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Sample records for higher risk group

  1. Investigating approaches to improving appropriate antibiotic use among higher risk ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Dana L; Tice, Alan D; Berthiaume, John T

    2010-11-01

    A field study with follow up investigations sought to: 1. determine whether cold packs (over-the-counter symptomtic treatments), coupled with in-office education, improve antibiotic-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors more than in-office education alone in patient populations with high percentages of Asian Americans and Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders; 2. identify possible reasons for intervention outcomes as described by physicians who participated in the field study; and 3. explore potential future directions based on a large sample survey of physicians in the field study's highly ethnic county. The intervention resulted in a pre- to post-consultation decrease in perceived need for and an increase in knowledge about antibiotic risks but had no impact on frequency of reported receipt of an antibiotic prescription. Unexpectedly, in-office education alone was more effective in increasing knowledge than in-office education plus the cold pack. In-depth interviews of field study physicians and a large scale physician survey suggest that cold pack interventions targeting patient populations with high percentages of Asian Americans and Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders may be more likely to succeed if accompanied by mass public education regarding risks and physician training regarding effective ways to talk to patients. Use of in-office education with cold packs alone may not achieve desired results. Hawaii Medical Journal Copyright 2010.

  2. Cardiovascular disease and ABO blood-groups in Africans. Are blood-group A individuals at higher risk of ischemic disease?: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Djibril Marie; Sow, Mamadou Saidou; Diack, Aminata; Dia, Khadidiatou; Mboup, Mouhamed Cherif; Fall, Pape Diadie; Fall, Moussa Daouda

    2017-12-01

    Since the discovery of the ABO blood group system by Karl Landsteiner in 1901, several reports have suggested an important involvement of the ABO blood group system in the susceptibility to thrombosis. Assessing that non-O blood groups in particular A blood group confer a higher risk of venous and arterial thrombosis than group O.Epidemiologic data are typically not available for all racial and ethnics groups.The purpose of this pilot study was to identify a link between ABO blood group and ischemic disease (ID) in Africans, and to analyze whether A blood group individuals were at higher risk of ischemic disease or not. A total of 299 medical records of patients over a three-year period admitted to the cardiology and internal medicine department of military hospital of Ouakam in Senegal were reviewed. We studied data on age, gender, past history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking, sedentarism, obesity, hyperlipidemia, use of estrogen-progestin contraceptives and blood group distribution.In each blood group type, we evaluated the prevalence of ischemic and non-ischemic cardiovascular disease. The medical records were then stratified into two categories to evaluate incidence of ischemic disease: Group 1: Patients carrying blood-group A and Group 2: Patients carrying blood group non-A (O, AB and B). Of the 299 patients whose medical records were reviewed, 92 (30.8%) were carrying blood group A, 175 (58.5%) had blood group O, 13 (4.3%) had blood group B, and 19 (6.4%) had blood group AB.The diagnosis of ischemic disease (ID) was higher in patients with blood group A (61.2%) than in other blood groups, and the diagnosis of non-ischemic disease (NID) was higher in patients with blood group O (73.6%) compared to other groups. In patients with blood group B or AB compared to non-B or non-AB, respectively there was no statistically significant difference in ID incidence.Main risk factor for ID was smoking (56.5%), hypertension (18.4%) and diabetes (14.3%).In our study

  3. Weight patterns in children with higher risk ALL: A report from the Children's Oncology Group (COG) for CCG 1961.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withycombe, Janice S; Post-White, Janice E; Meza, Jane L; Hawks, Ria G; Smith, Lynette M; Sacks, Nancy; Seibel, Nita L

    2009-12-15

    This retrospective analysis defined and described patterns and predictors of weight change during treatment in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) with high-risk features who received treatment on Children's Cancer Group protocol CCG 1961. Patients (1,638) were enrolled in CCG 1961 from November 1996 to May 2002. Weight was measured as BMI percent (%), specific for age and gender, and defined as 100 x ln(BMI/median BMI). By the end of treatment, 23% of children were obese (BMI >or=95%), compared with 14% at diagnosis. Children who received post-induction intensified therapy (arms C, D, SER with Doxorubicin or Idarubicin) had higher gastrointestinal toxicities and lower BMI% from consolidation through interim maintenance 1. BMI% then increased for all arms between delayed intensification and maintenance 1 or 2. Children who were of Black or Hispanic race, obese at diagnosis, or who had grade 3 or 4 pancreatitis/glucose toxicities during induction had higher BMI% throughout treatment. Children were more likely to be obese at the end of the study if they were aged 5-9 years at diagnosis or female gender. Cranial radiation was not a predictor of obesity. Successful treatment of higher risk childhood ALL was associated with obesity, independent of cranial irradiation. The beginning of maintenance therapy may be the best time to intervene with nutritional and behavioral interventions, particularly for children who are obese or aged 5-9 years at diagnosis, female, Black or Hispanic, or those with metabolic toxicities during induction. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Is Group Sex a Higher-Risk Setting for HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Compared With Dyadic Sex Among Men Who Have Sex With Men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boom, Wijnand; Davidovich, Udi; Heuker, José; Lambers, Femke; Prins, Maria; Sandfort, Theo; Stolte, Ineke G.

    2016-01-01

    Group sex has been suggested as a potential high-risk setting for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM). We investigated whether group sex is associated with lower condom use during anal sex and higher proportions of STIs compared with dyadic sex

  5. Cardiovascular disease and ABO blood-groups in Africans. Are blood-group A individuals at higher risk of ischemic disease?: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djibril Marie BA

    2017-12-01

    In African countries, where most of health facilities are understaffed, more rigorous studies with a larger population are needed to give a high level of evidence to confirm this association in order to establish the need to be more aggressive in risk factor control in these individuals.

  6. Higher risk of death among MEN1 patients with mutations in the JunD interacting domain: a Groupe d'etude des Tumeurs Endocrines (GTE) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenon, Julien; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Faivre, Laurence; Cardot-Bauters, Catherine; Calender, Alain; Murat, Arnaud; Giraud, Sophie; Niccoli, Patricia; Odou, Marie-Françoise; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Barlier, Anne; Lombard-Bohas, Catherine; Clauser, Eric; Tabarin, Antoine; Parfait, Béatrice; Chabre, Olivier; Castermans, Emilie; Beckers, Albert; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Le Bras, Morgane; Delemer, Brigitte; Bouchard, Philippe; Guilhem, Isabelle; Rohmer, Vincent; Goichot, Bernard; Caron, Philippe; Baudin, Eric; Chanson, Philippe; Groussin, Lionel; Du Boullay, Hélène; Weryha, Georges; Lecomte, Pierre; Penfornis, Alfred; Bihan, Hélène; Archambeaud, Françoise; Kerlan, Véronique; Duron, Françoise; Kuhn, Jean-Marc; Vergès, Bruno; Rodier, Michel; Renard, Michel; Sadoul, Jean-Louis; Binquet, Christine; Goudet, Pierre

    2013-05-15

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1), which is secondary to mutation of the MEN1 gene, is a rare autosomal-dominant disease that predisposes mutation carriers to endocrine tumors. Although genotype-phenotype studies have so far failed to identify any statistical correlations, some families harbor recurrent tumor patterns. The function of MENIN is unclear, but has been described through the discovery of its interacting partners. Mutations in the interacting domains of MENIN functional partners have been shown to directly alter its regulation abilities. We report on a cohort of MEN1 patients from the Groupe d'étude des Tumeurs Endocrines. Patients with a molecular diagnosis and a clinical follow-up, totaling 262 families and 806 patients, were included. Associations between mutation type, location or interacting factors of the MENIN protein and death as well as the occurrence of MEN1-related tumors were tested using a frailty Cox model to adjust for potential heterogeneity across families. Accounting for the heterogeneity across families, the overall risk of death was significantly higher when mutations affected the JunD interacting domain (adjusted HR = 1.88: 95%-CI = 1.15-3.07). Patients had a higher risk of death from cancers of the MEN1 spectrum (HR = 2.34; 95%-CI = 1.23-4.43). This genotype-phenotype correlation study confirmed the lack of direct genotype-phenotype correlations. However, patients with mutations affecting the JunD interacting domain had a higher risk of death secondary to a MEN1 tumor and should thus be considered for surgical indications, genetic counseling and follow-up.

  7. Higher class groups of Eichler orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xuejun; Kuku, Aderemi

    2003-11-01

    In this paper, we prove that if A is a quaternion algebra and Λ an Eichler order in A, then the only p-torsion possible in even dimensional higher class groups Cl 2n (Λ) (n ≥ 1) are for those rational primes p which lie under prime ideals of O F at which Λ are not maximal. (author)

  8. Is higher risk sex common among male or female youths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas.

  9. MODERN RISK MEASURES FOR INDIVIDUAL HIGHER EDUCATION INVESTMENT RISK EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vona Mate

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the reasons why people get degree and participate in organized education is that they want to raise their human capital or signal their inner abilities to future employers by sorting themselves out. In both cases they can expect return to their investment, because they can expect higher life-time earnings than those who do not have degree. In this paper we will refer this activity as higher education investment or education investment. In this paper the investment of the state into educating their citizens will not be considered. The question of this paper will develop the findings of Vona (2014. I suggested to introduce modern risk measures because individual risk-taking became a serious question. It was considered that modern risk measures can help to solve some issues with the relation of investment and risk. However before applying some measures from a different field of science, namely investment finance and financial mathematics, to another, economics of education, there must be a very careful consideration, because there are debate over these measures applicability even on their field of science. Value at Risk is not coherent and Expected Shortfall is only one of a great deal of possible tail loss measures. For this reason it will be discussed in detail how should we should adopt the measures, what kind of data is necessary for calculating this risk measures and what kind of new insight they can bring. With the aid of a numerical example it will be shown that with expected shortfall measure we can reflect some large losses, and potential high value of diversification. We show the value at risk based measure is not coherent and this means it points out something different in this environment. It is can be an indicator of loss in opportunities for high end returns.

  10. Association between low education and higher global cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Chiara, Tiziana; Scaglione, Alessandra; Corrao, Salvatore; Argano, Christiano; Pinto, Antonio; Scaglione, Rosario

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of educational status on global cardiovascular risk in a southern Italian urban population. The study population consisted of 488 consecutive outpatients aged 18 years and older. Educational status was categorized according to the number of years of formal education as follows: (1) low education group (education group (10-15 years). In both groups, cardiometabolic comorbidities (obesity, visceral obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, microalbuminuria, left ventricular hypertrophy) and global cardiovascular risk, according to international guidelines, were analyzed. Left ventricular mass index and ejection fraction by echocardiography and E/A ratio, by pulsed-wave Doppler, were calculated. The low education group was characterized by a significantly higher prevalence of patients with visceral obesity (P=.021), hypertension (P=.010), metabolic syndrome (P=.000), and microalbuminuria (P=.000) and greater global cardiovascular risk (P=.000). Significantly increased levels of microalbuminuria (P=.000) and significantly decreased values of E/A ratio (P=.000) were also detected in the low education group. Global cardiovascular risk correlated directly with waist-to-hip ratio (P=.010), microalbuminuria (P=.015), and the metabolic syndrome (P>.012) and inversely with educational status (P=.000). Education was independently (P=.000) associated with global cardiovascular risk. These data indicate a strong association between low education and cardiometabolic comorbidities suitable to influence the evolution of chronic degenerative diseases. Preventive strategies need to be more efficient and more effective in this patient population. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The prognostic value of monosomal karyotype (MK) in higher-risk patients with myelodysplastic syndromes treated with 5-Azacitidine. A retrospective analysis of the Hellenic (Greek) MDS Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Sotirios G; Vasilatou, Diamantina; Kontos, Christos K; Kotsianidis, Ioannis; Symeonidis, Argiris; Galanopoulos, Athanasios G; Hatzimichael, Eleftheria; Megalakaki, Aekaterini; Poulakidas, Elias; Diamantopoulos, Panagiotis; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros; Zikos, Panagiotis; Papadaki, Helen; Mparmparousi, Despoina; Bouronikou, Eleni; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis; Viniou, Nora-Athina; Pappa, Vassiliki

    2018-04-16

    In this study, we investigated the incidence and prognostic impact of monosomal karyotype (MK) in 405 higher-risk MDS patients treated with 5-AZA. The MK was present in 66 out of 405 (16.3%) patients, most of whom had complex karyotype (CK). MK was strongly associated with CK and the cytogenetic risk defined according to IPSS-R, as well as with high-risk disease, according to IPSS (P=0.029), IPSS-R (PMDS treated with 5-AZA. Furthermore, we showed that in MDS with high or very-high IPSS-R risk score, MK can further distinguish patients with worse outcome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Risk Analysis Group annual progress report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The activities of the Risk Analysis Group at Risoe during 1984 are presented. These include descriptions in some detail of work on general development topics and risk analysis performed as contractor. (author)

  13. Mainstreaming disaster risk management in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCIA VILLASANA

    Full Text Available Universities should actively participate in disseminating and fostering a culture for disaster risk management (DRM among students and the community. Particularly in countries with high levels of risk, education plays a key role in raising awareness on the importance of preventing and implementing conscious risk management. Though the incorporation of DRM into the curricula, education programs become a mechanism to prepare students from a perspective of strengthening of values, citizenship, and social sensibility towards how disaster represents a disruption of the functioning of a community and impairs business activity. This paper presents the proposal for the integration of DRM of a private university in Mexico, one of the countries particularly susceptible to extreme hydrometereological and geological events. The proposal includes a concentration area for undergraduate business students, a mandatory introductory course for all business majors, and for the business community an executive education program for SMEs

  14. Excessive infant crying: Definitions determine risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Hirasing, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed risk groups for excessive infant crying using 10 published definitions, in 3179 children aged 1-6 months (response: 96.5%). Risk groups regarding parental employment, living area, lifestyle, and obstetric history varied by definition. This may explain the existence of conflicting

  15. Gender-heterogeneous working groups produce higher quality science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley G Campbell

    Full Text Available Here we present the first empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that a gender-heterogeneous problem-solving team generally produced journal articles perceived to be higher quality by peers than a team comprised of highly-performing individuals of the same gender. Although women were historically underrepresented as principal investigators of working groups, their frequency as PIs at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis is now comparable to the national frequencies in biology and they are now equally qualified, in terms of their impact on the accumulation of ecological knowledge (as measured by the h-index. While women continue to be underrepresented as working group participants, peer-reviewed publications with gender-heterogeneous authorship teams received 34% more citations than publications produced by gender-uniform authorship teams. This suggests that peers citing these publications perceive publications that also happen to have gender-heterogeneous authorship teams as higher quality than publications with gender uniform authorship teams. Promoting diversity not only promotes representation and fairness but may lead to higher quality science.

  16. Gender-heterogeneous working groups produce higher quality science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lesley G; Mehtani, Siya; Dozier, Mary E; Rinehart, Janice

    2013-01-01

    Here we present the first empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that a gender-heterogeneous problem-solving team generally produced journal articles perceived to be higher quality by peers than a team comprised of highly-performing individuals of the same gender. Although women were historically underrepresented as principal investigators of working groups, their frequency as PIs at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis is now comparable to the national frequencies in biology and they are now equally qualified, in terms of their impact on the accumulation of ecological knowledge (as measured by the h-index). While women continue to be underrepresented as working group participants, peer-reviewed publications with gender-heterogeneous authorship teams received 34% more citations than publications produced by gender-uniform authorship teams. This suggests that peers citing these publications perceive publications that also happen to have gender-heterogeneous authorship teams as higher quality than publications with gender uniform authorship teams. Promoting diversity not only promotes representation and fairness but may lead to higher quality science.

  17. Rational group decision making in risk situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Risk management has received increasing attention recently as methods of quantifying risk have been evolving. This is considered a legitimate tendency in the context of the entirety of risk evaluation which connotes both risk quantification and decisions making thereon. A risk-free society does not appear possible; neither could one have zero competing risks or cost versus benefit resulting out of a risk-abatement effort. What further complicates the risk-decision problem is that there exists more than a single decision maker, who claim their own interests associated with risk decision. Furthermore, their risk perceptions are not at all same that the threshold risk levels for a particular actions are varying. In this dissertation, a brief survey on existing action levels for various sort of risk situations including carcinogens, toxic chemicals, etc., is reported on, with emphasis on nuclear risk situation. A decision theoretic approach is then adopted in both individual and group-level risk management. For the purpose of exemplification, multiplicative utility theory is applied for nuclear power risk; attributes derived for this specific purpose are discussed

  18. Risk management in higher education and research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsloot, I.; Jong, W

    2006-01-01

    This study examines risk in higher education and research on the basis of a classification into three domains. The practical utility of this division into three domains is that it makes it easier to see what risks are unique to higher education (custodianship of knowledge), what risks are dependent

  19. ABO blood group and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    groups and site-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of healthy blood donors from Sweden and Denmark. RESULTS: A total of 1.6 million donors were followed over 27 million person-years (20 million in Sweden and 7 million in Denmark). We observed 119,584 cancer cases. Blood groups A, AB and B were......INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood...... associated either with increased or decreased risk of cancer at 13 anatomical sites (p≤0.05), compared to blood group O. Consistent with assessment using a false discovery rate approach, significant associations with ABO blood group were observed for cancer of the pancreas, breast, and upper gastrointestinal...

  20. Prevalence of workplace bullying and risk groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortega, Adriana; Høgh, Annie; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of bullying and to identify risk groups in a representative population sample. METHODS: The data for this study was taken from the second Danish Psychosocial Work Environment Study (DPWES). The sample consisted of 3,429 employees between 20 and 59-years......: These findings suggest that types of work and gender ratio are risk factors in the onset of workplace bullying. Future studies should take into account the type of work and the gender ratio of the organization....

  1. Are female healthcare workers at higher risk of occupational injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Drebit, Sharla; Fast, Catherine; Kidd, Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Differential risks of occupational injuries by gender have been examined across various industries. With the number of employees in healthcare rising and an overwhelming proportion of this workforce being female, it is important to address this issue in this growing sector. To determine whether compensated work-related injuries among females are higher than their male colleagues in the British Columbia healthcare sector. Incidents of occupational injury resulting in compensated days lost from work over a 1-year period for all healthcare workers were extracted from a standardized operational database and the numbers of productive hours were obtained from payroll data. Injuries were grouped into all injuries and musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs). Detailed analysis was conducted using Poisson regression modelling. A total of 42 332 employees were included in the study of whom 11% were male and 89% female. When adjusted for age, occupation, sub-sector, employment category, health region and facility, female workers had significantly higher risk of all injuries [rate ratio (95% CI) = 1.58 (1.24-2.01)] and MSIs [1.43 (1.11-1.85)] compared to their male colleagues. Occupational health and safety initiatives should be gender sensitive and developed accordingly.

  2. Hepatitis C infection in risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Ahmetagić

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C infection is important global health problem with wide spectrum of health, social and economic consequences. The goal of this research was to estimate prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in risk groups, and to determine association hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and risk factors. Research included 4627 subjects divided in two groups. Test group included 2627 subjects divided in 4 subgroups with risk for HCV infection: those who received blood transfusion without screening on HCV (it was introduced in 1995 (700; intravenous drug users (60; patients on hemodialysis (168 and health care workers (1699. Control group included 2000 healthy volunteer blood donors. In all subjects anti-HCV antibodies were tested with third generation ELISA test. Positive serum samples were tested for presence of HCVRNA, using reaction of reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. In all anti-HCV positive subjects further epidemiological and clinical workup was performed. Prevalence of HCV infection in risk groups was: 4.6% in subjects who have received blood transfusions without HCV blood screening, 35% in intravenous drug users, 58.9% in patients on chronic dialysis, and 0.4% in health care workers. In control group prevalence was low (0.2%. In the group of 158 anti-HCV positive subjects, 73.4% had HCVRNA. The largest number of subjects with HCV infection was in the age group of 30-49 years (45.8%. This study showed that multiple blood transfusions before introducing the blood screening for HCV, longer duration of intravenous drug abuse, longer duration of hemodialysis treatment, larger number of accidental injuries in health care workers are independent and statistically significant risk factors for those groups examined. Results of this study confirm that general screening for HCV infection is recommended in risk groups for HCV infection in order to identify to prevent and to treat it.

  3. Ecological Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Higher Plants (GMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, C.; Damgaard, C.; Kjellsson, G.

    Preface This publication is a first version of a manual identifying the data needs for ecological risk assessment of genetically modified higher plants (GMHP). It is the intention of the authors to stimulate further discussion of what data are needed in order to conduct a proper ecological risk...... of the project Biotechnology: elements in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. December 1999 Christian Kjær Introduction In ecological risk assessment of transgenic plants, information on a wide range of subjects is needed for an effective and reliable assessment procedure...... in the amendment to the directive. This report suggests a structured way to identify the type of data needed to perform a sound ecological risk assessment for genetically modified higher plants (GMHP). The identified data types are intended to support the evaluation of the following risks: risk of invasion...

  4. Learning to communicate risk information in groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuchi Ting

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite vigorous research on risk communication, little is known about the social forces that drive these choices. Erev, Wallsten, and Neal (1991 showed that forecasters learn to select verbal or numerical probability estimates as a function of which mode yields on average the larger group payoffs. We extend the result by investigating the effect of group size on the speed with which forecasters converge on the better communication mode. On the basis of social facilitation theory we hypothesized that small groups induce less arousal and anxiety among their members than do large groups when performing new tasks, and therefore that forecasters in small groups will learn the better communication mode more quickly. This result obtained in Experiment 1, which compared groups of size 3 to groups of size 5 or 6. To test whether social loafing rather than social facilitation was mediating the effects, Experiment 2 compared social to personal feedback holding group size constant at 3 members. Learning was faster in the personal feedback condition, suggesting that social facilitation rather than loafing underlay the results.

  5. Psychosocial risks evaluation factors: study with higher education teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lopes Borges

    2018-02-01

    Method: The study consisted of the administration of two instruments, one for the characterization of the sample and the other for assessing psychosocial risk factors — the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire — consisting of 76 items (5-point Likert scale, distributed in five dimensions, which measure indicators of exposure to psychosocial risks and their effects. Results: The study included 59 teachers, mostly men (50.8%, aged between 41 - 50 years (45.8%, with master's degree (59%, assistant professors (47.5%; with a stable employment relationship (68%, years of service between 14-17 years (18.7% and teaching between 11 - 17 hours a week (64.4%. The analysis of the various subscales revealed a psychosocial risk, showing that teachers are in a situation of vulnerability. There were significant differences between the risks experienced in public higher education and those experienced in private higher education. Gender, age, academic background, and professional category influenced the type of psychosocial risk. Conclusions: The study confirms the importance of the evaluation of psychosocial risk factors in the exercise of the teaching profession in higher education. It is recognized that it is necessary to assess and manage psychosocial risks in order to promote healthy working conditions, ensure respect and fair treatment, and encourage the promotion of work / family life balance, in order to minimize psychosocial risks and situations of vulnerability in higher education teachers.

  6. Higher Heart Failure Risk Seen in Some Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some people treated for breast cancer or lymphoma have a higher risk of developing congestive heart failure than people who haven’t had cancer, a new study shows. As this Cancer Currents blog post reports, the risk persisted for at least 20 years.

  7. Telematic Tools to Support Group Projects in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Johan (CTIT); Collis, Betty

    We describe ongoing evaluations and new research on the use of telematic tools to support project work in higher education. Practical experience at our University has shown that project work can be implemented using the World Wide Web for many aspects of the project activities. The possibilities

  8. Telematic tools to support group projects in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Johan (CTIT); Collis, Betty; Muldner, T.; Reeves, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    We describe ongoing evaluations and new research on the use of telematic tools to support project work in higher education. Practical experience at our University has shown that project work can be implemented using the World Wide Web for many aspects of the project activities. The possibilities

  9. Higher Education IT Compliance through the Prism of Risk Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feehan, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, compliance issues march, unceasingly, through every aspect of higher education. Yet the intricacies of privacy, information security, data governance, and IT policy as compliance and risk areas within the IT organization can reverberate and impact every other department within the higher education institution. The primary focus is always…

  10. An approach to grouping species for ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, N.L.; VanHorn, R.L.; Morris, R.; Brewer, R.

    1994-01-01

    The ecological risk assessment (ERA) paradigm acknowledges all levels of ecological organization as having potential for defining assessment and measurement endpoints. However, assessment goals and endpoints are generally concentrated at individual species and population levels. As part of a sitewide, screening-level ERA process at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a ''functional group'' approach was developed to incorporate assessment at a higher level of ecological organization into the risk analysis process. Functional groups demonstrating biological similarity and similar potential for contaminant exposure were developed using taxonomic, trophic and habitat parameters. As defined, all species are potential surrogates for the other members of the same functional group. Measurement endpoint data for several species may be integrated to address the risk to the group as a whole. The functional group concept was applied throughout the problem formulation, analysis, and risk characterization phases of the assessment process. This approach allows the ERA to be focused on risk to the integrity of individual functional groups, which can subsequently be related to guild and community integrity

  11. Higher-order risk preferences in social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Timo; Mayrhofer, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    We study prudence and temperance (next to risk aversion) in social settings. Previous experimental studies have shown that these higher-order risk preferences affect the choices of individuals deciding privately on lotteries that only affect their own payoff. Yet, many risky and financially relevant decisions are made in the social settings of households or organizations. We elicit higher-order risk preferences of individuals and systematically vary how an individual's decision is made (alone or while communicating with a partner) and who is affected by the decision (only the individual or the partner as well). In doing so, we can isolate the effects of other-regarding concerns and communication on choices. Our results reveal that the majority of choices are risk averse, prudent, and temperate across social settings. We also observe that individuals are influenced significantly by the preferences of a partner when they are able to communicate and choices are payoff-relevant for both of them.

  12. Disaster risk assessment pattern in higher education centers

    OpenAIRE

    M. Omidvari; J. Nouri; M. Mapar

    2015-01-01

    Disasters are one of the most important challenges which must be considered by every management system. Higher education centers have high disaster risk because of their risk factors (existence of historical and scientific documents and resources and expensive laboratory equipment in these centers emphasizes the importance of disaster management). Moreover, the existence of young volunteers of human resources in universities urges the necessity of making these people familiar with disaster ma...

  13. Risk and culture: variations in dioxin risk perceptions, behavioral preferences among social groups in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seohyun Park

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study examined variations in the perceptions of dioxin risk among social groups defined by geographical living location, environmental education, and occupation. Dioxin risk perceptions were analyzed according to values, risk awareness, knowledge, and behavioral preferences. Methods A quasi-experimental survey was designed and conducted on individuals from seven experimental groups in Jeonju city, South Korea, including: people living near incineration facilities; people living far from incineration facilities; governmental experts; nongovernmental organization members; office workers in developmental institutes or banks; students who were enrolled in environmental-related classes; and students who were enrolled in business-related classes. Results The results show variations among groups in values, awareness and behavioral preferences. Particular attention should be given to the result that groups with higher connectedness- to-nature values show higher willingness-to-act (WTA for risk reduction. Result s can be summarized as follows. First, awareness is associated with one’s geographical setting. Second, values and WTA behaviors are related to one’s environmental-related education and occupation. Third, values are significantly related to WTA behaviors. Conclusions Different cultures, in terms of values or worldview, among groups influence their perceptions of dioxin risk and choices of risk reduction behaviors. It is important to consider values in communicating complicated long-term risk management involving public participation. Further research should be continuously conducted on the effects of multiple dimensions of values on one’s WTA for risk reduction behaviors.

  14. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for corn. 407.11 Section 407.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.11 Group risk plan for corn. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Corn for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows: 1...

  15. 7 CFR 407.17 - Group risk plan for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for wheat. 407.17 Section 407.17..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.17 Group risk plan for wheat. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Wheat for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows: 1...

  16. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, April 2012 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, April 2012). Afghanistan. Belarus. Burundi. Central African Republic. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali. Myanmar ...

  17. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, July 2013 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, July 2013). Afghanistan. Central African Republic. Congo, Brazzaville. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Equatorial Guinea. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Gabon. Guinea-Bissau. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's ...

  18. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, September 2012 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, September 2012). Afghanistan. Belarus. Burundi. Central African Republic. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali.

  19. Disaster risk assessment pattern in higher education centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Omidvari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are one of the most important challenges which must be considered by every management system. Higher education centers have high disaster risk because of their risk factors (existence of historical and scientific documents and resources and expensive laboratory equipment in these centers emphasizes the importance of disaster management. Moreover, the existence of young volunteers of human resources in universities urges the necessity of making these people familiar with disaster management rules and responses in emergency conditions. Creating appropriate tools for disaster management assessment makes it correct and precise in higher education systems using the presented conceptual model. The present model was planned so as to cover three phases which exist before, during, and after disaster. Studies were performed in one of the largest higher education centers in Tehran: Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University Campus. Results showed high-risk disasters in these centers which must be taken into consideration continuously. The objective of this study was to create appropriate patterns of disaster risk management in these centers.

  20. Fungal infection risk groups among school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between ocurrence of fungi in children and living environment (city - countryside, sex, age, diet, undergone diseases therapy with antibiotics and exposure to hospital environment, and to indicate children potentially vulnerable to fungal infections. The material was consisted of swabs collected from the oral cavily, the throat and the nose of healthy children, aged 6-9 and 10-15, from both urban and rural environmens. Candida albicans, the basic aetiological factor in thc majority of mycoses recorded in humans, unquestionably prevailed in the group of the 13 speciec of yeast-like fungi and yeasts isolated. Records of C. glabrata and C. krusei increasing numbers of whose strains show resistance to basic antimycoties, as well as relatively frequent records of Trichosporon beigelii, Saccharomycopsis capsularis and Saccharomyces sp., fungi whose expansiveness and enzymatic activity have been growing, may be considered disconcerting. Vulnerability to fungal infection increases following anti-bacterial antibiotic therapy in the majority of subjects regardless season or age. This is particularly true primarily of the most stable ontocoenosis of the throat. Younger children, on the other hand, are the most vulnerable foUowing infection of the respiratory system. Fungi are likely to colonise the nose in this case. Children living in the countryside who had been ll immediately prior to the collection of the material constitute the highest risk group of the occurrence of fungi in any of the ontocoenoses studied. A greater number of positive inoculations were recorded in these children in comparison to the children from the city. It may be indicative of a more extensive spectrum of natural reservoirs of fungi and the vectors of their transmission in rural areas than those in the city, lower health hygiene and lower immunity or of a more common carriage of fungi among rural children.

  1. Gambling Risk Groups are Not All the Same: Risk Factors Amongst Sports Bettors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alex M T; Hing, Nerilee; Li, En; Vitartas, Peter

    2018-03-20

    Sports betting is increasing worldwide, with an associated increase in sports betting-related problems. Previous studies have examined risk factors for problem gambling amongst sports bettors and have identified demographic, behavioural, marketing, normative and impulsiveness factors. These studies have generally compared those in problem gambling, or a combination of moderate risk and problem gambling, groups to non-problem gamblers, often due to statistical power issues. However, recent evidence suggests that, at a population level, the bulk of gambling-related harm stems from low risk and moderate risk gamblers, rather than problem gamblers. Thus it is essential to understand the risk factors for each level of gambling-related problems (low risk, moderate risk, problem) separately. The present study used a large sample (N = 1813) to compare each gambling risk group to non-problem gamblers, first using bivariate and then multivariate statistical techniques. A range of demographic, behavioural, marketing, normative and impulsiveness variables were included as possible risk factors. The results indicated that some variables, such as gambling expenditure, number of accounts with different operators, number of different types of promotions used and impulsiveness were significantly higher for all risk groups, while others such as some normative factors, age, gender and particular sports betting variables only applied to those with the highest level of gambling-related problems. The results generally supported findings from previous literature for problem gamblers, and extended these findings to low risk and moderate risk groups. In the future, where statistical power allows, risk factors should be assessed separately for all levels of gambling problems.

  2. Group Playing by Ear in Higher Education: The Processes That Support Imitation, Invention and Group Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how group playing by ear (GEP) through imitation of recorded material and opportunities for inventive work during peer interaction was used to support first year undergraduate western classical music students' aural, group creativity and improvisation skills. The framework that emerged from the analysis of the data describes…

  3. Risk behaviour and group formation in microcredit groups in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Robert; Mehrteab, Habteab T.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a survey in 2001 among members and group leaders of borrowers who accessed loans from two microcredit programs in Eritrea. Using the results from this survey, this paper aims to provide new insights into the empirical relevance of the homogeneous matching hypothesis for microcredit

  4. Risk Behaviour and Group Formation in Microcredit Groups in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Mehrteab, H.T.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a survey in 2001 among members and group leaders of borrowers who accessed loans from two microcredit programs in Eritrea. Using the results from this survey, this paper aims to provide new insights into the empirical relevance of the homogeneous matching hypothesis for microcredit

  5. ABO Blood Group and Risk of Thromboembolic and Arterial Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Rostgaard, Klaus; Majeed, Ammar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ABO blood groups have been shown to be associated with increased risks of venous thromboembolic and arterial disease. However, the reported magnitude of this association is inconsistent and is based on evidence from small-scale studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used the SCANDAT2...... (Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions) database of blood donors linked with other nationwide health data registers to investigate the association between ABO blood groups and the incidence of first and recurrent venous thromboembolic and arterial events. Blood donors in Denmark and Sweden between 1987......-up. Compared with blood group O, non-O blood groups were associated with higher incidence of both venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The highest rate ratios were observed for pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (incidence rate ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.77-2.79), deep vein thrombosis...

  6. Comparison of Higher Fashion Involvement Group and Lower Fashion Involvement Group in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yu-Chiao

    2013-01-01

    Fashion collaboration becomes a common marketing strategy for many fashion brands in order to attract consumers’ attentions and stand out from competitors. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the formation of consumers’ attitudes toward fashion collaboration. First, it intends to distinguish different types of consumers, which are higher fashion involvement and lower fashion involvement. Second, by utiliseing four different variables, which are prior attitudes, product fit, brand, ...

  7. Applying Service Performance Guarantees to Reduce Risk Perception in the Purchase and Consumption of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraini Mohamad Sheriff

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The intangible nature of education is one contributor to consumers’ perception of risk prior to their purchase and consumption. This risk includes: functional risk, financial risk, temporal risk, physical risk, psychological risk and social risk. The presence of these risks often makes consumer evaluation prior to purchase and consumption difficult. Invoking a service guarantee is a platform available to enable higher educational institutions to minimize such risk perception so as to induce purchase. Specifically, service guarantee for higher education entails the application of teaching performance guarantee. This form of guarantee focuses on two important customer groups of higher educational institutions namely, students and faculty members, and focuses only on a specific performance aspect such as instructor’s performance. Thus, if students are dissatisfied with an instructor’s performance they are entitled to receive their money back. The imposition of such a teaching performance guarantee would implicate instructor’s accountability for certain aspects of their performance. It also establishes a mechanism to solicit feedback to better understand why and how instructors fail. Consequently, service performance guarantee creates a high level of customer focus and signals instructors’ care towards students

  8. Current State of the Art: Management of Higher Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komrokji, Rami S

    2016-08-01

    The higher risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, defined by the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) as intermediate-2 or high-risk groups, compromise a third of MDS patients who have an expected survival of less than 1.5 years. Our ability to better define higher risk MDS improved with the proposal of new clinical risk models such as the revised IPSS and by integration of molecular data, including somatic gene mutations. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHSCT) remains the only curative option. In higher risk MDS patients, proceeding early with AHSCT is associated with maximum survival gain. The decision to pursue AHSCT is individualized according to disease risk, comorbidities, and functional status. The role of therapy before AHSCT remains controversial, and the role of post-AHSCT maintenance is evolving. Hypomethylating agents are the only medications that alter the natural history of the disease. Azacitidine is the only drug reported to improve overall survival in higher risk MDS patients. Appropriate use and assessment of response is key for assuring patients benefit of such limited options. Treatment after failure of hypomethylating agents is an unmet need. The role of detectable somatic gene mutations in prognosis and tailoring therapy continue to emerge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Splenectomy is associated with a higher risk for venous thromboembolism: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Debora H; Barmparas, Galinos; Fierro, Nicole; Sun, Beatrice J; Ashrafian, Sogol; Li, Tong; Ley, Eric J

    2015-12-01

    Thrombocytosis following splenectomy is a common occurrence. Whether this thrombocytosis leads to a higher risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains unclear. This investigation aimed to determine if splenectomy increases the risk for VTE. This was a prospective study conducted in the SICU between 1/2011 and 11/2013 investigating the VTE risk in patients undergoing a splenectomy compared with those undergoing any other abdominal procedure. In total 2503 patients were admitted to the SICU: 37 (2%) after a splenectomy and 638 (26%) after any other abdominal surgery. Splenectomy patients had a higher incidence of VTE compared to patients undergoing any other abdominal procedure (29.7% vs. 12.1%, p splenectomy was associated with a higher adjusted risk for VTE compared to the no-splenectomy group (AOR [95% CI]: 2.6 [1.2, 5.9], p = 0.02). Reactive thrombocytosis did not predict the development of VTE. Splenectomy increases the risk for VTE, however reactive thrombocytosis is not associated with this higher incidence. Further investigations are required to characterize the pathophysiologic mechanisms of VTE development following splenectomy. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Higher prevalence of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and subsequent higher incidence in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Thomas; Scharling, Henrik; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2008-01-01

    , non-fasting blood glucose and triglycerides. Significantly more men (242, 5.4%) than women (152, 2.5%) developed type 2 DM. The odds ratio (OR) for developing diabetes with a BMI above 30 kg/m(2) compared to a BMI of 20-25 kg/m(2) was 8.1 in women and 6.3 in men; for a non-fasting plasma glucose of 8.......4-11.0 mmol/l compared to a plasma glucose of 5.5-6.4, the ORs were 7.8 in women and 4.7 in men. The OR for developing diabetes in persons with a non-fasting triglyceride level above 2.0 mmol/l compared to 1.0-2.0 mmol/l was 1.8 in both sexes; women with non -fasting triglycerides below 1.0 mmol/l had...... or non-fasting plasma glucose >11.1 mmol/l) were excluded. Some 6154 women and 4733 men were studied and followed up in 1981-1983 or in 1991-1994. The significance of risk factors was examined by multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Initially, a higher proportion of men than women had high...

  11. Why does society accept a higher risk for alcohol than for other voluntary or involuntary risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Room, Robin

    2014-10-21

    Societies tend to accept much higher risks for voluntary behaviours, those based on individual decisions (for example, to smoke, to consume alcohol, or to ski), than for involuntary exposure such as exposure to risks in soil, drinking water or air. In high-income societies, an acceptable risk to those voluntarily engaging in a risky behaviour seems to be about one death in 1,000 on a lifetime basis. However, drinking more than 20 g pure alcohol per day over an adult lifetime exceeds a threshold of one in 100 deaths, based on a calculation from World Health Organization data of the odds in six European countries of dying from alcohol-attributable causes at different levels of drinking. The voluntary mortality risk of alcohol consumption exceeds the risks of other lifestyle risk factors. In addition, evidence shows that the involuntary risks resulting from customary alcohol consumption far exceed the acceptable threshold for other involuntary risks (such as those established by the World Health Organization or national environmental agencies), and would be judged as not acceptable. Alcohol's exceptional status reflects vagaries of history, which have so far resulted in alcohol being exempted from key food legislation (no labelling of ingredients and nutritional information) and from international conventions governing all other psychoactive substances (both legal and illegal). This is along with special treatment of alcohol in the public health field, in part reflecting overestimation of its beneficial effect on ischaemic disease when consumed in moderation. A much higher mortality risk from alcohol than from other risk factors is currently accepted by high income countries.

  12. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis and Risk Factors Related to High Risk Occupational Groups in Kazeroon, South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Beheshti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a major zoonosis worldwide. Many people for their professions are at higher risk of contracting the disease. Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis and its risk factors in a group of high risk professions. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, all personnel or students of veterinary schools, slaughters and butchers working in the city were invited to participate (n=141. A comparison group (n=44 randomly selected from patients who were selected at random from people attended our healthcare center for reasons other than the infectious diseases. Results: 4 veterinarians, 15 veterinary assistants, 42 veterinarian students, 52 butchers, 17 slaughters, 8 slaughterhouse workers and 3 chefs made the first group and 14 storekeepers, 5 students of engineering, 11 clerks, 13 freelance workers, and 1 high school student made the comparison group. While the rate of consumption of most of the studied dairy products was almost similar in both groups, comparison group patients consumed more often milk (p<0.001 and cream (p<0.001 than the high risk group. 11 (7.8%; 95% CI: 3.4%–12.2% cases from high risk group and none of the comparison group were found seropositive for Brucella. Conclusion: Profession is the main factor in seropositivity. Consumption of dairy products and raw milk is not associated with a higher risk of seropositivity.

  13. Conflict Management in Student Groups - a Teacher’s Perspective in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Borg; Joakim Kembro; Jesper Notander; Catarina Petersson; Lars Ohlsson

    2011-01-01

    Students working in groups is a commonly used method of instruction in higher education, popularized by the introduction of problem based learning. As a result, management of small groups of people has become an important skill for teachers. The objective of our study is to investigate why conflicts arise in student groups at the Faculty of Engineering at Lund University and how teachers manage them. We have conducted an exploratory interdepartmental interview study on teachers' views on this...

  14. Learning Groups in MOOCs: Lessons for Online Learning in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Mayende

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available when there is interaction within online learning groups, meaningful learning is achieved. Motivating and sustaining effective student interactions requires planning, coordination and implementation of curriculum, pedagogy and technology. For our aim to understand online learning group processes to identify effective online learning group mechanisms, comparative analysis was used on a massive open online course (MOOC run in 2015 and 2016. Qualitative (interaction on the platform and quantitative (survey methods were used. The findings revealed several possible ways to improve online learning group processes. This paper concludes that course organization helped in increasing individual participation in the groups. Motivation by peers helped to increase sustainability of interaction in the learning groups. Applying these mechanisms in higher education can make online learning groups more effective.

  15. Use of focus groups in explaining environmental risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessors need to remember their job is to determine risks which are then balanced against the cost of remediation. Since the ultimate customer is the public, they must be an integral part of both key risk assessment as well as remediation decisions. Focus groups offer a cost effective means to open-quotes get a feelclose quotes for what publics want and don't want. This paper is a kit for using focus groups to test and translate into common language, the risk assessor's ideas and methods. Explaining Monte Carlo methods for a simple aspect of ecological risk assessment is included as an example along with practical tips and a list of what the public equates to risk as they perceive it

  16. Investigation of zoonotic infections in risk groups in Ordu University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-15

    Feb 15, 2016 ... 2017 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. Abstract. Aims:Zoonotic ... Investigation of zoonotic infections in risk groups in ..... of Cystic Echinococcosis in Veterinary Surgeons. Turkish ...

  17. Evaluation of risk management and financial performance of BMW Group

    OpenAIRE

    Mysina, Amira

    2017-01-01

    Effective risk and financial management possess a great challenge for the multinational companies operating globally. Despite the increasing development of diverse hedging strategies against foreign exchange risk, global firms cannot fully foresee and measure the degree of the impact of foreign currency fluctuations. This paper aims to evaluate the exchange risk management and financial performance of the BMW Group from the year 2005 to 2016. Moreover, this paper is devoted to provide explana...

  18. Walls of straw – the cyber risks to higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Wood

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Globally, in every facet of life, advances in communications technology and our reliance on computers and the internet allow us to live and work more efficiently than ever before. Higher education relies on the development of knowledge and the need to conduct and communicate research activity. Universities are often bound in research activity to business, government and other organizations whose interests need to be protected and managed. But is there a disparity in approach? Is research activity, security and the protection of privileged, proprietary and classified information appropriately implemented and managed in higher education? In this article the author questions: are there gaps open to cyberattack?

  19. Quantification, Risk, and the Rhetoric of Higher Education Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    This essay is a contribution to the literature of critique of higher education policy and management. It offers a general discussion of problems arising from the proliferation of mechanisms of audit and quality assurance within the context of concerns about dependence on quantitative measures of values. It argues that uncritical dependence on…

  20. Exploring Peer Relationships, Friendships and Group Work Dynamics in Higher Education: Applying Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamas, Christoforos

    2018-01-01

    This study primarily applied social network analysis (SNA) to explore the relationship between friendships, peer social interactions and group work dynamics within a higher education undergraduate programme in England. A critical case study design was adopted so as to allow for an in-depth exploration of the students' voice. In doing so, the views…

  1. Peer Group Mentoring Programmes in Finnish Higher Education--Mentors' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaniakos, Terhi; Penttinen, Leena; Lairio, Marjatta

    2014-01-01

    Peer mentoring is one of the most important guidance practices for first-year students entering higher education and academic life. We are interested in mentors' roles and apply the ideas of group counseling in order to increase the understanding of peer mentoring. Other aspects of guidance--content, methods, and collaboration--are approached on…

  2. Compensatory Policies Attending Equality and Inequality in Mexico Educational Practice among Vulnerable Groups in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, René Pedroza; Monroy, Guadalupe Villalobos; Fabela, Ana María Reyes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an estimate of the prevalence of social inequality in accessing higher education among vulnerable groups in Mexico. Estimates were determined from statistical data provided by governmental agencies on the level of poverty among the Mexican population. In Mexico, the conditions of poverty and vulnerability while trying to access…

  3. Collaborative learning in higher education : design, implementation and evaluation of group learning activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hei, de M.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    In higher education, group learning activities (GLAs) are frequently implemented in online, blended or face-to-face educational contexts. A major problem for the design and implementation of good quality GLAs that lead to the desired learning outcomes is that many approaches to GLAs have been

  4. Group Decision Making in Higher Education Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Matthew J.; Nydick, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to group decision-making and evaluation situations in higher education. The approach is illustrated by (1) evaluation of academic research papers at Villanova University (Pennsylvania), and (2) a suggested adaptation for the more complex problem of institutionwide strategic planning.…

  5. Multicultural student group work in higher education: a study on challenges as perceived by students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov, V.; Brinkman, B.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Mulder, M.; Kuznetsov, A.M.; Noroozi, O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine challenges that are inherent in multicultural student group work (MCSG) in higher education and the differences between students from different cultural backgrounds in how they perceive the importance of challenges in MCSG. For this purpose, a 19-item survey was completed

  6. Ability Grouping's Effects on Grades and the Attainment of Higher Education: A Natural Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygren, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    To test the effect of ability grouping on grades and the attainment of higher education, this study examines a naturally occurring experiment--an admission reform that dramatically increased ability sorting between schools in the municipality of Stockholm. Following six cohorts of students (N = 79,020) from the age of 16 to 26, I find a mean…

  7. Web Environments for Group-Based Project Work in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andernach, J.A.; van Diepen, N.M.; Collis, Betty; Andernach, Toine

    1997-01-01

    We discuss problems confronting the use of group-based project work as an instructional strategy in higher education and describe two courses in which course-specific World Wide Web (Web) environments have evolved over a series of course sequences and are used both as tool environments for

  8. Incorporating social groups' responses in a descriptive model for second- and higher-order impact identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutheerawatthana, Pitch; Minato, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    The response of a social group is a missing element in the formal impact assessment model. Previous discussion of the involvement of social groups in an intervention has mainly focused on the formation of the intervention. This article discusses the involvement of social groups in a different way. A descriptive model is proposed by incorporating a social group's response into the concept of second- and higher-order effects. The model is developed based on a cause-effect relationship through the observation of phenomena in case studies. The model clarifies the process by which social groups interact with a lower-order effect and then generate a higher-order effect in an iterative manner. This study classifies social groups' responses into three forms-opposing, modifying, and advantage-taking action-and places them in six pathways. The model is expected to be used as an analytical tool for investigating and identifying impacts in the planning stage and as a framework for monitoring social groups' responses during the implementation stage of a policy, plan, program, or project (PPPPs).

