women with less severe initial problems or those with low educational attainment should be targeted for future depression prevention

  11. Monitoring actual temperatures in Susquehanna SES reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkacs, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    PP and L has been monitoring temperatures in the Susquehanna SES reactor building with digital temperature recorders since 1986. In early 1990, data from four representative areas was analyzed to determine the temperature in each area which would produce the same rate of degradation as the distribution of actual temperatures recorded over about 40 months. From these effective average temperatures, qualified life multipliers were determined for activation energies in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 and those multipliers were used to estimate new qualified lives and the number of replacements which might be saved during the life of the plant. The results indicate that pursuing a program of determining EQ qualified lives from actual temperatures, rather than maximum design basis temperatures, will provide a substantial payback in reduced EQ driven maintenance

  12. Independent and Combined Effects of Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Bilingualism on Children’s Vocabulary and Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Natalia; Armon-Lotem, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    The current study explores the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) and bilingualism on the linguistic skills and verbal short-term memory of preschool children. In previous studies comparing children of low and mid-high SES, the terms “a child with low-SES” and “a child speaking a minority language” are often interchangeable, not enabling differentiated evaluation of these two variables. The present study controls for this confluence by testing children born and residing in the same country and attending the same kindergartens, with all bilingual children speaking the same heritage language (HL-Russian). A total of 120 children (88 bilingual children: 44 with low SES; and 32 monolingual children: 16 with low SES) with typical language development, aged 5; 7–6; 7, were tested in the societal language (SL-Hebrew) on expressive vocabulary and three repetition tasks [forward digit span (FWD), nonword repetition (NWR), and sentence repetition (SRep)], which tap into verbal short-term memory. The results indicated that SES and bilingualism impact different child abilities. Bilingualism is associated with decreased vocabulary size and lower performance on verbal short-term memory tasks with higher linguistic load in the SL-Hebrew. The negative effect of bilingualism on verbal short-term memory disappears once vocabulary is accounted for. SES influences not only linguistic performance, but also verbal short-term memory with lowest linguistic load. The negative effect of SES cannot be solely attributed to lower vocabulary scores, suggesting that an unprivileged background has a negative impact on children’s cognitive development beyond a linguistic disadvantage. The results have important clinical implications and call for more research exploring the varied impact of language and life experience on children’s linguistic and cognitive skills. PMID:28890706

  13. Independent and Combined Effects of Socioeconomic Status (SES and Bilingualism on Children’s Vocabulary and Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Meir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores the influence of socioeconomic status (SES and bilingualism on the linguistic skills and verbal short-term memory of preschool children. In previous studies comparing children of low and mid-high SES, the terms “a child with low-SES” and “a child speaking a minority language” are often interchangeable, not enabling differentiated evaluation of these two variables. The present study controls for this confluence by testing children born and residing in the same country and attending the same kindergartens, with all bilingual children speaking the same heritage language (HL-Russian. A total of 120 children (88 bilingual children: 44 with low SES; and 32 monolingual children: 16 with low SES with typical language development, aged 5; 7–6; 7, were tested in the societal language (SL-Hebrew on expressive vocabulary and three repetition tasks [forward digit span (FWD, nonword repetition (NWR, and sentence repetition (SRep], which tap into verbal short-term memory. The results indicated that SES and bilingualism impact different child abilities. Bilingualism is associated with decreased vocabulary size and lower performance on verbal short-term memory tasks with higher linguistic load in the SL-Hebrew. The negative effect of bilingualism on verbal short-term memory disappears once vocabulary is accounted for. SES influences not only linguistic performance, but also verbal short-term memory with lowest linguistic load. The negative effect of SES cannot be solely attributed to lower vocabulary scores, suggesting that an unprivileged background has a negative impact on children’s cognitive development beyond a linguistic disadvantage. The results have important clinical implications and call for more research exploring the varied impact of language and life experience on children’s linguistic and cognitive skills.

  14. Higher risk of death among MEN1 patients with mutations in the JunD interacting domain: a Groupe d'etude des Tumeurs Endocrines (GTE) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenon, Julien; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Faivre, Laurence; Cardot-Bauters, Catherine; Calender, Alain; Murat, Arnaud; Giraud, Sophie; Niccoli, Patricia; Odou, Marie-Françoise; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Barlier, Anne; Lombard-Bohas, Catherine; Clauser, Eric; Tabarin, Antoine; Parfait, Béatrice; Chabre, Olivier; Castermans, Emilie; Beckers, Albert; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Le Bras, Morgane; Delemer, Brigitte; Bouchard, Philippe; Guilhem, Isabelle; Rohmer, Vincent; Goichot, Bernard; Caron, Philippe; Baudin, Eric; Chanson, Philippe; Groussin, Lionel; Du Boullay, Hélène; Weryha, Georges; Lecomte, Pierre; Penfornis, Alfred; Bihan, Hélène; Archambeaud, Françoise; Kerlan, Véronique; Duron, Françoise; Kuhn, Jean-Marc; Vergès, Bruno; Rodier, Michel; Renard, Michel; Sadoul, Jean-Louis; Binquet, Christine; Goudet, Pierre

    2013-05-15

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1), which is secondary to mutation of the MEN1 gene, is a rare autosomal-dominant disease that predisposes mutation carriers to endocrine tumors. Although genotype-phenotype studies have so far failed to identify any statistical correlations, some families harbor recurrent tumor patterns. The function of MENIN is unclear, but has been described through the discovery of its interacting partners. Mutations in the interacting domains of MENIN functional partners have been shown to directly alter its regulation abilities. We report on a cohort of MEN1 patients from the Groupe d'étude des Tumeurs Endocrines. Patients with a molecular diagnosis and a clinical follow-up, totaling 262 families and 806 patients, were included. Associations between mutation type, location or interacting factors of the MENIN protein and death as well as the occurrence of MEN1-related tumors were tested using a frailty Cox model to adjust for potential heterogeneity across families. Accounting for the heterogeneity across families, the overall risk of death was significantly higher when mutations affected the JunD interacting domain (adjusted HR = 1.88: 95%-CI = 1.15-3.07). Patients had a higher risk of death from cancers of the MEN1 spectrum (HR = 2.34; 95%-CI = 1.23-4.43). This genotype-phenotype correlation study confirmed the lack of direct genotype-phenotype correlations. However, patients with mutations affecting the JunD interacting domain had a higher risk of death secondary to a MEN1 tumor and should thus be considered for surgical indications, genetic counseling and follow-up.

  15. Relationships between symptomatology and SES-related factors in hyperkinetic/MBD boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternite, C E; Loney, J; Langhorne, J E

    1976-04-01

    Relationships among symptomatology, socioeconomic status, and parenting styles were examined for 113 hyperkinetic/minimal brain dysfunction boys from intact families. Primary symptoms (e.g. hyperactivity) did not vary as a function of SES, but SES-related differences emerged for secondary symptoms (e.g., aggressive behavior, self-esteem deficits) and for parenting variables. Parenting variables were found to be better predictors of secondary symptoms than was SES. Implications for further research are offered.

  16. Positive attitude toward healthy eating predicts higher diet quality at all cost levels of supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Collective action in a tropical estuarine lagoon: adapting Ostrom’s SES framework to Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elba Torres Guevara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the social-ecological systems literature byadapting and using Elinor Ostrom’s Social-Ecological System (SES frameworkin the context of a coastal ecosystem. We modified the SES framework in thecase of the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM, an estuarine lagoon inthe Caribbean coast of Colombia. The ecological importance of CGSM and itsspecies is undeniable. This paper aims to understand why collective action fora sustainable use of CGSM’s fishery resources has not taken place. In order torespond to that question, we created new variables within the social, economic,and political settings of the SES framework. The results show that the fishers’ fearof the indiscriminate and strong violence that illegal armed groups have inflictedon them since the 1960s and the economic development in the ColombianCaribbean region help explain the lack of collective action.

  18. Group-based social skills interventions for adolescents with higher-functioning autism spectrum disorder: a review and looking to the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon CM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Camilla M McMahon,1 Matthew D Lerner,2,3 Noah Britton41Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, IN, USA; 2Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 4Behavorial Sciences Department, Bunker Hill Community College, Charleston, MA, USAAbstract: In this paper, we synthesize the current literature on group-based social skills interventions (GSSIs for adolescents (ages 10–20 years with higher-functioning autism spectrum disorder and identify key concepts that should be addressed in future research on GSSIs. We consider the research participants, the intervention, the assessment of the intervention, and the research methodology and results to be integral and interconnected components of the GSSI literature, and we review each of these components respectively. Participant characteristics (eg, age, IQ, sex and intervention characteristics (eg, targeted social skills, teaching strategies, duration and intensity vary considerably across GSSIs; future research should evaluate whether participant and intervention characteristics mediate/moderate intervention efficacy. Multiple assessments (eg, parent-report, child-report, social cognitive assessments are used to evaluate the efficacy of GSSIs; future research should be aware of the limitations of current measurement approaches and employ more accurate, sensitive, and comprehensive measurement approaches. Results of GSSIs are largely inconclusive, with few consistent findings across studies (eg, high parent and child satisfaction with the intervention; future research should employ more rigorous methodological standards for evaluating efficacy. A better understanding of these components in the current GSSI literature and a more sophisticated and rigorous analysis of these components in future research will lend clarity to key questions

  19. Exploring recruitment, willingness to participate, and retention of low-SES women in stress and depression prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoefnagels Cees

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruitment, willingness to participate, and retention in interventions are indispensable for successful prevention. This study investigated the effectiveness of different strategies for recruiting and retaining low-SES women in depression prevention, and explored which sociodemographic characteristics and risk status factors within this specific target group are associated with successful recruitment and retention. Methods The process of recruitment, willingness to participate, and retention was structurally mapped and explored. Differences between women who dropped out and those who adhered to the subsequent stages of the recruitment and retention process were investigated. The potential of several referral strategies was also studied, with specific attention paid to the use of GP databases. Results As part of the recruitment process, 12.1% of the target population completed a telephone screening. The most successful referral strategy was the use of patient databases from GPs working in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Older age and more severe complaints were particularly associated with greater willingness to participate and with retention. Conclusions Low-SES women can be recruited and retained in public health interventions through tailored strategies. The integration of mental health screening within primary care might help to embed preventive interventions in low-SES communities.

  20. Group-based social skills interventions for adolescents with higher-functioning autism spectrum disorder: a review and looking to the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Camilla M; Lerner, Matthew D; Britton, Noah

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we synthesize the current literature on group-based social skills interventions (GSSIs) for adolescents (ages 10–20 years) with higher-functioning autism spectrum disorder and identify key concepts that should be addressed in future research on GSSIs. We consider the research participants, the intervention, the assessment of the intervention, and the research methodology and results to be integral and interconnected components of the GSSI literature, and we review each of these components respectively. Participant characteristics (eg, age, IQ, sex) and intervention characteristics (eg, targeted social skills, teaching strategies, duration and intensity) vary considerably across GSSIs; future research should evaluate whether participant and intervention characteristics mediate/moderate intervention efficacy. Multiple assessments (eg, parent-report, child-report, social cognitive assessments) are used to evaluate the efficacy of GSSIs; future research should be aware of the limitations of current measurement approaches and employ more accurate, sensitive, and comprehensive measurement approaches. Results of GSSIs are largely inconclusive, with few consistent findings across studies (eg, high parent and child satisfaction with the intervention); future research should employ more rigorous methodological standards for evaluating efficacy. A better understanding of these components in the current GSSI literature and a more sophisticated and rigorous analysis of these components in future research will lend clarity to key questions regarding the efficacy of GSSIs for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:23956616

  1. 75 FR 15611 - Safety Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa, San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast... navigable waters of the San Diego Bay in support of the United Portuguese SES Centennial Festa. This... Centennial Festa, which will include a fireworks presentation originating from a tug and barge combination in...

  2. 75 FR 43944 - Membership of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... CONTACT: Ms. Lisa Novajosky, SES Program Manager, DLA Human Resources (J-14), Defense Logistics Agency... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Logistics Agency Membership of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA... management of the SES cadre. DATES: Effective Date: September 16, 2010. ADDRESSES: Defense Logistics Agency...

  3. SES, Ethnic, and Gender Differences in Young Children's Informal Addition and Subtraction: A Clinical Interview Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Herbert P.; Pappas, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine possible socioeconomic status (SES) differences in 4- and 5-year-old children's informal mathematical knowledge. One hundred and two children, 32 from lower, 39 from middle, and 31 from upper SES families participated in the study. Each participant was given a clinical interview involving several addition…

  4. Motor Skill Performance by Low SES Preschool and Typically Developing Children on the PDMS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Hoffmann, Chelsea; Hamilton, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor skill performance of preschool children from low socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds to their age matched typically developing peers using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Sixty-eight children (34 low SES and 34 typically developing; ages 3-5) performed the PDMS-2. Standard scores…

  5. 5 CFR 534.406 - Conversion to the SES pay system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the SES pay system. (a) On the first day of the first applicable pay period beginning on or after... rate of basic pay that is equal to the employee's rate of basic pay, plus any applicable locality-based... first day of the first applicable pay period beginning on or after January 1, 2004. If an SES member's...

  6. Male smokers with HLA-B27 positivity, SI joints inflammation have more radiological damages and higher prevalence of AS while females have higher BASDAI scores: observations from cluster analyses of a group of SpA patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Shirley Chiu Wai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To describe the clinical characteristics and the relations with disease activity, functional status, and syndesmophytes formation in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA by categorizing them into different groups.

  7. Le soudage de l'aluminium et de ses alliages

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, G

    2005-01-01

    Le soudage de l'aluminium requiert un savoir-faire spécifique pour éviter la formation, dans la soudure, de défauts rédhibitoires tels que les manques de fusion ou soufflures. Ces défauts ont pour causes principales la présence d’une couche d'alumine, une diffusivité thermique élevée et une solubilité très faible de l’hydrogène dans le métal à l’état solide. Les règles de l’art à appliquer pour la préparation des assemblages et pour le choix des paramètres de soudage sont rappelées. Les divers procédés de soudage mis en Å"uvre par la section TS-MME-AS (faisceau d’électrons, laser, TIG, MIG) sont ensuite exposés à travers quelques applications récentes liées au LHC et à ses expériences. Enfin, une nouvelle technologie, le Friction Stir Welding (FSW), est présentée. Ce procédé de friction malaxage se déroule à l’état pâteux sans fusion. Il permet de réaliser des assemb...

  8. BMI mediates the association between low educational level and higher blood pressure during pregnancy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwa, Seung Chik; Fujiwara, Takeo; Hata, Akira; Arata, Naoko; Sago, Haruhiko; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2013-04-25

    Research investigating the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and blood pressure (BP) during pregnancy is limited and its underlying pathway is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the mediators of the association between educational level as an indicator of the SES and BP in early and mid-pregnancy among Japanese women. Nine hundred and twenty-three pregnant women in whom BP was measured before 16 weeks and at 20 weeks of gestation were enrolled in this study. Maternal educational levels were categorized into three groups: high (university or higher), mid (junior college), and low (junior high school, high school, or vocational training school). The low educational group had higher systolic (low vs. high, difference = 2.39 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59 to 4.19) and diastolic BP levels (low vs. high, difference = 0.74 mmHg, 95% CI: -0.52 to 1.99) in early pregnancy. However, the same associations were not found after adjustment for pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). BP reduction was observed in mid-pregnancy in all three educational groups and there was no association between educational level and pregnancy-induced hypertension. In Japanese women, the low educational group showed higher BP during pregnancy than the mid or high educational groups. Pre-pregnancy BMI mediates the association between educational level and BP.

  9. The Effects of an Intervention on the Gross and Fine Motor Skills of Hispanic Pre-K Children from Low SES Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Michelle; Liu, Ting

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a motor skill intervention on gross and fine motor skill performance of Hispanic pre-K children from low SES backgrounds. One hundred and forty-nine pre-K children were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 74) and control group (n = 75). All children were assessed on fine and gross…

  10. The Predictive Value of Job Demands and Resources on the Meaning of Work and Organisational Commitment across Different Age Groups in the Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthun, Kirsti Sarheim; Innstrand, Siw Tone

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the predictive value of job demands and resources on the meaning of work and organisational commitment across three age groups; young workers (age group of workers (30-49 years) and older workers (>50 years). Data were collected from a survey conducted among university employees (N = 3,066).…

  11. The Impact of Familial, Behavioural and Psychosocial Factors on the SES Gradient for Childhood Overweight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bammann, Karin; Gwozdz, Wencke; Pischke, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Background: In highly developed countries, childhood overweight and many overweight-related risk factors are negatively associated with socioeconomic status (SES). Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the longitudinal association between parental SES and childhood overweight, ...

  12. [The "conclusions of Pharmacy" in Nancy, at the end of the 18th century: between "synthèses" and "thèses"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, P; Martin, J

    1995-01-01

    A special requirement of the law for apothecaries in Nancy in 1764 imposed on the candidates for a master's degree was the written response to four questions following their practical examinations. Two documents heretofore unpublished show the results of this obligation: the Conclusions de Pharmacie by Joseph Pierson (1765) and the Conclusions de Pharmacie et de Chimie by François Mandel (1771). The authors of the present article comment on these documents and make an attempt to place them in the confused history of "synthèses" and "thèses".

  13. Karzai pääses raketirünnakust eluga / Hendrik Vosman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    Afganistani pealinnas Kabulis toimunud sõjaväeparaadile Talibani korraldatud raketirünnakus hukkus kolm inimest, president Hamid Karzai pääses vigastusteta. Kabulis viibinud Euroopa Parlamendi saadiku Katrin Saksa arvamus

  14. Bibliography on plutonium and its compounds; Bibliographie sur le plutonium et ses composes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirian, J; Choquet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Collection of bibliographical references on plutonium and its principal compounds from 1942 to end of 1957. (author) [French] Compilation de references bibliographiques sur le plutonium et ses principaux composes de 1942 a fin 1957. (auteur)

  15. The Relationship between SES and Reading Comprehension in Chinese: A Mediation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahua Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of research provides evidence that socioeconomic status (SES was significantly related to children’s reading development; however, the psychological mechanism underlying the association between them remained an open question. The present study is designed to test the hypothesized three-path effect of vocabulary knowledge and morphological awareness as mediators between SES and sentence reading comprehension in Chinese first-graders. Results of mediation model showed that SES exerted its effect on sentence reading comprehension through the indirect path via the simple mediating effect of morphological awareness and the three-path mediating effect of vocabulary knowledge and morphological awareness. The findings highlight a previously unidentified mechanism of the relationship between SES and reading comprehension in Chinese young children.

  16. 77 FR 62211 - Senior Executive Services (SES) Performance Review Board: Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Senior Executive Services (SES) Performance Review Board... International Development, Office of Inspector General's Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board... Performance Review Boards. The board shall review and evaluate the initial appraisal of each USAID OIG senior...

  17. University Knowledge Exchange (KE) Framework: Good Practice in Technology Transfer. Report to the UK Higher Education Sector and HEFCE by the McMillan Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, 2016

    2016-01-01

    As part of its commitment to keeping the UK at the leading edge as a global knowledge-based economy, the last Government asked the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) in 2014 to develop a knowledge exchange (KE) performance framework that would secure effective practice in universities on key productive elements in the…

  18. What factors help or hinder the achievement of low SES students? An international comparison using TIMSS 2011 8th grade science data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Justin L.

    Focusing on science from a cross-country perspective, this study explores the relationship between 8th grade science achievement and student, teacher, and school characteristics. More specifically, this study will pay special attention to low socio-economic status (SES) students and seek to understand why some disadvantaged students are able to have higher than expected achievement in science given their SES while other disadvantaged students are not able to achieve beyond what would be expected given their background. This study will explore the multi-level relationship between the characteristics of students, their teachers, their schools, and student achievement in science. While looking at students in classrooms and in schools, this work will create as precise as possible a measure of student SES by drawing on recommendations of an expert panel commissioned by the National Association of Educational Progress (NAEP) study. The study uses the most recent cycle (2011) of the Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS), to strategically select a six-country sample from the 45 participating countries. This six-country sample was selected by using the country level achievement and the standard deviation of that achievement. This will create a sample that has a range of equality in achievement and strength in achievement. This allows for making comparisons both across and within countries to better understand variations in the factors of student performance, especially for disadvantaged students. This paper builds on the existing research around socio-economic status (SES) and achievement by exploring in more detail the conditions in schools and classrooms around the world that might magnify or reduce the effect of SES on student achievement. The analysis looks at these questions: "What conditions help low SES students achieve higher than what would be expected given their SES?" and "What conditions hinder low SES students to achieve at or below what would

  19. Communication Between Middle SES Black Women and Healthcare Providers About HIV Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fray, Niasha A; Caldwell, Kia Lilly

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the impact of patient and healthcare provider communication (PPC) on the HIV testing behaviors of middle socioeconomic status (SES) Black women in North Carolina. We explore how PPC about STIs and HIV (or the lack thereof) affects the provision of STI/HIV testing by either confirming the need for middle SES Black women to test routinely or potentially deterring women from feeling they need to be tested. After conducting 15 qualitative interviews with middle SES Black women between 25 and 45 years of age, we uncovered the role of patient self-advocacy in promoting HIV testing among middle SES Black women when they communicate with their healthcare providers. We discuss the importance of healthcare providers engaging their middle SES Black female patients in routine discussions about sexual health and sexual risk reduction, regardless of providers' perceptions of their potential STI/HIV risk. We recommend including SES as a variable in data collection and research in order to better understand how social class, race, and gender affect sexual health behavior and the provision of STI and HIV/AIDS prevention to diverse populations. Copyright © 2016 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Higher prevalence of OCA1 in an ethnic group of eastern India is due to a founder mutation in the tyrosinase gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaki, M.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Das, M.; Samanta, S.; Ray, K.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by deficient synthesis of melanin pigment and associated with common developmental abnormalities of the eye. It is one of the major causes of childhood blindness in India. The disease is common among an

  1. Manualized social skills group training for children and adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder: protocol of a naturalistic multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Choque Olsson, Nora; Tammimies, Kristiina; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    AbstractAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and interaction, and the presence of stereotyped, repetitive and restricted behavior, interests, and activities. Despite prior studies showing moderate efficacy of social skills group training (SSGT) for children and adolescents with ASD, its effectiveness remains unclear. To investigate the efficacy and effectiveness of SSGT, we have initiated a large randomiz...

  2. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Comerford, Kevin B.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during...

  3. Framatome announces its 1997 results; Framatome annonce ses resultats 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-18

    This press dossier presents the 1997 financial year of Framatome group: turnover and key-numbers, results, sectoral analysis (nuclear engineering (nuclear realizations, fuels, services and equipments); connectors engineering (automotive, electrical, electronic, interconnection and microelectronic industries), industrial equipments). Then, the 1998 objectives are presented with the strategy of the group (Chinese, central and eastern Europe nuclear programs, French-German joint EPR project, services and nuclear fuels, connectors engineering, industrial equipments, manpower, research and development programs). This part is followed by a presentation of some 1997 events and by the text of the press conference from May 18, 1998 which presented the activities of the group, its competences and know-how in the nuclear domain. (J.S.)

  4. Comparison of fluorouracil with additional levamisole, higher-dose folinic acid, or both, as adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: a randomised trial. QUASAR Collaborative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-06

    Standard adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer consists of fluorouracil with folinic acid or levamisole. The large QUASAR randomised trial aimed to investigate (in a two x two design) whether use of a higher dose of folinic acid or addition of levamisole to fluorouracil and folinic acid improved survival. Patients with colorectal cancer, without evident residual disease, were randomly assigned fluorouracil (370 mg/m2) with high-dose (175 mg) or low-dose (25 mg) L-folinic acid and either active or placebo levamisole. The fluorouracil and folinic acid could be given either as six 5-day courses with 4 weeks between the start of the courses or as 30 once-weekly doses. Levamisole (50 mg) or placebo was given three times daily for 3 days repeated every 2 weeks for 12 courses. The primary endpoint was mortality from any cause. Analyses were by intention to treat. Between 1994 and 1997, 4,927 patients were enrolled. 1,776 had recurrences and 1,576 died. Survival was similar with high-dose and low-dose folinic acid (70.1% vs 71.0% at 3 years; p=0-43), as were 3-year recurrence rates (36.0% vs 35.8%; p=0.94). Survival was worse with levamisole than with placebo (69.4% vs 71.5% at 3 years; p=0.06), and there were more recurrences with the active drug (37.0% vs 34.9% at 3 years; p=0.16). The inclusion of levamisole in chemotherapy regimens for colorectal cancer does not delay recurrence or improve survival. Higher-dose folinic acid produced no extra benefit in these regimens over that from low-dose folinic acid. Trials of chemotherapy versus no chemotherapy will show whether these four treatments are equally effective or equally ineffective.

  5. La epidemiología ocupacional en países en desarrollo Labor epidemiology in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caristina Robaina Aguirre

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analiza de forma crítica la situación epidemiológica ocupacional existente en la mayoría de los países en vías de desarrollo. Se valoran además las enfermedades que con más frecuencia afectan a nuestras poblaciones, en particular a la población trabajadora, incluyendo grupos vulnerables como mujeres y niños que se ven obligados, por razones económicas y sociales, a trabajar en condiciones anormales e inseguras. También se pone de manifiesto el papel que juegan algunos países industrializados en el aumento de la contaminación ambiental en nuestro tercer mundo, con la consiguiente repercusión para la salud de sus poblaciones.The present article analyzes in a critical way the epidemiological situation at work that exists in most of the developing countries. Also the diseases that more frequently affect our populations, mainly the working population including the vulnerable groups such as women and children who are forced to work under poor and unsafe conditions because of economic and social reasons, were assessed. The role played by some industrial nations in the rise of environmental pollution in our third world, with the resulting impact on our populations´s health was stressed.

  6. Edaphic and arboricolous oribatid mites (Acari; Oribatida in tropical environments: changes in the distribution of higher level taxonomic groups in the communities of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Franklin

    Full Text Available We analysed the community of oribatid mites in 25 environments of northern Brazil and one in a rain forest in Peru, encompassing fauna sampled on natural and artificial (nylon-mesh bags substrata, from primary and secondary forests, caatinga, savannahs, flooded forests, bark and epiphytes of trees, and polyculture. A hundred and forty six species are definitively identified from a total of 444 taxa. To determine changes in the community, we took as a basis of comparison the species dominance of Lower Oribatida vs. Oppioidea and Lower Oribatida vs. Poronota. Even considering the different periods in which the inventories were realized and the different sampling methodology compared, the partition of the species of Oribatid mite in larger groups shows tendencies indicating partition of species dominance among the environments studied, showing that they differed in their suitability as habitats for the Oribatid mite community, mainly in respect to the Lower Oribatida, Oppioidea and Poronota composition. These tendencies should be explored in more detail as more becomes known about the species composition in each environment.

  7. Socio-Demographic and Lifestyle Factors Predict 5-Year Changes in Adiposity among a Group of Black South African Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelie Nienaber-Rousseau

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity and excessive adiposity are global public health concerns. Understanding determinants of changes in adiposity over time is critical for informing effective evidence-based prevention or treatment. However, limited information is available to achieve this objective. Cultural, demographic, environmental, and behavioral factors including socio-economic status (SES likely account for obesity development. To this end, we related these variables to anthropometric measures in 1058 black adult Tswana-speaking South Africans who were HIV negative in a prospective study over five years. Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference increased in both sexes, whereas triceps skinfold thickness remained the same. Over the five years, women moved to higher BMI categories and more were diagnosed with central obesity. Age correlated negatively, whereas SES, physical activity, energy, and fat intake correlated positively with adiposity markers in women. In men, SES, marital status, physical activity, and being urban predicted increases in adiposity. For women, SES and urbanicity increased, whereas menopause and smoking decreased adiposity. Among men, smokers had less change in BMI than those that never smoked over five years. Our findings suggest that interventions, focusing on the urban living, the married and those with the highest SES—the high-risk groups identified herein—are of primary importance to contain morbidity and premature mortality due to obesity in black South Africans.

  8. THE APOCOPE IN THE LOAN WORDS ALINTI KELİMELERDE SON SES DÜŞMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin KOÇ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Disappearance is the loss of a sound in structure of the word with some reasons. There are three types of disappearance: apheresis, syncope and apocope. The apocope is disappearance of a vowel or consonant at the end of a word. This situation isn’t standard in whole dialects and accents. Some dropping sounds, have an intense in a spesific region, they aren’t seen in the other areas or have rare examples. This is rather common in the dialects. In this study will be handled the apocope in the loan words with the examples in Turkey Turkish and contemporary Turkish dialects. Bir kelimedeki seslerden birinin, çeşitli nedenlerle düşmesine ses düşmesi denir. Ses düşmesi üç çeşittir: ön ses düşmesi, iç ses düşmesi ve son ses düşmesi. Son ses düşmesi, kelimede son ses durumunda olan ünlü veya ünsüzün düşmesidir. Bu durum, bütün lehçelerde ve ağızlarda standart değildir. Düşen bazı sesler, belli bir bölge içinde yoğunlaşırken, bazı bölgelerde görülmemekte ve hatta birkaç ya da bir örnekle sınırlı kalabilmektedir. Bu daha çok ağızlarda görülür. Çalışmada, Türkiye Türkçesinde ve Çağdaş Türk Lehçelerinde alıntı kelimelerde son ses düşmesi bahsi örnekleriyle ele alınacaktır.

  9. Social inequality and child malnutrition in four Andean countries Desigualdad social y malnutrición infantil en cuatro países andinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Larrea

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the effects of socioeconomic, regional, and ethnic conditions on chronic malnutrition in four Andean countries of South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Methods. The study was based on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS for Colombia (1995, Peru (1996, and Bolivia (1997, and on a Living Standard Measurement Survey for Ecuador (1998. We developed an index of household socioeconomic status using categorical principal components analysis. We broke down the prevalence of stunting by socioeconomic status (SES, ethnicity, place of residence (large cities, small cities, towns, and countryside, and region (highland region versus other areas of the country. We applied smoothed regression curves and linear functions to analyze SES effects on stunting, with specific models for Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. Results. Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru have similar characteristics, with high stunting prevalences overall; higher stunting prevalences in their highland areas, particularly among indigenous populations; and strong socioeconomic disparities. Colombia, in contrast, has a lower stunting prevalence and smaller regional disparities. The socioeconomic gradient of stunting is strong in all four countries, with prevalence rates in the poorest deciles at least three times as high as those in the top decile. Discussion. The sharp contrast between the conditions found in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru and those in Colombia may be the result of specific ethnic factors affecting indigenous groups; a particular diet profile in the highland areas, with low protein and micronutrient intake; and differences in the long-term economic and social development paths that the countries have taken. Along with the strong socioeconomic gradient in all the countries, the weight of ethnic and regional factors suggests the need to reduce inequality as well as to comprehensively improve education and housing, better target health and nutrition programs

  10. Vocabulary knowledge, phonological representations and phonological sensitivity in Spanish-speaking low-and middle-SES preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Diuk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among vocabulary knowledge, phonological representations and phonological sensitivity in 80 Spanish-speaking preschool children from middle- and low-SES families. Significant social class differences were obtained on all tasks except syllable matching. Regression analyses were carried out to test the predictive power of vocabulary knowledge and accuracy of phonological representations on the phonological sensitivity measures. Receptive vocabulary predicted rhyme identification. Syllable matching was predicted by a task tapping accuracy of phonological representations. The fact that rhyme identification was predicted by vocabulary knowledge but syllable matching was predicted by a measure tapping accuracy of phonological representations in both groups suggests that early lexical development sets the stage for the development of the lower levels of phonological sensitivity but identification of smaller units requires more accurate and segmented phonological representations.

  11. "I Am Working-Class": Subjective Self-Definition as a Missing Measure of Social Class and Socioeconomic Status in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark; Denson, Nida; Kilpatrick, Sue; Matthews, Kelly E.; Stehlik, Tom; Zyngier, David

    2014-01-01

    This review provides a critical appraisal of the measurement of students' social class and socioeconomic status (SES) in the context of widening higher education participation. Most assessments of social class and SES in higher education have focused on objective measurements based on the income, occupation, and education of students'…

  12. Social System of River City High School Senior Class: Socio-economic Status (SES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Richard F.

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between an adolescent's socioeconomic status (SES) and selected variables of the sub-subsystems of the River City High School senior class social system during the 1974-75 academic year. Variables for study were selected from each of the three sub-subsystems of the senior class social…

  13. Family Life Satisfaction across Positional Roles, Family Development Categories and SES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffany, Phyllis G.

    Marital satisfaction across the life cycle differs for men and women. To investigate family life satisfaction across positional roles, developmental categories, and socioeconomic status (SES), 100 husbands and wives (families) were administered the Heimler Schedule of Social Functioning (SOSF), which relates social function and stressors (work,…

  14. Finaali pääses kümme Võrumaa koolitantsu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Valgas toimunud "Koolitants 2009" piirkondlikult festivalilt pääses 18. ja 19. aprillil Pärnus toimuvale lõppkontserdile kümme Võrumaa tantsu. Ühe kahest arengu eripreemiast pälvis 7.-9. klasside šõutantsu kategoorias võistelnud Võru kunstikooli tantsutrupp Katariina tantsuga "Rock-rock-rock"

  15. Mäeorg Stuudio film pääses paremate hulka / Margus Haav

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haav, Margus, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Noorte filmihuviliste asutatud Mäeorg Stuudio film "Armastus on külmem kui surm" ehk "Liebe ist kälter als der Tod" pääses 37 parema hulka, mida saab näha kinos Sõprus ja 9. detsembril Eesti Televisioonis

  16. 75 FR 6729 - Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board; Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review... Performance Review Boards. The Board shall review the initial appraisal of a senior executive's performance by... senior executive performance. The members of the Performance Review Board for the National Archives and...

  17. Ambiente institucional e compra de terras por estrangeiros em países em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Simões Pongeluppe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available De acordo com o Banco Mundial, desde o final dos anos 2000 o movimento de aquisição de terras por estrangeiros tem se acentuado nos países em desenvolvimento, impulsionado pelo boom dos preços das commodities. Em termos teóricos, a abordagem da Nova Economia Institucional (NEI argumenta que as instituições são importantes para as estratégias dos agentes econômicos e seu desempenho. Neste estudo, apoiado na NEI, pretende-se responder como as instituições presentes em países periféricos refletem o processo de aquisições de terras por investidores estrangeiros. Para esse objetivo, foram utilizados dados secundários de organizações internacionais, como Food and Agriculture Organization, Banco Mundial, Conferência das Nações Unidas sobre Comércio e Desenvolvimento, Fundo Monetário Internacional, Organização para a Cooperação Econômica e Desenvolvimento Econômico, Wall Street Journal e agências nacionais. A hipótese principal é que a força ou a fraqueza presente no ambiente institucional em países em desenvolvimento tem influência relevante no nível de Investimento Estrangeiro Direto (IED. Para testar a hipótese, adota-se como metodologia a análise estatística, na qual se verifica a relação entre o nível de IED nos países receptores (variável dependente contra variáveis independentes: liberdade de investimento, direitos de propriedade e nível de corrupção. Espera-se?que os pa?ses com?ambientes institucionais independentes: liberdade de investimento, direitos de propriedade e nível de corrupção. Espera-se que os países com ambientes institucionais fracos, ou menos seguros, tendam a receber menores investimentos em compra de terras e arrendamentos do que outros países que têm estrutura institucional que garanta os direitos de propriedade.

  18. La paradoja eudemonista de la política de los países de Europa del Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Fédorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las tendencias contemporáneas de la crisis financie- ra y política en los países de Europa del Sur necesitan el análisis complejo para la formación de la estrategia eficaz anticrisis del país. El énfasis se ha puesto en el conflic- to de objetivos del perfeccionismo entre dos vectores de realización –el privado y el nacional–. Se analiza profun- damente el Estado como un organismo político según la teoría orgánica de sociedad, para aclarar los procesos regresivos que se están adelantando en los países del gru- po PIIGS de Europa del Sur. Se presta especial atención al descubrimiento de la paradoja eudemonista, la eluci- dación de lo cual solucionaría los procesos de crisis. Los resultados recibidos son importantes para los países de Europa Meridional, especialmente para los que pertene- cen al grupo PIIGS, y también, los resultados que pueden ser aplicados a cada subjeto de relaciones internacionales. Asimismo, se formulan cinco fases de procesos regresivos del Estado, que ayudarán a evaluar el grado del daño de los procesos destructivos del país. Abstract Contemporary financial and political crisis tenden- cies in the Southern European countries require a com- prehensive analysis to formulate an effective anti-crisis strategy of the country. The emphasis has been placed on a conflict of the perfectionism purposes between two vec- tors of interest –the private and the national–. It is deeply analyzed the state as a political organism, based on the organic theory of society, to clarify the regressive process- es that is developing in the PIIGS group countries of the Southern Europe. The distinctiveness of this article is the discovery of the eudemonistic paradox by the author. The elucidation of the eudaimonistic paradox will solve the problems of the crisis processes. The obtained results are important for the countries of the Southern Europe, es- pecially for the PIIGS countries, and also

  19. Does who you know in the positional hierarchy protect or hurt? Social capital, comparative reference group, and depression in two societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lijun

    2015-07-01

    Does the socioeconomic status (SES) that one's (ego's) network members (alters) occupy indicate social resources or social comparison standards in the dynamics of health across culture? Using nationally representative data simultaneously collected from the United States and urban China, this study examines two competing theories-social capital and comparative reference group-in the two societies and compares their different application across the two societies using two cultural explanations, relational dependence and self-evaluation motive. Social capital theory expects absolute accessed SES and the size of higher accessed socioeconomic positions to protect health, and the size of lower accessed socioeconomic positions to harm health. But comparative reference group theory predicts the opposite. Additionally, the relational dependence explanation anticipates social capital theory to be more applicable to urban China and comparative reference group theory to be more applicable to the United States. The self-evaluation motive explanation expects the same pattern across the two societies in the examination of the size of lower accessed socioeconomic positions but the opposite pattern in the analysis of absolute accessed SES and the size of higher accessed socioeconomic positions. This study focuses on depressive symptoms and measures accessed occupational status. Results are consistent with the self-evaluation motive explanation. They support both social capital theory and comparative reference group theory in the United States but only the latter theory in urban China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  1. Local professionals' perceptions of health assets in a low-SES Dutch neighbourhood: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Broeder, Lea; Uiters, Ellen; Hofland, Aafke; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Schuit, Albertine Jantine

    2017-07-12

    Asset-based approaches have become popular in public health. As yet it is not known to what extent health and welfare professionals are able to identify and mobilise individual and community health assets. Therefore, the aim of this study was to understand professional's perceptions of health and health assets. In a low-SES neighbourhood, 21 health and welfare professionals were interviewed about their definition of health and their perceptions of the residents' health status, assets available in the neighbourhood's environment, and the way residents use these assets. A Nominal Group Technique (NGT) session was conducted for member check. Verbatim transcripts of the semi-structured interviews were coded and analysed using Atlas.ti. The professionals used a broad health concept, emphasizing the social dimension of health as most important. They discussed the poor health of residents, mentioning multiple health problems and unmet health needs. They provided many examples of behaviour that they considered unhealthy, in particular unhealthy diet and lack of exercise. Professionals considered the green physical environment, as well as health and social services, including their own services, as important health enhancing factors, whereas social and economic factors were considered as major barriers for good health. Poor housing and litter in public space were considered as barriers as well. According to the professionals, residents underutilized neighbourhood health assets. They emphasised the impact of poverty on the residents and their health. Moreover, they felt that residents were lacking individual capabilities to lead a healthy life. Although committed to the wellbeing of the residents, some professionals seemed almost discouraged by the (perceived) situation. They looked for practical solutions by developing group-based approaches and supporting residents' self-organisation. Our study shows, firstly, that professionals in the priority district Slotermeer rated

  2. Investigações epidemiológicas sobre demência nos países em desenvolvimento Epidemiological research on dementia in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Scazufca

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Na medida em que a população mundial está envelhecendo, a demência está se constituindo em importante problema de saúde pública, particularmente nos países em desenvolvimento. Investigações epidemiológicas nestes países são escassas e apresentam dificuldades metodológicas adicionais, principalmente no que se refere à adequação sociocultural dos instrumentos utilizados para a definição de casos. Tendo em vista estas preocupações, foi fundado o "Grupo de Pesquisa em Demência 10/66", que é constituído por uma rede internacional de pesquisadores, predominantemente de países em desenvolvimento. O nome do grupo tem como referência o paradoxo de que menos de 10% dos estudos populacionais sobre demência são dirigidos aos 2/3 ou mais de casos de pessoas com demência que vivem em países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo do artigo é atualizar informações da literatura sobre as diferenças de prevalência e incidência de demência encontradas em países desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento.As the world population is ageing, dementia becomes an important public health problem, particularly in developing countries. Epidemiological research in these settings is scarce and present additional methodological difficulties, mainly regarding the socio-cultural adequacy of instruments used to identify cases of dementia. As a result of these concerns the 10/66 Dementia Research Group was founded to fill this gap. This is an international network of investigators, mostly from developing countries, and the group's name was based on the paradox that less than 10% of the population-based studies on dementia are directed to 2/3 or more cases of people with dementia living in developing countries. The aim of the paper is to update data in the literature regarding the differences in dementia prevalence and incidence seen in developed and developing countries.