  9. Nominal Group Technique and its Applications in Managing Quality in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafikul Islam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality management is an important aspect in all kinds of businesses – manufacturing or service. Idea generation plays a pivotal role in managing quality in organizations. It is thenew and innovative ideas which can help corporations to survive in the turbulent business environment. Research in group dynamics has shown that more ideas are generated by individuals working alone but in a group environment than the individuals engaged in a formal group discussion. In Nominal Group Technique (NGT, individuals work alone but in a group setting. This paper shows how NGT can be applied to generate large number of ideas to solve quality related problems specifically in Malaysian higher education setting. The paper also discusses the details of NGT working procedure andexplores the areas of its further applications.

  10. Higher prevalence of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and subsequent higher incidence in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, T.; Scharling, H.; Jensen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study investigates risk factors and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) in both sexes of a northern European population. Methods: A total of 14,223 randomly selected men and women were studied from 1976 to 1978. Patients with diabetes (self-reported type 2 DM......, non-fasting blood glucose and triglycerides. Significantly more men (242, 5.4%) than women (152, 2.5%) developed type 2 DM. The odds ratio (OR) for developing diabetes with a BMI above 30 kg/m(2) compared to a BMI of 20-25 kg/m(2) was 8.1 in women and 6.3 in men; for a non-fasting plasma glucose of 8.......4-11.0 mmol/l compared to a plasma glucose of 5.5-6.4, the ORs were 7.8 in women and 4.7 in men. The OR for developing diabetes in persons with a non-fasting triglyceride level above 2.0 mmol/l compared to 1.0-2.0 mmol/l was 1.8 in both sexes; women with non -fasting triglycerides below 1.0 mmol/l had...

  11. [Making up tuberculosis risk groups from decreed contingents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherov, A L; Il'icheva, E Iu

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides materials to make up risk groups from decreed contingents by using the database developed and introduced in the Novomoskovsk district, as well as a programme for rapid determination of the risk of tuberculosis. This procedure reduces a scope of fluorographic surveys among the decreed contingents, as well as their expenditures by 60%. Moreover, it may be useful for professional choice in the employment of the decreed persons, which may promote a decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis among them.

  12. Adaptive grouping for the higher-order multilevel fast multipole method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An alternative parameter-free adaptive approach for the grouping of the basis function patterns in the multilevel fast multipole method is presented, yielding significant memory savings compared to the traditional Octree grouping for most discretizations, particularly when using higher-order basis...... functions. Results from both a uniformly and nonuniformly meshed scatterer are presented, showing how the technique is worthwhile even for regular meshes, and demonstrating that there is no loss of accuracy in spite of the large reduction in memory requirements and the relatively low computational cost....

  13. Cancer risk awareness and screening uptake in individuals at higher risk for colon cancer: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Bishehsari, Faraz; Delavari, Alireza; Barzin, Gilda; Amani, Mohammad; Majidi, Azam; Sadjadi, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2016-12-20

    We aimed to measure cancer knowledge and feasibility of a screening colonoscopy among a cohort of individuals at higher risk of colon cancer. This study was conducted as part of an ongoing screening cohort, in which first degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with colon cancer are invited to participate in a free of charge screening colonoscopy. We enrolled 1017 FDRs in the study between 2013 and 2014 measuring their data on demographics, cancer knowledge and colonoscopy uptake. A p value of aware of their increased risk for cancer, near 35.0% had ever heard about colonoscopy with 22% aware of the correct age to start screening. Comparing cancer knowledge of FDRs at high risk versus those at moderate risk, we recorded non-significant differences (p>0.05). Almost two-thirds of FDRs expressed willingness to undergo a colonoscopy and 49.2% completed the procedure, of which 12.8% had advanced neoplasm. Our data indicated that remarkable numbers of FDRs were not still informed of their cancer risk or never received a physician recommendation for screening. The desirable uptake at first invitation, which would be higher over successive invitations, supports the feasibility of a family-based recruitment approach for early screening. This has promising implications to introduce targeted screening colonoscopy into the healthcare system in Iran and other developing nations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Managing Climate Risk. Integrating Adaptation into World Bank Group Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Aalst, M.

    2006-08-01

    Climate change is already taking place, and further changes are inevitable. Developing countries, and particularly the poorest people in these countries, are most at risk. The impacts result not only from gradual changes in temperature and sea level but also, in particular, from increased climate variability and extremes, including more intense floods, droughts, and storms. These changes are already having major impacts on the economic performance of developing countries and on the lives and livelihoods of millions of poor people around the world. Climate change thus directly affects the World Bank Group's mission of eradicating poverty. It also puts at risk many projects in a wide range of sectors, including infrastructure, agriculture, human health, water resources, and environment. The risks include physical threats to the investments, potential underperformance, and the possibility that projects will indirectly contribute to rising vulnerability by, for example, triggering investment and settlement in high-risk areas. The way to address these concerns is not to separate climate change adaptation from other priorities but to integrate comprehensive climate risk management into development planning, programs, and projects. While there is a great need to heighten awareness of climate risk in Bank work, a large body of experience on climate risk management is already available, in analytical work, in country dialogues, and in a growing number of investment projects. This operational experience highlights the general ingredients for successful integration of climate risk management into the mainstream development agenda: getting the right sectoral departments and senior policy makers involved; incorporating risk management into economic planning; engaging a wide range of nongovernmental actors (businesses, nongovernmental organizations, communities, and so on); giving attention to regulatory issues; and choosing strategies that will pay off immediately under current

  15. Diagnosis and Management of High Risk Group for Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. To reduce the socioeconomic burden related to gastric cancer, it is very important to identify and manage high risk group for gastric cancer. In this review, we describe the general risk factors for gastric cancer and define high risk group for gastric cancer. We discuss strategies for the effective management of patients for the prevention and early detection of gastric cancer. Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the most significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Therefore, the accurate selection of individuals with AG and IM may be a key strategy for the prevention and/or early detection of gastric cancer. Although endoscopic evaluation using enhanced technologies such as narrow band imaging-magnification, the serum pepsinogen test, Helicobacter pylori serology, and trefoil factor 3 have been evaluated, a gold standard method to accurately select individuals with AG and IM has not emerged. In terms of managing patients at high risk of gastric cancer, it remains uncertain whether H. pylori eradication reverses and/or prevents the progression of AG and IM. Although endoscopic surveillance in high risk patients is expected to be beneficial, further prospective studies in large populations are needed to determine the optimal surveillance interval. PMID:25547086

  16. Investigation of zoonotic infections in risk groups in Ordu University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of zoonotic infections in risk groups in Ordu University Hospital, Turkey. ... Aims: Zoonotic diseases, which are a major public health problem in our city, have a negative impact on public health and also cause economic losses due to yield losses of animals and deaths. This study was carried out to determine ...

  17. 7 CFR 407.13 - Group risk plan for forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... acres of hay in the county, as specified in the actuarial documents. The actuarial documents will... a period for forage regrowth. 2. Crop Insured The insured crop will be the forage types shown on the... the Group Risk Plan Common Policy, acreage seeded to forage after July 1 of the previous crop year...

  18. A mathematical model for stratification of LADA risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mikhailovna Tikhonova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To stratify risk groups via discriminant analysis based on the most clinically relevant indications of LADA onset derived from medical history. Materials and Methods. Present study included 141 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM of whom 65 had preliminary diagnosis of LADA, 40 patients were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and 36 ? with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Discriminant analysis was performed to evaluate the differences between the clinical onsets in study groups. Results. Aside from torpid onset with early evidence for insulin resistance, clinical characteristics of LADA included diagnosis during random examination, progressive loss of body mass, hyperglycemia greater than 14 mmol/L at the diagnosis and, possibly, ketonuria without history of acute ketoacidosis. Conclusion. Discriminant analysis is beneficial in stratifying risk groups for the development of LADA.

  19. Conflict Management in Student Groups - a Teacher’s Perspective in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Borg

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Students working in groups is a commonly used method of instruction in higher education, popularized by the introduction of problem based learning. As a result, management of small groups of people has become an important skill for teachers. The objective of our study is to investigate why conflicts arise in student groups at the Faculty of Engineering at Lund University and how teachers manage them. We have conducted an exploratory interdepartmental interview study on teachers' views on this matter, interviewing ten university teachers with different levels of seniority. Our results show that conflicts frequently arise in group work, most commonly caused by different levels of ambition among students. We also found that teachers prefer to work proactively against conflicts and stress the student’s responsibility. Finally, we show that teachers at our faculty tend to avoid the more drastic conflict resolution strategies suggested by previous research. The outcome of our study could be used as input to future guidelines on conflict management in student groups.

  20. Citizen involvement in flood risk governance: flood groups and networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twigger-Ross Clare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade has been a policy shift withinUK flood risk management towards localism with an emphasis on communities taking ownership of flood risk. There is also an increased focus on resilience and, more specifically, on community resilience to flooding. This paper draws on research carried out for UK Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs to evaluate the Flood Resilience Community Pathfinder (FRCP scheme in England. Resilience is conceptualised as multidimensional and linked to exisiting capacities within a community. Creating resilience to flooding is an ongoing process of adaptation, learning from past events and preparing for future risks. This paper focusses on the development of formal and informal institutions to support improved flood risk management: institutional resilience capacity. It includes new institutions: e.g. flood groups, as well as activities that help to build inter- and intra- institutional resilience capacity e.g. community flood planning. The pathfinder scheme consisted of 13 projects across England led by local authorities aimed at developing community resilience to flood risk between 2013 – 2015. This paper discusses the nature and structure of flood groups, the process of their development, and the extent of their linkages with formal institutions, drawing out the barriers and facilitators to developing institutional resilience at the local level.

  1. Entanglement Properties of a Higher-Integer-Spin AKLT Model with Quantum Group Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikashi Arita

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the entanglement properties of a higher-integer-spin Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki model with quantum group symmetry in the periodic boundary condition. We exactly calculate the finite size correction terms of the entanglement entropies from the double scaling limit. We also evaluate the geometric entanglement, which serves as another measure for entanglement. We find the geometric entanglement reaches its maximum at the isotropic point, and decreases with the increase of the anisotropy. This behavior is similar to that of the entanglement entropies.

  2. ABO blood group and the risk of placental malaria in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adegnika, A.A.; Luty, A.J.F.; Grobusch, M.P.; Ramharter, M.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Kremsner, P.G.; Schwarz, N.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In malarious areas of the world, a higher proportion of the population has blood group O than in non-malarious areas. This is probably due to a survival advantage conferred either by an attenuating effect on the course of or reduction in the risk of infection by plasmodial parasites.

  3. ABO blood group and the risk of placental malaria in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adegnika, Ayola A.; Luty, Adrian J. F.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Ramharter, Michael; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Kremsner, Peter G.; Schwarz, Norbert G.

    2011-01-01

    In malarious areas of the world, a higher proportion of the population has blood group O than in non-malarious areas. This is probably due to a survival advantage conferred either by an attenuating effect on the course of or reduction in the risk of infection by plasmodial parasites. Here, the

  4. Pregnant women carrying female fetuses are at higher risk of placental malaria infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishag Adam

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of the placental malaria is not fully understood. If there is a fetal sex-specific susceptibility to malaria infection, this might add to the previous knowledge on the immunology, endocrinology and pathophysiology of placental malaria infections.This study was conducted to assess whether the sex of the fetus was associated with placental malaria infections.A cross-sectional study was performed including a secondary analysis of a cohort of women who were investigated for prevalence and risk factors (including fetal sex for placental malaria in eastern Sudan. Placental histology was used to diagnose placental malaria infections.Among 339 women enrolled, the mean (SD age was 25.8 (6.7 years and parity was 2.7 (2.2. Among the new born babies, 157 (46.3% were male and 182 (53.7% were female. Five (1.5%, 9 (2.7% and 103 (30.4% of the 339 placentas had active, active-chronic, past-chronic malaria infection on histopathology examination respectively, while 222 (65.5% of them showed no malaria infection. Logistic regression analyses showed no associations between maternal age or parity and placental malaria infections. Women who have blood group O (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.19-3.10; P = 0.007 and women who had female new born were at higher risk for placental malaria infections (OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.57-4.13; P< 0.001.Fetal gender may be a novel risk factor for placental malaria. In this work the female placentas were at higher risk for malaria infections than the male placentas.

  5. Higher Pretransplantation Hemoglobin A1c Is Associated With Greater Risk of Posttransplant Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Im Shin

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: Higher pretransplantation HbA1c above 5.4% is independently associated with greater risk of PTDM among kidney transplant recipients. A continuous relationship between pretransplantation HbA1c and risk of PTDM suggests that increased risk starts at HbA1c levels well below current thresholds for prediabetes.

  6. A mathematical model for stratification of LADA risk groups

    OpenAIRE

    Tat'yana Mikhaylovna Tikhonova

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To stratify risk groups via discriminant analysis based on the most clinically relevant indications of LADA onset derived from medical history.Materials and Methods. Present study included 141 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) of whom 65 had preliminary diagnosis of LADA, 40 patients were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 36 – with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Discriminant analysis was performed to evaluate the differences between the clinical onsets in study grou...

  7. Macroecology of parental care in arthropods: higher mortality risk leads to higher benefits of offspring protection in tropical climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo S A; Bueno, Pedro P; Gilbert, James D J; Machado, Glauco

    2017-08-01

    The intensity of biotic interactions varies around the world, in such a way that mortality risk imposed by natural enemies is usually higher in the tropics. A major role of offspring attendance is protection against natural enemies, so the benefits of this behaviour should be higher in tropical regions. We tested this macroecological prediction with a meta-regression of field experiments in which the mortality of guarded and unguarded broods was compared in arthropods. Mortality of unguarded broods was higher, and parental care was more beneficial, in warmer, less seasonal environments. Moreover, in these same environments, additional lines of defence further reduced offspring mortality, implying that offspring attendance alone is not enough to deter natural enemies in tropical regions. These results help to explain the high frequency of parental care among tropical species and how biotic interactions influence the occurrence of parental care over large geographic scales. Finally, our findings reveal that additional lines of defences - an oftentimes neglected component of parental care - have an important effect on the covariation between the benefits of parental care and the climate-mediated mortality risk imposed by natural enemies. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  8. Exploring Perceived Risk and Risk Reduction Strategies in the Pursuit of Higher Education Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jason M. S.; Tong, David Yoon Kin; Ariffin, Ahmad Azmi M.

    2017-01-01

    While past studies have merely focused on perceived risks that influence how students select the destination of international education best suited to their needs, research on perceived risk regarding post-purchase behavior remains limited. This study attempts to extend and redefine the perceived risk paradigm by uncovering the underlying elements…

  9. High prevalence of suicide risk in people living with HIV: who is at higher risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Susane Müller Klug; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Spessato, Bárbara Coiro

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was developed to evaluate suicide risk and associated factors in HIV/AIDS patients at a regional reference center for the treatment of HIV/AIDS in southern Brazil. We assessed 211 patients in regard to suicide risk, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, depression, and anxiety. Suicide risk was assessed with Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Module C. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression. Of the total sample, 34.1% were at risk of suicide. In the multivariate analysis, the following variables were independently associated with suicide risk: female gender; age up to 47 years; unemployment; indicative of anxiety; indicative of depression; and abuse or addiction on psychoactive substances. Suicide risk is high in this population. Psychosocial factors should be included in the physical and clinical evaluation, given their strong association with suicide risk.

  10. Do adolescents who are night owls have a higher risk of dental caries? - a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, A-M; Öhrn, K; Jönsson, B

    2016-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate the association between circadian rhythm and the risk of caries in adolescents, as well as their dietary and toothbrushing habits. A group of 196 adolescents (15 and 16 years old) were divided into two equal groups based on caries risk (case = high risk; and control = low risk). Before their dental examinations, they were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions on circadian rhythm, dietary and oral self-care habits, and demographic variables. The participants were divided into three circadian types: evening types who are alert in the evening and tired in the morning; morning types who are the opposite; and neutral types who are neither particularly alert in the evening nor extremely tired in the morning. The most common sleep-cycle group type was neutral (50%). After this came evening types (37%) and finally morning types (13%). Morning and neutral types reported more frequently than evening types that they had breakfast every morning and brushed their teeth twice a day. More evening types were categorized as at high risk of caries. Circadian rhythm, breakfast habits and toothbrushing frequency were associated with a high risk of caries. The predicted probability of being at high risk of caries was almost four times higher for evening types than for morning types (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.3-10.9). Adolescents who belonged to the evening circadian rhythm group brushed their teeth more seldom, ate breakfast less regularly and had a higher risk of caries than morning types. A patient's circadian rhythm should be considered when planning oral health education for adolescents with a high risk of caries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Vaccination rates among the general adult population and high-risk groups in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Annunziata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of vaccination in helping to control vaccine-preventable infectious disease, it is important to identify the adherence and uptake of risk-based recommendations. METHODS: The current project includes data from five consecutive datasets of the National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS: 2007 through 2011. The NHWS is an annual, Internet-based health questionnaire, administered to a nationwide sample of adults (aged 18 or older which included items on vaccination history as well as high-risk group status. Vaccination rates and characteristics of vaccinees were reported descriptively. Logistic regressions were conducted to predict vaccination behavior from sociodemographics and risk-related variables. RESULTS: The influenza vaccination rate for all adults 18 years and older has increased significantly from 28.0% to 36.2% from 2007 to 2011 (ps<.05. Compared with those not at high risk (25.1%, all high-risk groups were vaccinated at a higher rate, from 36.8% (pregnant women to 69.7% (those with renal/kidney disease; however, considerable variability among high-risk groups was observed. Vaccination rates among high-risk groups for other vaccines varied considerably though all were below 50%, with the exception of immunocompromised respondents (57.5% for the hepatitis B vaccine and 52.5% for the pneumococcal vaccine and the elderly (50.4% for the pneumococcal. Multiple risk factors were associated with increased rate of vaccination for most vaccines. Significant racial/ethnic differences with influenza, hepatitis, and herpes zoster vaccination rates were also observed (ps<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of influenza vaccination have increased over time. Rates varied by high-risk status, demographics, and vaccine. There was a pattern of modest vaccination rate increases for individuals with multiple risk factors. However, there were relatively low rates of vaccination for most risk-based recommendations

  12. Lipid profiles and ischemic stroke risk: variations by sex within racial/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Giordano, Christine; Gizzi, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014). All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL) than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke risk factors examined in this study predicts the increase in the incidence of the disease, lack of knowledge/awareness and lack of affordable treatments for stroke risk factors among women and immigrants/non-US-born subpopulations may explain the observed associations.

  13. Defining risk groups to yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease in the absence of denominator data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J; Cohen, Joel E; Itan, Yuval; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Pezzullo, John C

    2014-02-01

    Several risk groups are known for the rare but serious, frequently fatal, viscerotropic reactions following live yellow fever virus vaccine (YEL-AVD). Establishing additional risk groups is hampered by ignorance of the numbers of vaccinees in factor-specific risk groups thus preventing their use as denominators in odds ratios (ORs). Here, we use an equation to calculate ORs using the prevalence of the factor-specific risk group in the population who remain well. The 95% confidence limits and P values can also be calculated. Moreover, if the estimate of the prevalence is imprecise, discrimination analysis can indicate the prevalence at which the confidence interval results in an OR of ∼1 revealing if the prevalence might be higher without yielding a non-significant result. These methods confirm some potential risk groups for YEL-AVD and cast doubt on another. They should prove useful in situations in which factor-specific risk group denominator data are not available.

  14. Gender inequality in the risk of violence: material deprivation is linked to higher risk for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Inas; Sivarajasingam, Vaseekaran; Jones, Sarah; Shepherd, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the association between material deprivation and injury sustained in violence by adolescents aged 11-17 years. Computerised data relating to gender, attendance date and resident postcode of all patients aged 11-17 years who received treatment for violence-related injuries at seven emergency departments (ED) in South Wales over 12 months, 1 October 2005 to 30 September 2006, were studied. The resident populations, by electoral division of three unitary authorities in Wales, Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, were obtained from the NHS administrative register. The relationships between demographic variables and material deprivation as measured by the Townsend deprivation index were analysed. Altogether 699 (475 boys; 224 girls) adolescents aged 11-17 years resident in Cardiff, Swansea and Newport attended ED in South Wales following violence. Boys and girls living in the most deprived areas had higher assault injury rates compared with those living in the most affluent areas. In the context of sustaining violence-related injury, material deprivation affected girls aged 11-17 years to a much greater extent (Cardiff most deprived vs most affluent rate ratio 6.31, Swansea 10.11, Newport 2.90) than boys of the same age group (Cardiff most deprived vs most affluent rate ratio 2.02, Swansea 7.74, Newport 1.74). Material deprivation was associated with a higher risk of violence-related injury for adolescent girls compared with adolescent boys. Risk-taking behaviour for adolescent boys and girls may be different under different socioeconomic conditions. Violence prevention efforts should focus more on tackling neighbourhood inequalities, particularly those related to material deprivation in adolescent girls.

  15. Why do perfectionists have a higher burnout risk than others? The mediational effect of workaholism

    OpenAIRE

    van Beek, Ilona; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Taris, Toon W.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that perfectionists have a higher burnout risk than others, but the mechanisms accounting for this association have rarely been examined. The present study proposes that workaholism mediates this relation, as previous research revealed that (a) perfectionists are more likely to be workaholics than others, and (b) workaholics have a higher burnout risk than others. Using cross-sectional data from 199 Dutch managers, regression analyses revealed that holding high ...

  16. Adding to the mix: Students use of Facebook groups and blackboard discussion forums in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Kent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a case study of the use of Facebook in learning and teaching in higher education. Facebook was used as a venue for online discussion to support the existing Learning Management System (in this case Blackboard in the unit Internet Collaboration and Organisation as part of the Internet Communications degree taught fully online through Open Universities Australia (OUA. Students’ posts to both Facebook and the Blackboard discussion forum were analysed for content, length, and when throughout the study period they were posted. This is significant as much of the previous work in this area has relied on students self-reporting, rather than direct observation of student behaviour. These results were then compared to earlier instances of the same unit that ran within the previous twelve months, one fully online with OUA only using the Blackboard discussion group, and a second taught at Curtin University with both blended learning for students at the University’s Bentley campus as well as fully online for external students, that utilised both Blackboard and Facebook. The results show that Facebook greatly increases the level of student activity in online discussions, both absolutely and in the level of sustained activity across the unit’s study period. Facebook groups also had a different pattern of content from Blackboard. In Blackboard discussion is more focused on the set unit learning content, in Facebook students were using the groups to discuss administration and assignments and also bring in additional material from outside the units set learning materials. Facebook posts, while more sustained over the semester, were shorter in length. This study found that the addition of a Facebook discussion forum does not noticeably impact on the use of Blackboard’s discussion forum, but rather adds a new dimension to the mix of online interaction. The paper concludes that there is value in using both of these forums for student

  17. Risk factors for acute stroke among South Asians compared to other racial/ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tefera Gezmu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. METHODS: Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. RESULTS: South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. DISCUSSION: Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke.

  18. Risk factors for acute stroke among South Asians compared to other racial/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Gizzi, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease) among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke.

  19. Large Critical Shoulder Angle Has Higher Risk of Tendon Retear After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Chen, Yuzhou; Chen, Jiwu; Hua, Yinghui; Chen, Shiyi

    2018-05-01

    Los Angeles, Constant, and visual analog scale scores. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the large CSA group had 9 cases of retear, with a significantly higher retear rate than the control group (15% vs 0%, P = .03). Furthermore, the tendon SNQ of the large CSA group was significantly greater than that of the control group. CSA did not appear to influence postoperative functional outcomes, while those in the large CSA group had poor tendon integrity after rotator cuff repair. These findings indicate that a large CSA is associated with an increased risk of rotator cuff tendon retear after repair.

  20. Impact of sickle cell trait on the thrombotic risk associated with non-O blood groups in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sagir G; Kagu, Modu B; Ibrahim, Umma A; Bukar, Audu A

    2015-10-01

    The non-O blood group is an established risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (DVT), while controversy surrounds the role of sickle cell trait (SCT) as a risk factor for DVT. We hypothesised that if SCT is a risk factor for DVT, individuals with non-O blood groups and SCT (Hb AS) would have a higher risk of DVT than their counterparts with non-O blood groups and normal haemoglobin phenotype (Hb AA). We retrospectively analysed the prevalence of SCT and non-O blood groups among 148 DVT patients with control subjects in order to determine the role of SCT as a risk factor for DVT and its impact on the risk of DVT among patients with non-O blood groups. In comparison with control subjects, DVT patients had significantly higher prevalences of SCT (35.1% vs 27.7%, p=0.04) and non-O blood groups (68.9% vs 45.9%, p=0.02). The odds ratios for DVT due to SCT, non-O blood groups with normal Hb phenotype (Hb AA) and non-O blood groups with SCT (Hb AS) were 1.3, 2.4 and 3.5, respectively. These results suggest that SCT by itself is a weak risk factor for DVT but it has the potential of escalating the DVT risk among patients with non-O blood groups. The combined effects of elevated clotting factors (non-O group effect) and increased clotting factor activation (SCT effect) were responsible for the escalated DVT risk among patients with co-inheritance of non-O blood groups and SCT. Co-inheritance of SCT and non-O blood group is, therefore, an important mixed risk factor for DVT. This should be taken into account when assessing DVT risk profiles of patients in Africa and other parts of the world where the SCT is prevalent.

  1. GPP Webinar: Solar Utilization in Higher Education Networking & Information Sharing Group: Financing Issues Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation from a Solar Utilization in Higher Education Networking and Information webinar covers financing and project economics issues related to solar project development in the higher education sector.

  2. A Risk and Standards Based Approach to Quality Assurance in Australia's Diverse Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency's (TEQSA's) role is to assure that quality standards are being met by all registered higher education providers. This paper explains how TEQSA's risk-based approach to assuring higher education standards is applied in broad terms to a diverse sector. This explanation is…

  3. Low bone density risk is higher in exercising women with multiple triad risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jenna C; Nattiv, Aurelia; Barrack, Michelle T; Williams, Nancy I; Rauh, Mitchell J; Nichols, Jeanne F; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    The cumulative effect of the female athlete triad (Triad) risk factors on the likelihood of low bone mineral density (BMD) in exercising women is unclear. This study aimed to determine the risk of low BMD in exercising women with multiple Triad risk factors. We retrospectively examined cross-sectional data from 437 exercising women (mean ± SD age of 18.0 ± 3.5 yr, weighed 57.5 ± 7.1 kg with 24.5% ± 6.1% body fat) obtained at baseline from 4 prospective cohort studies examining Triad risk factors. Questionnaires were completed to obtain information on demographic characteristics, self-reported eating attitudes/behaviors, menstrual function, sport/activity participation, and medication use. Height and body weight were measured. BMD was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Low BMD was defined as z-scores of exercising women. Further research should be conducted to develop a user-friendly algorithm integrating these indicators of risk for low BMD in exercising women (particularly factors associated with low BMI/body weight, menstrual dysfunction, lean sport/activity participation, and elevated dietary restraint).

  4. Are the blood groups of women with preeclampsia a risk factor for the development of hypertension postpartum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Deniz; Karagoz, Hatice; Ozer, Ozerhan; Esmeray, Kubra; Bulut, Kadir; Aykas, Fatma; Cetinkaya, Ali; Uslu, Emine; Karahan, Samet; Basak, Mustafa; Erden, Abdulsamet

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by hypertension (HT) and proteinuria noticeable after 20 weeks of gestation. PE is now considered as a cardiovascular disease risk factor and a number of studies have shown that experiencing PE increases the prevalence of various cardiovascular risk factors, such as metabolic syndrome and HT. In this study, we aimed to investigate any possible relationship between the ABO/Rh blood group system and PE in Turkey. In the second part of the study, we examined the relationship between the ABO blood group system and development of HT after PE. A total of 250 patients with PE from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) and Rh status (+/-). There was a significant difference between the patients with PE and the control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups and the percentage of group AB was found to be higher in patients with PE compared to the control group (P=0.029). The risk of developing PE was significantly higher in group AB than other blood groups (P=0.006). The risk of developing HT after PE was significantly higher in group O than other blood groups (P=0.004). In this study, we found that the patients with blood group AB have a higher risk for PE. The patients with PE of blood group O are at high risk of developing HT, and Rh factor was identified as another risk at this point and these patients should be closely followed postpartum.

  5. Research on the nutrition and cognition of high-risk stroke groups in community and the relevant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, N-N; Zeng, K-X; Wang, Y-L; Sheng, P-J; Tang, C-Z; Xiao, P; Liu, X-W

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence rate of nutritional risk in high-risk stroke groups in community, analyze its influencing factors, and analyze and compare the relationship between nutritional risk or malnutrition assessed by different nutritional evaluation methods and cognitive function, so as to provide the basis and guidance for clinical nutritional assessment and support. A cross-sectional survey was performed for 1196 cases in high-risk stroke groups in community from December 2015 to January 2017. At the same time, the nutritional status of patients was evaluated using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) and MNA-short form (MNA-SF), and the cognitive status of patients was evaluated using the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Moreover, the relevant influencing factors of nutritional risk and MMSE score were analyzed and compared. High-risk stroke groups in community suffered from a high risk of malnutrition. MNA-SF had a higher specificity and lower false positive rate than MNA. Nutritional risk occurred more easily in high-risk stroke groups in community with a history of diabetes mellitus, less physical exercise or light manual labor, daily use of multiple drugs, and higher age. Those with a higher nutritional risk were more prone to cognitive impairment. High-risk stroke groups in community, complicated with hyperhomocysteinemia, daily use of three or more kinds of prescription drugs, and a previous history of stroke, were accompanied by cognitive impairment easily. MNA-SF can be used for the nutritional screening of high-risk stroke groups in community. For the high-risk stroke groups in community, the rational nutritional diet should be publicized, blood sugar should be controlled in a scientific manner and physical exercise should be moderately increased.

  6. Sero-epidemiological study of Lyme disease among high-risk population groups in eastern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zákutná, Ľubica; Dorko, Erik; Mattová, Eva; Rimárová, Kvetoslava

    2015-01-01

    IIntroduction and objective. The aim of the presented cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study was to determine the current presence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. in the high-risk groups of the Slovak population, and to identify potential risk factors to LB infections. A group of 277 agricultural and forestry workers - persons with frequent stay in the countryside and employees of State Border and Customs Police - from years 2011-2012 in the Eastern Slovakia were examined in order to assess the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies. Sera were screened by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study subjects completed a questionnaires with general demographic, epidemiological and clinical data. The results were evaluated statistically. A 25.3% presence of positive and 8.7% presence of borderline IgG antibodies was detected in all investigated groups. The seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. was significantly higher (P<0.05) among the agricultural and forestry workers when compared to employees of State Border and Customs Police. Higher seropositivity was observed in older subjects over 30 years of age (P=0.004) than those who were younger, and also in males (P=0.045). A significant number of persons with rheumatologic conditions was statistically higher (P=0.020) in the group with seropositivity than in the group with seronegativity. The presented study confirms the higher risk of Borrelia infection in individuals with frequent exposure to ticks in eastern Slovakia. The seropositivity tests confirmed the highest seropositivity in agriculture and forestry workers, middle positivity was confirmed among other sector workers, and lowest positivity in policemen and employees of the Customs and Border Inspection. The outputs also simultaneously filling the gap of missing seroprevalence data among these exposed groups.

  7. Group differences in risk across three domains using an expanded measure of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosier, Penny S; Dittus, Patricia J

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to highlight associations between sexual orientation and risk outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood using an expanded measure of sexual orientation. Recent data indicate higher levels of risk behavior in a newly identified population, mostly heterosexuals, as compared to heterosexuals. Comparisons among groups using an expanded measure of sexual orientation such as this, however, often do not include all possible groups or may restrict comparisons between groups. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health); participants identified as heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly gay, or gay. Main risk outcomes were parental mistreatment, home displacement, thoughts of suicide, depressive symptoms, frequency of drinking, and delinquency. A priori planned comparisons examined differences between: (a) heterosexual vs. mostly heterosexual, (b) gay vs. mostly gay, (c) mostly heterosexual vs. bisexual, (d) mostly gay vs. bisexual, (e) mostly heterosexual vs. mostly gay, (f) heterosexual vs. gay, (g) heterosexual vs. bisexual, and (h) gay vs. bisexual. Mostly heterosexual youth were at significantly greater risk than heterosexual youth on all outcomes but did not differ from bisexual or mostly gay youth. Heterosexuals were at lower risk as compared to mostly heterosexuals and bisexuals. This study provides further evidence of differential risk associations for sexual minorities.

  8. Perception of radiation related risks among three population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, L.T.; Milu, C.; Voicu, B.; Enachescu, D.

    2003-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted among three groups that mainly differ in socioeconomic status and professional exposure to ionizing radiations. Seventy-seven (26.3%) of the respondents were professionally exposed to radiation, 35 (11.9%) were medical doctors without professional exposure and 177 (68.4%) belonged to the general population group. The level of anxiety toward radiation, expressed as a concernedness index, is significantly lower in people who are professionally exposed to radiation compared to medical doctors and general population (0.81±0.94, 1.42±1.21 and 1.72±1.34 respectively, p < 0.001). In a similar manner, concernedness index values varied with the education status, with lowest values among medical university graduates and highest among public school graduates (p < 0.001). Both university-graduated groups significantly differ from the non-university groups (p < 0.05). Knowledge about radiation and knowledge about emergency plans in nuclear accident/incident were also checked in relation with concernedness, the results confirming the hypothesis that better knowledge associates lower concernedness. The extent to which people accept the civil utilization of nuclear power is also related to concernedness and knowledge, significant associations having been found. The results suggest that a political decision in radiation matter requires a valid analysis of the public's understanding and acceptance. For that reason, it is important that radiological protection authorities develop new plans and materials for communicating with people, in order to improve knowledge upon ionizing radiation, irradiation risks and safety of nuclear energy application for civil purposes. (author)

  9. ABO blood group and esophageal carcinoma risk: from a case-control study in Chinese population to meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Lei; Wang, Zhiwei; Lu, Xiaopeng; Wei, Min; Lin, Tianlong; Zhang, Yixin; Jiang, Songqi; Wang, Qiang; Cao, Ziang; Shi, Minxin

    2014-10-01

    The association between ABO blood group and the risk of esophageal carcinoma (EC) in previously published studies is uncertain and conflicting. The aim of the current study was to determine the correlation of ABO blood group with EC risk via a case-control study and meta-analysis. We performed a population-based case-control study of 3,595 cases and 41,788 controls in Chinese population to evaluate the association between ABO blood group and EC risk. Then, a comprehensive meta-analysis combining our original data and previously published data was conducted to clearly discern the real relationship. The strength of association was measured by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In our case-control study, the risk of EC in blood group B was significantly higher than that in non-B groups (A, O, and AB) (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21). Compared with non-O groups (A, B, and AB), individuals with blood group O demonstrated a reduced risk of EC (OR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.85-0.94). The meta-analysis also indicated that blood group B was associated with significantly higher EC risk (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.10-1.31), and people with blood group O had a decreased EC risk (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.99). Neither the case-control study nor the meta-analysis produced any significant association of blood group A or AB with EC risk. Results from our case-control study and the followed meta-analysis confirmed that there was an increased risk of EC in blood group B individuals, whereas a decreased risk of EC was observed in blood group O individuals.

  10. Adult Arabs have higher risk for diabetes mellitus than Jews in Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Jaffe

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is an emerging epidemic in the Arab world. Although high diabetes prevalence is documented in Israeli Arabs, information from cohort studies is scant.This is a population study, based on information derived between 2007-2011, from the electronic database of the largest health fund in Israel, among Arabs and Jews. Prevalence, 4-year-incidence and diabetes hazard ratios [HRs], adjusted for sex and the metabolic-syndrome [MetS]-components, were determined in 3 age groups (<50 years, 50-59 years, and ≥60 years.The study cohort included 17,044 Arabs (males: 49%, age: 39.4±17.3 and 16,012 Jews (males: 50%, age: 40.5 ±17.6. The overall age and sex-adjusted diabetes prevalence rates were much higher among Arabs 18.4% (95%CI: 17.6-19.1; and 10.3% (95%CI: 9.7-10.9 among Jews. Arab females had higher prevalence rates 20.0% (95%CI: 19-21 than Arab males 16.7% (95%CI: 15.7-17.8. Annual incidence rates were also significantly higher among Arabs 2.9% (95%CI: 2.7-3.1 than among Jews 1.7% (95%CI: 1.6-1.8. This held true across all age and sex subgroups. Adjustment for body mass index [BMI] attenuated HR estimates associated with Arab ethnicity across all age subgroups, mainly in the <50yrs age group from HR 2.04 (95%CI: 1.74-2.40 to 1.64 (95%CI: 1.40-1.92. BMI at incident diabetes among females was higher in Arabs than Jews. Males, however, did not differ by ethnicity.Arabs, mainly female, have high incidence and prevalence of diabetes. This excess risk is only partially explained by the high prevalence of obesity. Effective culturally-congruent diabetes prevention and treatment and an effective engagement partnership with the Arab community are of paramount need.

  11. Adult Arabs have higher risk for diabetes mellitus than Jews in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Anat; Giveon, Shmuel; Wulffhart, Liat; Oberman, Bernice; Baidousi, Maslama; Ziv, Arnona; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an emerging epidemic in the Arab world. Although high diabetes prevalence is documented in Israeli Arabs, information from cohort studies is scant. This is a population study, based on information derived between 2007-2011, from the electronic database of the largest health fund in Israel, among Arabs and Jews. Prevalence, 4-year-incidence and diabetes hazard ratios [HRs], adjusted for sex and the metabolic-syndrome [MetS]-components, were determined in 3 age groups (Arabs (males: 49%, age: 39.4±17.3) and 16,012 Jews (males: 50%, age: 40.5 ±17.6). The overall age and sex-adjusted diabetes prevalence rates were much higher among Arabs 18.4% (95%CI: 17.6-19.1); and 10.3% (95%CI: 9.7-10.9) among Jews. Arab females had higher prevalence rates 20.0% (95%CI: 19-21) than Arab males 16.7% (95%CI: 15.7-17.8). Annual incidence rates were also significantly higher among Arabs 2.9% (95%CI: 2.7-3.1) than among Jews 1.7% (95%CI: 1.6-1.8). This held true across all age and sex subgroups. Adjustment for body mass index [BMI] attenuated HR estimates associated with Arab ethnicity across all age subgroups, mainly in the Arabs than Jews. Males, however, did not differ by ethnicity. Arabs, mainly female, have high incidence and prevalence of diabetes. This excess risk is only partially explained by the high prevalence of obesity. Effective culturally-congruent diabetes prevention and treatment and an effective engagement partnership with the Arab community are of paramount need.

  12. Group work in higher education: a mismanaged evil or a potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theoretically speaking, group work has a wealth of potential to offer to the lecturer and the learner. The complexity of the phenomenon leaves the lecturer with no choice but to take great care in the use of group work. The fact that group work is not viewed as a mismanaged evil leaves the door open for further use of this ...

  13. Work and diet-related risk factors of cardiovascular diseases: comparison of two occupational groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Danielle; Stadeler, Martina; Grieshaber, Romano; Keller, Sylvia; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2010-03-22

    Although work related risk factors associated with Cardiovascular Diseases (CD) have been well researched, there is no detailed knowledge regarding disparate occupational groups each with a different risk exposition. Therefore, two occupational groups (chefs and office workers) were compared with a focus on nutritional and psychosocial factors. Two groups of subjects were tested for work and diet-related risks of CD (45 chefs and 48 office workers). The groups matched both for gender (male) and age (30 to 45 years). The study included a medical check-up, bioelectrical impedance analysis as well as an evaluation of questionnaires on health, nutritional behaviour and coping capacity. In addition, volunteers were required to compile a 7-day-dietary-record and collect their urine 24 h prior to their check-up. Blood samples drawn were analysed for glucose and lipid metabolism, homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid; C-reactive protein, uric acid, red blood cell fatty acids, plant sterols, antioxidative capacity and oxidative stress. On average, the chefs showed one risk factor more compared to the office workers. The most frequent risk factors in both groups included overweight/obesity (chef group [CG]: 62.2%; office group [OG]: 58.3%) and elevated TC (CG: 62.2%; OG: 43.8%]. Moreover, although the chefs often had higher CRP-concentrations (40.0%), more office workers suffered from hypertension (37.5%).Chefs showed significant higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids and oleic acid, whereas docosahexaenoic acid, Omega-6- and trans fatty acids were found more frequently in the red blood cell membranes of office workers. While there were no significant differences in analysed plant sterols between the two occupational groups, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine was significantly increased in office workers.Concerning the work-related psychosocial factors, the chefs were characterised by a stronger subjective importance of work, a greater degree of professional

  14. Patients who reattend after head injury: a high risk group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, M.; Knottenbelt, J. D.; Peden, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess risk factors for important neurosurgical effects in patients who reattend after head injury. DESIGN--Retrospective study. SUBJECTS--606 patients who reattended a trauma unit after minor head injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Intracranial abnormality detected on computed tomography or the need for neurosurgical intervention. RESULTS--Five patients died: two from unrelated causes and three from raised intracranial pressure. On multiple regression analysis the only significant predictor for both abnormality on computed tomography (14.4% of reattenders) and the need for operation (5% of reattenders) was vault fracture seen on the skull radiograph (P personality change, and seizures were significantly associated only with abnormality on computed tomography. Headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting were common in reattenders but were found to have no independent significance. CONCLUSIONS--All patients who reattend after head injury should undergo computed tomography as at least 14% of scans can be expected to yield positive results. Where this facility is not available patients with predictors for operation should be urgently referred for neurosurgical opinion. Other patients can be readmitted and need referral only if symptoms persist despite symptomatic treatment or there is neurological deterioration while under observation. These patients are a high risk group and should be treated seriously. PMID:8520273

  15. Cardiometabolic risk in Canada: a detailed analysis and position paper by the cardiometabolic risk working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A; Fitchett, David H; Gilbert, Richard E; Gupta, Milan; Mancini, G B John; McFarlane, Philip A; Ross, Robert; Teoh, Hwee; Verma, Subodh; Anand, Sonia; Camelon, Kathryn; Chow, Chi-Ming; Cox, Jafna L; Després, Jean-Pierre; Genest, Jacques; Harris, Stewart B; Lau, David C W; Lewanczuk, Richard; Liu, Peter P; Lonn, Eva M; McPherson, Ruth; Poirier, Paul; Qaadri, Shafiq; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Rabkin, Simon W; Sharma, Arya M; Steele, Andrew W; Stone, James A; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tobe, Sheldon; Ur, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome," and "risk stratification" overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. There is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. With the objectives of clarifying these concepts and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group reviewed the evidence related to emerging cardiovascular risk factors and Canadian guideline recommendations in order to present a detailed analysis and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider risk factors related to ethnicity in order to appropriately evaluate everyone in their diverse patient populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk assessment. Report of a Royal Society study group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The report is in sections, entitled: preface; summary and conclusions; introduction (historical and organizational); estimating engineering risks (techniques of risk estimation and forms of expression of risk); laboratory experiments for estimation of biological risks; estimation of risk from observations on man (travel, medical procedures; occupations; sport); the perception of risks; (as an example of attitudes towards a single hazard, studies of nuclear power are considered among other topics in this section); risk management (estimation; perception; acceptability, analysis of risk, costs and benefits; safety standards; decision-making process; possible guidelines).

  17. Biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy in intermediate-risk group men increases with the number of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuki Furubayashi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The number of intermediate risk factors is significantly associated with the PSA failure-free survival rate after radical prostatectomy in the intermediate-risk group. Patients classified into the intermediate-risk group based on all three intermediate risk factors are less likely to achieve a complete cure through surgery alone.

  18. Determinants of Mental Health Care Utilization in a Suicide High-risk Group With Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Moo-Sik; Hong, Jee-Young

    2016-01-01

    The suicide rate in Korea is increasing every year, and is the highest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Psychiatric patients in particular have a higher risk of suicide than other patients. This study was performed to evaluate determinants of mental health care utilization among individuals at high risk for suicide. Korea Health Panel data from 2009 to 2011 were used. Subjects were individuals at high risk of suicide who had suicidal ideation, a past history of psychiatric illness, or had utilized outpatient services for a psychiatric disorder associated with suicidal ideation within the past year. The chi-square test and hierarchical logistic regression were used to identify significant determinants of mental health care utilization. The total number of subjects with complete data on the variables in our model was 989. Individuals suffering from three or more chronic diseases used mental health care more frequently. Mental health care utilization was higher in subjects who had middle or high levels of educational attainment, were receiving Medical Aid, or had a large family size. It is important to control risk factors in high-risk groups as part of suicide prevention strategies. The clinical approach, which includes community-based intervention, entails the management of reduction of suicidal risk. Our study identified demographic characteristics that have a significant impact on mental health care utilization and should be considered in the development of suicide prevention strategies. Further studies should examine the effect of mental health care utilization on reducing suicidal ideation.

  19. Lipid profiles and ischemic stroke risk: variations by sex within racial/ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezmu T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tefera Gezmu,1 Dona Schneider,1 Kitaw Demissie,2 Yong Lin,2 Christine Giordano,3 Martin S Gizzi4 1Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, 2Rutgers School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Piscataway, NJ, 3Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, 4New Jersey Neuroscience Institute at JFK Medical Center and Seton Hall University, Edison, NJ, USA Abstract: Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014. All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke

  20. Who Benefits from Group Work in Higher Education? An Attachment Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Shiri

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have pointed to the benefits of learning in groups. However, surprisingly little research has been conducted regarding what role relationship-related personality traits play in the effectiveness of this kind of student learning. Such personality factor can potentially buffer the students' effectiveness in groups. The present study…

  1. Effect of Group Work on EFL Students' Attitudes and Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taqi, Hanan A.; Al-Nouh, Nowreyah A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of group work in classroom activities is a method used for motivating learning and increasing the idea of pleasure through learning. The current study investigates the advantages of group work in exams in the English department, in the College of Basic Education. 40 students in two classes of "The Introduction of Phonetics and…

  2. Interim data monitoring to enroll higher-risk participants in HIV prevention trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umo-Otong John

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower-than-expected incidence of HIV undermines sample size calculations and compromises the power of a HIV prevention trial. We evaluated the effectiveness of interim monitoring of HIV infection rates and on-going modification of recruitment strategies to enroll women at higher risk of HIV in the Cellulose Sulfate Phase III study in Nigeria. Methods We analyzed prevalence and incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, demographic and sexual behavior characteristics aggregated over the treatment groups on a quarterly basis. The site investigators were advised on their recruitment strategies based on the findings of the interim analyses. Results A total of 3619 women were screened and 1644 enrolled at the Ikeja and Apapa clinics in Lagos, and at the Central and Peripheral clinics in Port Harcourt. Twelve months after study initiation, the overall incidence of HIV was less than one-third of the pre-study assumption, with rates of HIV that varied substantially between clinics. Due to the low prevalence and incidence rates of HIV, it was decided to close the Ikeja clinic in Lagos and to find new catchment areas in Port Harcourt. This strategy was associated with an almost two-fold increase in observed HIV incidence during the second year of the study. Conclusion Given the difficulties in estimating HIV incidence, a close monitoring of HIV prevalence and incidence rates during a trial is warranted. The on-going modification of recruitment strategies based on the regular analysis of HIV rates appeared to be an efficient method for targeting populations at greatest risk of HIV infection and increasing study power in the Nigeria trial. Trial Registration The trial was registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov registry under #NCT00120770 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00120770

  3. Conflicts at work are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Kostev, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Only few authors have analyzed the impact of workplace conflicts and the resulting stress on the risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. The goal of this study was to analyze the association between workplace conflicts and cardiovascular disorders in patients treated by German general practitioners. Methods: Patients with an initial documentation of a workplace conflict experience between 2005 and 2014 were identified in 699 general practitioner practices (index date). We included only those who were between the ages of 18 and 65 years, had a follow-up time of at least 180 days after the index date, and had not been diagnosed with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, coronary heart diseases, or stroke prior to the documentation of the workplace mobbing. In total, the study population consisted of 7,374 patients who experienced conflicts and 7,374 controls for analysis. The main outcome measure was the incidence of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and stroke correlated with workplace conflict experiences. Results: After a maximum of five years of follow-up, 2.9% of individuals who experienced workplace conflict were affected by cardiovascular diseases, while only 1.4% were affected in the control group (p-value <0.001). Workplace conflict was associated with a 1.63-fold increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Finally, the impact of workplace conflict was higher for myocardial infarction (OR=2.03) than for angina pectoris (OR=1.79) and stroke (OR=1.56). Conclusions: Overall, we found a significant association between workplace conflicts and cardiovascular disorders. PMID:28496397

  4. Conflicts at work are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob, Louis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Only few authors have analyzed the impact of workplace conflicts and the resulting stress on the risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. The goal of this study was to analyze the association between workplace conflicts and cardiovascular disorders in patients treated by German general practitioners. Methods: Patients with an initial documentation of a workplace conflict experience between 2005 and 2014 were identified in 699 general practitioner practices (index date. We included only those who were between the ages of 18 and 65 years, had a follow-up time of at least 180 days after the index date, and had not been diagnosed with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, coronary heart diseases, or stroke prior to the documentation of the workplace mobbing. In total, the study population consisted of 7,374 patients who experienced conflicts and 7,374 controls for analysis. The main outcome measure was the incidence of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and stroke correlated with workplace conflict experiences. Results: After a maximum of five years of follow-up, 2.9% of individuals who experienced workplace conflict were affected by cardiovascular diseases, while only 1.4% were affected in the control group Workplace conflict was associated with a 1.63-fold increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Finally, the impact of workplace conflict was higher for myocardial infarction (OR=2.03 than for angina pectoris (OR=1.79 and stroke (OR=1.56. Conclusions: Overall, we found a significant association between workplace conflicts and cardiovascular disorders.

  5. Poor glycemic control of diabetes mellitus is associated with higher risk of prostate cancer detection in a biopsy population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhyun Park

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of glycemic control of diabetes mellitus (DM on prostate cancer detection in a biopsy population.We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1,368 men who underwent prostate biopsy at our institution. We divided our biopsy population into three groups according to their history of DM, and their Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c level: a no-DM (DM- group; a good glycemic control (DM+GC group (HbA1c <6.5%; and a poor glycemic control (DM+PC group (HbA1c ≥6.5%. For sub-analyses, the DM+PC group was divided into a moderately poor glycemic control (DM+mPC group (6.5≤ HbA1c <7.5% and a severely poor glycemic control (DM+sPC group (HbA1c ≥7.5%.Among 1,368 men, 338 (24.7% had a history of DM, and 393 (28.7% had a positive biopsy. There was a significant difference in prostatic specific antigen density (PSAD (P = 0.037 and the frequency of abnormal DRE findings (P = 0.031 among three groups. The occurrence rate of overall prostate cancer (P<0.001 and high-grade prostate cancer (P = 0.016 also presented with a significantly difference. In the multivariate analysis, the DM+PC group was significantly associated with a higher rate of overall prostate cancer detection in biopsy subjects compared to the DM- group (OR = 2.313, P = 0.001 but the DM+PC group was not associated with a higher rate of high-grade (Gleason score ≥7 diseases detected during the biopsy (OR = 1.297, P = 0.376. However, in subgroup analysis, DM+sPC group was significantly related to a higher risk of high-grade diseases compared to the DM- group (OR = 2.446, P = 0.048.Poor glycemic control of DM was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer detection, including high-grade disease, in the biopsy population.

  6. Obese with higher FNDC5/Irisin levels have a better metabolic profile, lower lipopolysaccharide levels and type 2 diabetes risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Ivan Luiz Padilha; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia Traina; Brunelli, Diego Trevisan; Gáspari, Arthur Fernandes; Duft, Renata Garbellini; Oliveira, Alexandre Gabarra; Araujo, Tiago Gomes; Saad, Mario Jose Abdalla; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina

    2017-12-01

    Thus, the aim of this study was to compare if higher or smaller fibronectin type 3 domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)/irisin levels are associated with inflammatory and metabolic markers, caloric/macronutrient intake, physical fitness and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk in obese middle-aged men, and also to correlate all variables analyzed with FNDC5/irisin. On the basis of a cluster study, middle-aged obese men (IMC: 31.01 ± 1.64 kg/m2) were divided into groups of higher and smaller levels of FNDC5/irisin. The levels of leptin, resistin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 and 10 (IL6, IL10), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, insulin resistance and sensibility, lipid profile, risk of T2DM development, body composition, rest energy expenditure, caloric/macronutrient intake and physical fitness were measured. The higher FNDC5/ irisin group presented improved insulin sensibility (homeostasis model assessment - sensibility (HOMA-S) (p = 0.01) and QUICKI index (p risk of T2DM development (p = 0.02), tendency to decrease serum resistin (p = 0.08) and significant lower LPS levels (p = 0.02). Inverse correlations between FNDC5/irisin and body weight (r -0.46, p = 0.04), neck circumference (r -0.51, p = 0.02), free fat mass (r -0.49, p = 0.02), triglycerides (r -0.43, p = 0.05) and risk of developing T2DM (r -0.61, p = 0.04) were observed. These results suggest that higher FNDC5/irisin levels in obese middle-aged men are related to a better metabolic profile and lower risk of T2DM development and serum LPS, a potential inducer of insulin resistance.

  7. Day napping and short night sleeping are associated with higher risk of diabetes in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qun; Song, Yiqing; Hollenbeck, Albert; Blair, Aaron; Schatzkin, Arthur; Chen, Honglei

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether day napping or short night sleeping is associated with higher risk of diabetes. This was a prospective study of hours of day napping and night sleeping assessed in 1996-1997 in relation to diabetes diagnosed between 2000 and 2006 (n = 10,143) among 174,542 participants in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI were derived from multivariate logistic regression models. Longer day napping was associated with a higher risk of diabetes. After adjustment for potential confounders, ORs were 1.23 (95% CI 1.18-1.29) for those reporting or =1 h of napping compared with individuals who did not nap (P(trend) or =9 h. In both analyses, additional adjustment for BMI only modestly attenuated the associations. Further analysis showed a statistically significant interaction between hours of napping and sleeping on diabetes (P(interaction) napping, only short night sleeping was associated with higher occurrence of diabetes, whereas among those with > or =1 h of napping, both long and short sleeping was associated with higher risk. Day napping and short night sleeping are associated with higher risk of diabetes. The association between sleep duration and diabetes may be modified by napping habit.

  8. Biomarkers of Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Racial/Ethnic Groups at High Risk for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolchan, Eric T.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Cassel, Kevin D.; Pagano, Ian; Franke, Adrian A.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe’aimoku; Sy, Angela; Alexander, Linda A.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Johnson, C. Anderson; Antonio, Alyssa; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Clanton, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, and Whites, groups that have different lung cancer risk. Methods. We collected survey data and height, weight, saliva, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels from a sample of daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 179). Mean measures of nicotine, cotinine, cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, trans 3′ hydroxycotinine, the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), and expired CO were compared among racial/ethnic groups. Results. The geometric means for cotinine, the cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, and CO did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups in the adjusted models. After adjusting for gender, body mass index, menthol smoking, Hispanic ethnicity, and number of cigarettes smoked per day, the NMR was significantly higher among Whites than among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos (NMR = 0.33, 0.20, 0.19, P ≤ .001). The NMR increased with increasing White parental ancestry. The NMR was not significantly correlated with social–environmental stressors. Conclusions. Racial/ethnic groups with higher rates of lung cancer had slower nicotine metabolism than Whites. The complex relationship between lung cancer risk and nicotine metabolism among racial/ethnic groups needs further clarification. PMID:25880962

  9. Social comparison framing in health news and its effect on perceptions of group risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigman, Cabral A

    2014-01-01

    News about health disparities often compares health risks faced by different demographic groups. Does this social comparison produce a contrast effect? It was hypothesized that when two racial groups are compared, people would perceive the relatively more at-risk group to be more, and the less at-risk group to be less, at-risk than if the same risk information was presented without the comparative reference group. Three experiments with Black and White respondents tested effects of intergroup social comparison framing (SCF) on perceptions of risk for sexually transmitted infections and skin cancer. SCF (including one White and two Black disparity frames) did not raise respondents' perceived risk regarding the more at-risk racial group, but consistently lowered respondents' risk ratings for the less at-risk racial group. The finding that the same statistic was perceived differently in comparative and noncomparative contexts underscores the importance of considering effects of communication about disparities.

  10. The third spatial dimension risk approach for individual risk and group risk in multiple use of space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suddle, Shahid; Ale, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Buildings above roads and railways are examples of multiple use of space. Safety is one of the critical issues for such projects. Risk analyses can be undertaken to investigate what safety measures that are required to realise these projects. The results of these analyses can also be compared to risk acceptance criteria, if they are applicable. In The Netherlands, there are explicit criteria for acceptability of individual risk and societal risk. Traditionally calculations of individual risk result in contours of equal risk on a map and thus are considered in two-dimensional space only. However, when different functions are layered the third spatial dimension, height, becomes an important parameter. The various activities and structures above and below each other impose mutual risks. There are no explicit norms or policies about how to deal with the individual or group risk approach in the third dimension. This paper proposes an approach for these problems and gives some examples. Finally, the third dimension risk approach is applied in a case study of Bos en Lommer, Amsterdam

  11. Higher risk of offspring schizophrenia following antenatal maternal exposure to severe adverse life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khashan, Ali; Abel, Kathryn; McNamee, R.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Most societies believe that a mother's psychological state can influence her unborn baby. Severe adverse life events during pregnancy have been consistently associated with an elevated risk of low birth weight and prematurity. Such events during the first trimester have also been...... associated with risk of congenital malformations. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect in offspring of antenatal maternal exposure to an objective measure of stress on risk of adverse neurodevelopment, specifically schizophrenia. We hypothesized that the strongest relationship would be to maternal exposures...... not linked with a higher risk of schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study suggests that severe stress to a mother during the first trimester may alter the risk of schizophrenia in offspring. This finding is consistent with ecological evidence from whole populations exposed to severe stressors...

  12. Managing Reputation Risk and Situational Crisis in Higher Institutions of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andem Ita Effiong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Extant literature on crisis and corporate reputation management has presented the Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT model as a valid and reliable framework for managing crisis and predicting stakeholders’perceptions of organizations’ reputation in times of crisis. In order to verifythe applicability of the model in higher institutions of learning in adeveloping country context, a study was conducted in September, 2011 in twopublic universities in Nigeria. The findings of the study revealed thatalthough the institutions did not fully implement the core tenets of SCCT, thestrategies adopted in each of the two crisis situations were similar to some ofthe recommendations of the SCCT in different ways. While one institutionfocused on a strategy similar to what the SCCT model describes as “rebuildcrisis response strategy” with informing and adjusting tactics, the secondinstitution utilized a victimization or “Victimage” strategy with strongattribution of blames; and frequent reminder of the stakeholders of the extentof losses that the institution would incur from the crisis. The outcome wasthat the institution with high emphasis on rebuilding and informationadjustment strategy recorded very little damage to its reputation capital, duringand after the crises. Conversely, the second institution which believed invictimization and high attribution recorded significant losses in reputation assets,which included withdrawal of key stakeholders and loss of recognition ofprograms by some professional agencies. The implication for crisis managers in thetwo institutions includes the need to always approach situational crises in aholistic manner. Such holistic approach would involve a refocus, critical analysis,planning and implementation of crisis response strategies based on the relevantsituations, events, and the people concerned. The research was designed as acase study with focus group discussions as the data collection method

  13. Combining ungrouped and grouped wildfire data to estimate fire risk

    KAUST Repository

    Hernandez-Magallanes, I.

    2013-10-11

    © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Frequently, models are required to combine information obtained from different data sources and on different scales. In this work, we are interested in estimating the risk of wildfire ignition in the USA for a particular time and location by merging two levels of data, namely, individual points and aggregate count of points into areas. The data for federal lands consist of the point location and time of each fire. Nonfederal fires are aggregated by county for a particular year. The probability model is based on the wildfire point process. Assuming a smooth intensity function, a locally weighted likelihood fit is used, which incorporates the group effect. A logit model is used under the assumption of the existence of a latent process, and fuel conditions are included as a covariate. The model assessment is based on a residual analysis, while the False Discovery Rate detects spatial patterns. A benefit of the proposed model is that there is no need of arbitrary aggregation of individual fires into counts. A map of predicted probability of ignition for the Midwest US in 1990 is included. The predicted ignition probabilities and the estimated total number of expected fires are required for the allocation of resources.

  14. School Choice Options Limit Access to Higher Education for Various Groups of Students in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, Julie; Gaudreault, Marco; Picard, France

    2017-01-01

    The choice of selected school options by pupils in secondary school, particularly mathematics and physical sciences, have implications for future educational pathways in higher education [Felouzis, G. (1997). "L'efficacité des enseignants, Sociologie de la relation pédagogique." Paris: Presses Universitaires de France; Moreau, G. (2005).…

  15. E-Learning in Higher Education: Focus Groups and Survey among Students in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuševljak, Marko; Majcen, Lucija; Mervar, Lara; Stepankina, Taisiya; Cater, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Despite a great deal of time and energy went into digitalisation of the world around us, education has been lagging behind. A question therefore arises to what extent higher education institutions should introduce e-learning as part of their programmes. The purpose of this study is to add to the body of knowledge on e-learning by examining…

  16. Differences in conventional cardiovascular risk factors in two ethnic groups in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Priyanka Rani; Kabita, Salam; Singh, Huidrom Suraj; Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Sinha, Ekata; Kalla, Aloke Kumar; Chongtham, Dhanaraj Singh

    2012-01-01

    Studies have been carried out at national and international levels to assess ethnic variations in the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. However, ethnic variations in the contribution of various risk factors to complex diseases have been scarcely studied. Our study examined such variations in two ethnic groups in India, namely, Meiteis of Manipur (northeast India) and Aggarwals of Delhi (north India). Through random sampling, we selected 635 participants from the Meitei community and 181 Aggarwals from the Aggarwal Dharmarth Hospital, Delhi. Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension were identified based on their recent medical diagnostic history. Anthropometric parameters such as height, weight, waist and hip circumferences along with physiological parameters (blood pressures, both systolic and diastolic) and biochemical parameter (lipid profile) were measured for all study participants. Patient parameters were available from the medical reports recorded when patients were first diagnosed. Among CAD individuals, the Aggarwals showed higher mean values of weight, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) but had lower high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels than the Meiteis. The same trend for weight, BMI and lipid parameters could be seen among hypertensive individuals. In step-wise regression analysis, SBP, LDL and TG were found to significantly contribute to the risk for CAD in the Aggarwals; whereas in the Meiteis, SBP, VLDL, HDL, TC and LDL were found to significantly contribute to the risk for CAD. In hypertensive Aggarwal participants, SBP, DBP and waist-to-hip ratio were significant contributors for hypertension; whereas SBP, DBP, and height contributed significantly to risk for hypertension among the Meiteis. We found marked differences in conventional risk

  17. Pregnancy hormone concentrations across ethnic groups: implications for later cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potischman, Nancy; Troisi, Rebecca; Thadhani, Ravi; Hoover, Robert N; Dodd, Kevin; Davis, William W; Sluss, Patrick M; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2005-06-01

    A variety of in utero factors have been associated with risk of adult cancers, particularly birth weight, toxemia, and gestational age. These factors are thought to reflect hormonal exposures during pregnancy. We hypothesized that the prenatal hormonal milieu may explain part of the variation in cancer rates across ethnic groups, for example, the higher incidence of breast cancer in the Caucasian compared with Hispanic women and the higher incidence of prostate and lower incidence of testicular cancers among African-Americans compared with Caucasians. We measured hormones in early pregnancy blood samples from three ethnic groups in a health care plan in Boston, MA. Mean levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estrone, and prolactin were significantly lower in Caucasian women compared with Hispanic women. Although not statistically significant, estradiol levels were lower in Caucasian compared with Hispanic or African-American women. Concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, and progesterone were notably higher in African-American compared with Caucasian or Hispanic women. These data are consistent with hypotheses that in utero hormonal exposures may explain some of the ethnic group differences in cancer risk.

  18. Getting Your Ducks in a Row: IT Governance, Risk, and Compliance Programs in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichsel, Jacqueline; Feehan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Higher education IT governance, risk, and compliance (GRC) programs are in the development stage. Few institutions have all three programs in place, and many institutions are unclear where they should start when instituting or maturing their IT GRC programs. In addition, they are often uncertain as to whether GRC programs should be developed in…

  19. Risky Business: An Integrated Institutional Theory for Understanding High-Risk Decision Making in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lauren A.; Angulo, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Lauren A. Turner and A. J. Angulo explore how institutional theory can be applied to explain variance in higher education organizational strategies. Given strong regulatory, normative, and cultural-cognitive pressures to conform, they ask, why do some colleges engage in high-risk decision making? To answer this, they bring together classic and…

  20. Study finds stronger nicotine dependency associated with higher risk of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI headed study finds people who are highly addicted to nicotine -- those who smoke their first cigarette within five minutes after awakening -- are at higher risk of developing lung cancer than those who wait for an hour or more to smoke.

  1. Small Group Teaching in Undergraduate Science. Higher Education Learning Project (h.e.l.p.) - Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogborn, Jon, Ed.; And Others

    While this book is focused primarily on the tutorials held in the British universities, it offers many insights that can improve the teaching in the discussion sections so common in our large universities. Introductions to analyses of group processes of technical language, and of questions are given. Lesson plans for skill building sessions are…

  2. Cooperative Learning in Higher Education: Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Undergraduates' Reflections on Group Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Bobbette M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to share reflections from 140 non-Hispanic undergraduate students and 83 Hispanic students who have participated in cooperative written examinations for group grades. Reflections are clustered by themes identified from the students' comments using Van Manen's (1990) hermeneutic phenomonological approach, which is how…

  3. Outcomes of three universal eating disorder risk reduction programs by participants with higher and lower baseline shape and weight concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilksch, Simon M; Paxton, Susan J; Byrne, Susan M; Austin, S Bryn; O'Shea, Anne; Wade, Tracey D

    2017-01-01

    To investigate if baseline shape and weight concern (SWC) moderated outcomes in Prevention Across the Spectrum, a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) of 3 school-based programs aimed at reducing eating disorder and obesity risk factors. N = 1,316 Grade 7 and 8 girls and boys (M age = 13.21 years) across three Australian states were randomly allocated to: Media Smart; Life Smart; Helping, Encouraging, Listening and Protecting Peers Initiative (HELPP) or control (usual school class). Moderation was explored by testing interaction effects for group (Media Smart; Life Smart; HELPP; Control) × moderator (SWC: higher-SWC; lower-SWC) × time (post-program; 6-month follow-up; 12-month follow-up), with baseline risk factor scores entered as covariates. Moderation effects were found for shape concern, weight concern, eating concern, regular eating (i.e., meal skipping), physical activity, body dissatisfaction, dieting, and perfectionism. Post-hoc testing found eating concern at post-program was the only variable where higher-SWC Media Smart participants experienced a reduction in risk relative to controls. Both higher-SWC Life Smart and HELPP participants reported an increase in eating concern relative to controls and both groups were skipping more meals than controls at 12-month follow-up. Amongst lower-SWC participants, Media Smart was the only group to experience a benefit relative to controls (physical activity). This study highlights the need for moderator analyses to become more routinely conducted in universal trials, to ensure that participants across baseline risk levels are benefiting and not harmed from program participation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:66-75). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Which population groups are most unaware of CVD risks associated with sitting time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Gilson, Nicholas; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2014-08-01

    Prolonged sitting is an emerging risk factor for poor health yet few studies have examined awareness of the risks associated with sitting behaviours. This study identifies the population subgroups with the highest levels of unawareness regarding the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks associated with sitting behaviours. Adults (n=1256) living in Queensland, Australia completed a telephone-based survey in 2011, analysis conducted in 2013. The survey assessed participant's socio-demographic characteristics, physical activity, sitting behaviours and awareness of CVD risks associated with three sitting behaviours: 1) sitting for prolonged periods, 2), sitting for prolonged periods whilst also engaging in regular physical activity, and 3) breaking up periods of prolonged sitting with short activity breaks. Population sub-groups with the highest levels of unawareness were identified based on socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics using signal detection analysis. Unawareness ranged from 23.3% to 67.0%. Age was the most important variable in differentiating awareness levels; younger adults had higher levels of unawareness. Body mass index, physical activity, TV viewing, employment status and time spent at work also identified population sub-groups. Unawareness of CVD risk for prolonged sitting was moderately high overall. Younger adults had high levels of unawareness on all of the outcomes examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jonathon N; Kiesler, Sara; Bosagh Zadeh, Reza; Balakrishnan, Aruna D

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous groups are valuable, but differences among members can weaken group identification. Weak group identification may be especially problematic in larger groups, which, in contrast with smaller groups, require more attention to motivating members and coordinating their tasks. We hypothesized that as groups increase in size, productivity would decrease with greater heterogeneity. We studied the longitudinal productivity of 549 research groups varying in disciplinary heterogeneity, institutional heterogeneity, and size. We examined their publication and citation productivity before their projects started and 5 to 9 years later. Larger groups were more productive than smaller groups, but their marginal productivity declined as their heterogeneity increased, either because their members belonged to more disciplines or to more institutions. These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units.

  6. Higher education is associated with a lower risk of dementia after a stroke or TIA : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Mirza (Saira); M.L.P. Portegies (Marileen); F.J. Wolters (Frank J.); A. Hofman (Albert); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M.A. Ikram (Arfan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Higher education is associated with a lower risk of dementia, possibly because of a higher tolerance to subclinical neurodegenerative pathology. Whether higher education also protects against dementia after clinical stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) remains

  7. Peer mentored teams to support undergraduate group work in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinderey, Lynn Elizabeth

    This research starts with a set of practical research questions to investigate a problem which occurs in some computing undergraduate modules that use group work as part of the learning and assessment strategy. In this study final year students with experience in information systems project work and trained in team processes met with small groups of first year computing students with the aim of turning the first year project group into a team. This study seeks to explore the experience of the final year students as they take on the role of peer tutor looking at the problems they perceive within the first year teams and the skills and knowledge they use to help them. The study includes the recruitment and training of final year students (n=9) and allocation to first year teams. The final year students acted as co-researchers and team leaders in L4 Information Systems project work and recorded their thoughts and observations in a diary during the first semester of 2008/9 academic year. Diary data was supplemented by interview data from a sample of final year students (n=4). The sample was selected based on the richness of the data provided in the diaries and the number of meetings held with their teams. Rich data and thick descriptions were essential for a phenomenological examination of the experience of the final year students. A number of findings emerged. A critical approach to analysis revealed ongoing conflicts occurred across cultural divides within the first year teams that final year leaders did not articulate or appear fully aware of. This had important implications for individual team members. Other findings which relate to issues of changing levels of motivation in the teams over the ten weeks, roles adopted by the leaders, ability to systematize the project or team processes and the ability to reflect on unsuccessful strategies also had implications for peer mentoring training and support. The picture that emerged from the data suggested that lack of

  8. Group versus individual risk choices in female workgroups in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayissa, F.W.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Ruben, R.

    2017-01-01

    A lottery choice task was conducted to examine the risk attitudes of 352 Ethiopian women who were members of 72 female workgroups in the spices processing business in Addis Ababa. The women were asked to make risk choices on their own, and the same choices together with the other members of their

  9. Is Sex with Older Male Partners Associated with Higher Sexual Risk Behavior Among Young Black MSM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Nicholas; Mena, Leandro A; Geter, Angelica; Crosby, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Participants at a sexual health clinic completed a survey with questions regarding sexual risk behavior and partner characteristics. Of 585 participants eligible for analysis, 124 reported generally having older male partners. These participants were significantly more likely to be HIV-infected (p < 0.001), have four or more sex partners as a "bottom" (p = 0.04), have concurrent partners (p = 0.01), and have partners suspected of having an sexually transmitted infection (p = 0.05) than participants without older partners. With analysis restricted to HIV- individuals, risk behaviors did not differ significantly between the groups. HIV- individuals with older partners may be at increased risk of HIV infection due to increased HIV prevalence among older sexual partners and not due to increased risk behaviors with these partners.

  10. Fucoidan cytotoxicity against human breast cancer T47D cell line increases with higher level of sulfate ester group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saepudin, Endang; Alfita Qosthalani, Fildzah; Sinurat, Ellya

    2018-01-01

    The anticancer activity of different sulfate ester group content in different molecular weight was examined. The anticancer activity was achieved in vitro on human breast cancer T47D cell line. Fucoidan with lower molecular weight (5.79 kDa) tends to have lower sulfate ester group content (8.69%) and resulted in higher IC50 value (184.22 μg/mL). While fucoidan with higher molecular weight (785.12 kDa) tends to have higher sulfate level (18.63%) and achieved lower IC50 value (75.69 μg/mL). The result showed that in order to maintain fucoidan cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer T47D cell line, the sulfate content should be remain high. Keywords: fucoidan, sulfate ester group, human breast cancer

  11. Identifying HIV most-at-risk groups in Malawi for targeted interventions. A classification tree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emina, Jacques B O; Madise, Nyovani; Kuepie, Mathias; Zulu, Eliya M; Ye, Yazoume

    2013-05-28

    To identify HIV-socioeconomic predictors as well as the most-at-risk groups of women in Malawi. A cross-sectional survey. Malawi The study used a sample of 6395 women aged 15-49 years from the 2010 Malawi Health and Demographic Surveys. Individual HIV status: positive or not. Findings from the Pearson χ(2) and χ(2) Automatic Interaction Detector analyses revealed that marital status is the most significant predictor of HIV. Women who are no longer in union and living in the highest wealth quintiles households constitute the most-at-risk group, whereas the less-at-risk group includes young women (15-24) never married or in union and living in rural areas. In the light of these findings, this study recommends: (1) that the design and implementation of targeted interventions should consider the magnitude of HIV prevalence and demographic size of most-at-risk groups. Preventive interventions should prioritise couples and never married people aged 25-49 years and living in rural areas because this group accounts for 49% of the study population and 40% of women living with HIV in Malawi; (2) with reference to treatment and care, higher priority must be given to promoting HIV test, monitoring and evaluation of equity in access to treatment among women in union disruption and never married or women in union aged 30-49 years and living in urban areas; (3) community health workers, households-based campaign, reproductive-health services and reproductive-health courses at school could be used as canons to achieve universal prevention strategy, testing, counselling and treatment.

  12. Tertiary Gleason pattern in radical prostatectomy specimens is associated with worse outcomes than the next higher Gleason score group in localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Mehmet; D'Andrea, David; Moschini, Marco; Foerster, Beat; Abufaraj, Mohammad; Mathieu, Romain; Briganti, Alberto; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Roupret, Morgan; Seitz, Christian; Czech, Anna Katarzyna; Susani, Martin; Shariat, Shahrokh F

    2018-04-01

    ), seminal vesicle invasion (pT3b) and different institution, harboring a TGP showed higher risk of developing BCR within the same GS group and comparable risk of developing BCR with the next higher GS group. Patients with TGP at RP have adverse clinicopathological features when compared to their counterparts in the same and the next higher GS group without TGP. Risk of developing BCR increases with the presence of TGP within the same GS group. This risk seems to be comparable between patients with TGP and their counterparts in the next higher GS group without TGP. Knowledge of TGP in RP specimens is likely to improve risk stratification, patient counseling and follow-up scheduling. Further prospective studies that control significant clinical endpoints such as metastasis and mortality are necessary for more significant predictions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Problem Analysis of Existing FSES of Higher Education for the Enlarged Group of Specialties"the Service and Tourism"

    OpenAIRE

    Marina A. Maznichenko; Nataliya I. Neskoromnykh

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of aspect analysis of the current federal state educational standards of higher education for the enlarged group of specialties"Service and tourism". There are analyzed the conformity of educational standards of higher education to the requirements of employers, the requirements for development results, to the structure and terms of realization of educational programs of undergraduate/graduate. The authors outline the key problems for each aspect, also identif...

  14. Simultaneous Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents Associated with Higher Economic Class in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arley Santos Leão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Design. The social, cultural, and economic context can be an important variable in the perception and adoption of risk behaviors in adolescents. Objective. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of simultaneous health risk behaviors and associated socioeconomic factors in adolescents living in the metropolitan region of Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. Methods. The sample consisted of 2,207 high school students aged 13–18 years. The risk behaviors measured were “low levels of physical activity,” “excessive daily TV time,” “high consumption of alcoholic beverages on a single occasion,” “involvement in fights,” “smoking cigarettes,” “carrying firearms,” and “marijuana consumption.” Information was obtained through self-administered questionnaire. Results. Considering the results, it was observed that female adolescents and those aged up to 16 years were less likely to have two or more health risk behaviors compared to males and those aged 17 years or more, respectively. It was also found that both high- and middle-income level adolescents had higher prevalence of having two or more health risk behaviors. Conclusions. It was concluded that male adolescents older than 16 years with better socioeconomic level were more exposed to the simultaneous presence of several health risk behaviors.

  15. Risk Transfer Formula for Individual and Small Group Markets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Volume 4, Issue 3 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research Review includes three articles describing the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) developed risk...

  16. Risk profiles and corporate social responsibility for socially disadvantaged groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serbanescu Cosmin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing a suitable mechanism to stimulate the effective redeployment of capital to social activities can be designed using the corporate social responsibility (CSR concept. Informational asymmetry about the real state of social risks influences the effectiveness of allocations in social protection. Reducing information asymmetries can be achieved by providing the corporations with socially determined risk profiles based on predetermined patterns. Offering concrete lines of action following the risk profiles approach which to base investment decisions of companies in CSR can maximize the results of such a mechanism. In a previous study the authors have developed a theoretical model for determining the poverty risk profile. This study aims to present the practical application of the theoretical model and to provide comments on some errors. Hence, the authors analyzed Buzau county municipalities in presenting the highest risk level determined by the theoretical model and related causes and performed an impact assessment of an investment in CSR based on a model. Specifically, the authors evaluated the impact of reducing the risk of poverty for a suitable investment in CSR. In the second part of the study, the authors analyzed the types of errors that can be found in the municipalities risk profile model due to the granularity of the data. Thus, for the error of over-inclusion, the authors assessed social allocative efficiency at the community level using benchmarking analysis, Data Envelopment respectively and analyzed the data of the under-inclusion error in Buzau county villages. The paper aims to analyze the relative limits on quantitative models and risk of poverty and the practical implementation of these types of models in the development of corporate social responsibility. The study provides also a useful tool which can be made available to companies in order to increase the vulnerable groups’ life quality and the satisfaction of

  17. Why do perfectionists have a higher burnout risk than others? The mediational effect of workaholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beek, Ilona

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has revealed that perfectionists have a higher burnout risk than others, but the mechanisms accounting for this association have rarely been examined. The present study proposes that workaholism mediates this relation, as previous research revealed that (a perfectionists are more likely to be workaholics than others, and (b workaholics have a higher burnout risk than others. Using cross-sectional data from 199 Dutch managers, regression analyses revealed that holding high standards towards oneself (a self-directed indicator of perfectionism was unrelated to any of the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. However, high concern over making mistakes in the face of others (representing socially prescribed perfectionism was systematically associated with high levels of burnout and workaholism. Moreover, workaholism was positively associated with high levels of exhaustion. Subsequent mediation analysis revealed that the association between (the socially prescribed aspect of perfectionism and burnout (emotional exhaustion was mediated by workaholism.

  18. Pregnant Women in Sport Climbing - Is there a Higher Risk for Preterm Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drastig, Jan; Hillebrandt, David; Rath, Werner; Küpper, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Sport climbing is a popular recreational sport with an increasing proportion of female athletes. International recommendations emphasize the physical and mental benefits of regular sport activity during any uncomplicated pregnancy. In this context, sport climbing is associated with a high risk potential.The aim of this study was to examine if there is a higher risk for preterm birth in active climbing athletes.Original manuscript.A retrospective self-report online survey in the German language collected data between September 2012 and November 2013. In addition to anthropometric and demographic data, data on climbing experience, preferred climbing discipline, skill level and changes of climbing habits during pregnancy, known risk factors for preterm birth and information on delivery and the newborn were requested. The rate of preterm birth of the survey was tested with Fisher's exact test with information from the German Federal Statistical Office.Sample size was 32. 72% had a university degree, 81% were primiparous, all were singleton pregnancies. A 33 rd questionnaire was excluded because of described preeclampsia. Age ranged between 21 and 39 years, climbing experience before pregnancy between 2 and 24 years, and skill level before pregnancy between 4 and 7 on the UIAA scale (International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation). Half of the women climbed until the 36 th week and 90% adjusted their climbing habits mostly by reducing climbing difficulty and doing more top roping. 2 preterm births in the 36 th week of gestation were found (2 from 15, p=0.36). According to the data from the German Federal Statistical Office, 8.9% births in the year 2013 in Germany were preterm.This is the first study investigating the risk of preterm birth in recreational sport climbing athletes. No significantly higher proportion of preterm birth could be found. Limitations are small sample size and high social status of participants. What is known about the subject: Sport

  19. Developmental Psychopathology in a Racial/Ethnic Minority Group: Are Cultural Risks Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chiaying; Eisenberg, Ruth E; Ramos-Olazagasti, María A; Wall, Melanie; Chen, Chen; Bird, Héctor R; Canino, Glorisa; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2017-12-01

    The current study examined (a) the mediating role of parenting behaviors in the relationship between parental risks and youth antisocial behaviors (YASB), and (b) the role of youth cultural stress in a racial/ethnic minority group (i.e., Puerto Rican [PR] youth). This longitudinal study consisted of 3 annual interviews of PR youth (N = 1,150; aged 10-14 years at wave 1) and their caretakers from the South Bronx (SB) in New York City and from San Juan, Puerto Rico. Parents reported on parental risks, parenting behaviors, and YASB. Youth also self-reported on YASB and youth cultural stress. A lagged structural equation model examined the relationship between these variables across 3 yearly waves, with youth cultural stress as a moderator of the association between effective parenting behaviors and YASB. Findings supported the positive influence of effective parenting on YASB, independently of past parental risks and past YASB: higher effective parenting significantly predicted lower YASB at the following wave. Parenting also accounted for (mediated) the association between the composite of parental risks and YASB. Youth cultural stress at wave 1 was cross-sectionally associated with higher YASB and moderated the prospective associations between effective parenting and YASB, such that for youth who perceived higher cultural stress, the positive effect of effective parenting on YASB was weakened compared to those with lower/average cultural stress. Among PR families, both parental and cultural risk factors influence YASB. Such findings should be considered when treating racial/ethnic minority youth for whom cultural factors may be a relevant influence on determining behaviors. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Kidneys at Higher Risk of Discard: Expanding the Role of Dual Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriover, B.; Mohan, S.; Cohen, D. J.; Radhakrishnan, J.; Nickolas, T. L.; Stone, P. W.; Tsapepas, D. S.; Crew, R. J.; Dube, G. K.; Sandoval, P. R.; Samstein, B.; Dogan, E.; Gaston, R. S.; Tanriover, J. N.; Ratner, L. E.; Hardy, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Half of the recovered expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys are discarded in the United States. A new kidney allocation system offers kidneys at higher risk of discard, Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) >85%, to a wider geographic area to promote broader sharing and expedite utilization. Dual kidney transplantation (DKT) based on the KDPI is a potential option to streamline allocation of kidneys which otherwise would have been discarded. To assess the clinical utility of the KDPI in kidneys at higher risk of discard, we analyzed the OPTN/UNOS Registry that included the deceased donor kidneys recovered between 2002 and 2012. The primary outcomes were allograft survival, patient survival and discard rate based on different KDPI categories (90%). Kidneys with KDPI >90% were associated with increased odds of discard (OR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.74–2.29) compared to ones with KDPI 90% were associated with lower overall allograft failure (HR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.62–0.89) and better patient survival (HR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.64–0.98) compared to single ECD kidneys with KDPI >90%. Kidneys at higher risk of discard may be offered in the up-front allocation system as a DKT. Further modeling and simulation studies are required to determine a reasonable KDPI cutoff percentile. PMID:24472195

  1. No higher risk for colorectal cancer in atrophic gastritis-related hypergastrinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Edith; Sbrozzi-Vanni, Andrea; Vannella, Lucy; Corleto, Vito Domenico; Di Giulio, Emilio; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Annibale, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    Atrophic gastritis of the corporal mucosa is a frequent cause of hypergastrinemia. Hypergastrinemia is implicated in colorectal cancer development. To assess whether hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis is associated with a higher risk of neoplastic colorectal lesions. Among 441 hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis patients, 160 who were aged >40 and underwent colonoscopy for anaemia, diarrhoea or colorectal cancer-screening were retrospectively selected. Each patient was age- and gender-matched with a normogastrinemic control with healthy stomach. Controls had colonoscopy, gastroscopy with biopsies and gastrin assessment. 160 hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis patients and 160 controls were included. 28 atrophic gastritis patients and 36 controls had neoplastic colorectal lesions (p=0.33). Patients and controls did not differ for frequency of colorectal adenomas (10.6% vs. 13.1%, p=0.60) or cancer (6.9% vs. 9.4%, p=0.54). Hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis was not associated with a higher probability of developing colorectal cancer (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.34-3.16). Age >50 years (OR 3.86) but not hypergastrinemia (OR 0.61) was associated with colorectal cancer. Hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis is not associated with higher risk for colorectal cancer. Atrophic gastritis-related hypergastrinemia is not associated with an increased risk of neoplastic colorectal lesions. Closer surveillance of colonic neoplasia in atrophic gastritis patients seems not appropriate. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determinants of Mental Health Care Utilization in a Suicide High-risk Group With Suicidal Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Soo Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The suicide rate in Korea is increasing every year, and is the highest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Psychiatric patients in particular have a higher risk of suicide than other patients. This study was performed to evaluate determinants of mental health care utilization among individuals at high risk for suicide. Methods: Korea Health Panel data from 2009 to 2011 were used. Subjects were individuals at high risk of suicide who had suicidal ideation, a past history of psychiatric illness, or had utilized outpatient services for a psychiatric disorder associated with suicidal ideation within the past year. The chi-square test and hierarchical logistic regression were used to identify significant determinants of mental health care utilization. Results: The total number of subjects with complete data on the variables in our model was 989. Individuals suffering from three or more chronic diseases used mental health care more frequently. Mental health care utilization was higher in subjects who had middle or high levels of educational attainment, were receiving Medical Aid, or had a large family size. Conclusions: It is important to control risk factors in high-risk groups as part of suicide prevention strategies. The clinical approach, which includes community-based intervention, entails the management of reduction of suicidal risk. Our study identified demographic characteristics that have a significant impact on mental health care utilization and should be considered in the development of suicide prevention strategies. Further studies should examine the effect of mental health care utilization on reducing suicidal ideation.

  3. The Web as process tool and product environment for group-based project work in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Andernach, Toine; van Diepen, N.M.; Maurer, Hermann

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses problems confronting the use of group-based project work as an instructional strategy in higher education, and describes two technical courses (i.e., courses in online learning and applications of business information technology) at the University of Twente (Netherlands) in

  4. Pre-transplant reversible pulmonary hypertension predicts higher risk for mortality after cardiac transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Javed; Stankewicz, Mark A; Wu, Jack; Chomsky, Don B; Howser, Renee L; Khadim, Ghazanfar; Davis, Stacy F; Pierson, Richard N; Wilson, John R

    2005-02-01

    Pre-transplant fixed pulmonary hypertension is associated with higher post-transplant mortality. In this study, we assessed the significance of pre-transplant reversible pulmonary hypertension in patients undergoing cardiac transplantation. Overall, we studied 182 patients with baseline normal pulmonary pressures or reversible pulmonary hypertension, defined as a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to 50 mm Hg had a higher risk of death (odds ratio [OR] 5.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.46 to 19.84 as compared with PAS 4.0 WU, but patients with TPG > or =16 had a higher risk of mortality (OR 4.93, 95% CI 1.84 to 13.17). PAS pressure was an independent predictor of mortality (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.06). Recipient body mass index, history of sternotomy; and donor ischemic time were the other independent predictors of mortality. Pre-transplant pulmonary hypertension, even when reversible to a PVR of < or =2.5 WU, is associated with a higher mortality post-transplant.

  5. Do hemophiliacs have a higher risk for dental caries than the general population?

    OpenAIRE

    Žaliūnienė, Rūta; Aleksejūnienė, Jolanta; Brukienė, Vilma; Pečiulienė, Vytautė

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine if patients with hemophilia were at increased risk for dental decay as compared to the general population. Materials and methods: Census sampling was used in this case–control study to recruit cases (patients with hemophilia) and a control group individuals recruited randomly from the general population, which were matched with cases based on gender, age and place of residence. Clinical examinations included dental health and salivary assessm...

  6. Do hemophiliacs have a higher risk for dental caries than the general population?

    OpenAIRE

    Žaliūnienė, Rūta; Aleksejūnienė, Jolanta; Brukienė, Vilma; Pečiulienė, Vytautė

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine if patients with hemophilia were at increased risk for dental decay as compared to the general population. Materials and methods: Census sampling was used in this case–control study to recruit cases (patients with hemophilia) and a control group individuals recruited randomly from the general population, which were matched with cases based on gender, age and place of residence. Clinical examinations included dental health and salivary assessment...

  7. Vitamin D Deficiency in Risk Groups Living in Tropical Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, T. J. M.; van Eijndhoven, F. H. A.; van der Veer, E.; Muskiet, F. A. J.