  3. SES Gradients Among Mexicans in the United States and in Mexico: A New Twist to the Hispanic Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Palloni, Alberto; Riosmena, Fernando; Wong, Rebeca

    2016-10-01

    Recent empirical findings have suggested the existence of a twist in the Hispanic paradox, in which Mexican and other Hispanic foreign-born migrants living in the United States experience shallower socioeconomic status (SES) health disparities than those in the U.S. In this article, we seek to replicate this finding and test conjectures that could explain this new observed phenomenon using objective indicators of adult health by educational attainment in several groups: (1) Mexican-born individuals living in Mexico and in the United States, (2) U.S.-born Mexican Americans, and (3) non-Hispanic American whites. Our analytical strategy improves upon previous research on three fronts. First, we derive four hypotheses from a general framework that has also been used to explain the standard Hispanic paradox. Second, we study biomarkers rather than self-reported health and related conditions. Third, we use a binational data platform that includes both Mexicans living in Mexico (Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006) and Mexican migrants to the United States (NHANES 1999-2010). We find steep education gradients among Mexicans living in Mexico's urban areas in five of six biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in the overall MetS score. Mexican migrants living in the United States experience similar patterns to Mexicans living in Mexico in glucose and obesity biomarkers. These results are inconsistent with previous findings, suggesting that Mexican migrants in the United States experience significantly attenuated health gradients relative to the non-Hispanic white U.S. Our empirical evidence also contradicts the idea that SES-health gradients in Mexico are shallower than those in the United States and could be invoked to explain shallower gradients among Mexicans living in the United States.

  4. The Role of SES in Chinese (L1) and English (L2) Word Reading in Chinese-Speaking Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and word reading in both Chinese (L1) and English (L2), with children's cognitive/linguistic skills considered as mediators and/or moderators. One hundred ninety-nine Chinese kindergarteners in Hong Kong with diverse SES backgrounds participated in this study. SES…

  5. Don't Throw out the Baby with the Bathwater: The Case for a Reformed SES Funding Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Since its introduction in 2001, the Australian (Commonwealth) Government's socio-economic status (SES)-based funding scheme for private schools has been criticised as inequitable. The author argues that the inequities of the scheme are the result of government policy rather than the SES-based model itself. Compared with the former education…

  6. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  7. Temporal dependence of the selectivity property of SES stations in western Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dologlou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The selectivity property of the SES stations, IOA, PIR and PAT in western Greece, based on reported precursory SES signals and associated large earthquakes (Mw≥5.4 that occurred from 1983 to the end of 2008, has been examined. Interesting temporal dependence of the sensitive ability of these stations has been unveiled. Physical mechanisms for the observed changes in selectivity might be related with tectonic and geodynamic events. For instance, selectivity for IOA exhibits a time dependence, for PAT probably is related to the activation of Wadati-Benioff zone while for PIR seems to be related to the specific tectonics of two confined areas such as the Cephalonia Transform Faulting zone in Ionian Sea and the southwestern part of the Hellenic Trench.

  8. Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

  9. A CRISE DO PLANEJAMENTO DE TRANSPORTES NOS PAÍSES EM DESENVOLVIMENTO: REAVALIANDO PRESSUPOSTOS E ALTERNATIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Vasconcellos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo faz inicialmente uma sistematização dos problemas verificados nos países em desenvolvimento, como contribuição ao entendimento da crise urbana e seus efeitos sobre as condições de transporte, são sugeridos novos pressupostos e novos objetivos de orientação do processo de planejamento de transportes.

  10. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  11. As NICSPs e a Contabilidade Governamental de Países em Desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Chan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de alcanzar metas socioeconómicas ambiciosas, países en vías de desarrollo precisan desarrollar capacidad institucional en el sector público para establecer e implementar políticas públicas, las cuales, por su vez, prescinden de una reforma en su contabilidad gubernamental. El valor social de la reforma en la contabilidad gubernamental reposa, por tanto, en su contribución para las metas de desarrollo, inclusive de reducción de la pobreza. Esa fundamentación ha conducido a los donadores y a los financiadores interna - cionales y multilaterales a endosar las Normas Internacionales de Contabilidad para el Sector Público (NICSPs y su adopción en países en vías de desarrollo. El énfasis en asegurar la integridad financiera y la mudanza para el régimen de competencia puede tornar las NICSPs más útiles en la reforma de la contabilidad pública en países en vías de desarrollo.

  12. Le mahdi oublié de l'Inde britannique : Sayyid Ahmad Barelwî (1786-1831, ses disciples, ses adversaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gaborieau

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tournant le dos aux interprétations nationalistes indiennes et pakistanaises, cet article restitue la dimension millénariste de la carrière de Sayyid Ahmad Barelwî (1786-1831. Ce soufi naqshbandi, qui fut successivement soldat de fortune et réformateur religieux, lança en 1826 un jihâd contre les Sikhs et contre la présence britannique en Inde. Il disparut mystérieusement lors d'une bataille, et ses disciples attendirent son retour comme mahdi pendant plus d'un demi-siècle. Cette ultime arrière messianique est interprétée en quatre étapes. Je montre d'abord comment le contexte politique et social favorisait le développement d'idées millénaristes. La mentalité religieuse de l'époque et la place qu'y occupait l'eschatologie sont ensuite étudiées. La carrière posthume de Sayyid Ahmad comme mahdi est ensuite restituée à travers les sources coloniales. Enfin l'examen de documents originaux en persan écrit avant la mort de Sayyid Ahmad corrigera cette image coloniale, tout en montrant que, déjà de son vivant, il était bien perçu par ses disciples comme une sorte de mahdi du milieu des temps, analogue à certains égards au mujaddid tek que le concevaient les Naqshbandis.

  13. Perfil de mercado de la Unión Europea y los países de la EFTA

    OpenAIRE

    Casadiego, Vanessa; Villegas, Melissa; Beltrán, Paula Daniela

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo de grado busca evaluar el perfil del mercado de la Unión Europea y los países de la EFTA para identificar las oportunidades comerciales de Colombia, más específicamente en los siguientes países: Suiza, Noruega, Liechtenstein, Islandia, Republica Checa, Rumania y Suecia. A través de esta investigación se realizó un análisis de los 25 productos más exportados de Colombia a cada uno de los países estudiados, tomando en cuenta sus códigos arancelarios. Adicionalmente, se e...

  14. Higher Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  15. Exploring recruitment, willingness to participate, and retention of low-SES women in stress and depression prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waerden, J.E.B. van der; Hoefnagels, C.C.J.; Jansen, M.W.J.; Hosman, C.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recruitment, willingness to participate, and retention in interventions are indispensable for successful prevention. This study investigated the effectiveness of different strategies for recruiting and retaining low-SES women in depression prevention, and explored which sociodemographic

  16. What Is the Influence of Morphological Knowledge in the Early Stages of Reading Acquisition Among Low SES Children? A Graphical Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Colé

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Children from low-SES families are known to show delays in aspects of language development which underpin reading acquisition such as vocabulary and listening comprehension. Research on the development of morphological skills in this group is scarce, and no studies exist in French. The present study investigated the involvement of morphological knowledge in the very early stages of reading acquisition (decoding, before reading comprehension can be reliably assessed. We assessed listening comprehension, receptive vocabulary, phoneme awareness, morphological awareness as well as decoding, word reading and non-verbal IQ in 703 French first-graders from low-SES families after 3 months of formal schooling (November. Awareness of derivational morphology was assessed using three oral tasks: Relationship Judgment (e.g., do these words belong to the same family or not? heat-heater … ham-hammer; Lexical Sentence Completion [e.g., Someone who runs is a …? (runner]; and Non-lexical Sentence Completion [e.g., Someone who lums is a…? (lummer]. The tasks differ on implicit/explicit demands and also tap different kinds of morphological knowledge. The Judgement task measures the phonological and semantic properties of the morphological relationship and the Sentence Completion tasks measure knowledge of morphological production rules. Data were processed using a graphical modeling approach which offers key information about how skills known to be involved in learning to read are organized in memory. This modeling approach was therefore useful in revealing a potential network which expresses the conditional dependence structure between skills, after which recursive structural equation modeling was applied to test specific hypotheses. Six main conclusions can be drawn from these analyses about low SES reading acquisition: (1 listening comprehension is at the heart of the reading acquisition process; (2 word reading depends directly on phonemic awareness and

  17. Self-medication behaviors among Japanese consumers: sex, age, and SES differences and caregivers’ attitudes toward their children’s health management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoyama Ikuko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2009, when the revised Pharmaceutical Affairs Act was enacted in Japan, self-medication practices have increased. Because the concept of self-medication was recently introduced in Japan, few studies exist on this topic. Therefore, it is necessary to explore how self-medication is practiced. This study examined Japanese consumers’ self-medication practices and attitudes toward over-the-counter (OTC medicines based on their sex, age, and socioeconomic status (SES. Methods The participants were 403 adults (Mage = 41.1 years, SD = 16.22. A quota sampling method was employed based on age group, and participants completed an online questionnaire. Results Participants in the 20–29 age group reported medical costs as an obstacle in seeing a doctor; in contrast, transportation was a mitigating factor for elderly people. Regarding SES, people at lower SES levels chose to rest instead of seeing a doctor or purchasing over-the-counter (OTC medicines when sick. They also placed more value on national brand OTC medicines than private brands (likely due to advertisements. This finding suggests individuals with a low SES do not select OTC medicines based on their effects or ingredients. Regarding attitudes toward OTC medicines, Japanese participants seemed to be unaware of the potential for abuse and side effects associated with OTC medicines. Finally, in relation to caregivers’ self-medication practices for their children, the majority of participants reported taking their children to the hospital since children tend to receive free medical care. Furthermore, caregivers with a high educational background are more confident in being able to help manage their children’s health. Conclusions Our results suggest that health and medical discrepancies among Japanese consumers pose new social problems. In Japan, universal health care is available, but the cost of receiving medical care is not completely free of charge. Thus

  18. What keeps low-SES children from sleeping well: the role of presleep worries and sleep environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Erika J.; Kelly, Ryan J.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Children in families of low socioeconomic status (SES) have been found to have poor sleep, yet the reasons for this finding are unclear. Two possible mediators, presleep worries and home environment conditions, were investigated as indirect pathways between SES and children’s sleep. Participants/Methods The participants consisted of 271 children (M (age) = 11.33 years; standard deviation (SD) = 7.74 months) from families varying in SES as indexed by the income-to-needs ratio. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy (sleep minutes, night waking duration, and variability in sleep schedule) and child self-reported sleep/wake problems (e.g., oversleeping and trouble falling asleep) and sleepiness (e.g., sleeping in class and falling asleep while doing homework). Presleep worries and home environment conditions were assessed with questionnaires. Results Lower SES was associated with more subjective sleep/wake problems and daytime sleepiness, and increased exposure to disruptive sleep conditions and greater presleep worries were mediators of these associations. In addition, environmental conditions served as an intervening variable linking SES to variability in an actigraphy-derived sleep schedule, and, similarly, presleep worry was an intervening variable linking SES to actigraphy-based night waking duration. Across sleep parameters, the model explained 5–29% of variance. Conclusions Sleep environment and psychological factors are associated with socioeconomic disparities, which affect children’s sleep. PMID:25701537

  19. What keeps low-SES children from sleeping well: the role of presleep worries and sleep environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Erika J; Kelly, Ryan J; Buckhalt, Joseph A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-04-01

    Children in families of low socioeconomic status (SES) have been found to have poor sleep, yet the reasons for this finding are unclear. Two possible mediators, presleep worries and home environment conditions, were investigated as indirect pathways between SES and children's sleep. The participants consisted of 271 children (M (age) = 11.33 years; standard deviation (SD) = 7.74 months) from families varying in SES as indexed by the income-to-needs ratio. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy (sleep minutes, night waking duration, and variability in sleep schedule) and child self-reported sleep/wake problems (e.g., oversleeping and trouble falling asleep) and sleepiness (e.g., sleeping in class and falling asleep while doing homework). Presleep worries and home environment conditions were assessed with questionnaires. Lower SES was associated with more subjective sleep/wake problems and daytime sleepiness, and increased exposure to disruptive sleep conditions and greater presleep worries were mediators of these associations. In addition, environmental conditions served as an intervening variable linking SES to variability in an actigraphy-derived sleep schedule, and, similarly, presleep worry was an intervening variable linking SES to actigraphy-based night waking duration. Across sleep parameters, the model explained 5-29% of variance. Sleep environment and psychological factors are associated with socioeconomic disparities, which affect children's sleep. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development in reading and math in children from different SES backgrounds: the moderating role of child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Soden, Brooke; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Lukowski, Sarah L; Schenker, Victoria J; Willcutt, Erik G; Thompson, Lee A; Petrill, Stephen A

    2017-05-01

    Socioeconomic risks (SES risks) are robust risk factors influencing children's academic development. However, it is unclear whether the effects of SES on academic development operate universally in all children equally or whether they vary differentially in children with particular characteristics. The current study aimed to explore children's temperament as protective or risk factors that potentially moderate the associations between SES risks and academic development. Specifically, latent growth modeling (LGM) was used in two longitudinal datasets with a total of 2236 children to examine how family SES risks and children's temperament interactively predicted the development of reading and math from middle childhood to early adolescence. Results showed that low negative affect, high effortful control, and low surgency mitigated the negative associations between SES risks and both reading and math development in this developmental period. These findings underline the heterogeneous nature of the negative associations between SES risks and academic development and highlight the importance of the interplay between biological and social factors on individual differences in development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Os países diferem entre si no acesso a internet?

    OpenAIRE

    Cappellozza, Alexandre; de Moraes, Gustavo Hermínio Salati Marcondes

    2014-01-01

    Este estudo analisou a existência de uma notoriedade comum sobre a audiência de websites em diversos grupos de países com o objetivo de levantar se, independente da variedade de influências endógenas e exógenas que podem interferir na audiência destes portais, há algum padrão de preferência de navegação. Para investigar a popularidade global de websites, este estudo elabora um Índice de Popularidade Virtual – IPV e o aplica com dados utilizados a partir do website Alexa (www.alexa.com) que fo...

  2. El proceso de endeudamiento de los países en desarrollo y su crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Millet, Montserrat

    1989-01-01

    La crisis de la deuda externa contraída por los países en desarrollo durante la década de los años setenta y ochenta ha sido uno de los problemas más graves a los que ha tenido que enfrentarse la comunidad económica internacional en la reciente historia de la economía mundial. La gravedad de dicha crisis en el momento de su aparición (1982) estaba motivada principalmente por la amenaza que ésta significaba a la solvencia del sistema financiero internacional, involucrado profundamente en e...

  3. Paradigmas del mercado financiero rural en países en desarrollo.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Méndez, Luis Alberto; Gutiérrez S., Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    1.- Artículos Tenencia de la tierra y desarrollo rural sostenible: algunos puntos para la reflexión en el caso venezolano. Land tenure and sustained rural development: points for reflecting on the Venezuelan case. Tenure de la terre et développement rural durable : quelques points pour la réflexion dans le cas du Venezuela. Delahaye, Olivier Paradigmas del mercado financiero rural en países en desarrollo. Paradigms in the rural financial markets in developing countries. ...

  4. La cobertura de las migraciones en la prensa de los países hispanohablantes (2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Salas, Luis; Gómez Sánchez, María Elena

    2017-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es analizar las informaciones sobre los movimientos migratorios aparecidas en las principales cabeceras de la prensa de los países hispanohablantes en el año 2016. Para reunir la colección de noticias que sirve de base a nuestros análisis, hemos empleado la base de datos Factiva®, un servicio de información multilingüe que permite la búsqueda de noticias en más de 7500 diarios y publicaciones periódicas. La búsqueda se ha acotado...

  5. Peepo: inodoro seco para países en vías de desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Tuya, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    Peepo es un inodoro seco para países en vías de desarrollo y situaciones de emergencia. Es un objeto que pretende enmarcarse en un programa de educación sobre la higiene para prevenir todos los problemas derivados de los malos hábitos, convirtiendo como incentivo un desecho (las heces y la orina) en recurso, los fertilizantes. Departamento de Teoría de la Arquitectura y Proyectos Arquitectónicos Grado en Ingeniería en Diseño Industrial y Desarrollo de Producto

  6. Políticas trigueras en países competidores : Análisis comparado

    OpenAIRE

    Idígoras, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    El autor analiza la dificultad de discutir el rol del Estado en la construcción de una cadena de valor del trigo, tanto en la Argentina como en otros países del mundo. Describe como son las políticas públicas agropecuarias de nuestros competidores, a través de subsidios y/o las protecciones arancelarias haciendo hincapié en la importancia de estas políticas en el crecimiento de la cadena de valor del trigo.

  7. qualite des eaux du bandama-blanc (cote d'ivoire) et de ses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La qualité écologique des eaux des localités soumises à l'exploitation artisanale et clandestine de l'or au niveau du Bandama-Blanc et de ses affluents a été étudiée entre le 01 et le 15 Avril 2015. Le prélèvement du phytoplancton a été réalisé à l'aide de la bouteille hydrologique et du filet à plancton, tandis que le.

  8. Hydrates removal during the exploration evaluation of the 3-SES-149A well; Remocao de hidrato na avaliacao exploratoria do poco 3-SES-149A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros Filho, Armando F.; Franco, Marcus L. de A. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, Luiz A.Q.M. [Schlumberger, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The 3-SES-149A well, at a water depth of 1164 meters, is part of the SEAL-100 block located offshore of the State of Sergipe. The objective of the intervention was to evaluate the 3674-3682 meters interval of the Riachuelo Formation. Bottom hole gauges and real time data transmission to the surface were deployed for this test, during which the target interval produced gas and condensate, without any evidence of formation of hydrate at the surface. After the test, while pulling out the electrical cable with the Link Running Tool, it got stuck close to the subsea well-test tree at a depth of 1257 meters. The formation of hydrate not only kept the cable from moving up, but also rendered impossible the reverse circulation in the column and consequently pulling out the test string. Removing the hydrate would allow releasing the logging cable, thus enabling fluid circulation in the string and its safe retrieval. The goal was achieved via the injection of solvent through the subsea well-test tree, drilling fluid circulation through the annulus above the BOP, and fluid circulation on the top of the hydrate plug through Coiled Tubing. The greatest challenge was running the Coiled Tubing in the string with the electrical cable inside. (author)

  9. The binding of Xanthophylls to the bulk light-harvesting complex of photosystem II of higher plants. A specific requirement for carotenoids with a 3-hydroxy-beta-end group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip, Denise; Hobe, Stephan; Paulsen, Harald; Molnar, Peter; Hashimoto, Hideki; Young, Andrew J

    2002-07-12

    The pigment composition of the light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) of higher plants is highly conserved. The bulk complex (LHCIIb) binds three xanthophyll molecules in combination with chlorophyll (Chl) a and b. The structural requirements for binding xanthophylls to LHCIIb have been examined using an in vitro reconstitution procedure. Reassembly of the monomeric recombinant LHCIIb was performed using a wide range of native and nonnative xanthophylls, and a specific requirement for the presence of a hydroxy group at C-3 on a single beta-end group was identified. The presence of additional substituents (e.g. at C-4) did not interfere with xanthophyll binding, but they could not, on their own, support reassembly. cis isomers of zeaxanthin, violaxanthin, and lutein were not bound, whereas all-trans-neoxanthin and different chiral forms of lutein and zeaxanthin were incorporated into the complex. The C-3 and C-3' diols lactucaxanthin (a carotenoid native to many plant LHCs) and eschscholtzxanthin (a retro-carotenoid) both behaved very differently from lutein and zeaxanthin in that they would not support complex reassembly when used alone. Lactucaxanthin could, however, be bound when lutein was also present, and it showed a high affinity for xanthophyll binding site N1. In the presence of lutein, lactucaxanthin was readily bound to at least one lutein-binding site, suggesting that the ability to bind to the complex and initiate protein folding may be dependent on different structural features of the carotenoid molecule. The importance of carotenoid end group structure and ring-to-chain conformation around the C-6-C-7 torsion angle of the carotenoid molecule in binding and complex reassembly is discussed.

  10. Políticas de educación superior en países del Cono Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Tejeda Cerda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Antecedentes. Para esta investigación se revisaron, como antecedentes, las políticas educativas nacionales de los países del Cono Sur y posteriormente se compararon las políticas institucionales de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina, la Universidad de Santiago de Chile (Chile y la Universidad de La República (Uruguay. Objetivo. Caracterizar e interpretar las políticas de educación superior en Argentina, Chile y Uruguay, determinando factores que promueven o restringen una educación universitaria inclusiva para los estudiantes con discapacidad. Materiales y métodos. Estudio cualitativo a partir de fuentes documentales. Desde una perspectiva comparada, se exploraron las leyes nacionales y las normativas universitarias que nutrieron las categorías y matrices para el análisis político de la información. Resultados. Se encontraron diferentes enfoques políticos: Argentina con una postura de enfoque de derechos, Chile desde un enfoque biomédico y diferencial, y Uruguay con un enfoque social de la discapacidad. Conclusiones. Argentina lidera en la carrera para lograr una política de educación superior inclusiva; tanto en Chile como Uruguay hay cambios en sus políticas institucionales, sin embargo aún presentan limitaciones; en Chile los procesos de acceso están restringidos por altos costos y dificultades de financiamiento. La desigualdad social y económica en Latinoamérica afecta particularmente a los estudiantes con discapacidad. Si bien existe un marco jurídico que resguarda la educación, las realidades de los países del Cono Sur difieren en los procesos de acceso, permanencia y egreso de estos estudiantes. Palabras claves: Personas con discapacidad; Educación superior; Políticas públicas (DeCS.   Summary Background National education policies of the Southern Cone countries were reviewed as a background for this research. Later on, institutional policies of the National University of La Plata

  11. Turismo rural y gobernanza ambiental: conceptos divergentes en países desarrollados y países en vías de desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Eduardo Molina Orjuela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El turismo rural y la gobernanza ambiental son conceptos que aparentan ser complementarios pero que, en realidad, se encuentran influenciados, en primera instancia, por el desarrollo de una población que busca la disminución de los niveles de pobreza en las zonas apartadas de la centralidad del gobierno nacional; y en segunda instancia, por el cuidado del medio ambiente y la no extracción de los recursos naturales que son propios de las naciones y de comunidades específicas. El objetivo de este artículo es hacer una reflexión acerca de qué tan inmiscuidas están algunas naciones en temas de turismo rural y gobernanza ambiental. Pues por un lado América Latina busca salir de la pobreza con alternativas de ingreso para su población y, por el otro, los países desarrollados, como los europeos, presionan para la conservación del medio natural y olvidan el aspecto económico. La metodología que se usó a lo largo del escrito se basa en presentar resultados de investigación desde una perspectiva analítica, tomando como referencia fuentes académicas, y se arrojan resultados particulares. Es importante aclarar que los ejemplos que se incluyen en este artículo son particulares y no reflejan la problemática de todo un país o región –e.g. Europa o América Latina–, aunque permiten visualizar ciertas características y particularidades, además sobre todo verifica la tesis central, en el sentido que existe una fuerte tensión de conceptos, mostrando que el turismo rural impulsa un desarrollo que quizá la gobernanza ambiental no permita.

  12. Un système multi-scalaire, ses espaces de référence et ses mondes. L’Atlas Vidal-Lablache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claire Robic

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available À la différence de productions qui lui sont contemporaines, monoscalaires mais ethnocentrées (Levasseur ou cosmopolites (Reclus, ou multiscalaires à emboîtements des niveaux d’échelles (Geddes, l’atlas de Vidal de la Blache a une structure complexe, multiscalaire et polymorphe car il use d’« espaces de référence » différents d’une planche à l’autre. Cette structure est rendue possible par un assemblage iconographique et textuel qui repose sur une unité composite, la planche d’atlas, formant une composition devenue canonique : cartes, cartons, légende. L’étude de l’ensemble du dispositif iconographique et de l’apparat textuel montre que l’ouvrage est multiscalaire à double titre. D’abord parce que, conformément à l’épistémologie vidalienne, chaque région du monde est dotée de ses propres espaces de référence, qui lui donnent sa dimension spécifique. D’autre part parce que la Terre est en principe l’unité de référence ultime, la méta-échelle englobante. Cette méta-échelle recouvre en fait trois « mondes » dissociés, économique, impérial et de la civilisation, formant trois méta-échelles intermédiaires. Au-delà du souci d’universalité, les métropoles de l’un et de l’autre de ces mondes (la France et l’Europe restent centrales dans ce système de représentation.

  13. Turismo rural y gobernanza ambiental: conceptos divergentes en países desarrollados y países en vías de desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Eduardo Molina Orjuela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El turismo rural y la gobernanza ambiental son conceptos que aparentan ser complementarios pero que, en realidad, se encuentran influenciados, en primera instancia, por el desarrollo de una población que busca la disminución de los niveles de pobreza en las zonas apartadas de la centralidad del gobierno nacional; y en segunda instancia, por el cuidado del medio ambiente y la no extracción de los recursos naturales que son propios de las naciones y de comunidades específicas. El objetivo de este artículo es hacer una reflexión acerca de qué tan inmiscuidas están algunas naciones en temas de turismo rural y gobernanza ambiental. Pues por un lado América Latina busca salir de la pobreza con alternativas de ingreso para su población y, por el otro, los países desarrollados, como los europeos, presionan para la conservación del medio natural y olvidan el aspecto económico. La metodología que se usó a lo largo del escrito se basa en presentar resultados de investigación desde una perspectiva analítica, tomando como referencia fuentes académicas, y se arrojan resultados particulares. Es importante aclarar que los ejemplos que se incluyen en este artículo son particulares y no reflejan la problemática de todo un país o región –e.g. Europa o América Latina–, aunque permiten visualizar ciertas características y particularidades, además sobre todo verifica la tesis central, en el sentido que existe una fuerte tensión de conceptos, mostrando que el turismo rural impulsa un desarrollo que quizá la gobernanza ambiental no permita.

  14. Tendencias en la calidad de vida en países con dependencia mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. González Oquendo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo describir tendencias a partir de algunos indicadores de calidad de vida en el conjunto de países de dependencia mineral. A partir de gráficos Box-Plot e índices de correlación, se procedió a la descripción de tendencias estadísticas para realizar precisiones en torno a la calidad de vida -analizada a través del índice de desarrollo humano [ÍDH] y componentes- y variables económicas [exportaciones minerales como porcentaje del total de exportaciones y del producto interno bruto] y demográficas [fecundidad, mortalidad infantil]. Aunque no se precisó alguna correlación estadística entre el porcentaje de exportaciones minerales como parte del PIB con el ÍDH o alguno de sus componentes, se encontró relación significativa con el porcentaje como parte del total de exportaciones aunque -en su relación con el IDH y con el índice de logro educativo- sólo había relaciones inversas de carácter leve. En relación con las variables demográficas, sólo se encontró relaciones leves entre el porcentaje de exportaciones minerales sobre exportaciones totales con la tasa de fecundidad total y la tasa de mortalidad infantil, sin que se haya encontrado alguna significatividad en la tasa de mortalidad de niños menores de 5 años. Se precisó que, aunque la mayor parte de los países con dependencia mineral poseen valores ÍDH medio, los valores reflejan fuertes diferencias regionales, distribuciones asimétricas positivas matizadas en lo referente a las exportaciones minerales y dispersión desigual de los valores ÍDH, siendo mayor entre los países de alta dependencia mineral.

  15. LOS PAÍSES EN DESARROLLO, LA RONDA DE DOHA Y EL ACUERDO SOBRE LOS ADPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Oñate Acosta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available En el marco del Comercio Internacional, la regulación de los derechos de propiedad intelectual relacionados con el Comercio ha sido el escenario donde, tal vez como en ningún otro, se han evidenciado las tensiones existentes entre “Norte” y “Sur” como consecuencia de sus intereses antagónicos y difícilmente conciliables. El artículo analiza los avances obtenidos por los países en desarrollo en las negociaciones de la Ronda de Doha en dos temas centrales del debate mundial sobre propiedad intelectual: los productos farmacéuticos y el conocimiento tradicional, y deja abierto el debate sobre el retroceso que el auge de la vía bilateral podría significar para la defensa de sus intereses. El objetivo de este artículo es evidenciar que a pesar de que los plazos previstos para finalizar la Ronda de Doha se han incumplido, el plazo inicial era el 1o de enero de 2005 y en diciembre de 2005 los miembros se propusieron extraoficialmente concluir las negociaciones a finales de 2006 –plazo que tampoco se cumplió– y que hasta ahora sólo puede ser calificada de fracaso –el bloqueo de las negociaciones obligaron a su suspensión indefinida en julio de 2006–, no debe desconocerse que, en lo que al Acuerdo sobre los ADPIC se refiere, permitió que los países en desarrollo iniciaran una ofensiva que no podrían haber contemplado veinte años atrás. Así, gracias al carácter multilateral de la OMC que tantas críticas ha despertado, en los países desarrollados han logrado defender sus intereses en un tema de vital importancia para sus reivindicaciones como es el del acceso a medicamentos y han abierto el debate para que finalmente se reconozca el derecho que tienen de proteger y beneficiarse de los conocimientos tradicionales.

  16. Investigações epidemiológicas sobre demência nos países em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Scazufca

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Na medida em que a população mundial está envelhecendo, a demência está se constituindo em importante problema de saúde pública, particularmente nos países em desenvolvimento. Investigações epidemiológicas nestes países são escassas e apresentam dificuldades metodológicas adicionais, principalmente no que se refere à adequação sociocultural dos instrumentos utilizados para a definição de casos. Tendo em vista estas preocupações, foi fundado o "Grupo de Pesquisa em Demência 10/66", que é constituído por uma rede internacional de pesquisadores, predominantemente de países em desenvolvimento. O nome do grupo tem como referência o paradoxo de que menos de 10% dos estudos populacionais sobre demência são dirigidos aos 2/3 ou mais de casos de pessoas com demência que vivem em países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo do artigo é atualizar informações da literatura sobre as diferenças de prevalência e incidência de demência encontradas em países desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento.

  17. Investigações epidemiológicas sobre demência nos países em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scazufca M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Na medida em que a população mundial está envelhecendo, a demência está se constituindo em importante problema de saúde pública, particularmente nos países em desenvolvimento. Investigações epidemiológicas nestes países são escassas e apresentam dificuldades metodológicas adicionais, principalmente no que se refere à adequação sociocultural dos instrumentos utilizados para a definição de casos. Tendo em vista estas preocupações, foi fundado o "Grupo de Pesquisa em Demência 10/66", que é constituído por uma rede internacional de pesquisadores, predominantemente de países em desenvolvimento. O nome do grupo tem como referência o paradoxo de que menos de 10% dos estudos populacionais sobre demência são dirigidos aos 2/3 ou mais de casos de pessoas com demência que vivem em países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo do artigo é atualizar informações da literatura sobre as diferenças de prevalência e incidência de demência encontradas em países desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento.

  18. Alianzas estratégicas entre empresas de países en vías de desarrollo y empresas de países desarrollados: ¿Propician la internacionalización?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Quesada Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las alianzas estratégicas o Joint Ventures entre empresas de países en vías de desarrollo y empresas de países desarrollados, constituyen un tema poco investigado en la literatura de la Dirección de Empresas. Sólo un documento se ha encargado de estudiar este tipo de alianzas (Hitt, Levitas, Arregle y Borza, 2000. En él se destaca la búsqueda de recursos tecnológicos y financieros, como el principal incentivo para buscar estas alianzas en las empresas de países en vías de desarrollo. A continuación se proporciona un estado del arte sobre el tema, y además se resalta la importancia que puede tener este tópico en las estrategias de internacionalización de pequeñas y medianas empresas.

  19. The effect of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention on objectively measured physical activity in Belgian preschool boys and girls of high and low SES: the ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Craemer, Marieke; De Decker, Ellen; Verloigne, Maïté; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet

    2014-03-14

    The ToyBox-study developed an evidence- and theory-based intervention to improve preschoolers' energy balance-related behaviours - including physical activity (PA) - by targeting the kindergarten environment and involving their parents/caregivers. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the ToyBox-intervention on increasing Belgian preschoolers' objectively measured PA levels. A sample of 472 preschoolers (4.43 ± 0.55 years; 55.1% boys) from 27 kindergartens (15 intervention, 12 control kindergartens) in Flanders, Belgium were included in the data analyses. Preschoolers wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for six consecutive days and were included in the data analyses if they had a minimum of two weekdays and one weekend day, both at baseline and follow-up (one year later). Preschoolers' PA outcomes were estimated for an average day, weekday, weekend day, during school hours, and during after school hours. To assess intervention effects, multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted for the total sample, and for sub-groups (according to sex, kindergarten levels of socio-economic status (SES) and risk groups (low levels of PA at baseline)) of preschoolers. Small intervention effects were found in the total sample. Most intervention effects were found in boys and in preschoolers from high SES kindergartens. Boys from the intervention group had an increase in vigorous PA (ß=1.47, p=0.03) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (ß=1.27, p=0.03) from baseline to follow-up, whereas PA levels in boys from the control group stagnated or decreased. In preschoolers from high SES kindergartens, the largest effects were found for PA outcomes during school hours and during after school hours. The results from the Belgian sample demonstrate that effects of the PA-component of the ToyBox-intervention on objectively measured PA were found in preschool boys and in preschoolers from high SES kindergartens, which means that the ToyBox-intervention was mainly effective in those sub-groups

  20. El emprendimiento social: una comparativa entre España y países sudamericanos

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    Catalina Nicolás Martínez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La crisis global que sufrimos en la actualidad está haciendo que las labores realizadas por las empresas sociales sean imprescindibles para alcanzar una sociedad igualitaria, eficiente y justa. El número empresas sociales va creciendo año tras año, atendiendo problemas sociales generalmente olvidados por las instituciones. Los estudios empíricos que profundizan en el conocimiento de este tipo de emprendimiento social son escasos. Este trabajo, bajo el marco del proyecto Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, analiza la influencia de una serie de variables objetivas y cognitivas del emprendedor social, sobre una muestra constituida por emprendedores sociales en España y en diversos países sudamericanos.

  1. análisis de algunos factores determinantes en seis países

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    Ángel Vázquez Alonso

    2015-01-01

    mujeres; como factores más importantes para elegir CTIM destacan el interés por la ciencia, las lecciones que muestran aplicaciones prácticas, los buenos profesores de ciencias, las series de TV, los libros y las revistas de ciencia populares y algunas de las prioridades para el futuro (hacer algo interesante, usar el talento y el desarrollo personal. Muchos ítems muestran diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre hombres y mujeres, y prácticamente todos entre países. Se discuten las implicaciones para la enseñanza de la ciencia que mejoren el reclutamiento y la educación en los cursos CTIM.

  2. LOS PAÍSES DEL TERCER MUNDO FRENTE A LA CRISIS EUROPEA

    OpenAIRE

    PEDRO NEL PÁEZ; JORGE ISAZA; LUZ AMANDA ZAMORA

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este documento es determinar los canales de transmisión de la crisis europea hacia los países del Tercer Mundo. El trabajo examina la forma en que la crisis de la deuda soberana se propagó por el sector financiero, a través de la mayor volatilidad de la rentabilidad de los activos. Lo cual se debió a una mayor variación de sus precios, lo que tuvo efectos sobre el patrimonio neto de los agentes económicos, los ingresos, la demanda agregada y la asignación del crédito, así como ...

  3. Observaciones comparativos sobre la estructura de clase de los países capitalistas avanzados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLO CARBONI

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio histórico comparativo sobre la estructura de clase en diez países capitalistas avanzados : Austria, Canadá, Francia, República Federal de Alemania, Italia, Japón, España, Suecia, Reino Unido y Estados Unidos. Se utilizan fuentes gubernamentales variadas para determinar qué factores son los que favorecen y determinan la transformación de la estructura de clase. Se concede un especial énfasis a la relación entre el sistema económico y el político. También se tratan otros temas como el impacto del estado de bienestar, la distribución del producto nacional bruto en forma de ingresos per cápita y el número de trabajadores autónomos en cada país.

  4. Continuidad y longitudinalidad en medicina general en cuatro países europeos

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    Pastor-Sánchez Raimundo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: El objetivo fue comparar la continuidad y longitudinalidad de la medicina general en cuatro países europeos del modelo público asalariado. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo y prospectivo. 63 médicos generales/de familia asalariados registraron todos los encuentros (directos/indirectos con sus pacientes durante una semana, en centros públicos y estatales de atención primaria de España, Finlandia, Portugal y Suecia. RESULTADOS: El 92% de los encuentros fueron en el despacho médico; fueron directos el 75%; la media de consultas por semana y médico fue de 103. El problema principal de salud fue crónico en el 42% de los casos y agudo en el 31%. El paciente había sido atendido previamente por ese problema en el 63% de los encuentros y por otro problema en el 79%. El médico conocía profesionalmente a algún familiar en el 66% de los pacientes atendidos. CONCLUSIONES: Los países estudiados presentan un grado variable de continuidad y longitudinalidad en medicina general (de mayor a menor: Portugal, España, Suecia y Finlandia. En España las consultas son de corta duración, y con un escaso uso de sistemas de prescripción repetida; en Portugal se forma lista de espera de pacientes, bloqueando la asistencia de los problemas agudos; en Finlandia falta el listado de pacientes, lo que despersonaliza la asistencia; y en Suecia también se forman listas de espera y se hace un mayor uso de la consulta indirecta (especialmente mediante el teléfono.

  5. Caries prevalence and fluoride use in low SES children in Clermont-Ferrand (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubert-Jeannin, S; Riordan, P J; Manevy, R; Lecuyer, M M; Pegon-Machat, E

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the association between dental caries experience and preventive behaviours of children residing in a deprived area in Clermont-Ferrand (France). All 4-5 yr-olds attending nine schools in deprived areas of the city were invited to participate and 81% (n=282) consented and were examined. Dental caries was recorded at the dentine threshold. Parents completed a questionnaire concerning family demographics and the child's use of fluoride. Non-parametric tests and logistic regression assessed the relative importance of SES and fluoride variables on dental status (dt>1). Fifty four (19%) of the examined children were living in families with an immigrant background, 33% were fully covered by the national health insurance programme for deprived families. Caries experience was high; mean dft was 1.94 (3.31) and 30% of the children had >1 carious teeth. Thirty percent of the families reported using fluoridated salt. Tooth brushing once daily was reported for 39% and twice daily for 26%. Parents declared supervising tooth brushing for 60%. Two thirds of the children, according to their parents, used fluoride supplement between birth and two years. Supervised tooth brushing was significantly correlated with lower mean dt scores. Systemic fluoride use was poorly related to dental caries Immigrant background, family size, type of health insurance and mother's unemployment were significantly correlated with caries prevalence. In multivariate analysis, immigrant status, supervised tooth brushing and parental knowledge about fluoride in toothpastes were significant caries predictors. The majority of low SES children did not practice effective caries prevention; few reported twice daily brushing with fluoride toothpaste. Caries experience was very high and much was untreated. Immigrant status, supervised tooth brushing and parental knowledge about fluoride in toothpastes were significant caries predictors.

  6. A difícil integração dos países do Cone Sul

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    Virgílio Caixeta Arraes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata do longo processo de integração política e econômica dos países do Cone Sul. Ele aborda os primeiros passos da tentativa de união, ocorridos ainda no início da Guerra Fria. O texto estende-se até o começo da década de 90, quando quatro países - Brasil, Argentina, Uruguai e Paraguai - formaram o Mercado Comum do Sul - MERCOSUL.

  7. Tratamiento comunitario al capital extranjero en los países de la Comunidad Andina desde 1970 hasta 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, Carmen Victoria

    2001-01-01

    Con la presente investigación, se pretende ir más allá de una simple descripción de las normas que han regulado el capital extranjero en los países de la Comunidad Andina. El propósito principal es hallar las razones, que han motivado el cambio en las normas y las incidencias que ha tenido ese cambio sobre la afluencia de capital. Asimismo se pretende ver si la legislación comunitaria de los países andinos es compatible con la de la OMC. Para cumplir con este propósito se ha...

  8. El mercado mundial de vino y la competitividad de los países del Hemisferio Sur, 1961-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Medina-Albaladejo, Francisco José; Martínez-Carrión, José Miguel; Ramon-Muñoz, Josep-Maria

    2014-01-01

    El mercado mundial del vino ha sufrido cambios intensos en las últimas décadas tras un fuerte incremento de la competitividad de los países exportadores del hemisferio sur. Su dinamismo y el aumento de la demanda de los nuevos países consumidores han acelerado el proceso de globalización del vino. En este contexto, analizamos la competencia mundial y los principales cambios en el comercio global de vinos desde 1961 hasta 2010. El artículo muestra la distribución relativa de las exportaciones ...