    Objective: Curacao (12 degrees 10N, 69 degrees 0W) is characterized by whole year abundant sunshine (8-10 hours/day). We challenged the automatic assumption that people living in tropical countries do not have a high risk of vitamin D deficiency, and investigated the vitamin D status in a tropical

  8. Risk-Taking and Large-Group Dance (Improvisation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueira da Silva Jr., João

    2016-01-01

    Improvisation in dance is often conceived of as a practice that involves a kind of risk-taking that is occasioned by spontaneity and a ‘stepping into the unknown’. Choreography, usually considered to be the ‘other’ of improvisation, on the contrary, is associated with ‘knowing’ and repetition, and

  9. Association of Gleason Risk Groups with Metastatic Sites in Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prostate cancer is the second most common non cutaneous male malignancy worldwide. Gleason composite score is used for risk classification. The most common site of metastasis in prostate cancer is the bone among others. The site and number of metastasis affect overall survival. The ability to predict the metastatic site ...

  10. Potential Explanatory Factors for Higher Incident Hip Fracture Risk in Older Diabetic Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa S. Strotmeyer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is associated with higher fracture risk. Diabetes-related conditions may account for this risk. Cardiovascular Health Study participants (N=5641; 42.0% men; 15.5% black; 72.8±5.6 years were followed 10.9 ± 4.6 years. Diabetes was defined as hypoglycemic medication use or fasting glucose (FG ≥126 mg/dL. Peripheral artery disease (PAD was defined as ankle-arm index <0.9. Incident hip fractures were from medical records. Crude hip fracture rates (/1000 person-years were higher for diabetic vs. non-diabetic participants with BMI <25 (13.6, 95% CI: 8.9–20.2 versus 11.4, 95% CI: 10.1–12.9 and BMI ≥25 to <30 (8.3, 95% CI: 5.7–11.9 versus 6.6, 95% CI: 5.6–7.7, but similar for BMI ≥30. Adjusting for BMI, sex, race, and age, diabetes was related to fractures (HR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.01–1.78. PAD (HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 0.92–1.57 and longer walk time (HR = 1.07 (95% CI: 1.04–1.10 modified the fracture risk in diabetes (HR = 1.17 (95% CI: 0.87–1.57. Diabetes was associated with higher hip fracture risk after adjusting for BMI though this association was modified by diabetes-related conditions.

  11. Risk-matching behavior in microcredit group formation: evidence from northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhane Tesfay, G.; Gardebroek, C.; Moll, H.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical models on group lending assume the formation of groups of homogenous risk types. Recent theoretical and empirical findings challenge this view arguing that when markets for insurance are missing, risk homogeneity may not hold any more and risk heterogeneity can be the optimal outcome.

  12. Adding an alcohol-related risk score to an existing categorical risk classification for older adults: sensitivity to group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sandra R; Fink, Arlene; Verghese, Shinu; Beck, John C; Nguyen, Khue; Lavori, Philip

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate a new alcohol-related risk score for research use. Using data from a previously reported trial of a screening and education system for older adults (Computerized Alcohol-Related Problems Survey), secondary analyses were conducted comparing the ability of two different measures of risk to detect post-intervention group differences: the original categorical outcome measure and a new, finely grained quantitative risk score based on the same research-based risk factors. Three primary care group practices in southern California. Six hundred sixty-five patients aged 65 and older. A previously calculated, three-level categorical classification of alcohol-related risk and a newly developed quantitative risk score. Mean post-intervention risk scores differed between the three experimental conditions: usual care, patient report, and combined report (Ptrinary risk classification. The additional clinical value of the risk score relative to the categorical measure needs to be determined.

  13. Combining ungrouped and grouped wildfire data to estimate fire risk

    KAUST Repository

    Hernandez-Magallanes, I.

    2013-01-01

    particular year. The probability model is based on the wildfire point process. Assuming a smooth intensity function, a locally weighted likelihood fit is used, which incorporates the group effect. A logit model is used under the assumption of the existence

  14. Higher morale is associated with lower risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Johan; Näsman, Marina; Nyqvist, Fredrica; Conradsson, Mia; Olofsson, Birgitta; Lövheim, Hugo; Gustafson, Yngve

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether higher morale, i.e. future-oriented optimism, at baseline was associated with lower risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people.Methods The Umeå85+/GErontological Regional Database, a population-based study with a longitudinal design, recruited participants in Sweden and Finland aged 85, 90 and ≥95 years. The sample in the present study included 647 individuals (89.1±4.4 years (Mean±SD), range 85-103). After five years, 216 were alive and agreed to a follow-up (92.6±3.4 years, range 90-104). The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) was used to assess morale. The depressive disorder diagnosis was determined according to DSM-IV based on medical records and interview data including assessment scales for depressive disorders. A number of sociodemographic, functional and health-related variables were analysed as possible confounders.Results For those with no depressive disorders at baseline, the only baseline variable significantly associated with depressive disorders five years later was the PGCMS score. A logistic regression model showed lower risk of depressive disorders five years later with higher baseline PGCMS scores (odds ratio 0.779 for one point increase in PGCMS, pfive years later).Conclusion Our results indicate that the higher the morale, the lower the risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people. The PGCMS seems to identify those very old individuals at increased risk of depressive disorders five years later. Preventive measures could befocused on this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A large-scale examination of the effectiveness of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences in higher education assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Hinton

    Full Text Available The present research aims to more fully explore the issues of performance differences in higher education assessment, particularly in the context of a common measure taken to address them. The rationale for the study is that, while performance differences in written examinations are relatively well researched, few studies have examined the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing these performance differences, particularly in modern student populations. By examining a large archive (N = 30674 of assessment data spanning a twelve-year period, the relationship between assessment marks and factors such as ethnic group, gender and socio-environmental background was investigated. In particular, analysis focused on the impact that the implementation of anonymous marking for assessment of written examinations and coursework has had on the magnitude of mean score differences between demographic groups of students. While group differences were found to be pervasive in higher education assessment, these differences were observed to be relatively small in practical terms. Further, it appears that the introduction of anonymous marking has had a negligible effect in reducing them. The implications of these results are discussed, focusing on two issues, firstly a defence of examinations as a fair and legitimate form of assessment in Higher Education, and, secondly, a call for the re-examination of the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences.

  16. A large-scale examination of the effectiveness of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences in higher education assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Daniel P; Higson, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The present research aims to more fully explore the issues of performance differences in higher education assessment, particularly in the context of a common measure taken to address them. The rationale for the study is that, while performance differences in written examinations are relatively well researched, few studies have examined the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing these performance differences, particularly in modern student populations. By examining a large archive (N = 30674) of assessment data spanning a twelve-year period, the relationship between assessment marks and factors such as ethnic group, gender and socio-environmental background was investigated. In particular, analysis focused on the impact that the implementation of anonymous marking for assessment of written examinations and coursework has had on the magnitude of mean score differences between demographic groups of students. While group differences were found to be pervasive in higher education assessment, these differences were observed to be relatively small in practical terms. Further, it appears that the introduction of anonymous marking has had a negligible effect in reducing them. The implications of these results are discussed, focusing on two issues, firstly a defence of examinations as a fair and legitimate form of assessment in Higher Education, and, secondly, a call for the re-examination of the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences.

  17. Geoinformation monitoring of the educational risk in educational institutions of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr N. Kolesenkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect, received by a person and society from mastering the basic professional educational programs is problematic to quantify, which leads to the emergence of a risk that characterizes the quality of management decision-making procedures for implementing the educational process in higher education institutions in terms of the level of achievement of the set criteria and indicators.The aim of the work is the development of technology for monitoring of the educational risk based on the geoinformation approach and methods of data mining. Assessment of the educational risk can be implemented through monitoring the quality of the implementation of the main professional educational programs of the institution.Monitoring of the educational risk in the implementation of the educational process in institutions of higher education means the collection, cataloging, pre-processing, analysis and visualization of the data, aimed at improving the efficiency and quality of providing educational services. To accomplish this goal, the following methods and approaches are used: geoinformation approach, cluster analysis, probability theory, data classification methods, forecasting methods, forecasting, and data visualization technologies.The scientific and methodological aspects of the development of the methodical, informational and instrumental support of the educational risk management system in educational institutions of higher education are examined. According to the results of the work, it is revealed that the use of geoinformation technologies increases the efficiency of management by the collection automation, processing and analysis of data on the implementation of educational programs.Modern geoinformation technologies provide the opportunity to create and integrate a system that has innovative analytical functionality, and implements new effective technologies, methods and algorithms in the tasks of monitoring the educational programs. The use of

  18. Fire increases the risk of higher soil N2O emissions from Mediterranean Macchia ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhu, Kristiina; Dannenmann, M.; Kitzler, B.

    2015-01-01

    on climate change. However, the potential importance of indirect GHG emissions due to changes in soil biological and chemical properties after fire is less well known. Increased soil mineral nitrogen (N) concentrations after fire pose a risk for increased emissions of gaseous N, but studies on the post......-fire N2O production and soil N turnover rates (mineralization, nitrification, microbial immobilization, denitrification) are still rare. We determined N2O production, rates of N turnover and pathways for N2O production from the soil of burned and unburned plots of a Macchia shrubland in central Spain...... using a 15N labelling approach. Measurements were initiated before the controlled burning and continued for up to half a year after fire. Fire markedly increased the risk of N2O emissions from soil through denitrification (N2O production rate was 3 to ≈30 times higher in burned soils compared to control...

  19. Cardiovascular risk and stress in employees of a higher education institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Barbosa de Melo Júnior

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the association between high levels of stress and the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors in employees of a higher education institution. Methods: this is a cross-sectional study with 201 employees of a university. A form containing socioeconomic data, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short version, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Work Stress Scale were used for data collection. Data analysis was performed using the probability ratio and One-way analysis of variance tests. Results: worrisome frequencies of cardiovascular risk factors were identified, in which sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, and increased abdominal circumference presented the most expressive indexes. Regarding the stressors evaluated, some of the employees had increased stress indexes, distributed between the medium and high levels. Conclusion: sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, and increased abdominal circumference presented expressive high indexes, without statistically significant associations with the level of stress.

  20. Sports injuries: population based representative data on incidence, diagnosis, sequelae, and high risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S; Seither, B; Tönges, S; Schmitt, H

    2006-04-01

    To generate national representative data on the incidence, diagnosis, severity, and nature of medically treated sports injuries and to identify high risk groups. The first national health survey for the Federal Republic of Germany, conducted in the format of a standardised, written, cross sectional survey in the period October 1997 to March 1999, gathered data on the incidence of accident and injury and information on social demographics, injury related disability/time off work, and injury location/setting. The net sample comprised 7124 people aged 18-79. 3.1% of adult Germans said they sustained a sports injury during the previous year, corresponding to an annual injury rate of 5.6% among those engaging in regular recreational physical activity and ranking sports injuries as the second most common type of accident. About 62% of all sports injuries result in time taken off work. The period of occupational disability is 14 days or less in around two thirds of these cases. The occupational disability rate after occupational and traffic accidents is much higher by comparison. Dislocations, distortions, and/or torn ligaments make up 60% of all sports injuries, followed by fractures (18%), contusions, surface wounds, or open wounds (12%). Three out of four sports injury casualties are male. The incidence declines noticeably in higher age groups. Future injury prevention measures should focus on the high risk group of young male recreational athletes. The data indicate that the fear of damage to health and injury, believed to be significant internal psychological barriers to participation in sports, is largely unwarranted for the female population and/or older age groups. Sporting injuries are a marginal phenomenon among the female population and mobile seniors actively engaged in sports.

  1. Low External Workloads Are Related to Higher Injury Risk in Professional Male Basketball Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Caparrós, Martí Casals, Álvaro Solana, Javier Peña

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to identify potential risk factors for sports injuries in professional basketball. An observational retrospective cohort study involving a male professional basketball team, using game tracking data was conducted during three consecutive seasons. Thirty-three professional basketball players took part in this study. A total of 29 time-loss injuries were recorded during regular season games, accounting for 244 total missed games with a mean of 16.26 ± 15.21 per player and season. The tracking data included the following variables: minutes played, physiological load, physiological intensity, mechanical load, mechanical intensity, distance covered, walking maximal speed, maximal speed, sprinting maximal speed, maximal speed, average offensive speed, average defensive speed, level one acceleration, level two acceleration, level three acceleration, level four acceleration, level one deceleration, level two deceleration, level three deceleration, level four deceleration, player efficiency rating and usage percentage. The influence of demographic characteristics, tracking data and performance factors on the risk of injury was investigated using multivariate analysis with their incidence rate ratios (IRRs. Athletes with less or equal than 3 decelerations per game (IRR, 4.36; 95% CI, 1.78-10.6 and those running less or equal than 1.3 miles per game (lower workload (IRR, 6.42 ; 95% CI, 2.52-16.3 had a higher risk of injury during games (p < 0.01 in both cases. Therefore, unloaded players have a higher risk of injury. Adequate management of training loads might be a relevant factor to reduce the likelihood of injury according to individual profiles.

  2. Perioperative treatment of hemophilia A patients: blood group O patients are at risk of bleeding complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, H C A M; Lock, J; Mathôt, R A A; Meijer, K; Peters, M; Laros-van Gorkom, B A P; van der Meer, F J M; Driessens, M H E; Leebeek, F W G; Fijnvandraat, K; Cnossen, M H

    2016-03-01

    ESSENTIALS: Targeting of factor VIII values is a challenge during perioperative replacement therapy in hemophilia. This study aims to identify the extent and predictors of factor VIII underdosing and overdosing. Blood group O predicts underdosing and is associated with perioperative bleeding. To increase quality of care and cost-effectiveness of treatment, refining of dosing is obligatory. Perioperative administration of factor VIII (FVIII) concentrate in hemophilia A may result in both underdosing and overdosing, leading to respectively a risk of bleeding complications and unnecessary costs. This retrospective observational study aims to identify the extent and predictors of underdosing and overdosing in perioperative hemophilia A patients (FVIII levels < 0.05 IU mL(-1)). One hundred nineteen patients undergoing 198 elective, minor, or major surgical procedures were included (median age 40 years, median body weight 75 kg). Perioperative management was evaluated by quantification of perioperative infusion of FVIII concentrate and achieved FVIII levels. Predictors of underdosing and (excessive) overdosing were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Excessive overdosing was defined as upper target level plus ≥ 0.20 IU mL(-1). Depending on postoperative day, 7-45% of achieved FVIII levels were under and 33-75% were above predefined target ranges as stated by national guidelines. A potential reduction of FVIII consumption of 44% would have been attained if FVIII levels had been maintained within target ranges. Blood group O and major surgery were predictive of underdosing (odds ratio [OR] 6.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.7-14.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-7.9). Blood group O patients had more bleeding complications in comparison to patients with blood group non-O (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.00-4.09). Patients with blood group non-O were at higher risk of overdosing (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-1.9). Additionally, patients treated with bolus infusions were at higher risk of excessive

  3. The Intersection of NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach and Higher Education: A Special Interest Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Smith, D.; Schultz, G.; Bianchi, L.; Blair, W.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents highlights from a group discussion on how the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) education and public outreach (EPO) community could better support undergraduate astronomy education through EPO products and resources - current and future - targeted at the college level. The discussion was organized by the SMD Astrophysics EPO Forum through a Special Interest Group Meeting at the 2010 ASP Annual Meeting in Boulder. Our session took advantage of the simultaneous presence of EPO professionals and the Cosmos in the Classroom participants to seek out diverse perspectives on and experiences in higher education.

  4. Early Detection of Risk Taking in Groups and Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    analysis  to   twitter  content  in  the... analysis  indicated  that   Twitter  messages  correspond  closely  in   tone  to  similarly  codified  results  from  news...Yardi, S., & Boyd, D. (2010). Dynamic debates: An analysis of group polarization over time on Twitter . Bulletin of Science, Technology &

  5. Understanding personal risk of oropharyngeal cancer: risk-groups for oncogenic oral HPV infection and oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, G; McNeel, T S; Fakhry, C

    2017-12-01

    Incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer is increasing. There is interest in identifying healthy individuals most at risk for development of oropharyngeal cancer to inform screening strategies. All data are from 2009 to 2014, including 13 089 people ages 20-69 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), oropharyngeal cancer cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER 18) registries (representing ∼28% of the US population), and oropharyngeal cancer mortality from National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Primary study outcomes are (i) prevalence of oncogenic HPV DNA in an oral rinse and gargle sample, and (ii) incident oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer. Oncogenic oral HPV DNA is detected in 3.5% of all adults age 20-69 years; however, the lifetime risk of oropharyngeal cancer is low (37 per 10 000). Among men 50-59 years old, 8.1% have an oncogenic oral HPV infection, 2.1% have an oral HPV16 infection, yet only 0.7% will 'ever' develop oropharyngeal cancer in their lifetime. Oncogenic oral HPV prevalence was higher in men than women, and increased with number of lifetime oral sexual partners and tobacco use. Men who currently smoked and had ≥5 lifetime oral sexual partners had 'elevated risk' (prevalence = 14.9%). Men with only one of these risk factors (i.e. either smoked and had 2-4 partners or did not smoke and had ≥5 partners) had 'medium risk' (7.3%). Regardless of what other risk factors participants had, oncogenic oral HPV prevalence was 'low' among those with only ≤1 lifetime oral sexual partner (women = 0.7% and men = 1.7%). Screening based upon oncogenic oral HPV detection would be challenging. Most groups have low oncogenic oral HPV prevalence. In addition to the large numbers of individuals who would need to be screened to identify prevalent oncogenic oral HPV, the lifetime risk of developing oropharyngeal caner among those with infection remains

  6. Higher risk of complications in odynophagia-associated dysphagia in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Fontes Luchesi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective This investigation aimed to identify associated factors with dysphagia severity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Method We performed a cross-sectional study of 49 patients with ALS. All patients underwent fiberoptic endoscopy evaluation of swallowing and answered a verbal questionnaire about swallowing complaints. The patients were divided into groups according to dysphagia severity. Results Among the factors analyzed, only odynophagia was associated with moderate or severe dysphagia. Conclusion Odynophagia was associated with moderate and severe dysphagia in ALS and suggests a high risk of pulmonary and nutritional complications.

  7. Do obese adults have a higher risk of asthma attack when exposed to indoor mold? A study based on the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiao-Jun; Balluz, Lina; Mokdad, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Some studies show an association between asthma and obesity, but it is unknown whether exposure to mold will increase the risk of asthma attacks among obese people. This study examined whether obese adults have a higher risk of asthma attacks than non-obese adults when exposed to indoor mold. We used data from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to conduct a cross-sectional analysis among 9,668 respondents who reported exposure to indoor mold. With exposure to indoor mold, weighted prevalence of asthma attacks among obese respondents was 11.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0, 20.6], which was 2.3 times as high as among the exposed non-obese respondents (5.0%, 95% CI 2.8, 8.8). This ratio was almost the same as the ratio of 2.0:1 between the obese respondents (5.7%, 95% CI 4.6, 7.2) and the non-obese respondents (2.8%, 95% CI 2.3, 3.9) when neither group had exposure to mold. The odds ratio of asthma attack among obese people was 3.10 (95% CI 1.10, 8.67) for those with exposure to mold and 2.21 (95% CI 1.54, 3.17) for those without exposure to mold after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Our study suggests that obese adults who have been exposed to indoor mold may not necessarily have a higher risk of asthma attack than obese adults who have not been exposed, even though obesity and exposure to indoor mold are both major risk factors for asthma attack. Medical professionals should not only incorporate weight-control or weight-reduction measures as the components of asthma treatment plans, but also advise asthma patients to avoid exposure to indoor mold.

  8. Latex allergy: new insights to explain different sensitization profiles in different risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, C; Tavares-Ratado, P; Tomás, M R; Taborda-Barata, L; Tomaz, C T

    2008-07-01

    Differences in latex allergen sensitization profiles have been described between children subjected to repetitive surgical interventions and health care workers (HCW). 'Major' allergens for patients with spina bifida are Hev b 1, 3 and 7, while for HCW, 'major' allergens are Hev b 2, 5, 6.01 and 13. The reason for these differential sensitization profiles is currently unknown. To investigate latex allergen profiles on internal and external surfaces of natural rubber latex gloves. Eighty-two samples of commonly used surgical gloves (41 glove brands) were used for analysis. Specific allergen levels of Hev b 1, 3, 5 and 6.02 on both surfaces of the gloves were quantified using an enzyme immunometric assay, a FITkit (FIT Biotech, Tampere, Finland). Differences in allergen levels were observed between internal and external surfaces of all glove types. Concentrations of Hev b 1 and Hev b 3 were significantly higher on external surfaces, while internal surfaces had higher allergen levels of Hev b 5 and Hev b 6.02. Analysis of surgical and examination gloves, powdered and nonpowdered gloves also showed that the content of Hev b 5 and Hev b 6.02 was significantly higher on internal surfaces while that of Hev b 1 and Hev b 3 was higher on external surfaces. Our study showed different allergen profiles on internal and external surfaces of natural rubber latex gloves. These results may suggest a relationship between latex allergen localization and sensitization routes in different risk groups.

  9. Risk and Threat via Online Social Network among Academia at Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker Hussain, Hanizan; Din, Roshidi; Zulkarnaen Khidzir, Nik; Azhar Mat Daud, Khairul; Ahmad, Suzastri

    2018-05-01

    The evolution of information and communication technologies (ICT) nowadays has changed the life style of human living. The current modern societies have adopted ICT as an important thing that they are really needed in their life, especially as a tool to be used for communications activity. However, unfortunately ICT also exposed its user in circumstances of risk, threats and vulnerability. This paper will discuss the risk and threats to the users who are using social media as a medium to communicate. In this paper, the fraction of user will be divided by two types which are gender and working experience. The data that obtained from the distributed of questionnaires among respondent will be analysed by using SPSS. Data will be analysed by using two-way ANOVA statistic in order to examine the significant level in between gender and working experience as an independent variable in this study with the level of threats in cybersecurity risk towards lecturers who are working in higher education institutions in Malaysia. This article also will provide an empirical data and will be referred to another researcher in the future for their further research perhaps.

  10. Does Smoking History Confer a Higher Risk for Reconstructive Complications in Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jordan D; Alperovich, Michael; Levine, Jamie P; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S

    2017-07-01

    History of smoking has been implicated as a risk factor for reconstructive complications in nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM), however there have been no direct analyses of outcomes in smokers and nonsmokers. All patients undergoing NSM at New York University Langone Medical Center from 2006 to 2014 were identified. Outcomes were compared for those with and without a smoking history and stratified by pack-year smoking history and years-to-quitting (YTQ). A total of 543 nipple-sparing mastectomies were performed from 2006 to 2014 with a total of 49 in patients with a history of smoking. Reconstructive outcomes in NSM between those with and without a smoking history were equivalent. Those with a smoking history were not significantly more likely to have mastectomy flap necrosis (p = 0.6251), partial (p = 0.8564), or complete (p = 0.3365) nipple-areola complex (NAC) necrosis. Likewise, active smokers alone did not have a higher risk of complications compared to nonsmokers or those with smoking history. Comparing nonsmokers and those with a less or greater than 10 pack-year smoking history, those with a > 10 pack-year history had significantly more complete NAC necrosis (p = 0.0114, smoking history or >5 YTQ prior to NSM were equivalent to those without a smoking history. We demonstrate that NSM may be safely offered to those with a smoking history although a > 10 pack-year smoking history or <5 YTQ prior to NSM may impart a higher risk of reconstructive complications, including complete NAC necrosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Lower zinc bioavailability may be related to higher risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in Korean adults.

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    Su Kyoung Jung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a proposed link between dietary zinc intake and atherosclerosis, but this relationship remains unclear. Phytate may contribute to this relationship by influencing zinc bioavailability. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between zinc bioavailability and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy Korean adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the Korean multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study (MRCohort, which is a part of The Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES. A total of 5,532 subjects (2,116 men and 3,416 women aged 40 years and older were recruited from rural communities in South Korea between 2005 and 2010. Phytate:zinc molar ratio, estimated from a food-based food frequency questionnaire (FFQ of 106 food items, was used to determine zinc bioavailability, and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT and pulse wave velocity (PWV were measured to calculate the subclinical atherosclerotic index. RESULTS: We found that phytate:zinc molar ratio is positively related to cIMT in men. A higher phytate:zinc molar ratio was significantly related to an increased risk of atherosclerosis in men, defined as the 80(th percentile value of cIMT (5(th vs. 1(st quintile, OR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.42-3.15, P for trend = 0.0009, and especially in elderly men (5(th vs. 1(st quintile, OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.52-4.37, P for trend = 0.0021. We found a positive relationship between phytate:zinc molar ratio and atherosclerosis risk among women aged 65 years or younger. Phytate:zinc molar ratio was not found to be related to PWV. CONCLUSIONS: Lower zinc bioavailability may be related to higher atherosclerosis risk.

  12. Plantar pitted keratolysis: a study from non-risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Feride Kaptanoglu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pitted keratolysis is an acquired, superficial bacterial infection of the skin which is characterized by typical malodor and pits in the hyperkeratotic areas of the soles. It is more common in barefooted people in tropical areas, or those who have to wear occlusive shoes, such as soldiers, sailors and athletes. In this study, we evaluated 41 patients who had been diagnosed with plantar pitted keratolysis. The patients were of high socioeconomic status, were office-workers, and most had a university degree. Malodor and plantar hyperhydrosis were the most frequently reported symptoms. The weight-bearing metatarsal parts of the feet were those most affected. Almost half the women in the study gave a history of regular pedicure and foot care in a spa salon. Mean treatment duration was 19 days. All patients were informed about the etiology of the disease, predisposing factors and preventive methods. Recurrences were observed in only 17% of patients during the one year follow-up period. This study emphasizes that even malodorous feet among non-risk city dwellers may be a sign of plantar pitted keratolysis. A study of the real incidence of the disease in a large population-based series is needed.

  13. The relationship between health risks and health and productivity costs among employees at Pepsi Bottling Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Rachel M; Carls, Ginger S; Short, Meghan E; Pei, Xiaofei; Wang, Shaohung; Moley, Susan; Sullivan, Mark; Goetzel, Ron Z

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate relationships between modifiable health risks and costs and measure potential cost savings from risk reduction programs. Health risk information from active Pepsi Bottling Group employees who completed health risk assessments between 2004 and 2006 (N = 11,217) were linked to medical care, workers' compensation, and short-term disability cost data. Ten health risks were examined. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate costs associated with having high risk, holding demographics, and other risks constant. Potential savings from risk reduction were estimated. High risk for weight, blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol had the greatest impact on total costs. A one-percentage point annual reduction in the health risks assessed would yield annual per capita savings of $83.02 to $103.39. Targeted programs that address modifiable health risks are expected to produce substantial cost reductions in multiple benefit categories.

  14. Depression with melancholic features is associated with higher long-term risk for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões do Couto, Frederico; Lunet, Nuno; Ginó, Sandra; Chester, Catarina; Freitas, Vanda; Maruta, Carolina; Figueira, Maria Luísa; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2016-09-15

    Depression has been reported to increase the risk of subsequently developing dementia, but the nature of this relation remains to be elucidated. Depression can be a prodrome/manifestation of dementia or an early risk factor, and the effect may differ according to depression subtypes. Our aim was to study the association between early-onset depression and different depression subtypes, and the later occurrence of dementia. We conducted a cohort study including 322 subjects with depression, recruited between 1977 and 1984. A comparison cohort (non-exposed) was recruited retrospectively, to include 322 subjects admitted at the same hospital for routine surgery (appendicectomy or cholecystectomy), at the same period as the depressed cohort. Subjects were contacted again between 2009 and 2014, to assess their dementia status. We computed the risk for dementia in subjects with early onset depression and quantified the association between different depression subtypes (namely melancholic, anxious, and psychotic) and dementia. The odds of dementia were increased by 2.90 times (95% C.I. 1.61-5.21; pdepressed cohort when compared to the surgical cohort. When the analysis was restricted to patients younger than 45 years old at baseline, the odds for dementia in the depressed cohort were also significantly higher when compared to the surgical cohort (8.53; 95% C.I. 2.40-30.16). In the multivariate Cox analysis, subjects having depression with melancholic features had an increased risk for developing dementia compared to those without melancholic features (HR=3.64; 95% C.I. 1.78-11.26; p=0.025). About 59% of the participants with depression and 53% of those non-exposed were lost during follow up. The inclusion of biological biomarkers would strengthen the results. The sample included a low number of bipolar patients. These results support depression as an early risk factor for dementia. Depression with melancholic features was found as an important risk factor for dementia

  15. Are fashion models a group at risk for eating disorders and substance abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonastaso, Paolo; Mondini, Silvia; Favaro, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Few studies to date have investigated whether in fact the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) and/or use of illicit drugs is higher among models than among other groups of females. A group of 63 professional fashion models of various nationalities were studied by means of self-reported questionnaires. They were compared with a control group of 126 female subjects recruited from the general population. Fashion models weigh significantly less than controls, but only a small percentage of them uses unhealthy methods to control their weight. The current frequency of full-syndrome ED did not differ between the groups, but partial-syndrome ED were significantly more common among fashion models than among controls. Current substance use or alcohol abuse was reported by 35% of fashion models and 12% of controls. Our findings suggest that fashion models are more at risk for partial ED and use of illicit drugs than females in the general population. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Risk factors for gingivitis in a group of Brazilian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapinotto, Fabiana Amaral; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Corrêa, Fernanda Oliveira Bello; Masotti, Alexandre Severo

    2013-01-01

    Studies on gingivitis in children and adolescents are scarce and the results are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and extension of gingivitis and associated factors in Brazilian schoolchildren. Cross-sectional data from 1,211 schoolchildren 8 to 12 years old from Southern Brazil in 20 public and private schools were analyzed. Socioeconomic, demographic, and oral hygiene habits were assessed by questionnaires answered by parents and children. Buccal examination assessed presence of plaque, crowding, and gingivitis. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression [prevalence ratio (PR); 95% confidence interval (CI)]. Prevalence of visible plaque was 89.7% (95% CI 88.0-91.3) and gingival bleeding on probing was 78.4% (95% CI 76.1-81.0). The mean and median numbers of sites with gingival bleeding were 3.10 and 2 (SD ± 3.22), respectively. In multivariate adjusted analysis, the presence of a greater number of sites with plaque was significantly associated with gingivitis (PR 1.26; 95% CI 1.07-1.47) and its extension (PR 1.96; 95% CI 1.53-2.51). Lighter-skinned black children had a lower probability of having severe gingivitis (PR 0.69; 95% CI 0.48-0.98) compared with white children. This association was observed after adjusting for other variables. Gingivitis was associated with higher number of sites with plaque and with skin color, reflecting the influence of biological and demographic factors on this oral condition. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  17. Characterization of the vaginal microbiota among sexual risk behavior groups of women with bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzny, Christina A; Sunesara, Imran R; Kumar, Ranjit; Mena, Leandro A; Griswold, Michael E; Martin, David H; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Schwebke, Jane R; Swiatlo, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) remains elusive. BV may be more common among women who have sex with women (WSW). The objective of this study was to use 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the vaginal microbiome of WSW, women who have sex with women and men (WSWM), and women who have sex with men (WSM) with BV to determine if there are differences in organism composition between groups that may inform new hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of BV. Vaginal swab specimens from eligible women with BV at the Mississippi State Department of Health STD Clinic were used. After DNA extraction, 454 pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences was performed. Sequence data was classified using the Ribosomal Database Program classifer. Complete linkage clustering analysis was performed to compare bacterial community composition among samples. Differences in operational taxonomic units with an abundance of ≥ 2% between risk behavior groups were determined. Alpha and beta diversity were measured using Shannon's Index implemented in QIIME and Unifrac analysis, respectively. 33 WSW, 35 WSWM, and 44 WSM were included. The vaginal bacterial communities of all women clustered into four taxonomic groups with the dominant taxonomic group in each being Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotella, and Sneathia. Regarding differences in organism composition between risk behavior groups, the abundance of Atopobium (relative ratio (RR)=0.24; 95%CI 0.11-0.54) and Parvimonas (RR=0.33; 95%CI 0.11-0.93) were significantly lower in WSW than WSM, the abundance of Prevotella was significantly higher in WSW than WSWM (RR=1.77; 95%CI 1.10-2.86), and the abundance of Atopobium (RR=0.41; 95%CI 0.18-0.88) was significantly lower in WSWM than WSM. Overall, WSM had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa. The microbiology of BV among women in different risk behavior groups is heterogeneous. WSM in this study had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa. Additional studies are

  18. Characterization of the vaginal microbiota among sexual risk behavior groups of women with bacterial vaginosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A Muzny

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV remains elusive. BV may be more common among women who have sex with women (WSW. The objective of this study was to use 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the vaginal microbiome of WSW, women who have sex with women and men (WSWM, and women who have sex with men (WSM with BV to determine if there are differences in organism composition between groups that may inform new hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of BV.Vaginal swab specimens from eligible women with BV at the Mississippi State Department of Health STD Clinic were used. After DNA extraction, 454 pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences was performed. Sequence data was classified using the Ribosomal Database Program classifer. Complete linkage clustering analysis was performed to compare bacterial community composition among samples. Differences in operational taxonomic units with an abundance of ≥ 2% between risk behavior groups were determined. Alpha and beta diversity were measured using Shannon's Index implemented in QIIME and Unifrac analysis, respectively.33 WSW, 35 WSWM, and 44 WSM were included. The vaginal bacterial communities of all women clustered into four taxonomic groups with the dominant taxonomic group in each being Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotella, and Sneathia. Regarding differences in organism composition between risk behavior groups, the abundance of Atopobium (relative ratio (RR=0.24; 95%CI 0.11-0.54 and Parvimonas (RR=0.33; 95%CI 0.11-0.93 were significantly lower in WSW than WSM, the abundance of Prevotella was significantly higher in WSW than WSWM (RR=1.77; 95%CI 1.10-2.86, and the abundance of Atopobium (RR=0.41; 95%CI 0.18-0.88 was significantly lower in WSWM than WSM. Overall, WSM had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa.The microbiology of BV among women in different risk behavior groups is heterogeneous. WSM in this study had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa. Additional studies

  19. Financial risk relationships and adoption of management strategies in physician groups for self-administered injectable drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Jonathan D; Stebbins, Marilyn R; Hickman, David E; Lipton, Helene Levins

    2003-01-01

    To consider the extent, nature, and range of risk arrangements between physician groups and health maintenance organizations (HMOs) for self-administered injectable (SAI) drugs; to examine types and frequencies of SAI drug-use management strategies adopted by physician groups; and to explore the relationship between locus and level of financial risk for SAIs and physician group strategy adoption. We used a multiple case-study design to select physician groups and their health maintenance organization (HMO) contractual partners in 4 markets in the United States (Northwest, Northeast, Midwest, Southwest). Physician groups in these markets were chosen based on size (e50 physicians) and experience with drug risk (e1 year). Physician groups were asked to identify their 3 major HMO contractual partners in each market. Telephone interviews were conducted from January 2000 to June 2001, with the resulting purposive sample of 37 individuals representing 20 physician groups. We found that the level and locus of SAI financial risk were related to the adoption of management strategies. Physician groups with higher financial risk for SAIs adopted more strategies than lower-risk groups. Groups with SAI financial risk in the medical services capitation (MSC) adopted 9.2 strategies per group. In contrast, groups with SAI financial risk in the pharmacy-risk budget (PRB) averaged 1.5 strategies per group. Groups with SAI financial risk in both the MSC and PRB fell in-between, averaging 4.5 strategies per group. The most frequently adopted strategy was designing evidenced-based therapeutic guidelines, i.e., protocols based on evidence from the peer-reviewed literature used to guide physicians in the treatment of typically chronic conditions (9 groups, 45% of sample). The second most common strategy involved adapting the existing utilization management system to process SAIs (7 groups, 35%) and the establishment of office procedures for internal authorization (5 groups, 25%). The

  20. Combining social and genetic networks to study HIV transmission in mixing risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarrabi, N.; Prosperi, M.C.F.; Belleman, R.G.; Di Giambenedetto, S.; Fabbiani, M.; De Luca, A.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Reconstruction of HIV transmission networks is important for understanding and preventing the spread of the virus and drug resistant variants. Mixing risk groups is important in network analysis of HIV in order to assess the role of transmission between risk groups in the HIV epidemic. Most of the

  1. High adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with cardiovascular protection in higher but not in lower socioeconomic groups: prospective findings from the Moli-sani study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Pounis, George; Costanzo, Simona; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Cerletti, Chiara; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2017-10-01

    It is uncertain whether the cardiovascular benefits associated with Mediterranean diet (MD) may differ across socioeconomic groups. Prospective analysis on 18991 men and women aged ≥35 years from the general population of the Moli-sani cohort (Italy). Adherence to MD was appraised by the Mediterranean diet score (MDS). Household income (euros/year) and educational level were used as indicators of socioeconomic status. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated by multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Over 4.3 years of follow-up, 252 cardiovascular disease (CVD) events occurred. Overall, a two-point increase in MDS was associated with 15% reduced CVD risk (95% confidence interval: 1% to 27%). Such association was evident in highly (HR = 0.43; 0.25-0.72) but not in less (HR = 0.94; 0.78-1.14) educated subjects (P for interaction = 0.042). Similarly, CVD advantages associated with the MD were confined to the high household income group (HR = 0.39; 0.23-0.66, and HR = 1.01; 0.79-1.29 for high- and low-income groups, respectively; P for interaction = 0.0098). In a subgroup of individuals of different socioeconomic status but sharing similar MDS, diet-related disparities were found as different intakes of antioxidants and polyphenols, fatty acids, micronutrients, dietary antioxidant capacity, dietary diversity, organic vegetables and whole grain bread consumption. MD is associated with lower CVD risk but this relationship is confined to higher socioeconomic groups. In groups sharing similar scores of adherence to MD, diet-related disparities across socioeconomic groups persisted. These nutritional gaps may reasonably explain at least in part the socioeconomic pattern of CVD protection from the MD. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  2. Comparison of the Mini Mental State Examination and depressive symptoms between high cardiovascular risk and healthy community elderly groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Amanda Lucas; Varela, Juliana Santos; Mazetti, Osmar; Restelatto, Luciane; Costa, Andry Fitterman; Godinho, Claudia; Camozzato, Ana Luiza; Picon, Paulo D.; Chaves, Márcia L.

    2008-01-01

    The aging of the population is a universal phenomenon with direct consequences upon the public health system. One of the main repercussions of the growth in this sector of the population is the increased prevalence of disorders such as dementia and depression which are very frequent among the elderly. The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors, dementia and depression have been addressed in many recent investigations. Objectives To evaluate the relationship of cognitive performance and depressive symptoms with cardiovascular risk in the elderly. Methods 94 high cardiovascular risk elderly patients and 160 healthy community elderly were evaluated cross-sectionally. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) were used as the main measures. The cutoff for presence of depression was 6 on the GDS. Results The high cardiovascular risk elderly group showed significantly lower scores on the MMSE (p<0.001) and was significantly associated to depression (p<0.001), independently of education. The logistic regression analysis for depression as the dependent variable, age and group (healthy community or high cardiovascular risk elderly) were kept in the final equation. Higher age (Odds Ratio=0.92; 95% CI 0.86–0.98) and high cardiovascular risk elderly (OR=2.99; 95% CI 1.36–6.59) were associated to depression. Conclusions The present findings corroborate the different cognitive performance of elderly with high cardiovascular risk factors and the association of depressive symptoms with this group. PMID:29213588

  3. Comparing risk factors in a group of obese children and group of athlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Pastucha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasing problem that more and more often affects children, thus not only the adult population. The aim of this thesis is to compare various elements and life habits of obese children with elements and habits of children practising athletics. These processes are physical activity, healthstate, eating habits, physical condition, breast-feeding period duration and the BMI of the children's parents. We have come upon an agreement with other authors that while comparing the BMI results of the parents, the two sets differed significantly. It was clearly indicated that obese children also have overweight or obese parents. Therefore it can be said that obesity is usually a problem of the whole actual family and its life-style. Regarding birth-weight, breast-feeding period duration, participation in P.E. class or a time spent watching TV or playing a computer, no major differences were noted. However, slight differences in favour to the athletes were seen in their good eating habits, their body-posture and their interest in sports in general. Here, the intensity with which active children practise sports and the time they devote to it are much higher and bigger than the energy and time spent on sports by obese children.

  4. Higher visceral fat area increases the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meilin; Li, Ping; Zhu, Yufeng; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Visceral fat area (VFA), a novel sex-specific index for visceral fat obesity (VFO) might play a major role in the development of vitamin D deficiency. However, the association between VFA and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in Chinese population is less clear. The aim of this study was to explore the population-level association between VFA and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency among Chinese men and women. This cross-sectional study involved 1105 adults aged 20-70 years living in Tianjin who were randomly selected and medically examined. All subjects underwent the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method to estimate the VFA. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH) D3) level was assayed by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and defined insufficiency and deficiency following recommended cutoffs. The association between VFA and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was estimated using binary regression analysis. The total prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (25(OH) D3: 20-29 μg/L) and deficiency (25(OH) D3  0.05). Moreover, increased VFA was observed to be associated with higher vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency risk with a positive dose-response trend (P for trend convenience surrogate marker for visceral adipose measurement and could be used in identifying the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in routine health examination.

  5. Road to the Future. General Aspects of Brazilian Higher Education and a Brief Comparison with Other Educational Modes. Yale Higher Education Research Group Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simao, Jose Veiga

    After a brief explanation of the economic and social background of Brazil, its educational system is described and the prospects for higher education there are explored. Like most nations, Brazil's higher education system is unique and adapted to its own needs. Its system bears similarities to both European and American traditions. In the near…

  6. Comparing the Central Eight Risk Factors: Do They Differ Across Age Groups of Sex Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilpert, Julia; van Horn, Joan E; Boonmann, Cyril

    2018-02-01

    Following the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model, cognitive-behavioral therapy is considered most effective in reducing recidivism when based on dynamic risk factors. As studies have found differences of these factors across age, exploring this seems beneficial. The current study investigates the Central Eight (C8) risk factors across six age groups of outpatient sex offenders ( N = 650). Results showed that recidivism rates and age were inversely related from 19 years and up. Half of the C8 did not predict general recidivism at all, substance abuse, antisocial cognition, antisocial associates, and history of antisocial behavior in only one or several age groups. However, factors differed between age groups, with the youngest group demonstrating the most dysfunction in several areas and the oldest group the least. It is concluded that the C8 risk factors seem to lose significance in the older age groups. Results may benefit targeting treatment goals.

  7. Should elderly patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Amer M; Gore, Steven D

    2013-10-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) include a group of hematopoietic malignancies characterized by dysplastic changes, ineffective hematopoiesis and variable risk of leukemic progression. At diagnosis, 86% of MDS patients are ≥60 years. Azacitidine, the only drug that prolongs life in high-risk (HR)-MDS patients, adds a median of only 9.5 months to life. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) remains the only potentially curative approach. Despite recent improvements including use of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) that decrease transplant-related mortality, alloSCT continues to be used rarely in elderly MDS. There is paucity of data regarding outcomes of RIC alloSCT in elderly MDS patients, especially in direct comparison with azanucleosides. In this paper, the authors discuss the recent Markov decision analysis by Koreth et al. in which investigators demonstrated superior survival of patients with HR-MDS aged 60-70 years who underwent RIC alloSCT in comparison with those who were treated with azanucleosides.

  8. Depression evaluation in an attendance group for high-risk pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Said Daher Baptista; Makilim Nunes Baptista

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to verify the variation of depression symptomatology in an informative high-risk post-partum group of pregnant (GAGER). Six high-risk pregnant women, from a University Hospital participated in this research, and they were evaluated four times: first, before forming the group; second, after two participations in this group; third, 24 to 36 hours after partum; and, four weeks post-partum. The instruments used were a Psychological Clinic Interview and, the Edinburgh Po...

  9. Higher Fluid Balance Increases the Risk of Death From Sepsis: Results From a Large International Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Yasser; Rubatto Birri, Paolo Nahuel; Kotfis, Katarzyna; Nanchal, Rahul; Shah, Bhagyesh; Kluge, Stefan; Schroeder, Mary E; Marshall, John C; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2017-03-01

    Excessive fluid therapy in patients with sepsis may be associated with risks that outweigh any benefit. We investigated the possible influence of early fluid balance on outcome in a large international database of ICU patients with sepsis. Observational cohort study. Seven hundred and thirty ICUs in 84 countries. All adult patients admitted between May 8 and May 18, 2012, except admissions for routine postoperative surveillance. For this analysis, we included only the 1,808 patients with an admission diagnosis of sepsis. Patients were stratified according to quartiles of cumulative fluid balance 24 hours and 3 days after ICU admission. ICU and hospital mortality rates were 27.6% and 37.3%, respectively. The cumulative fluid balance increased from 1,217 mL (-90 to 2,783 mL) in the first 24 hours after ICU admission to 1,794 mL (-951 to 5,108 mL) on day 3 and decreased thereafter. The cumulative fluid intake was similar in survivors and nonsurvivors, but fluid balance was less positive in survivors because of higher fluid output in these patients. Fluid balances became negative after the third ICU day in survivors but remained positive in nonsurvivors. After adjustment for possible confounders in multivariable analysis, the 24-hour cumulative fluid balance was not associated with an increased hazard of 28-day in-hospital death. However, there was a stepwise increase in the hazard of death with higher quartiles of 3-day cumulative fluid balance in the whole population and after stratification according to the presence of septic shock. In this large cohort of patients with sepsis, higher cumulative fluid balance at day 3 but not in the first 24 hours after ICU admission was independently associated with an increase in the hazard of death.

  10. Higher Risk of Homicide Among Pregnant and Postpartum Females Aged 10-29 Years in Illinois, 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Abigail R; Rosenberg, Deborah; Geller, Stacie E

    2016-09-01

    To examine whether being pregnant or postpartum was associated with excess risk for homicide among females in Illinois and to describe the association between pregnancy status and homicide by race, ethnicity, and age group. This is a retrospective, multicohort, ecologic study of females of reproductive age in Illinois between 2002 and 2011 using Illinois Department of Public Health maternal mortality data and vital records data. We compared pregnancy-associated homicides with live births using χ tests. Among maternal deaths in the state, we calculated mortality rates per 100,000 live births for homicide and other violent causes and the leading direct obstetric causes. We calculated aggregate, pregnancy-associated, and nonpregnancy associated homicide rates stratified by race or ethnicity and age group. There were 636 pregnancy-associated deaths in Illinois from 2002 to 2011. Of these, 82 (13%) were the result of homicide (5.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.0-6.2]/100,000 live births). There were 931 homicides among females of reproductive age not associated with pregnancy (2.88 [95% CI 2.70-3.07]/100,000 population). More than half of the homicides were women aged 20-29 years (n=53 [64.6%]), non-Hispanic black women (n=43 [52.4%]), women residing in Cook County (n=47 [57.3%]), and unmarried women (n=57 [69.5%]). Pregnant and postpartum females aged 10-29 years were at twice the risk of homicide compared with their nonpregnant or postpartum counterparts (relative risk 2.20 [95% CI 1.70-2.85]). Non-Hispanic black and Hispanic females experienced higher rates of homicide than non-Hispanic white females irrespective of pregnancy or age. Although all violence against women must be addressed, we recommend that state maternal mortality review committees, in addition to reviewing deaths resulting from obstetric and clinical causes, should conduct in-depth reviews of pregnancy-associated homicides and other violent deaths.

  11. Body image concerns in professional fashion models: are they really an at-risk group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Szmigielska, Emilia

    2013-05-15

    Although professional models are thought to be a high-risk group for body image concerns, only a handful of studies have empirically investigated this possibility. The present study sought to overcome this dearth of information by comparing professional models and a matched sample on key indices of body image and appeared-related concerns. A group of 52 professional fashion models was compared with a matched sample of 51 non-models from London, England, on indices of weight discrepancy, body appreciation, social physique anxiety, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, internalization of sociocultural messages about appearance, and dysfunctional investment in appearance. Results indicated that professional models only evidenced significantly higher drive for thinness and dysfunctional investment in appearance than the control group. Greater duration of engagement as a professional model was associated with more positive body appreciation but also greater drive for thinness. These results indicate that models, who are already underweight, have a strong desire to maintain their low body mass or become thinner. Taken together, the present results suggest that interventions aimed at promoting healthy body image among fashion models may require different strategies than those aimed at the general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk transfer formula for individual and small group markets under the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Gregory C; Bachofer, Henry; Pearlman, Andrew; Kautter, John; Hunter, Elizabeth; Miller, Daniel; Keenan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act provides for a program of risk adjustment in the individual and small group health insurance markets in 2014 as Marketplaces are implemented and new market reforms take effect. The purpose of risk adjustment is to lessen or eliminate the influence of risk selection on the premiums that plans charge. The risk adjustment methodology includes the risk adjustment model and the risk transfer formula. This article is the third of three in this issue of the Medicare & Medicaid Research Review that describe the ACA risk adjustment methodology and focuses on the risk transfer formula. In our first companion article, we discussed the key issues and choices in developing the methodology. In our second companion paper, we described the risk adjustment model that is used to calculate risk scores. In this article we present the risk transfer formula. We first describe how the plan risk score is combined with factors for the plan allowable premium rating, actuarial value, induced demand, geographic cost, and the statewide average premium in a formula that calculates transfers among plans. We then show how each plan factor is determined, as well as how the factors relate to each other in the risk transfer formula. The goal of risk transfers is to offset the effects of risk selection on plan costs while preserving premium differences due to factors such as actuarial value differences. Illustrative numerical simulations show the risk transfer formula operating as anticipated in hypothetical scenarios.

  13. Risk selection and risk adjustment: improving insurance in the individual and small group markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicker, Katherine; Dow, William H

    2009-01-01

    Insurance market reforms face the key challenge of addressing the threat that risk selection poses to the availability, of stable, high-value insurance policies that provide long-term risk protection. Many of the strategies in use today fail to address this breakdown in risk pooling, and some even exacerbate it. Flexible risk adjustment schemes are a promising avenue for promoting market stability and limiting insurer cream-skimming, potentially providing greater benefits at lower cost. Reforms intended to increase insurance coverage and the value of care delivered will be much more effective if implemented in conjunction with policies that address these fundamental selection issues.

  14. School-related risk factors for drunkenness among adolescents: risk factors differ between socio-economic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors......) was measured by parental occupation. RESULTS: Among girls, exposures to school-related risk factors were more prevalent in lower socio-economic groups. Poor school satisfaction was associated with drunkenness among girls from high SEP, odds ratio (OR) = 2.98 (0.73-12.16). Among boys from high SEP autonomy...

  15. Chronic bronchitis is an independently associated factor for more symptom and high-risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi JY

    2016-06-01

    Korea since April 2012. CB patients were defined as having a chronic cough and sputum for 3 months per year, for a period of 2 consecutive years. We investigated the pattern of CAT and subquestionnaire scores between CB and non-CB patients. We also analyzed the proportion of CB phenotypes in each Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD stage. Finally, we performed a logistic regression analysis to identify whether the CB phenotype was an independently associated factor for more symptom and high-risk groups.Results: Of the 1,106 study patients, 11.5% of patients were found to have a CB phenotype. CB phenotypes were most common in GOLD III (GOLD 2006 and GOLD D (GOLD 2015 stages. CAT scores were significantly higher in CB patients not only in terms of the total score but also for each subquestionnaire. Logistic regression revealed that the CB phenotype is an independently associated factor for more symptom and high-risk groups.Conclusion: The present study revealed that CB patients have higher CAT scores and subquestionnaire results compared to non-CB patients. Additionally, we demonstrated that the CB phenotype is an independently associated factor for both more symptom and high-risk groups. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, COPD assess­ment test

  16. Role of age, sex, and obesity in the higher prevalence of arthritis among lower socioeconomic groups: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busija, Lucy; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Osborne, Richard H

    2007-05-15

    To compare the prevalence of arthritis among population groups based on demographic, socioeconomic, and body mass index (BMI) characteristics; to investigate the combined influence of these factors on arthritis; and to assess the relationship between self-reported health and psychological distress and arthritis. Data from the Victorian Population Health Survey (n = 7,500) were used in the study. Psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress scale, and self-reported health was assessed by a single item. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the combined influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors and BMI on arthritis. Overall, 23% of Victorian adults (20% men and 26% women) reported having arthritis. The presence of arthritis was associated with high psychological distress (odds ratio [OR] 1.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.1-1.4) and poor self-reported health (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.7-2.1). Increased prevalence of arthritis was found in older age groups, lower education and income groups, and in people who were overweight or obese. Women had higher risk of arthritis, even after adjustment for age, residence, education, occupation, income, and BMI. Age and BMI independently predicted arthritis for men and women. For men, higher risk of arthritis was also associated with lower income. Arthritis is a highly prevalent condition associated with poor health and high psychological distress. Prevalence of arthritis is disproportionately high among women and individuals from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. As the prevalence of arthritis is predicted to increase, careful consideration of causal factors, and setting priorities for resource allocation for the treatment and prevention of arthritis are required.

  17. How young people communicate risks of snowmobiling in northern Norway: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehus, Grete; Germeten, Sidsel; Henriksen, Nils

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to understand how the risks of snowmobiling are communicated among northern Norwegian youths. Study design. A qualitative design with focus group interviews was chosen. Interviews centred on safety precautions and estimation of risks related to snowmobiling and driving patterns. Eighty-one students (31 girls and 50 boys) aged between 16 and 23 years from 8 high schools were interviewed in 17 focus groups that were segregated by gender. Interview data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Boys and girls communicated differently about risks. Peer-group conformity appeared stronger among boys than girls. Boys did not spontaneously relate risks to their snowmobile activities, while girls did. Boys focused upon training, coping and balance between control and lack of control while driving. Girls talked about risks, were aware of risks and sought to avoid risky situations, in contrast to boys. Boys' risk communication in groups was about how to manage challenging situations. Their focus overall was on trying to maintain control while simultaneously testing their limits. Three risk categories emerged: those who drive as they ought to (mostly girls), those who occasionally take some risks (boys and girls) and those who are extreme risk-takers (a smaller number of boys). Perceptions of and communication about risk are related to gender, peer group and familiarity with risk-taking when snowmobiling. Northern Norwegian boys' driving behaviour highlights a specific need for risk reduction, but this must also draw upon factors such as acceptance of social and cultural codes and common sense related to snowmobiling.

  18. Asian Adolescents with Excess Weight are at Higher Risk for Insulin Resistance than Non-Asian Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsamadony, Ahmed; Yates, Kathy F; Sweat, Victoria; Yau, Po Lai; Mangone, Alex; Joseph, Adriana; Fierman, Arthur; Convit, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Asian American adolescents have higher metabolic risk from excess weight than non-Asians. Seven hundred thirty-three students, aged 14 to 19 years old, completed a school-based health screening. The 427 Asian and 306 non-Asian students were overall equivalent on age, sex, and family income. Height, weight, waist circumference, percent body fat, and blood pressure were measured. Fasting triglycerides, high- and low-density lipoproteins, glucose, and insulin levels were measured. Asian and non-Asians in lean or overweight/obesity groups were contrasted on the five factors that make up the metabolic syndrome. Asian adolescents carrying excess weight had significantly higher insulin resistance (IR), triglyceride levels, and waist-height ratios (W/H), despite a significantly lower overall BMI than corresponding non-Asians. Similarly, Asians had a stronger relationship between W/H and the degree of IR than non-Asian counterparts; 35% and 18% of the variances were explained (R 2  = 0.35, R 2  = 0.18) respectively, resulting in a significant W/H by racial group interaction (F change [1,236] = 11.56, P Asians have higher IR and triglyceride levels from excess weight than their non-Asian counterparts. One-size-fits-all public health policies targeting youth should be reconsidered and attention paid to Asian adolescents, including those with mild degrees of excess weight. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  19. Risk Assessment and Clinical Risk Management for Young Antisocial Children: The Forgotten Group

    OpenAIRE

    Augimeri, Leena; Child Development Institute; Walsh, Margaret; Child Development Institute; Woods, Sarah; Child Development Institute; Jiang, Depeng; University of Manitoba

    2012-01-01

    Centre for Children Committing Offences (CCCO), at Child Development Institute (CDI) in Toronto, Canada, developed Early Assessment Risk Lists (EARL-20B for boys; EARL-21G for girls), for young children at-risk for future criminality. In this first EARL prospective longitudinal study, 573 boys and 294 girls who participated in SNAP®, a gender-specific evidencebased model for at-risk children (6-11 years), 8.2% of boys and 3.1% of girls had registered criminal offences at follow up (mean age 1...

  20. Sterol 27-Hydroxylase Polymorphism Significantly Associates With Shorter Telomere, Higher Cardiovascular and Type-2 Diabetes Risk in Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Pavanello

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectivesThe pathologic relationship linking obesity and lipid dismetabolism with earlier onset of aging-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease (CVD and type-2 diabetes (T2D, is not fully elucidate. Chronic inflammatory state, in obese individuals, may accelerate cellular aging. However, leukocyte telomere length (LTL, the cellular biological aging indicator, is elusively linked with obesity. Recent studies indicate that sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1 is an emerging antiatherogenic enzyme, that, by converting extrahepatic cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol, facilitates cholesterol removal via high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C. We tested the hypothesis that obese subjects who carry at least three copies of CYP27A1 low-hydroxylation (LH activity genome-wide-validated alleles (rs4674345A, rs1554622A, and rs4674338G present premature aging, as reflected in shorter LTL and higher levels of CVD/T2D risk factors, including reduced HDL-C.Subjects/methodsObese subjects from SPHERE project {n = 1,457; overweight [body mass index (BMI 25–30 kg/m2] 65.8% and severe-obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2 34.2%} were characterized for the presence from 0 to 6 LH-CYP27A1 allele copy number. Univariate and multivariable sex–age–smoking-adjusted linear-regression models were performed to compare CVD/T2D risk factors and biological aging (LTL in relation to the combined BMI-LH groups: overweight-LH: 0–2, overweight-LH: 3–6, severe-obese-LH: 0–2, and severe-obese-LH: 3–6.ResultsHigher LTL attrition was found in severe-obese than overweight individuals (p < 0.001. Multivariable model reveals that among severe-obese patients those with LH: 3–6 present higher LTL attrition than LH: 0–2 (p < 0.05. Univariate and multivariable models remarkably show that insulin resistance is higher both in overweight-LH: 3–6 vs overweight-LH: 0–2 (p < 0.001 and in severe-obese-LH: 3–6 vs severe-obese-LH: 0–2 (p

  1. Higher tier field research in ecological risk assessment: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    A newly developed basic procedure for site-specific ecological risk assessment in The Netherlands was followed in practice for the first time. In line with conventional Triade approaches, the procedure includes multidisciplinary parameters from environmental chemistry, toxicology and ecology to provide multiple weight of evidence. However, land use at the contaminated site and its vicinity is given more importance, and research parameters are selected in accordance to specific objectives for land use in order to test for harmful effects to underlying ecosystem services. Moreover, the approach is characterized by repetitive interactions between stakeholders and researching consultants, in particular with respect to the choice of parameters and criteria to assess the results. The approach was followed in an ecological risk assessment to test the assumptions underlying a soil management plant for a rural area in The Netherlands, called 'Krimpenerwaard'. Throughout this region some 5000 polder ditches have been filled with waste materials originating from local households, waterway sludge, industrial wastes, car shredders, and more. Several sites are severely polluted by heavy metals, cyanide, PAH or chlorinated hydrocarbons and require remediation or clean up. However, the exact distribution of these wastes over the entire region is scarcely known, and the Krimpenerwaard as a whole is treated as one case of serious soil pollution. A soil management plan was constructed by 13 stakeholding parties, aiming for a 'functional clean up' in view of land use, by means of covering 'suspected' categories of wastes with a 30-cm layer of local type soil. The ecological risk assessment aims to verify the assumptions in the soil management plan regarding the prevention of possible undesirable effects induced by the various waste materials. A tiered approach is followed, including a screening for bioavailable contaminants, a testing for general effects

  2. ON THE EMPIRICAL FINDING OF A HIGHER RISK OF POVERTY IN RURAL AREAS: IS RURAL RESIDENCE ENDOGENOUS TO POVERTY?

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Monica G.

    2004-01-01

    Includes: On the Empirical Finding of a Higher Risk of Poverty in Rural Areas: Is Rural Residence Endogenous to Poverty?:COMMENT, by Thomas A. Hirschl; On the Empirical Finding of a Higher Risk of Poverty in Rural Areas: Is Rural Residence Endogenous to Poverty?: REPLY, by Monica Fisher. Research shows people are more likely to be poor in rural versus urban America. Does this phenomenon partly reflect that people who choose rural residence have unmeasured attributes related to human impoveris...

  3. A Policy Intervention Study to Identify High-Risk Groups to Prevent Industrial Accidents in Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Hyung Yi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The manufacturing industry, age over 50 years and workplaces with more than 50 employees showed a high severity level of occupational accidents. Male workers showed a higher severity level of occupational accidents than female workers. The employment period of < 3 years and newly hired workers with a relatively shorter working period are likely to have more occupational accidents than others. Overall, an industrial accident prevention policy must be established by concentrating all available resources and capacities of these high-risk groups.

  4. Groups of integral transforms generated by Lie algebras of second-and higher-order differential operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, S.; Wolf, K.B.

    1979-01-01

    The authors study the construction and action of certain Lie algebras of second- and higher-order differential operators on spaces of solutions of well-known parabolic, hyperbolic and elliptic linear differential equations. The latter include the N-dimensional quadratic quantum Hamiltonian Schroedinger equations, the one-dimensional heat and wave equations and the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation. In one approach, the usual similarity first-order differential operator algebra of the equation is embedded in the larger one, which appears as a quantum-mechanical dynamic algebra. In a second approach, the new algebra is built as the time evolution of a finite-transformation algebra on the initial conditions. In a third approach, the algebra to inhomogeneous similarity algebra is deformed to a noncompact classical one. In every case, we can integrate the algebra to a Lie group of integral transforms acting effectively on the solution space of the differential equation. (author)

  5. A balanced hazard ratio for risk group evaluation from survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branders, Samuel; Dupont, Pierre

    2015-07-30

    Common clinical studies assess the quality of prognostic factors, such as gene expression signatures, clinical variables or environmental factors, and cluster patients into various risk groups. Typical examples include cancer clinical trials where patients are clustered into high or low risk groups. Whenever applied to survival data analysis, such groups are intended to represent patients with similar survival odds and to select the most appropriate therapy accordingly. The relevance of such risk groups, and of the related prognostic factors, is typically assessed through the computation of a hazard ratio. We first stress three limitations of assessing risk groups through the hazard ratio: (1) it may promote the definition of arbitrarily unbalanced risk groups; (2) an apparently optimal group hazard ratio can be largely inconsistent with the p-value commonly associated to it; and (3) some marginal changes between risk group proportions may lead to highly different hazard ratio values. Those issues could lead to inappropriate comparisons between various prognostic factors. Next, we propose the balanced hazard ratio to solve those issues. This new performance metric keeps an intuitive interpretation and is as simple to compute. We also show how the balanced hazard ratio leads to a natural cut-off choice to define risk groups from continuous risk scores. The proposed methodology is validated through controlled experiments for which a prescribed cut-off value is defined by design. Further results are also reported on several cancer prognosis studies, and the proposed methodology could be applied more generally to assess the quality of any prognostic markers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Spontaneous analogising caused by text stimuli in design thinking: differences between higher- and lower-creativity groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Yang, Yu-Hsuan Sylvia; Liang, Chaoyun

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the cognitive processes used in creative practices is essential to design research. In this study, electroencephalography was applied to investigate the brain activations of visual designers when they responded to various types of word stimuli during design thinking. Thirty visual designers were recruited, with the top third and bottom third of the participants divided into high-creativity (HC) and low-creativity (LC) groups. The word stimuli used in this study were two short poems, adjectives with similar meanings, and adjectives with opposing meanings. The derived results are outlined as follows: (1) the brain activations of the designers increased in the frontal and right temporal regions and decreased in the right prefrontal region; (2) the negative association between the right temporal and middle frontal regions was notable; (3) the differences in activations caused by distinct word stimuli varied between HC and LC designers; (4) the spectral power in the middle frontal region of HC designers was lower than that of LC designers during the short love poem task; (5) the spectral power in the bilateral temporal regions of HC designers was higher than that of LC designers during the short autumn poem task; (6) the spectral power in the frontoparietal region of HC designers was lower than that of LC designers during the similar concept task; and (7) the spectral power in the frontoparietal and left frontotemporal regions of HC designers was higher than that of LC designers during the opposing concept task.

  7. High nutrition risk is associated with higher risk of dysphagia in advanced age adults newly admitted to hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popman, Amy; Richter, Marilize; Allen, Jacqueline; Wham, Carol

    2018-02-01

    To establish the prevalence of nutrition risk and associated risk factors among adults of advanced age newly admitted to hospital. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in adults aged over 85 years admitted to one of two hospital wards in Auckland within the previous 5 days. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to establish participant's socio-demographic and health characteristics. Markers of body composition and muscle strength were collected. Nutrition risk was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), dysphagia risk using the 10-Item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) and level of cognition using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. A total of 88 participants with a mean age of 90.0 ± 3.7 years completed the assessments. A third (28.4%) of the participants were categorised by the MNA-SF as malnourished and 43.2% were classified at risk of malnutrition. A third (29.5%) were at risk of dysphagia as assessed by EAT-10. Malnourished participants were more likely to be at risk of dysphagia (P = 0.015). The MNA-SF score was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.484, P strength (r = 0.250, P = 0.026) and negatively correlated with risk of dysphagia (r = -0.383, P strength and negatively correlated with dysphagia risk. Findings highlight the importance of screening for dysphagia risk, especially in those identified to be malnourished or at nutrition risk. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  8. Risk Factor Burden, Heart Failure, and Survival in Women of Different Ethnic Groups: Insights From the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breathett, Khadijah; Leng, Iris; Foraker, Randi E; Abraham, William T; Coker, Laura; Whitfield, Keith E; Shumaker, Sally; Manson, JoAnn E; Eaton, Charles B; Howard, Barbara V; Ijioma, Nkechinyere; Cené, Crystal W; Martin, Lisa W; Johnson, Karen C; Klein, Liviu

    2018-05-01

    The higher risk of heart failure (HF) in African-American and Hispanic women compared with white women is related to the higher burden of risk factors (RFs) in minorities. However, it is unclear if there are differences in the association between the number of RFs for HF and the risk of development of HF and death within racial/ethnic groups. In the WHI (Women's Health Initiative; 1993-2010), African-American (n=11 996), white (n=18 479), and Hispanic (n=5096) women with 1, 2, or 3+ baseline RFs were compared with women with 0 RF within their respective racial/ethnic groups to assess risk of developing HF or all-cause mortality before and after HF, using survival analyses. After adjusting for age, socioeconomic status, and hormone therapy, the subdistribution hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of developing HF increased as number of RFs increased ( P ethnicity and RF number P =0.18)-African-Americans 1 RF: 1.80 (1.01-3.20), 2 RFs: 3.19 (1.84-5.54), 3+ RFs: 7.31 (4.26-12.56); Whites 1 RF: 1.27 (1.04-1.54), 2 RFs: 1.95 (1.60-2.36), 3+ RFs: 4.07 (3.36-4.93); Hispanics 1 RF: 1.72 (0.68-4.34), 2 RFs: 3.87 (1.60-9.37), 3+ RFs: 8.80 (3.62-21.42). Risk of death before developing HF increased with subsequent RFs ( P ethnic group (interaction P =0.001). The number of RFs was not associated with the risk of death after developing HF in any group ( P =0.25; interaction P =0.48). Among diverse racial/ethnic groups, an increase in the number of baseline RFs was associated with higher risk of HF and death before HF but was not associated with death after HF. Early RF prevention may reduce the burden of HF across multiple racial/ethnic groups. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Multi-criteria Group Decision Making Approach for Teacher Recruitment in Higher Education under Simplified Neutrosophic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Mondal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teacher recruitment is a multi-criteria group decisionmaking process involving subjectivity, imprecision, and fuzziness that can be suitably represented by neutrosophic sets. Neutrosophic set, a generalization of fuzzy sets is characterized by a truth-membership function, falsity-membership function and an indeterminacy-membership function. These functions are real standard or non-standard subsets of ] 0-, 1+[ .There is no restriction on the sum of the functions, so the sum lies between ]0-, 3+[. A neutrosophic approach is a more general and suitable way to deal with imprecise information, when compared to a fuzzy set. The purpose of this study is to develop a neutrosophic multi-criteria group decision-making model based on hybrid scoreaccuracy functions for teacher recruitment in higher education. Eight criteria obtained from expert opinions are considered for recruitment process. The criteria are namely academic performance index, teaching aptitude, subject knowledge, research experience, leadership quality, personality, management capacity, and personal values. In this paper we use the score and accuracy functions and the hybrid score-accuracy functions of single valued neutrosophic numbers (SVNNs and ranking method for SVNNs. Then, multi-criteria group decision-making method with unknown weights for attributes and incompletely known weights for decision makers is used based on the hybrid score-accuracy functions under single valued neutrosophic environments. We use weight model for attributes based on the hybrid score-accuracy functions to derive the weights of decision makers and attributes from the decision matrices represented by the form of SVNNs to decrease the effect of some unreasonable evaluations. Moreover, we use the overall evaluation formulae of the weighted hybrid scoreaccuracy functions for each alternative to rank the alternatives and recruit the most desirable teachers. Finally, an educational problem for teacher selection is

  10. Association between ABO and Rh Blood Groups and Risk of Preeclampsia: A Case-Control Study from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghasadeghi, Firoozeh; Saadat, Mostafa

    2017-04-15

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is a genetic component in the development of PE with estimated heritability around 0.47. Several studies have investigated the association between maternal ABO blood groups (OMIM 110300) and risk of PE, with contradictory results have emerged. Considering that there is no study in this filed from Iranian population, the present case-control study was carried out at Shiraz (south-west Iran). In this study 331 women; 121 pregnant with PE and 210 normotensive pregnant women were included. Using blood group O (for ABO blood groups) or Rh+ (for Rh blood groups) as a reference, odds ratios (ORs) and its 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of PE risk were estimated from logistic regression analysis. Although the A (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.39-1.17, P = 0.165), B (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.48-1.53, P = 0.615) and AB (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.37-3.45, P = 0.812) phenotypes showed lower risks compared with the O blood group, statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant association between ABO phenotypes and risk of PE. The frequency of Rh- phenotype was higher among PE patients compared with the control group. However, the association was not significant (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 0.69-4.65, P = 0.229). Adjusted ORs for age of participants and parity did not change the above-mentioned associations. Our present findings indicate that there is no association between ABO and Rh blood groups and risk of PE in Iranian population.

  11. Associated Behavioral Risks in a Group of Women During Pregnancy from Mures District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Ruţa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well-known that the exposure during pregnancy to lifestyle risk factors can affect thehealth both for the mother and the fetus. There are many risk factors for pregnancy, including: smoking, alcohol consumption, sedentary pattern, irregular daily meal serving plan, lack of knowledge regarding health prevention. The main objective of our study was to assess the practices, knowledge and attitudes towards lifestyle risk behaviors during pregnancy in a group of women from Tirgu-Mures area.

  12. Higher relative, but lower absolute risks of myocardial infarction in women than in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuterwall, C; Hallqvist, J; Ahlbom, A

    1999-01-01

    Middle-aged men have often been the subjects of multifactorial studies of myocardial infarction (MI) risk factors. One major objective of the SHEEP study was to compare the effects of different MI risk factors in women and men.......Middle-aged men have often been the subjects of multifactorial studies of myocardial infarction (MI) risk factors. One major objective of the SHEEP study was to compare the effects of different MI risk factors in women and men....

  13. Perinatal and maternal outcomes in planned home and obstetric unit births in women at 'higher risk' of complications: secondary analysis of the Birthplace national prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Townend, J; Rowe, R; Brocklehurst, P; Knight, M; Linsell, L; Macfarlane, A; McCourt, C; Newburn, M; Marlow, N; Pasupathy, D; Redshaw, M; Sandall, J; Silverton, L; Hollowell, J

    2015-04-01

    To explore and compare perinatal and maternal outcomes in women at 'higher risk' of complications planning home versus obstetric unit (OU) birth. Prospective cohort study. OUs and planned home births in England. 8180 'higher risk' women in the Birthplace cohort. We used Poisson regression to calculate relative risks adjusted for maternal characteristics. Sensitivity analyses explored possible effects of differences in risk between groups and alternative outcome measures. Composite perinatal outcome measure encompassing 'intrapartum related mortality and morbidity' (intrapartum stillbirth, early neonatal death, neonatal encephalopathy, meconium aspiration syndrome, brachial plexus injury, fractured humerus or clavicle) and neonatal admission within 48 hours for more than 48 hours. Two composite maternal outcome measures capturing intrapartum interventions/adverse maternal outcomes and straightforward birth. The risk of 'intrapartum related mortality and morbidity' or neonatal admission for more than 48 hours was lower in planned home births than planned OU births [adjusted relative risks (RR) 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.81]. Adjustment for clinical risk factors did not materially affect this finding. The direction of effect was reversed for the more restricted outcome measure 'intrapartum related mortality and morbidity' (RR adjusted for parity 1.92, 95% CI 0.97-3.80). Maternal interventions were lower in planned home births. The babies of 'higher risk' women who plan birth in an OU appear more likely to be admitted to neonatal care than those whose mothers plan birth at home, but it is unclear if this reflects a real difference in morbidity. Rates of intrapartum related morbidity and mortality did not differ statistically significantly between settings at the 5% level but a larger study would be required to rule out a clinically important difference between the groups. © 2015 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John

  14. Giving in to Group Pressure: The Impact of Socialization and Risk on Perceived Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Katharine A.; Platania, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The current study applies the perspective of decision theory to understanding how choices are made in an in-group setting involving social pressure and risk. Two hundred sixty-one undergraduate students provided assessments of consequences associated with illegally consuming alcohol in different environments with differing degrees of risk. In…

  15. Econometric analyses of microfinance credit group formation, contractual risks and welfare impacts in Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhane Tesfay, G.

    2009-01-01

    Key words
    Microfinance, joint liability, contractual risk, group formation, risk-matching, impact evaluation, Panel data econometrics, dynamic panel probit, trend models, fixed-effects, composite counterfactuals, propensity score matching, farm households, Ethiopia.

    Lack of

  16. Sudden Cardiac arrest Risk profile in a group of amateur level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... males and females in this group of university basketball players showed varying signs of SCA risk, with the overall risk being reasonably low, albeit abnormalities were highlighted in some and Marfanoid characteristics were clearly evident in others. Key words: Sudden cardiac arrest; Basketball players, Marfan syndrome; ...

  17. Tumor mutational load and immune parameters across metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC) risk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Velasco, Guillermo; Miao, Diana; Voss, Martin H.; Hakimi, A. Ari; Hsieh, James J.; Tannir, Nizar M.; Tamboli, Pheroze; Appleman, Leonard J.; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Choueiri, Toni K.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) have better overall survival when treated with nivolumab, a cancer immunotherapy that targets the immune checkpoint inhibitor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), rather than everolimus (a chemical inhibitor of mTOR and immunosuppressant). Poor-risk mRCC patients treated with nivolumab seemed to experience the greatest overall survival benefit, compared to patients with favorable or intermediate-risk, in an analysis of the CheckMate-025 trial subgroup of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) prognostic risk groups. Here we explore whether tumor mutational load and RNA expression of specific immune parameters could be segregated by prognostic MSKCC risk strata and explain the survival seen in the poor-risk group. We queried whole exome transcriptome data in RCC patients (n = 54) included in The Cancer Genome Atlas that ultimately developed metastatic disease or were diagnosed with metastatic disease at presentation and did not receive immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nonsynonymous mutational load did not differ significantly by MSKCC risk group, nor was the expression of cytolytic genes –granzyme A and perforin – or selected immune checkpoint molecules different across MSKCC risk groups. In conclusion, this analysis found that mutational load and expression of markers of an active tumor microenvironment did not correlate with MSKCC risk prognostic classification in mRCC. PMID:27538576

  18. Decision Tree Identified Risk Groups with High Suicidal Ideation in South Korea: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Hyen; Hyoung, Hee Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk groups with high suicidal ideation among South Korean adults. A descriptive cross-sectional design was adopted using secondary data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 5,963 adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2011 KNHANES served as participants. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and its related factors, including physical, psychological, health behavioral, and sociodemographic characteristics, were examined. Descriptive statistics and a decision tree were used for data analysis. Nine groups with high suicidal ideation were identified. The coexistence of depression and high levels of stress increased the prevalence of suicidal ideation. The highest risk group was widowed or divorced adults with depression and high levels of stress, and 82.5% of these participants had suicidal ideation (the prevalence rate of this group was 5.7 times higher than the mean suicidal ideation prevalence rate in this study). Public health nurses and community mental health professionals should recognize risk groups with high suicidal ideation, and target these groups when implementing preventive interventions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Distribution of ABO blood groups in the patients with intracranial aneurysm and association of different risk factors with particular blood type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bir, Shyamal Chandra; Bollam, Papireddy; Nanda, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The association between ABO blood groups and intracranial aneurysms is not well-known. Many co-morbid factors are associated with intracranial aneurysms. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of different blood group in patients with intracranial aneurysm and to look for associations between risk factors and these groups. This retrospective study includes 1,491 cases who underwent surgical operations for intracranial aneurysms from 1993-2014. We have evaluated the information related to clinical history, ABO blood groups and associated risk factors in the patients both ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms by chart review of the cases. In our study, out of 1,491 cases, the most common ABO blood groups were group O (668 cases, 44.80%) and Group A (603 cases, 40.44%), and Rh(+) in 1,319 (88.4%) and Rh(-) in 147 (11.6%). Blood Group A (43% vs. 36%) and Group B (16.2% vs. 8.6%) were significantly higher in Caucasian and African Americans respectively. However, in general population, there was no significant difference in blood groups between Caucasians and African Americans. Rh(-) factor was significantly higher in Caucasians compared to African Americans. Incidence of smoking was significantly higher in aneurysm patients with O group compared to others. In addition, incidence of hypercholesterolemia was significantly higher in aneurysm patients with A group compared to others. The racial disparity in the distribution of blood groups, and risk factor association with blood groups in the development of intracranial aneurysm needs to be considered. The findings from our study may be useful in identifying patients at increased risk. Further study may be required to establish the risks from multiple centers studies around the world.

  20. Elderly women with metabolic syndrome present higher cardiovascular risk and lower relative muscle strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Darlan Lopes; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Teixeira, Tatiane Gomes; Vieira, Denis César Leite; Tarja, Vitor; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz [Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Coura, Maritza Alves de Sousa; Valduga, Renato [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira [Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Prestes, Jonato [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To compare the metabolic, anthropometric, arterial blood pressure, and muscle strength parameters of elderly women with and without metabolic syndrome. A case-control study with 27 (67.3±4.8 years of age, 31.0±5.0kg/m{sup 2}) elderly women with metabolic syndrome and 33 (68.8±5.6 years of age, 27.2±5.3kg/m{sup 2}) sedentary control elderly women. They were submitted to an evaluation of body composition by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle strength testing with 10 maximal repetitions of knee extension. When compared to the elderly women without metabolic syndrome, those with the metabolic syndrome had higher levels for body mass (72.2±13.5 versus 63.4±14.6kg, p=0.03), body mass index (31.0±5.0 versus 27.2±5.3kg/m{sup 2,} p=0.007), fat mass (30.9±9.9 versus 24.4±8.5kg, p=0.01), systolic arterial pressure (125.1±8.2 versus 119.3±8.7mmHg, p=0.01), diastolic arterial pressure (75.5±6.9 versus 71.4±6.7mmHg, p=0.03), mean arterial pressure (92.5±6.2 versus 87.1±6.7mmHg, p=0.004), blood glucose (103.8±19.1 versus 91.1±5.9mg/dL, p=0.001), triglycerides (187.1±70.2 versus 116.3±36.7mg/dL, p=0.001), and creatine kinase (122.6±58.6 versus 89.8±32.5U/L, p=0.01); lower levels were found for fat-free mass (55.9±5.8 versus 59.3±6.7%; p=0.05), HDL-C (40.7±5.0 versus 50.5±10.1mg/dL, p=0.001), and relative muscle strength (0.53±0.14 versus 0.62±0.12, p=0.01). Elderly women with metabolic syndrome have a higher cardiovascular risk and less relative muscle strength when compared to those without metabolic syndrome. Relative muscle strength may be related to the cardiovascularr risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Elderly women with metabolic syndrome present higher cardiovascular risk and lower relative muscle strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Darlan Lopes; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Teixeira, Tatiane Gomes; Vieira, Denis César Leite; Tarja, Vitor; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira; Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Coura, Maritza Alves de Sousa; Valduga, Renato; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Prestes, Jonato

    2013-01-01

    To compare the metabolic, anthropometric, arterial blood pressure, and muscle strength parameters of elderly women with and without metabolic syndrome. A case-control study with 27 (67.3±4.8 years of age, 31.0±5.0kg/m"2) elderly women with metabolic syndrome and 33 (68.8±5.6 years of age, 27.2±5.3kg/m"2) sedentary control elderly women. They were submitted to an evaluation of body composition by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle strength testing with 10 maximal repetitions of knee extension. When compared to the elderly women without metabolic syndrome, those with the metabolic syndrome had higher levels for body mass (72.2±13.5 versus 63.4±14.6kg, p=0.03), body mass index (31.0±5.0 versus 27.2±5.3kg/m"2", p=0.007), fat mass (30.9±9.9 versus 24.4±8.5kg, p=0.01), systolic arterial pressure (125.1±8.2 versus 119.3±8.7mmHg, p=0.01), diastolic arterial pressure (75.5±6.9 versus 71.4±6.7mmHg, p=0.03), mean arterial pressure (92.5±6.2 versus 87.1±6.7mmHg, p=0.004), blood glucose (103.8±19.1 versus 91.1±5.9mg/dL, p=0.001), triglycerides (187.1±70.2 versus 116.3±36.7mg/dL, p=0.001), and creatine kinase (122.6±58.6 versus 89.8±32.5U/L, p=0.01); lower levels were found for fat-free mass (55.9±5.8 versus 59.3±6.7%; p=0.05), HDL-C (40.7±5.0 versus 50.5±10.1mg/dL, p=0.001), and relative muscle strength (0.53±0.14 versus 0.62±0.12, p=0.01). Elderly women with metabolic syndrome have a higher cardiovascular risk and less relative muscle strength when compared to those without metabolic syndrome. Relative muscle strength may be related to the cardiovascularr risk factors of the metabolic syndrome

  2. Brucellosis in a high risk occupational group: sero prevalence and analysis of risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate Brucella sero positivity among slaughterhouse workers of Lahore district and to elucidate risk factors associated with sero positivity to Brucella. Method: During the year 2008, a cross-sectional study was conducted in four slaughterhouses of Lahore district. A sample of 360 workers was selected from these slaughterhouses through stratified random sampling on proportional basis. Workers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to obtain risk factor information and their blood samples were collected to be screened for the presence of anti-Brucella IgG using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. Data management and analysis were performed using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences) version 16. Risk factors associated with sero positivity to anti-Brucella IgG were identified by constructing a logistic regression model. Results: Of the 360 serum samples tested, 21.7% (95% CI 17.44% - 25.96%) were positive by ELISA test. The logistic regression model identified age (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99), assistance in parturition of animal (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23-0.96), consuming raw milk (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.04-4.87) and handling sheep (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09- 0.92) as risk factors for Brucella sero positivity among slaughterhouse workers of Lahore district. Conclusion: To reduce the burden of brucellosis, a national brucellosis control programme should be initiated with special emphasis on the high risk population of slaughterhouse workers. (author)

  3. Longitudinal AddiQoL scores may identify higher risk for adrenal crises in Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gesine; Koch, Maike; Herrmann, Eva; Bojunga, Jörg; Badenhoop, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    Several studies have shown a reduced quality of life (QoL) in patients with Addison's disease (AD), but investigations of QoL over a long-term course are lacking. Adrenal crises (AC) are life-threatening complications in AD. The purpose of this prospective study was to test whether the repeated use of QoL-questionnaires can detect prodromal periods of an AC. 110 patients with AD were asked to complete the disease specific-QoL questionnaire AddiQoL and a short questionnaire about adverse events once monthly over a period of ten months. AC was defined if at least two of the following symptoms were reported: (a) hypotension, (b) nausea or vomiting, (c) severe fatigue, (d) documented hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, or hypoglycemia, and subsequent parenteral glucocorticoid administration was carried out. Prevalence of AC was 10.9/100 patient years. AddiQoL scores in patients with AC showed a trend (p = 0,08) to a wider fluctuation over time. Subjective precrises not meeting the criteria for AC were reported by 31 patients who had significantly lower AddiQoL scores (p = 0,018). These are the first data showing the course of QoL during a period of ten months in patients with AD. Incidence of AC exceeds previous data. Our data show, that subjective precrises in AD associate with lower QoL. AC, as well as precrises affect intraindividual AddiQol-scores over time with a trend to a stronger fluctuation. Longitudinal AddiQol scores and self-reporting of precrises via patient diaries are additional clinical tools to identify higher risk for critical events.

  4. Did our current initial treatment practice change after EAU/ESPU vesicoureteral reflux risk grouping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokat, Eda; Gurocak, Serhat; Ure, Iyimser; Acar, Cenk; Sınık, Zafer; Tan, Mustafa Ozgur

    2018-06-02

    The "European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines on Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) in Children (September 2012)" established risk classification by analyzing and defining risk factors for each patient. In this study we aimed to investigate how our initial treatment procedures were affected by EAU/ESPU guideline vesicoureteral reflux risk grouping and to compare the early clinical results of treatments performed before and after the risk classification in our patients with VUR. 334 renal units with regular clinical follow-up who were treated owing to VUR (vesicoureteral reflux) between years 2009 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative clinical parameters such as grade and laterality of reflux, presence of renal scar, initial and follow-up treatments, findings of medical treatment and surgical procedures were analyzed. The initial medical and surgical methods were compared by categorizing patients according to risk groups before and after 2013. Mean age and follow-up duration were 71.4(6-216) months and 47(4-141) months, respectively. Among the preoperative parameters, only high EAU risk group (p = 0.01) and treating lower urinary tract symptoms (p age, sex, and presence of renal scar at DMSA were not affecting the success of treatment significantly. While no significant difference in medical and surgical treatment rates is observed after risk grouping system in low risk group, the percentages of patients who are treated with surgical methods initially were significantly decreased in moderate and high risk groups (p = 0.002 and p = 0.012, respectively). We determined that VUR risk grouping did not change clinical success significantly in all risk groups. Despite the fact that EAU/ESPU VUR risk classification changed our current practice in terms of initial treatment method, this different approach did not seem to affect early clinical success positively. There is still an absolute need for studies with larger sample size and long

  5. Trends in high-risk sexual behaviors among general population groups in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W N; de Vlas, Sake J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population.

  6. Factors influencing maternal decision-making for the infant sleep environment in families at higher risk of SIDS: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Anna; Ingram, Jenny; Blair, Peter S; Fleming, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative interviews with mothers of babies at higher risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) were carried out to understand their views and decision-making process on the infant sleep environment and safe sleep messages. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted between February and November 2014 in deprived areas of Bristol, UK. Mothers were asked about their decision-making for the infant sleep environment and safe sleep messages including infant sleep position, co-sleeping, smoking, dummy use, feeding and disrupted routines. The interviews were transcribed, coded and thematic analysis carried out. Participants were invited based on an algorithm developed in a previous SIDS case control study that identified an increased risk of SIDS from four demographic characteristics: young maternal age, smoking during pregnancy, three or more children, and a measure of deprivation. The presence of three, or more characteristics led to being invited to take part in the qualitative study. Factors influencing mothers' adherence to the safe sleep messages included previous experience and the credibility of the advice given. They described disrupted routines that led to risky scenarios with a belief that occasional risks were acceptable. Where circumstances made following the advice more difficult they found alternative strategies to reduce the risk, including the use of movement monitors, regular checking and a belief that lighter maternal sleep in the presence of a baby was protective. Safer sleep messages should be tailored to fit with the lived realities of mothers, especially those at higher risk. The traditional list of 'do's' and 'don'ts' was not well accepted by this group. Interventions that seek to influence this higher-risk group should acknowledge mothers' own protective instincts and consider their beliefs and understanding behind the safer sleep messages if they are to be effective and encourage this group to change.

  7. Identifying potential risk situations for humans when removing horses from groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Removing a horse from its social group may be considered risky, both for the handler and the horse, because other horses can interfere in the catching process. The main aim of this study was to identify where and when these risk situations occur while removing a horse from its group. A potential...

  8. Risk groups for yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J

    2014-10-07

    Although previously considered as the safest of the live virus vaccines, reports published since 2001 indicate that live yellow fever virus vaccine can cause a severe, often fatal, multisystemic illness, yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD), that resembles the disease it was designed to prevent. This review was prompted by the availability of a listing of the cumulative cases of YEL-AVD, insights from a statistical method for analyzing risk factors and re-evaluation of previously published data. The purpose of this review is to identify and analyze risk groups based on gender, age, outcome and predisposing illnesses. Using a passive surveillance system in the US, the incidence was reported as 0.3 to 0.4 cases per 100,000. However, other estimates range from 0 to 12 per 100,000. Identified and potential risk groups for YEL-AVD include elderly males, women between the ages of 19 and 34, people with a variety of autoimmune diseases, individuals who have been thymectomized because of thymoma, and infants and children ≤11 years old. All but the last group are supported by statistical analysis. The confirmed risk groups account for 77% (49/64) of known cases and 76% (32/42) of the deaths. The overall case fatality rate is 66% (42/64) with a rate of 80% (12/15) in young women, in contrast to 50% (13/26) in men ≥56 years old. Recognition of YEL-AVD raises the possibility that similar reactions to live chimeric flavivirus vaccines that contain a yellow fever virus vaccine backbone could occur in susceptible individuals. Delineation of risk groups focuses the search for genetic mutations resulting in immune defects associated with a given risk group. Lastly, identification of risk groups encourages concentration on measures to decrease both the incidence and the severity of YEL-AVD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of two common xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD gene polymorphisms on risk of prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Mi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA repair genes (EG: xeroderma pigmentosum group D, XPD may affect the capacity of encoded DNA repair enzymes to effectively remove DNA adducts or lesions, which may result in enhanced cancer risk. The association between XPD gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility of prostate cancer (PCa was inconsistent in previous studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A meta-analysis based on 9 independent case-control studies involving 3165 PCa patients and 3539 healthy controls for XPD Gln751Lys SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism and 2555 cases and 3182 controls for Asn312Asp SNP was performed to address this association. Meanwhile, odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to evaluate this relationship. Statistical analysis was performed with STATA10.0. No significant association was found between XPD Gln751Lys SNP and PCa risk. On the other hand, in subgroup analysis based on ethnicity, associations were observed in Asian (eg. Asn vs. Asp: OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.16-1.55; Asn/Asn+Asn/Asp vs. Asp/Asp: OR = 1.23, 95%CI = 1.07-1.42 and African (eg. Asn vs. Asp: OR = 1.31, 95%CI = 1.01-1.70; Asn/Asn vs. Asp/Asp: OR = 1.71, 95%CI = 1.03-7.10 populations for Asn312Asp SNP. Moreover, similar associations were detected in hospital-based controls studies; the frequency of Asn/Asn genotype in early stage of PCa men was poorly higher than those in advanced stage of PCa men (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.00-2.11. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our investigations demonstrate that XPD Asn312Asp SNP not the Gln751Lys SNP, might poorly increase PCa risk in Asians and Africans, moreover, this SNPs may associate with the tumor stage of PCa. Further studies based on larger sample size and gene-environment interactions should be conducted to determine the role of XPD gene polymorphisms in PCa risk.