  9. Medicamentos de alto costo: análisis y propuestas para los países del Mercosur Costly drugs: analysis and proposals for the Mercosur countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo H Marín

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la forma en que los países del Mercosur acceden, regulan y financian los medicamentos de alto costo (MAC y proponer estrategias de selección y financiación conjunta a nivel sub-regional. MÉTODOS: Diseño cualitativo, utilizando análisis de contenido de fuentes primarias y secundarias, revisiones documentales, entrevistas, grupos focales y análisis de casos Las variables seleccionadas incluyeron: criterios de selección, acceso, financiación y regulación en los distintos países. Los MAC se clasificaron en aquellos que no modifican el curso natural de la enfermedad y aquellos que tiene eficacia demostrada, utilizando la dosis diaria definida para comparar los costos entre tratamientos clásicos y los realizados con MAC. RESULTADOS: Los países del Mercosur carecen en su gran mayoría de estrategias formales para enfrentar las demandas de MAC, y gobiernos y aseguradoras terminan por financiarlos por vía judicial. Los análisis de casos muestran que existen MAC sin eficacia comprobada que igualmente generan demanda. Las compras atomizadas, los compromisos internacionales respecto a propiedad intelectual y el bajo poder de negociación incrementan los precios de MAC exponencialmente, poniendo en riesgo la economía de los sistemas sanitarios. CONCLUSIONES: Los MAC deben ser regulados y seleccionados racionalmente permitiendo que solo aquellos que beneficien sustantivamente a la población sean aceptados. Para financiar los MAC así seleccionados se requieren estrategias comunes entre países que incluyan opciones tales como flexibilidades de acuerdos comerciales, creación de fondos nacionales de recursos o compra conjunta entre países para potenciar su poder de negociación.OBJECTIVE: Determine how the Mercosur countries access, regulate, and finance costly drugs and propose joint selection and financing strategies at the subregional level. METHODS: Qualitative design, using content analyses of primary and secondary

  10. How many low birthweight babies in low- and middle-income countries are preterm? Cuantos de los recién nacidos de bajo peso de países emergentes son pre-término? Quantos dos recém-nascidos de baixo peso de países emergentes são pré-termo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C Barros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of preterm birth among low birthweight babies in low and middle-income countries. METHODS: Major databases (PubMed, LILACS, Google Scholar were searched for studies on the prevalence of term and preterm LBW babies with field work carried out after 1990 in low- and middle-income countries. Regression methods were used to model this proportion according to LBW prevalence levels. RESULTS: According to 47 studies from 27 low- and middle-income countries, approximately half of all LBW babies are preterm rather than one in three as assumed in studies previous to the 1990s. CONCLUSIONS: The estimate of a substantially higher number of LBW preterm babies has important policy implications in view of special health care needs of these infants. As for earlier projections, our findings are limited by the relative lack of population-based studies.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de recién nacidos pre-término entre los recién nacidos de bajo peso al nacer de países de renta media o baja. MÉTODOS: En consulta a bases de datos (PubMed, LILACS, Google Scholar fueron procurados estudios sobre la prevalencia de recién nacidos a término y pre-término entre aquellos de bajo peso al nacer conducidos posteriores a 1990 en países emergentes. Modelos de regresión fueron usados para evaluar la proporción de acuerdo con las prevalencias de bajo peso. RESULTADOS: Con base en 47 estudios de 27 países emergentes, aproximadamente la mitad de todos los recién nacidos con bajo peso serían prematuros, y no uno de cada tres, como se estimó en estudios anteriores a la década de 1990. CONCLUSIONES: La estimación de números sustancialmente más altos de prematuros con bajo peso tiene importantes consecuencias en la planificación de salud, ya que tales recién nacidos demandan cuidados especiales. Aún, los resultados son limitados por la falta de estudios poblacionales.OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de recém-nascidos pr

  11. Higher Biologically Effective Dose of Radiotherapy Is Associated With Improved Outcomes for Locally Advanced Non–Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Treated With Chemoradiation: An Analysis of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machtay, Mitchell; Bae, Kyounghwa; Movsas, Benjamin; Paulus, Rebecca; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Albain, Kathy; Sause, William T.; Curran, Walter J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non–small-cell lung carcinoma (LA-NSCLC) were analyzed for local-regional failure (LRF) and overall survival (OS) with respect to radiotherapy dose intensity. Methods and Materials: This study combined data from seven Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials in which chemoradiotherapy was used for LA-NSCLC: RTOG 88-08 (chemoradiation arm only), 90-15, 91-06, 92-04, 93-09 (nonoperative arm only), 94-10, and 98-01. The radiotherapeutic biologically effective dose (BED) received by each individual patient was calculated, as was the overall treatment time-adjusted BED (tBED) using standard formulae. Heterogeneity testing was done with chi-squared statistics, and weighted pooled hazard ratio estimates were used. Cox and Fine and Gray’s proportional hazard models were used for OS and LRF, respectively, to test the associations between BED and tBED adjusted for other covariates. Results: A total of 1,356 patients were analyzed for BED (1,348 for tBED). The 2-year and 5-year OS rates were 38% and 15%, respectively. The 2-year and 5-year LRF rates were 46% and 52%, respectively. The BED (and tBED) were highly significantly associated with both OS and LRF, with or without adjustment for other covariates on multivariate analysis (p < 0.0001). A 1-Gy BED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 4% relative improvement in survival; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio for survival as a function of BED was 0.96. Similarly, a 1-Gy tBED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 3% relative improvement in local-regional control; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio as a function of tBED was 0.97. Conclusions: Higher radiotherapy dose intensity is associated with improved local-regional control

  12. 5 CFR 317.501 - Recruitment and selection for initial SES career appointment be achieved from the brightest and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... OPM may review proposed career appointments to ensure that they comply with all merit staffing... career appointment be achieved from the brightest and most diverse pool possible. 317.501 Section 317.501... EXECUTIVE SERVICE Career Appointments § 317.501 Recruitment and selection for initial SES career appointment...

  13. Using National Databases To Study the College Choice of Low-SES Students. AIR 2000 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Alberto F.; La Nasa, Steven M.

    This study investigated how economically and sociologically underprivileged students readied themselves for college, highlighting factors affecting the lowest socioeconomic status (SES) students' chances to: secure college qualifications, graduate from high school, and apply to four-year institutions. Data from the 1998 National Educational…

  14. Parenting Processes and Dating Violence: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem in Low- and High-SES Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflieger, Jacqueline C.; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2006-01-01

    The current investigation tested a model in which low self-esteem mediated the effects by parenting processes (monitoring, closeness, and support) on measures of dating violence (victimization, perpetration, attitudes, and perceptions) in a sample of adolescents (n=809; mean age=16.4 years) from both low- and high-socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds.…

  15. Opportunities for Learning Math in Elementary School: Implications for SES Disparities in Procedural and Conceptual Math Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Heather J.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; El Nokali, Nermeen E.; Castle Heatly, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether multiple opportunities to learn math were associated with smaller socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in fifth-grade math achievement using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD; N = 1,364). High amounts of procedural math instruction were associated with higher…

  16. Bridging the Numeracy Gap for Students in Low SES Communities: The Power of a Whole School Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasoni, Ann; Parish, Linda; Upton, Cait; Hadden, Teresa; Turkenburg, Kathie; Bevan, Kate; Livesey, Carole; Thompson, Deirdre; Croswell, Melissa; Southwell, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the "Bridging the Numeracy Gap Project" on the whole-number learning of Prep and Grade 1 students living in a low Socio-Economic Status (SES) community. The findings suggest that an approach that includes a specialist mathematics teacher who provides specialised programs for mathematically vulnerable…

  17. Family Density and SES Related to Diabetes Management and Glycemic Control in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccavale, Laura J; Weaver, Patrick; Chen, Rusan; Streisand, Randi; Holmes, Clarissa S

    2015-06-01

    Youth with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) from single-parent families have poorer glycemic control; a finding confounded with socioeconomic status (SES). Family density (FD), or youth:adult ratio, may better characterize family risk status. Structural equation modeling assessed the relation of single-parent status, SES, and FD to parenting stress, diabetes-related conflict, parental monitoring, adherence, and glycemic control using cross-sectional parent and youth data (n = 257). Single-parent status exhibited similar relations as SES and was removed. Lower FD was associated with better glycemic control (β = -.29, p = .014) via less conflict (β = .17, p = .038) and greater adherence (β = -.54, p single-parent status were indistinguishable from those of SES. FD provides distinct information related to adolescent glycemic control. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The Importance of SES, Home and School Language and Literacy Practices, and Oral Vocabulary in Bilingual Children's English Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Páez, Mariela M.; August, Diane L.; Barr, Christopher D.; Kenyon, Dorry; Malabonga, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the role that socioeconomic status (SES), home and school language and literacy practices, and oral vocabulary play in the development of English reading skills in Latino English language learners (ELLs) and how these factors contribute differentially to English reading outcomes for children of different ages and in different…

  19. Low-SES Students and College Outcomes: The Role of AP® Fee Reductions. Research Report No. 2011-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Jeffrey N.; Mattern, Krista D.

    2011-01-01

    The College Board offers fee reductions to students based on eligibility for free and reduced-price lunch in an attempt to introduce the benefits of AP® Exam participation to students most at risk in the education system. This report examined college outcomes of low-SES students with a focused investigation comparing students who took an AP Exam…

  20. Differences in oral health behaviour between children from high and children from low SES schools in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jerkovic-Cosic, Katarina; Binnekade, J M; van der Kruk, Joke; van der Most, J A; Talsma, A C; van der Schans, Cees

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the determinants of dental caries in relation to socio-economic status (SES) within oral health, children's eating habits and parental attitudes towards oral health. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Dental screening data were collected from 6- and 10-year-old schoolchildren from low and

  1. Differences in oral health behaviour between children from high and children from low SES schools in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jerkovic, K.; Binnekade, J. M.; van der Kruk, J. J.; van der Most, J. A.; Talsma, A. C.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the determinants of dental caries in relation to socio-economic status (SES) within oral health, children's eating habits and parental attitudes towards oral health. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Dental screening data were collected from 6- and 10-year-old schoolchildren from low and

  2. Differences in oral health behaviour between children from high and children from low SES schools in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jerkovic, K.; Binnekade, J. M.; van der Kruk, J. J.; van der Most, J. A.; Talsma, A. C.; van der Schans, C. P.

    Objective To identify the determinants of dental caries in relation to socio-economic status (SES) within oral health, children's eating habits and parental attitudes towards oral health. Basic research design Dental screening data were collected from 6- and 10-year old schoolchildren from low and

  3. Adolescent development of inhibition as a function of SES and gender: Converging evidence from behavior and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Galarce, Ezequiel M; Ladouceur, Cecile D; McMakin, Dana L; Olino, Thomas M; Forbes, Erika E; Silk, Jennifer S; Ryan, Neal D; Dahl, Ronald E

    2015-08-01

    The ability to adaptively inhibit responses to tempting/distracting stimuli in the pursuit of goals is an essential set of skills necessary for adult competence and wellbeing. These inhibitory capacities develop throughout childhood, with growing evidence of important maturational changes occurring in adolescence. There also has been intense interest in the role of social adversity on the development of executive function, including inhibitory control. We hypothesized that the onset of adolescence could be a time of particular opportunity/vulnerability in the development of inhibition due to the large degree of maturational changes in neural systems involved in regulatory control. We investigated this hypothesis in a longitudinal study of adolescents by examining the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on the maturation of inhibition and concurrent brain function. Furthermore, we examined gender as a potential moderator of this relationship, given evidence of gender-specificity in the developmental pathways of inhibition as well as sex differences in adolescent development. Results reveal that lower SES is associated with worse behavioral inhibition over time and a concurrent increase in anterior cingulate (ACC) activation, but only in girls. We also found that lower SES girls exhibited decreased ACC ↔ dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) coupling over time. Our findings suggest that female adolescents with lower SES appear to develop less efficient inhibitory processing in dlPFC, requiring greater and relatively unsuccessful compensatory recruitment of ACC. In summary, the present study provides a novel window into the neural mechanisms by which the influence of SES on inhibition may be transmitted during adolescence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Adolescent Development of Inhibition as a Function of SES & Gender: Converging Evidence from Behavior & fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Galarce, Ezequiel M.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; McMakin, Dana L.; Olino, Thomas M.; Forbes, Erika E.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Ryan, Neal D.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to adaptively inhibit responses to tempting/distracting stimuli in the pursuit of goals is an essential set of skills necessary for adult competence and wellbeing. These inhibitory capacities develop throughout childhood, with growing evidence of important maturational changes occurring in adolescence. There also has been intense interest in the role of social adversity on the development of executive function, including inhibitory control. We hypothesized that the onset of adolescence could be a time of particular opportunity/vulnerability in the development of inhibition due to the large degree of maturational changes in neural systems involved in regulatory control. We investigated this hypothesis in a longitudinal study of adolescents by examining the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on the maturation of inhibition and concurrent brain function. Furthermore, we examined gender as a potential moderator of this relationship, given evidence of gender-specificity in the developmental pathways of inhibition as well as sex differences in adolescent development. Results reveal that lower SES is associated with worse behavioral inhibition over time and a concurrent increase in anterior cingulate (ACC) activation, but only in girls. We also found that lower SES girls exhibited decreased ACC↔dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) coupling over time. Our findings suggest that female adolescents with lower SES appear to develop less efficient inhibitory processing in dlPFC, requiring greater and relatively unsuccessful compensatory recruitment of ACC. In summary, the present study provides a novel window into the neural mechanisms by which the influence of SES on inhibition may be transmitted during adolescence. PMID:26010995

  5. EXPERIENCIAS DE ALGUNOS PAÍSES LATINOAMERICANOS EN TORNO A LA ESTANDARIZACIÓN CONTABLE INTERNACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel María Cano Morales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta de manera tangencial los pasos que han seguido algunos países, con el fin de estandarizar sus procesos e información contable, de manera tal que los sectores empresariales de un país puedan interactuar con éxito en el nuevo mundo de los negocios, cabe anotar que para que ello suceda las empresas deben replantear sus sistemas de información administrativa y contable. Es evidente el protagonismo en las últimas décadas de las normas internacionales de información financiera a raíz de los acontecimientos económicos, políticos y comerciales experimentados en el mundo. Siendo las NIIF/NIC el sistema de comunicación confiable y accesible a las complejas relaciones económicas actuales. Cabe anotar que existe una necesidad latente de establecer un sistema de información contable internacional que minimice las discrepancias surgidas entre las normas contables nacionales y las internacionales; y que a la vez sea adoptado como herramienta homogenizadora global de la información contable.

  6. Apprendre et maîtriser LabVIEW par ses applications

    CERN Document Server

    Martaj, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Cet ouvrage traite de l'apprentissage du langage LabVIEW a travers ses applications dans des domaines industriels et academiques, qui permettront a l'ingenieur, technicien ou etudiant d'apprehender rapidement et efficacement ce langage. L'ouvrage commence, dans la partie I, par traiter les differents types de donnees du langage LabVIEW (tableaux, clusters, complexes, chaines de caracteres...), leur manipulation dans des structures d'execution (boucles While, For, la structure Condition, etc.), le langage textuel MathScript, des scripts Matlab, la boite de calcul utilisant la syntaxe du langage C ainsi que les nœuds de propriete qui permettent d'obtenir ou definir la propriete d''un VI. Cette etude est menee a travers des applications d'ingenierie.La partie II est consacree a l'etude de l'outil « Conception de controle et simulation » avec lequel nous pouvons simuler des systemes analogiques ou discrets.La partie III contient differentes applications qui traitent de nombreux themes comme la regulation (diff...

  7. LOS PAÍSES DEL TERCER MUNDO FRENTE A LA CRISIS EUROPEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO NEL PÁEZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este documento es determinar los canales de transmisión de la crisis europea hacia los países del Tercer Mundo. El trabajo examina la forma en que la crisis de la deuda soberana se propagó por el sector financiero, a través de la mayor volatilidad de la rentabilidad de los activos. Lo cual se debió a una mayor variación de sus precios, lo que tuvo efectos sobre el patrimonio neto de los agentes económicos, los ingresos, la demanda agregada y la asignación del crédito, así como también sobre la producción y el empleo. Para este documento se hizo búsqueda y selección de literatura especializada y se extrajeron estadísticas especializadas de la UNCTAD, CEPAL y OECD. Se concluye que la transmisión de la crisis europea al Tercer Mundo se dio por canales específicos conocidos, como el comercio internacional, la inversión extranjera directa, las remesas y la ayuda oficial para el desarrollo.

  8. O cuidado paliativo e domiciliar em países da América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Margarete Simão

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a assistência domiciliar em saúde dos três países da América Latina com maior gasto público social per capita no ano de 2013: Brasil, Argentina e Uruguai. Trata-se de estudo documental e bibliográfico sobre o cuidado paliativo em saúde na modalidade de internação domiciliar, tendo em conta as mudanças nas famílias latinas. A análise está estruturada em dois eixos: o contexto socioeconômico das famílias latinas e as características das políticas de desospitalização. Os resultados mostram pequena disponibilidade da mulher latina para o trabalho de cuidado na família e o reforço dessa modalidade de atenção às iniquidades em saúde.

  9. Du texte mis entre parenthèses au texte dit à part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Leroux

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’étude de l’aparté dans La Celestina est ici fondée sur une approche codicologique de plusieurs imprimés de l’œuvre de Fernando de Rojas. Une définition théorique de l’aparté permet d’en préciser les différentes réalisations au théâtre : l’aparté au public, l’aparté sélectif et l’aparté au moi, qui se distingue nettement du monologue. Dans le texte dramatique, le repérage de cette forme dramatique se révèle cependant plus délicate. L’étude de l’emploi des parenthèses dans plusieurs imprimés qui conservent La Celestina fait apparaître un usage très vigilant de ces signes de ponctuation pour marquer le recours à l’aparté.

  10. Trends in breast and colorectal cancer screening among U.S. adults by race, healthcare coverage, and SES before, during, and after the great recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Taylor E; Pernenkil, Vikash; Akinyemiju, Tomi F

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is examine trends in breast and colorectal cancer screening in the U.S. by race, healthcare coverage, and socio-economic status (SES) before the Great Recession (2003-2005), during the recession (2007-2009), and post-recession/Affordable Care Act (ACA) period (2010 - 2012). Data on a representative sample of U.S. adults was obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Breast and colorectal cancer screening were defined in line with U.S. Preventative Services Task Force guidelines, and survey weighted statistical methods were utilized to analyze trends in cancer screening among 1,858,572 BRFSS participants. Overall, 83% of women received mammograms in the past 2 years, while 95% of adults received colorectal cancer screening in the past 10 years. Compared with the pre-recession period, the odds of colorectal screening within 5 years were slightly higher during the recession (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.03-1.08) but significantly lower in the post-recession/ACA period (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.72-0.75). Odds of mammography screening were lower during (OR: 0.94,95% CI: 0.91-0.96) and post-recession/ACA period (OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.78-0.82). Breast cancer screening rates declined in the recession and post-recession, while colorectal cancer screening rates increased during the recession and decreased post-recession. Low SES adults and those without healthcare coverage were the least likely to receive screening.

  11. Trends in breast and colorectal cancer screening among U.S. adults by race, healthcare coverage, and SES before, during, and after the great recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor E. Wyatt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is examine trends in breast and colorectal cancer screening in the U.S. by race, healthcare coverage, and socio-economic status (SES before the Great Recession (2003–2005, during the recession (2007–2009, and post-recession/Affordable Care Act (ACA period (2010−2012. Data on a representative sample of U.S. adults was obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS. Breast and colorectal cancer screening were defined in line with U.S. Preventative Services Task Force guidelines, and survey weighted statistical methods were utilized to analyze trends in cancer screening among 1,858,572 BRFSS participants. Overall, 83% of women received mammograms in the past 2 years, while 95% of adults received colorectal cancer screening in the past 10 years. Compared with the pre-recession period, the odds of colorectal screening within 5 years were slightly higher during the recession (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.03–1.08 but significantly lower in the post-recession/ACA period (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.72–0.75. Odds of mammography screening were lower during (OR: 0.94,95% CI: 0.91–0.96 and post-recession/ACA period (OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.78–0.82. Breast cancer screening rates declined in the recession and post-recession, while colorectal cancer screening rates increased during the recession and decreased post-recession. Low SES adults and those without healthcare coverage were the least likely to receive screening.

  12. Pathways to suicidality across ethnic groups in Canadian adults: the possible role of social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D E; Colantonio, A; Rhodes, A E; Escobar, M

    2008-03-01

    Ethnicity is an important determinant of mental health outcomes including suicidality (i.e. suicidal ideation and suicide attempt). Understanding ethnic differences in the pathways to suicidality is important for suicide prevention efforts in ethnically diverse populations. These pathways can be conceptualized within a social stress framework. The study examines ethnic differences in the pathways to suicidality in Canada within a social stress framework. Using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 (CCHS 1.1) and path analysis, we examined the hypotheses that variations in (1) socio-economic status (SES), (2) sense of community belonging (SCB), (3) SES and SCB combined, and (4) SES, SCB and clinical factors combined can explain ethnic differences in suicidality. Francophone whites and Aboriginals were more likely to report suicidality compared to Anglophone whites whereas visible minorities and Foreign-born whites were least likely. Disadvantages in income, income and education, income and its combined effect with depression and alcohol dependence/abuse led to high rates even among the low-risk visible minority group. Indirect pathways for Asians differed from that of Blacks and South Asians, specifically through SCB. With the exception of SCB, Aboriginals were most disadvantaged, which exacerbated their risk for suicidality. However, their strong SCB buffered the risk for suicidality across pathways. Disadvantages in education, income and SCB were associated with the high risk for suicidality in Francophone whites. Francophone whites and Aboriginals had higher odds of suicidality compared to Anglophone whites; however, some pathways differed, indicating the need for targeted program planning and prevention efforts.

  13. 23 February 2010 - Polish Under Secretary of State, Ministry of Science and Higher Education, J. Szwed visiting CERN installations with sLHC Project Office T. Kurtyka and Machine Protection and Electrical Integrity Group Leader A. Siemko.

    CERN Multimedia

    Michel Blanc

    2010-01-01

    Tirage 1002023-01: In LHCb experimental area with Machine Protection and Electrical Integrity Group Leader A. Siemko; Mission Counselor M. Cichucka; Counselor to the Minister M. Klimkiewicz, Under Secretary of State J. Szwed; LHCb Collaboration, national group leader, Henryk Niewodniczanski Institut of Nuclear Physics G. Polok, Collaboration Spokesperson A. Golutvin and Delegate to CERN Council A. Zalewska. Tirage 28: Visiting the Computing Centre with IT Department Head F. Hemmer Tirage 49: In CMS Control centre, buiding 354 with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli and CMS Collaboration, national group leader, University of Warsaw J. Krolikowski. Tirage 62: visiting ALICE exhibition area and counting room with Collaboration Spokesperson J. Schukraft. Tirage 82-99: Under Secretary of State address to the Polish Community Tirage 82: Machine Protection and Electrical Integrity Group Leader A. Siemko Tirage 83: Polish Delegate to CERN Council A. Zalewska. Tirage 85: Directorate Office E. Rondio Tirage 86: ATLA...

  14. The Effects of Ethnicity, SES, and Crime Status on Juror Decision Making: A Cross-Cultural Examination of European American and Mexican American Mock Jurors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Cynthia Willis; Espinoza, Russ K. E.; Culhane, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, a defendant's ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and crime status were varied for effects on verdict decisions, sentencing recommendations, culpability assignments, and trait assessments. In Study 1, European Americans (N = 221) provided a low SES Mexican American defendant with more guilt verdicts, a lengthier sentence, and…

  15. Socially disadvantaged city districts show a higher incidence of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarctions with elevated cardiovascular risk factors and worse prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, J; Seide, S; Wienbergen, H; Fiehn, E; Stehmeier, J; Günther, K; Ahrens, W; Hambrecht, R; Pohlabeln, H; Fach, A

    2017-09-22

    The importance of socioeconomic status (SES) for coronary heart disease (CHD)-morbidity is subject of ongoing scientific investigations. This study was to explore the association between SES in different city-districts of Bremen/Germany and incidence, severity, treatment modalities and prognosis for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI). Since 2006 all STEMI-patients from the metropolitan area of Bremen are documented in the Bremen STEMI-registry. Utilizing postal codes of their home address they were assigned to four groups in accordance to the Bremen social deprivation-index (G1: high, G2: intermediate high, G3: intermediate low, G4: low socioeconomic status). Three thousand four hundred sixty-two consecutive patients with STEMI admitted between 2006 and 2015 entered analysis. City areas with low SES showed higher adjusted STEMI-incidence-rates (IR-ratio 1.56, G4 vs. G1). This elevation could be observed in both sexes (women IRR 1.63, men IRR 1.54) and was most prominent in inhabitants  3000 U/l, OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.4-2.8) and severe impairment of LV-function post-STEMI (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.4). Long term follow-up revealed that lower SES was associated with higher major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event (MACCE)-rates after 5 years: G1 30.8%, G2 35.7%, G3 36.0%, G4 41.1%, p (for trend) = 0.02. This worse prognosis could especially be shown for young STEMI-patients (<50 yrs. of age) 5-yr. mortality-rates(G4 vs. G1) 18.4 vs. 3.1%, p = 0.03 and 5-year-MACCE-rates (G4 vs. G1) 32 vs. 6.3%, p = 0.02. This registry-data confirms the negative association of low socioeconomic status and STEMI-incidence, with higher rates of smoking and obesity, more extensive infarctions and worse prognosis for the socio-economically deprived.

  16. Notas sobre la Flora de Colombia y países vecinos, III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuación (parte III de la nueva serie de notas botánicas iniciada hace tres años en Phytologia (vol. 13, no. 6: 379-400. 1966, y cuya segunda parte se publicó recientemente en Caldasia (vol, 10, no. 47: 173-213. 1968, relativas en su mayor parte a la flora xerófila y subxerófila de la región costera del Caribe en Colombia y países vecinos, particularmente Venezuela.  En ellas se hacen observaciones sobre la taxonomía, nomenclatura, morfología, distribución geográfica, hábitat, y otras varias, de las siguientes plantas: ASCLEPIADACEAE Matelea albiflra (Karst. Dugand. BIGNONIACEAE Anemopaegma chrysoleucum. (Kth. in H. & B. Sandw. # Arrabidaea candicans (L. C. Rich. DC. Arrabidaea conjugata (VeIl. Mart. ex DC. Arrabidaea florida DC. # Arrabidaea pleei DC. Clytostoma cuneatum Dugand. Clytostoma pterocalyx Spr. ex Urb. # Onohualcoa helicocalyx (O. Kze. Sandw. Phryganocydia uliginosa Dugand. Romeroa verticillata Dugand. # Roseodendron chryseum. (Blake Miranda. Tabebuia dugandii StandI. BOMBACACEAE Pseudobombax maximum A. Robyns. LEGUMINOSAE·FABOIDEAE Uribea tamarindoides Dugand & Romero. RUBIACEAE Guettarda eliadis StandI. Sickingia klugei StandI. Tal vez con la sola excepción de Arrabidaea florida DC., de cuya existencia en Colombia no hay -que yo sepa- ninguna información anterior (a menos que la colección original sea realmente del Caquetá colombiano como bien pudiera serlo, véase nota al pie de la página respectiva en este trabajo , todas las especies enumeradas arriba ya han sido catalogadas antes en la flora de este pais, ora con el mismo nombre con que figuran en la Iista, ora con otro que ha caido en desuso necesario o se considera sinonimo del que se da aqui. Las de este ultimo grupo se seiialan con el signo #.

  17. Hospital daily outpatient visits forecasting using a combinatorial model based on ARIMA and SES models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li; Luo, Le; Zhang, Xinli; He, Xiaoli

    2017-07-10

    Accurate forecasting of hospital outpatient visits is beneficial for the reasonable planning and allocation of healthcare resource to meet the medical demands. In terms of the multiple attributes of daily outpatient visits, such as randomness, cyclicity and trend, time series methods, ARIMA, can be a good choice for outpatient visits forecasting. On the other hand, the hospital outpatient visits are also affected by the doctors' scheduling and the effects are not pure random. Thinking about the impure specialty, this paper presents a new forecasting model that takes cyclicity and the day of the week effect into consideration. We formulate a seasonal ARIMA (SARIMA) model on a daily time series and then a single exponential smoothing (SES) model on the day of the week time series, and finally establish a combinatorial model by modifying them. The models are applied to 1 year of daily visits data of urban outpatients in two internal medicine departments of a large hospital in Chengdu, for forecasting the daily outpatient visits about 1 week ahead. The proposed model is applied to forecast the cross-sectional data for 7 consecutive days of daily outpatient visits over an 8-weeks period based on 43 weeks of observation data during 1 year. The results show that the two single traditional models and the combinatorial model are simplicity of implementation and low computational intensiveness, whilst being appropriate for short-term forecast horizons. Furthermore, the combinatorial model can capture the comprehensive features of the time series data better. Combinatorial model can achieve better prediction performance than the single model, with lower residuals variance and small mean of residual errors which needs to be optimized deeply on the next research step.

  18. Radiosensitivity of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhijie

    1992-11-01

    The general views on radiosensitivity of higher plants have been introduced from published references. The radiosensitivity varies with species, varieties and organs or tissues. The main factors of determining the radiosensitivity in different species are nucleus volume, chromosome volume, DNA content and endogenous compounds. The self-repair ability of DNA damage and chemical group of biological molecules, such as -SH thiohydroxy of proteins, are main factors to determine the radiosensitivity in different varieties. The moisture, oxygen, temperature radiosensitizer and protector are important external factors for radiosensitivity. Both the multiple target model and Chadwick-Leenhouts model are ideal mathematical models for describing the radiosensitivity of higher plants and the latter has more clear significance in biology

  19. FORMACIÓN DEL PROFESORADO DE MÚSICA EN LOS PAÍSES NÓRDICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Heiling

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los países nórdicos (Dinamarca, Finlandia, Islandia, Noruega y Suecia tienen fama de tener una visión moderna de la educación musical y de haber aceptado la música pop en las escuelas. Se esperaría, por tanto, que los programas de formación del profesorado se ajustaran a tales circunstancias, lo que, sin embargo, es cierto sólo en parte. En este artículo se ofrece una visión general de la situación de la formación del profesorado de música en la que se tratarán los planes de estudios en estos cinco países en lo referente a la organización y los contenidos de esta titulación.

  20. Higher Education in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2015-01-01

    Higher education systems around the world have been undergoing fundamental changes through the last 50 years from more narrow self-sustaining universities for the elite and into mass universities, where new groups of students have been recruited and the number of students enrolled has increased...... an impact on the educational systems in Scandinavia, and what possible futures can be envisioned?...... dramatically. In adjusting to the role of being a mass educational institution, universities have been challenged on how to cope with external pressures, such as forces of globalization and international markets, increased national and international competition for students and research grants, increased...

  1. ARTICULACIÓN INTERNACIONAL DE PAÍSES Y DESARROLLO: LATINOAMÉRICA Y SU CONTRASTE CON OTRAS NACIONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni E. Reyes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de este artículo es establecer una discusión sobre las condicionantes que ha conllevado la inserción internacional de los países. Se hace énfasis en la región latinoamericana. Este aspecto de la inserción internacional se presenta asociado a los componentes teóricos del desarrollo. Un desarrollo que se concibe como equitativo en lo social, sostenible en lo económico y sustentable en lo ecológico. El argumento central de este trabajo es que la inserción internacional de los países permite distinguir entre aquellos que han logrado conformar procesos de autonomía y los que han generado inserciones dependientes. Entre estos últimos –donde se ubican los latinoamericanos- se pueden distinguir países que son sociedades más funcionales, de aquellos cuya disfuncionalidad social es muy evidente. La referencia conceptual fundamental se basa por lo general, en los postulados que sobre desarrollo humano ha elaborado la Organización de Naciones Unidas, desde la publicación del primer Informe Mundial de Desarrollo en 1992.

  2. Adherence to Dietary Recommendations for Food Group Intakes Is Low in the Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batis, Carolina; Aburto, Tania C; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Pedraza, Lilia S; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    Given the high prevalence of obesity and noncommunicable diseases in Mexico and the key role of dietary quality in these conditions, it is important to determine Mexicans' adherence to dietary recommendations. Our aim was to estimate the percentage of the Mexican population who adhere to dietary recommendations for key food groups. We analyzed 7983 participants aged ≥5 y from the nationally representative Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Dietary intake data were collected by using one 24-h recall and a repeated 24-h recall in 9% of the sample. We used the National Cancer Institute method for episodically consumed foods, which uses a 2-part (probability and amount) mixed regression model to estimate the usual intake distribution and its association with sociodemographic variables. For the food groups that are encouraged, only 1-4% of the population (range across sex and age groups) reached the recommended intake of legumes, 4-8% for seafood, 7-16% for fruit and vegetables, and 9-23% for dairy. For food groups that are discouraged, only 10-22% did not exceed the recommended upper limit for sugar-sweetened beverages, 14-42% for high saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS) products, and 9-50% for processed meats, whereas the majority (77-93%) did not exceed the limit for red meat. A lower proportion of adolescents than children and adults adhered to recommendations for several food groups. Participants with higher socioeconomic status (SES) and living in urban areas consumed more (probability of consuming and/or amount consumed) fruit and vegetables, dairy, and HSFAS products, but they consumed fewer legumes than those of lower SES and living in rural areas. These results reveal the poor dietary quality of the Mexican population and the urgent need to shift these habits. If current intakes continue, the burden of disease due to obesity and noncommunicable chronic diseases will likely remain elevated in the Mexican population. © 2016 American

  3. Impactos dos acordos de liberalização comercial Alca e Mercoeuro sobre os países membros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Costa Gurgel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar os impactos da formação da Alca e de um possível bloco de comércio do Mercosul com a União Européia, para o Brasil em particular e para os demais países envolvidos em tais blocos, enfatizando os efeitos sobre o setor agrícola. O modelo de equilíbrio geral aplicado do Projeto de Análise de Comércio Global (Gtap é usado para implementar as simulações. Os resultados sugerem que a Alca traz aumentos na produção agrícola e superávits comerciais nos países do Mercosul; no entanto, para os produtos manufaturados tais efeitos são negativos. Os EUA e o Canadá apresentam uma pequena redução na balança comercial. O Brasil é o único país do Mercosul com ganhos de bem-estar. Os efeitos do Mercoeuro sobre os países membros são similares aos da Alca, porém em maior magnitude. Os ganhos de bem-estar estão presentes para todos os países do Mercoeuro, sendo este acordo mais favorável para os países do Mercosul do que a Alca.The objective of this paper is to determine the impacts on the international agricultural market of potential trade liberalization agreements such as Americas Free Trade Area (Afta and Mercosul and European Union Free Trade Area (Mercoeuro. The general equilibrium model from the Global Trade Analysis Project (Gtap is applied to run the simulations. The results suggest that Afta increases agricultural production and trade balance for the Mercosul countries, but for manufactures the effects are negative on both production and trade balance. The U.S. and Canada show a small reduction on trade balance. Brazil is the only Mercosul country to obtain welfare gains with Afta. The impacts of Mercoeuro on its member country are similar to those of Afta, but they are greater in magnitude. Also, all countries have welfare gains in the Mercoeuro, which presents greater benefits than Afta to their respective.

  4. The Marketing of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, George; Noble, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Formal college and university marketing programs are challenging to develop and implement because of the complexity of the marketing mix, the perceived inappropriateness of a traditional marketing officer, the number of diverse groups with input, the uniqueness of higher education institutions, and the difficulty in identifying higher education…

  5. The prognostic value of monosomal karyotype (MK) in higher-risk patients with myelodysplastic syndromes treated with 5-Azacitidine. A retrospective analysis of the Hellenic (Greek) MDS Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Sotirios G; Vasilatou, Diamantina; Kontos, Christos K; Kotsianidis, Ioannis; Symeonidis, Argiris; Galanopoulos, Athanasios G; Hatzimichael, Eleftheria; Megalakaki, Aekaterini; Poulakidas, Elias; Diamantopoulos, Panagiotis; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros; Zikos, Panagiotis; Papadaki, Helen; Mparmparousi, Despoina; Bouronikou, Eleni; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis; Viniou, Nora-Athina; Pappa, Vassiliki

    2018-04-16

    In this study, we investigated the incidence and prognostic impact of monosomal karyotype (MK) in 405 higher-risk MDS patients treated with 5-AZA. The MK was present in 66 out of 405 (16.3%) patients, most of whom had complex karyotype (CK). MK was strongly associated with CK and the cytogenetic risk defined according to IPSS-R, as well as with high-risk disease, according to IPSS (P=0.029), IPSS-R (PMDS treated with 5-AZA. Furthermore, we showed that in MDS with high or very-high IPSS-R risk score, MK can further distinguish patients with worse outcome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. PERSPECTIVAS DEL TRATAMIENTO ANAEROBIO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES DOMÉSTICAS EN PAÍSES EN DESARROLLO PERSPECTIVAS DO TRATAMENTO ANAERÓBIO DE ESGOTOS DOMÉSTICOS EM PAÍSES EM DESENVOLVIMENTO PERSPECTIVES OF ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC WASTEWATER IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

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    Patricia Torres

    2012-12-01

    demonstra que é uma tecnologia consolidada, com eficiências de redução entre 65 % e 80 % de DQO e TRH entre 6 e 10 horas. No entanto, é necessário continuar avançando na melhoria e aperfeiçoamento dos atuais métodos de tratamento que permitam soluções tecnológicas respeitosas com o ambiente e adequadas às condições socioeconômicas e culturais próprias de cada região. Este documento propõe uma análise e reflexão sobre o tratamento anaeróbio de esgotos domésticos em países em desenvolvimento e sobre as perspectivas de aplicação em pequena e grande escala.Appropriate and sustainable municipal wastewater treatments plants -WWTP- are strongly required in developing countries which face both sanitation problems and poverty. Anaerobic digestion, as a leading technology that generates value added products (i.e. bio-energy, nutrients and water for reuse has proved to be suitable in those countries, which are mostly placed in tropical and subtropical regions with temperatures higher than 20 °C. Latin America is the region with the highest number of anaerobic WWTP, being the UASB reactor the most common technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Onça WWTP (Belo Horizonte, Brazil is an example of a large scale implementation, showing that UASB is a stabilized technology with COD removal efficiencies ranging from 65 % to 80 % and HRT between 6-10 hours. However, further research is highly needed in order to improve and upgrade the existing treatment methods; so as to achieve technological solutions that prove to be environmentally harmless and suitable to each particular socio-economic and cultural condition. This work is aimed at analyzing and discussing the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater issues and its application perspectives at both small and large scale in developing countries.

  7. Reading for meaning : the effects of Developmental Education on reading achievements of primary school students from low SES and ethnic minority families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijk, Yvonne; de Mey, Langha; de Haan, Dorian; van Oers, Bert; Volman, Monique

    2018-01-01

    The appropriateness of innovative educational concepts for students from a low socioeconomic status (SES) or ethnic minority background is sometimes called into question. Disadvantaged students are supposed to benefit more from traditional approaches with Programmatic Instruction (PI). We examined

  8. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  9. Disparities at the intersection of marginalized groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John W.; Williams, David R.; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2016-01-01

    Mental health disparities exist across several dimensions of social inequality, including race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and gender. Most investigations of health disparities focus on one dimension. Recent calls by researchers argue for studying persons who are marginalized in multiple ways, often from the perspective of intersectionality, a theoretical framework applied to qualitative studies in law, sociology, and psychology. Quantitative adaptations are emerging but there is little guidance as to what measures or methods are helpful. Here, we consider the concept of a joint disparity and its composition, show that this approach can illuminate how outcomes are patterned for social groups that are marginalized across multiple axes of social inequality, and compare the insights gained with that of other measures of additive interaction. We apply these methods to a cohort of males from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, examining disparities for black males with low early life SES vs. white males with high early life SES across several outcomes that predict mental health, including unemployment, wages, and incarceration. We report striking disparities in each outcome, but show that the contribution of race, SES, and their intersection varies. PMID:27531592

  10. TCT-584 Nine Month Imaging and Twelve Month Clinical Results from the DESSOLVE II Randomized Trial of the MiStent® SES with Absorbable Polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Wijns, William; Vrolix, Mathias; Verheye, Stefan; Schoors, Danny; Slagboom, Ton; Gosselink, Marcel; Benit, Edouard; Desmet, Walter; Chowdhary, Saquib; Lansky, Alexandra; Bezerra, Hiram; Fitzgerald, Peter; Kandzari, David; Ormiston, John

    2012-01-01

    Background : The MiStent SES (Micell Technologies, Durham, NC) is an investigational drug-eluting stent (DES) developed to adress unfavorable late-term outcomes such as stent thrombosis. These events are hypothesized to be associated in part with durable polymers of current DES. The MiStent SES uses a unique combination of components, a crystalline formulation of sirolimus and a fully absorbable polymer on a thinstrut, cobalt chromium stent platform. The polymer coating is eliminated from the...

  11. The effect of phonics-enhanced Big Book reading on the language and literacy skills of 6-year-old pupils of different reading ability attending lower SES schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Laura; Nicholson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the literacy achievement of lower socioeconomic status (SES) children by combining explicit phonics with Big Book reading. Big Book reading is a component of the text-centered (or book reading) approach used in New Zealand schools. It involves the teacher in reading an enlarged book to children and demonstrating how to use semantic, syntactic, and grapho-phonic cues to learn to read. There has been little research, however, to find out whether the effectiveness of Big Book reading is enhanced by adding explicit phonics. In this study, a group of 96 second graders from three lower SES primary schools in New Zealand were taught in 24 small groups of four, tracked into three different reading ability levels. All pupils were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: a control group who received math instruction, Big Book reading enhanced with phonics (BB/EP), Big Book reading on its own, and Phonics on its own. The results showed that the BB/EP group made significantly better progress than the Big Book and Phonics groups in word reading, reading comprehension, spelling, and phonemic awareness. In reading accuracy, the BB/EP and Big Book groups scored similarly. In basic decoding skills the BB/EP and Phonics groups scored similarly. The combined instruction, compared with Big Book reading and phonics, appeared to have no comparative disadvantages and considerable advantages. The present findings could be a model for New Zealand and other countries in their efforts to increase the literacy achievement of disadvantaged pupils. PMID:25431560

  12. Leveling the Playing Field: Assessment of Gross Motor Skills in Low Socioeconomic Children to their Higher Socioeconomic Counterparts

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    Megan M. Adkins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fundamental movements (FM of children influence the willingness to engage in physical activity (PA. Thus, proper FM skills are the foundation for a lifespan of PA. Objective: This study examined what factors may affect children’s PA in relation to FM pattern capabilities. Methods: The study examined the influence of SES when three low-income schools were provided additional PA opportunities on days PE was not taught. FM patterns in relation to object control (OC and locomotor skill (LC development were evaluated on K (n = 871, 1st (n = 893, and 2nd graders (n = 829 using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2 instrument (Ulrich, 2000. Schools were dichotomized and categorized as being low SES (n = 2008 and high SES (n = 578 status. Results: A significant relationship was revealed with LC (r = 0.264; p = 0.001, OC (r = 0.171; p = 0.001, and total TGMD-2 (r = 0.264; p = 0.001. Low and high SES schools significantly improved overall TGMD-2 scores. High SES schools children were significantly higher in LC [F, (2, 1272 = 29.31, p = 0.001], OC [F, (2, 1272 = 23.14, p = 0.001], and total TGMD-2 [F, (1, 1272 = 38.11, p = 0.001]. Conclusion: Low SES schools need to concentrate on PA-based activities to engage students in FM patterns, to help narrow the gap in FM capabilities. In addition, the increase in PA opportunities for lower SES schools could positively impact brain function, cardiovascular fitness, and overall well-being.

  13. The epidemiology and control of leishmaniasis in Andean countries Epidemiologia e controle da leishmaniose nos países andinos

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    Clive Richard Davies

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current knowledge of leishmaniasis epidemiology in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. In all 5 countries leishmaniasis is endemic in both the Andean highlands and the Amazon basin. The sandfly vectors belong to subgenera Helcocyrtomyia, Nyssomiya, Lutzomyia, and Psychodopygus, and the Verrucarum group. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania in the Viannia subgenus. Human Leishmania infections cause cutaneous lesions, with a minority of L. (Viannia infections leading to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis are both rare. In each country a significant proportion of Leishmania transmission is in or around houses, often close to coffee or cacao plantations. Reservoir hosts for domestic transmission cycles are uncertain. The paper first addresses the burden of disease caused by leishmaniasis, focusing on both incidence rates and on the variability in symptoms. Such information should provide a rational basis for prioritizing control resources, and for selecting therapy regimes. Secondly, we describe the variation in transmission ecology, outlining those variables which might affect the prevention strategies. Finally, we look at the current control strategies and review the recent studies on control.Este trabalho revisa o conhecimento atual sobre a epidemiologia da leishmaniose na Venezuela, Colômbia, Equador, Peru e Bolívia, países nos quais a doença é endêmica, tanto nos Andes quanto na Amazônia. Os vetores flebótomos pertencem a vários subgêneros e ao grupo Verrucarum. A maioria dos casos de infecção humana é causada pelos parasitas Leishmania do subgênero Viannia. As infecções humanas por Leishmania provocam lesões cutâneas, com uma minoria de infecções por L. (Viannia levando à leishmaniose mucocutânea. Tanto a leishmaniose visceral quanto a leishmaniose cutânea difusa são raras. Em cada país, parte significativa da transmiss

  14. Sistemas agroecológicos y su papel en los países del Tercer Mundo

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    F. Funes-Aguilar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El tercer milenio inicia en un mundo globalizado, unipolar: 6.3 mil millones de personas; de ellas, 850 millones hambrientas, 1,200 sin agua potable, 2,400 sin saneamiento, 850 millones analfabetos, 10 millones de niños mueren anualmente. Mientras tanto, 10% de la población disfruta del 70% de riquezas. Proliferan estallidos sociales, guerras, huracanes, terremotos, contaminación ambiental, inundaciones, calentamiento global, SIDA. Numerosas comunidades rurales se han colapsado económica y socialmente, el desempleo aumenta por tecnologías ahorradoras de fuerza laboral, persiste alta migración a las ciudades. La “Revolución Verde”, de especialización e industrialización agropecuaria de países desarrollados, ha generado conflictos ambientales y no ha sido una solución. La geofagia y sed de poder de países y políticos, generan distribución desequilibrada de riquezas. En nuestro planeta abundan resultados positivos con sistemas agroecológicos de producción que han demostrado poder resolver gran número de esos problemas. En América Latina y Cuba, existen experiencias del saber y tradiciones campesinas e indígenas, investigación y producción comercial con soluciones factibles para los problemas de este llamado “Tercer Mundo”, donde están los países más necesitados. Son evidentes los caminos posibles para alcanzar el anhelado desarrollo agropecuario. Este trabajo resume algunos ejemplos de los avances. El reto futuro es integrar los componentes de los agroecosistemas y lograr sinergias, consolidando sistemas agroecológicos holísticos, con eficiencia biológica, productiva, económica, energética y ambiental. Es esperanzador pensar que un futuro agroecológico unido a la voluntad política de desarrollo económico y social, puede contribuir en alto grado a liberar a nuestros países tercermundistas de la crítica situación actual

  15. EXAMINE THE RELATIONSHIP OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS (SES) WITH LEISURE TIME SPENDING OF GIRLS EMPHASIZING SPORTING ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Bahyeh Zarei; Mozafar Yektayar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was doing an examination about the relationship of socio-economic status (SES) with leisure time spending in the girls of Sanandaj city emphasizing sporting activities. The method of research was descriptive-correlated and has been done as field research. The population of the research consisted of all young girls of Sanandaj aged between 15-29 years old which 384 samples were selected by using multi-stage cluster sampling. The tools of research were Godrat Nama...

  16. Internacionalización de PYMES argentinas orientadas a segmentos no masivos del mercado en países desarrollados

    OpenAIRE

    González, Andrea; Hallak, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    El trabajo analiza la inserción internacional de PYMES argentinas orientadas a segmentos no masivos del mercado en países desarrollados en sectores de tecnología media y baja. Este tipo de inserción involucra productos que se caracterizan por su alto grado de calidad y/o customización. Basados en estudios realizados en siete sectores productores de bienes o servicios que poseen estas características, describimos dos tipos diferentes de inserción. La primera es la exportación de bienes diseñad...

  17. Authoritarianism, conservatism, racial diversity threat, and the state distribution of hate groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of K. Stenner's (2005) authoritarian dynamic theory, the author hypothesized that there is an interaction between U.S. state conservatism-liberalism and state racial heterogeneity threat, such that greater diversity threat tends to be associated with more hate groups in more conservative states and fewer hate groups in more liberal states. State aggregates of the conservative-liberal ideological preferences of 141,798 participants from 122 CBS News/New York Times national telephone polls conducted between 1976 and 1988 (R. S. Erikson, G. C. Wright, & J. P. McIver, 1993) served as proxies for authoritarian-nonauthoritarian dispositions. For the 47 states with complete data, the hypothesized interaction was tested for 2000, 2005, and 2006 with hierarchical multiple regression strategies and supported. The author's hypothesis was also affirmed with SES and the interaction of SES and diversity threat controlled for. In contrast, SES entirely accounted for simple relationships between threat and hate group frequency.

  18. Ethnic-group socioeconomic status as an indicator of community-level disadvantage: A study of overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Tam, Christina; John, Iyanrick; Lui, Camillia

    2017-07-01

    Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. Informed by a wide socioeconomic diversity among Asian American ethnic groups, this study explored ethnic-group socioeconomic status (SES) as an indicator of community-level disadvantage that may influence overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents. We hypothesized that ethnic-group SES was inversely associated with overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1525 Asian American adolescents ages 12-17 from pooled 2007-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) data. Age, gender, nativity, individual-level SES (income and education), and two lifestyle variables (fast food consumption and physical activity) were controlled for. We found that adolescents in high- or middle-level SES ethnic groups were far less likely to be overweight/obese than those in low-SES ethnic groups. Further, these relationships were more pronounced for foreign-born adolescents but not significant for U.S.-born adolescents. Ethnic-group SES may be a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans and, potentially, other populations with high proportions of immigrants of diverse socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Los países emergentes en el G-20 y la política seguida por Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Miranda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la presencia de los países emergentes en la gobernanza global a través de la participación desplegada por ellos en el G-20, con el fin de identificar la posición de Argentina en este ámbito multilateral, y determinar el uso que hizo de su poder como potencia media. Para cumplir con este objetivo consideramos las cumbres de jefes de Estado y de Gobierno del G-20, desde la primera realizada en Washington, en 2008, hasta la novena llevada a cabo en Brisbane, en 2014. Observamos que más allá de las diferencias y disputa de intereses, países desarrollados y emergentes convergieron en sostener las Viejas instituciones internacionales como el FMI. Argentina, de participación intensa en las cumbres pero sin una estrategia de influencia, quedó fuera de esta coincidencia y perdió poder en las reformas producidas en los medios multilaterales de crédito.

  20. Integração produtiva e acordos comerciais: o caso dos países da Aladi

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    Karla Sarmento Gonçalves de Souza

    Full Text Available Resumo O processo de fragmentação da produção tem imprimido novas formas de organização da produção e de comércio entre os países. Dentre os diversos fatores explicativos dessa reorganização das atividades produtivas, aqueles relativos aos custos de comércio são de particular importância. Nesse sentido, os acordos comerciais podem ter uma influência relevante na formação de redes produtivas regionais e, mesmo, globais. Este artigo busca investigar se os acordos firmados no âmbito da Aladi contribuíram para aprofundar a integração produtiva na região, por meio da análise do perfil do comércio regional e da estimação de um modelo gravitacional. O grau de integração dos países da região nas redes produtivas internacionais e regionais é bem inferior aquele observado na Ásia, na América do Norte e na Europa. No entanto, as estimações sugerem que os acordos da Aladi exerceram uma influência fraca, porém, positiva sobre os fluxos regionais de partes, componentes e bens de capital.

  1. “Nobody Sees It, Nobody Gets Mad”: Social Media, Privacy, and Personal Responsibility Among Low-SES Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Marwick

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While few studies examine the online privacy practices or attitudes of young people of low socio-economic status (SES, they are often at the most risk of and most susceptible to privacy violations. This participatory, collaborative study of 28 low-SES young adults in the New York City area investigates how they view online information sharing. Like most Americans, our participants viewed online privacy as an individual responsibility. We make two primary contributions. First, participants revealed extensive awareness of the risks of sharing information online, and many avoided social media, self-censored, or obfuscated their contributions as a result. Second, many participants had extensive experience with policing and physical surveillance and were aware they could not avoid such encounters through their own efforts. This window into structural discrimination provides an alternate frame to that of “individual responsibility” that educators and researchers can use to conceptualize how privacy is violated online. Framing online privacy violations as inevitable and widespread may not only help foster activist anger and strategic resistance but also avoid the victim-blaming narratives of some media literacy efforts. By examining the experiences of these young people, who are often left out of mainstream discussions about privacy, we hope to show how approaches to managing the interplay of on- and offline information flows are related to marginalized social and economic positions.

  2. UNA ALTERNATIVA DE ANÁLISIS MULTIVARIANTE PARA MEDIR EL DESARROLLO HUMANO EN PAÍSES LATINOAMERICANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar de Jesús Briceño Rondón

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es explorar mediante el análisis multivariado, el nivel de Desarrollo Humano en los países de América Latina. Se realizó una investigación de tipo documental, exploratoria y descriptiva, sustentada en técnicas estadísticas de Análisis Multivariado de datos (análisis clúster y análisis discriminante, utilizando la información del año 2003 del PNUD. Se incluyen dos nuevos indicadores como son la tasa de mortalidad infantil y el gasto público en salud y se utilizó el paquete estadístico para ciencias sociales (SPSS versión 15, para el manejo de los datos. Se constituyeron dos grupos de países, uno con características de alto desarrollo y un segundo grupo en el cual se encuentra Venezuela con características de bajo desarrollo. Las variables esperanza de vida al nacer y la tasa de mortalidad infantil representan las funciones discriminantes del modelo.

  3. Imagen turística de los países latinoamericanos en el mercado español

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    Emira Josefina Rodríguez Ducallín

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La imagen turística en un país es un factor clave en su elección como destino. Conocerla es de vital importancia puesto que ella permite definir su posición competitiva y establecer las estrategias de marketing para su comercialización en el mercado turístico internacional. Bajo esta perspectiva se pretendió conocer la imagen de 6 países latinoamericanos (México, Cuba, Venezuela, República Dominicana, Brasil y Centroamérica utilizando para ello un estudio descriptivo. La información se recogió de una muestra de 1.000 personas en la ciudad de Madrid, haciendo uso del diferencial semántico para valorar los atributos y se obtuvo como resultado de forma general que los países latinoamericanos son considerados por el mercado español como amigos, alegres, acogedores, con sol, buen clima entre otros, pero también fueron percibidos, inseguros, poco desarrollados, con inestabilidad política y pobres.

  4. La medicina rural, un imperativo en los países en vías de desarrollo

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    Andrea Estefanía López Palma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available La medicina rural es una etapa de servicio a la comunidad, de carácter obligatorio para todos los egresados de la formación médica de pregrado. Su puesta en práctica es un elemento esencial para el desarrollo social y económico en las comunidades. En Ecuador, los graduados de la carrera de Medicina, al no ser formados bajo el modelo de atención integral de salud y la filosofía de la atención primaria de salud se enfrentan durante la ruralidad a algunos inconvenientes laborales y profesionales. Este trabajo se orienta a reflexionar sobre la situación actual de la medicina rural en los países en vías de desarrollo. Se presentan algunas alternativas de mejora que pueden implementarse en los países para lograr la formación rural de un profesional comprometido con la atención primaria de salud.

  5. Colaboración científica entre países de la región latinoamericana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell, Jane M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the scientific collaboration among Latin American countries registered between 1975 and 2004 in the Science Citation Index database, Web of Science online version, revealed a steady increase in the number of publications, more marked in the last decade, as well as in the percentages that these represent in the total number of publications authored by regional scientists. Differences were found between countries in the magnitude of these increases, the smaller countries showing the highest levels of collaboration, especially with respect to those publications also involving scientists from institutions outside the Latin American region. The most common subject areas of intra-regional collaboration were Biology, Health, Physics, and Chemistry. Participating institutions from outside the region in intra-regional co-authorship were most commonly European (40% of cases and North American (38%. The impact of papers as measured by a normalized h-index, involving scientists from outside the region was greater than that found for all intra-regional publications. The dominant bilateral regional collaboration was between Brazil and Argentina which in recent years has focused on topics in the Health Sciences and Astronomy. A detailed analysis of Physics papers showed that institutions from Brazil and Argentina are the most productive in intra-regional collaborations and Condensed Matter, the most studied subject.

    Un análisis de la colaboración científica entre los países de América Latina a través de documentos registrados de 1975-2004 en el Science Citation Index versión Web of Science, revela un aumento paulatino en el número total de trabajos principalmente en la última década, así como en los porcentajes de éstos del total de publicaciones registradas por la región. La magnitud de estos aumentos varía; los países más pequeños mostraron los niveles más altos de colaboración, en especial

  6. Higher prices, increased demand bolster OGJ group 1995 profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.; Bell, L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the 1995 performance of 22 of the largest US oil companies. It shows sector earnings, spending, prices, financial indicators, and exploration and production figures. Each company is identified to its revenues, working capital, returns on stockholder investments, and total assets. With regards to production, each company is identified by number of wells, refined product sales, liquid reserves, and net production

  7. Higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Igusa, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The book is devoted to the theory of topological higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion in K-theory. The author defines the higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion based on Volodin's K-theory and Borel's regulator map. He describes its properties and generalizations and studies the relation between the higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion and other torsions used in K-theory: Whitehead torsion and Ray-Singer torsion. He also presents methods of computing higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion, illustrates them with numerous examples, and describes various applications of higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion, particularly for the study of homology of mapping class groups. Packed with up-to-date information, the book provides a unique research and reference tool for specialists working in algebraic topology and K-theory.

  8. Modeling Floor Effects in Standardized Vocabulary Test Scores in a Sample of Low SES Hispanic Preschool Children under the Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leina Zhu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and practitioners often use standardized vocabulary tests such as the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4 (PPVT-4; Dunn and Dunn, 2007 and its companion, the Expressive Vocabulary Test-2 (EVT-2; Williams, 2007, to assess English vocabulary skills as an indicator of children's school readiness. Despite their psychometric excellence in the norm sample, issues arise when standardized vocabulary tests are used to asses children from culturally, linguistically and ethnically diverse backgrounds (e.g., Spanish-speaking English language learners or delayed in some manner. One of the biggest challenges is establishing the appropriateness of these measures with non-English or non-standard English speaking children as often they score one to two standard deviations below expected levels (e.g., Lonigan et al., 2013. This study re-examines the issues in analyzing the PPVT-4 and EVT-2 scores in a sample of 4-to-5-year-old low SES Hispanic preschool children who were part of a larger randomized clinical trial on the effects of a supplemental English shared-reading vocabulary curriculum (Pollard-Durodola et al., 2016. It was found that data exhibited strong floor effects and the presence of floor effects made it difficult to differentiate the invention group and the control group on their vocabulary growth in the intervention. A simulation study is then presented under the multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM framework and results revealed that in regular multilevel data analysis, ignoring floor effects in the outcome variables led to biased results in parameter estimates, standard error estimates, and significance tests. Our findings suggest caution in analyzing and interpreting scores of ethnically and culturally diverse children on standardized vocabulary tests (e.g., floor effects. It is recommended appropriate analytical methods that take into account floor effects in outcome variables should be considered.

  9. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  10. Group Flow and Group Genius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  11. Globalisation and Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marginson, Simon; van der Wende, Marijk

    2007-01-01

    Economic and cultural globalisation has ushered in a new era in higher education. Higher education was always more internationally open than most sectors because of its immersion in knowledge, which never showed much respect for juridical boundaries. In global knowledge economies, higher education

  12. La práctica filosófica en los países nórdicos

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaiz, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo se expone una visión panorámica de la situación de la práctica filosófica (en un sentido amplio, esto es, incluyendo no sólo el trabajo individual sino también el grupal, aunque centrada más en la OrFi) en los países nórdicos, especialmente en Noruega, así como de sus principales protagonistas, y sus influencias más importantes. Se agrupan los filósofos en tres generaciones: la primera compuesta fundamentalmente por Anders Lindseth, y muy influida por la concepción achenbachi...

  13. Too Much of a Good Thing? Psychosocial Resources, Gendered Racism, and Suicidal Ideation Among Low-SES African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brea L.; Pullen, Erin; Oser, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have examined predictors of suicidal ideation among African American women. Consequently, we have a poor understanding of the combinations of culturally-specific experiences and psychosocial processes that may constitute risk and protective factors for suicide in this population. Drawing on theories of social inequality, medical sociology, and the stress process, we explore the adverse impact of gendered racism experiences and potential moderating factors in a sample of 204 predominantly low-SES African American women. We find that African American women’s risk for suicidal ideation is linked to stressors occurring as a function of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. In addition, we find that gendered racism has no effect on suicidal ideation among women with moderate levels of well-being, self-esteem, and active coping, but has a strong adverse influence in those with high and low levels of psychosocial resources. PMID:23565018

  14. The paraty artisanal fishery (southeastern Brazilian coast: ethnoecology and management of a social-ecological system (SES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begossi Alpina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study intends to give recommendations to the management of Paraty fishery in Brazil through an interplay of local and scientific knowledge. In particular, the objectives are the following: 1 to describe the Paraty fishery; 2 to compare the fishermen’s local ecological knowledge with recorded fish landings and previous studies in Paraty; 3 to combine the data on local fishing and on local/Caiçara livelihoods with the SES (social-ecological systems Model. The methods include a systematic survey of fishing in Tarituba and Praia Grande, which are located in the northern end and the central part of the Paraty municipality, respectively. For four days each month, systematic data on catches at landing points were collected, as well as macroscopic gonad analysis data for the fishes Centropomus parallelus and C. undecimalis (snook, robalo, Epinephelus marginatus (grouper, garoupa, Scomberomorus cavalla (King mackerel, cavala, and Lutjanus synagris (Lane snapper, vermelho. Spring and summer are important seasons during which some species reproduce, and the integration of fishing periods for some target species could assist in fishing management through the use of closed seasons. Fishermen could obtain complementary earnings from tourism and from the “defeso system” (closed season including a salary payment to conserve fishing stocks. The SES model facilitates an understanding of the historical context of fishing, its economic importance for local livelihoods, the constraints from conservation measures that affect fishermen, and the management processes that already exist, such as the defeso. If used to integrate fishing with complementary activities (tourism, such a system could improve the responsibility of fishermen regarding the conservation of fish stocks.

  15. Validation of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess folate status. Results discriminate a high-risk group of women residing on the Mexico-US border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Ley y de Góngora, Silvia; Castro-Vázquez, Brenda Yuniba; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to estimate dietary intake of folate in two groups of women from different economic backgrounds and to evaluate validity of the 5-day-weighed food registry (5-d-WFR) and Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) using biological markers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two samples of urban Mexican women: one represented the middle socioeconomic status (middle SES) and the other, low socioeconomic status (low SES). Middle SES included 34 women recruited from 1998 to 1999. Participants were between the ages of 18 and 32 years and were employed in the banking industry (middle SES) in the US-Mexican border city of Tijuana, Baja California. Low SES included 70 women between the ages of 18 and 35 years recruited during the year 2000. These women were receiving care at a primary health care center in Ensenada, Baja California Norte State, Mexico (low SES). Pearson correlations were calculated between folate intake among 5-day diet registry, FFQ, and biochemical indices. FFQ reproducibility was performed by Spearman correlation of each food item daily and of weekly intake. Average folate intake in middle SES from 5-d-WFR was 210 microg +/- 171. Fifty four percent of participants had intakes risk of NTDs as a result of low folate intake and low serum folate and RBC folate concentrations.

  16. Predictors of maternal language to infants during a picture book task in the home: Family SES, child characteristics and the parenting environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Pancsofar, Nadya; Willoughby, Mike; Odom, Erica; Quade, Alison; Cox, Martha

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of child characteristics and parenting environment to the relationship between family SES/demographic characteristics and maternal language to infants.1157 children were drawn from a representative sample of 1292 infants born to mothers in rural Appalachian counties and rural counties in southern minority U.S. communities. Mothers and their 6-8 month old babies were videotaped at home while talking about a wordless picture book. Mothers' language output and complexity were analyzed. Child temperament, age, and parenting environment (knowledge of child development and observed mother-child engagement) were predictors of maternal language. Furthermore, their inclusion reduced the magnitude of the association between demographic characteristics and maternal language. Tests of mediation suggested that the parenting environment partially mediates the relationship between SES/demographic characteristics and maternal language. Findings are discussed with respect to identifying proximal processes that explain how SES may exert its influence on the language of young children.

  17. Prácticas de liderazgo y su relación con la cultura en un grupo de países latinoamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Espinosa M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue analizar, a través del MLQ 5X, los perfiles de liderazgo de 167 directivos de cuatro países latinoamericanos (Perú, Venezuela, Ecuador y Colombia, para observar si a pesar de la similitud cultural se presentan diferencias en los patrones de liderazgo. Se compararon estos perfiles con los obtenidos por otros autores en regiones culturalmente distintas, para finalmente confrontar los resultados con los de otra muestra colombiana. Se evidenciaron diferencias significativas en liderazgo, tanto entre países culturalmente distintos, como entre los mismos países latinoamericanos, a pesar de su similitud cultural. Finalmente, la muestra de directivos de este estudio difiere significativamente de la otra muestra colombiana, respecto a algunas variables del MLQ. Se discuten esos hallazgos.

  18. Aspectos que influyen en la consolidación de empresas: evidencias obtenidas en 14 países Factors influencing on entrepreneurial consolidation: evidence from 14 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Álvarez-Herranz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el efecto que las motivaciones del emprendedor -concretamente, ciertas características del emprendedor y de su entorno -ejercen en la consolidación empresarial. Con este propósito se ha analizado una base de datos de series temporales y de corte transversal relativos a una muestra de emprendedores obtenida en catorce países. Los resultados logrados evidencian la existencia de una relación positiva entre la consolidación empresarial y el hecho de que el emprendedor: (1 considere que crear una empresa es una buena opción profesional; (2 perciba mayor riesgo y (3 ponga en marcha su negocio basándose en la detección de oportunidades. Estos hallazgos han permitido inferir una serie de implicaciones relevantes tanto para la gestión empresarial como para las políticas de desarrollo local/regional.This work analyzes the effect that entrepreneurial motivations -in particular, certain entrepreneur and environment characteristics -have on business consolidation. Bearing this goal in mind, a panel and longitudinal database referring to a sample of entrepreneurs obtained from fourteen countries has been analyzed. The results evidence the existence of a positive relationship between business consolidation and the fact that the entrepreneur: (1 thinks that starting up a business is a good professional option; (2 perceives higher risk and (3 sets up his/her business detecting opportunities. These findings enable the development of relevant implications for both the business management and local/regional authorities.

  19. Retrospective analysis of multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based molecular diagnostics (SES in 70 patients with suspected central nervous system infections: A single-center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Krishnan Tiruppur Chinnappan Ramalingam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central nervous system (CNS infections present a grave health care challenge due to high morbidity and mortality. Clinical findings and conventional laboratory assessments are not sufficiently distinct for specific etiologic diagnosis. Identification of pathogens is a key to appropriate therapy. Aim: In this retrospective observational study, we evaluated the efficacy and clinical utility of syndrome evaluation system (SES for diagnosing clinically suspected CNS infections. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis included inpatients in our tertiary level neurointensive care unit (NICU and ward from February 2010 to December 2013. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples of 70 patients, clinically suspected of having CNS infections, were subjected to routine laboratory tests, culture, imaging, and SES. We analyzed the efficacy of SES in the diagnosis of CNS infections and its utility in therapeutic decision-making. Results: SES had a clinical sensitivity of 57.4% and clinical specificity of 95.6%. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the top two bacterial pathogens, whereas Herpes simplex virus (HSV was the most common viral pathogen. Polymicrobial infections were detected in 32.14% of SES-positive cases. SES elicited a change in the management in 30% of the patients from initial empiric therapy. At discharge, 51 patients recovered fully while 11 patients had partial recovery. Three-month follow-up showed only six patients to have neurological deficits. Conclusion: In a tertiary care center, etiological microbial diagnosis is central to appropriate therapy and outcomes. Sensitive and accurate multiplex molecular diagnostics play a critical role in not only identifying the causative pathogen but also in helping clinicians to institute appropriate therapy, reduce overuse of antimicrobials, and ensure superior clinical outcomes.

  20. Retrospective analysis of multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based molecular diagnostics (SES) in 70 patients with suspected central nervous system infections: A single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Rama Krishnan Tiruppur Chinnappan; Chakraborty, Dipanjan

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections present a grave health care challenge due to high morbidity and mortality. Clinical findings and conventional laboratory assessments are not sufficiently distinct for specific etiologic diagnosis. Identification of pathogens is a key to appropriate therapy. In this retrospective observational study, we evaluated the efficacy and clinical utility of syndrome evaluation system (SES) for diagnosing clinically suspected CNS infections. This retrospective analysis included inpatients in our tertiary level neurointensive care unit (NICU) and ward from February 2010 to December 2013. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of 70 patients, clinically suspected of having CNS infections, were subjected to routine laboratory tests, culture, imaging, and SES. We analyzed the efficacy of SES in the diagnosis of CNS infections and its utility in therapeutic decision-making. SES had a clinical sensitivity of 57.4% and clinical specificity of 95.6%. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the top two bacterial pathogens, whereas Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was the most common viral pathogen. Polymicrobial infections were detected in 32.14% of SES-positive cases. SES elicited a change in the management in 30% of the patients from initial empiric therapy. At discharge, 51 patients recovered fully while 11 patients had partial recovery. Three-month follow-up showed only six patients to have neurological deficits. In a tertiary care center, etiological microbial diagnosis is central to appropriate therapy and outcomes. Sensitive and accurate multiplex molecular diagnostics play a critical role in not only identifying the causative pathogen but also in helping clinicians to institute appropriate therapy, reduce overuse of antimicrobials, and ensure superior clinical outcomes.

  1. VOLATILIDADE DA TAXA DE CÂMBIO E SEUS EFEITOS SOBRE O FLUXO DE COMÉRCIO DOS PAÍSES DA AMÉRICA DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO Diante da importância da taxa de câmbio no comércio externo, considerando que suas flutuações podem modificar a escala de preços entre os países, a presente pesquisa buscou identificar o impacto da volatilidade da taxa de câmbio real bilateral sobre o fluxo de comércio entre os países da América do Sul. Para tal, foi estimado um modelo gravitacional utilizando uma amostra de nove países, entre 1998 e 2012. O método utilizado na estimação foi o modelo Poisson-Pseudo Maximum Likehood (PPML. Os resultados mostraram que a instabilidade cambial é prejudicial à relação de comércio entre países da América do Sul, já que maior incerteza cambial leva os agentes econômicos, a longo prazo, a reduzir suas atividades no comércio internacional, dada maior exposição ao risco. Outro resultado importante foi a constatação de que os países membros do Mercosul, de fato, têm o comércio favorecido diante das vantagens oferecidas pelo bloco, como a redução de tarifas comerciais. Quanto à variável utilizada para captar o efeito da crise do subprime em 2008, verificou-se aumento no fluxo comercializado pelos países sul-americanos nesse período.

  2. Mexican Children under 2 Years of Age Consume Food Groups High in Energy and Low in Micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Muñoz-Espinosa, Alicia; Rivera, Juan A; González-Castell, Dinorah; González de Cosío, Teresita

    2016-09-01

    Mexico faces malnutrition problems in the child population. Analysis of food consumption in small children allows us to identify and propose strategies focused on feeding to improve their nutritional status. We described the consumption of beverages and food groups in Mexican children ENSANUT (National Health and Nutrition Study). Dietary information was obtained through 24-h recalls. The foods and beverages consumed were divided into 17 groups. Consumption was estimated in grams or milliliters, kilocalories per day, and percentage of energy (PE) per day. The percentage of consumers was calculated for each food group and stratified by age (<6, 6-11, and 12-23 mo) and by breastfeeding status (breastfed or not breastfed). Differences in the consumption of food groups were analyzed by breastfeeding status, area of residence (urban or rural), and socioeconomic status (SES) by using linear regression adjusted for age, breastfeeding status, and survey design. Only 35% of the children consumed breast milk. Infant formula was consumed by 48% in children aged <6 mo and by 33% in children 6-11 mo old. More than 35% of the children aged 6-11 and 12-23 mo and 12% of children <6 mo old consumed nondairy sugar-sweetened beverages. Legumes and seeds and maize-based preparations contributed a higher PE in rural areas (3.4% and 1.9%, respectively) than in urban areas (11.1% and 6.4%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Children from the lowest SES category consumed less PE from cereals other than maize (2.4%) and more from maize-based preparations (10.2%) than did the middle (4.9% from other cereals and 8.0% from maize) and high (6.0% from other cereals and 4.5% from maize) SES categories (P < 0.05). Mexican children <24 mo of age do not consume a diet that meets recommendations, which is consistent with the high prevalence of malnutrition in Mexico. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    Passman, Donald S

    2012-01-01

    This volume by a prominent authority on permutation groups consists of lecture notes that provide a self-contained account of distinct classification theorems. A ready source of frequently quoted but usually inaccessible theorems, it is ideally suited for professional group theorists as well as students with a solid background in modern algebra.The three-part treatment begins with an introductory chapter and advances to an economical development of the tools of basic group theory, including group extensions, transfer theorems, and group representations and characters. The final chapter feature

  4. Effects of intergroup upward comparison, trait self-esteem, and identity shift on state self-esteem and affect in upward comparison with in-group members

    OpenAIRE

    Isobe, Chikae; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated factors that protect people low in trait self-esteem (Low-SEs), who may be less skilled at constructing information in self-enhancing manners, from threats after interpersonal upward comparison with in-group members. We hypothesized that even Low-SEs can maintain their state self-esteem under intergroup upward comparison. Furthermore, this study explored the possibility that individuals used identity-shift, a strategy to maintain their personal identity, even in...

  5. Independent and Combined Effects of Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Bilingualism on Children’s Vocabulary and Verbal Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Meir; Sharon Armon-Lotem; Sharon Armon-Lotem

    2017-01-01

    The current study explores the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) and bilingualism on the linguistic skills and verbal short-term memory of preschool children. In previous studies comparing children of low and mid-high SES, the terms “a child with low-SES” and “a child speaking a minority language” are often interchangeable, not enabling differentiated evaluation of these two variables. The present study controls for this confluence by testing children born and residing in the same count...

  6. Dinâmica e estrutura da circulação internacional de produtos audiovisuais entre os países do Mercosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meleiro, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho discute a dinâmica e a estrutura da circulação internacional de produtos audiovisuais entre os quatro países permanentes do Mercosul, refletindo sobre as políticas públicas ligadas à difusão de filmes entre esses países. O objetivo é identificar as características desse processo, trabalhando de forma multidisciplinar e, portanto, considerando os aspectos econômicos, políticos, culturais e comunicacionais vinculados a esta problemática.

  7. La industria farmacéutica y la sostenibilidad de los sistemas de salud en países desarrollados y América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Iñesta,Antonio; Oteo,Luis Angel

    2011-01-01

    La crisis económica y su impacto en las finanzas públicas en la mayoría de los países desarrollados, están originando políticas de contención del gasto en los servicios de salud. Las leyes actuales del medicamento exigen calidad, seguridad y eficacia de estos productos. Algunos países incluyen criterios de eficiencia para los nuevos medicamentos que desean ser incluidos en la financiación pública. El consumo apropiado de genéricos y "medicamentos biosimilares" es muy importante para mantener ...

  8. Individual, social, and family factors associated with high school dropout among low-SES youth: Differential effects as a function of immigrant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Isabelle; Janosz, Michel; Dupéré, Véronique; Brault, Marie-Christine; Andrew, Marie Mc

    2017-09-01

    In most Western countries, the individual, social, and family characteristics associated with students' dropout in the general population are well documented. Yet, there is a lack of large-scale studies to establish whether these characteristics have the same influence for students with an immigrant background. The first aim of this study was to assess the differences between first-, second-, and third-generation-plus students in terms of the individual, social, and family factors associated with school dropout. Next, we examined the differential associations between these individual, social, and family factors and high school dropout as a function of students' immigration status. Participants were 2291 students (54.7% with an immigrant background) from ten low-SES schools in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Individual, social, and family predictors were self-reported by students in secondary one (mean age = 12.34 years), while school dropout status was obtained five or 6 years after students were expected to graduate. Results of logistic regressions with multiple group latent class models showed that first- and second-generation students faced more economic adversity than third-generation-plus students and that they differed from each other and with their native peers in terms of individual, social, and family risk factors. Moreover, 40% of the risk factors considered in this study were differentially associated with first-, second-, and third-generation-plus students' failure to graduate from high school. These results provide insights on immigrant and non-immigrant inner cities' students experiences related to school dropout. The implications of these findings are discussed. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Researches on vanadium and its compounds; Recherches sur le Vanadium et ses composes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morette, Andre

    1937-06-03

    In this research thesis, the author proposes a new study of the action of some reduction agents on two groups of vanadium compounds, oxides and chlorides. Thus, he reports the study of the circumstances of reduction of vanadium oxides by carbon and of vanadium carburization from these compounds. He also reports the determination of the composition of vanadium melts obtained at high temperatures (either in a vacuum furnace or with an electric arc furnace). In order to determine in which conditions the processing of vanadium oxides could produce the pure metal, the author studied the action of calcium and magnesium on the vanadium pentoxide and trioxide. The second part of the thesis addresses the preparation of pure vanadium from vanadium anhydride chlorides. Then, the author reports the development of processes which could easily produce powdered vanadium [French] Nous nous sommes propose de reprendre l'etude de l'action de quelques reducteurs sur les deux groupes de composes du vanadium, oxydes et chlorures. Nous avons ete ainsi amene a preciser les circonstances de la reduction des oxydes de vanadium par le carbone et de la carburation du vanadium a partir de ceux-ci, puis a determiner la constitution des fontes de vanadium obtenues a haute temperature, soit au four a vide, soit au four a arc. D'autre part, en vue de determiner dans quelles conditions le traitement des oxydes de vanadium pourrait conduire au metal pur, nous avons repris et complete des travaux anterieurs concernant l'action du calcium et du magnesium sur le pentoxyde ou eventuellement le trioxyde de vanadium. Une seconde partie de notre these a ete consacree a la preparation du vanadium pur a partir des chlorures anhydres de vanadium. Nous nous sommes attache a trouver le mode operatoire le plus favorable pour l'obtention de chacun d'eux. Il nous a ete donne ainsi l'occasion de preciser certaines de leurs proprietes physiques et chimiques. Puis, a la suite d'essais systematiques, nous avons

  10. The present, past and future of the study of intellectual disability: challenges in developing countries Pasado, presente y futuro del estudio de la discapacidad intelectual: desafíos en los países en desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor R Parmenter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence that socio-cultural factors largely determine what is seen as competent behaviour. Within western high income countries, driven by the values of utilitarian individualism, the construct of intellectual disability has been largely determined to meet the needs of urban, industrialised societies. In contrast, competence in non-industrialised societies may be more reflected in collaborative, interpersonal problem solving skills such as those found among Nigerian students labelled as intellectually disabled. However, people who are judged to be incompetent or "obtrusive" in countries deficient in support services, are often neglected and consigned to a life in poorly managed segregated institutions, as is the case in China, Russia and some countries in Eastern Europe. Non western countries that have a long history of a globalised economy, such as Taiwan and Japan also remain committed to segregated institutional provisions for people with an intellectual disability, despite a notional acceptance of inclusionary policies enunciated by the United Nations’ Declarations and Conventions. In this paper is concluded that it must be recognised that the population of people with an intellectual disability, regardless of how the condition is defined and classified, is quite heterogeneous. Their needs are also varied and not at all dissimilar to those of the general population. As developing countries adopt western style consumer-driven economies, there is an extreme danger that they, too, will follow the same trajectory of exclusion and impose the culture of "otherness" for a group whose contribution to that society will be devalued. Good science is futile unless it benefits all peoples.Existe amplia evidencia de que los factores socioculturales determinan en gran medida la percepción de conducta competitiva. En los países occidentales de altos ingresos, dominados por los valores del individualismo utilitario, las necesidades de

  11. Group devaluation and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order

  12. Lie groups and algebraic groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We give an exposition of certain topics in Lie groups and algebraic groups. This is not a complete ... of a polynomial equation is equivalent to the solva- bility of the equation ..... to a subgroup of the group of roots of unity in k (in particular, it is a ...

  13. Guiding Young Children's Digital Media Use: SES-Differences in Mediation Concerns and Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikken, Peter; Opree, Suzanna J

    2018-01-01

    Previous research about parents' mediation of their young children's (digital) media use has predominantly focused on the different types, determinants, and effectiveness of parental mediation strategies. Although research on parents' perceived mediation concerns and competences is scarce, it is known that, compared to mothers and high-educated parents, fathers and low-educated parents experience greater insecurity (i.e., higher concern and lower competence) when applying media mediation. Based on Bourdieu's theory of social capital it may be expected that-in addition to educational level-marital status and family income predict parents' perceived mediation concerns and competences: Family demographics may predict parents' media proficiency and adoption of new media technologies and these media ecological factors may, in turn, affect perceived concerns and competences. To test this assumption, survey data were collected among 1029 parents of children between the ages of 1 to 9 years. We found that parents' basic media proficiency was lower in low income, low educated, and single-parent families, whereas parents' advanced media proficiency was only lower in low educated and single-parent families. As expected, parents' ease of active co-use was positively associated with parents' basic proficiency, ease of restrictive mediation by basic and advanced proficiency, and ease of imposing technical restrictions by advanced media proficiency. Parents' perceived mediation concerns were, however, unrelated to parents' media proficiency. Also, as expected, low educated parents were less inclined to adopt new media technologies. Adoption of new media was negatively related to perceived mediation concerns, yet did not predict parents' perceived competence.

  14. Group Work. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  15. Higher Education and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger

    2018-01-01

    After climate change, rising economic inequality is the greatest challenge facing the advanced Western societies. Higher education has traditionally been seen as a means to greater equality through its role in promoting social mobility. But with increased marketisation higher education now not only reflects the forces making for greater inequality…

  16. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  17. Happiness in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwick, Alex; Cannizzaro, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms happiness and satisfaction interchangeably as if one were…

  18. Gender and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  19. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan

    is about constructing a more inclusive understanding of quality in higher education through combining the macro, meso and micro levels, i.e. from the perspectives of national policy, higher education institutions as organizations in society, individual teaching staff and students. It covers both......Quality in higher education was not invented in recent decades – universities have always possessed mechanisms for assuring the quality of their work. The rising concern over quality is closely related to the changes in higher education and its social context. Among others, the most conspicuous...... changes are the massive expansion, diversification and increased cost in higher education, and new mechanisms of accountability initiated by the state. With these changes the traditional internally enacted academic quality-keeping has been given an important external dimension – quality assurance, which...

  20. Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J.; Brickman, Peggy; Brame, Cynthia J.

    2018-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty are increasingly incorporating both formal and informal group work in their courses. Implementing group work can be improved by an understanding of the extensive body of educational research studies on this topic. This essay describes an online, evidence-based teaching guide published by…

  1. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  2. FACEBOOK COMMUNICATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Maria AVRAM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The social networks have been growing steadily in recent years. Facebook, one of the most popular social networks, is a modern means of communication and socialization that has taken lately more ground in higher education becoming an important academic tool in the communication process. Many universities have their own Facebook page, being used by both students and teachers, and creating Facebook groups increasingly facilitates communication with students. Thus, this paper aims to identify the importance that Facebook holds in the academic communication process and highlights the implications it has in higher education. The results reveal that this type of communication has gained more ground in academia creating real social communities, and students use it more and more for collaboration in various activities involved in the higher education system, but also for socializing and information.

  3. O que realmente importa em programas de transferência condicionada de renda? Abordagens em diferentes países

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Medeiros Roque

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes estratégias de proteção social têm sido utilizadas no mundo visando combater a fome e promover a mobilidade social. Dentre elas, os programas de transferência condicionada de renda têm se destacado pelo desenho contratual e pela estrutura de governança que tem a promoção do comportamento positivo do indivíduo, e não a assistência, como elemento central. Portanto, famílias que participam desses programas recebem, em geral, determinada quantia financeira destinada a satisfazer as necessidades básicas e contribuir para o atendimento das condições positivas impostas à sua manutenção no programa. Conhecer as condicionalidades e perceber sob qual contexto de investigação essas práticas têm sido abordadas no meio acadêmico torna-se fator de relevância científica e social. Nessa direção, este trabalho teve como propósito discutir os diferentes desenhos dessa política em diversos países. Para tanto, 50 trabalhos científicos, distribuídos por 28 países, foram analisados, visando contextualizar metodologias e resultados alcançados. Para realizar tal análise, foi procedido um estudo exploratório, a partir da técnica de metaestudo, utilizando como referência a base de dados do Banco Mundial, sítios eletrônicos e artigos sobre o assunto, publicados entre 2003 e 2011, com a finalidade perceber sob qual ótica têm sido estudados os principais programas de transferência de renda do mundo. Dentre os principais resultados alcançados, merece destaque o fato de, indiferentemente do país ou programa de transferência considerado, a manutenção das crianças na escola e o cuidado com a saúde infantil são condições centrais de inclusão e manutenção da família no sistema de transferência.