  10. Risks identification and ranking using AHP and group decision making technique: Presenting “R index”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safar Fazli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns in project development is to detect all sorts of risks associated with a particular project. The main objective of this article is to identify the risks in the construction project and to grade them based on their importance on the project. The designed indicator in this paper is the combinational model of the Analytical Hierarchal Process (AHP method and the group decision – making applied for risks measurement and ranking. This indicator is called "R" which includes three main steps: creating the risks broken structure (RBS, obtaining each risk weight and efficacy, and finally performing the model to rank the risks. A questionnaire is used for gathering data. Based on the results of this survey, there are important risks associated with construction projects. There we need to use some guidelines to reduce the inherent risks including recognition of the common risks beside the political risks; suggestion of a simple, understandable, and practical model; and using plenty of the experts and specialists' opinions through applying step. After analyzing data, the final result from applying R index showed that the risk “economic changes / currency rate and inflation change" has the most importance for the analysis. In the other words, if these risks occur, the project may face with the more threats and it is suggested that an organization should centralize its equipment, personnel, cost, and time on the risk more than ever. The most obvious issue in this paper is a tremendous difference between an importance of the financial risks and the other risks.

  11. Primary prevention of stroke by a healthy lifestyle in a high-risk group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Åkesson, Agneta; Wolk, Alicja

    2015-06-02

    To examine the impact of a healthy lifestyle on stroke risk in men at higher risk of stroke because of other cardiovascular diseases or conditions. Our study population comprised 11,450 men in the Cohort of Swedish Men who had a history of hypertension, high cholesterol levels, diabetes, heart failure, or atrial fibrillation. Participants had completed a questionnaire about diet and lifestyle and were free from stroke and ischemic heart disease at baseline (January 1, 1998). We defined a healthy lifestyle as a low-risk diet (≥5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables and 0 to ≤30 g/d). Ascertainment of stroke cases was accomplished through linkage with the National Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register. During a mean follow-up of 9.8 years, we ascertained 1,062 incident stroke cases. The risk of total stroke and stroke types decreased with increasing number of healthy lifestyle factors. The multivariable relative risk of total stroke for men who achieved all 5 healthy lifestyle factors compared with men who achieved 0 or 1 factor was 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.14-0.55). The corresponding relative risks (95% confidence interval) were 0.31 (0.15-0.66) for ischemic stroke and 0.32 (0.04-2.51) for hemorrhagic stroke. A healthy lifestyle is associated with a substantially reduced risk of stroke in men at higher risk of stroke. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Transracial Mothering and Maltreatment: Are Black/White Biracial Children at Higher Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Rachel A.; Rautkis, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    The number of people identifying as biracial is rapidly growing, though little is known about the experiences of interracial families. Previous work indicates that biracial children may be at elevated risk of entering the child welfare system. This could underscore additional risks faced by these families. This document includes data from the…

  13. Risk management of radiation therapy. Survey by north Japan radiation therapy oncology group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masahiko; Abe, Yoshinao; Yamada, Shogo; Hareyama, Masato; Nakamura, Ryuji; Sugita, Tadashi; Miyano, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    A North Japan Radiation Oncology Group (NJRTOG) survey was carried out to disclose the risk management of radiation therapy. During April 2002, we sent questionnaires to radiation therapy facilities in northern Japan. There were 31 replies from 27 facilities. Many incidents and accidents were reported, including old cases. Although 60% of facilities had a risk management manual and/or risk manager, only 20% had risk management manuals for radiation therapy. Eighty five percent of radiation oncologists thought that incidents may be due to a lack of manpower. Ninety percent of radiation oncologists want to know the type of cases happened in other facilities. The risk management system is still insufficient for radiation therapy. We hope that our data will be a great help to develop risk management strategies for radiation therapy for all radiation oncologists in Japan. (author)

  14. GPP Webinar: Solar Utilization in Higher Education Networking & Information Sharing Group: RFP, Contract, and Administrative Issues Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation from a Solar Utilization in Higher Education Networking and Information webinar covers contracts, Request for Proposals (RFPs), and administrative issues related to solar project development in the higher education sector.

  15. Identification and management of cardiometabolic risk in Canada: a position paper by the cardiometabolic risk working group (executive summary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A; Fitchett, David H; Gilbert, Richard E; Gupta, Milan; Mancini, G B John; McFarlane, Philip A; Ross, Robert; Teoh, Hwee; Verma, Subodh; Anand, Sonia; Camelon, Kathryn; Chow, Chi-Ming; Cox, Jafna L; Després, Jean-Pierre; Genest, Jacques; Harris, Stewart B; Lau, David C W; Lewanczuk, Richard; Liu, Peter P; Lonn, Eva M; McPherson, Ruth; Poirier, Paul; Qaadri, Shafiq; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Rabkin, Simon W; Sharma, Arya M; Steele, Andrew W; Stone, James A; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tobe, Sheldon; Ur, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    With the objectives of clarifying the concepts related to "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome" and "risk stratification" and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group presents an executive summary of a detailed analysis and position paper that offers a comprehensive and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The above concepts overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. However, there is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider ethnicity-related risk factors in order to appropriately evaluate all individuals in their diverse patient populations. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Newborns of mothers with intellectual disability have a higher risk of perinatal death and being small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Berit; Lindgren, Peter; Larsson, Margareta

    2012-12-01

    To study mode of birth, perinatal health and death in children born to mothers with intellectual disability (ID) in Sweden. Population-based register study. National registers; the National Patient Register linked to the Medical Birth Register. Children of first-time mothers with ID (n = 326; classified in the International Classification of Diseases 8-10) were identified and compared with 340 624 children of first-time mothers without ID or any other psychiatric diagnosis between 1999 and 2007. Population-based data were extracted from the National Patient Register and the Medical Birth Register. Mode of birth, preterm birth, small for gestational age, Apgar score, stillbirth and perinatal death. Children born to mothers with ID were more often stillborn (1.2 vs. 0.3%) or died perinatally (1.8 vs. 0.4%) than children born to mothers without ID. They had a higher proportion of cesarean section birth (24.5 vs. 17.7%) and preterm birth (12.2 vs. 6.1%), were small for gestational age (8.4 vs. 3.1%) and had lower Apgar scores (mothers without ID. Logistic regression adjusted for maternal characteristics confirmed an increased risk of small for gestational age (odds ratio 2.25), stillbirth (odds ratio 4.53) and perinatal death (odds ratio 4.25) in children born to mothers with ID. Unborn and newborn children of mothers with ID should be considered a risk group, and their mothers may need better individual-based care and support. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Waste area Grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purucker, S.T.; Douthat, D.M.

    1996-06-01

    This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow- up information to the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that could cause potential human health risk and ecological risk within WAG2 at ORNL. The purpose of this report is to present a summary of the human health risk assessment results based on the data collected for the WAG 2 Phase 1 RI. Estimates of risk are provided based on measured concentrations in the surface water, floodplain soil, and sediment of White Oak Creek, Melton Branch, and their tributaries. The human health risk assessment methodology used in this risk assessment is based on Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS). First, the data for the different media are elevated to determine usability for risk assessment. Second, through the process of selecting chemicals of potential concern (COPCs), contaminants to be considered in the risk assessment are identified for each assessment of exposure potential is performed, and exposure pathways are identified. Subsequently, exposure is estimated quantitatively, and the toxicity of each of the COPCs is determined. The results of these analyses are combined and summarized in a risk characterization

  18. Modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease and subjective memory impairment across age groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T Chen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous research has identified modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD in older adults. Research is limited on the potential link between these risk factors and subjective memory impairment (SMI, which may precede AD and other dementias. Examination of these potential relationships may help identify those at risk for AD at a stage when interventions may delay or prevent further memory problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk factors for AD are associated with SMI among different age groups. METHOD: Trained interviewers conducted daily telephone surveys (Gallup-Healthways of a representative community sample of 18,614 U.S. respondents, including 4,425 younger (age 18 to 39 years, 6,365 middle-aged (40 to 59 years, and 7,824 older (60 to 99 years adults. The surveyors collected data on demographics, lifestyles, and medical information. Less education, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, less exercise, obesity and depression, and interactions among them, were examined for associations with SMI. Weighted logistic regressions and chi-square tests were used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for SMI with each risk factor and pairwise interactions across age groups. RESULTS: Depression, less education, less exercise, and hypertension were significantly associated with SMI in all three age groups. Several interactions between risk factors were significant in younger and middle-aged adults and influenced their associations with SMI. Frequency of SMI increased with age and number of risk factors. Odds of having SMI increased significantly with just having one risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that modifiable risk factors for AD are also associated with SMI, suggesting that these relationships occur in a broad range of ages and may be targeted to mitigate further memory problems. Whether modifying these risk factors reduces SMI and the eventual incidence of AD and other

  19. Modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease and subjective memory impairment across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen T; Siddarth, Prabha; Ercoli, Linda M; Merrill, David A; Torres-Gil, Fernando; Small, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older adults. Research is limited on the potential link between these risk factors and subjective memory impairment (SMI), which may precede AD and other dementias. Examination of these potential relationships may help identify those at risk for AD at a stage when interventions may delay or prevent further memory problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk factors for AD are associated with SMI among different age groups. Trained interviewers conducted daily telephone surveys (Gallup-Healthways) of a representative community sample of 18,614 U.S. respondents, including 4,425 younger (age 18 to 39 years), 6,365 middle-aged (40 to 59 years), and 7,824 older (60 to 99 years) adults. The surveyors collected data on demographics, lifestyles, and medical information. Less education, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, less exercise, obesity and depression, and interactions among them, were examined for associations with SMI. Weighted logistic regressions and chi-square tests were used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for SMI with each risk factor and pairwise interactions across age groups. Depression, less education, less exercise, and hypertension were significantly associated with SMI in all three age groups. Several interactions between risk factors were significant in younger and middle-aged adults and influenced their associations with SMI. Frequency of SMI increased with age and number of risk factors. Odds of having SMI increased significantly with just having one risk factor. These results indicate that modifiable risk factors for AD are also associated with SMI, suggesting that these relationships occur in a broad range of ages and may be targeted to mitigate further memory problems. Whether modifying these risk factors reduces SMI and the eventual incidence of AD and other dementias later in life remains to be determined.

  20. Short repeats in the heme oxygenase 1 gene promoter is associated with increased levels of inflammation, ferritin and higher risk of type-2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mónica; Leiva, Elba; Arredondo-Olguín, Miguel

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the relationship between the HO1 genotype, ferritin levels and the risk of type-2 diabetes and inflammation. Eight hundred thirty-five individuals were evaluated and classified according to their nutritional status and the presence of type-2 diabetes: 153 overweight (OW); 62 obese (OB); 55 type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM); 202 OWDM; 239 OBDM and 124 controls (C). We studied biochemical (glycemia, insulin, lipid profile, liver enzyme, creatinine, hsCRP), hematological (hemoglobin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, transferrin receptor and serum Fe and ferritin) and oxidative stress (SOD, GHS and TBARS) parameters. We determined heme oxygenase activity and the (GT)n polymorphism in its gene promoter. Individuals with diabetes, independent of nutritional status, showed high levels of ferritin and HO activity compared to control subjects. Allelic frequency was not different between the groups (Chi(2), NS) however, genotypes were different (Chi(2), P1). The SS (short-short) genotype was higher in all DM individuals compared to controls and MM was higher in controls. SM (short-medium) genotype was an independent risk factor for DM in logistic regression analysis. We observed high risk for type-2 diabetes mellitus in the presence of SM genotype and high levels of ferritin (OR adjusted: 2.7; 1.9-3.6; p1; compared to control group). It was also significantly related to inflammation. The SM genotype in HO1 gene promoter and ferritin levels were associated with higher risk for type-2 diabetes and for having a higher marker of inflammation, which is the main risk factor for the development of chronic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender-associated analysis of high-risk groups for mental health problems in law-enforcement officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Omelyanovich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mental disorders prevention in specific professional groups is impossible without scientifically substantiated allocation of groups with increased neuropsychiatric and psychosomatic disorders risk. This fact indicates the need to study the gender, age and professional characteristics in law enforcement workers who already have problems with psychological adaptation. Methods and materials. The study involved 1630 law enforcement officers (1,301 men and 329 women who were evaluated with the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R. As the statistical methods were used the partial regression calculation coefficient η2, cohort calculation risk measures, φ*-total Fischer transformation method, and single-factor dispersion Fisher's analysis. Results. According to gender characteristics, the problems with psychological adaptation in men were significantly less pronounced than in women (φ*=1.79; p=0.37. These data were confirmed by the cohort calculation and risk measures results: men – 0.261, women – 0.349 (the psychological disadaptation risk in women was 1.3 times higher than men. There weren’t any statistically significant age differences between the representatives of both gender groups with psychological adaptation disturbances and healthy ones (φ* ≤1.19; p≥0.1. Among patients who suffered from psychosomatic diseases, were men over the age of 35 (φ* ≥2.28; p≤0.0001 and women over 26 years old (φ*= 2.16; p=0.014 prevailed. There were significantly fewer people among men with psychosomatic illnesses with 4-9 years of professional working experience than in a healthy group. On the contrary, there were significantly more patients in a law enforcement workers group with 10-15 years working experience than in the healthy one (φ*>1.73; p<0.0001. Conclusion. The risk of mental health problems in female police officers is much higher than in men. Disadaptation development is not related to the age and length of working

  2. Increased hsCRP is associated with higher risk of aortic valve replacement in patients with aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blyme, Adam; Nielsen, Olav W.; Asferg, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate relations between inflammation and aortic valve stenosis (AS) by measuring high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, at baseline (hsCRP0) and after 1 year (hsCRP1) and exploring associations with aortic valve replacement (AVR). Design We examined 1423 patients from...... the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study. Results During first year of treatment, hsCRP was reduced both in patients later receiving AVR (2.3 [0.9–4.9] to 1.8 [0.8–5.4] mg/l, p CRP1...... predicted later AVR (HR = 1.17, p CRP0 (HR = 0.96, p = 0.33), aortic valve area (AVA) and other risk factors. A higher rate of AVR was observed in the group with high hsCRP0 and an increase during the first year (AVRhighCRP0CRP1inc=47.3% versus AVRhighCRP0CRP1dec=27.5%, p

  3. Higher Education Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Dementia after a Stroke or TIA. The Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Saira Saeed; Portegies, Marileen L P; Wolters, Frank J; Hofman, Albert; Koudstaal, Peter J; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is associated with a lower risk of dementia, possibly because of a higher tolerance to subclinical neurodegenerative pathology. Whether higher education also protects against dementia after clinical stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) remains unknown. Within the population-based Rotterdam Study, 12,561 participants free of stroke, TIA and dementia were followed for occurrence of stroke, TIA and dementia. Across the levels of education, associations of incident stroke or TIA with subsequent development of dementia and differences in cognitive decline following stroke or TIA were investigated. During 124,862 person-years, 1,463 persons suffered a stroke or TIA, 1,158 persons developed dementia, of whom 186 developed dementia after stroke or TIA. Risk of dementia after a stroke or TIA, compared to no stroke or TIA, was highest in the low education category (hazards ratio [HR] 1.46, 95% CI 1.18-1.81) followed by intermediate education category (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03-1.81). No significant association was observed in the high education category (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.25-1.54). In gender stratified analyses, decrease in risk of dementia with increasing education was significant only in men. Higher education is associated with a lower risk of dementia after stroke or TIA, particularly in men, which might be explained by a higher cognitive reserve. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Risk assessment of occupational groups working in open pit mining: Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Kasap

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In open pit mining it is possible to prevent industrial accidents and the results of industrial accidents such as deaths, physical disabilities and financial loss by implementing risk analyses in advance. If the probabilities of different occupational groups encountering various hazards are determined, workers’ risk of having industrial accidents and catching occupational illnesses can be controlled. In this sense, the aim of this study was to assess the industrial accidents which occurred during open pit coal production in the Turkish Coal Enterprises (TCE Garp Lignite unit between 2005 and 2010 and to analyze the risks using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The analyses conducted with AHP revealed that the greatest risk in open pit mining is landslides, the most risky occupational group is unskilled labourers and the most common hazards are caused by landslides and transportation/hand tools/falling.

  5. Formation of potential radiation risk groups to render timely targeted medical care: Lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V. K.; Kashcheev, V. V.; Zamulaeva, I. A.; Saenko, A. S.; Orlova, N. V.; Smirnova, S. G.; Korelo, A. M.; Gorsky, A. I.; Maksioutov, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses technology for establishing potential cancer risk groups, based on methods of molecular and radiation epidemiology. Assay of gene mutations at the T-cell receptor (TCR) locus as the method of molecular epidemiology was used for measuring the frequency of TCR-mutations in 320 nuclear workers of the Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE). The method of radiation epidemiology was applied to the estimation of attributable risk fraction (ARF) for solid cancers in these groups. The main estimates of radiation risk after the Chernobyl accident are in close agreement with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication, 103 models published in 2007. In nuclear workers of the IPPE with ARF ≥ 10%, the increased level of TCR-mutations occurs more often (risk ratio=9.7; 95% CI: 2.9; 32.1). (authors)

  6. An epidemiological study of diabetes mellitus amongst high risk age group population in urban and Rural areas of kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Ahmad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question : - What is the magnitude of Diabetes mellitus in the urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Objectives:To study the prevalence of diabetes mellitus amongst high risk age group population in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To compare the magnitude of problem of diabetes mellitus between urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To study the possible associates and socio-demographic variables related to diabetes mellitus.Study Design : Cross sectional study.Setting : The study was performed on three thousand population each in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Participants : High risk age group population i.e. 45 years and above.Study variables : Age, Sex. impaired glucose tolerance. Body mass index, Education, Working status. Social class, family history of diabetes.Statistical analysis : Chi-square lest, percentagesResults From a total of 676 persons of high risk age group i.e. 45 years and above, the overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the study areas was observed lobe 7. l%with 9.94% in urban and 3.61% in rural areas, the maximum percetage of diabetes cases (41.66% was in the age group of 56-60 years. Higher prevalence of diabetes was observed in the obese (56.25% and sedentary (87.5% persons. The family history' of diabetes mellitus was present in (35.41% of diabetes mellitus cases.

  7. Assessment of independent risk factors of conversion into psychosis in the ultra-high risk state group of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gawłowska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was the independent psychosis risk factors assessment in a group of subjects fulfilling the criteria of at risk mental state, under specialist outpatient psychiatric care. Participants: Seventy-one patients – 33 women and 38 men, were involved into this study, aged on average 17.34, all under psychiatric care. The patients were recruited into the study in the sequence of their outpatient clinic admission. The criterion to be included into the study was the diagnosis of ultra-high risk state (UHRS – defined according to the Australian research group principles. Subsequently, the patients were divided into subgroups according to the clinical features of their mental state. Method: The author’s demographic questionnaire was applied in the study. Information regarding the family history of psychosis was obtained from patients and/or their relatives or carers. The patients’ mental state was assessed monthly – according to the presence of psychotic symptoms, change of their incidence and duration, presence of depressive symptoms or aggressive behaviour (measured by a three-level scale. On the basis of the obtained information, we evaluated: 1 conversion into psychosis time – measured from diagnosing of UHRS to the development of full-symptom psychosis, 2 therapeutic methods used (psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy or both, 3 use of psychoactive substances after being diagnosed with UHRS, 4 presence of serious life stressors (the patients’ subjective estimation – during the six-month period preceding the conversion into psychosis. Results: 1 In the UHRS group of patients, staying under professional outpatient psychiatric care, the use of marijuana was an independent risk factor of conversion into psychosis. 2 In the investigated group of patients with at risk mental state we did not find any correlation between modulating factors (including: therapeutic methods used, depressive symptoms, aggression or

  8. Higher Risk of Abdominal Obesity, Elevated LDL Cholesterol and Hypertriglyceridemia, but not of Hypertension, in People Living with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelpi, Marco; Afzal, Shoaib; Lundgren, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Background: People living with HIV (PLWH) have lower life expectancy than uninfected individuals, partly explained by excess risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and CVD risk factors. We investigated the association between HIV infection and abdominal obesity, elevated LDL cholesterol (LDL...... and underwent blood pressure, waist-, hip-, weight-, and height-measurements. Non-fasting blood samples were obtained from all participants. We assessed whether HIV was independently associated with abdominal obesity, elevated LDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension using logistic regression models...... adjusted for known risk factors. Results: HIV infection was associated with higher risk of abdominal obesity (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.92[1.60-2.30]) for a given BMI, elevated LDL-C (aOR: 1.32[1.09-1.59]), hypertriglyceridemia (aOR 1.76[1.49-2.08]), and lower risk of hypertension (aOR: 0.63[0.54 - 0...

  9. Reduction of Risk Factors in Patients with Behavioral Dysphonia After Vocal Group Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Wégina Jordâna Nascimento da; Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; Macedo, Anny Elizabety Ramalho de; Costa, Denise Batista da; Almeida, Anna Alice Figueiredo de

    2017-01-01

    The origin and development of dysphonia, particularly behavioral dysphonia, is associated with several risk factors. Here, we verified the effectiveness of group therapy in reducing the risk factors, and established the association between risk factors and sex, age, profession, and diagnosis of laryngeal disorders in patients with behavioral dysphonia. This is a descriptive, quantitative, field intervention study. Participants (n = 26, adult patients of both sexes), with a diagnosis of behavioral dysphonia, received group therapy intervention. Data for risk factors were collected pre- and posttherapy using the Vocal Screening Protocol. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Student t test, chi-squared test or Spearman correlation test). The majority (80.8%, n = 21) of patients were female, 65.4% (n = 17) were not in a vocal profession, and 42.3% (n = 11) presented with a lesion in the membranous portion of the vocal fold. The number of personal risk factors decreased after group therapy (P = 0.04). In addition, age was correlated with total (P = 0.001), environmental (P = 0.002), and personal (P = 0.003) vocal risk factors posttherapy. This study revealed an association between the reduction of personal risk factors and vocal group therapy, and a correlation between age and total, environmental, and personal vocal risk factors posttherapy. Thus, maintenance and origins of the behaviors that modify the behavioral aspects of the participants directly influence the production of individual vocal habits. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Coronary heart disease risk assessment and characterization of coronary artery disease using coronary CT angiography: comparison of asymptomatic and symptomatic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Kim, Y.; Chung, I.-M.; Ryu, J.; Park, H.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in relation to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and assess plaque characteristics from coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Materials and methods: Three hundred and ninety consecutive patients [asymptomatic group, n = 138; symptomatic group (atypical or non-anginal chest pain), n = 252] were retrospectively enrolled. They were subsequently classified into three CHD risk categories, based on the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines, and 10 year risks of coronary events were calculated using Framingham risk score. CT was evaluated for stenosis, plaque composition, and coronary calcium scores. Results: CAD was observed in 42% of the asymptomatic group and 62% of the symptomatic group. In the former, the prevalence of CAD in low-, moderate- and high-risk subgroups was 21.4, 47.4 and 65%, respectively, and was 33.3, 74.4, and 72.4% in the symptomatic group. Framingham 10-year risks of coronary events were significantly higher in patients with CAD than in normal participants, and receiver operating characteristics curves showed that discriminatory power was poor in the asymptomatic group and symptomatic men, and good in symptomatic women. Of the participants in the asymptomatic group, 12% exhibited only non-calcified plaques and of the symptomatic group, 7% exhibited only non-calcified plaques. The coronary calcium score was significantly higher for significant stenosis than for non-significant stenosis in both groups. Conclusions: The prevalence of CAD was not negligible even in subgroups with low-to-moderate CHD risk. Additionally, the Framingham risk score was effective for predicting CAD only in symptomatic women. Coronary calcium scores correlated with significant stenosis; however, a sizeable percentage of both groups had only non-calcified plaques.

  11. Taxonomic analysis of perceived risk: modeling individual and group perceptions within homogeneous hazard domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, N.N.; Slovic, P.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies of risk perception have typically focused on the mean judgments of a group of people regarding the riskiness (or safety) of a diverse set of hazardous activities, substances, and technologies. This paper reports the results of two studies that take a different path. Study 1 investigated whether models within a single technological domain were similar to previous models based on group means and diverse hazards. Study 2 created a group taxonomy of perceived risk for only one technological domain, railroads, and examined whether the structure of that taxonomy corresponded with taxonomies derived from prior studies of diverse hazards. Results from Study 1 indicated that the importance of various risk characteristics in determining perceived risk differed across individuals and across hazards, but not so much as to invalidate the results of earlier studies based on group means and diverse hazards. In Study 2, the detailed analysis of railroad hazards produced a structure that had both important similarities to, and dissimilarities from, the structure obtained in prior research with diverse hazard domains. The data also indicated that railroad hazards are really quite diverse, with some approaching nuclear reactors in their perceived seriousness. These results suggest that information about the diversity of perceptions within a single domain of hazards could provide valuable input to risk-management decisions

  12. Coronary artery calcium score using electron beam tomography in the patients with acute obstructive coronary arterial disease : comparative study within asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis and chronic obstructive coronary arterial disease group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Seok Jong; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    To compare, through analysis of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and the risk factors for atherosclerosis, the characteristics of acute coronary syndrome between an asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis patients and a chronic coronary arterial obstructive disease(CAOD) group. The CAC scores of an asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis patients (group I, n=284), a chronic CAOD croup (group II, n=39) and an acute coronary syndrome group (group III, n=21) were measured by electron beam tomography. Forty-seven patients with CAOD from groups II and III underwent coronary angiography, and we scrutinized age, sex and risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and low high-density lipoproteinemia. The numbers of stenotic coronary arterial branches and degree of stenosis revealed by coronary angiography were also recorded. We determined the differences between the three groups in terms of CAC score and the risk factors, the relationship between CAC score and risk factors, and the characteristic features of each type of CAOD group. The mean CA score of group III (135.1) was not statistically different from that of group I (135.7) or group II (365.8). Among patients aged below 50, the mean CAC score of group III (127.4) was significantly higher than that of group I (6.2), (p=0.0006). The mean CAC score at the sixth decade was also significantly different between group I(81.5) and group II (266.9). The mean age of group III (54.2 years) was significantly lower than that of group I (58.1 years) (p=0.047) and of group II (60.1) (p=0.022). There was significant correlation between the number of stenotic coronary arterial branches and log(CAC +1) (p<.01). The square root of the CAC score and the maximal degree of stenosis was also well correlated (p<.01). There was no difference in the mean number of risk factors among the three groups, though the incidence of smoking in group III was significantly

  13. Coronary artery calcium score using electron beam tomography in the patients with acute obstructive coronary arterial disease : comparative study within asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis and chronic obstructive coronary arterial disease group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Seok Jong; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok

    2001-01-01

    To compare, through analysis of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and the risk factors for atherosclerosis, the characteristics of acute coronary syndrome between an asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis patients and a chronic coronary arterial obstructive disease(CAOD) group. The CAC scores of an asymptomatic high-risk group of atherosclerosis patients (group I, n=284), a chronic CAOD croup (group II, n=39) and an acute coronary syndrome group (group III, n=21) were measured by electron beam tomography. Forty-seven patients with CAOD from groups II and III underwent coronary angiography, and we scrutinized age, sex and risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and low high-density lipoproteinemia. The numbers of stenotic coronary arterial branches and degree of stenosis revealed by coronary angiography were also recorded. We determined the differences between the three groups in terms of CAC score and the risk factors, the relationship between CAC score and risk factors, and the characteristic features of each type of CAOD group. The mean CA score of group III (135.1) was not statistically different from that of group I (135.7) or group II (365.8). Among patients aged below 50, the mean CAC score of group III (127.4) was significantly higher than that of group I (6.2), (p=0.0006). The mean CAC score at the sixth decade was also significantly different between group I(81.5) and group II (266.9). The mean age of group III (54.2 years) was significantly lower than that of group I (58.1 years) (p=0.047) and of group II (60.1) (p=0.022). There was significant correlation between the number of stenotic coronary arterial branches and log(CAC +1) (p<.01). The square root of the CAC score and the maximal degree of stenosis was also well correlated (p<.01). There was no difference in the mean number of risk factors among the three groups, though the incidence of smoking in group III was significantly

  14. A procedure for grouping food consumption data for use in food allergen risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birot, Sophie; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Kruizinga, Astrid G.

    2017-01-01

    Food allergic subjects need to avoid the allergenic food that triggers their allergy. However, foods can also contain unintended allergens. Food manufacturers or authorities need to perform a risk assessment to be able to decide if unintended allergen presence constitutes a risk to food allergic...... consumers. One of the input parameters in risk assessment is the amount of a given food consumed in a meal. There has been little emphasis on how food consumption data can be used in food allergen risk assessment. The aim of the study was to organize the complex datasets from National Food Consumption...... Surveys from different countries (France, Netherlands and Denmark) to be manageable in food allergen risk assessment. To do this, a two-step method was developed. First, based on initial groups of similar food items, the homogeneity of consumption was evaluated using a customized clustering method. Then...

  15. Higher levels of physical fitness are associated with a reduced risk of suffering sarcopenic obesity and better perceived health among the elderly: the EXERNET multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrero-Chamizo, R; Gómez-Cabello, A; Meléndez, A; Vila-Maldonado, S; Espino, L; Gusi, N; Villa, G; Casajús, J A; González-Gross, M; Ara, I

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the associations between physical fitness levels, health related quality of life (HRQoL) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) and to analyze the usefulness of several physical fitness tests as a screening tool for detecting elderly people with an increased risk of suffering SO. Cross-sectional analysis of a population-based sample. Non-institutionalized Spanish elderly participating in the EXERNET multi-centre study. 2747 elderly subjects aged 65 and older. Body weight, height and body mass index were evaluated in each subject. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Four SO groups were created based on percentage of body fat and relative muscle mass; 1) normal group, 2) sarcopenic group, 3) obesity group and 4) SO group. Physical fitness was evaluated using 8 tests (balance, lower and upper body strength, lower and upper body flexibility, agility, walking speed and aerobic capacity). Three tertiles were created for each test based on the calculated scores. HRQoL was assessed using the EuroQol visual analogue scale. Participants with SO showed lower physical fitness levels compared with normal subjects. Better balance, agility, and aerobic capacity were associated to a lower risk of suffering SO in the fittest men (odds ratio health was associated with better physical fitness performance. Higher levels of physical fitness were associated with a reduced risk of suffering SO and better perceived health among elderly. SO elderly people have lower physical functional levels than healthy counterparts.

  16. Association of ABO blood groups and major ischaemic heart disease risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutf-Ullah, L.; Akhtar, B.; Noor-Us-Saba; Hanif, A.; Khan, B.Z.; Bukhshi, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    To study the association of ABO blood groups with major ischaemic heart disease risk factors. Setting: Department of Cardiology, Mayo hospital, Lahore over a period of two years from January 2008 to December 2009. Study Design: Analytic comparative study. Subjects and Methods: The study group included 907 patients of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). The distribution of ABO blood groups in IHD patients was compared for presence or absence of major IHD risk factors. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16. ANOVA and Chi-square tests for significance were used. P-value less than 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: In this study, the following pattern of ABO blood groups was observed in IHD patients : blood group A 251 (27.67%); blood group B 329 (36.27%); blood group O 235 (25.91%); blood group AB 92 (10.14%). We found no relation-ship of ABO blood groups with age (p-value = 0.234), gender (p-value = 0.093), hypertension (p-value = 0.230), diabetes mellitus (p-value = 0.801), family history of IHD (p-value = 0.277), transverse ear lobe crease (p-value = 0.231), total cholesterol (p-value = 0.797), triglycerides (p-value = 0.351), low density lipoprotein (p-value = 0.078), high density lipoprotein (p-value = 0.114). Similarly no relationship was found of smoking, weight, height and body mass index with ABO blood groups, p-values 0.428, 0.528, 0.908 and 0.455 respectively. Conclusion: There is no association of ABO blood groups and major ischaemic heart disease risk factors. (author)

  17. ABO blood groups and risk of deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population from Chaoshan region in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Wang, Cantian; Chen, Tingting; Hu, Shuang; Yi, Kaihong; Tan, Xuerui

    2017-04-01

     Objectives: To demonstrate the prevalence of ABO blood groups with deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population. A retrospective study was conducted between January 2010 and March 2015 in The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College in Chaoshan District of Guangdong Province in South China. Eighty nine patients with confirmed diagnosis of deep venous thromboembolism were included. Frequency of blood groups was determined. Results: Of 89 patients with deep venous thromboembolism, 28 patients had blood group A (31.5%), 28 patients had blood group B (31.5%), 13 patients had blood group AB (14.6%), and 20 patients had blood group O (22.5%). Compared with O blood type, the odds ratios of deep venous thromboembolism for A, B and AB were 2.23 (95% CI, 1.27-3.91), 2.34 (95% CI, 1.34-4.09) and  4.43 (95% CI, 2.24-8.76). Conclusion: There is a higher risk of venous thromboembolism in non-O blood groups than O group.

  18. ABO blood groups and risk of deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population from Chaoshan region in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To demonstrate the prevalence of ABO blood groups with deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted between January 2010 and March 2015 in The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College in Chaoshan District of Guangdong Province in South China. Eighty nine patients with confirmed diagnosis of deep venous thromboembolism were included. Frequency of blood groups was determined. Results: Of 89 patients with deep venous thromboembolism, 28 patients had blood group A (31.5%, 28 patients had blood group B (31.5%, 13 patients had blood group AB (14.6%, and 20 patients had blood group O (22.5%. Compared with O blood type, the odds ratios of deep venous thromboembolism for A, B and AB were 2.23 (95% CI, 1.27-3.91, 2.34 (95% CI, 1.34-4.09 and 4.43 (95% CI, 2.24-8.76. Conclusion: There is a higher risk of venous thromboembolism in non-O blood groups than O group.

  19. Optimal dietary calcium intake in HIV treated patients: no femoral osteoporosis but higher cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Laura; Rubinacci, Alessandro; Cocorullo, Deborah; Salpietro, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Vincenzo; Gianotti, Nicola; Bigoloni, Alba; Vinci, Concetta; Mignogna, Giovanna; Sirtori, Marcella; Lazzarin, Adriano; Castagna, Antonella

    2014-04-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study on adult HIV-infected patients, on HAART, without calcium or vitamin D supplementation to evaluate if the cardiovascular risk or the presence of osteoporosis may be predictive factors of an optimal daily calcium intake (DCI>1000 mg/day). Patients underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, measured biochemical parameters and compiled a validated questionnaire for the assessment of DCI. Osteoporosis (OP) was defined according to the WHO classification at either the vertebral spine or femoral neck. Cardiovascular risk was assessed by the 10-year Framingham cardiovascular risk score. 200 HIV-infected patients evaluated: 171 (86%) males with a median age of 48.1 (42.3-53.8) years and 10.6 (4.3-13.6) years of HAART exposure. DCI was 889 (589-1308) mg/day and 79 (40%) patients had an optimal DCI. Framingham risk>20% was found in 13 (6.7%) patients and femoral OP was diagnosed in 12 (6%) pts. By multivariate analysis, optimal DCI was more likely in patients with a Framingham risk>20% [OR = 5.547, 95% CI:1.337, p = 0.025] and less likely in patients with femoral osteoporosis [OR = 0.159, 95% CI: 0.018-0.790, p = 0.047]. We found that an optimal dietary calcium intake was more likely in patients with high cardiovascular risk and no femoral osteoporosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. [Association of T174M polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene with the higher risk of cerebral stroke in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetskaia, T A; Bushueva, O Iu; Bulgakova, I V; Vialykh, E K; Shuteeva, T V; Biriukov, A E; Ivanov, V P; Polonikov, A V

    2014-01-01

    To study the association of M235T (rs699) and T174M (rs4762) polymorphisms of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene with the risk of cerebral stroke (CS) in the Russians of the Central Chernozem Region. A total of 638 DNA samples obtained from 353 patients with CS and 285 sex- and age-matched healthy individuals were examined. The polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (T174M) and TaqMan allelic discrimination (M235T) assays. Heterozygous AGT 174TM genotype carriers were found to be at a higher risk for CS (odd ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-2.15; p = 0.02). A gender-stratified analysis showed that the mutant 174M allele (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.14-3.03, p = 0.01) and variant 174TM and 174MM genotypes (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.09-3.20; p = 0.02) were associated with the higher risk of cerebral stroke in women. The association of AGT T174M polymorphism with the risk of CS was first found; but the higher risk of the disease in the carriers of variant alleles and genotypes was observed in the women only.

  1. Young Children in Immigrant Families Face Higher Risk of Food Insecurity. Research Brief. Publication #2009-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Randy; Horowitz, Allison; Fortuny, Karina; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Zaslow, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Children in immigrant families are more likely than children in native-born families to face a number of risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, including higher poverty rates, lower household incomes, and linguistic isolation, (for example, when older children and adults in a household have difficulty speaking English). Previous research…

  2. Childhood Risk Factors in Substance Abuse Among a Group of Abuser 20-30 Year-Old Group in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Zahiredin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance use disorder is the second most common psychiatric disorders and is far more prevalent among young adults (ages;18-34y/0. Because of its importance and main effect in society, this study performed for evaluation of association fourteen childhood and adoleseence pathologic factors with substance use disorder among a group of abuser (20-30/0that referred to five addiction center in Tehran . The sample consist 100 patient: including 50 case and 50 control who were selected by DSM- IV based semi-structured diagnostic interviews for decrease memory biases in this retrospective cohart study. The patient’s parents also evaluated by DSM- IV based Semi-structured diagnostic interviews. The analysis showed significant relation between: parents control on the siblings, addiction in relatives of pt (except parents, addicted peers and friends, to be affected with the peers and friends and substance use disorder at the ages (20-30y/o. There wasn’t any association between: Disruptive childhood behaviors (under 11y/o, diagnosed medical illness (under 11y/o diagnosed Psychiatric illness (under 6 mo , family size, socio economic state and substance use disorder at the age(20-30y/0 . Finally some childhood and adolescence pathologic factors has association with Substance use disorder at the ages ( 20-30y/5 that these can be used for education all planning , prevention , design high risk group and remedical plans.

  3. The Association between ABO and Rh Blood Groups and Risk of Endometriosis in Iranian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzadeh, Farideh; Moini, Ashraf; Amirchaghmaghi, Elham; Daliri, Leila; Akhoond, Mohammad Reza; Talebi, Mehrak; Hosseini, Rihaneh

    2018-06-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynaecological disease that affects quality of life for women. Several studies have revealed that both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of endometriosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups in Iranian women with endometriosis who presented to two referral infertility centers in Tehran, Iran. In this case-control study, women who referred to Royan Institute and Arash Women's Hospital for diagnostic laparoscopy between 2013 and 2014 were assessed. Based on the laparoscopy findings, we categorized the women into two groups: endometriosis and control (women without endometriosis and normal pelvis). Chi-square and logistic regression tests were used for data analysis. In this study, we assessed 433 women, of which 213 patients were assigned to the endometriosis group while the remaining 220 subjects comprised the control group. The most frequent ABO blood group was O (40.6%). The least frequent blood group was AB (4.8%). In terms of Rh blood group, Rh+ (90.1%) was more frequent than Rh- (9.9%). There was no significant correlation between ABO (P=0.091) and Rh (P=0.55) blood groups and risk of endometriosis. Also, there was no significant difference between the two groups with regards to the stage of endometriosis and distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups (P>0.05). Although the O blood group was less dominant in Iranian women with endometriosis, we observed no significant correlation between the risk of endometriosis and the ABO and Rh blood groups. Endometriosis severity was not correlated to any of these blood groups. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  4. ABO Blood Group and Dementia Risk--A Scandinavian Record-Linkage Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil K Vasan

    Full Text Available Dementia includes a group of neuro-degenerative disorders characterized by varying degrees of cognitive impairment. Recent data indicates that blood group AB is associated with impaired cognition in elderly patients. To date there are no large-scale studies that have examined the relationship between ABO blood group and dementia-related disorders in detail.We used data from the SCANDAT2 database that contains information on over 1.6 million blood donors from 1968 in Sweden and 1981 from Denmark. The database was linked with health outcomes data from nationwide patient and cause of death registers to investigate the relationship between blood groups and risk of different types of dementia. The incident rate ratios were estimated using log-linear Poisson regression models.Among 1,598,294 donors followed over 24 million person-years of observation we ascertained 3,615 cases of Alzheimer's disease, 1,842 cases of vascular dementia, and 9,091 cases of unspecified dementia. Overall, our study showed no association between ABO blood group and risk of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia or unspecified dementia. This was also true when analyses were restricted to donors aged 70 years or older except for a slight, but significantly decreased risk of all dementia combined in subjects with blood group A (IRR, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.98, compared to those with blood group O.Our results provide no evidence that ABO blood group influences the risk of dementia.

  5. Heavy Smoking Is Associated With Lower Age at First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis and a Higher Risk of Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munigala, Satish; Conwell, Darwin L; Gelrud, Andres; Agarwal, Banke

    2015-08-01

    There is limited data on cigarette smoking and the risk of acute pancreatitis (AP). We evaluated the influence of cigarette smoking on AP risk and clinical presentation in a large cohort of Veteran's Administration (VA) patients. Retrospective study of VA patients from 1998 to 2007. Exclusion criteria included (1) history of chronic pancreatitis (n = 3222) or gallstones (n = 14,574) and (2) age younger than 15 years (n = 270). A 2-year washout period was used to exclude patients with pre-existing recurrent AP. The study included 484,624 patients. From 2001 to 2007, a total of 6799 (1.4%) patients had AP. Alcohol (risk ratio, 4.20) and smoking (risk ratio, 1.78) were independent significant risk factors of AP on multiple regression analysis. Smoking increased the risk of AP in both nonalcoholics (0.57% vs 1.1%) and alcoholics (2.6% vs 4.1%). Smoking was associated with younger mean age at first episode of AP and higher likelihood of recurrent AP (≥4 episodes) in both nonalcoholics and alcoholics. The interval between recurrent episodes was not altered by alcohol or smoking. In a large cohort of VA patients, smoking is an independent risk factor for AP and augmented the effect of alcohol on the risk, age of onset, and recurrence of AP.

  6. ABO blood group and risk of pancreatic cancer in a Turkish population in Western Blacksea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Huseyin; Bilir, Cemil; Üstün, Hasan; Gökmen, Ayla

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between blood groups and pancreatic cancer in a Turkish population in Western Blacksea region. This is a retrospective study. Zonguldak Karaelmas University outpatient oncology clinic records were screened for the period between 2004 and 2011. The median age of patients were 56 (± 16) and 132 of 633 study population had pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer patients had significantly higher rates of blood group A compared to controls (OR 1.8, 95%CI, p 0.005). Rates of blood group AB was significantly lower than the control group (OR 0.37, 95% CI, p 0.04). The median survival (IR) time in subjects having the blood groups A, B, AB and O were 7.0 (1-28), 7.0 (2-38), 10 (2-36) and 9.0 (2-48) months respectively; the blood group 0 had significantly higher overall survival (OS) compared to the non-0 groups (p 0.04). Pancreatic cancer patients had more common blood group A in our population. Moreover, blood group AB appeared to be a protective factor against pancreatic cancer in our population. Blood group 0 had a significantly longer survival compared to non-0, regardless of prognostic factors.

  7. Shorter leukocyte telomere length is associated with higher risk of infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helby, Jens; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benfield, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In the general population, older age is associated with short leukocyte telomere length and with high risk of infections. In a recent study of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for severe aplastic anemia, long donor leukocyte telomere length was associated with improved survival...

  8. Higher Caffeinated Coffee Intake Is Associated with Reduced Malignant Melanoma Risk: A Meta-Analysis Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibin Liu

    Full Text Available Several epidemiological studies have determined the associations between coffee intake level and skin cancer risk; however, the results were not yet conclusive. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the cohort and case-control studies for the association between coffee intake level and malignant melanoma (MM risk.Studies were identified through searching the PubMed and MEDLINE databases (to November, 2015. Study-specific risk estimates were pooled under the random-effects model.Two case-control studies (846 MM patients and 843 controls and five cohort studies (including 844,246 participants and 5,737 MM cases were identified. For caffeinated coffee, the pooled relative risk (RR of MM was 0.81 [95% confidential interval (95% CI = 0.68-0.97; P-value for Q-test = 0.003; I2 = 63.5%] for those with highest versus lowest quantity of intake. In the dose-response analysis, the RR of MM was 0.955 (95% CI = 0.912-0.999 for per 1 cup/day increment of caffeinated coffee consumption and linearity dose-response association was found (P-value for nonlinearity = 0.326. Strikingly, no significant association was found between the decaffeinated coffee intake level and MM risk (pooled RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.81-1.05; P-value for Q-test = 0.967; I2 = 0%; highest versus lowest quantity of intake.This meta-analysis suggested that caffeinated coffee might have chemo-preventive effects against MM but not decaffeinated coffee. However, larger prospective studies and the intervention studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  9. ABO blood grouping: A potential risk factor for early childhood caries - A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Lavanya; Jeevanandan, Ganesh; Subramanian, E M G

    2018-01-01

    The paradigm of etiology of early childhood caries (ECC) is shifting toward genetics. Of various inherited factors, blood group of an individual is genetically determined. The aim of the study is to determine if blood group of an individual will serve as a potential risk factor in the development of ECC. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chennai. Blood samples were collected from a total of 500 children age for determination of the blood group. Of which 96 children (24 per blood group) were randomly selected and were included in the study. Oral screening of the selected children was done by a pediatric dentist who was blinded to the blood group of the children. Decayed, extracted, and filling index was noted. Details on other associated factors for the development of ECC such as the socioeconomic status, oral hygiene measures, diet, and feeding practices were collected by directly interviewing the parents through a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc Tukey test with significance level set at 0.05. Intergroup analysis of the associated factors showed no significant differences between the children of different blood groups. A statistically significant relation was noted between the blood groups and development of ECC (P = 0.025). Blood group is a potential risk indicator for the development of ECC.

  10. Lessons Learned From Implementation of Westinghouse Owners Group Risk-Informed Inservice Inspection Methodology for Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Paul R.; Haessler, Richard L.; McNeill, Alex; Pyne, Mark A.; West, Raymond A.