  4. Higher English for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann; Mitchell, John

    2015-01-01

    A brand new edition of the former Higher English: Close Reading , completely revised and updated for the new Higher element (Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation) - worth 30% of marks in the final exam!. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. Written by two highly experienced authors this book shows you how to practice for the Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation section of the new Higher English exam. This book introduces the terms and concepts that lie behind success and offers guidance on the interpretation of questions and targeting answer

  5. ¿Cómo afecta la globalización de los mercados el medio ambiente de los países en desarrollo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Georg Binder

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available La globalización de los mercados lleva a un cambio radical de las formas del mercado, de las estructuras económicas Ínter e intrasectoriales, del tamaño de las empresas, así como de las estructuras de propiedad en el campo empresarial. Igualmente, se generan diferentes exigencias para las empresas y los productos a medida que la competencia internacional se intensifica. La globalización de los mercados también implica forzar una distribución internacional del empleo. A los países en desarrollo se les abren más posibilidades de crecimiento. ¿Son estos efectos positivos o negativos para el estado ambiental de los países en desarrollo? Los cambios originados por la globalización de los mercados podrían repercutir de manera positiva en el estado del medio ambiente en los paises en desarrollo. Sin embargo, un requisito muy importante para que ese sea el resultado, es que no solamente los países desarrollados sino también los países en desarrollo pongan en práctica una política ambiental razonable.

  6. Jerarquía de valores en países de la Europa Occidental: una comparación transcultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA ROS

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemos usado la teoría transcultural de los valores humanos desarrollada por Schwartz (1992a para analizar y comparar la jeararquía de valores de diez países de Europa occidental con respecto a la importancia de los valores en un conjunto de países del resto del mundo. Hemos encontrado que el conjunto de naciones de Europa Occidental comparten un perfil único de valores que las distingue del resto de los países. Este perfil se caracteriza por la alta prioridad que atribuyen a los valores de compromiso igualitario, autonomía intelectual y armonía y por la baja prioridad que otorgan a los valores de jerarquía y conservación. Estos resultados son explicados acudiendo a algunos factores socio-estructurales, políticos y económicos, compartidos por estos países y que les diferencian de los demás.

  7. Ses veya Arayüz Yardımı ile Kontrol Edilebilen Mobil Robot Kol Tasarımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köksal GÜNDOĞDU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Robot teknolojisinin hızlı gelişimine paralel olarak mobil araç, robot kol ve ses işleme teknolojisi de hızlı bir gelişim göstermiştir. Bu teknolojik gelişmede robotlardan beklenen en önemli parametrelerin başında güvenlik, çözüm üretme ve hız gelmektedir. Bu çalışmada, mobil araç üzerine bir robot kol yerleştirilmesi ve bu sitemlerin tasarlanan arayüz ve ses sistemi ile kontrol edilerek daha verimli ve hızlı çalışması amaçlanmıştır. Amaçlar doğrultusunda önce üzerinde bir robot kol bulunan bir mobil araç tasarımı gerçekleştirilmiş, sonrada bu mobil aracın ve robot kolun hem arayüz hem de ses komutları ile kontrol edilmesi sağlanmıştır. Yapılan test sonuçları incelendiğinde ses komutları ile kontrol sisteminin, arayüz ile kontrol sistemine göre daha verimli olduğu gözlenmiştir

  8. TEORIAS DE INTERNACIONALIZAÇÃO E APLICAÇÃO EM PAÍSES EMERGENTES: UMA ANÁLISE CRÍTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALTER F. ARAUJO DE MORAES

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são apresentadas e discutidas sete teorias de internacionalização, a saber: oModelo do Ciclo de Vida do Produto, Uppsala – Escola Nórdica de Negócios Internacionais,Relacionado à Inovação, Escolha Adaptativa, Paradigma Eclético de Internalização (OLI,Modelo de Internacionalização Baseado em Recursos (RBV e o Modelo Diamante. Oobjetivo é analisar criticamente estas teorias, propondo uma união entre alguns de seusconceitos-chave para um melhor entendimento do processo de internacionalização incluindo acontexto dos países emergentes. Ademais, questiona-se a aplicação destes modelos, elaboradosem países desenvolvidos, em países emergentes sem uma análise crítica, buscando-se aconvergência sem a percepção dos diferentes contextos e timing de internacionalização, já queo protecionismo instaurado tornou tardia a entrada destes países no mercado internacional.

  9. Relationships between academic performance, SES school type and perceptual-motor skills in first grade South African learners: NW-CHILD study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pienaar, A.E.; Barhorst, R.; Twisk, J.W.R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perceptual-motor skills contribute to a variety of basic learning skills associated with normal academic success. This study aimed to determine the relationship between academic performance and perceptual-motor skills in first grade South African learners and whether low SES

  10. Interaction of child maltreatment and 5-HTT polymorphisms: suicidal ideation among children from low-SES backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Sturge-Apple, Melissa; Toth, Sheree L

    2010-06-01

    To investigate whether genotypic variation of the serotonin transporter gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) moderates the effect of maltreatment on suicidal ideation in school-aged children. Eight hundred and fifty low-income children (478 maltreated; 372 non-maltreated) provided DNA samples and self-reported depressive and suicidal symptoms. Genotypes of 5-HTTLPR (s/s or s/l vs. l/l) were determined by fragment analyses. Higher suicidal ideation was found among maltreated than non-maltreated children; the groups did not differ in 5-HTTLPR genotype frequencies. Children with one to two maltreatment subtypes and s/s or s/l genotypes had higher suicidal ideation than those with the l/l genotype; suicidal ideation did not differ in non-maltreated children or children with three to four maltreatment subtypes based on 5-HTTLPR variation. The results were applicable to emotionally maltreated/neglected and to physically/sexually abused children. Gene-environment interaction was not found for depressive symptoms. The protective effect of the 5-HTTLPR l/l genotype on suicidal ideation was limited to maltreated children experiencing fewer subtypes.

  11. Staphylococcal Entertotoxins of the Enterotoxin Gene Cluster (egcSEs Induce Nitrous Oxide- and Cytokine Dependent Tumor Cell Apoptosis in a Broad Panel of Human Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eTerman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The egcSEs comprise five genetically linked staphylococcal enterotoxins, SEG, SEI, SElM, SElN and SElO and two pseudotoxins which constitute an operon present in up to 80% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. A preparation containing theses proteins was recently used to treat advanced lung cancer with pleural effusion. We investigated the hypothesis that egcSEs induce nitrous oxide (NO and associated cytokine production and that these agents may be involved in tumoricidal effects against a broad panel of clinically relevant human tumor cells. Preliminary studies showed that egcSEs and SEA activated T cells (range: 11-25% in a concentration dependent manner. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs stimulated with equimolar quantities of egcSEs expressed NO synthase and generated robust levels of nitrite (range: 200-250 µM, a breakdown product of NO; this reaction was inhibited by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA (0.3 mM, an NO synthase antagonist. Cell free supernatants (CSFs of all egcSE-stimulated PBMCs were also equally effective in inducing concentration dependent tumor cell apoptosis in a broad panel of human tumor cells. The latter effect was due in part to the generation of NO and TNF-α since it was significantly abolished by L-NMMA, anti-TNF-α antibodies respectively and a combination thereof. A hierarchy of tumor cell sensitivity to these CFSs was as follows: lung carcinoma>osteogenic sarcoma>melanoma>breast carcinoma>neuroblastoma. Notably, SEG induced robust activation of NO/TNFα-dependent tumor cell apoptosis comparable to the other egcSEs and SEA despite TNF-α and IFN-γ levels that were 2 and 8 fold lower respectively than the other egcSEs and SEA. Thus, egcSEs produced by S. aureus induce NO synthase and the increased NO formation together with TNF-α appear to contribute to egcSE-mediated apoptosis against a broad panel of human tumor cells.

  12. Planning for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Caj-Gunnar

    1984-01-01

    Decision processes for strategic planning for higher education institutions are outlined using these parameters: institutional goals and power structure, organizational climate, leadership attitudes, specific problem type, and problem-solving conditions and alternatives. (MSE)

  13. Advert for higher education

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Provozin; А.S. Teletov

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the features advertising higher education institution. The analysis results of marketing research students for their choice of institutions and further study. Principles of the advertising campaign on three levels: the university, the faculty, the separate department.

  14. Corrosion of magnesium and some magnesium alloys in gas cooled reactors; Corrosion du magnesium et de certains de ses alliages dans les piles refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillat, R; Darras, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The results of corrosion tests on magnesium and some magnesium alloys (Mg-Zr and Mg-Zr-Zn) in moist air (like G1 reactor) and in CO{sub 2}: (like G2, G3, EDF1 reactors) are reported. The maximum temperature for exposure of magnesium to moist air without any risk of corrosion is 350 deg. C. Indeed, the oxidation rate follows a linear law above 350 deg. C although it reaches a constant level and keeps on very low under 350 deg. C. However, as far as corrosion is concerned this temperature limit can be raised up to 500 deg. C if moist air is very slightly charged with fluorinated compounds. Under pressure of CO{sub 2}, these three materials oxidate much more slowly even if 500 deg. C is reached. The higher is the temperature, the higher is the constant level of the weight increase and the quicker is reached this one. However, Mg-Zr alloy behaves quite better than pure magnesium and especially than Mg-Zr-Zn alloy. (author)Fren. [French] On expose essentiellement les resultats d'etudes sur la corrosion du magnesium et de certains de ses alliages (Mg-Zr et Mg-Zr-Zn) dans l'air humide (cas de la pile G1) et dans le gaz carbonique (cas des piles G2, G3, EDF1, etc...). La temperature limite d'exposition du magnesium dans l'air humide sans risque de corrosion se situe a 350 deg. C; en effet l'oxydation a un caractere lineaire au-dessus de cette temperature, alors qu'elle atteint un palier et reste tres limitee au-dessous de 350 deg. C. Du point de vue de la corrosion, cette temperature limite d'emploi peut cependant etre elevee jusqu'a 500 deg. C si l'on introduit dans l'air humide de tres faibles teneurs de composes fluores. Dans le gaz carbonique sous pression, l'oxydation est beaucoup plus faible, meme jusqu'a 50g. C pour les trois materiaux: l'augmentation de poids atteint un palier d'autant plus eleve et ceci d'autant plus rapidement que la temperature est elle-meme plus elevee. Cependant, l'alliage Mg-Zr se comporte nettement mieux que le magnesium pur et surtout que l

  15. Corrosion of magnesium and some magnesium alloys in gas cooled reactors; Corrosion du magnesium et de certains de ses alliages dans les piles refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillat, R.; Darras, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The results of corrosion tests on magnesium and some magnesium alloys (Mg-Zr and Mg-Zr-Zn) in moist air (like G1 reactor) and in CO{sub 2}: (like G2, G3, EDF1 reactors) are reported. The maximum temperature for exposure of magnesium to moist air without any risk of corrosion is 350 deg. C. Indeed, the oxidation rate follows a linear law above 350 deg. C although it reaches a constant level and keeps on very low under 350 deg. C. However, as far as corrosion is concerned this temperature limit can be raised up to 500 deg. C if moist air is very slightly charged with fluorinated compounds. Under pressure of CO{sub 2}, these three materials oxidate much more slowly even if 500 deg. C is reached. The higher is the temperature, the higher is the constant level of the weight increase and the quicker is reached this one. However, Mg-Zr alloy behaves quite better than pure magnesium and especially than Mg-Zr-Zn alloy. (author)Fren. [French] On expose essentiellement les resultats d'etudes sur la corrosion du magnesium et de certains de ses alliages (Mg-Zr et Mg-Zr-Zn) dans l'air humide (cas de la pile G1) et dans le gaz carbonique (cas des piles G2, G3, EDF1, etc...). La temperature limite d'exposition du magnesium dans l'air humide sans risque de corrosion se situe a 350 deg. C; en effet l'oxydation a un caractere lineaire au-dessus de cette temperature, alors qu'elle atteint un palier et reste tres limitee au-dessous de 350 deg. C. Du point de vue de la corrosion, cette temperature limite d'emploi peut cependant etre elevee jusqu'a 500 deg. C si l'on introduit dans l'air humide de tres faibles teneurs de composes fluores. Dans le gaz carbonique sous pression, l'oxydation est beaucoup plus faible, meme jusqu'a 50g. C pour les trois materiaux: l'augmentation de poids atteint un palier d'autant plus eleve et ceci d'autant plus rapidement que la temperature est elle-meme plus elevee. Cependant, l

  16. On higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt

  17. Higher Spins & Strings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The conjectured relation between higher spin theories on anti de-Sitter (AdS) spaces and weakly coupled conformal field theories is reviewed. I shall then outline the evidence in favour of a concrete duality of this kind, relating a specific higher spin theory on AdS3 to a family of 2d minimal model CFTs. Finally, I shall explain how this relation fits into the framework of the familiar stringy AdS/CFT correspondence.

  18. Group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, W R

    2010-01-01

    Here is a clear, well-organized coverage of the most standard theorems, including isomorphism theorems, transformations and subgroups, direct sums, abelian groups, and more. This undergraduate-level text features more than 500 exercises.

  19. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  20. Computer group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, H.; Black, I.; Heusler, A.; Hoeptner, G.; Krafft, F.; Lang, R.; Moellenkamp, R.; Mueller, W.; Mueller, W.F.; Schati, C.; Schmidt, A.; Schwind, D.; Weber, G.

    1983-01-01

    The computer groups has been reorganized to take charge for the general purpose computers DEC10 and VAX and the computer network (Dataswitch, DECnet, IBM - connections to GSI and IPP, preparation for Datex-P). (orig.)

  1. Group learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel, Ricardo; Noguira, Eloy Eros da Silva; Elkjær, Bente

    The article presents a study that aims at the apprehension of the group learning in a top management team composed by teachers in a Brazilian Waldorf school whose management is collective. After deciding to extend the school, they had problems recruiting teachers who were already trained based...... on the Steiner´s ideas, which created practical problems for conducting management activities. The research seeks to understand how that group of teachers collectively manage the school, facing the lack of resources, a significant heterogeneity in the relationships, and the conflicts and contradictions......, and they are interrelated to the group learning as the construction, maintenance and reconstruction of the intelligibility of practices. From this perspective, it can be said that learning is a practice and not an exceptional phenomenon. Building, maintaining and rebuilding the intelligibility is the group learning...

  2. Group technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    Group Technology has been conceptually applied to the manufacture of batch-lots of 554 machined electromechanical parts which now require 79 different types of metal-removal tools. The products have been grouped into 7 distinct families which require from 8 to 22 machines in each machine-cell. Throughput time can be significantly reduced and savings can be realized from tooling, direct-labor, and indirect-labor costs

  3. Determinantes estructurales y su relación con el índice de COP en países de desarrollo alto, mediano y bajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos García Rincón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir y analizar los determinantes estructurales y su relación con el índice de COP en países de desarrollo alto, mediano y bajo durante las últimas tres décadas. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo realizado a partir de una revisión de la literatura internacional y nacional en bases de datos y páginas web. Resultados: se encontró un país con índice de COP elevado; un país con índice de COP moderado; 10 países con índice de COP bajo; y 10 países con índice de COP muy bajo. Los países de desarrollo alto y los países de desarrollo bajo se comportan de manera similar en tanto reportan índices de COP inferiores al promedio mundial sugerido por la OMS (2.4. Discusión y conclusiones: se concluye que los valores de COP están asociados fuertemente a factores macroeconómicos, como las políticas y servicios de cuidado de la salud disponibles para la población, más que a la clasificación de desarrollo del Banco Mundial. Los determinantes sociales están directamente relacionados con las políticas estructurales que afectan el bienestar social, la salud y la calidad de vida de la población.

  4. Nível de desenvolvimento e tecnologia de distribuição de alimentos em países selecionados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Diana Souza de Oliveira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo comparar os sistemas de distribuição de alimentos em países com diferentes níveis de desenvolvimento. Especificamente: i identificar padrões de demanda e analisar as características do mercado de alimentos; ii verificar as relações entre a estrutura dos sistemas varejistas de alimento e padrões econômicos, sociais, culturais e prevalecentes de compra e iii identificar as estratégicas adotadas pelos varejistas. Para tanto, foi efetuada uma revisão em estudos prévios disponíveis. Os países estudados foram: renda alta (Estados Unidos e Reino Unido; renda média-alta (África do Sul e Brasil; renda média-baixa (China e Guatemala e renda baixa (Madagascar e Vietnã. Os resultados mostram a existência de importantes diferenças no desenvolvimento do varejo de alimentos entre os países analisados. Revelam, ainda, que qualidade e variedade dos produtos são fatores importantes na estratégia de varejo em países de renda alta e média-alta; nos países de renda média-baixa e baixa destaca-se o preço dos alimentos. A principal implicação é o impacto que os supermercados causam em todos os elos das cadeias agroindustriais.

  5. Países generadores de políticas públicas para el fomento de la cultura empresarial dirigida hacia la responsabilidad social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Hernández de Velazco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo identifica los esfuerzos realizados en el desarrollo de políticas públicas (PP de responsabilidad social empresarial (RSE y los instrumentos que existen para su promoción en países de África, Asia, Europa y los Estados Unidos. Los países analizados fueron: Holanda, Alemania, Suecia, Estados Unidos, Malawi y Mozambique, mismos que son practicantes de la formalización de PP de RSE. En el caso los países que estimulan la transparencia se consigue a: Dinamarca, Noruega, Holanda, Francia, Estados Unidos, Japón, Alemania, Nueva Zelanda, Canadá y Sudáfrica. Por su parte, Italia, India, Bélgica, Reino Unido, Dinamarca, España, Australia y Francia, forman parte de las iniciativas de países que inspiran PP en la práctica del escrutinio de la RSE. Con este estudio se puede, desde el estado del arte, por un lado conocer mejor la condición de las políticas públicas orientadas a la RSE a nivel mundial y por otro disponer de una útil herramienta de evaluación de las políticas públicas en función del contexto en el que se aplican, por lo que se convierte en un documento de referencia a la hora de analizar la RSE. La revisión bibliográfica documental facilitó el método y la consecución de resultados, concluyendo que los países han de ser capaces de proporcionar dos elementos principales: ciudadanos capacitados para enfrentar a la sociedad del conocimiento, y marcos regulatorios que sean capaces de hacerse cumplir para las industrias y verificables.

  6. La Numérisation des Thèses en France: Pour une Meilleure Valorisation de la Recherche Scientifique Française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Okret

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Tels qu’ils existent actuellement, les procédés institutionnels de valorisation des thèses soutenues dans les universités et grands établissements français reposent sur deux circuits concomitants. En premier lieu les thèses soutenues sont déposées sous forme papier dans la bibliothèque de leur université de soutenance, où elles peuvent être consultées sur place, et prêtées par le biais du réseau de prêt entre bibliothèques. En second lieu, un exemplaire papier est transmis aux ateliers nationaux de reproduction des thèses chargés du microfichage des textes et de la diffusion systématique de ces microfiches auprès de toutes les bibliothèques universitaires. Ces deux formes de diffusion non commerciale présentent en regard des exigences des chercheurs trois inconvénients majeurs: la diffusion des thèses est géographiquement restreinte, puisque limitée aux bibliothèques universitaires; le support microfiche est jugé peu convivial; le prêt entre établissements est parfois trop lent ou onéreux, ce qui peut décourager les utilisateurs qui désirent consulter sur papier les thèses non conservées dans leur bibliothèque universitaire.

  7. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  8. Riesgo psicosocial intralaboral y “burnout” en docentes universitarios de algunos países latinoamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Botero Álvarez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las actuales modificaciones en el mundo del trabajo y en especial en las instituciones universitarias, han puesto de manifiesto nuevos riesgos de orden psicosocial que impactan no solo la salud física sino también la salud mental de los docentes, derivándose en el conocido síndrome de burnout. Se identificaron algunos factores de riesgo psicosocial intralaboral que propician el desarrollo y prevalencia del síndrome de burnout en estos profesionales de algunos países de América Latina como Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina y México. Se concluyó que ciertos aspectos propios de la organización del trabajo y de su realización tales como: multiplicidad de tareas, sobrecarga laboral, espacios inadecuados, falta de tiempo y de remuneración que compense los esfuerzos, son algunas de las principales fuentes de riesgos psicosociales que coadyuvan al posterior desarrollo y prevalencia del síndrome en esta población.

  9. Análisis de eficiencia del sector industrial manufacturero en cinco países suramericanos, 1995-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana María Molina Romero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Esteartículo calcula la eficiencia técnica de cinco países suramericanos en la industria manufacturera durante 1995-2008. A través de un análisis de frontera estocástica se estima la eficiencia para probar si la aglomeración contribuye a acercar más a su frontera de productividad eficiente. Se emplea una función de producción translogarítmica, porque permite cambios tecnológicos y variaciones en las proporciones de insumos y productos de la elasticidad de escala. Los resultados muestran que en el sector manufacturero no se generaron ni mejoramientos en la eficiencia técnica ni cambios tecnológicos durante los catorce años. La evidencia sugiere que las variables ambientales determinadas por la formación bruta de capital fijo total o solo en maquinaria y equipo influyen en el comportamiento del sector.

  10. ¿Cómo valorar las componentes de la calidad de vida en los países en desarrollo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafuente Lechuga, Matilde

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se inscribe dentro de una nueva corriente de investigación económica que aboga por aproximar la calidad de vida a partir de un conjunto informativo complejo, conteniendo elementos tradicionales de valoración económica basados en el bienestar material, como la renta per capita, pero que extiende el ámbito de evaluación a otros aspectos que están relacionados con la salud, la educación, la calidad del medio ambiente, el acceso a nuevas tecnologías o la relación con la actividad laboral, entre otros. A partir de la información estadística contenida en los Indicadores sobre el desarrollo Mundial, del Banco Mundial, y en los Informes sobre desarrollo humano, del Programa de Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo, pretendemos estimar los perfiles de la calidad de vida de los países menos desarrollados. La técnica de agregación utilizada es el Análisis Factorial, que nos permite identificar la estructura latente a los diferentes indicadores de calidad de vida.

  11. El turismo orientado a los pobres: una alternativa estratégica para los países en desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Jiménez López

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las iniciativas del movimiento Turismo Orientado a los Pobres se han realizado durante más de una década, en diferentes regiones del mundo, debido a que millones de pobres viven en lugares que son destinos turísticos potenciales y que el turismo es considerado un factor determinante para que los países en desarrollo puedan mejorar su economía. El movimiento propone que los nuevos destinos turísticos sean planeados con el fi n de maximizar su contribución a las poblaciones, fomentar el desarrollo sustentable y de esta manera erradicar la pobreza. A través del análisis de intervenciones en distintas regiones se identifi caron aspectos clave necesarios para obtener los benefi cios del turismo para las comunidades pobres; así como estrategias que fortalezcan de los medios de subsistencia, creación de nuevos empleos y oportunidades para el desarrollo de microempresas.

  12. Producción de arrabio en los países de la Unión Europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, L.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The incessant increase of the competitivity of the metallurgical industry implies the necessity of the optimization of the resources and raw materials used. This affects in the same way the ironmaking in blast furnace and its principal fuel, metallurgical coke. It is from here the importance of the development of the techniques which facilitate improvements in the operation parameters in the blast furnace. This article is dedicated to the latest developments applicated on blast furnace process in the countries of European Community.

    El aumento continuo de la competitividad en la industria siderúrgica hace necesaria la optimización de los recursos y materias primas empleados. Este hecho afecta de igual forma a la fabricación de arrabio en horno alto y a su principal combustible, el coque metalúrgico. De ahí la gran importancia que adquiere el desarrollo de técnicas que faciliten mejoras en los índices de operación del horno alto. En este trabajo se analizan los últimos desarrollos aplicados al proceso del horno alto en los países de la Unión Europea.

  13. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  14. Group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandiffio, A L

    1990-12-01

    Group dynamics play a significant role within any organization, culture, or unit. The important thing to remember with any of these structures is that they are made up of people--people with different ideas, motivations, background, and sometimes different agendas. Most groups, formal or informal, look for a leader in an effort to maintain cohesiveness of the unit. At times, that cultural bond must be developed; once developed, it must be nurtured. There are also times that one of the group no longer finds the culture comfortable and begins to act out behaviorally. It is these times that become trying for the leader as she or he attempts to remain objective when that which was once in the building phase of group cohesiveness starts to fall apart. At all times, the manager must continue to view the employee creating the disturbance as an integral part of the group. It is at this time that it is beneficial to perceive the employee exhibiting problem behaviors as a special employee, as one who needs the benefit of your experience and skills, as one who is still part of the group. It is also during this time that the manager should focus upon her or his own views in the area of power, communication, and the corporate culture of the unit that one has established before attempting to understand another's point of view. Once we understand our own motivation and accept ourselves, it is then that we may move on to offer assistance to another. Once we understand our insecurities recognizing staff dysfunction as a symptom of system dysfunction will not be so threatening to the concept of the manager that we perceive ourselves to be. It takes a secure person to admit that she or he favors staff before deciding to do something to change things. The important thing to know is that it can be done. The favored staff can find a new way of relating to others, the special employee can find new modes of behavior (and even find self-esteem in the process), the group can find new ways

  15. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  16. INTERNATIONALIZATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Crisan-Mitra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization of higher education is one of the key trends of development. There are several approaches on how to achieve competitiveness and performance in higher education and international academic mobility; students’ exchange programs, partnerships are some of the aspects that can play a significant role in this process. This paper wants to point out the student’s perception regarding two main directions: one about the master students’ expectation regarding how an internationalized master should be organized and should function, and second the degree of satisfaction of the beneficiaries of internationalized master programs from Babe-Bolyai University. This article is based on an empirical qualitative research that was implemented to students of an internationalized master from the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. This research can be considered a useful example for those preoccupied to increase the quality of higher education and conclusions drawn have relevance both theoretically and especially practically.

  17. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan; Zhao, Yingsheng; Du, Xiangyun

    . This transformation involves a broad scale of change at individual level, organizational level, and societal level. In this change process in higher education, staff development remains one of the key elements for university innovation and at the same time demands a systematic and holistic approach.......This paper starts with a critical approach to reflect on the current practice of quality assessment and assurance in higher education. This is followed by a proposal that in response to the global challenges for improving the quality of higher education, universities should take active actions...... of change by improving the quality of teaching and learning. From a constructivist perspective of understanding education and learning, this paper also discusses why and how universities should give more weight to learning and change the traditional role of teaching to an innovative approach of facilitation...

  18. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Grønholdt, Lars

    2005-01-01

    leaders of higher education institutions to set strategic directions and support their decisions in an effort to create even better study programmes with a better reputation. Finally, managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.Keywords: Reputation, image, corporate identity......The purpose of this paper is to develop a reputation model for higher education programmes, provide empirical evidence for the model and illustrate its application by using Copenhagen Business School (CBS) as the recurrent case. The developed model is a cause-and-effect model linking image...

  19. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plewa, Carolin; Ho, Joanne; Conduit, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    Reputation is critical for institutions wishing to attract and retain students in today's competitive higher education setting. Drawing on the resource based view and configuration theory, this research proposes that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) need to understand not only the impact...... of independent resources but of resource configurations when seeking to achieve a strong, positive reputation. Utilizing fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), the paper provides insight into different configurations of resources that HEIs can utilize to build their reputation within their domestic...

  20. Navigating in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Hanne Balsby; Reimer, David; Keiding, Tina Bering

    Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur, Informati......Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur...

  1. Charles et ses images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Baron

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Bovary est probablement le personnage qui a été le plus transformé par les cinéastes qui ont adapté le roman de Flaubert. Si les premiers adaptateurs l’ont traité en victime, peu à peu, le cinéma a commencé à souligner la dimension néfaste sous-jacente du personnage et à lui faire porter une large part de responsabilité dans la descente aux enfers d’Emma. Depuis Pierre Renoir, touchant et authentique, jusqu’à Gregg Edelman, le mari de Little children qui fantasme sur les photos d’une pin-up virtuelle, en passant par les images plus ou moins pathétiques ou ridicules de Van Heflin, Aribert Wäscher, Alberto Bello, Jean-François Balmer, Farooq Shaikh ou Luis-Miguel Cintra, Charles, plus que tout autre personnage du roman, a subi une incroyable métamorphose en s’ancrant dans la civilisation de chacun des pays et de chacune des décennies successives qui l’ont porté à l’écran.From the 1930s to the present, Charles Bovary is probably the most altered character in the adaptations of Flaubert’s novel. The first directors made a victim of him, but gradually, the cinema began to emphasize his deleterious dimension and attributed to him a large part of the responsibility for Emma’s grief. From Pierre Renoir, touching and authentic, to Gregg Edelman, who fantasizes on a pornographic website in Todd Field’s Little Children, the more or less pathetic or ridiculous portrayals given by Van Heflin, Aribert Wäscher,Alberto Bello, Jean-François Balmer, Farooq Shaikh or Luis-Miguel Cintra, show that more than any other character in the novel, Charles has been submitted to a serious metamorphosis by being interpreted on screen according to each country’s civilization and the successive decades of filming.

  2. Group representations

    CERN Document Server

    Karpilovsky, G

    1994-01-01

    This third volume can be roughly divided into two parts. The first part is devoted to the investigation of various properties of projective characters. Special attention is drawn to spin representations and their character tables and to various correspondences for projective characters. Among other topics, projective Schur index and projective representations of abelian groups are covered. The last topic is investigated by introducing a symplectic geometry on finite abelian groups. The second part is devoted to Clifford theory for graded algebras and its application to the corresponding theory

  3. Lego Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2010-01-01

    The last years’ rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence......, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts...

  4. Exploring Higher Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Willis M.

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that the social studies reform movement includes a call for the de-emphasis of rote memory and more attention to the development of higher-order thinking skills. Discusses the "thinking tasks" concept derived from the work of Hilda Taba and asserts that the tasks can be used with almost any social studies topic. (CFR)

  5. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must be po...

  6. Inflation from higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.

    1987-01-01

    We argue that an inflationary phase in the very early universe is related to the transition from a higher dimensional to a four-dimensional universe. We present details of a previously considered model which gives sufficient inflation without fine tuning of parameters. (orig.)

  7. Higher Education Funding Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown-Moak, Mary P.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most critical components of the college or university chief financial officer's job is budget planning, especially using formulas. A discussion of funding formulas looks at advantages, disadvantages, and types of formulas used by states in budgeting for higher education, and examines how chief financial officers can position the campus…

  8. Liberty and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F.

    1989-01-01

    John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty is discussed with the view that it needs to be revised to guide moral judgments in higher education. Three key elements need to be modified: the action that is constrained; the constraint on the action; and the agent whose action is constrained. (MLW)

  9. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines

  10. Evaluation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Bungic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    One of the means of transforming classroom experience is by conducting action research with students. This paper reports about the action research with university students. It has been carried out within a semester of the course "Methods of Upbringing". Its goal has been to improve evaluation of higher education teaching. Different forms…

  11. Higher-level Innovization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2011-01-01

    we introduce the higher-level innovization task through an application of a manufacturing process simulation for the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process where commonalities among two different Pareto-optimal fronts are analyzed. Multiple design rules are simultaneously deciphered from each front...

  12. Benchmarking for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson…

  13. Creativity in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Drazena; Mabic, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research related to perception of creativity in higher education made by the authors at the University of Mostar from Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research was based on a survey conducted among teachers and students at the University. The authors developed two types of questionnaires, one for teachers and the other…

  14. California's Future: Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  15. Cyberbullying in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Maria A.; Smith, Gina S.; Brashen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has extended beyond the schoolyard into online forums in the form of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is a growing concern due to the effect on its victims. Current studies focus on grades K-12; however, cyberbullying has entered the world of higher education. The focus of this study was to identify the existence of cyberbullying in higher…

  16. Informal groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van den Berg; P. van Houwelingen; J. de Hart

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Informele groepen Going out running with a group of friends, rather than joining an official sports club. Individuals who decide to take action themselves rather than giving money to good causes. Maintaining contact with others not as a member of an association, but through an

  17. Competitiveness - higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labas Istvan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of European Union plays an important role in the areas of education and training equally. The member states are responsible for organizing and operating their education and training systems themselves. And, EU policy is aimed at supporting the efforts of member states and trying to find solutions for the common challenges which appear. In order to make our future sustainable maximally; the key to it lies in education. The highly qualified workforce is the key to development, advancement and innovation of the world. Nowadays, the competitiveness of higher education institutions has become more and more appreciated in the national economy. In recent years, the frameworks of operation of higher education systems have gone through a total transformation. The number of applying students is continuously decreasing in some European countries therefore only those institutions can “survive” this shortfall, which are able to minimize the loss of the number of students. In this process, the factors forming the competitiveness of these budgetary institutions play an important role from the point of view of survival. The more competitive a higher education institution is, the greater the chance is that the students would like to continue their studies there and thus this institution will have a greater chance for the survival in the future, compared to ones lagging behind in the competition. Aim of our treatise prepared is to present the current situation and main data of the EU higher education and we examine the performance of higher education: to what extent it fulfils the strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth which is worded in the framework of Europe 2020 programme. The treatise is based on analysis of statistical data.

  18. Efeitos da leitura de histórias no desenvolvimento da linguagem de crianças de nível sócio-econômico baixo Effects of story reading on low ses children's language development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José de Oliveira Fontes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investiga o impacto de um programa de leitura de histórias no desenvolvimento de habilidades da linguagem oral e escrita de crianças de baixo nível sócio-econômico. Trinta e oito crianças entre 4 e 6 anos de idade participaram do estudo. As crianças designadas para o grupo experimental foram submetidas a um programa interativo de leitura de histórias. As crianças designadas para o grupo controle não foram submetidas a nenhum tratamento especial. Os resultados sugerem que programas interativos de leitura de histórias podem ter um impacto positivo no desenvolvimento da linguagem oral de crianças de classe sócio-econômica baixa. Embora os dois grupos tenham apresentado níveis comparáveis de desenvolvimento da linguagem no início do estudo, as crianças do grupo experimental excederam as crianças do grupo controle em todas as medidas de compreensão de história e vocabulário administradas após o término do programa de treinamento.The present study investigates the impact of an interactive book reading program on the development of low SES children's oral and written language skills. Participants were 38 4- to 6-year-old Brazilian children. The children assigned to the experimental group underwent a training program of story reading that encouraged the children to play an active role in meaning construction through conversations about the story´s characters and events. The children from the control group were not subjected to any special treatment. The results suggest that interactive book reading programs may have a positive impact on low SES children´s oral language skills. Although the two groups showed similar levels of language development in the beginning of the study, the children in the experimental group performed better than the children in the control group on the measures of story comprehension and vocabulary which were administered after the training program.

  19. Wave equations in higher dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Shi-Hai

    2011-01-01

    Higher dimensional theories have attracted much attention because they make it possible to reduce much of physics in a concise, elegant fashion that unifies the two great theories of the 20th century: Quantum Theory and Relativity. This book provides an elementary description of quantum wave equations in higher dimensions at an advanced level so as to put all current mathematical and physical concepts and techniques at the reader’s disposal. A comprehensive description of quantum wave equations in higher dimensions and their broad range of applications in quantum mechanics is provided, which complements the traditional coverage found in the existing quantum mechanics textbooks and gives scientists a fresh outlook on quantum systems in all branches of physics. In Parts I and II the basic properties of the SO(n) group are reviewed and basic theories and techniques related to wave equations in higher dimensions are introduced. Parts III and IV cover important quantum systems in the framework of non-relativisti...

  20. Os países desenvolvidos e a desigualdade econômica The developed countries and economic inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Salvadori Dedecca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste ensaio é explorar o tema da desigualdade econômica a partir das distribuições de renda disponível e de patrimônio nos países desenvolvidos e, de modo mais detalhado, nos Estados Unidos. A análise explora o aumento da desigualdade enquanto resultado das transformações da sociedade capitalista ocorridas nos últimos quase 40 anos, que provocaram uma desvalorização dos salários acompanhada de uma maior financeirização da renda associada à dinâmica da riqueza, isto é, do patrimônio detido por certas parcelas das populações desses países. Ele adota uma perspectiva de análise de natureza estrutural, entendendo que o aumento da desigualdade que a crise atual poderá carregar deve ser visto como parte do processo de sua ampliação produzida pelas transformações ocorridas na sociedade capitalista desenvolvida ao longo dos últimos quase 40 anos. Nestes últimos 40 anos, o capitalismo desenvolvido conheceu um processo de sistemática reorganização econômica, social e política de suas estruturas produtivas, das instituições de representação e regulação e da dinâmica da acumulação de capital. A desigualdade deve ser entendida como transformação, que teve a financeirização como instrumento relevante para a modificação da distribuição de renda.This essay debates the theme of economic inequality from the distribution of disposable income and wealth in developed countries and especially in the United States. The analysis explores the increase in inequality as a result of the transformation of capitalist society have occurred over the past forty years, which led to a devaluation of wages accompanied by greater financialization of income linked to the dynamics of wealth, i.e. the assets held by certain portions of the populations these countries. It adopts an analytical perspective of structural nature, meaning that the increase in inequality that can load the current crisis should be seen as part of

  1. Lecciones desde fuera. Otros países en ésta y otras crisis anteriores. Informe SESPAS 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rivadeneyra-Sicilia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La evidencia acumulada sobre el efecto de crisis anteriores en la salud presenta patrones muy diferenciados atribuibles al diseño de los estudios, a la naturaleza de cada crisis y a otros factores del entorno socioeconómico y político. Existe, no obstante, un consenso cada vez mayor sobre el papel mediador de las respuestas políticas de los gobiernos, que pueden magnificar, o al contrario mitigar, los efectos adversos de las crisis. Estudios recientes revelan un deterioro en algunos indicadores de salud en el contexto de la crisis actual, fundamentalmente en salud mental y enfermedades transmisibles. En algunos países europeos también se ha constatado un descenso en el consumo de tabaco y alcohol. Por otro lado, algunos gobiernos están haciendo uso del contexto de crisis para avanzar reformas tendentes a la privatización de servicios y prestaciones sanitarias, restringiendo con ello el derecho a la salud y a la atención sanitaria. Se está actuando sobre los tres ejes que determinan el campo de la financiación de los sistemas sanitarios: la población protegida, la contribución del usuario y la cobertura de servicios. Estas medidas están siendo adoptadas a menudo de manera arbitraria basándose en decisiones ideológicas más que en la evidencia disponible, de lo que cabría esperar consecuencias adversas en términos de protección financiera, eficiencia y equidad.

  2. La crisis del ciclo neoliberal en los países de la región andina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eudis F. Fermín T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se estudia la crisis del ciclo neoliberal en los países de la Región Andina en el contexto delos cambios políticos latinoamericanos. Es una investigación documental-analítica, fundamentada en una revisión bibliográfica y en la clasificación del material para el procesamiento de los datos recolectados, la interpretación de esos datos parte de la categoría crisis del ciclo neoliberal. El neoliberalismo reduce las funciones de los Estados andinos a las áreas medulares: educación, salud y seguridad ciudadana, privatiza las empresas estatales y los servicios públicos, donde la ¿razón del mercado¿ priva la relación Sociedad-Estado, con consecuencias nefastas para la población, originando en el tiempo el surgimiento democrático de gobiernos anti-neoliberales. Se concluye que en los albores del siglo XXI el neoliberalismo entra en crisis, cuando el mercado manifiesta su incapacidad de contrarrestar los altos índices de pobreza y el deterioro de las condiciones vida de los ¿pueblos¿, los gobiernos andinos de izquierda introducen cambios en los sistemas políticos, redimensionando las políticas de ajuste macro-económico y rechazan los acuerdos bilaterales y multilaterales promotores de libre mercado en el seno del sistema institucional de integración andina.

  3. Elaboration du Ge mesoporeux et etude de ses proprietes physico-chimiques en vue d'applications photovoltaiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutashkonko, Sergii

    Le sujet de cette these porte sur l'elaboration du nouveau nanomateriau par la gravure electrochimique bipolaire (BEE) --- le Ge mesoporeux et sur l'analyse de ses proprietes physico-chimiques en vue de son utilisation dans des applications photovoltaiques. La formation du Ge mesoporeux par gravure electrochimique a ete precedemment rapportee dans la litterature. Cependant, le verrou technologique important des procedes de fabrication existants consistait a obtenir des couches epaisses (superieure a 500 nm) du Ge mesoporeux a la morphologie parfaitement controlee. En effet, la caracterisation physico-chimique des couches minces est beaucoup plus compliquee et le nombre de leurs applications possibles est fortement limite. Nous avons developpe un modele electrochimique qui decrit les mecanismes principaux de formation des pores ce qui nous a permis de realiser des structures epaisses du Ge mesoporeux (jusqu'au 10 mum) ayant la porosite ajustable dans une large gamme de 15% a 60%. En plus, la formation des nanostructures poreuses aux morphologies variables et bien controlees est desormais devenue possible. Enfin, la maitrise de tous ces parametres a ouvert la voie extremement prometteuse vers la realisation des structures poreuses a multi-couches a base de Ge pour des nombreuses applications innovantes et multidisciplinaires grace a la flexibilite technologique actuelle atteinte. En particulier, dans le cadre de cette these, les couches du Ge mesoporeux ont ete optimisees dans le but de realiser le procede de transfert de couches minces d'une cellule solaire a triple jonctions via une couche sacrificielle en Ge poreux. Mots-cles : Germanium meso-poreux, Gravure electrochimique bipolaire, Electrochimie des semi-conducteurs, Report des couches minces, Cellule photovoltaique

  4. Determinants of cognitive development of low SES children in Chile: a post-transitional country with rising childhood obesity rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Marcos; Uauy, Ricardo; Corvalán, Camila; López-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Kain, Juliana

    2013-09-01

    Studies conducted in developing countries have noted associations between concurrent stunting, social-emotional problems and poor cognitive ability in young children. However, the relative contribution of these variables in Latin America is likely changing as undernutrition rates decline and prevalence of childhood obesity rises. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 normal-weight and 109 obese preschool children to compare the relative contribution of early nutrition, sociodemographic factors and psychosocial variables on cognitive development in normal-weight and obese preschool children in Chile. The study variables were categorized as: (1) socio-demographic (age, sex, birth order and socioeconomic) (2) early nutrition (maternal height, birth weight, birth length and height at 5 years) (3) psychosocial factors (maternal depression, social-emotional wellbeing and home space sufficiency). In order to assess determinants of cognitive development at 4-5 years we measured intelligence quotient (IQ); variability in normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics (r(2) = 0.26), while in obese children early nutritional factors had a significant effect (r(2) = 0.12) beyond socio-demographic factors (r(2) = 0.19). Normal-weight children, who were first born, of slightly better SES and height Z score >1, had an IQ ≥ 6 points greater than their counterparts (p birth weight >4,000 g and low risk of socio-emotional problems had on average ≥5 IQ points greater than their peers (p < 0.05). We conclude that in Chile, a post-transitional country, IQ variability of normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics; while in obese children, early nutrition also played a significant role.

  5. La protección del software en Cuba. Comparación con otros países latinoamericanos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerbys Hernández Dorta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años los asuntos relacionados con la Propiedad Intelectual han ido cobrando importancia, por lo que la legislación en ese sentido ha tenido que sufrir mutaciones que la han llevado a la búsqueda de estructuras que le permitan desarrollarse en toda su extensión. El proceso de digitalización que se diversificó con la aparición de la Sociedad de la Información, entrañó la aparición de una nueva categoría de obras que se debían insertar en las concepciones de los Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual, pues aparecían bienes intangibles con una naturaleza diferente a los ya conocidos, entre ellos el software, el cual ha sido objeto de un polémico debate en cuanto a la necesidad de su protección. Desde su creación se ha tratado de determinar una figura que le diera amparo legal, y para ello siempre se mantuvo en el derecho de las invenciones, el derecho de autor y una protección sui generis. Es por ello que se realizó una revisión de la legislación existente en la materia para de forma concreta proporcionarles información a los interesados en el tema sobre la protección legal de los programas de ordenador en Cuba; así como su comparación con legislaciones en esta materia en países como Bolivia y Venezuela.

  6. Hyperspectral target detection analysis of a cluttered scene from a virtual airborne sensor platform using MuSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Corey D.; Viola, Timothy S.; Klein, Mark D.

    2017-10-01

    The ability to predict spectral electro-optical (EO) signatures for various targets against realistic, cluttered backgrounds is paramount for rigorous signature evaluation. Knowledge of background and target signatures, including plumes, is essential for a variety of scientific and defense-related applications including contrast analysis, camouflage development, automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm development and scene material classification. The capability to simulate any desired mission scenario with forecast or historical weather is a tremendous asset for defense agencies, serving as a complement to (or substitute for) target and background signature measurement campaigns. In this paper, a systematic process for the physical temperature and visible-through-infrared radiance prediction of several diverse targets in a cluttered natural environment scene is presented. The ability of a virtual airborne sensor platform to detect and differentiate targets from a cluttered background, from a variety of sensor perspectives and across numerous wavelengths in differing atmospheric conditions, is considered. The process described utilizes the thermal and radiance simulation software MuSES and provides a repeatable, accurate approach for analyzing wavelength-dependent background and target (including plume) signatures in multiple band-integrated wavebands (multispectral) or hyperspectrally. The engineering workflow required to combine 3D geometric descriptions, thermal material properties, natural weather boundary conditions, all modes of heat transfer and spectral surface properties is summarized. This procedure includes geometric scene creation, material and optical property attribution, and transient physical temperature prediction. Radiance renderings, based on ray-tracing and the Sandford-Robertson BRDF model, are coupled with MODTRAN for the inclusion of atmospheric effects. This virtual hyperspectral/multispectral radiance prediction methodology has been

  7. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  8. Group therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: In his review 'Genesis of Unified Gauge Theories' at the symposium in Honour of Abdus Salam (June, page 23), Tom Kibble of Imperial College, London, looked back to the physics events around Salam from 1959-67. He described how, in the early 1960s, people were pushing to enlarge the symmetry of strong interactions beyond the SU(2) of isospin and incorporate the additional strangeness quantum number. Kibble wrote - 'Salam had students working on every conceivable symmetry group. One of these was Yuval Ne'eman, who had the good fortune and/or prescience to work on SU(3). From that work, and of course from the independent work of Murray Gell- Mann, stemmed the Eightfold Way, with its triumphant vindication in the discovery of the omega-minus in 1964.' Yuval Ne'eman writes - 'I was the Defence Attaché at the Israeli Embassy in London and was admitted by Salam as a part-time graduate student when I arrived in 1958. I started research after resigning from the Embassy in May 1960. Salam suggested a problem: provide vector mesons with mass - the problem which was eventually solved by Higgs, Guralnik, Kibble,.... (as described by Kibble in his article). I explained to Salam that I had become interested in symmetry. Nobody at Imperial College at the time, other than Salam himself, was doing anything in groups, and attention further afield was focused on the rotation - SO(N) - groups. Reacting to my own half-baked schemes, Salam told me to forget about the rotation groups he taught us, and study group theory in depth, directing me to Eugene Dynkin's classification of Lie subalgebras, about which he had heard from Morton Hamermesh. I found Dynkin incomprehensible without first learning about Lie algebras from Henri Cartan's thesis, which luckily had been reproduced by Dynkin in his 1946 thesis, using his diagram method. From a copy of a translation of Dynkin's thesis which I found in the British Museum Library, I

  9. Higher Education Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary of recommendations HEIs are encouraged, within the framework of their own societal context, mission, vision and strategies, to develop the aims and objectives of a Higher Education Language Policy (HELP) that allows them to implement these strategies. In this process, they may want......: As the first step in a Higher Education Language Policy, HEIs should determine the relative status and use of the languages employed in the institution, taking into consideration the answers to the following questions:  What is/are the official language(s) of the HEI?  What is/are the language...... and the level of internationalisation the HEI has or wants to have, and as a direct implication of that, what are the language proficiency levels expected from the graduates of these programme?  Given the profile of the HEI and its educational strategies, which language components are to be offered within...

  10. Modelo de servicios microfinancieros propuesto para resolver el problema de la falta de acceso a los servicios financieros en los países en desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Prior Sanz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este documento analiza cómo resolver el problema de la falta de acceso a los servicios financieros que padece la amplia mayoría de la población de los países en desarrollo. La solución propuesta toma como hipótesis que la falta de acceso a los servicios financieros se explica principalmente por un problema de oferta. Los modelos de negocio usados por las entidades financieras que operan en los países en desarrollo son inadecuados e ineficientes al no permitir servir rentablemente a los segmentos de bajos ingresos. Para resolver este problema de oferta, se necesita del desarrollo de modelos de negocio de distribución de servicios microfinancieros a bajo coste adaptados para servir a segmentos de población de bajos ingresos rentablemente.

  11. Efectos de la inversión extranjera en la actividad minera colombiana y de cuatro países de la región

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Patricia Gamba,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El sector minero ha venido captando los mayores flujos de inversión extranjera directa, permitiendo la entrada de proyectos que, al nuevo nivel de precios son técnica y económicamente más viables, asociado a la diversificación en los portafolios de riesgo y al alto nivel de capital que exige su explotación. Dicha inversión se ha orientado a países de América Latina con potencial geológico atractivo, por lo que vale la pena analizar qué tan favorable resultan estas inversiones al desarrollo económico de los países, lo que representa retos en la definición de la política de Estado que maximice sus beneficios.

  12. Branding de países e atração de investimento direto estrangeiro : o papel do soft power

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Ana Cristina Leitão Santos

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing Nas últimas décadas, deu-se uma mudança no paradigma internacional e na maneira como os países se interrelacionam. Estas relações, cada vez mais económicas, exigem uma nova abordagem por parte dos países. Neste sentido, o conceito de soft power de Joseph Nye, enquanto poder de atracção de um país e que pode ser encontrado na sua cultura, valores e políticas externas, ao invés de hard power, considerado como poder de coerção e que pode ser económico ou militar, ganha u...

  13. Direito educacional em países lusófonos: análise da legislação brasileira e angolana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellcia Rezende Souza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou analisar como se configura o direito à educação na legislação educacional de Angola e no Brasil. Para tanto, foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica e documental com enfoque qualitativo. A fonte documental se constituiu pelas Constituições Federais e legislação educacional vigente em ambos os países. A discussão versou pelo confronto dos ordenamentos legais com as reflexões suscitadas pela literatura da área, procurando colocar em evidência similitudes e diferenças concernentes à garantia do direito a educação nos respectivos países, cuja realidade carece de investigações.

  14. La Educación Matemática en Finlandia: un camino seguro para otros países o una anomalía

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Finlandia últimamente ha recibido mucha fama por su éxito en la prueba de PISA. Varios libros, muchos artículos en revistas académicas y en la prensa popular han analizado dicho éxito. ¿Cuáles son algunas de las características demográficas de Finlandia y cómo se comparan con los países del Caribe? ¿Cuáles son algunos de los aspectos principales del éxito de Finlandia? ¿Cómo se comparan con los países del Caribe? ¿Qué debemos aprender de la experiencia de Finlandia?

  15. Leadership in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drugus D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “The conduct” of an academic institution has suffered a permanent change under external pressure and criticism for its failure to adapt to current social and economic requirements. The degradation of quality in the Romanian education system is a current affairs subject. Successive and rather incoherent reforms suggest the lack of a long-term vision, as well as that of a political consensus on the role and place of education within the Romanian economy and society. The reference points identified as a result of the needs analysis and the student opinion polls have indicated the necessity to focus the academic teaching and learning activities on the student, on their level of development, using active-participative strategies, using a specific academic group management and applying various evaluation techniques focused on the student’s performance and his acquired competences. All of these elements signal, at the level of institutional strategic decisions, a direction towards the improvement of professional development of the teaching staff, one concentrated on education quality and performance. The modern school of leadership is based on applied methods, the delegation of responsibilities, regulation of centralized-decentralized relations, research and creativity development and the reinforcement of psychological and social aspects. Unlike management, considered to be a formal and institutionalized type of leadership, leadership is perceived as a process carried out at an informal group level, while the leader as a boss is someone who leads this group.

  16. Higher engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    John Bird

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics principles required at higher engineering levelJohn Bird's approach to mathematics, based on numerous worked examples and interactive problems, is ideal for vocational students that require an advanced textbook.Theory is kept to a minimum, with the emphasis firmly placed on problem-solving skills, making this a thoroughly practical introduction to the advanced mathematics engineering that students need to master. The extensive and thorough topic coverage makes this an ideal text for upper level vocational courses. Now in

  17. Social versus Intrapersonal ToM: Social ToM Is a Cognitive Strength for Low- and Middle-SES Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucariello, Joan M.; Durand, Tina M.; Yarnell, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Metarepresentational theory of mind (ToM) was studied in middle- and low-SES five- and six-year-olds. Two aspects of ToM were distinguished. Reasoning about one's own mental states (Intrapersonal ToM) was assessed in the intrapersonal ToM task condition and reasoning about others' mental states (Social ToM) was assessed in the social ToM task…

  18. Predictors of maternal language to infants during a picture book task in the home: Family SES, child characteristics and the parenting environment☆

    OpenAIRE

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Pancsofar, Nadya; Willoughby, Mike; Odom, Erica; Quade, Alison; Cox, Martha

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of child characteristics and parenting environment to the relationship between family SES/demographic characteristics and maternal language to infants.1157 children were drawn from a representative sample of 1292 infants born to mothers in rural Appalachian counties and rural counties in southern minority U.S. communities. Mothers and their 6–8 month old babies were videotaped at home while talking about a wordless picture book. Mothers' language outpu...

  19. Entorno Institucional de la Desentralización Estatal en los Países Bajos el papel de las organizaciones de apoyo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Noordhoek (Marike); Zwanenburg Maria Zwanenburg (M.)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractA partir de 1998, el IHS se vinculó al SINPA (Programa de apoyo para la implementación de planes nacionales de acción – Support for Implementation of National Plans of Action) financiado por la Dirección general de cooperación al desarrollo de los Países Bajos, junto con la ciudades de

  20. Por uma nova ordem energética global? potencialidades e perspectivas da questão energética entre os países BRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Gómez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe analisar a questão energética entre os BRICS e o potencial de rearticulação da ordem energética global que dela emerge. Para tal, realiza três movimentos. Em primeiro lugar, investiga o crescente impacto agregado dos países BRICS no cenário energético global, com vistas a analisar seu avanço em uma temática até então reduto dos países desenvolvidos. Em segundo lugar, aborda a matriz energética de cada um dos cinco países do ponto de vista de suas economias políticas e da questão da sustentabilidade. Em terceiro lugar, e com base na seção anterior, propõe mapear as áreas de conflito e de possível aproximação entre os BRICS, na tentativa de localizar as possibilidades e limites da sua cooperação energética. Com base nessa investigação, conclui que, diante das potencialidades para a cooperação entre os países, a organização de suas ofertas e demandas energéticas nacionais pode permitir ao agrupamento articular-se como um novo polo no cenário energético global.

  1. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  2. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects of the v......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...... of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer...

  3. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  4. Towards higher intensities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 2 weeks, commissioning of the machine protection system has advanced significantly, opening up the possibility of higher intensity collisions at 3.5 TeV. The intensity has been increased from 2 bunches of 1010 protons to 6 bunches of 2x1010 protons. Luminosities of 6x1028 cm-2s-1 have been achieved at the start of fills, a factor of 60 higher than those provided for the first collisions on 30 March.   The recent increase in LHC luminosity as recorded by the experiments. (Graph courtesy of the experiments and M. Ferro-Luzzi) To increase the luminosity further, the commissioning crews are now trying to push up the intensity of the individual proton bunches. After the successful injection of nominal intensity bunches containing 1.1x1011 protons, collisions were subsequently achieved at 450 GeV with these intensities. However, half-way through the first ramping of these nominal intensity bunches to 3.5 TeV on 15 May, a beam instability was observed, leading to partial beam loss...

  5. Valorización de la identidad territorial, políticas públicas y estrategias de desarrollo territorial en los países del mercosur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Benedetto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Benedetto presenta una aproximación a los procesos de desarrollo territorial que están cobrando impulso en los países del Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR. Retoma las grandes etapas históricas por las que ha transitado el agro en los países de América Latina en general y el MERCOSUR en particular. Luego, se revisan los rasgos centrales que tienen las actuales políticas rurales de los países miembros de MERCOSUR, en especial su manejo de las marcas y denominaciones de origen. No existe una política común de desarrollo rural; las políticas agrícolas nacionales son sólo sectoriales y se orientan a promover la productividad y la competitividad comprimiendo costos, por encima de la valorización de la calidad. Sin embargo, en la última década, Se está rescatando no sólo el entorno geográfico característico del medio rural, sino también se valorizan las formas de vida, alimentos, bienes y servicios, resultado de la identidad cultural de las poblaciones. Por último, se presentan dos iniciativas de valorización de la identidad cultural rural en Argentina: los Caminos de Altamira - San Carlos, Mendoza y El Vino de la Costa - Berisso, Buenos Aires.

  6. La globalización de productos culturales: Un Análisis Webométrico de Kpop en países de habla hispana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xanat Vargas Meza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio examina la red de difusión de Kpop en los países de habla hispana, abordando sus patrones de comunicación y centros principales, ilustrando las actividades y relaciones de los fans de Kpop en Twitter. Basándose en NodeXL, Tweets con el hashtag "Kpop" fueron recolectados entre Marzo y Agosto del 2012, y los patrones estructurales y de información de la comunicación por redes sociales fueron analizados a través de una serie de métodos webométricos. Los resultados indican que el Kpop ganó una pequeña pero creciente porción de las preferencias musicales en los países hispanos como resultado de los esfuerzos combinados de las empresas de difusión pública y los fans. El presente estudio es el primero enfocado en países que comparten un lenguaje común para proporcionar una mejor comprensión de la difusión de productos culturales a través de Twitter.

  7. Influencia del eslogan y el logotipo de la marca país en el posicionamiento de los países

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Pipoli de Azambuja

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Para construir la imagen de un país en la mente de los consumidores, los países aplican estrategias demárketing que parten del desarrollo de su marca país, de la misma forma en que las empresas aplican elmárketing a sus productos y servicios. El desarrollo del logotipo y el eslogan que se utilizará en la estrategiade comunicación, constituyen dos elementos fundamentales de su éxito en el proceso de construcción de lamarca país (Keller 2008. Es así que el objetivo de la presente investigación es el de conocer la importanciade la utilización del logotipo y el eslogan en las estrategias de márketing internacional de los países. Paraello, esta investigación analiza el uso de estos dos elementos, logotipo y eslogan, en las estrategias demarca país de aquellos países que han ocupado los primeros lugares en el Country Brand Index (2009 de Future Brand.

  8. Brazil: Opportunity and Crisis in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Simon

    1988-01-01

    The Brazilian system of higher education is discussed, including its evolution, the 1968 reform and its unintended consequences, and the recommendations of the 1985 presidential commission on higher education. Issues of interinstitutional diversity, institutional autonomy, and the influence of special interest groups on policy are addressed.…

  9. Teaching at higher levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Undergraduate physics programmes for the 21st century were under discussion at a recent event held in Arlington, USA, open to two or three members of the physics faculties of universities from across the whole country. The conference was organized by the American Association of Physics Teachers with co-sponsorship from the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society and Project Kaleidoscope. Among the various aims were to learn about physics departments that have successfully revitalized their undergraduate physics programmes with innovative introductory physics courses and multi-track majors programmes. Engineers and life scientists were to be asked directly how physics programmes can better serve their students, and business leaders would be speaking on how physics departments can help to prepare their students for the diverse careers that they will eventually follow. It was planned to highlight ways that departments could fulfil their responsibilities towards trainee teachers, to identify the resources needed for revitalizing a department's programme, and to develop guidelines and recommendations for a funding programme to support collaborative efforts among physics departments for carrying out the enhancements required. More details about the conference can be found on the AAPT website (see http://www.aapt.org/programs/rupc.html). Meanwhile the UK's Higher Education Funding Council has proposed a two-pronged approach to the promotion of high quality teaching and learning, as well as widening participation in higher education from 1999-2000. A total of £60m should be available to support these initiatives by the year 2001-2002. As part of this scheme the Council will invite bids from institutions to support individual academics in enhancing learning and teaching, as well as in recognition of individual excellence. As with research grants, such awards would enable staff to pursue activities such as the development of teaching materials

  10. Financiamiento público de la investigación en salud en cinco países de América Latina Public financing of health research in five Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maceira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Describir los subsistemas públicos de los Sistemas Nacionales de Investigación en Salud (SNIS en cinco países de América Latina (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay, con énfasis en los tipos de arreglos institucionales que se observan en cada país para promover, desarrollar y sostener sus SNIS, así como en los mecanismos explícitos o implícitos de priorización de proyectos de investigación en salud. MÉTODOS: Se identificó a los organismos responsables de manejar los recursos públicos destinados a financiar proyectos de investigación en salud en los cinco países estudiados. Luego se analizaron los tipos de proyectos que fueron financiados -utilizando una matriz por área y objeto de estudio-, ciertas características de los investigadores principales y los montos asignados entre 2002 y 2006. RESULTADOS: Solamente los países con mayores recursos o con redes de investigadores más desarrolladas poseen estructuras formales de asignación de fondos, con convocatorias periódicas y reglas estables, y ninguno cuenta con mecanismos explícitos e integrales de priorización para la investigación en salud. A su vez, las prioridades de investigación en salud presentan diferencias importantes entre países. En este sentido, es notorio que ciertos problemas, como "nutrición y medio ambiente" o "violencia y accidentes", reciban escasa atención en la mayoría de los países, al igual que varios temas de salud pública en algunos otros. Contrariamente, la investigación referida a "ciencias básicas" absorbe hasta un tercio de los recursos totales para investigación. CONCLUSIONES: Surgen numerosos interrogantes acerca de la capacidad de estos países para adaptar y generar nuevos conocimientos, y de la casi inexistente investigación sobre condicionantes sociales, económicos y culturales o sobre servicios y sistemas de salud, de alto impacto en grupos con acceso limitado al cuidado de la salud. Es necesario establecer

  11. Spiky higher genus strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Bellini, A.; Johnston, D.

    1990-10-01

    It is clear from both the non-perturbative and perturbative approaches to two-dimensional quantum gravity that a new strong coupling regime is setting in at d=1, independent of the genus of the worldsheet being considered. It has been suggested that a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase transition in the Liouville theory is the cause of this behaviour. However, it has recently been pointed out that the XY model, which displays a KT transition on the plane and the sphere, is always in the strong coupling, disordered phase on a surface of constant negative curvature. A higher genus worldsheet can be represented as a fundamental region on just such a surface, which might seem to suggest that the KT picture predicts a strong coupling region for arbitrary d, contradicting the known results. We resolve the apparent paradox. (orig.)

  12. EFEITOS DAS IFRS NO CONSERVADORISMO CONTÁBIL: UM ESTUDO EM COMPANHIAS ABERTAS DOS PAÍSES MEMBROS DO GLENIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Brunozi Júnior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available É compreensível que devido a relevância dos relatórios contábeis e sua maior importância com a adoção das IFRS haja nas empresas uma preocupação com os fatores que causam interferência na sua qualidade, bem como, com os critérios utilizados na sua formação, consistência e avaliação. Dentre os fatores que exercem influencia na qualidade das informações contábeis está o conservadorismo, definido por Basu (1997 como um reconhecimento assimétrico das perdas em relação aos ganhos, se refletem as más notícias mais rapidamente do que as boas notícias. Considerando este contexto, o presente estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar as magnitudes das influências das IFRS nos níveis de conservadorismo contábil das práticas adotadas nos países membros do GLENIF, mais especificadamente, Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colômbia, México e Peru no período de 2003 a 2013. Com uma amostra de 513 empresas e 5643 observações, aplicou-se por meio de dados em painel a equação original de Basu (1997 e, posteriormente, incluiu-se uma variável dummy considerando os efeitos da adoção das IFRS no conservadorismo. Os resultados indicaram que, mesmo com a adoção das IFRS notou-se no Brasil e no México a presença de práticas conservadoristas. Na Argentina constatou-se situação contrária, as IFRS amenizaram o conservadorismo nas empresas do país. Já no Chile, Colômbia e Peru os resultados não significativos foram insuficientes para indicarem a presença de conservadorismo após a adoção das IFRS.

  13. La universidad británica: ¿un modelo para la universidad en otros países?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José García Ruiz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La apuesta actual de la política educativa británica de enseñanza superior por la sociedad del conocimiento y, en concreto, por su desarrollo en líneas del Aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida, ha conformado a la Enseñanza Universitaria británica según unos paradigmas y principios de nuevo orden que, frente a los rasgos predomi nantemente select ivos y académicos de la misma, la sitúan en líneas de democratización, excelencia y diversificación institucional. El desarrollo de la Enseñanza Uni versi taria atendiendo a estos parámetros permiten presentar a la uni versidad británica como modelo institucional actual frente al concepto, valores y la apuesta investigadora tradicionales característicos de la uni versidad humboldtiana alemana, reacia a los cambios que exige la embestida neoconservadora de la década de los noventa. De igual modo, dicho desarrollo revela la nueva función a la par inclusiva y de equ ilibrio de las enseñanzas que posee la universidad en el S. XXI frente a tradiciones predominantemente liberales del tipo de la universidad francesa, o a tradiciones de escasa diversificaci"ón curricular o de los programas, como ha sido el caso de la universidad española hasta años recientes.En líneas generales, si bien los rasgos estructura les y fomlales característicos de la Enseñanza Uni versitaria británica se revelan idóneos respecto al rol de la universidad en nuestros días, esta institución debe, al igual que la universidad en los restantes países europeos y en colaboración con los restantes agentes sociales, hallar el modo de lograr una estructura y organización curricular acordes con los nuevos debates presentes en la actualidad en las políticas de enseñanza universitaria y, muy especialmente. con el nuevo tipo de alumno asistente a la misma.

  14. Le concept de « configuration » et ses implications empiriques : Elias avec et contre Weber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ducret

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Comment se fait-il que Norbert Elias ait autant cherché à prendre ses distances avec la conception de la sociologie que se faisait Max Weber alors que leurs démarches paraissent si proches ? On évaluera d’abord la portée des arguments avancés contre ce « bourgeois libéral » que serait demeuré le second. Puis on en dégagera les implications empiriques à partir d’extraits choisis dans l’œuvre du premier. On s’arrêtera enfin sur la démarche dite « synoptique » que Norbert Elias propose à tout sociologue d’adopter. En fin de compte, il apparaîtra que ce dernier défend une approche relationnelle de la contrainte sociale que n’aurait pas désavouée Max Weber.The notion of « configuration » and its empirical implications: Elias with or against WeberWhy is it that Norbert Elias went to such lengths to distance himself from Max Weber’s conception of sociology whilst their respective approaches seem so close? I will first evaluate the relevance of his arguments against the “liberal bourgeois” that Weber was to the end. I will then bring out the empirical implications from a number of extracts selected from his works. I will conclude by examining his “synoptic” approach, one to be followed by all sociologists. All things considered, it appears that Elias defends a relational approach of social constraint that Max Weber would not have disowned.El concepto de « configuración » y sus consecuencias empíricas: ¿Es Norbert Elias partidario o opuesto a  Weber?¿Como es posible que Norbert Elias haya tomado tanto la distancia con respecto a la visión sociológica de Max Weber a pesar de que su propia concepción se le asemeje mucho? Evaluaremos en primer lugar el alcance de los argumentos dirigidos del primero contra el «burgués liberal». Seguidamente subrayaremos las implicaciones empíricas a partir de citas escogidas de los escritos de Elias. Finalmente haremos hincapié en el encaminamiento

  15. Que Democracia?: Uma Visão Conceitual desde a Perspectiva dos Países em Desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena de Castro Santos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Le modèle de démocratie libérale occidentale serait-il approprié à une analyse des nouveaux régimes politiques de la Troisième Vague démocratique? Dans cet article, après une récapitulation de la littérature sur la démocratisation et la réforme économique, on fait état de quelques concepts significatifs: gouvernabilité, gouvernance et démocratie, ainsi que de leurs biais normatifs implicites. On a examiné surtout le concept de démocratie qui se fonde sur le procedural minimum de Schumpeter/Dahl. Bien que considérée trop étroite par des auteurs importants, cette définition de démocratie, qui a reçu des qualificatifs la précisant davantage, a gagné du terrain. Au lieu d’en rajouter d’autres à la liste de Dahl, on propose ici qu’on tienne compte, lors de l’étude des régimes en changement, des caractéristiques du processus de décision en tant qu’instrument analytique à même d’identifier les nouveaux systèmes politiques selon leurs propres termes. Cette approche semble plus pertinente pour l’examen du caractère plus ou moins démocratique des régimes en construction dans les périodes entre les élections, faisant ressortir la question du contrôle vertical des bureaucraties, insuffisamment traitée par la théorie démocratique. On réussit à identifier aussi différents types de démocratie qui associent de façon diverse les caractéristiques de leur processus de décision. Enfin, à partir du cas brésilien, on présente quelques considérations sur le type de régime politique que les pays émergents sont capables de construire, ou se disposent à construire, tout en leur suggérant quelques hypothèses de travail et d’analyse.

  16. Nível de desenvolvimento e tecnologia de distribuição de alimentos em países selecionados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Diana Souza de Oliveira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo comparar os sistemas de distribuição de alimentos em países com diferentes níveis de desenvolvimento. Especificamente: i identificar padrões de demanda e analisar as características do mercado de alimentos; ii verificar as relações entre a estrutura dos sistemas varejistas de alimento e padrões econômicos, sociais, culturais e prevalecentes de compra e iii identificar as estratégicas adotadas pelos varejistas. Para tanto, foi efetuada uma revisão em estudos prévios disponíveis. Os países estudados foram: renda alta (Estados Unidos e Reino Unido; renda média-alta (África do Sul e Brasil; renda média-baixa (China e Guatemala e renda baixa (Madagascar e Vietnã. Os resultados mostram a existência de importantes diferenças no desenvolvimento do varejo de alimentos entre os países analisados. Revelam, ainda, que qualidade e variedade dos produtos são fatores importantes na estratégia de varejo em países de renda alta e média-alta; nos países de renda média-baixa e baixa destaca-se o preço dos alimentos. A principal implicação é o impacto que os supermercados causam em todos os elos das cadeias agroindustriais.The aim of the article is to compare food distribution systems in different countries. For this purpose, a review of previous studies available was made. Specifically: i identification of demand patterns and analysis of characteristics of the food market; ii analysis of relations between the structure of the food retail systems and the economic, social, cultural and prevailing purchasing patterns and iii identification of strategies adopted by retailers. Countries studied were: high income (the United States and the United Kingdom; with upper-middle income (South Africa and Brazil; lower-middle income (China and Guatemala and low income (Vietnam and Madagascar. Results show that there are important differences in the development of food retailing among studied countries. Furthermore

  17. Lounès Matoub et ses chansons: l'Algérie embrase le cœur, l'Algérie attise la raison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yefsah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ténor de la chanson algérienne, Lounès Matoub est devenu une icône après son assassinat. Il est l'incarnation même de l'artiste au cœur de son peuple, lui qui s'est imposé dans le champ artistique avec son talent, son franc-parler, sa musique et sa poésie. Son parcours ne peut être dissocié de ses engagements politiques. Il combat les fondamentalistes islamistes et s'oppose au pouvoir en place. Il veut la reconnaissance du berbère, sa langue maternelle et celle de ses chansons, par l’État algérien. Il porte un regard sur l’histoire en reprenant des mythes tout en révélant des vérités. Il brise également des tabous de la société mais reprend des poncifs. Ses chansons, dans lesquelles se reconnaissent des milliers de personnes, disent les contradictions d'un individu tourmenté. L'imaginaire de ses poèmes est régional et rural. En revanche, son désir tend vers la nation entière et même vers l'universel. La tragédie de sa vie est indissociable des durs contextes politiques qu'expriment ses paroles. Algerian poet, singer and songwriter Lounès Matoub became an icon after his assassination. In the hearts of his people, he is the embodiment of an artist, having established himself with his talent, his outspokenness, his music and his poetry. His career cannot be dissociated from his political commitments. He fights against the Islamic fundamentalists and rebels against the governing power. He wants Berber, his mother language and that of his songs, recognized by the Algerian government. He examines history by recycling myths while revealing truths. He breaks societal taboos but unravels clichés. His songs tell of the trials of a tormented individual, but thousands of people recognize themselves in his songs. The scope of his poems is regional and rural. However, his desire extends to the whole nation, even to the universal. The tragedy of his life is inseparable from the tough political context that his words describe.

  18. Gizlilik Paylaşımı Yöntemini Kullanan Ses Dosyası Arşivleme Programı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersan YAZAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Günümüz dünyasında her sektörde sayısal teknoloji ürünlerinin kullanımı hızla yaygınlaşmaktadır. Bunlardan birisi de sayısal ses iletim teknolojisidir. Gerek kayıt gerekse iletişim sürecinde analog sistemlere göre önemli üstünlüğü olan bu teknoloji de, tedbir alınmazsa sayısal ses dosyalarının dinleme, değiştirme, ekleme v.b saldırılara karşı savunmasız olduğu da bilinmektedir. Bu bildiride sayısal seslerin arşivlenip sonradan tekrar dinlenmesi gereken uygulamalarda kullanılabilecek bir yazılımsal aracın geliştirilme süreci açıklanmıştır. Yazılımsal araçta, orijinal ses dosyasının doğrudan şifrelenip arşivlenmesi yerine, Shamir’in gizlilik paylaşım yöntemine dayanarak orijinal ses dosyasından elde edilen pay dosyalarının arşivlenmesi sağlanmıştır. Böylece hem dosyaların gizliliği korunmuş olup hem de tek bir kişinin yerine birkaç yetkilendirilmiş kişinin bir araya gelmesiyle dinleme işleminin gerçekleştirilmesine olanak sağlanmıştır. Ayrıca tek bir pay dosyasının kaybolması durumunda bile orijinal ses dosyasının yeniden elde edilmesi mümkündür. Yazılımsal araç, dinleme teşebbüslerini ve dinleme kayıtlarını tutabilmekte olup bu konudaki ihtiyacı giderecek şekilde tasarlanmış ve test edilmiştir.

  19. Higher regulators, algebraic

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Spencer J

    2000-01-01

    This book is the long-awaited publication of the famous Irvine lectures. Delivered in 1978 at the University of California at Irvine, these lectures turned out to be an entry point to several intimately-connected new branches of arithmetic algebraic geometry, such as regulators and special values of L-functions of algebraic varieties, explicit formulas for them in terms of polylogarithms, the theory of algebraic cycles, and eventually the general theory of mixed motives which unifies and underlies all of the above (and much more). In the 20 years since, the importance of Bloch's lectures has not diminished. A lucky group of people working in the above areas had the good fortune to possess a copy of old typewritten notes of these lectures. Now everyone can have their own copy of this classic work.

  20. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The recently established CMS Communications Group, led by Lucas Taylor, has been busy in all three of its main are areas of responsibility: Communications Infrastructure, Information Systems, and Outreach and Education Communications Infrastructure The damage caused by the flooding of the CMS Centre@CERN on 21st December has been completely repaired and all systems are back in operation. Major repairs were made to the roofs, ceilings and one third of the floor had to be completely replaced. Throughout these works, the CMS Centre was kept operating and even hosted a major press event for first 7 TeV collisions, as described below. Incremental work behind the scenes is steadily improving the quality of the CMS communications infrastructure, particularly Webcasting, video conferencing, and meeting rooms at CERN. CERN/IT is also deploying a pilot service of a new videoconference tool called Vidyo, to assess whether it might provide an enhanced service at a lower cost, compared to the EVO tool currently in w...

  1. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. (http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/cmscc/projector/index.jsp) is now also available for mobile devices: http://cern.ch/mcmstv. Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: (http://cern.ch/cms) using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...

  2. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  3. Learning higher mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontrjagin, Lev Semenovič

    1984-01-01

    Lev Semenovic Pontrjagin (1908) is one of the outstanding figures in 20th century mathematics. In a long career he has made fundamental con­ tributions to many branches of mathematics, both pure and applied. He has received every honor that a grateful government can bestow. Though in no way constrained to do so, he has through the years taught mathematics courses at Moscow State University. In the year 1975 he set himself the task of writing a series of books on secondary school and beginning university mathematics. In his own words, "I wished to set forth the foundations of higher mathematics in a form that would have been accessible to myself as a lad, but making use of all my experience as a scientist and a teacher, ac­ cumulated over many years. " The present volume is a translation of the first two out of four moderately sized volumes on this theme planned by Pro­ fessor Pontrjagin. The book begins at the beginning of modern mathematics, analytic ge­ ometry in the plane and 3-dimensional space. Refin...

  4. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Narrative Abilities in a Group of Italian Normally Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzanica, Francesco; Ambrogi, Federico; Salvadorini, Renata; Sai, Elena; Pozzoli, Raffaella; Barillari, Maria Rosaria; Scarponi, Letizia; Schindler, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Only limited and conflicting information is available regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and narrative abilities. Besides, the role fathers' SES plays in the development of their children's narrative abilities has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between fathers' and mothers' SES and narrative abilities of their children assessed with the Italian version of the Bus Story Test (I-BST). A total of 505 normally developing Italian children were enrolled in the study. Information regarding parents' educational level and employment was collected for each child. Narrative abilities were evaluated using the I-BST. The relationships between parents' employment, educational level, and I-BST scores were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. In univariate analysis, both fathers' and mothers' education and employment were associated with most I-BST subscale scores, especially when higher educational and employment levels were contrasted with the lowest educational and employment levels. In multiple regression analysis, significant associations were found only between the fathers' working status and educational level and I-BST subscale scores. Parental education and employment might impact narrative abilities of children. When both fathers' and mothers' SES variables are considered together, only fathers' education and working status seemed to be associated with I-BST scores. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Higher dietary diversity score is associated with obesity: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimbeiki, R; Pourmasoumi, M; Feizi, A; Abbasi, B; Hadi, A; Rafie, N; Safavi, S M

    2018-04-01

    The present study was carried out to compare dietary diversity score (DDS) among overweight, obese, and normal-weight adults. This case-control study was conducted with a total of 200 cases (100 participants with obesity and 100 participants with overweight) and 300 controls (normal weight) matched by socio-economic status (SES), older than 18 years. Dietary intakes were assessed using a self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire. Data regarding physical activity and sociodemographic variables were gathered. DDS was computed based on the scoring of the five food groups emphasized in the United States Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid. Anthropometric measurements were measured, and the body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio were calculated. The mean ± standard deviation of DDS was higher in participants with obesity (5.65 ± 1.32) than that in overweight participants (5.23 ± 1.23), while the lowest score was reported among normal-weight individuals (4.97 ± 1.42) (P obesity increased with each unit increase in DDS (odds ratio [OR]: 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22, 1.74). However, the association became slightly weaker after adjusting for potential confounding factors (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.68). It was concluded that there was a significant positive association between DDS and obesity. However, additional investigations are warranted. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cooperación técnica en salud entre Colombia y sus países fronterizos Technical cooperation for health between Colombia and bordering countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamileth Ortiz Gómez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar la cooperación técnica de Colombia con cuatro de sus países fronterizos y determinar las necesidades de formación de sus grupos técnicos binacionales (GTB. MÉTODOS: Investigación cualitativa basada en la revisión documental y en información suministrada por actores clave de este campo. Para explorar las necesidades de capacitación se aplicó una encuesta con los GTB de Colombia y Ecuador, la cual fue profundizada a través de grupos de discusión; se aplicaron técnicas de categorización deductiva e inductiva, y de triangulación por convergencia. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron 18 acuerdos/convenios y documentación de 12 proyectos de cooperación sanitaria en zona de frontera. La mayoría de los proyectos encontrados correspondían a cooperación multilateral. Los dos temas de cooperación priorizados fueron el Reglamento Sanitario Internacional y los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio 6 y 7. Los GTB consideraron necesario un proceso de capacitación en gestión, diplomacia en salud y desarrollo de capacidades para la cooperación en ámbitos fronterizos. CONCLUSIONES: Las fronteras se exhibieron como escenarios complejos de intervención, donde el derecho internacional y la política exterior han delimitado las acciones de cooperación. Al definir la capacitación de los GTB, se sugiere considerar el marco normativo nacional e internacional y el contexto de las áreas fronterizas.OBJECTIVE: Characterize the technical cooperation of Colombia with four bordering countries and determine the training needs of the binational technical groups (BTGs. METHODS: Qualitative investigation based on document review and information provided by key actors in this field. To explore training needs, a survey of Colombia-Ecuador BTGs was conducted. Further information was obtained through discussion groups. Deductive and inductive categorization techniques were applied, as well as convergence using the triangulation method. RESULTS

  7. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    failure prone capacitors from the power stage. Q-Sync’s simpler electronics also result in higher efficiency because it eliminates the power required by the PCB to perform the obviated power conversions and PWM processes after line synchronous operating speed is reached in the first 5 seconds of operation, after which the PWM circuits drop out and a much less energy intensive “pass through” circuit takes over, allowing the grid-supplied AC power to sustain the motor’s ongoing operation.