    2006-01-01

    Risk-informed inservice inspection (ISI) programs have been in use for over seven years as an alternative to current regulatory requirements in the development and implementation of ISI programs for nuclear plant piping systems. Programs using the Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) (now known as the Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group - PWROG) risk-informed ISI methodology have been developed and implemented within the U.S. and several other countries. Additionally, many plants have conducted or are in the process of conducting updates to their risk-informed ISI programs. In the development and implementation of these risk-informed ISI programs and the associated updates to those programs, the following important lessons learned have been identified and are addressed. Concepts such as 'loss of inventory', which are typically not modeled in a plant's probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model for all systems. The importance of considering operator actions in the identification of consequences associated with a piping failure and the categorization of segments as high safety significant (HSS) or low safety significant (LSS). The impact that the above considerations have had on the large early release frequency (LERF) and categorization of segments as HSS or LSS. The importance of automation. Making the update process more efficient to reduce costs associated with maintaining the risk-informed ISI program. The insights gained are associated with many of the steps in the risk-informed ISI process including: development of the consequences associated with piping failures, categorization of segments, structural element selection and program updates. Many of these lessons learned have impacted the results of the risk-informed ISI programs and have impacted the updates to those programs. This paper summarizes the lessons learned and insights gained from the application of the WOG risk-informed ISI methodology in the U.S., Europe and Asia. (authors)

  11. Need assessment for HIV/AIDS Education: The level of knowledge about transmission in some risk groups in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcebe, H.

    2002-01-01

    Every year, the number of HIV/AIDS cases increases twice as much as the year before in Turkey. The authors anticipate that the actual numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in Turkey are higher than the number of cases diagnosed and reported. This review summarizes the results of some previous studies that were conducted among various risk groups, such as high school and university students, barbers, hair dressers, nurses, pharmacists and doctors, men and women engaged in sex trade and security workers in different regions of country. The responses of participants to similar questions of studies on the transmission of HIV/AIDS were evaluated in this review. The studies that have been conducted among different risk groups in different regions have shown that in spite of low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Turkey, many risk groups still do not have adequate or correct information on the prevalence and transmission of disease. Effective and extensive health education on HIV/AIDS and the practice of healthy lifestyle would change the epidemiology of the disease in Turkey. (author)

  12. Group Mentoring: a Way to Retain ´High-Risk´Teachers on the Job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Lisbeth Angela Lunde

    2015-01-01

    The present article concerns group mentoring combined with action learning as a way to counteract work related sickness and early retirement for´ high risk´ teachers. Focus has been on reflection and vitalization. The data shows that this way of working has many possibilities in supporting...

  13. Risk perception in an interest group context: an examination of the TMI restart issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Carnes, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Human response to environmental hazards and risks has been the subject of considerable research by social scientists. Work has traditionally focused on either individual response to the risks of an ongoing or future threat (hazards research), or group and organizational response to a specific disaster event (disaster research). As part of a larger investigation of the restart of the Unit 1 reactor at Three Mile Island (TMI), the response of interest groups active in the restart issue to the continued threat of TMI and to future risks due to restart was examined. After reviewing the restart issue in general, the local dimensions of the restart issue from interest group perspectives are discussed. A method for defining appropriate issues at the community level is reviewed. Differences in the perceived local impacts of alternative decisions, and systems of beliefs associated with differing perceptions are discussed. Finally, the implications of interest group versus individual perceptions of local issues for decision making about TMI, in particular, and about technological hazards management, in general, are discussed. Associated implications for determining socially acceptable risk levels are identified

  14. Staircase falls: High-risk groups and injury characteristics in 464 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele van Hensbroek, P.; Mulder, S.; Luitse, J. S. K.; van Ooijen, M. R.; Goslings, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Few data are available about the epidemiology and injury characteristics in staircase falls. The available literature mainly concerns children and autopsy studies. Objective: To describe the epidemiology and injury characteristics of staircase falls, and to identify high-risk groups

  15. A Group Intervention for HIV/STI Risk Reduction among Indian Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Nehra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV in India is transmitted primarily by heterosexual contact. The present study sought to test the feasibility of a group HIV/STI risk reduction intervention among heterosexual couples in India. Methods: Focus groups and key informant interviews were used in 2008 to culturally tailor the intervention. Thirty sexually active and HIV/STI negative couples were enrolled and assessed regarding risk behavior and sexual barrier acceptability. Gender-concordant group sessions used cognitive behavioral strategies for HIV/STI prevention. Results: At baseline, male condom use was low (36%; no participants reported use of female condoms or vaginal gels. HIV knowledge was low; women had more HIV knowledge and more positive attitudes towards condom use than men. Post-intervention, willingness to use all barrier products (t = 10.0, P< .001 and intentions to avoid risk behavior increased (t = 5.62, P< .001. Conclusion: This study illustrates the feasibility of utilizing a group intervention to enhance HIV/STI risk reduction among Indian couples.

  16. Identifying Children at Risk for Language Impairment or Dyslexia with Group-Administered Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Scoggins, Joanna; Brazendale, Allison; Babb, Spencer; Petscher, Yaacov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to determine whether brief, group-administered screening measures can reliably identify second-grade children at risk for language impairment (LI) or dyslexia and to examine the degree to which parents of affected children were aware of their children's difficulties. Method: Participants (N = 381) completed screening tasks…

  17. A re-examination of the effect of contextual group size on people's attitude to risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumi Shimizu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Using Kahneman and Tversky's life-death decision paradigm, Wang and colleagues (e.g., Wang and Johnston, 1995; Wang, 1996a, 1996b, 1996c, 2008; Wang et al., 2001 have shown two characteristic phenomena regarding people's attitude to risk when the contextual group size is manipulated. In both positive and negative frames, people tend to take greater risks in life-death decisions as the contextual group size becomes smaller; this risk-seeking attitude is greater when framed positively than negatively. (This second characteristic often leads to the disappearance of the framing effect in small group contexts comprising of 6 or 60 people. Their results could shed new light on the effect of contextual group size on people's risk choice. However these results are usually observed in laboratory experiments with university student samples. This study aims to examine the external validity of these results through different ways of experimentation and with a different sample base. The first characteristic was replicated in both a face-to-face interview with a randomly selected sample of the Japanese general public, and a web-based experiment with a non-student sample, but not the second.

  18. 40 CFR 280.97 - Insurance and risk retention group coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Financial Responsibility § 280.97 Insurance and risk retention group coverage... information and the brackets deleted: (1) Endorsement Name: [name of each covered location] Address: [address... liability, and exclusions of the policy.] I hereby certify that the wording of this instrument is identical...

  19. Passengers, Participants, Partners and Practitioners. Working with Risk To Empower Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather

    2000-01-01

    Participant responsibility in outdoor education programs is placed on a continuum from passenger status through participant and partner to practitioner. Corresponding leader roles are directive, coaching, supporting, and delegating. The disempowering effects of the passenger approach to risk management and the value of teaching a group to manage…

  20. The patient perspective: utilizing focus groups to inform care coordination for high-risk medicaid populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheff, Alex; Park, Elyse R; Neagle, Mary; Oreskovic, Nicolas M

    2017-07-25

    Care coordination programs for high-risk, high-cost patients are a critical component of population health management. These programs aim to improve outcomes and reduce costs and have proliferated over the last decade. Some programs, originally designed for Medicare patients, are now transitioning to also serve Medicaid populations. However, there are still gaps in the understanding of what barriers to care Medicaid patients experience, and what supports will be most effective for providing them care coordination. We conducted two focus groups (n = 13) and thematic analyses to assess the outcomes drivers and programmatic preferences of Medicaid patients enrolled in a high-risk care coordination program at a major academic medical center in Boston, MA. Two focus groups identified areas where care coordination efforts were having a positive impact, as well as areas of unmet needs among the Medicaid population. Six themes emerged from the focus groups that clustered in three groupings: In the first group (1) enrollment in an existing medical care coordination programs, and (2) provider communication largely presented as positive accounts of assistance, and good relationships with providers, though participants also pointed to areas where these efforts fell short. In the second group (3) trauma histories, (4) mental health challenges, and (5) executive function difficulties all presented challenges faced by high-risk Medicaid patients that would likely require redress through additional programmatic supports. Finally, in the third group, (6) peer-to-peer support tendencies among patients suggested an untapped resource for care coordination programs. Programs aimed at high-risk Medicaid patients will want to consider programmatic adjustments to attend to patient needs in five areas: (1) provider connection/care coordination, (2) trauma, (3) mental health, (4) executive function/paperwork and coaching support, and (5) peer-to-peer support.

  1. Identifying drug risk perceptions in Danish youths: Ranking exercises in focus groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Ravn, Signe

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: This paper develops an analytical approach for understanding the perceptions of risks associated with drugs among youths in general. These perceptions are central in order to understand how certain drugs become popular, leading to increasing prevalence of use, while others do...... not. As such, this approach can become an efficient policy tool. Methods: Focus groups are used to investigate risk perceptions. We develop a specific methodology that combines a ranking exercise with discourse theory as an analytical approach. This methodology produces detailed information...... and provides a relatively efficient way of investigating normative risk perceptions at a national or subcultural level. The paper develops this methodology in relation to a Danish case with 12 focus group interviews with youths aged from 17 to 22. Results: The analysis identifies five discourses articulated...

  2. Identifying drug risk perceptions in Danish youths: Ranking exercises in focus groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Ravn, Signe

    2010-01-01

    not. As such, this approach can become an efficient policy tool. Methods: Focus groups are used to investigate risk perceptions. We develop a specific methodology that combines a ranking exercise with discourse theory as an analytical approach. This methodology produces detailed information......Abstract: Background: This paper develops an analytical approach for understanding the perceptions of risks associated with drugs among youths in general. These perceptions are central in order to understand how certain drugs become popular, leading to increasing prevalence of use, while others do...... and provides a relatively efficient way of investigating normative risk perceptions at a national or subcultural level. The paper develops this methodology in relation to a Danish case with 12 focus group interviews with youths aged from 17 to 22. Results: The analysis identifies five discourses articulated...

  3. Chiral anomalies and constraints on the gauge group in higher-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, P.K.; Sierra, G.

    1983-01-01

    Chiral anomalies for gauge theories in any even dimension are computed and the results applied to supersymmetric theories in D=6, 8 and 10. For D=8 there is an anomalous chiral U(1) invariance, just as in D=4, except for certain special groups. For D=6 and D=10 there is no anomalous chiral U(1) symmetry, but the gauge current is anomalous except for certain ''anomaly-free'' groups. For D=6 the group is thereby constrained to be one of [SU(2), SU(3), exceptional], while for D=10 it is constrained to be one of [SU(n)n 8 ]. (orig.)

  4. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping are associated with higher risk of incident diabetes in middle-aged and older Chinese: the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Liu, Bing; Wang, Jing; Pan, An; Li, Yaru; Hu, Hua; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the independent and combined effects of sleep duration and afternoon napping on the risk of incident diabetes among a cohort of middle-aged and older Chinese adults. Information of sleep and napping was obtained by questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. We categorized sleep duration into napping was divided into no napping (0 min) (reference), 1-30 min, 31-60 min, 61-90 min, and > 90 min. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Compared with referential sleeping group, subjects sleeping ≥10 h had a 42% higher risk of developing diabetes. The HR was 1.28 for napping > 90 min when compared with no napping. These associations were more pronounced in individuals without hypertension. Combined effects of long sleep duration and afternoon napping were further identified. Individuals with both sleep duration ≥ 10 h and napping > 60 min had a 72% higher risk of incident diabetes than those with sleeping 7∼napping 0 min (all above p napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. Key messages Sleep duration was associated with diabetes, but whether it is a real cause of incident diabetes especially in Chinese still remains to be elucidated. The association of afternoon napping and diabetes was not consistent and definite, we clarified this association in a large prospective study. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes.

  5. [Cardiovascular risk, occupation and exposure to occupational carcinogens in a group of workers in Salamanca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Identify the cardiovascular risk factors in a group of workers in the province of Salamanca, protected by external prevention services, as regards exposure to occupational carcinogens, by sector of activity and gender. An observational descriptive epidemiological study was conducted. The sample selection was by stratified random sampling in each entity. The variables collected by questionnaire were, sociodemographic characteristics, exposure to occupational carcinogens, and cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes), using the clinical-work histories as a source of information. Statistically significant differences were observed in cardiovascular risk according to the exposure to occupational carcinogens (p cardiovascular risk in the work place. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Higher frequency of secretor phenotype in O blood group ? its benefits in prevention and/or treatment of some diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jaff, Mohamad Salih

    2010-01-01

    Mohamad Salih JaffPathology Department, Hawler Medical University (Formerly Salahaddin University), Erbil, Kurdistan Region, IraqAbstract: ABO blood groups and secretor status are important in clinical and forensic medicine and in relation to some diseases. There are geographic and racial differences in their frequencies, but the frequency of secretor status in different ABO blood group systems has not been determined yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was mainly to determine this point. B...

  7. Intake of predatory fish in Amazonia is a driver of toxicological risk for susceptible exposure groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacon S.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High fish intake has marked the scenario of riparian communities in Amazon basin during the last three decades. Although efforts have been done by some national and international scientific groups to control mercury exposure in Brazilian Amazon, the problem persists. The return of artisan gold mining, the new hydroelectric power plants (with its reservoirs and the expansion of the agribusiness are some of the economic activities that may contribute to the increment of mercury load in the Amazon ecosystem with direct influence in the food chain. These changes in Amazon scenario increase complexity of environmental issue and mercury may become a threat for susceptible exposure groups. This study evaluated mercury exposure scenarios for susceptible groups around the hydroelectric plant to calculate toxicological risk before damming. During the period of 2009 to 2011, about 771 children under 16 years age and 276 female in reproductive age (from 16 to 40 years old were assessed. Besides, regular fish samples (n=1580 were collected for total mercury determination. The mercury concentration in fish ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 mg/kg. For the current scenario the toxicological risk ranged from 3.5 to 24 for mercury for the susceptible groups. Regarding the critical scenario after 3 years flooding, the area is expected to double the risk for the same group, especially for the communities downstream, which may represent a critical situation.

  8. Higher Birthweight and Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI Persist with Obesity Association at Age 9 in High Risk Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Medrano, Rosalinda; Elwan, Deena; Mehta, Kala; Christensen, Vibeke Brix; Wojcicki, Janet M

    2018-02-03

    Childhood obesity is increasing especially in Latinos and early intervention is essential to prevent later obesity complications. Latino children (n = 201) recruited at two San Francisco hospitals were assessed at birth including infant anthropometrics and feeding practices and followed to age 9 with annual anthropometric assessments. We evaluated the relationship between perinatal risk factors and obesity at age 9 and chronic obesity (obesity at both 5 and 9 years). Higher birthweight [odds ratio (OR) 2.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-5.81] and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.18) were associated with increased risk for obesity at 9 years. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20) was associated with chronic obesity. Additionally, prenatal depression symptoms were protective (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.11-0.94) against chronic obesity. We found no association between maternal age and education, exclusive breastfeeding at 4-6 weeks, rapid infant weight gain, and obesity or chronic obesity. Perinatal risk factors for obesity including higher birthweight and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI persisted until age 9, whereas, other variables significant at age 5 in our cohort and other populations including exclusive breastfeeding and rapid infant weight gain were no longer associated with increased risk.

  9. Risk and benefit of dual antiplatelet treatment among nonrevascularized myocardial infarction patients in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nikolai; Gislason, Gunnar; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2017-01-01

    revascularization. METHODS: Patients admitted with first-time myocardial infarction in 2002-2010, not undergoing revascularization, were identified from nationwide Danish registers. Dual anti-platelet treatment use was assessed by claimed prescriptions. Stratified into age groups, risk of bleeding, all.......63; 95% CI 1.17-2.26), 60-69 years (HR=1.22; 95% CI 0.97-1.59, NS), 70-79 years (HR=1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.72) and >79 years (HR=1.46; 95% CI 1.22-1.74). Similar tendencies in all four age groups were found in the propensity-matched population. CONCLUSION: Dual anti-platelet treatment use was less likely...... among elderly patients although similar effects regarding both risk and benefit were found in all age groups. Increased focus on initiating dual anti-platelet treatment in elderly, non-invasively treated myocardial infarction patients is warranted....

  10. Minority Language Issues in Chinese Higher Education: Policy Reforms and Practice among the Korean and Mongol Ethnic Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiyan XIONG; W.James JACOB; Huiyuan YE

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Korean and Mongol minorities in the People's Republic of China in terms of their native language preservation and educational experiences at the higher education level,and to investigate differences and similarities between Korean and Mongol minorities' language issues.Content area experts on Chinese minority education from China,South Korea,and the United States were interviewed for this study.Findings include suggestions for helping to formulate government educational policies regarding issues related to language in Chinese minority education at the higher education level.This information is helpful to better understand and educate others in school and home settings where Chinese ethnic minority students reside.The advancement of Chinese minority education knowledge related to higher education will significantly strengthen and empower individuals,families,and communities throughout the People's Republic of China.

  11. A meta-analysis of indicated mental health prevention programs for at-risk higher education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Colleen S; Shapiro, Jenna B; Kirsch, Alexandra C; Durlak, Joseph A

    2017-03-01

    This meta-analysis found empirical support for the effectiveness of indicated prevention programs for higher education students at risk for subsequent mental health difficulties based on their current subclinical levels of various presenting problems, such as depression, anxiety, or interpersonal difficulties. A systematic literature search identified 79 controlled published and unpublished interventions involving 4,470 college, graduate, or professional students. Programs were effective at post-intervention overall (ES = 0.49, CI [0.43, 0.55]), and for both targeted outcomes (ES = 0.58, CI [0.51, 0.64]) as well as additional nontargeted outcomes assessed in the studies (ES = 0.32, CI [0.25, 0.39]). Interventions compared with a no-intervention or a wait-list control (ES = 0.64, CI [0.57, 0.71], k = 68) demonstrated significantly larger effects overall than did interventions compared with an attention-placebo control (ES = 0.27, CI [0.11, 0.43], k = 11), although both were significant. Among the former group, modality and presenting problem emerged as significant moderators of intervention effectiveness, and among the 43 of these that assessed effectiveness at an average follow-up period of 35 weeks, the positive effects from intervention remained strong (ES = 0.59, CI [0.50, 0.68]). Overall, programs were fairly brief, attracted and retained students, were positively rated by students, and effective when administered by paraprofessionals as well as professionals. Current findings are promising and stimulate recommendations for improving future research, such as expanding the range of outcomes assessed, and clarifying moderators and mediators of intervention impact. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Managing Reputation Risk and Situational Crisis in Higher Institutions of Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Effiong, Andem Ita

    2014-01-01

    Extant literature on crisis and corporate reputation management has presented the Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT) model as a valid and reliable framework for managing crisis and predicting stakeholders’perceptions of organizations’ reputation in times of crisis. In order to verifythe applicability of the model in higher institutions of learning in adeveloping country context, a study was conducted in September, 2011 in twopublic universities in Nigeria. The findings of the stud...

  13. Minority Language Issues in Chinese Higher Education: Policy Reforms and Practice among the Korean and Mongol Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weiyan; Jacob, W. James; Ye, Huiyuan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Korean and Mongol minorities in the People's Republic of China in terms of their native language preservation and educational experiences at the higher education level, and to investigate differences and similarities between Korean and Mongol minorities' language issues. Content area experts on Chinese…

  14. Efficiency and Effectiveness in Higher Education: A Report by the Universities UK Efficiency and Modernisation Task Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness, efficiency and value for money are central concerns for the higher education sector. In England, decisions made by the current Government will effect a radical change in the funding for teaching. Institutions will be managing a reduction in public funding for teaching and the transition to the new system of graduate contributions,…

  15. Toddlers with Early Behavioral Problems at Higher Family Demographic Risk Benefit the Most from Maternal Emotion Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Bocknek, Erika London; Vallotton, Claire D; Stansbury, Kathy E; Senehi, Neda; Dalimonte-Merckling, Danielle; Lee, Young-Eun

    2015-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that toddlers at highest risk for behavioral problems from the most economically vulnerable families will benefit most from maternal talk about emotions. This study included 89 toddlers and mothers from low-income families. Behavioral problems were rated at 2 time points by masters-level trained Early Head Start home visiting specialists. Maternal emotion talk was coded from a wordless book-sharing task. Coding focused on mothers' emotion bridging, which included labeling emotions, explaining the context of emotions, noting the behavioral cues of emotions, and linking emotions to toddlers' own experiences. Maternal demographic risk reflected a composite score of 5 risk factors. A significant 3-way interaction between Time 1 toddler behavior problems, maternal emotion talk, and maternal demographic risk (p = .001) and examination of slope difference tests revealed that when maternal demographic risk was greater, more maternal emotion talk buffered associations between earlier and later behavior problems. Greater demographic risk and lower maternal emotion talk intensified Time 1 behavior problems as a predictor of Time 2 behavior problems. The model explained 54% of the variance in toddlers' Time 2 behavior problems. Analyses controlled for maternal warmth to better examine the unique contributions of emotion bridging to toddlers' behaviors. Toddlers at highest risk, those with more early behavioral problems from higher demographic-risk families, benefit the most from mothers' emotion talk. Informing parents about the use of emotion talk may be a cost-effective, simple strategy to support at-risk toddlers' social-emotional development and reduce behavioral problems.

  16. Identifying critical nutrient intake in groups at risk of poverty in Europe: the CHANCE project approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Marina; Glibetić, Maria; Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-04-02

    The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project's objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe.

  17. Identifying Critical Nutrient Intake in Groups at Risk of Poverty in Europe: The CHANCE Project Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Marina; Glibetić, Maria; Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project’s objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe. PMID:24699195

  18. Identifying Critical Nutrient Intake in Groups at Risk of Poverty in Europe: The CHANCE Project Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Nikolić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP. This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project’s objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe.

  19. Polygenic Risk Score Identifies Subgroup With Higher Burden of Atherosclerosis and Greater Relative Benefit From Statin Therapy in the Primary Prevention Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Pradeep; Young, Robin; Stitziel, Nathan O; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Baber, Usman; Mehran, Roxana; Sartori, Samantha; Fuster, Valentin; Reilly, Dermot F; Butterworth, Adam; Rader, Daniel J; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2017-05-30

    Relative risk reduction with statin therapy has been consistent across nearly all subgroups studied to date. However, in analyses of 2 randomized controlled primary prevention trials (ASCOT [Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Lipid-Lowering Arm] and JUPITER [Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin]), statin therapy led to a greater relative risk reduction among a subgroup at high genetic risk. Here, we aimed to confirm this observation in a third primary prevention randomized controlled trial. In addition, we assessed whether those at high genetic risk had a greater burden of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. We studied participants from a randomized controlled trial of primary prevention with statin therapy (WOSCOPS [West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study]; n=4910) and 2 observational cohort studies (CARDIA [Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults] and BioImage; n=1154 and 4392, respectively). For each participant, we calculated a polygenic risk score derived from up to 57 common DNA sequence variants previously associated with coronary heart disease. We compared the relative efficacy of statin therapy in those at high genetic risk (top quintile of polygenic risk score) versus all others (WOSCOPS), as well as the association between the polygenic risk score and coronary artery calcification (CARDIA) and carotid artery plaque burden (BioImage). Among WOSCOPS trial participants at high genetic risk, statin therapy was associated with a relative risk reduction of 44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22-60; P statin therapy was 3.6% (95% CI, 2.0-5.1) among those in the high genetic risk group and 1.3% (95% CI, 0.6-1.9) in all others. Each 1-SD increase in the polygenic risk score was associated with 1.32-fold (95% CI, 1.04-1.68) greater likelihood of having coronary artery calcification and 9.7% higher (95% CI, 2.2-17.8) burden of carotid plaque. Those at high genetic risk have a greater

  20. The perception of injury risk and safety in triathlon competition: an exploratory focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Cameron McR; Donaldson, Alex; Forbes, Andrew B; Gabbe, Belinda J

    2013-01-01

    To explore stakeholder perceptions of triathlon competition safety and injury risk. Qualitative focus group study. Triathlon stakeholders from Melbourne, Australia. Competition organizers, coaches, and competitors of various skill levels, age, gender, and experience (n = 18). Focus groups were conducted, recorded, and transcribed for analysis. Key themes were identified using content analysis. The perceived risk of serious injury was highest for cycling. Running was most commonly linked to minor injuries. Physical and environmental factors, including course turning points, funneling of competitors into narrow sections, and the weather, were perceived as contributing to injury. Experience, skill level, feelings of vulnerability, personal awareness, club culture, and gender issues were perceived as the competitor-related factors potentially contributing to injury. The cycling mount/dismount area, cycling, and swim legs were the race sections perceived as the riskiest for competitors. Competition organizers were considered to generally have the competitors' best interest as a priority. Triathlons were acknowledged as risky activities and individual competitors accepted this risk. This study has highlighted the main risks and concerns perceived by triathlon competitors, coaches, and competition organizers, which will help identify potential, context-relevant intervention strategies to reduce injury risk.

  1. Higher risk of probable mental emotional disorder in low or severe vision subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfah Rif’ati

    2012-07-01

    health problem priority in Indonesia. This paper presents an assessment of severe visual impairments related to the risk of MED. Methods: This paper assessed a part of Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2007 data. For this assessment, subjects 15 years old or more had their visual acuity measured using the Snellen chart and their mental health status determined using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ 20. A subject was considered to have probable MED if the subject had a total score of 6 or more on the SRQ. Based on the measure of visual acuity, visual acuity was divided into 3 categories: normal/mild (20/20 to 20/60; low vision (less than 20/60 to 3/60; and blind (less than 3/60 to 0/0. Results: Among 972,989 subjects, 554,886 were aged 15 years or older. 11.4% of the subjects had probable MED. The prevalence of low vision and blindness was 5.1% and 0.9%, respectively. Compared to subjects with normal or mild visual impairments, subjects with low vision had a 74% increased risk for probable MED [adjusted relative risk (RRa=1,75; 95% confidence interval (CI=1,71-1,79].  Blind subjects had a 2.7-fold risk to be probable MED (RRa=2.69; 95% CI=2.60-2.78] compared to subjects with normal or mild visual impairments. Conclusion: Visual impairment severity increased probable MED risk. Therefore, visual impairment subjects need more attention on probable MED. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:9-13

  2. Food groups and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from a Jordanian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Mweis, Suhad S; Tayyem, Reema F; Shehadah, Ihab; Bawadi, Hiba A; Agraib, Lana M; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed

    2015-07-01

    The role of diet in colorectal cancer (CRC) in Jordan has not been studied previously. This study aimed at examining the association between food groups (including grains, fruits, vegetables, milk, and meat and legumes) and CRC risk in Jordan. We compared intakes of the different food groups among CRC patients (n=167) and matched controls (n=240) by age, sex, occupation, and marital status. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of quartiles of intakes of the different food groups with CRC risk. In addition, the association of selected food items with CRC risk was examined. Odds ratios (ORs) for the fourth versus the first quartile of intake were 2.92 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-6.08] for grains, 1.66 (95% CI: 0.81-3.40) for vegetables, 0.55 (95% CI: 0.26-1.16) for fruits, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.46-1.97) for milk, and 1.43 (95% CI: 0.68-2.98) for meat and legumes. In a comparison of the highest with the lowest weekly frequency of consumption, there was a direct association between the risk of CRC and the frequency of consumption of chicken (OR=2.52, 95% CI: 1.33-4.77). An increase in risk was observed with increased consumption of white bread (OR=3.13, 95% CI: 1.18-9.25), whereas consumption of whole bread was associated with a decreased risk for CRC (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.84). Our results support a role of diet in CRC. Direct associations were found for grains, white bread, and chicken, whereas an inverse relation was reported for whole bread.

  3. Relative Risk of Various Head and Neck Cancers among Different Blood Groups: An Analytical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khushboo; Kote, Sunder; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Shilpi; Kundu, Hansa; Jain, Swati

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. The limited and contrasting evidence regarding the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers in the Indian population warrants the need for the present study. To assess the relative risk of various Head & Neck cancers among different blood groups. Three hundred sixty two diagnosed cases of different type of head and neck cancers and 400 controls were selected from four hospitals of New Delhi, India. The information regarding the type of head and neck cancer was obtained from the case sheets of the patients regarding their socio demographic profile, dietary history using a structured performa. The information regarding type of cancer (cases only), ABO blood group was collected. Statistical Tests: The data was analysed using the SPSS 19 version. Chi square test and odd ratios were calculated. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by B, A and AB among the cases as well as the controls. Oral cancer patients showed maximum number in blood group O followed by B, A and AB. Significant pattern of distribution was seen among the patients of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and salivary gland cancer as well (p= 0.003, p=0.000 p=0.112 respectively. The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility or protection against different types of head and neck cancers. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of oral cancers, esophageal cancers and salivary gland cancers while blood group B was found to be a potential risk factor for laryngeal cancers.

  4. Relative Risk of Various Head and Neck Cancers among Different Blood Groups: An Analytical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kote, Sunder; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Shilpi; Kundu, Hansa; Jain, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. The limited and contrasting evidence regarding the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers in the Indian population warrants the need for the present study. Aim and Objective: To assess the relative risk of various Head & Neck cancers among different blood groups. Materials and Method: Three hundred sixty two diagnosed cases of different type of head and neck cancers and 400 controls were selected from four hospitals of New Delhi, India. The information regarding the type of head and neck cancer was obtained from the case sheets of the patients regarding their socio demographic profile, dietary history using a structured performa. The information regarding type of cancer (cases only), ABO blood group was collected. Statistical Tests: The data was analysed using the SPSS 19 version. Chi square test and odd ratios were calculated. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. Results: The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by B, A and AB among the cases as well as the controls. Oral cancer patients showed maximum number in blood group O followed by B, A and AB. Significant pattern of distribution was seen among the patients of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and salivary gland cancer as well (p= 0.003, p=0.000 p=0.112 respectively. Conclusion: The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility or protection against different types of head and neck cancers. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of oral cancers, esophageal cancers and salivary gland cancers while blood group B was found to be a potential risk factor for laryngeal cancers. PMID:24959511

  5. The chromosomal distributions of Ty1-copia group retrotransposable elements in higher plants and their implications for genome evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.S. (Pat) Heslop-Harrison; Andrea Brandes; Shin Taketa; Thomas Schmidt; Alexander V. Vershinin; Elena G. Alkhimova; Anette Kamm; Robert L. Doudrick; . [and others

    1997-01-01

    Retrotransposons make up a major fraction - sometimes more than 40% - of all plant genomes investigated so far. We have isolated the reverse transcriptase domains of theTyl-copia group elements from several species, ranging in genome size from some 100 Mbp to 23,000 Mbp, and determined the distribution patterns of these retrotransposons on metaphase chromosomes and...

  6. Strategy for distribution of influenza vaccine to high-risk groups and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longini, Ira M; Halloran, M Elizabeth

    2005-02-15

    Despite evidence that vaccinating schoolchildren against influenza is effective in limiting community-level transmission, the United States has had a long-standing government strategy of recommending that vaccine be concentrated primarily in high-risk groups and distributed to those people who keep the health system and social infrastructure operating. Because of this year's influenza vaccine shortage, a plan was enacted to distribute the limited vaccine stock to these groups first. This vaccination strategy, based on direct protection of those most at risk, has not been very effective in reducing influenza morbidity and mortality. Although it is too late to make changes this year, the current influenza vaccine crisis affords the opportunity to examine an alternative for future years. The alternative plan, supported by mathematical models and influenza field studies, would be to concentrate vaccine in schoolchildren, the population group most responsible for transmission, while also covering the reachable high-risk groups, who would also receive considerable indirect protection. In conjunction with a plan to ensure an adequate vaccine supply, this alternative influenza vaccination strategy would help control interpandemic influenza and be instrumental in preparing for pandemic influenza. The effectiveness of the alternative plan could be assessed through nationwide community studies.

  7. Dietary patterns, food groups, and rectal cancer risk in Whites and African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christina Dawn; Satia, Jessie A; Adair, Linda S; Stevens, June; Galanko, Joseph; Keku, Temitope O; Sandler, Robert S

    2009-05-01

    Associations between individual foods and nutrients and colorectal cancer have been inconsistent, and few studies have examined associations between food, nutrients, dietary patterns, and rectal cancer. We examined the relationship between food groups and dietary patterns and risk for rectal cancer in non-Hispanic Whites and African-Americans. Data were from the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study-Phase II and included 1,520 Whites (720 cases, 800 controls) and 384 African-Americans (225 cases, 159 controls). Diet was assessed using the Diet History Questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Among Whites, non-whole grains and white potatoes were associated with elevated risk for rectal cancer whereas fruit, vegetables, dairy, fish, and poultry were associated with reduced risk. In African-Americans, high consumption of other fruit and added sugar suggested elevated risk. We identified three major dietary patterns in Whites and African-Americans. The high fat/meat/potatoes pattern was observed in both race groups but was only positively associated with risk in Whites (odds ratio, 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-3.15). The vegetable/fish/poultry and fruit/whole grain/dairy patterns in Whites had significant inverse associations with risk. In African-Americans, there was a positive dose-response for the fruit/vegetables pattern (P(trend) pattern (P(trend) dietary patterns with rectal cancer risk differ between Whites and African-Americans, highlighting the importance of examining diet and cancer relationships in racially diverse populations.

  8. Present of occupational accidents dimensions based on risk-injury affinity groups (case study, from1384 to 1393

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Yari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: correspondence analysis method as the best method to optimize matrix functions that using the risk-injury matrix methods are analyzed. This method reduces the information contained in the risk-injury table and to determine the correlation between the variables in the matrix. The aim of this study is to present accidents and occupational hazards dimensions is dependent to risk-injury groups, using occupational accidents that can be managed. Method: in this study the reports of occupational accidents registered in the social security organization in a period of ten years from the beginning of 1384 until the end of 1393 ( 222,300 incidents were collected and type of Risk and injury related to any accident identified based on criteria, the International Labour Organization and classified in a risk-injury matrix (18 × 18. Using correspondence analysis of dimensions are identified individually, this dimensions Most indicate the most correlation between risk and injury that facilitate decision-making in the risk assessment companies are covered by Social Security.  Results: Hair criteria recommends dimensions with inertia higher than 0.2 are suitable for the study and interpretation of results, based on this study were obtained from the dimensions of inertia (eigenvalue greater than 0.2 include the dim1 ,dim2 ,dim3 to consider and the correlation between variables is obtained based on singular value (variable distance from the centeroid. (Singular value of dim1: 0.750, singular value of dimension 2: 0.647 and singular value dimension3: 0.521

  9. Artificial intelligence on the identification of risk groups for osteoporosis, a general review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Agnaldo S; Lins, Hertz C; Medeiros, Ricardo V A; Filho, José M F; da Silva, Sandro G

    2018-01-29

    The goal of this paper is to present a critical review on the main systems that use artificial intelligence to identify groups at risk for osteoporosis or fractures. The systems considered for this study were those that fulfilled the following requirements: range of coverage in diagnosis, low cost and capability to identify more significant somatic factors. A bibliographic research was done in the databases, PubMed, IEEExplorer Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (LILACS), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, Web of Science, and Science Direct searching the terms "Neural Network", "Osteoporosis Machine Learning" and "Osteoporosis Neural Network". Studies with titles not directly related to the research topic and older data that reported repeated strategies were excluded. The search was carried out with the descriptors in German, Spanish, French, Italian, Mandarin, Portuguese and English; but only studies written in English were found to meet the established criteria. Articles covering the period 2000-2017 were selected; however, articles prior to this period with great relevance were included in this study. Based on the collected research, it was identified that there are several methods in the use of artificial intelligence to help the screening of risk groups of osteoporosis or fractures. However, such systems were limited to a specific ethnic group, gender or age. For future research, new challenges are presented. It is necessary to develop research with the unification of different databases and grouping of the various attributes and clinical factors, in order to reach a greater comprehensiveness in the identification of risk groups of osteoporosis. For this purpose, the use of any predictive tool should be performed in different populations with greater participation of male patients and inclusion of a larger age range for the

  10. Agrochemicals increase risk of human schistosomiasis by supporting higher densities of intermediate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Neal T; Hoover, Christopher M; Arakala, Arathi; Civitello, David J; De Leo, Giulio A; Gambhir, Manoj; Johnson, Steve A; Jouanard, Nicolas; Loerns, Kristin A; McMahon, Taegan A; Ndione, Raphael A; Nguyen, Karena; Raffel, Thomas R; Remais, Justin V; Riveau, Gilles; Sokolow, Susanne H; Rohr, Jason R

    2018-02-26

    Schistosomiasis is a snail-borne parasitic disease that ranks among the most important water-based diseases of humans in developing countries. Increased prevalence and spread of human schistosomiasis to non-endemic areas has been consistently linked with water resource management related to agricultural expansion. However, the role of agrochemical pollution in human schistosome transmission remains unexplored, despite strong evidence of agrochemicals increasing snail-borne diseases of wildlife and a projected 2- to 5-fold increase in global agrochemical use by 2050. Using a field mesocosm experiment, we show that environmentally relevant concentrations of fertilizer, a herbicide, and an insecticide, individually and as mixtures, increase densities of schistosome-infected snails by increasing the algae snails eat and decreasing densities of snail predators. Epidemiological models indicate that these agrochemical effects can increase transmission of schistosomes. Identifying agricultural practices or agrochemicals that minimize disease risk will be critical to meeting growing food demands while improving human wellbeing.

  11. An emergency department intervention to protect an overlooked group of children at risk of significant harm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kaye, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Parental psychiatric disorder, especially depression, personality disorder and deliberate self-harm, is known to put children at greater risk of mental illness, neglect or physical, emotional and sexual abuse. Without a reliable procedure to identify children of parents presenting with these mental health problems, children at high risk of significant harm can be easily overlooked. Although deliberate self-harm constitutes a significant proportion of emergency presentations, there are no guidelines which address the emergency physician\\'s role in identifying and assessing risk to children of these patients. METHODS: A robust system was jointly developed with the local social services child protection team to identify and risk-stratify children of parents with mental illness. This allows us to intervene when we identify children at immediate risk of harm and to ensure that social services are aware of potential risk to all children in this group. The referral process was audited repeatedly to refine the agreed protocol. RESULTS: The proportion of patients asked by the emergency department personnel about dependent children increased and the quality of information received by the social services child protection team improved. CONCLUSIONS: All emergency departments should acknowledge the inadequacy of information available to them regarding patients\\' children and consider a policy of referral to social services for all children of parents with mental health presentations. This process can only be developed through close liaison within the multidisciplinary child protection team.

  12. Occupational Class Groups as a Risk Factor for Gastrointestinal Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashallah Aghilinejad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer has a high mortality rate in both developing and developed countries. 11%–15% of cancers are attributable to occupational risk factors. Objective: To determine if specific occupational classes, based on the International Standard for Classification of Occupations 2008 (ISCO-08, are risk factors for gastrointestinal (GI cancer. Methods: In this case-control study, 834 cancer patients were interviewed by a single physician. Cases included patients with GI cancer. Age-matched controls were selected from non- GI cancer patients. Each year of working, up until 5 years before the diagnosis, was questioned and categorized by the ISCO classification. Results: 243 GI cancer cases and 243 non-GI cancer patients (486 in total were studied. Working in ISCO class 8 (plant and machine operators, and assemblers was significantly associated with higher risk of GI cancer (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.52. Working in ISCO class 6 (skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers and 9 (elementary occupations were also associated with higher incidence of GI cancers. Conclusion: Working in ISCO classes of 8, 6, and 9, which are usually associated with low socio-economic status, can be considered a risk factor for GI cancers.

  13. Johnson Space Center's Risk and Reliability Analysis Group 2008 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Mark; Boyer, Roger; Cross, Bob; Hamlin, Teri; Roelant, Henk; Stewart, Mike; Bigler, Mark; Winter, Scott; Reistle, Bruce; Heydorn,Dick

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate s Risk and Reliability Analysis Group provides both mathematical and engineering analysis expertise in the areas of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) analysis, and data collection and analysis. The fundamental goal of this group is to provide National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) decisionmakers with the necessary information to make informed decisions when evaluating personnel, flight hardware, and public safety concerns associated with current operating systems as well as with any future systems. The Analysis Group includes a staff of statistical and reliability experts with valuable backgrounds in the statistical, reliability, and engineering fields. This group includes JSC S&MA Analysis Branch personnel as well as S&MA support services contractors, such as Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and SoHaR. The Analysis Group s experience base includes nuclear power (both commercial and navy), manufacturing, Department of Defense, chemical, and shipping industries, as well as significant aerospace experience specifically in the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and Constellation Programs. The Analysis Group partners with project and program offices, other NASA centers, NASA contractors, and universities to provide additional resources or information to the group when performing various analysis tasks. The JSC S&MA Analysis Group is recognized as a leader in risk and reliability analysis within the NASA community. Therefore, the Analysis Group is in high demand to help the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) continue to fly safely, assist in designing the next generation spacecraft for the Constellation Program (CxP), and promote advanced analytical techniques. The Analysis Section s tasks include teaching classes and instituting personnel qualification processes to enhance the professional abilities of our analysts

  14. An Example of Large-group Drama and Cross-year Peer Assessment for Teaching Science in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Katherine; Thompson, Richard

    2010-09-01

    Undergraduate students pursuing a three-year marine biology degree programme (n = 86) experienced a large-group drama aimed at allowing them to explore how scientific research is funded and the associated links between science and society. In the drama, Year 1 students played the "general public" who decided which environmental research areas should be prioritised for funding, Year 2 students were the "scientists" who had to prepare research proposals which they hoped to get funded, and Year 3 students were the "research panel" who decided which proposals to fund with input from the priorities set by the "general public". The drama, therefore, included an element of cross-year peer assessment where Year 3 students evaluated the research proposals prepared by the Year 2 students. Questionnaires were distributed at the end of the activity to gather: (1) student perceptions on the cross-year nature of the exercise, (2) the use of peer assessment, and (3) their overall views on the drama. The students valued the opportunity to interact with their peers from other years of the degree programme and most were comfortable with the use of cross-year peer assessment. The majority of students felt that they had increased their knowledge of how research proposals are funded and the perceived benefits of the large-group drama included increased critical thinking ability, confidence in presenting work to others, and enhanced communication skills. Only one student did not strongly advocate the use of this large-group drama in subsequent years.

  15. ABO Blood Group and Dementia Risk--A Scandinavian Record-Linkage Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Rostgaard, Klaus; Ullum, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    ,615 cases of Alzheimer's disease, 1,842 cases of vascular dementia, and 9,091 cases of unspecified dementia. Overall, our study showed no association between ABO blood group and risk of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia or unspecified dementia. This was also true when analyses were restricted to donors......BACKGROUND: Dementia includes a group of neuro-degenerative disorders characterized by varying degrees of cognitive impairment. Recent data indicates that blood group AB is associated with impaired cognition in elderly patients. To date there are no large-scale studies that have examined...... the relationship between ABO blood group and dementia-related disorders in detail. METHODS: We used data from the SCANDAT2 database that contains information on over 1.6 million blood donors from 1968 in Sweden and 1981 from Denmark. The database was linked with health outcomes data from nationwide patient...

  16. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Qiao Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI 0.70–0.99, p = 0.040. Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants’ energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76–228.97, p = 0.017. We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability.

  17. NEWBORNS OF HIGH RISK GROUPS AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CARDIAC ACTIVITY DURING THE PERIOD OF EARLY ADAPTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Tumaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study characteristics of electrophysiological cardiac activity in children of risk groups and to assess possibilities of Holter-electrocardiography (H-ECG in revealing of cardiac dysfunction during the period of early adaptation. Patients and methods: 250 newborns were examined. The main group consisted of 200 children with cerebral ischemia (CI. This group was divided into 2 subgroups: 100 full-term and 100 premature (at various gestation age infants. Control group contained 50 children born at 38–40th weeks of gestation with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery, APGAR score of 8–9 points. Complex examination included H-ECG according the standard technic with evaluation of the hearth rate (HR during sleep and wakefulness; HRmin, HRmax; arrhythmias, conductivity disorders, duration of the intervals; rhythm variability. Results: according to the ECG children with CI, especially premature ones, and children delivered via Cesarean section more often had ST-T disturbances, arrhythmias (sinus tachycardia, less often — sinus bradycardia and conductivity disorders, Q-Tc prolongation. H-EGC revealed decrease of sleep HR, HRmin and HRmax in children with CI especially in delivered via Cesarean section. The most common arrhythmia was supraventricular extrasystole.  Pauses in rhythms and variability were the highest in premature children delivered via Cesarean section. Conclusions: hypoxia/ischemia is a trigger for development of cardiovascular dysfuncion in newborns. Premature and children delivered via Cesarean section form a group of high risk. H-ECG widens possibilities of revealing of symptoms of cardiac dysfunction (disturbances at the basal level of functioning, of adaptation resources of the sinus node, electric instability of the myocardium and heart rate variability in children of risk group for development of cardiovascular disorders. 

  18. Grouping and Read-Across Approaches for Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, Agnes G; Bleeker, Eric A J; Bos, Peter M J; van Broekhuizen, Fleur; Gottardo, Stefania; Groenewold, Monique; Hristozov, Danail; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Marcomini, Antonio; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; van Tongeren, Martie; Wiench, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Landsiedel, Robert

    2015-10-26

    Physicochemical properties of chemicals affect their exposure, toxicokinetics/fate and hazard, and for nanomaterials, the variation of these properties results in a wide variety of materials with potentially different risks. To limit the amount of testing for risk assessment, the information gathering process for nanomaterials needs to be efficient. At the same time, sufficient information to assess the safety of human health and the environment should be available for each nanomaterial. Grouping and read-across approaches can be utilised to meet these goals. This article presents different possible applications of grouping and read-across for nanomaterials within the broader perspective of the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy (RAS), as developed in the EU FP7 project MARINA. Firstly, nanomaterials can be grouped based on limited variation in physicochemical properties to subsequently design an efficient testing strategy that covers the entire group. Secondly, knowledge about exposure, toxicokinetics/fate or hazard, for example via properties such as dissolution rate, aspect ratio, chemical (non-)activity, can be used to organise similar materials in generic groups to frame issues that need further attention, or potentially to read-across. Thirdly, when data related to specific endpoints is required, read-across can be considered, using data from a source material for the target nanomaterial. Read-across could be based on a scientifically sound justification that exposure, distribution to the target (fate/toxicokinetics) and hazard of the target material are similar to, or less than, the source material. These grouping and read-across approaches pave the way for better use of available information on nanomaterials and are flexible enough to allow future adaptations related to scientific developments.