  8. Proyecto Grannacional ALBASALUD para Centro Regulador de Medicamentos Esenciales de los países del ALBA-TCP Grand-national Project ALBASALUD for Regulatory Center of Essential Drugs for the ALBA-TCP countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Aurora Sánchez González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La Autoridad Reguladora de Medicamentos de Cuba, coordina un Proyecto de la Alianza Bolivariana para los pueblos de América-Tratado de Libre Comercio (ALBA-TCP, dirigido al desarrollo de un Centro Regulador para los países del ALBA como nuevo organismo regional de integración farmacéutica, en aras de contar con un Registro Grannacional válido en todos los países partes, como herramienta para facilitar el acceso a medicamentos esenciales de calidad. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo diseñar y conducir desde el punto de vista técnico un proyecto para crear las bases legales y metodológicas del futuro centro y sus funciones básicas. Se emplearon técnicas de grupo nominal, puntos de referencia, consultas a expertos y se crearon metodologías específicas para planear y confeccionar los documentos necesarios. Se utilizaron lineamientos de organismos reguladores internacionales, cuadros básicos de medicamentos y reglamentación farmacéutica de los países participantes. Se desarrollaron y aplicaron documentos y estrategias para el trabajo del proyecto durante la etapa de preinversión, se definió el primer listado de medicamentos esenciales del ALBA y se aprobaron las fundamentales disposiciones legales y la reglamentación para las funciones de registro, vigilancia, inspecciones, laboratorios y liberación de lotes. El Proyecto Grannacional ALBASALUD "Centro Regulador de Medicamentos del ALBA-TCP" aplicado ha demostrado su eficiencia y capacidad para alcanzar los objetivos trazados mediante un trabajo científico-técnico con participación colectiva, que ha garantizado las disposiciones y lineamientos requeridos para sus funciones básicas y respaldo legal.The Drug Regulatory Authority of Cuba is coordinating a Project of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of America- Free Trade Agreement (ALBA-TCP aimed at developing a Regulatory Center that will operate as a new regional body of pharmaceutical integration for the ALBA

  9. Estudo multicêntrico da mortalidade por homicídios em países da América Latina Multicentric study of deaths by homicide in Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinilsa Ramos de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo epidemiológico descritivo da mortalidade por homicídios em países da América Latina (Argentina, Brasil, Colômbia e México de 1990 a 2007. Analisam-se óbitos por causas externas e homicídios, codificados nas 9ª. e 10ª. revisões da Classificação Internacional de Doenças/CID, considerando-se sexo, faixa etária e meio usado na agressão. Apresentam-se números, proporções e taxas ajustadas de mortalidade por homicídios. Usou-se o modelo de regressão linear na tendência das taxas de homicídios por grupos etários. No período, os países contabilizaram 4.086.216 mortes por causas externas e 1.432.971 homicídios. Na Argentina as causas externas cresceram 54,5%, mas diminuíram nos demais (37% no México; 31,8% na Colômbia e 8,1% no Brasil. As razões de mortalidade por homicídios para ambos os sexos foram de 9,1 na Colômbia, 4,4 no Brasil e 1,6 no México, tomando-se as taxas da Argentina como referência. A evolução das taxas de homicídios por faixa etária e sexo mostrou-se distinta nos países: em todos os grupos etários foi crescente no Brasil e decrescente na Colômbia. Destaca-se a necessidade de se priorizar os jovens do sexo masculino nas políticas públicas de atenção e prevenção e da região adotar políticas inclusivas, ampliar e consolidar sua democracia e os direitos dos seus habitantes.This article is a descriptive epidemiological study of deaths by homicide in Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico from 1990 to 2007. Deaths due to external causes and homicides, as codified in the 9th and 10th revisions of the International Classification of Diseases/ICD, were analyzed considering sex, age and manner of assault. The numbers, ratios and adjusted rates for deaths by homicide are presented. A linear regression model was used to ascertain the trend of homicide rates by age group. During the period, 4,086,216 deaths from external causes and 1,432,971 homicides

  10. La gentrification et ses pionniers : le rôle des artistes off en question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Vivant

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose d’évaluer le rôle des artistes, et plus particulièrement des squats d’artistes, dans la gentrification. La littérature anglo-saxonne insiste en effet beaucoup sur le rôle déterminant de l’arrivée d’artistes plus ou moins marginaux (ceux de la scène dite off dans le déclenchement de la gentrification d’un quartier. Ces artistes sont considérés non seulement comme des initiateurs de la revalorisation symbolique des quartiers qu’ils investissent, mais aussi comme des ferments d’un changement d’ambiance qui permettrait l’arrivée de gentrifieurs plus aisés. Cet article met à l’épreuve ce schéma explicatif à partir de l’étude du cas de Belleville à Paris. Il mobilise pour ce faire deux enquêtes, l’une sur le rapport à leur quartier des habitants de deux rues particulièrement gentrifiées, l’autre sur le marché immobilier. Il apparaît que les artistes sont plus des témoins ou des indicateurs de la gentrification que des déclencheurs ou des catalyseurs. Ils sont partie prenante d’un mouvement de revalorisation de la centralité et de ses ressources (notamment culturelle qui les dépassent. Ce mouvement les dépasse d’autant plus que l’éthique « artiste » s’est largement diffusée dans toutes les couches de la société.This article aims at reassessing the role of artists, and more specifically the role of squatters in the gentrification process. The Anglo-American literature argues that artists influx, especially the underground ones (that we call off, is the key element to trigger the gentrification process in a neighbourhood. These artists are considered as pioneers of the symbolic revalorisation process and as the agent of atmosphere change that brings wealthier gentrifiers to settle down. This article reassesses this scheme, based on the case of Belleville neighbourhood in Paris. It relies on two pieces of researches.  The first one analyses the inhabitants

  11. Investigating Male Tobacco Use and Expenditure Patterns across Socio-Economic Groups in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguru, Nkoli P.; Mbachu, Chinyere; Ibe, Ogochukwu P.; Uguru, Chibuzo C.; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Okwuosa, Chinenye; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of variation in economic costs of tobacco consumption among socio-economic status (SES) groups in Nigeria is unclear. Understanding the factors that influence tobacco use and expenditure among different socio-economic groups would inform decisions on interventions for tobacco control in Nigeria. Secondary data was obtained from the 2008 National demographic and health survey. Information on tobacco use and expenditure in households and individual males were extracted from the database. A total of 34,070 households and 15,846 individual males were sampled. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression analysis. Information on wealth index obtained were categorized into socio-economic quintile groups (Q1 to Q5), representing poorest to richest socio-economic groups. To estimate expenditure on cigarettes, the average cost of a stick of cigarette was obtained and multiplied with the number of sticks smoked per day. The proportion of households that use tobacco in Nigeria is 5.25% with a greater percentage (89.6%) residing in the rural areas. Prevalence of cigarette smoking in individual males is 8.59%, and the poorer SES group smoked more cigarettes (20.9%) and spent more (0.60–1.19USD) than the richest SES group. Low education level, traditional beliefs, literacy levels, SES and employment status all influence cigarette smoking in adult males. Although poor people smoked more and spent more of their income on cigarettes, other factors like educational level and traditional beliefs were found to influence practice of cigarette smoking in men. This implies that tobacco control legislation through increased taxes alone may not effectively reduce the use of tobacco and its products in Nigeria. A consolidated approach that includes behavioral change procedures, enforcing bans on tobacco advertisement and the use of strong graphic anti-tobacco messages targeted at both the poor and rich as well as the educated and uneducated

  12. Multibunch working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The goal of this working group was to foment discussions about the use and limitations of multi-bunch, representatives from most operating or in-project synchrotron radiation sources (ALS, SPEAR, BESSY-2, SPRING-8, ANKA, DELTA, PEP-2, DIAMOND, ESRF...) have presented their experience. The discussions have been led around 3 topics: 1) resistive wall instabilities and ion instabilities, 2) higher harmonic cavities, and 3) multibunch feedback systems.

  13. Relationships between academic performance, SES school type and perceptual-motor skills in first grade South African learners: NW-CHILD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, A E; Barhorst, R; Twisk, J W R

    2014-05-01

    Perceptual-motor skills contribute to a variety of basic learning skills associated with normal academic success. This study aimed to determine the relationship between academic performance and perceptual-motor skills in first grade South African learners and whether low SES (socio-economic status) school type plays a role in such a relationship. This cross-sectional study of the baseline measurements of the NW-CHILD longitudinal study included a stratified random sample of first grade learners (n = 812; 418 boys and 394 boys), with a mean age of 6.78 years ± 0.49 living in the North West Province (NW) of South Africa. The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration-4 (VMI) was used to assess visual-motor integration, visual perception and hand control while the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, short form (BOT2-SF) assessed overall motor proficiency. Academic performance in math, reading and writing was assessed with the Mastery of Basic Learning Areas Questionnaire. Linear mixed models analysis was performed with spss to determine possible differences between the different VMI and BOT2-SF standard scores in different math, reading and writing mastery categories ranging from no mastery to outstanding mastery. A multinomial multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between a clustered score of academic performance and the different determinants. A strong relationship was established between academic performance and VMI, visual perception, hand control and motor proficiency with a significant relationship between a clustered academic performance score, visual-motor integration and visual perception. A negative association was established between low SES school types on academic performance, with a common perceptual motor foundation shared by all basic learning areas. Visual-motor integration, visual perception, hand control and motor proficiency are closely related to basic academic skills

  14. Inequalities in health in Latin America and the Caribbean: descriptive and exploratory results for self-reported health problems and health care in twelve countries Desigualdades de salud en América Latina y el Caribe: resultados descriptivos y exploratorios basados en la autonotificación de problemas de salud y atención de salud en doce países

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Norberto W. Dachs

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore and describe inequalities in health and use of health care as revealed by self-report in 12 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods. A descriptive and exploratory study was performed based on the responses to questions on health and health care utilization that were included in general purpose household surveys. Inequalities are described by quintile of household expenditures (or income per capita, sex, age group (children, adults, and older adults, and place of residence (urban vs. rural area. For those who sought health care, median polishing was performed by economic status and sex, for the three age groups. Results. Although the study is exploratory and descriptive, its findings show large economic gradients in health care utilization in these countries, with generally small differences between males and females and higher percentages of women seeking health care than men, although there were some exceptions among the lower economic strata in urban areas. Conclusions. Inequalities in self-reported health problems among the different economic strata were small, and such problems were usually more common among women than men. The presence of small inequalities may be due to cultural and social differences in the perception of health. However, in most countries included in the study, large inequalities were found in the use of health care for the self-reported health problems. It is important to develop regional projects aimed at improving the questions on self-reported health in household interview surveys so that the determinants of the inequalities in health can be studied in depth. The authors conclude that due to the different patterns of economic gradients among different age groups and among males and females, the practice of standardization used in constructing concentration curves and in computing concentration indices should be avoided. At the end is a set of recommendations on how to improve these

  15. El mecanismo de Desarrollo Limpio : oportunidades de Desarrollo Sostenible para Países en Desarrollo en el Protocolo de Kioto. Caso Colombia como posible potencia continental ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt Mesa, Juan Manuel

    2009-01-01

    El Cambio Climático y los Mecanismos de Desarrollo Limpio (MDL) en Colombia: Con el protocolo de Kyoto nacen los Mecanismos de Desarrollo Limpio, los cuales posibilitan a los países en desarrollo el generar cambios en los modelos de producción de las industrias altamente contaminantes por producciones limpias, obteniendo beneficios adicionales por la comercialización de los títulos de Reducciones Certificadas de las Emisiones (RCE). Nuestro país, tiene un potencial importante para fomentar el...

  16. Estilos de liderazgo y su relación con los niveles de optimismo de los colaboradores, en entornos culturales de países suramericanos

    OpenAIRE

    Avella Cubillos, Diana Milena

    2014-01-01

    Los estudios del liderazgo dentro de un contexto empresarial se han desarrollado para alcanzar la perdurabilidad empresarial, generar bienestar, lograr el éxito esperado, valorar el capital humano, los talentos y los recursos existentes, etc. Sin embargo, aún existen muchos aspectos que se deben analizar. Uno de ellos es entender los conceptos del optimismo, del tipo de liderazgo y las diferencias culturales de diversos países. Por otro lado, no hay evidencia precisa de la repercusión que tie...

  17. FLUJO DE MATERIAL PORNOGRÁFICO INFANTIL ONLINE: ESTUDIO EXPLORATORIO EN 10 PAÍSES DE AMÉRICA LATINA CON FOCO EN URUGUAY

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Coto, Sergio; França Tarragó, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Se exploró el estado del flujo de material pornográfico infantil online en 10 países latinoamericanos, con especial atención a Uruguay, en el período anual 2011 y primeros ochos meses 2012. A partir del software especializado “Florencio”, se emprendió el rastreo de la descarga de archivos identificados con contenido pornográfico infantil en la plataforma de intercambio de tipo “punto a punto” (p2p) Ares Galaxy (Ares). A su vez, se discriminaron todas las direcciones de Internet (IP) geo-refer...

  18. Microcréditos en países en vías de desarrollo - Evaluación de Impacto Social

    OpenAIRE

    Pardilla Fernández, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Las EIS se orientan a introducir, en el diseño, evaluación y ejecución de proyectos de desarrollo, el estudio de sus consecuencias o impactos sociales. Las capacidades que otorgan las nuevas tecnologías de extracción y distribución de los recursos, así como las necesidades socioeconómicas de desarrollo en países que no han alcanzado cotas suficientes de bienestar han impulsado numerosos proyectos y megaproyectos a una velocidad inusitada. Estos proyectos conllevan importantes cambios socioamb...

  19. Infraestructura, regímenes de competencia y costos del transporte aéreo: elementos de juicio de varios países

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Micco; Tomas Serebrisky

    2004-01-01

    (Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) La importancia de los costos del transporte ha venido aumentando a medida que la apertura económica continúa reduciendo las barreras artificiales al comercio internacional. Los países necesitan adoptar políticas que les permitan `acercarse` a los mercados mundiales. ¿Es posible reducir los costos del transporte mediante el mejoramiento de la infraestructura y la normativa? ¿Conviene poner en práctica políticas destinadas a aumentar la competencia en lo...

  20. México y los países de industrialización reciente en el mercado norteamericano, 1985-2000

    OpenAIRE

    López G., Julio; Cruz M., José N.; de Jesús R., Verónica

    2005-01-01

    El desempeño reciente de México y China como exportadores de manufacturas al mercado de América del Norte es el objeto de análisis de este artículo. Su evolución se contrasta con la correspondiente a otras economías en desarrollo que de manera conjunta aportan la mayor parte de las exportaciones totales, incluso las manufactureras, que actualmente genera el mundo en desarrollo. El aumento de la participación de casi todos los países de la muestra en aquel mercado se explica principalmente por...

  1. Países Bálticos e Rússia: as conseqüências de um novo desenho geopolítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO DOS SANTOS POLETTO

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Parte importante da antiga União Soviética, ou de sua esfera de influência, os países bálticos se afastam cada vez mais da política de Moscou. Nesse sentido o presente artigo tem como objetivo delinear as relações entre esses atores, de modo expor os limites da atual influência russa nos Bálcãs e suas conseqüências para  a nova geopolítica global.

  2. LA COMPETENCIA ESTRATÉGICA DEL DOCENTE ANTE LA VIOLENCIA ESCOLAR EN PAÍSES EN VÍAS DE DESARROLLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalys Ruiz Iglesias

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la competencia estratégica del docente ante la violencia escolar en los países en vías de desarrollo. Forma parte de las Actas del «X Congreso de Formación del Profesorado: la formación del profesorado ante el fenómeno de la violencia y convivencia escolar», celebrado en Cuenca en junio de 2002. Recoge la ponencia presentada en el mismo por la profesora cubana Magalys Ruiz Iglesias.

  3. La globalización de productos culturales : un análisis webométrico de Kpop en países de habla hispana

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Meza, Xanat

    2015-01-01

    Este estudio examina la red de difusión de Kpop en los países de habla hispana, abordando sus patrones de comunicación y centros principales, ilustrando las actividades y relaciones de los fans de Kpop en Twitter. Basándose en NodeXL, Tweets con el hashtag "Kpop" fueron recolectados entre Marzo y Agosto del 2012, y los patrones estructurales y de información de la comunicación por redes sociales fueron analizados a través de una serie de métodos webométricos. Los resultados indican que el Kpo...

  4. Centros de producción de materiales de construcción en países en vías de desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Morris; Upchurch, James E.

    1987-01-01

    Las necesidades de alojamiento constituyen un problema creciente a nivel mundial. En los países en vías de desarrollo, esta necesidad excede con mucho la capacidad de respuesta de las agencias gubernamentales. Las técnicas cooperativas de auto-construcción proporcionan, a menudo, medios alternativos para la población de ingresos bajos que puede mejorar sus propios alojamientos y servicios comunitarios con un mínimo de asistencia exterior. Estas técnicas pueden requerir muchas veces la utiliza...

  5. Regime cambial para países emergentes: uma proposição a partir de Keynes Exchange rate regime for emergent countries: a Keynesian proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ferrari Filho

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente artigo consiste em apresentar, tendo como referência a análise de Keynes, uma proposição de regime cambial para países emergentes que seja capaz de assegurar condições para a estabilização macroeconômica, entendida como o binômio estabilidade de preços e pleno-emprego.The article presents, in a Keynesian perspective, a proposal of exchange rate regime for emerging countries to assure macroeconomic stabilization, that is, price stability and full employment.

  6. Independents' group posts loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, V.; Price, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    Low oil gas prices and special charges caused the group of 50 U.S. independent producers Oil and Gas Journal tracks to post a combined loss in first half 1992. The group logged a net loss of $53 million in the first half compared with net earnings of $354 million in first half 1991, when higher oil prices during the Persian Gulf crisis buoyed earnings in spite of crude oil and natural gas production declines. The combined loss in the first half follows a 45% drop in the group's earnings in 1991 and compares with the OGJ group of integrated oil companies whose first half 1992 income fell 47% from the prior year. Special charges, generally related to asset writedowns, accounted for most of the almost $560 million in losses posted by about the third of the group. Nerco Oil and Gas Inc., Vancouver, Wash., alone accounted for almost half that total with charges related to an asset writedown of $238 million in the first quarter. Despite the poor first half performance, the outlook is bright for sharply improved group earnings in the second half, assuming reasonably healthy oil and gas prices and increased production resulting from acquisitions and in response to those prices

  7. Bridging and bonding interactions in higher education: social capital and students’ academic and professional identity formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dorthe H.; Jetten, Jolanda

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that graduates’ achievements depend in important ways on their opportunities to develop an academic and a professional identity during their studies. Previous research has shown that students’ socio-economic status (SES) and social capital prior to entering university affects their ability to obtain these identities in higher education. However, what is less well understood is whether social capital that is built during university studies shapes identity development, and if so, whether the social capital gained during university years impacts on academic and professional identity differently. In a qualitative study, we interviewed 26 Danish and 11 Australian university students about their social interaction experiences, their opportunities to develop bonding capital as well as bridging capital, and their academic and professional identity. Findings show that while bonding social capital with co-students facilitated academic identity formation, such social capital does not lead to professional identity development. We also found that the development of bridging social capital with educators facilitated students’ professional identity formation. However, bonding social capital among students stood in the way of participating in bridging interaction with educators, thereby further hindering professional identity formation. Finally, while students’ parental background did not affect the perceived difficulty of forming professional identity, there was a tendency for students from lower SES backgrounds to be more likely to make internal attributions while those from higher SES backgrounds were more likely to make external attributions for the failure to develop professional identity. Results point to the importance of creating opportunities for social interaction with educators at university because this facilitates the generation of bridging social capital, which, in turn, is essential for students’ professional identity

  8. Bridging and bonding interactions in higher education: social capital and students' academic and professional identity formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dorthe H; Jetten, Jolanda

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that graduates' achievements depend in important ways on their opportunities to develop an academic and a professional identity during their studies. Previous research has shown that students' socio-economic status (SES) and social capital prior to entering university affects their ability to obtain these identities in higher education. However, what is less well understood is whether social capital that is built during university studies shapes identity development, and if so, whether the social capital gained during university years impacts on academic and professional identity differently. In a qualitative study, we interviewed 26 Danish and 11 Australian university students about their social interaction experiences, their opportunities to develop bonding capital as well as bridging capital, and their academic and professional identity. Findings show that while bonding social capital with co-students facilitated academic identity formation, such social capital does not lead to professional identity development. We also found that the development of bridging social capital with educators facilitated students' professional identity formation. However, bonding social capital among students stood in the way of participating in bridging interaction with educators, thereby further hindering professional identity formation. Finally, while students' parental background did not affect the perceived difficulty of forming professional identity, there was a tendency for students from lower SES backgrounds to be more likely to make internal attributions while those from higher SES backgrounds were more likely to make external attributions for the failure to develop professional identity. Results point to the importance of creating opportunities for social interaction with educators at university because this facilitates the generation of bridging social capital, which, in turn, is essential for students' professional identity development.

  9. Household catastrophic health expenditures: a comparative analysis of twelve Latin American and Caribbean Countries Gastos catastróficos en salud de los hogares: un análisis comparativo de doce países en América Latina y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Marie Knaul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compare patterns of catastrophic health expenditures in 12 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prevalence of catastrophic expenses was estimated uniformly at the household level using household surveys. Two types of prevalence indicators were used based on out-of-pocket health expense: a relative to an international poverty line, and b relative to the household's ability to pay net of their food basket. Ratios of catastrophic expenditures were estimated across subgroups defined by economic and social variables. RESULTS: The percent of households with catastrophic health expenditures ranged from 1 to 25% in the twelve countries. In general, rural residence, lowest quintile of income, presence of older adults, and lack of health insurance in the household are associated with higher propensity of catastrophic health expenditures. However, there is vast heterogeneity by country. CONCLUSIONS: Cross national studies may serve to examine how health systems contribute to the social protection of Latin American households.OBJETIVO: Comparar los patrones de gastos catastróficos en salud en 12 países de América Latina y el Caribe. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se estimó la prevalencia de gastos catastróficos de manera uniforme para doce países usando encuestas de hogares. Se emplearon dos tipos de indicadores para medir la prevalencia basados en el gasto de bolsillo en salud: a en relación con una línea de pobreza internacional; y b en relación con la capacidad de pago del hogar en términos de su propia canasta alimentaria. Se estimaron razones para comparar el nivel de gastos catastróficos entre subgrupos poblacionales definidos por variables económicas y sociales. RESULTADOS: El porcentaje de hogares con gastos catastróficos variaron de 1 a 25% en los 12 países. En general, la residencia rural, el bajo nivel de ingresos, la presencia de adultos mayores, y la carencia de aseguramiento en salud de los hogares

  10. The engine or the caboose: health policy in developing countries O reboque: políticas de saúde em países em desenvolvimento

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    Raymond L. Goldsteen

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of health policy in developing countries is presented. It argues that developing countries must adopt a progressive approach to health policy which rejects the two-tiered system of public and private health care. However, it also points out that ideology is not sufficient to maintain support. A progressive health system must utilize administrative and social and behavioral sciences to achieve effectiveness and efficiency in health care delivery. It cannot ignore these goals any more than a private health care system can.É discutida a política de saúde em países em desenvolvimento. Defende-se a proposta de que esses países devem adotar uma abordagem progressista quanto a sua política de saúde, rejeitando o sistema que se apoia em dois pilares - o da saúde pública e privada. Salienta-se que a ideologia não pode ser seu único sustentáculo. Um sistema de saúde progressista deve utilizar as ciências administrativas, sociais e comportamentais na formulação e implementação do conjunto de seus programas e propostas, para que possa servir à população de modo eficaz. O sistema de saúde pública não pode se eximir em relação a meta da eficácia.

  11. Representaciones culturales de países hispanohablantes: una mirada a los recursos visuales en el contexto de EaD

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    Leandra Cristina de Oliveira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Con vistas a la relevancia de la discusión sobre cultura en la Lingüística Aplicada, tanto en el ámbito de la enseñanza de lengua materna como de lengua extranjera, direccionamos el diálogo sobre el tema a la enseñanza de español en la Educación a Distancia (EaD. Observando el Curso de Letras Español de la Universidad Federal de Santa Catarina, en la modalidad EaD, objetivamos discutir las representaciones culturales de los países hispanohablantes en las imágenes del Ambiente virtual de la asignatura Lengua Española I. Consonante al objetivo, asentamos la siguiente cuestión: ¿en qué medida las representaciones culturales en las imágenes analizadas contribuyen para la desconstrucción de concepciones reduccionistas y estereotipadas sobre los países hispanohablantes? La respuesta a esta cuestión procede del análisis de las imágenes introductorias de los tópicos de la asignatura citada, fundamentada en bases teóricas de estudios culturales, con especial atención a los conceptos de cultura, identidad y diferencia.

  12. Brecha de género en los países miembros de la Alianza del Pacífico

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    José Carlos Vázquez Parra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se enfoca en el tema de igualdad de género y tiene el objetivo de estudiar, mediante un análisis de varianza (ANOVA, las variables que influyen en la brecha entre hombres y mujeres en los países de la Alianza del Pacífico, para contrastarlo con el resto de América Latina. La fuente de la cual se extrajo la información es el Foro Económico Mundial. A partir de lo anterior, se encontró que solo la variable participación económica de la mujer marca una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en este gremio de países en comparación con el resto de Latinoamérica, aunque también se encontró que el factor de la participación política arroja resultados importantes para analizar. Se concluye que la Alianza del Pacífico debe implementar estrategias para reducir la marcada brecha de género en la dimensión económica y política como una vía para generar ventaja competitiva en el escenario internacional.

  13. Agrupamento de países segundo indicadores de padrão de vida Clustering of countries evaluated by standard of living indicators

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    Paulo Roberto Curi

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 125 países avaliados por um conjunto de 26 indicadores básicos, de saúde, econômicos e educacionais, usando-se três métodos estatísticos multivariados: Análise de Agrupamento, Análise de Componentes Principais e Análise de Variância Multivariada. As variáveis mais discriminatórias foram a expectativa de vida, as taxas de mortalidade infantil e de menores de cinco anos, as taxas de natalidade e de fertilidade e a taxa de matrícula no segundo grau para o sexo feminino. Os países foram ordenados de acordo com um "índice de padrão de vida" e separados em cinco grupos.The position of 125 countries is studied on the basis of a collection of 26 basic, health, economic and educational indicators. Multivariate statistical methods were used, including Cluster Analysis, Principal Component Analysis and Multivariate Analysis of Variance. The most discriminating variables were life expectancy the child mortality rate, the mortality rate of children of less than five years of age, the birth and fertility rates and the high-school female matriculation rate. The first principal component was interpreted as a measure of the living standard which made it possible to place the countries in order. Five clusters of countries are suggested.

  14. Análisis de la infoestructura que presentan 22 portales gubernamentales de los países ubicados en la plataforma continental de América

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    Octavio Islas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presentaré los resultados que arrojó el estudio de usabilidad de los 22 portales ciudadanos de los países ubicados en la plataforma continental de América. El estudio fue realizado en 2006. Palabras-clave: Economía del conocimiento; portales ciudadanos; gobierno electrónico; internet; información. ABSTRACT This paper presents the results brought by the study of usability of 22 citizen portals of countries that compose America’s continental platform. The study took place in 2006. Keywords: Knowledge economy; citizen portals; electronic government; internet; information. RESUMO Este artigo artículo apresenta os resultados trazidos pelo estudo de usabilidade de 22 portais cidadãos dos países implicados na plataforma continental da América. Este estudo foi realizado em 2006. Palavras-chave: Economia do conhecimento; portais cidadãos; governo eletrônico; internet; informação.

  15. Diversficação e avaliação de carteiras nos mercados de capitais dos principais países latino-americanos

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    Newton Carneiro Affonso da Costa Junior

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem o objetivo de verificar se investimentos simultâneos em vários mercados internacionais de ações são mais atrativos do que aqueles realizados somente em um único mercado nacional, ou seja, se os primeiros apresentam uma relação risco-retorno superior. Pode-se admitir que se houver uma total integração entre os países analisados, tem-se pouca vantagem na diversificação internacional, mas se os mesmos forem menos integrados, a diversificação traria vantagens em termos de risco e retorno. A base empírica do trabalho está fundamentada na teoria de carteiras de Markowitz, no CAPM e nos índices de medição do desempenho de carteiras de Sharpe, Treynor e Jensen. A análise foi feita para o período de fevereiro de 1993 a janeiro de 2003, com base nas ações mais negociadas nas bolsas dos principais países da América Latina. Os resultados mostraram que a diversificação de carteiras em mercados internacionais é mais indicada.

  16. ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO DE CRITERIOS DE DESEMPEÑO PROFESIONAL PARA LA ENSEÑANZA EN CUATRO PAÍSES DE AMERICA

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    María del Ángel Vázquez Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las tendencias de los sistemas educativos para fortalecer la profesión docente ha sido la elaboración de marcos para la enseñanza o criterios de desempeño profesional, que sirven como base para la formación inicial y continua, la evaluación de la práctica y la definición de la identidad docente. Al respecto, diversos países han establecido sus marcos a partir del c onsenso entre docentes, investigadores y autoridades educativas. Por lo anterior, el presente ensayo tiene como finalidad revisar los modelos para definir criterios de desempeño profesional propuestos en cuatro países: los Estados Unidos, Chile, Perú y Méx ico. Los modelos se analizaron en forma comparativa en tres ejes: finalidad, componentes y dominios. A partir de esta revisión, el ensayo propone algunas orientaciones que podrían retomarse para la elaboración de marcos para la enseñanza en otros contextos.

  17. La liberalización comercial y adopción de leyes antidumping en países en vía de desarrollo

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    José Daniel Reyes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un modelo teórico para explicar la heterogeneidad observada en la adopción de leyes antidumping por pequeños países en vía de desarrollo en un contexto de reducción arancelaria multilateral. El análisis se basa en un juego de tres etapas de determinación de política comercial con competencia imperfecta en productos diferenciados, donde la posible presión para la protección se refleja en la función objetivo del gobierno y donde los aranceles se pueden consolidar como resultado de acuerdos comerciales multilaterales. Este marco implica que la aplicación de este dispositivo de protección administrativa es la mejor respuesta del gobierno cuando los aranceles consolidados multilaterales alcanzan un umbral los suficientemente bajo. La heterogeneidad en la decisión de adopción se explica por el tamaño relativo del mercado nacional, el grado de diferenciación de los productos y los motivos de economía política. Las relativamente grandes economías, los mercados nacionales altamente competitivos y los países con una alta presión interna para la protección promulgan leyes antidumping mucho más rápido.

  18. REGIME DE METAS DE INFLAÇÃO: ANÁLISE COMPARATIVA E EVIDÊNCIAS EMPÍRICAS PARA PAÍSES EMERGENTES SELECIONADOS

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    Mateus Ramalho Ribeiro da Fonseca

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste artigo é analisar o regime de metas de inflação (RMI no Brasil à luz das experiências de outros países emergentes selecionados, quais sejam: África do Sul, Chile, Colômbia, Coreia do Sul e México. Para tanto, há uma exposição dos contextos nos quais o RMI foi adotado nesses países, bem como uma comparação entre os arranjos desses regimes, para se distinguir suas principais características. Por fim, é estimado um modelo autorregressivo com vetores de correção de erros (VEC para cada país selecionado, de modo a criar condições para uma análise da eficácia do RMI nessas economias. Os resultados empíricos da pesquisa sugerem que os Regimes de Metas de inflação mais flexíveis (África do Sul, Chile, Colômbia, Coreia do Sul são relativamente mais eficazes em termos de combate à inflação que os regimes mais rígidos (Brasil e México.

  19. El desarrollo del sector asegurador y el crecimiento económico: un análisis empírico para 47 países

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    Anelena Sabater Castro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio examina el efecto del desarrollo del mercado asegurador –tanto del segmento de vida como de no vida[1]– sobre el crecimiento económico, así como las condiciones (grado de desarrollo financiero, nivel de ingresos y entorno institucional que afectan el nexo de ambas variables. Para ello se utiliza el método generalizado de momentos (GMM, con un modelo dinámico de datos de panel para 47 países, entre 1990 y 2014. Los resultados revelan que existe un impacto positivo del desarrollo del mercado de seguros sobre el crecimiento económico. Además, la relación entre el desarrollo del mercado asegurador y el crecimiento económico se ve aminorada en un entorno institucional relativamente más sólido. Por otra parte, los resultados sugieren que el impacto positivo del desarrollo del mercado de seguros en el crecimiento económico se mitiga en los países de ingresos altos. [1] Existen dos grandes categorías de seguros: vida y no vida. Los seguros de vida se caracterizan porque el pago de la cantidad pactada (suma asegurada depende del fallecimiento o supervivencia del asegurado. Los seguros generales o de no vida cubren riesgos que puedan ocasionar daños a los bienes o derechos del asegurado, etc.

  20. Clase social y privación material entre los inmigrantes de países pobres en Cataluña

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    Sebastià Sarasa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende analizar las desigualdades existentes entre los inmigrantes provenientes de países pobres y la población autóctona en relación al riesgo de padecer privación material. Asumiendo que, aunque buena parte de este riesgo es inherente a la clase social, hay factores asociados al perfil migratorio que comportan un aumento de dicho riesgo. El trabajo se ha realizado implementando una combinación de análisis factoriales y de clasificación para identificar perfiles de privación material y un análisis logístico multinomial para explorar qué factores sociodemográficos están más asociados a cada tipo de estos. Los resultados confirman que la clase social es un factor muy poderoso para explicar la privación material de los inmigrantes procedentes de países pobres, pero no es el único.

  1. LAS TRANSFERENCIAS PÚBLICAS Y SU EFECTO DISTRIBUTIVO. La experiencia de los países del Cono Suren el decenio de los 2000

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    Javier Alejo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el decenio de los 2000 la desigualdad del ingreso en la América Latina se redujo. Este artículo aplica una variante de la metodología de descomposición no paramétrica propuesta por Barros et al (2006, 2007 para evaluar la importancia de las fuentes de ingreso de los hogares, en particular la aportación de las transferencias públicas, en los cambios en la desigualdad de ingresos en los años 2000 en los países del Cono Sur: Argentina, Brasil, Chile y Uruguay. Los resultados sugieren que los ingresos no laborales tuvieron una contribución significativa en los cambios en la desigualdad y que este efecto fue explicado principalmente por la consecuencia igualadora que tuvieron las fuentes públicas en los cuatro países analizados. La dinámica de los cambios en esta fuente de ingreso y su efecto en la desigualdad estuvo fuertemente asociada con la instrumentación o expansión de programas de transferencia no contributivos en el pasado decenio.

  2. Percepción de la violencia escolar por parte de los familiares: un estudio comparativo en cuatro países europeos

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    José Jesús Gázquez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio descriptivo transversal tuvo como finalidad mostrar la opinión de las familias de cuatro países europeos (España, Austria, Hungría y República Checa a cerca de la prevalencia y el nivel de afectación de trece aspectos relacionados con la convivencia y violencia escolar. Los resultados indican que las familias consideran las peleas, los insultos y las malas palabras en clase como los aspectos más frecuentes en sus centros, y coinciden en señalar el uso o presencia de objetos de agresión y el consumo o presencia de drogas como conflictos menos frecuentes en los centros escolares. En cuanto a la repercusión personal, son los problemas relacionados con el profesorado, las peleas y las dificultades de convivencia intercultural los aspectos que más preocupan. Por países, es Hungría quien presenta tasas más bajas en este tipo de problemas, estando en el lado opuesto Austria y la República Checa y situándose España en un puesto intermedio; del mismo modo, son las familias húngaras quienes se muestran menos afectadas personalmente, destacando únicamente la preocupación de éstas por los problemas de convivencia intercultural.

  3. EL USO DE Moringa oleifera COMO MATERIAL NATURAL PARA EL TRATAMIENTO DEL AGUA POTABLE EN PAÍSES EN VÍA DE DESARROLLO

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    Pablo Paredes Ramos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En los países en vías de desarrollo como el Ecuador, los productos químicos para potabilizar el agua del río suelen ser importados, lo que implica un gran desembolso de divisas. Para tratar de mejorar la situación antes descrita, se han efectuado investigaciones en búsqueda de alternativas para el tratamiento de aguas para consumo humano, se orientan hacia el uso de elementos naturales. Uno de estos elementos es la Moringa oleífera se la conoce también como el árbol milagroso, ya que todos sus componentes dan diferentes tipos de utilidad. Tanto la semilla como el extracto contienen una proteína natural catiónica que absorbida por los gránulos de la arena del medio filtrante, hace que se active la cama de arena mejorando las remociones de turbiedad y los coliformes fecales, y que puede ser aplicable a las comunidades rurales de países subdesarrollados como el Ecuador.

  4. Por uma nova ordem energética global? potencialidades e perspectivas da questão energética entre os países BRICS Towards a new world energy order? potentialities and perspectives of the energy issue between the BRICS countries

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    José María Gómez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe analisar a questão energética entre os BRICS e o potencial de rearticulação da ordem energética global que dela emerge. Para tal, realiza três movimentos. Em primeiro lugar, investiga o crescente impacto agregado dos países BRICS no cenário energético global, com vistas a analisar seu avanço em uma temática até então reduto dos países desenvolvidos. Em segundo lugar, aborda a matriz energética de cada um dos cinco países do ponto de vista de suas economias políticas e da questão da sustentabilidade. Em terceiro lugar, e com base na seção anterior, propõe mapear as áreas de conflito e de possível aproximação entre os BRICS, na tentativa de localizar as possibilidades e limites da sua cooperação energética. Com base nessa investigação, conclui que, diante das potencialidades para a cooperação entre os países, a organização de suas ofertas e demandas energéticas nacionais pode permitir ao agrupamento articular-se como um novo polo no cenário energético global.The article analyzes energy-related issues among the BRICS countries and the potential refashioning of the world energy order that might spring from them. It begins by investigating the growing impact of the BRICS countries within the international order, with the intention of tracking their progress in an ambit so far restricted to developed countries and their oil suppliers. The text subsequently analyzes the energy matrix of each of the five BRICS countries from the points of view of political economy and sustainability. Finally, based on the previous sections, the final section of the article maps the tensions and complementarities between the BRICS and outlines the possibilities and limits of their cooperation on energy issues. The analysis concludes that given the potential for energy-related cooperation between these countries, a clear definition of their national energy supply and demand may allow the grouping to position

  5. A dinâmica populacional dos países desenvolvidos e subdesenvolvidos Population dynamics on the developed and underdeveloped countries

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    João Yunes

    1971-06-01

    Full Text Available Analisam-se os principais fatôres que contribuiram para a dinâmica populacional dos países desenvolvidos e subdesenvolvidos, a política por êles adotada, bem como a aplicação da demografia em saúde pública. O ritmo de maior crescimento populacional observa-se nos países subdesenvolvidos sendo que, para o ano 2.000, a região denominada de terceiro mundo é a que apresentará o maior contingente populacional pois os países subdesenvolvidos contribuirão com 79% do total da população mundial. A primeira transição demográfica iniciou-se no século 17, na Europa, com o processo de revolução industrial enquanto que, nos países subdesenvolvidos, isto ocorreu a partir do ano de 1940, porém, com uma diferença fundamental, pois a queda de mortalidade verificada não foi acompanhada por um declínio significativo da natalidade nem da modernização de suas economias. Entre os principais fatôres que afetam a mortalidade e a fertilidade analisou-se a influência do desenvolvimento econômico e social e dos avanços no campo da medicina e da saúde pública. Está sob uma política antinatalista oficial 66% da população dos países subdesenvolvidos e os contraceptivos mais utilizados têm sido, em ordem decrescente, o dispositivo intrauterino, esterilização e pílulas. Sòmente a Índia, em 4 anos (1964-68, esterilizou 5.200.000 habitantes com uma idade média de 32,2 anos. Entre as principais aplicações da demografia em saúde pública destacam-se o planejamento de saúde, migrações, epidemiologia e higiene materno-infantil.The main factors that contributed to the population dynamic in developed and underdeveloped countries and the policies of these countries used, even the aplication of demography in Public Health, are analysed. The greater population growth in under developed countries is observed. Thus, by the year 2000, the region called "third world" will present the higger population contingent, for the underdeveloped

  6. Frailty Across Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Zepeda, M U; Ávila-Funes, J A; Gutiérrez-Robledo, L M; García-Peña, C

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of an aging biomarker into clinical practice is under debate. The Frailty Index is a model of deficit accumulation and has shown to accurately capture frailty in older adults, thus bridging biological with clinical practice. To describe the association of socio-demographic characteristics and the Frailty Index in different age groups (from 20 to over one hundred years) in a representative sample of Mexican subjects. Cross-sectional analysis. Nationwide and population-representative survey. Adults 20-years and older interviewed during the last Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (2012). A 30-item Frailty Index following standard construction was developed. Multi-level regression models were performed to test the associations of the Frailty Index with multiple socio-demographic characteristics across age groups. A total of 29,504 subjects was analyzed. The 30-item Frailty Index showed the highest scores in the older age groups, especially in women. No sociodemographic variable was associated with the Frailty Index in all the studied age groups. However, employment, economic income, and smoking status were more consistently found across age groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the Frailty Index in a representative large sample of a Latin American country. Increasing age and gender were closely associated with a higher score.

  7. In adolescence a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Perrar, Ines; Roßbach, Sarah; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2018-05-26

    The present manuscript addressed two hypotheses: (i) As children age, energy intake is shifted from morning (energy intake energy intake >6pm) (ii) A higher 'eveningness in energy intake' (i.e. evening minus morning energy intake) is associated with a higher total daily energy intake. Data were analyzed from 262 DONALD cohort study participants, who had completed at least one 3-day weighed dietary record in the age groups 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/12, 13/14, 15/16 and 17/18 years (y). 'Eveningness in energy intake' was compared across age groups and related to total daily energy intake for each age group (multiple cross-sectional analyses). 'Eveningness' increased progressively from age group 3/4y to age group 17/18y. A median surplus of evening energy intake (i.e. when evening intake exceeded morning intake) was firstly observed for age group 11/12y. From age group 11/12y onwards, a higher 'eveningness' was associated with a higher total daily energy intake (all p energy intake between the highest and the lowest tertile of 'eveningness' was largest for age group 17/18y, amounting to an 11% higher intake among adolescents in the highest as compared to those in the lowest tertile. In conclusion, energy intake progressively shifts from morning to evening hours as children age. Once evening energy intake exceeds morning energy intake, a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. La théorie des catégories: ses apports mathématiques et ses implications épistémologiques.
    Un hommage historio-philosophique

    OpenAIRE

    Krömer , Ralf

    2004-01-01

    Category theory (CT) is important in virtue of its mathematical applications and its power to generate philosophical debate. It is a language for algebraic topology, a deductive system in homological algebra, and, as an alternative to set theory, a means of object construction (in Grothendieck's conception of algebraic geometry). Unpublished sources show that Grothendieck quit the Bourbaki group because of a debate on CT, which was partly epistemological in nature, especially as far as set-th...

  9. Higher Status Honesty Is Worth More: The Effect of Social Status on Honesty Evaluation

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    Philip R. Blue

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Promises are crucial for maintaining trust in social hierarchies. It is well known that not all promises are kept; yet the effect of social status on responses to promises being kept or broken is far from understood, as are the neural processes underlying this effect. Here we manipulated participants’ social status before measuring their investment behavior as Investor in iterated Trust Game (TG. Participants decided how much to invest in their partners, who acted as Trustees in TG, after being informed that their partners of higher or lower social status either promised to return half of the multiplied sum (4 × invested amount, did not promise, or had no opportunity to promise. Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded when the participants saw the Trustees’ decisions in which the partners always returned half of the time, regardless of the experimental conditions. Trustee decisions to return or not after promising to do so were defined as honesty and dishonesty, respectively. Behaviorally, participants invested more when Trustees promised than when Trustees had no opportunity to promise, and this effect was greater for higher status than lower status Trustees. Neurally, when viewing Trustees’ return decisions, participants’ medial frontal negativity (MFN responses (250–310 ms post onset were more negative when Trustees did not return than when they did return, suggesting that not returning was an expectancy violation. P300 responses were only sensitive to higher status return feedback, and were more positive-going for higher status partner returns than for lower status partner returns, suggesting that higher status returns may have been more rewarding/motivationally significant. Importantly, only participants in low subjective socioeconomic status (SES evidenced an increased P300 effect for higher status than lower status honesty (honesty – dishonesty, suggesting that higher status honesty was especially rewarding

  10. British Higher Education and Its Older Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Alan; Wilson, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Using results from a survey of British graduates, examined outcomes of higher education for older students, including their current employment situation, relationship of degree to job, and student satisfaction. Found that mature students are an extremely heterogeneous group, with differences in outcomes by age and mode of study. (EV)

  11. Behavioral Insights for Federal Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The federal role in higher education has grown over the past two decades, and now a new administration has the opportunity to strengthen policies that support students and their colleges and universities. To help inform these decisions, the Urban Institute convened a bipartisan group of scholars and policy advisers to write a series of memos…

  12. Higher Education Accreditation and the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelchen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The federal role in higher education has grown over the past two decades, and now a new administration has the opportunity to strengthen policies that support students and their colleges and universities. To help inform these decisions, the Urban Institute convened a bipartisan group of scholars and policy advisers to write a series of memos…

  13. Peer Learning for Change in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsdon, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws upon small scale, qualitative research at a UK university to present a Learning Development (LD) perspective on peer learning. This approach is offered as a lens for exploring social aspects of learning, cultural change in higher education and implications for pedagogy and policy. Views of a small group of peer learning leaders…

  14. Collaborating to Cut Costs in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Tuition prices at colleges and universities are high. It is also true that salaries and benefits are the single biggest chunk of every higher education institution's (HEI) budget. And one of the largest and most difficult costs to contain is group employee health insurance. The situation is particularly difficult for smaller New England HEIs…

  15. Delphi Decision Methods in Higher Education Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Robert C.

    This document describes and comments on the extent of use of the Delphi method in higher education decision making. Delphi is characterized by: (1) anonymity of response; (2) multiple iterations; (3) convergence of the distribution of answers; and (4) statistical group response (median, interquartile range) preserving intact a distribution that…

  16. Slower phloem transport in gymnosperm trees can be attributed to higher sieve element resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesche, Johannes; Windt, Carel; Bohr, Tomas; Schulz, Alexander; Jensen, Kaare H

    2015-04-01

    In trees, carbohydrates produced in photosynthesizing leaves are transported to roots and other sink organs over distances of up to 100 m inside a specialized transport tissue, the phloem. Angiosperm and gymnosperm trees have a fundamentally different phloem anatomy with respect to cell size, shape and connectivity. Whether these differences have an effect on the physiology of carbohydrate transport, however, is not clear. A meta-analysis of the experimental data on phloem transport speed in trees yielded average speeds of 56 cm h(-1) for angiosperm trees and 22 cm h(-1) for gymnosperm trees. Similar values resulted from theoretical modeling using a simple transport resistance model. Analysis of the model parameters clearly identified sieve element (SE) anatomy as the main factor for the significantly slower carbohydrate transport speed inside the phloem in gymnosperm compared with angiosperm trees. In order to investigate the influence of SE anatomy on the hydraulic resistance, anatomical data on SEs and sieve pores were collected by transmission electron microscopy analysis and from the literature for 18 tree species. Calculations showed that the hydraulic resistance is significantly higher in the gymnosperm than in angiosperm trees. The higher resistance is only partially offset by the considerably longer SEs of gymnosperms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Social Identity and Group Contests

    OpenAIRE

    Zaunbrecher, Henrik; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Social identity has been shown to successfully enhance cooperation and effort in cooperation and coordination games. Little is known about the causal effect of social identity on the propensity to engage in group conflict. In this paper we explore theoretically and experimentally whether social identity increases investments in group contests. We show theoretically that increased social identity with the own group implies higher investments in Tullock contests. Empirically we find that induce...

  18. Makerere Journal of Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makerere Journal of Higher Education (MAJOHE) is the official publication of ... management and improvement of higher education from an international viewpoint. ... Historical Development of Science and Technology Education in Nigeria: ...

  19. The Growth of Higher Educators for Social Justice: Collaborative Professional Development in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly K. Ness, PhD

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate what happened when, contrary to the typical isolation of faculty in higher education, a group of higher educators from various disciplines in a graduate school of education met regularly to discuss issues related to our teaching and social justice. More specifically, we explored the following research question: How does collaboration among higher educators from various disciplines shape their beliefs and practices of teaching for social justice? Over three years of collaboration and conversation, not only did we expand our own knowledge and understandings of notions of social justice, but we began to take important steps towards increasing our social justice actions in our teaching. This article explores our efforts to create a self-directed professional development group of higher educators and provides suggestions for similarly interested higher educators.

  20. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  1. A Tax for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to…

  2. Higher cerebral oxygen saturation may provide higher urinary output during continuous regional cerebral perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyasu Takahiro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective We examined the hypothesis that higher cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2 during RCP is correlated with urinary output. Methods Between December 2002 and August 2006, 12 patients aged 3 to 61 days and weighing 2.6 to 3.4 kg underwent aortic arch repair with RCP. Urinary output and rSO2 were analyzed retrospectively. Data were assigned to either of 2 groups according to their corresponding rSO2: Group A (rSO2 ≦ 75% and Group B (rSO2 Results Seven and 5 patients were assigned to Group A and Group B, respectively. Group A was characterized by mean radial arterial pressure (37.9 ± 9.6 vs 45.8 ± 7.8 mmHg; P = 0.14 and femoral arterial pressure (6.7 ± 6.1 vs 20.8 ± 14.6 mmHg; P = 0.09 compared to Group B. However, higher urinary output during CPB (1.03 ± 1.18 vs 0.10 ± 0.15 ml·kg-1·h-1; P = 0.03. Furthermore our results indicate that a higher dose of Chlorpromazine was used in Group A (2.9 ± 1.4 vs 1.7 ± 1.0 mg/kg; P = 0.03. Conclusion Higher cerebral oxygenation may provide higher urinary output due to higher renal blood flow through collateral circulation.

  3. Parcours croisés de Dominique Cabrera, cinéaste, et de ses proches collaborateurs. Intersecting careers: Dominique Cabrera, film director, and her close collaborators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Lamberbourg

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Le métier de réalisateur de cinéma a été peu étudié en sciences humaines et sociales. Les études cinématographiques et la presse spécialisée s’intéressent beaucoup moins aux parcours des collaborateurs de l’équipe technique qu’aux comédiens et aux projets des auteurs que l’on pourrait croire retranchés dans leur intériorité créatrice. Pour échapper à ce travers biographique, le sociologue peut rendre compte de l’itinéraire d’un réalisateur en examinant ses liens avec ses collaborateurs. On prend ici l’exemple des liens de travail récurrents qui unissent Dominique Cabrera, réalisatrice de cinéma, à ses proches collaborateurs, en montrant de quelle manière des liens de travail peuvent s’approfondir en dépit d’un contexte sectoriel où l’organisation par projet de l’activité cinématographique favorise a priori la fugacité des relations de travail. On postule ainsi que le contexte pertinent pour éclairer les contours de cet itinéraire de carrière est le réseau des relations socioprofessionnelles au sein duquel naissent les projets de films et qui contribuent à ancrer ce parcours dans le paysage professionnel des pratiques cinématographiques.In France, social sciences and humanities have paid little attention to the profession of film director. Film studies and the press are much less interested in the professional careers of technical teams in comparison with the lives of actors and authors of projects who seem to be cut into their inner creativity. To escape the biographical pitfall, sociologists may account for a director’s itinerary by analyzing his/her ties with colleagues. Here, we examine the recurrent work relations between film director Dominique Cabrera and her close colleagues, to underline the strong relationships which paradoxically unite both the director and her staff in a project-based industry that is rather conducive to short-lived work relations. We postulate that the

  4. Desafíos en la gestión de residuos sólidos para las ciudades de países en desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilliana Abarca-Guerrero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El manejo de residuos sólidos es un desafío para las autoridades de las ciudades de los países en desarrollo, principalmente debido al incremento en su generación, la carga impuesta sobre el presupuesto municipal como resultado de los altos costos asociados a su manejo, la falta de comprensión sobre una diversidad de factores que afectan las diferentes etapas del manejo de residuos y los vínculos necesarios para habilitar el funcionamiento de todo el sistema de manejo. Un análisis de la literatura sobre el trabajo realizado y reportado principalmente en publicaciones de 2005 a 2011, relacionadas con el manejo de residuos en los países en desarrollo, demostró que pocos artículos brindan información cuantitativa. El análisis se realizó en dos de las revistas científicas más importantes en gestión de residuos, Waste Management Journal y Waste Management and Research. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar las acciones y el comportamiento de los actores sociales que juegan un papel en el proceso de manejo de residuos y analizar factores influyentes en el sistema, en más de 30 áreas urbanas en 22 países en desarrollo de tres continentes. En este estudio se utilizó una combinación de métodos para evaluar a los actores sociales involucrados y los factores que influyen en el manejo de residuos en las ciudades. Se recogieron datos de la literatura científica, bases de datos existentes, observaciones realizadas durante visitas a áreas urbanas, entrevistas estructuradas con profesionales de relevancia, ejercicios suministrados a los participantes en talleres y un cuestionario aplicado a los actores involucrados. Se utilizaron métodos estadísticos descriptivos e inferenciales para sacar conclusiones. El resultado de la investigación es una lista completa de los actores sociales involucrados que son pertinentes en los sistemas de manejo de residuos y un juego de factores que revelan las causas más importantes del

  5. O Índice de Ecoeficiência em âmbito internacional: uma análise comparativa do desempenho de 51 países entre os anos de 1991 e 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harine Matos Maciel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi calcular o Índice de Ecoeficiência (IE para 51 países por meio do método Análise Envoltória de Dados (DEA. Verificou-se que o valor da ecoeficiência média diminuiu entre os anos de 1991 e 2012. Houve predominância dos países desenvolvidos e do continente europeu nos maiores índices de ecoeficiência. Os piores resultados foram alcançados por Índia e China. De modo geral, em todos os anos, o IE foi muito baixo na maioria dos países, sendo que metade destes são países em desenvolvimento e localizados, predominantemente, no continente asiático. A principal implicação dos resultados obtidos é de que são necessárias regulamentações mais rigorosas acerca do tema ambiental, principalmente para os países que apresentaram baixos valores de ecoeficiência. A presente análise sobre o Índice de Ecoeficiência busca ampliar o conhecimento sobre o assunto para propor melhores alternativas para alcançar a sustentabilidade tão necessária para as futuras gerações.

  6. Preventing the link between SES and high-risk behaviors: "value-added" education, drug use and delinquency in high-risk, urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Dabroski, Alexis; Aveyard, Paul; Markham, Wolfgang A

    2011-06-01

    We examined whether schools achieving better than expected educational outcomes for their students influence the risk of drug use and delinquency among urban, racial/ethnic minority youth. Adolescents (n = 2,621), who were primarily African American and Hispanic and enrolled in Chicago public schools (n = 61), completed surveys in 6th (aged 12) and 8th (aged 14) grades. Value-added education was derived from standardized residuals of regression equations predicting school-level academic achievement and attendance from students' sociodemographic profiles and defined as having higher academic achievement and attendance than that expected given the sociodemographic profile of the schools' student composition. Multilevel logistic regression estimated the effects of value-added education on students' drug use and delinquency. After considering initial risk behavior, value-added education was associated with lower incidence of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use; stealing; and participating in a group-against-group fight. Significant beneficial effects of value-added education remained for cigarette and marijuana use, stealing and participating in a group-against-group fight after adjustment for individual- and school-level covariates. Alcohol use (past month and heavy episodic) showed marginally significant trends in the hypothesized direction after these adjustments. Inner-city schools may break the links between social disadvantage, drug use and delinquency. Identifying the processes related to value-added education in order to improve school environments is warranted given the high costs associated with individual-level interventions.

  7. From Sandoz to Salmon: Conceptualizing resource and institutional dynamics in the Rhine watershed through the SES framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Villamayor-Tomas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use a case study of the Rhine River to examine the relevance of Common Pool Resource (CPR Theory for two conditions in which it has not been extensively tested: large scale international water management and pollution problems. For that purpose, we link variation in pollution abatement to a set of explanatory variables proposed by CPR theory. Causal inference is established through process tracing and a series of within-case comparison across actor groups (i.e. riparian nations, industry, and agriculture, resource types (i.e. point source, and non-point source pollutants, and time periods (1976–1986, when treaties provided a limited basis for collective action and pollution abatement, and 1987–2001, when the Rhine Action Plan proved more successful. According to our analysis, a number of CPR variables can help understanding cooperation for pollution abatement in the Rhine case. These include physical attributes such as clear hydrological boundaries; governance factors such as the articulation of monitoring and decision-making at different governance levels and the proportional allocation of costs and benefits of abating pollution; and actor factors like the small size, trust and homogeneity of some actor groups and leadership. Other variables proposed by CPR theory proved to be irrelevant or in need of qualification. These include the right to self-organize and to participate in decision-making, communication and resource-dependence. Finally, two variables, not emphasized by CPR theory, proved relevant: the occurrence of external disturbances and the role of interest groups. We conclude that CPR theory is valuable for explaining pollution management in large trans-boundary river basins, but requires qualification and extension.

  8. Associations Between Parental SES and Children's Health-Related Quality of Life: The Role of Objective and Subjective Social Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kay W; Wallander, Jan L; Peskin, Melissa; Cuccaro, Paula; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A

    2018-06-01

    We examined (1) the relationship that parental objective social status (OSS) and subjective social status (SSS) have with children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL), (2) whether SSS mediates the association between OSS and HRQOL, and (3) whether these associations differ among Black, Latino, and White children. Data came from 4,824 Black, Latino, and White 5th graders in the Healthy PassagesTM study. OSS was measured as parent educational attainment and net equivalent household income. SSS was measured by parent rating of community and national standing on the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status. Child HRQOL was measured with child report on the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) physical and psychosocial scales. Structural equation modeling path analysis was conducted using Mplus version 7.4. The data supported the hypothesized measurement and structural models. Whereas parental OSS was positively related to psychosocial HRQOL for all three racial/ethnic groups and to physical HRQOL for Latino children, parental SSS was not related to either for any of the racial/ethnic groups. Therefore, mediation by SSS was not supported for any group. OSS was confirmed to have stronger association with children's HRQOL than parental SSS. This is in contrast to some research on adults, raising the questions of how best to assess SSS relevant to children and at what point in development SSS may influence children's health and well-being. The persistent relationship found between parental OSS and child health suggests that efforts to improve low socioeconomic resources in families may contribute to improve children's health.

  9. O comércio intra-sectorial na indústria agro-alimentar nos países BRIC

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qiong

    2012-01-01

    Mestrado em Contabilidade, Fiscalidade e Finanças Empresariais Esta dissertação analisa a evolução do comércio intra-sectorial total e por tipos (comércio intra-sectorial horizontal e vertical) na indústria agro-alimentar do Brasi, Rússia, Índia e China (os chamados BRIC). É feita, também, a caracterização dos quatro países em termos do seu peso nas exportações e importações de produtos agro-alimentares. A metodologia usada utiliza o índice de Comércio intra-sectoriasl de Grubel e Lloyd (1...

  10. O processo de harmonização da informação contábil consolidada nos países integrantes do Mercosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva Pinto Braga

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é analisar o processo de harmonização da informação contábil consolidada, que está sendo executado pelos países membros do Mercosul. Em virtude da extensão do assunto, esta investigação limitou-se aos estudos da configuração e delimitação do perímetro de consolidação. Para alcançar o objetivo proposto utilizou-se uma metodologia baseada em dois tipos de análises. Em primeiro lugar, uma comparação entre as normas nacionais e, em segundo, a observação das diferenças e similitudes existentes entre estas e as emitidas em nível internacional pelo International Accounting Standard Board (IASB.

  11. Urbanización y sistema de asentamientos en los países menos urbanizados de América Latina y El Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egea Jiménez, Carmen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this report is to analyse the population distribution, urbanization process and settlement system of less urbanized Latin American and Caribbean countries. The first thing, and as so an introduction, it explains the urbanization process of the whole region in the world-wide context from 1955 to 2025, thus as a populational evolution tipology of all Latin American countries from 1950 to current census. The third part, the more extensive one, is about the poblacional problem of less urbanized countries of the region in two periods: 1970-1975 and 1990-1995.

    [es] Urbanización y sistema de asentamientos en los países menos urbanizados de América Latina y el Caribe. El objetivo prioritario de este artículo es analizar la distribución de la población, proceso de urbanización y sistema de asentamientos de los países menos urbanizados de América Latina y el Caribe, si bien en principio, y con carácter introductorio, se expone el proceso de urbanización del conjunto regional en el contexto mundial desde 1995 hasta el 2025, así como una tipología evolutiva poblacional de todos los países latinoamericanos desde 1950 hasta el censo actual. La tercera parte, la más amplia, centra ya la atención en la problemática poblacional de los países menos urbanizados de la región en dos períodos: 1970-1975 y 1990-1995. [fr] Urbanization et l´habitat des pays moins urbanises de l´Amérique Latine et le Caraïbe. L'objectif principal de cet article c'est l'analyse de la distribution de la population, le procès d'urbanisation et l'habitat des pays moins urbanises de l'Amérique Latine et le Caraïbe, bien qu'en principe, et de manière introductive, on expose le procès d'urbanisation de l'ensemble régionale dans le contexte mondiale après 1995 jusqu'à 2025, même qu'une typologie évolutive populationale de tous les pays latino-américains après 1950 jusqu'à recensement actuel. La troisième parte, la

  12. Elementos para la contabilización de proyectos MDL en países no-anexo I, caso: Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perossa, Mario Luis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El objeto del presente trabajo tiene por finalidad presentar propuestas para el debate y la reflexión sobre ciertos temas relacionados con la contabilización de algunos instrumentos surgidos a partir de la puesta en marcha del Protocolo de Kyoto, mas precisamente sobre el Mecanismo para un Desarrollo Limpio (MDL, que es el instrumento aplicable a aquellos países (que como en el caso de la República Argentina, firmaron y ratificaron el mismo en vías de desarrollo no se encuentra sujeto a regulación sobre reducción de emisiones pero pueden ser objeto de planes de MDL.

  13. El aborto en los países de la Subregión Andina: discursos, políticas y resistencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian A. Venegas Ahumada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación es interpretar el discurso hegemónico (icónicolingüístico de los Fundamentalismos Religiosos de Iglesia Católica y grupos ligados a ella, respecto al aborto, junto a las protestas realizadas por movimientos de ciudadanas y ciudadanos por la defensa de los Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos de las mujeres en países de la Subregión Andina. La metodología utiliza un análisis de discurso. En conclusión: El discurso y penalización del aborto es ideológico, dominación patriarcal que hace adoptar a las mujeres el aborto inseguro como resistencia paralegal, pudiendo enfermar o morir para obtener la libertad sobre su cuerpo, un derecho reproductivo.

  14. Le détour, la pause et l'optimalité. Essai sur la distance et ses apports au transport et à l'urbanisme

    OpenAIRE

    L'HOSTIS, Alain

    2014-01-01

    La distance est un élément central pour la compréhension et pour l'action sur la ville et les territoires dans leurs liens avec les transports. Pourtant la distance n'a pas été considérée dans toutes ses potentialités dans les disciplines qui abordent la spatialité, c'est-à-dire la géographie, l'économie, la psychologie et la sociologie, et qui constituent les principaux gisements de savoirs académiques mobilisés par les spécialistes de l'urbanisme, de l'aménagement et des transports. L'inves...

  15. La integración energética de los países nórdicos -Nord Pool-: lecciones para otros mercados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo García Rendón

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe el proceso de integración del mercado eléctrico de los países nórdicos -Nord Pool-, además de establecer algunas reflexiones sobre dicha experiencia, las cuales pueden ser importantes para regiones que se encuentran en el mismo proceso, como es el caso de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones -CAN-. Inicialmente hace alusión a la teoría que fundamenta el intercambio de bienes y servicios y los principios económicos que justifican la integración de mercados para luego concentrarse en el caso del Nord Pool, examinando el proceso y sus principales resultados.

  16. La integración energética de los países nórdicos —Nord Pool—: lecciones para otros mercados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Palacios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe el proceso de integración del mercado eléctrico de los países nórdicos —Nord Pool—, además de establecer algunas reflexiones sobre dicha experiencia, las cuales pueden ser importantes para regiones que se encuentran en el mismo proceso, como es el caso de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones —CAN—. Inicialmente hace alusión a la teoría que fundamenta el intercambio de bienes y servicios y los principios económicos que justifican la integración de mercados para luego concentrarse en el caso del Nord Pool, examinando el proceso y sus principales resultados.

  17. Medición del desarrollo humano: un índice alternativo al IDH-2010. Especial referencia a los países latinoamericanos

    OpenAIRE

    Veres Ferrer, Ernesto J.

    2014-01-01

    E n este trabajo se presenta un índice alternativo al Índice de Desarrollo Humano ( IDH ). Utiliza la misma información estadística que éste. A partir de él se obtiene un ranking alternativo de países atendiendo a su desarrollo humano. El nuevo índice no se basa en los valores de los indicadores que lo alimentan, sino en la posición que cada uno de ellos tiene con relación al conjunto de los demás. Posteriormente, clasifica cada indicador en el cuartil correspondiente. El diseño del nuevo índ...

  18. Marroquins a les illes Pitiüses: Trets del seu projecte migratori i canvis esdevinguts en les seves vides a partir d’aquest.

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Artigas, Ivone

    2012-01-01

    Aquesta tesi es basa en la migració del col·lectiu marroquí a les illes Pitiüses i se centra especialment en els canvis que es produeixen en les seves vides a partir de la migració i en els que es perceben en la part de les seves famílies que resta a origen. La recerca para especial atenció en els factors que afavoreixen o dificulten la integració i l'aculturació dels migrats, en els efectes del fet migratori en l'estatus d'aquells, així com en la relació existent entre determinats factors (c...

  19. Which finite simple groups are unit groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Occhipinti, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    We prove that if G is a finite simple group which is the unit group of a ring, then G is isomorphic to either (a) a cyclic group of order 2; (b) a cyclic group of prime order 2^k −1 for some k; or (c) a projective special linear group PSLn(F2) for some n ≥ 3. Moreover, these groups do all occur a...

  20. Autonomie du groupe restreint et performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Nissen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Un groupe est autonome lorsqu'il prend lui-même en charge sa gestion (Abric, 1996 et lorsque celle-ci fonctionne bien. L'autonomie du groupe restreint est une caractéristique revendiquée dans le cadre actuel de l'expansion de dispositifs collaboratifs à distance entre apprenants. La question qui se pose alors est de savoir si un groupe restreint autonome est plus performant qu'un groupe moins autonome. L'autonomie d'un groupe d'apprentissage en ligne est-elle en relation avec la qualité de la réalisation de la tâche ? Est-elle en relation avec les progrès réalisés par les membres du groupe ? Dans le cadre de notre étude expérimentale, menée dans deux dispositifs pédagogiques différents (l'environnement d'apprentissage Babbelnet et une formation sur la plate-forme Acolad, des étudiants ont réalisé en groupes restreints, avec l'accompagnement d'un tuteur, une tâche de type actionnel – en l'occurrence une rédaction en langue étrangère (allemand ou anglais. Pour ce faire, ils disposaient d'aides méthodologiques et linguistiques dans l'environnement pédagogique en ligne. Ils ont interagi par le biais d'Internet au moyen de différents outils de communication. Une analyse de l'interaction qui a eu lieu dans chaque groupe, l'évaluation des rédactions réalisées conjointement, deux tests réalisés respectivement avant et après la phase de travail en groupe ainsi qu'un formulaire auto-administré nous permettent de mettre en lien l'autonomie des groupes, d'une part, et leur performance, voire leur apprentissage, d'autre part. Au vu de cette étude, il apparaît que l'autonomie du groupe n'a pas d'influence directe sur l'apprentissage des groupes restreints. En revanche, un rapport est visible entre l'appréciation du fonctionnement du groupe par ses membres et l'évolution de la performance des groupes.

  1. PUBLICACIONES DE LA REVISTA AGRONOMÍA MESOAMERICANA DURANTE EL PERIODO 1990-2010: CLASIFICACIÓN, TEMÁTICA, PAÍSES Y DIFUSIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pe\\u00F1a Navarro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la temática y procedencia de las publicaciones de la revista Agronomía Me soamericana durante el periodo comprendido entre 1990-2010. Esta revista es el Órgano divulgativo del Programa Cooperativo Ce ntroamericano para el Me joramie nto de Cultivos y Animales (PCCMCA . Desde el inicio en 1990 a la fecha se han publicado 629 trabajos de los cuales el 63% son artículos científicos, 26% notas técnicas, 8% son análisis y comentarios, mientras que las informaciones técnicas y las revisiones bibliográficas poseen 2% cada uno. Costa Rica y México son los países con mayor cantidad de trabajos publicados, con 37 y 32% respectivamente, seguidos de El Sa lvador, Guatemala, Honduras y Cuba. Los principa les temas tratados son el maíz (24% y el frijol (21%, seguidos de los forrajes (7% y el de ganado lechero (4%, mie ntras que el arroz, el sorgo, las malezas y el pejibaye alcanzaron el 3% cada uno. El porcentaje de rechazo de los trabajos sometidos a publicación durante el 2010 fue del 20%. Se destaca la distribución impresa de la revista a treinta países alrededor del mundo, a bibliotecas así como a centros de documentación principalmente a los continentes de América, Europa, Asia y algunas de las islas del Ca ribe.

  2. Las nuevas tendencias del derecho de seguros en las legislaciones más recientes de los países latinoamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ordóñez Ordóñez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En los años recientes, varios países latinoamericanos han realizado importantes reformas a sus legislaciones relacionadas con la disciplina privada del contrato de seguro. Particularmente Chile y Perú procedieron a ello, en el primer caso, sustituyendo el capítulo correspondiente al contrato de seguro en su Código de Comercio de muy antigua vigencia, y en el segundo, expidiendo una ley específica sobre el tema. También países como México y Panamá, dentro del marco de sus normas de derecho público destinadas a regular la actividad financiera y de seguros, han expedido leyes nuevas relacionadas con la vigilancia y el control de la actividad aseguradora, que necesariamente se proyectan en mayor o menor medida sobre las relaciones particulares que surgen entre asegurados y aseguradores. El conocimiento de esas nuevas legislaciones es un elemento insustituible para la reforma que tarde o temprano deberá operarse sobre la nuestra que data ya de más de cuarenta años. Temas como la reticencia o inexactitud en la declaración del estado del riesgo, la agravación del riesgo, la imperatividad de las normas regulatorias del contrato, la identificación de las partes, la regulación de la oferta y de la etapa precontractual en el contrato de seguro, y muchas otras, son objeto de análisis y comentario en este artículo.

  3. La movilidad de profesionales y estudiantes universitarios latinoamericanos y caribeños a países de la OCDE

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    Fernando Osvaldo ESTEBAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se investigan las tendencias actuales de la migración calificada de latinoamericanos y caribeños dirigida a países de la OCDE, focalizando a Estados Unidos. A partir de un análisis bibliográfico se discuten las perspectivas teóricas sobre migración calificada y se detectan las tendencias históricas de este proceso en América Latina. Para el análisis empírico se utilizó una novedosa base de datos sobre tasas de emigración según nivel educativo. La evidencia empírica demostró que se registró un incremento del stock de migrantes con estudios superiores entre 1990 y 2000, en términos absolutos y relativos respecto a los migrantes con niveles educativos bajo y medio. Las mujeres experimentaron una tasa de emigración calificada mayor que los hombres. Los pequeños Estados, con escaso nivel de desarrollo, tienen las tasas de migración calificada más elevadas. Paradójicamente, los países con diásporas más reducidas muestran los niveles de selectividad más altos. Aproximadamente 40 por ciento de los profesionales no encuentran empleo en profesiones de ámbito científico e ingenierías encontrándose subocupados y su talento desperdiciado.

  4. La televisión social en los países andinos. Análisis de los medios sociales en informativos y magazines

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    Abel Suing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Los países andinos transitan hacia la televisión digital al mismo tiempo en que se consolidan los medios sociales que otorgan a la audiencia la capacidad de interactuar en tiempo real, ello deriva en interrogantes como ¿existe integración de los medios sociales en la televisión?, ¿la audiencia participa en la definición de la televisión digital? y ¿estamos frente a la televisión social? La investigación pretende responder a las preguntas señaladas mediante el estudio de los programas de noticias y magazines de las estaciones de televisión líderes del área andina, en razón de que sus contenidos se emiten en tiempo real cuando se generaría el mayor interés de la audiencia. La metodología empleada es cuantitativa y cualitativa a partir del análisis de cuentas en Facebook y Twitter de las estaciones. Las hipótesis son que la televisión social gana aceptación en los países del área andina y que los canales de televisión no explotan los medios sociales. Se concluye que las estaciones privadas muestran más actividad que las públicas, que existe diferencia entre los informativos y el entretenimiento en seguidores y actividad en la red y que estamos en el inicio de la televisión social pero demanda más esfuerzos para integrar pantallas y medios sociales.

  5. Salient aspects of inflation and growth in selected countries Aspectos mais salientes da inflação e do crescimento em países selecionados

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    Pichai Chumvichitra

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available Análise do figurativo dos problemas de inflação e de crescimento e seu trade-off. Com o problema de choques externos, os acontecimentos exógenos afetaram extremamente suas relações. Uma observação empírica de vários países e vários períodos daria a compreensão mais útil e complementaria análises mais abrangentes de problemas. Alguns resultados obtidos de indicadores econômicos específicos refletiram aspectos salientes desse problema, tal como o papel de tomador de preço, a inflexibilidade da oferta de produto e a moeda passiva que produziram mudanças não antecipadas permitiram explorar persistentemente a característica desse problema em geral para vários países.This paper comments on the figurative problems of inflation and growth, and the character of its trade-off a topic which was the subject of heated numerous studies in developed countries. As a problem of external shocks, the unexpected procedures produce an extra point of their relationship. The observation of evidence in several level of country experiences and various periods should provide a useful comprehension and complement to the wide analysis of these problems. Some lessons obtained from the specific economic indicators reflect to general aspects of the subject under the role of price taker, inflexibility output supply and passive money which make the unexpected changes explore persistently to the character of this problem in general for many countries.

  6. Las nuevas tendencias del derecho de seguros en las legislaciones más recientes de los países latinoamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ordóñez Ordóñez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available En los años recientes, varios países latinoamericanos han realizado importantes reformas a sus legislaciones relacionadas con la disciplina privada del contrato de seguro. Particularmente Chile y Perú procedieron a ello, en el primer caso, sustituyendo el capítulo correspondiente al contrato de seguro en su Código de Comercio de muy antigua vigencia, y en el segundo, expidiendo una ley específica sobre el tema. También países como México y Panamá, dentro del marco de sus normas de derecho público destinadas a regular la actividad financiera y de seguros, han expedido leyes nuevas relacionadas con la vigilancia y el control de la actividad aseguradora, que necesariamente se proyectan en mayor o menor medida sobre las relaciones particulares que surgen entre asegurados y aseguradores. El conocimiento de esas nuevas legislaciones es un elemento insustituible para la reforma que tarde o temprano deberá operarse sobre la nuestra que data ya de más de cuarenta años. Temas como la reticencia o inexactitud en la declaración del estado del riesgo, la agravación del riesgo, la imperatividad de las normas regulatorias del contrato, la identificación de las partes, la regulación de la oferta y de la etapa precontractual en el contrato de seguro, y muchas otras, son objeto de análisis y comentario en este artículo.

  7. Farming or seasonal migration? - Potential futures of reindeer husbandry in Fennoscandia studied with Social-Ecological System (SES) approach, co-production of knowledge, and scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käyhkö, Jukka; Horstkotte, Tim; Vehmas, Jarmo; Forbes, Bruce

    2017-04-01

    The area allocated for reindeer husbandry in Finland, Sweden and Norway covers approximately 40 % of each country. As the livelihood requires large, relatively unfragmented territories while being marginal in terms of direct income, land-use conflicts between various livelihoods and activities, such as forestry, agriculture, mining, energy production, tourism, and nature protection are common phenomena in the region. Simultaneously, rapid societal change, urban exodus and fading traditions as well as climate warming and subsequent ecosystem change may put the livelihood at stake. We have probed potential futures of reindeer husbandry in Northern Fennoscandia using the Social-Ecological System (SES) approach, knowledge co-production in stakeholder-scientist workshops in all three countries, and scenario building based on quantitative data and narratives. Regarding the future of the livelihood, we have identified some crucial components in the SES that are influential in determining the direction of development. We produced four potential pathways of future development and demonstrate that important factors controlling the direction of development include governance and actor relations. Governance is often considered distant and opaque by local stakeholders, fostering conflicts in land allocation, while unclear regulations at local level reinforce emerging conflict situations leading to distrust and restrained communication between the actors. Regionally, these conflicts may lead to decreased resilience and threaten the future of the livelihood altogether. Therefore, research should focus on supporting the reform process of institutional arrangements and governance mechanisms, and fostering co-design and co-production processes that ease distrust and improve resilience of the livelihood in multifunctional landscapes.

  8. Morphological awareness intervention with kindergartners and first and second grade students from low SES homes: a small efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Diehm, Emily

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of a morphological awareness intervention on the morphological awareness and reading skills of students from low-socioeconomic-status homes; we also examined whether the intervention was similarly effective for intervention students who differed in their initial morphological awareness abilities. The 8-week intervention was designed to increase awareness of affixes and the relations between base words and their inflected and derived forms for kindergarteners (n = 27) and first- (n = 22) and second-grade (n = 26) students. Students randomly assigned to the small group intervention were provided instruction four times a week, 25 min a day, whereas students assigned to the control group received "business as usual." Kindergarten and first- and second-grade students receiving the intervention showed statistically significant gains in morphological awareness with large effect sizes on most measures. Students in all three grades who received the intervention demonstrated nonsignificant gains in literacy abilities with null to small effect sizes. Further, students with low morphological awareness abilities at the onset of the study demonstrated similar gains from the intervention as their peers with typical morphological awareness abilities. Our results suggest that explicit morphological awareness instruction may produce gains of practical importance to young elementary students at risk for future literacy difficulties.

  9. Géographie de l´Ecole et géographie à l´Ecole. (Etude du fichier des thèses de 1990 à 1994.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier, Jean-Pierre

    1997-01-01

    La décennie des années 90 est marquée par un développement des travaux de thèses en géographie portant soit sur l´Ecole, soit sur la didactique de la discipline. Certaines font de l´Ecole un objet géographique, d´autres étudient l´enseignement de la géographie, ce sont ces dernières qui relèvent de préoccupations plus proprement didactiques. Nous distinguons donc “géographie de l´Ecole” et “géographie à l´Ecole”. Nous avons étudié le fichier des thèses soutenues et des sujets de thèses dépos...

  10. FACULTY DIVERSITY AND TENURE IN HIGHER EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Raheem, Jalelah

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for minority faculty in higher education due to the increase in minority high school graduates and higher education enrollees. Faculty members who are tenured have the ability to advocate for cultural equality in their institutions and serve as mentors for students. Minority faculty whose tenured process is hindered by inequality may also be unable to become a proper mentor for minority students. The purpose of this paper is to identify why faculty diversity will lead to increased student success and comfort, minority mentors, minority research, and equity advocacy, and representation from all minority groups.

  11. Controle Financeiro Governamental: uma pesquisa sobre os arranjos jurídicoinstitucionais e a relação políticoadministrativa em 18 países de diferentes continentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gileno Fernandes Marcelino

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo identificar qual o sistema organizacional adotado por instituições responsáveis pelo controle financeiro-orçamentário governamental (controladoria ou tribunal de contas em dezoito países, sendo nove do Continente Americano, cinco do Continente Europeu, três do Continente Asiático e um da Oceania. Além disso, busca-se verificar o tratamento dado pelo ordenamento jurídico desses países e a relação do sistema organizacional existente com o sistema de governo adotado e a história política dos países. A fundamentação teórica abrange conceitos das ciências da Administração, da Economia e do Direito. Quanto ao objetivo, a metodologia adotada é a descritiva e quanto aos procedimentos, a pesquisa é documental. Os países europeus de origem latina França, Itália, Espanha e Portugal adotam como sistema de controle os tribunais de contas. O Continente Americano, predominantemente, adota controladorias, exceto Brasil e Uruguai, onde o controle é realizado por tribunais. China, Índia e Israel também adotam controladorias, assim como na Oceania com a Nova Zelândia. Em Cuba, o controle de contas públicas está a cargo de um Ministério de Auditoria. Nos países parlamentaristas, os arranjos institucionais prevalecentes são Controladorias ou Auditorias-Gerais e nos países presidencialistas predomina os Tribunais de Contas. Palavras-chave: Sistema Organizacional; Controle Governamental; Controladorias; e Tribunais de Contas.

  12. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  13. Controle Financeiro Governamental: uma pesquisa sobre os arranjos jurídicoinstitucionais e a relação políticoadministrativa em 18 países de diferentes continentes

    OpenAIRE

    Gileno Fernandes Marcelino; Lorena Pinho Morbach Paredes Wassally; Rosane Maria Pio da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Este artigo tem por objetivo identificar qual o sistema organizacional adotado por instituições responsáveis pelo controle financeiro-orçamentário governamental (controladoria ou tribunal de contas) em dezoito países, sendo nove do Continente Americano, cinco do Continente Europeu, três do Continente Asiático e um da Oceania. Além disso, busca-se verificar o tratamento dado pelo ordenamento jurídico desses países e a relação do sistema organizacional existente com o sistem...

  14. Política Social Comparada entre países de la Alianza del Pacífico y de la Unión Europea: México, Finlandia y España

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Figueroa, Carla

    2014-01-01

    En la actualidad no existen estudios comparativos que midan de forma global la política social como input de los gobiernos. Una alternativa es la inclusión de diversos indicadores relevantes para la política social en un solo índice, que permita realizar un análisis estadístico y comparativo de diferentes países. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer la factibilidad de medir la política social basándonos en sus input y aplicando el Social Policy Index (SPI) en tres países de diferente régime...

  15. Oportunidades comerciales para productores y exportadores colombianos de mangostanes y mangos en los Países Bajos a partir del Tratado de Libre Comercio con la Unión Europea

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo Ibáñez, Sara Valentina; Picón Villamil, Yussi Andrea; Sassón Beltrán, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación se realizó con el propósito de esclarecer y brindarle información pertinente y actualizada a los productores nacionales de frutas exóticas como el mango y el mangostán, acerca de las oportunidades comerciales que estos poseen con países pertenecientes a la Unión Europea (UE), debido al creciente consumo de frutas en estos países y al acuerdo comercial vigente que posee Colombia y la UE. Con el fin de que el sector agrícola crezca y pueda establecerse en me...

  16. Las dinámicas de comercialización de la quinua en los países andinos: ¿qué oportunidades y retos para la agricultura familiar campesina?

    OpenAIRE

    Baudoin, Andrea; Lacroix, Pierril; Bazile, Didier; Chia, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    La revalorización de la quinua despierta muchos intereses tanto en los países andinos como europeos y americanos. Este producto andino antes marginado y circunscrito al autoconsumo ha entrado en la dieta de la población urbana de los países andinos y su consumo se difunde en EEUU, Europa y en otras partes del mundo. En los Andes los precios en chacra aumentan y el sector quinuero ha pasado a ser un sector atractivo para las inversiones. De esta chenopodiácea se está comercializando una gran v...

  17. AN ASSESSMENT ON THE TOPICS RELATED TO PHONOLOGY AND PHONETICS CONTAINED IN THE HIGH SCHOOL COURSE BOOKS ORTAÖĞRETİM DİL BİLGİSİ KİTAPLARINDAKİ SES BİLGİSİ ve SES BİLİMİYLE İLGİLİ KONULAR ÜERİNE BİR DEĞERLENDİRME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet SOLMAZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Course books are the most widely used sources by both students and teachers in attaining knowledge. Researches show that in language teaching classes also the most widely used materials are the course books. The purpose of this study was to appraise the grammar course books in the secondary schools, where at least four million students go on, on the account of phonetics and aspects related to phonetics. Three different grammar books prepared for different programs were analyzed and many lackings and shortcomings were realized related to phonetics and issues related to phonetics. The findings of the study showed that scientific principles and methods are not applied enough in the preparation of the grammar course books Ders kitapları, bilgiye ulaşma konusunda öğrenciler ve öğretmenler tarafından günümüzde en sık başvurulan ders araçlarıdır. Yapılan araştırmalar, dil bilgisi öğretiminde de en çok kullanılan öğretim malzemelerinin ders kitapları olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. Bu araştırmada, dört milyondan fazla öğrencinin öğrenim gördüğü ortaöğretim basamağında kullanılan dil bilgisi ders kitapları, dil biliminin ses bilgisi ve ses bilimi alanıyla ilgili konular açısından değerlendirilmiştir. Farklı öğretim programları için hazırlanmış olan üç ayrı ders kitabının incelendiği çalışmada, söz konusu ders kitaplarında ses bilgisi ve ses bilimiyle ilgili çeşitli eksikliklerle ele alınan konularda birçok problem tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmanın bulguları, ortaöğretim basamağında kullanılan dil bilgisi ders kitaplarının hazırlanmasında bilimsel ilke ve yöntemlere yeterince uyulmadığını ortaya koymaktadır.

  18. Exploring the Barriers: A Qualitative Study about the Experiences of Mid-SES Roma Navigating the Spanish Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Emilia; Flecha, Ainhoa; Serradell, Olga

    2018-02-22

    Whereas the topic of the 'cultural sensitivity' of healthcare systems has been addressed extensively in the US and the UK, literature on the subject in most European countries, specifically looking at the situation of Roma, is still scarce. Drawing on qualitative research conducted mainly in the city of Barcelona under the communicative approach with Roma subjects who have stable socioeconomic positions and higher cultural capitals (end-users, professionals of the healthcare system, and key informants of a regional policy oriented to the improvement of Roma living conditions), the present study aims to fill this gap. We explore the barriers that the Roma face in accessing the healthcare system, reflecting on how these barriers are accentuated by the existing anti-Roma prejudices and institutional arrangements that do not account for minority cultures. Our results point out a series of obstacles at two levels, in the interaction with healthcare professionals, and in relation to existing institutional arrangements, which prevent Roma families from having equal access to the healthcare system. Education stands up as a mechanism to contest anti-Roma sentiments among healthcare professionals.

  19. Strategic Planning for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

    1981-01-01

    The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

  20. Effective Communication in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The intent for this paper is to show that communication within the higher education field is a current problem. By looking first at the different styles, forms, and audiences for communication, the reader will hopefully gain perspective as to why this is such a problem in higher education today. Since the Millennial generation is the newest set of…