  19. Grouping and Read-Across Approaches for Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes G. Oomen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties of chemicals affect their exposure, toxicokinetics/fate and hazard, and for nanomaterials, the variation of these properties results in a wide variety of materials with potentially different risks. To limit the amount of testing for risk assessment, the information gathering process for nanomaterials needs to be efficient. At the same time, sufficient information to assess the safety of human health and the environment should be available for each nanomaterial. Grouping and read-across approaches can be utilised to meet these goals. This article presents different possible applications of grouping and read-across for nanomaterials within the broader perspective of the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy (RAS, as developed in the EU FP7 project MARINA. Firstly, nanomaterials can be grouped based on limited variation in physicochemical properties to subsequently design an efficient testing strategy that covers the entire group. Secondly, knowledge about exposure, toxicokinetics/fate or hazard, for example via properties such as dissolution rate, aspect ratio, chemical (non-activity, can be used to organise similar materials in generic groups to frame issues that need further attention, or potentially to read-across. Thirdly, when data related to specific endpoints is required, read-across can be considered, using data from a source material for the target nanomaterial. Read-across could be based on a scientifically sound justification that exposure, distribution to the target (fate/toxicokinetics and hazard of the target material are similar to, or less than, the source material. These grouping and read-across approaches pave the way for better use of available information on nanomaterials and are flexible enough to allow future adaptations related to scientific developments.

  20. The risk of being depressed is significantly higher in cancer patients than in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, T J; Brähler, E; Faller, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a common co-morbidity of cancer that has a detrimental effect on quality of life, treatment adherence and potentially survival. We conducted an epidemiological multi-center study including a population-based random comparison sample and estimated the prevalence...... of depressive symptoms by cancer site, thereby identifying cancer patients with the highest prevalence of depression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 4020 adult cancer inpatients and outpatients from five distinct regions across Germany in a proportional stratified random sample based on the nationwide cancer......% participated (51% women, mean age = 58 years). We estimated that one in four cancer patients (24%) is depressed (PHQ-9 ≥ 10). The odds of being depressed among cancer patients were more than five times higher than in the general population (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 4.6-6.2). Patients with pancreatic (M = 8.0, SD = 5...

  1. Comparing yield and relative costs of WHO TB screening algorithms in selected risk groups among people aged 65 years and over in China, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canyou Zhang

    Full Text Available To calculate the yield and cost per diagnosed tuberculosis (TB case for three World Health Organization screening algorithms and one using the Chinese National TB program (NTP TB suspect definitions, using data from a TB prevalence survey of people aged 65 years and over in China, 2013.This was an analytic study using data from the above survey. Risk groups were defined and the prevalence of new TB cases in each group calculated. Costs of each screening component were used to give indicative costs per case detected. Yield, number needed to screen (NNS and cost per case were used to assess the algorithms.The prevalence survey identified 172 new TB cases in 34,250 participants. Prevalence varied greatly in different groups, from 131/100,000 to 4651/ 100,000. Two groups were chosen to compare the algorithms. The medium-risk group (living in a rural area: men, or previous TB case, or close contact or a BMI <18.5, or tobacco user had appreciably higher cost per case (USD 221, 298 and 963 in the three algorithms than the high-risk group (all previous TB cases, all close contacts. (USD 72, 108 and 309 but detected two to four times more TB cases in the population. Using a Chest x-ray as the initial screening tool in the medium risk group cost the most (USD 963, and detected 67% of all the new cases. Using the NTP definition of TB suspects made little difference.To "End TB", many more TB cases have to be identified. Screening only the highest risk groups identified under 14% of the undetected cases,. To "End TB", medium risk groups will need to be screened. Using a CXR for initial screening results in a much higher yield, at what should be an acceptable cost.

  2. Food groups for allergen risk assessment: Combining food consumption data from different countries in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birot, Sophie; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Kruizinga, Astrid G

    2018-01-01

    To prevent allergic reactions, food producers have to be able to make a knowledge based decision on whether to label their products with precautionary labelling. As many manufactured food products are sold in different countries across Europe, the allergen risk assessment should be estimated...... at the European levels. As currently, there are no pan-European food data suitable for food allergy risk assessment. The aim of this paper is to investigate if consumption data, at a meal level, from National Food Consumption Surveys, can be combined to form a common Food Consumption database. In this first...... attempt we developed a procedure to investigate, if national food consumption data can be combined and grouped using data from Netherlands, France and Denmark. The homogeneity of consumption patterns and the relevance of difference in risk of allergic reaction were compared, using a fixed framework...

  3. Development of a national sport event risk management training program for college command groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Stacey A

    2013-01-01

    The US Department of Homeland Security identified college sport venues as terrorist targets due to the potential for mass casualties and catastrophic social and economic impact. Therefore, it is critical for college sport safety and security personnel to implement effective risk management practices. However, deficiencies have been identified in the level of preparedness of college sport event security personnel related to risk management training and effective emergency response capabilities. To address the industry need, the National Center for Spectator Sports Safety and Security designed, developed, and evaluated a national sport event risk management training program for National Collegiate Athletic Association command groups. The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of the design, development, and evaluation process.

  4. Suicide among older psychiatric inpatients: an evidence-based study of a high risk group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Zarit, Steven H; Tu, Xin

    2006-01-01

    .1-0.3). In combination with other types of disorder, affective disorders were found to modify an increased risk of suicide. First versus later admission for depression was a better predictor for suicide than age at first hospitalization for depression (before or after age 60 years). More than half of suicides occurred......OBJECTIVE: Older adults have elevated suicide rates, especially in the presence of a psychiatric disorder, yet not much is known about predictors for suicide within this high-risk group. The current study examines the characteristics associated with suicide among older adults who are admitted...... to a psychiatric hospital. METHOD: All persons aged 60 and older living in Denmark who were hospitalized with psychiatric disorders during 1990-2000 were included in the study. Using a case-control design and logistic regression analysis, the authors calculated the suicide risk associated with specific patient...

  5. Relative Risks of Thrombosis and Bleeding in Different ABO Blood Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The ABO blood group system is composed of complex carbohydrate molecules (i.e., the A, B, and H determinants) that are widely expressed on the surface of red blood cells and in a variety of other cell and tissues. Along with their pivotal role in transfusion and transplantation medicine, the ABO antigens participate in many other physiological processes and, in particular, are important determinants of von Willebrand factor and factor VIII circulating plasma levels. The precise influence of the ABO system on hemostasis has led the way to the investigation of a putative implication in the risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. Along with the underlying molecular mechanisms, the current knowledge on the role of ABO blood group antigens in both the thrombotic and hemorrhagic risk will be summarized in this narrative review. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Promoting Physical Activity With Group Pictures. Affiliation-Based Visual Communication for High-Risk Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifegerste, Doreen; Rossmann, Constanze

    2017-02-01

    Past research in social and health psychology has shown that affiliation motivation is associated with health behavior, especially for high-risk populations, suggesting that targeting this motivation could be a promising strategy to promote physical activity. However, the effects that affiliation appeals (e.g., pictures depicting companionship during physical activities) and accompanying slogans have on motivating physical activity have been largely unexplored. Hence, our two studies experimentally tested the effects of exposure to affiliation-based pictures for overweight or less active people, as well as the moderating effect of affiliation motivation. The results of these two studies give some indication that group pictures (with or without an accompanying slogan) can be an effective strategy to improve high-risk populations' attitudes, self-efficacy, and intentions to engage in physical activity. Affiliation motivation as a personality trait did not interact with these effects, but was positively associated with attitudes, independent of the group picture effect.

  7. Sharper angle, higher risk? The effect of cutting angle on knee mechanics in invasion sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Mervin J; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2017-10-03

    Cutting is an important skill in team-sports, but unfortunately is also related to non-contact ACL injuries. The purpose was to examine knee kinetics and kinematics at different cutting angles. 13 males and 16 females performed cuts at different angles (45°, 90°, 135° and 180°) at maximum speed. 3D kinematics and kinetics were collected. To determine differences across cutting angles (45°, 90°, 135° and 180°) and sex (female, male), a 4×2 repeated measures ANOVA was conducted followed by post hoc comparisons (Bonferroni) with alpha level set at α≤0.05a priori. At all cutting angles, males showed greater knee flexion angles than females (pcutting angles with no differences in the amount of knee flexion -42.53°±8.95°, females decreased their knee flexion angle from -40.6°±7.2° when cutting at 45° to -36.81°±9.10° when cutting at 90°, 135° and 180° (pcutting towards sharper angles (pcutting angles and then stabilized compared to the 45° cutting angle (pcutting to sharper angles (pcutting angles demand different knee kinematics and kinetics. Sharper cutting angles place the knee more at risk. However, females and males handle this differently, which has implications for injury prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determining the explosion risk level and the explosion hazard area for a group of natural gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligor, A.; Petrescu, V.; Deac, C.; Bibu, M.

    2016-11-01

    Starting from the fact that the natural gas engineering profession is generally associated with a high occupational risk, the current paper aims to help increase the safety of natural gas wells and reduce the risk of work-related accidents, as well as the occurrence of professional illnesses, by applying an assessment method that has proven its efficiency in other industrial areas in combination with a computer-aided design software. More specifically, the paper focuses on two main research directions: assessing the explosion risk for employees working at natural gas wells and indicating areas with a higher explosion hazard by using a modern software that allows their presentation in 3D. The appropriate zoning of industrial areas allows to group the various functional areas function of the probability of the occurrence of a dangerous element, such as an explosive atmosphere and subsequently it allows also to correctly select the electrical and mechanical equipment that will be used in that area, since electrical apparatuses that are otherwise found in normal work environments cannot generally be used in areas with explosion hazard, because of the risk that an electric spark, an electrostatic discharge etc. ignites the explosive atmosphere.

  9. Basic prerequisites of appearance and resocialization of children and young people of the risk group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тамара Василівна Говорун

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Social and psychological factors of the appearance of young people of the "risk" group, the best practices of their resocialization have been determined. Children of vulnerable categories from young age have predispositions for acquiring properties and antisocial behavior caused by everyday stress in family life, conflict situations in school interaction. Youth is marked by lag in education, substance abuse, criminal acts, variance of exploitation. Psychocorrectional programs activate subjectivity of undergrads in anger management skills, education and communication

  10. [Risk groups in travel to tropical countries within the frame of mass tourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, F; Steffen, R; Schwarzenbach, F H

    1977-01-01

    More than 10,000 tourists returning from tropical countries have been asked about health problems during their stay abroad. Preliminary results from the first 5,550 questionnaires indicate that 74,8% had complaints of any kind concerning their health and 13,6% can be considered as having been ill. The frequency of complaints and illness in relation to different variables is shown and the possibility of definition of high risk groups is being discussed.

  11. Methylation diet and methyl group genetics in risk for adenomatous polyp occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lucock

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: A methylation diet influences methyl group synthesis in the regulation of blood homocysteine level, and is modulated by genetic interactions. Methylation-related nutrients also interact with key genes to modify risk of AP, a precursor of colorectal cancer. Independent of diet, two methylation-related genes (A2756G-MS and A66G-MSR were directly associated with AP occurrence.

  12. Active case finding and treatment adherence in risk groups in the tuberculosis pre-elimination era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R K; Lipman, M; Story, A; Hayward, A; de Vries, G; van Hest, R; Erkens, C; Rangaka, M X; Abubakar, I

    2018-05-01

    Vulnerable populations, including homeless persons, high-risk drug and alcohol users, prison inmates and other marginalised populations, contribute a disproportionate burden of tuberculosis (TB) cases in low-incidence settings. Drivers of this disease burden include an increased risk of both TB transmission in congregate settings, and progression from infection to active disease. Late diagnosis and poor treatment completion further propagate the epidemic and fuel the acquisition of drug resistance. These groups are therefore a major priority for TB control programmes in low-incidence settings. Targeted strategies include active case finding (ACF) initiatives and interventions to improve treatment completion, both of which should be tailored to local populations. ACF usually deploys mobile X-ray unit screening, which allows sensitive, high-throughput screening with immediate availability of results. Such initiatives have been found to be effective and cost-effective, and associated with reductions in proxy measures of transmission in hard-to-reach groups. The addition of point-of-care molecular diagnostics and automated X-ray readers may further streamline the screening pathway. There is little evidence to support interventions to improve adherence among these risk groups. Such approaches include enhanced case management and directly observed treatment, while video-observed therapy (currently under evaluation) appears to be a promising tool for the future. Integrating outreach services to include both case detection and case-management interventions that share a resource infrastructure may allow cost-effectiveness to be maximised. Integrating screening and treatment for other diseases that are prevalent among targeted risk groups into TB outreach interventions may further improve cost-effectiveness. This article reviews the existing literature, and highlights priorities for further research.

  13. DMARD use is associated with a higher risk of dementia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A propensity score-matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Hsien; Wang, Jong-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chung, Wei-Sheng

    2017-11-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) exhibit an increased risk of dementia. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are commonly used to slow RA progression, but studies investigating the relationship between DMARDs and dementia in patients with RA are lacking. We investigated the relationship between DMARDs and dementia in patients with RA. Using the National Health Insurance Research Database, patients aged ≥20years, who were newly diagnosed with RA between 2000 and 2011 were identified. Patients with RA who had dementia comprised the dementia group, and patients with RA who did not have dementia comprised the control group. The groups were matched at a 1:1 ratio by the propensity score. DMARDs were categorized into conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs) and biological DMARDs (bDMARDs). Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate the association between DMARD use and the risk of dementia in patients with RA. A total of 957 patients with RA and dementia, and 957 patients with RA but not dementia, were enrolled. The risk of dementia was determined to be 1.63-fold higher in patients with RA with csDMARD use than in those without csDMARD use (95% CI=1.33-2.00). No significant risk of dementia was observed in patients with RA who used bDMARDs compared with their counterparts. However, patients with RA who used hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate, and sulfasalazine exhibited significant risks of dementia, irrespective of cumulative exposure days. Patients with RA who used csDMARDs exhibit significant association with dementia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Familial Risk of IBD is more pronounced in the younger age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier Møller, Frederik; Jess, Tine; Andersen, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) – Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohns Disease (CD) are caused by complex gene-environment interactions and the risk is increased in family members. We investigated whether the risk of IBD in relatives to IBD patients changes by age of the relatives....... Results The age stratified rates of IBD in 1st degree relatives to an IBD affected case, after controlling for the overall effect of age, appear from Table 1. The rate ratio of CD in individuals with two or more 1st degree relatives with IBD is 1-2 fold increased in relatives aged 60+ years, whereas...... it is 67-fold increased risk in relatives aged 0-10 years and 34-fold increased in relatives aged 10-19 years. The same pattern is seen in 1st degree relatives who have one relative with IBD, where the risk of CD is markedly higher in younger relatives, this risk pattern for CD is seen both if the IBD...

  15. Summary Record of the 15th Meeting of the Working Group on Risk Assessment (WGRISK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The main mission of the working group on risk assessment (WGRISK) is to advance the understanding and utilisation of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in ensuring the continued safety of nuclear installations in member countries. While PSA methodology has matured greatly over the years, further work is required. WGRISK has been active in several of these areas, including: human reliability; software reliability; low power and shutdown risk. In order to maintain a current perspective, the working group collaborates and assists other working groups within the CSNI, such as operating experience and organisational factors as well as keeping close co-ordination with other international organisations. Over the past twenty years, the NEA PWG5 and now WGRISK have looked at the technology and methods used for identifying contributors to risk and assessing their importance. Work during much of this period was concentrated on Level-1 PSA methodology. In recent years the focus has shifted into more specific PSA methodologies and risk-informed applications. This document summarizes the content of the 15. Meeting of WGRISK: - presentation of the new WGRISK Bureau, - Approval of the 14. WGRISK Meeting Summary Record [NEA/SEN/SIN/WGRISK (2013)1], - Use and Development of PSA in NEA Member Countries and by other International Organisations, - Report by the WGRISK Secretariat on the current WGRISK programme of work, actions taken by CSNI and CNRA and other recent developments in OECD/NEA, - Development of BPGs on failure mode taxonomy for reliability assessment of digital I and C systems for PSA [Task 2010-3], - Update Use of OECD Data Project Products in PSA [Task 2011-1], - Status report on the common WGHOF/WGRISK HRA Task, - Outcome on the International Workshop on PSA of Natural External Hazards Including Earthquakes, April 2014 [Task 2012-1], - Status report on the International Workshop on Fire PRA [Task 2012-2], - PSA insights relating to the loss of electrical sources

  16. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.

  17. Projection of human immunodeficiency virus among high-risk groups in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Shitan, Mahendran

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) presents a serious healthcare threat to young individuals in Malaysia and worldwide. This study aimed to identify trends in HIV-related risk behaviors among recognized high-risk groups and to estimate HIV transmission up to the year 2015. Data and necessary information were obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysia, published reports from the World Health Organization and United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS, and other articles. The Estimation and Projection Package was used to estimate HIV transmission. The results of the present study revealed that within the high-risk groups, intravenous drug users (IDUs) had the highest prevalence rate of HIV transmission, followed by patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), female sex workers (SWs), and men who have sex with men (MSM). Within these at-risk populations, patients with STIs have the highest prevalence of HIV, followed by IDUs, MSM, and SWs. If the transmission rate continues to increase, the situation will worsen; therefore, there is an urgent need for a comprehensive prevention program to control HIV transmission in Malaysia.

  18. Knowledge sharing behaviour among non-academic staff in higher learning institutes: The role of trust and perceived risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sabbir Rahman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyse knowledge sharing behaviour among non-academic staff of higher learning institutions. This research focuses on the mediation impact of perceived risk on trust and knowledge sharing behaviour. The research also proposes actions that can be taken by higher learning institutions to enhance trust among the staff in order to create a knowledge sharing environment at the workplace. This research applied confirmatory factor analysis and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM to evaluate the proposed measurement model and proved the research hypotheses. The findings from the research show that perceived risk plays a strong mediating role between trust and knowledge sharing behaviour among the non-academic staff of higher learning institutions. The SEM analysis also confirmed that the research model shows a good fit. This research highlights issues concerning knowledge sharing practices among non-academic staff and provides some recommendations to the managers to address these issues. The researchers agreed that more research needs to be done in this area as there are aspects that are yet to be explored. The findings of this research serve to add to the literature on knowledge sharing focussing on non-academic staff of higher learning institutions.

  19. Higher 5-HT1A autoreceptor binding as an endophenotype for major depressive disorder identified in high risk offspring - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milak, Matthew S; Pantazatos, Spiro; Rashid, Rain; Zanderigo, Francesca; DeLorenzo, Christine; Hesselgrave, Natalie; Ogden, R Todd; Oquendo, Maria A; Mulhern, Stephanie T; Miller, Jeffrey M; Burke, Ainsley K; Parsey, Ramin V; Mann, J John

    2018-04-13

    Higher serotonin-1A (5-HT 1A ) receptor binding potential (BP F ) has been found in major depressive disorder (MDD) during and between major depressive episodes. We investigated whether higher 5-HT 1A binding is a biologic trait transmitted to healthy high risk (HR) offspring of MDD probands. Data were collected contemporaneously from: nine HR, 30 depressed not-recently medicated (NRM) MDD, 18 remitted NRM MDD, 51 healthy volunteer (HV) subjects. Subjects underwent positron emission tomography (PET) using [ 11 C]WAY100635 to quantify 5-HT 1A BP F , estimated using metabolite, free fraction-corrected arterial input function and cerebellar white matter as reference region. Multivoxel pattern analyses (MVPA) of PET data evaluated group status classification of individuals. When tested across 13 regions of interest, an effect of diagnosis is found on BP F which remains significant after correction for sex, age, injected mass and dose: HR have higher BP F than HV (84.3% higher in midbrain raphe, 40.8% higher in hippocampus, mean BP F across all 13 brain regions is 49.9% ± 11.8% higher). Voxel-level BP F maps distinguish HR vs. HV. Elevated 5-HT 1A BP F appears to be a familially transmitted trait abnormality. Future studies are needed to replicate this finding in a larger cohort and demonstrate the link to the familial transmission of mood disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk associated with toxic blooms of marine phytoplankton functional groups on Artemia franciscana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana D’ors

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study mortality of copepod Artemia franciscana against the occurrence of harmful marine algae and possible toxicological changes exhibited by binary and tertiary combinations of these harmful algae toxins. Methods: Tweenty four hours acute toxicity assays were performed with selected concentrations of Alexandrium minutum, Prorocentrum lima and Nitzschia N1c1 living cells. Additionally, the results were analyzed using the median-effect/combination index (CI-isobologram equation to assess possible changes in the toxic effect induced by phytoplankton functional groups. Results: Biotoxin equivalent values obtained by immunodetection were (2.12±0.10, (8.60±1.30 and (4.32±1.67 pg/cell for saxitoxin, okadaic acid and domoic acid, respectively. The 24-h LC50 values estimated to saxitoxin and okadaic acid equivalents were 4.06 and 6.27 µg/L, significantly below the value obtained for Nitzschia N1c1, which was established at 467.33 µg/L. CI analysis applied on phytoplankton assemblages showed that both ternary mixture as the binary combinations exhibited antagonic action on toxic effects in Artemia nauplii, which were significantly lower than the toxic effect exhibited by each species studied. Conclusions: These results show that, although these harmful algae represent a serious risk to estuarine zooplankton community, the presence of phytoplankton functional groups within the same bloom can reduce the potential risk compared to the expected risk when each of the phytoplankton groups are evaluated individually.

  1. Instant coffee consumption may be associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Cho, Seongbeom; Jacobs, David R; Park, Kyong

    2014-10-01

    Cumulative evidence suggests that coffee consumption may have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases; however, few previous studies have considered the types of coffee consumed and the additives used. We investigated the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and its components. We analyzed 17,953 Korean adults, aged 19-65 years, using cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2007-2011). Coffee consumption level, types of coffee consumed, and the additives used were assessed based on a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h recall. Demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Data on metabolic biomarkers were obtained from a health examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratios of prevalent metabolic syndrome and its components according to frequency and type of coffee consumption. We found that 76% of the subjects were habitual coffee drinkers, most of whom consumed instant coffee mix containing sugar and powder creamer. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratios (95% CI) comparing those who consumed coffee ≥3 times/day with those who consumed coffee <1 time/week were 1.37 (1.15-1.63) for obesity, 1.33 (1.11-1.59) for abdominal obesity, 1.28 (1.09-1.51) for hypo-HDL cholesterolemia, and 1.37 (1.10-1.72) for metabolic syndrome. Instant-coffee drinkers were observed to have elevated risks of these metabolic conditions. Consumption of coffee, particularly instant coffee mix, may have harmful effects on MetSyn, perhaps partly deriving from excessive intake of sugar and powder creamer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) in patients treated with external beam radiation therapy: Evaluation and optimization in patients at higher risk of relapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, Schuyler; Schipper, Matthew; Blas, Kevin; Lee, Vivien; Sabolch, Aaron; Olson, Karin; Sandler, Howard M.; Feng, Felix Y.; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) was developed to predict freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) following radical prostatectomy (RP). Its utility following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) has not been externally evaluated. Methods: A retrospective study of 612 patients treated with dose-escalated EBRT at University of Michigan Medical Center. Results: Compared to the derivation cohort, EBRT treated patients had higher-risk disease (28% with CAPRA of 6–10 vs. 5%, respectively). A total of 114 patients (19%) had BF with 5-year BF ranging from 7% with CAPRA 0–3 to 35% with CAPRA 7–10. For RT patients the risk of BF at 5-year was similar to 4 surgical cohorts for CAPRA scores 0–2 but lower for all CAPRA scores ⩾ 3. The difference favoring RT increased with increasing CAPRA score reaching a 27–50% absolute improved at 5-years for CAPRA scores of 6–10. On multivariate analysis each CAPRA point increased the risk of BF (p < 0.0001) while Gleason pattern 5 in the biopsy also increased BF (p = 0.01) and long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) significantly reduced the risk of BF (p = 0.015). Conclusions: Compared to surgical series the risk of BF was lower with dose-escalated EBRT with the greatest difference at the highest CAPRA scores.

  3. Higher perceived risk of antimicrobials is related to lower antimicrobial usage among pig farmers in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschers, V H M; Postma, M; Sjölund, M; Backhans, A; Collineau, L; Loesken, S; Belloc, C; Dewulf, J; Emanuelson, U; Grosse Beilage, E; Siegrist, M; Stärk, K D C

    2016-11-12

    The prudent use of antimicrobials (AMs) should be widened in pig farming to reduce the risk of AM resistance (AMR) in human and veterinary medicine. It is therefore important to understand pig farmers' motivators and the barriers to AM usage (AMU) on their farms. The authors investigated pig farmers' self-estimated levels of AMU, their perceived benefits and risks and the need for AMs in a cross-sectional survey in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden. The authors also compared these perceptions between the four countries and related them to pig farmers' actual AMU. The results showed that farmers who used more AMs also estimated their own usage as higher. Farmers perceived many benefits but relatively few risks of AMU in pig farming. Some significant cross-country differences in farmers' perceptions were found, but they were relatively small. After controlling for country differences and farm differences, only perceived risks had a significant association with AMU. The authors therefore conclude that in order to promote prudent AMU, it seems most promising to focus on the structural differences in pig farming and veterinary medicine (e.g. legislation, role of the veterinarian) among countries. In addition, interventions which aim at reducing AMU should increase farmers' awareness of the risks of extensive AMU. British Veterinary Association.

  4. An intervention to reduce HIV risk behavior of substance-using men who have sex with men: a two-group randomized trial with a nonrandomized third group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Mansergh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Substance use during sex is associated with sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM, and MSM continue to be the group at highest risk for incident HIV in the United States. The objective of this study is to test the efficacy of a group-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention to reduce risk behavior of substance-using MSM, compared to a randomized attention-control group and a nonrandomized standard HIV-testing group.Participants (n = 1,686 were enrolled in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco and randomized to a cognitive-behavioral intervention or attention-control comparison. The nonrandomized group received standard HIV counseling and testing. Intervention group participants received six 2-h group sessions focused on reducing substance use and sexual risk behavior. Attention-control group participants received six 2-h group sessions of videos and discussion of MSM community issues unrelated to substance use, sexual risk, and HIV/AIDS. All three groups received HIV counseling and testing at baseline. The sample reported high-risk behavior during the past 3 mo prior to their baseline visit: 67% reported unprotected anal sex, and 77% reported substance use during their most recent anal sex encounter with a nonprimary partner. The three groups significantly (p0.05 from each other at 3-, 6-, and 12-mo follow-up. Outcomes for the 2-arm comparisons were not significantly different at 12-mo follow-up (e.g., unprotected anal sex, odds ratio = 1.14, confidence interval = 0.86-1.51, nor at earlier time points. Similar results were found for each outcome variable in both 2- and 3-arm comparisons.These results for reducing sexual risk behavior of substance-using MSM are consistent with results of intervention trials for other populations, which collectively suggest critical challenges for the field of HIV behavioral interventions. Several mechanisms may contribute to statistically indistinguishable reductions in risk

  5. Dysfunctional Default Mode Network in Methadone Treated Patients Who Have a Higher Heroin Relapse Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Defeng; Xiao, Wei; Liu, Kai; Shi, Lin; Zhu, Jia; Li, Yongbin; Yan, Xuejiao; Chen, Jiajie; Ye, Jianjun; Li, Zhe; Wang, Yarong; Wang, Wei

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether heroin relapse is associated with changes in the functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of chronic heroin relapsers (HR) (12 males, 1 female, age: 36.1 ± 6.9 years) and abstainers (HA) (11males, 2 female; age: 42.1 ± 8.1 years) were investigated with an independent component analysis to address the functional connectivity of their DMN. Group comparison was then performed between the relapsers and abstainers. Our study found that the left inferior temporal gyrus and the right superior occipital gyrus associated with DMN showed decreased functional connectivity in HR when compared with HA, while the left precuneus and the right middle cingulum had increased functional connectivity. Mean intensity signal, extracted from left inferior temporal gyrus of HR patients, showed a significant negative correlation corresponding to the degree of heroin relapse. These findings suggest that altered functional connectivity of DMN may contribute to the potential neurobiological mechanism(s) of heroin relapse and have a predictive value concerning heroin relapse under MMT.

  6. ABO blood groups and risk for obesity in Arar, Northern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboel-Fetoh, Nagah M; Alanazi, Arwa R; Alanazi, Abdullah S; Alruwili, Asma N

    2016-12-01

    ABO blood groups are associated with some important chronic diseases. Previous studies have observed an association between ABO blood group and risk for obesity. This study aimed to determine whether there is an association between ABO blood groups and obesity in apparently healthy attendees of primary healthcare (PHC) centers in Arar city, Northern Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study included 401 participants aged 15 years and older attending three randomly selected PHC centers in Arar city. Data were collected by means of personal interview using a predesigned questionnaire. Anthropometric examination included height and weight measurements with calculation of BMI. ABO and Rh blood groups were determined. The majority of the participants were female (70.8%). The mean±SD age was 28.6±9.1 years. Only 5.7% were underweight. Both normal and overweight participants were equal in number and constituted 28.4%, whereas obese individuals constituted 37.4% with a mean BMI of 28.56±8.0. Blood group O was the most common (44.1%), followed by A (30.9%), B (18.7%), and AB (6.2%). Rh-positive cases constituted 87.0%. Blood group O was the most common type among the obese individuals (44.7%), followed by A, B, and AB groups (30, 20, and 5.3%, respectively). BMI was highest (28.8±9.2) in blood group O. There were no statistically significant differences between different ABO blood groups as regards BMI, Rh, and sex. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between Rh type and BMI. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is high in the population attending PHC centers of Arar city, Northern Saudi Arabia. There is no association between overweight, obesity, and ABO blood groups or Rh.

  7. Disease risk in temperate amphibian populations is higher at closed-canopy sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Guilherme Becker

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and chytridiomycosis (a disease caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis - Bd are major drivers of amphibian declines worldwide. Habitat loss regulates host-pathogen interactions by altering biotic and abiotic factors directly linked to both host and pathogen fitness. Therefore, studies investigating the links between natural vegetation and chytridiomycosis require integrative approaches to control for the multitude of possible interactions of biological and environmental variables in spatial epidemiology. In this study, we quantified Bd infection dynamics across a gradient of natural vegetation and microclimates, looking for causal associations between vegetation cover, multiple microclimatic variables, and pathogen prevalence and infection intensity. To minimize the effects of host diversity in our analyses, we sampled amphibian populations in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State, a region with relatively high single-host dominance. We sampled permanent ponds for anurans, focusing on populations of the habitat generalist frog Lithobates clamitans, and recorded various biotic and abiotic factors that potentially affect host-pathogen interactions: natural vegetation, canopy density, water temperature, and host population and community attributes. We screened for important explanatory variables of Bd infections and used path analyses to statistically test for the strength of cascading effects linking vegetation cover, microclimate, and Bd parameters. We found that canopy density, natural vegetation, and daily average water temperature were the best predictors of Bd. High canopy density resulted in lower water temperature, which in turn predicted higher Bd prevalence and infection intensity. Our results confirm that microclimatic shifts arising from changes in natural vegetation play an important role in Bd spatial epidemiology, with areas of closed canopy favoring Bd. Given increasing rates of anthropogenic

  8. Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration may imply higher risk of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of wheat grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, Szilvia; Puskás, Katalin; Vida, Gyula; Karsai, Ildikó; Balla, Krisztina; Komáromi, Judit; Veisz, Ottó

    2017-08-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentration not only has a direct impact on plants but also affects plant-pathogen interactions. Due to economic and health-related problems, special concern was given thus in the present work to the effect of elevated CO 2 (750 μmol mol -1 ) level on the Fusarium culmorum infection and mycotoxin contamination of wheat. Despite the fact that disease severity was found to be not or little affected by elevated CO 2 in most varieties, as the spread of Fusarium increased only in one variety, spike grain number and/or grain weight decreased significantly at elevated CO 2 in all the varieties, indicating that Fusarium infection generally had a more dramatic impact on the grain yield at elevated CO 2 than at the ambient level. Likewise, grain deoxynivalenol (DON) content was usually considerably higher at elevated CO 2 than at the ambient level in the single-floret inoculation treatment, suggesting that the toxin content is not in direct relation to the level of Fusarium infection. In the whole-spike inoculation, DON production did not change, decreased or increased depending on the variety × experiment interaction. Cooler (18 °C) conditions delayed rachis penetration while 20 °C maximum temperature caused striking increases in the mycotoxin contents, resulting in extremely high DON values and also in a dramatic triggering of the grain zearalenone contamination at elevated CO 2 . The results indicate that future environmental conditions, such as rising CO 2 levels, may increase the threat of grain mycotoxin contamination.

  9. Development of a cumulative risk assessment for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's waste area group 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    In 1989, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was added to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Priorities List of Superfund sites. A Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFA/CO) for the INEL was signed by the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), EPA, and the State of Idaho in December 1991. The goal of this agreement is to ensure that potential or actual INEL releases of hazardous substances to the environment are thoroughly investigated in accordance with the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and that appropriate response actions are taken as necessary to protect human health and the environment. The Test Reactor Area (TRA) is included as Waste Area Group (WAG) 2 of ten INEL WAGs identified in the FFA/CO. WAG 2 consists of 13 operable units (OUs) which include pits, tanks, rubble piles, ponds, cooling towers, wells, french drains, perched water and spill areas. OU 2-13 is the Comprehensive Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for WAG 2. The study presented here is a preliminary evaluation of the comprehensive risk for WAG-2. This investigation will be used as the basis of the WAG-2 comprehensive baseline risk assessment (BRA), and it will serve as a model for other INEL comprehensive risk assessments. The WAG-2 preliminary risk evaluation consisted of two broad phases. These phases were (1) a site and contaminant screening that was intended to support the identification of COPCs and risk assessment data gaps, and (2) an exposure pathway analysis that evaluated the comprehensive human health risks associated with WAG-2. The primary purposes of the investigation were to screen WAG-2 release sites and contaminants, and to identify risk assessment data gaps, so the investigation will be referred to as the WAG-2 Screening and Data Gap Analysis (SDGA) for the remainder of this report

  10. Global analysis of threat status reveals higher extinction risk in tropical than in temperate bird sister species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reif Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Given increasing pressures upon biodiversity, identification of species’ traits related to elevated extinction risk is useful for more efficient allocation of limited resources for nature conservation. Despite its need, such a global analysis was lacking in the case of birds. Therefore, we performed this exercise for avian sister species using information about their global extinction risk from IUCN Red List. We focused on 113 pairs of sister species, each containing a threatened and an unthreatened species to factor out the effects of common evolutionary history on the revealed relationship. We collected data on five traits with expected relationships to species’ extinction risk based on previous studies performed at regional or national levels: breeding habitat (recognizing forest, grassland, wetland and oceanic species, latitudinal range position (temperate and tropics species, migration strategy (migratory and resident species, diet (carnivorous, insectivorous, herbivorous and omnivorous species and body mass. We related the extinction risk using IUCN threat level categories to species’ traits using generalised linear mixed effects models expecting lower risk for forest, temperate, omnivorous and smaller-bodied species. Our expectation was confirmed only in the case of latitudinal range position, as we revealed higher threat level for tropical than for temperate species. This relationship was robust to different methods of threat level expression and cannot be explained by a simple association of high bird species richness with the tropical zone. Instead, it seems that tropical species are more threatened because of their intrinsic characteristics such as slow life histories, adaptations to stable environments and small geographic ranges. These characteristics are obviously disadvantageous in conditions of current human-induced environmental perturbations. Moreover, given the absence of habitat effects, our study indicates that such

  11. Severe anaemia is associated with a higher risk for preeclampsia and poor perinatal outcomes in Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbashir Mustafa I

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia during pregnancy is major health problem. There is conflicting literature regarding the association between anaemia and its severity and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Methods This is a retrospective case-control study conducted at Kassala hospital, eastern Sudan. Medical files of pregnant women with severe anaemia (haemoglobin (Hb 11 g/dl, n = 303. Logistic regression analysis was performed separately for each of the outcome measures: preeclampsia, eclampsia, preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW and stillbirth. Results There were 9578 deliveries at Kassala hospital, 4012 (41.8% women had anaemia and 303 (3.2% had severe anaemia. The corrected risk for preeclampsia increased only in severe anaemia (OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.4-9.1, P = 0.007. Compared with women with no anaemia, the risk of LBW was 2.5 times higher in women with mild/moderate anaemia (95% CI: 1.1-5.7, and 8.0 times higher in women with severe anaemia (95% CI: 3.8-16.0. The risk of preterm delivery increased significantly with the severity of anaemia (OR = 3.2 for women with mild/moderate anaemia and OR = 6.6 for women with severe anaemia, compared with women with no anaemia. The corrected risk for stillbirth increased only in severe anaemia (OR = 4.3, 95% CI: 1.9-9.1, P Conclusions The greater the severity of the anaemia during pregnancy, the greater the risk of preeclampsia, preterm delivery, LBW and stillbirth. Preventive measures should be undertaken to decrease the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy.

  12. Higher risk of developing a subsequent migraine in adults with nonapnea sleep disorders: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnod, Tomor; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-05-01

    This nationwide population-based cohort study evaluated the effect of nonapnea sleep disorders (NSDs) on the subsequent development of a migraine. We identified 46,777 patients aged 20 years and older who were diagnosed with an NSD (ICD-9-CM: 307.4 or 780.5) and without coding for apnea-sleep disorders (ICD-9-CM: 780.51, 780.53, or 780.57) between 2000 and 2002 as the sleep disorder (SD) cohort. A comparison cohort of 93,552 people was enrolled. We calculated the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for developing a migraine (ICD-9-CM: 346) after adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, and drug use. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to measure the cumulative incidence of a migraine between 2 curves until the end of 2011. The cumulative incidence of a migraine was significantly higher in the SD cohort. The aHR for developing a migraine in the SD cohort was 3.52 (95% CI=3.28-3.79). The risk of developing a migraine with an NSD was higher in men (aHR=4.31) than in women (aHR=3.35). The age-stratified effect of an NSD on developing a migraine was highest among patients aged 55 years and younger. Higher risks of developing a migraine were observed among the participants without any comorbidity and without any drug treatment for their insomnia. The findings of this population-based cohort study indicate a higher risk of developing a subsequent migraine in patients with an NSD, which could be considered an independent, predisposing factor for developing subsequent a migraine in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Allograft Dysfunction Is Associated With Higher Risk of Renal Nonrecovery After Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani M. Wadei, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Early allograft dysfunction (EAD identifies allografts with marginal function soon after liver transplantation (LT and is associated with poor LT outcomes. The impact of EAD on post-LT renal recovery, however, has not been studied. Data on 69 primary LT recipients (41 with and 28 without history of renal dysfunction who received renal replacement therapy (RRT for a median (range of 9 (13-41 days before LT were retrospectively analyzed. Primary outcome was renal nonrecovery defined as RRT requirement 30 days from LT. Early allograft dysfunction developed in 21 (30% patients, and 22 (32% patients did not recover renal function. Early allograft dysfunction was more common in the renal nonrecovery group (50% vs 21%, P = 0.016. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that EAD (odds ratio, 7.25; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-25.8; P = 0.002 and baseline serum creatinine (odds ratio, 3.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.1; P = 0.007 were independently associated with renal nonrecovery. History of renal dysfunction, duration of renal dysfunction, and duration of RRT were not related to renal recovery (P > 0.2 for all. Patients who had EAD and renal nonrecovery had the worst 1-, 3-, and 5-year patient survival, whereas those without EAD and recovered renal function had the best outcomes (P < 0.001. Post-LT EAD was independently associated with renal nonrecovery in LT recipients on RRT for a short duration before LT. Furthermore, EAD in the setting of renal nonrecovery resulted in the worst long-term survival. Measures to prevent EAD should be undertaken in LT recipients on RRT at time of LT.

  14. Community Savings Groups, Financial Security, and HIV Risk Among Female Sex Workers in Iringa, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantsios, Andrea; Galai, Noya; Mbwambo, Jessie; Likindikoki, Samuel; Shembilu, Catherine; Mwampashi, Ard; Beckham, S W; Leddy, Anna; Davis, Wendy; Sherman, Susan; Kennedy, Caitlin; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2018-02-24

    This study assessed the association between community savings group participation and consistent condom use (CCU) among female sex workers (FSW) in Iringa, Tanzania. Using cross-sectional data from a survey of venue-based FSW (n = 496), logistic regression was used to examine the associations between financial indicators including community savings group participation and CCU. Over one-third (35%) of the women participated in a savings group. Multivariable regression results indicated that participating in a savings group was significantly associated with nearly two times greater odds of CCU with new clients in the last 30 days (aOR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.10-2.86). Exploratory mediation analysis indicated that the relationship between savings group participation and CCU was partially mediated by financial security, as measured by monthly income. Findings indicate that community savings groups may play an important role in reducing sexual risk behaviors of FSW and hold promise as part of comprehensive, community-led HIV prevention strategies among FSW.

  15. Higher quality of life and lower depression for people on ART in Uganda as compared to a community control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Faith; Russell, Steve; Seeley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Provision of antiretroviral treatment (ART) to people living with HIV (PLWH) has increased globally. Research measuring whether ART restores subjective well-being to "normal" levels is lacking, particularly in resource limited settings. The study objectives are to compare quality of life and depression symptoms for PLWH on ART to a general community population and to explore factors to explain these differences, including socio-economic status and the impact of urban or rural residence. PLWH on ART (n = 263) were recruited from ART delivery sites and participants not on ART (n = 160) were recruited from communities in Wakiso District, Uganda. Participants were interviewed using the translated World Health Organisation Quality of Life brief measure, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist depression section, and questions about socio-economic status, residence as urban or rural and, for PLWH on ART, self-reported adherence and use of HIV counselling. Compared to the community sample and controlling for location of residence, PLWH on ART had significantly higher quality of life (QOL) for physical, psychological and environment domains, but not the social domain. These differences were not due to socio-economic status alone. Depression scores were significantly lower for PLWH on ART. Both comparisons controlled for the effect of location of residence. People on ART self-reported high adherence and the majority had used HIV counselling services. Our findings show better QOL amongst PLWH on ART compared to a general community sample, which cannot be explained solely by differences in socio-economic status nor location of residence. The general community sample results point towards the challenges of life in this setting. Access to health services may underpin this difference and further research should explore this finding, in addition to identification of psychological mechanisms that relate to better QOL. ART provision infrastructure has clear benefits. Further work

  16. Higher quality of life and lower depression for people on ART in Uganda as compared to a community control group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Martin

    Full Text Available Provision of antiretroviral treatment (ART to people living with HIV (PLWH has increased globally. Research measuring whether ART restores subjective well-being to "normal" levels is lacking, particularly in resource limited settings. The study objectives are to compare quality of life and depression symptoms for PLWH on ART to a general community population and to explore factors to explain these differences, including socio-economic status and the impact of urban or rural residence. PLWH on ART (n = 263 were recruited from ART delivery sites and participants not on ART (n = 160 were recruited from communities in Wakiso District, Uganda. Participants were interviewed using the translated World Health Organisation Quality of Life brief measure, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist depression section, and questions about socio-economic status, residence as urban or rural and, for PLWH on ART, self-reported adherence and use of HIV counselling. Compared to the community sample and controlling for location of residence, PLWH on ART had significantly higher quality of life (QOL for physical, psychological and environment domains, but not the social domain. These differences were not due to socio-economic status alone. Depression scores were significantly lower for PLWH on ART. Both comparisons controlled for the effect of location of residence. People on ART self-reported high adherence and the majority had used HIV counselling services. Our findings show better QOL amongst PLWH on ART compared to a general community sample, which cannot be explained solely by differences in socio-economic status nor location of residence. The general community sample results point towards the challenges of life in this setting. Access to health services may underpin this difference and further research should explore this finding, in addition to identification of psychological mechanisms that relate to better QOL. ART provision infrastructure has clear benefits

  17. Identifying groups at risk for 1-year membership termination from a fitness center at enrollment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Hooker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans do not engage in adequate regular physical activity despite its well-known health benefits. Even when individuals attempt to become more active by joining a fitness center, estimates suggest that nearly half terminate their membership within the first 6 months. A better understanding of who is at risk for early membership termination upon joining may help researchers develop targeted interventions to improve the likelihood that individuals will successfully maintain memberships and physical activity. This study's purpose was to identify, based on a wellness assessment (WA used in fitness centers, individuals at risk for fitness membership termination prior to 1-year. Center members (N = 441; Mage = 41.9, SD = 13.1; 74.4% female completed a comprehensive WA of stress, life satisfaction, physical fitness, metabolic health, and sleep quality at the beginning of their memberships and were followed for one year. Latent class analyses utilized the WA to identify four groups: (a healthy, (b unhealthy, (c poor psychological wellness, and (d poor physical wellness. Participants in the poor psychological wellness group (OR = 2.24, p = 0.007 and the unhealthy group (OR = 2.40, p = 0.037 were significantly more likely to terminate their memberships at 1-year as compared to the healthy group. Participants with poor physical wellness visited the fitness center less frequently than healthy participants (p < 0.01. Results suggest that poor psychological wellness is a risk factor for terminating memberships, whereas poor physical wellness is not. Future studies should replicate these latent classes and develop targeted interventions to address psychological wellness as a method to improve fitness membership retention.

  18. International consensus for neuroblastoma molecular diagnostics: report from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) Biology Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambros, P F; Ambros, I M; Brodeur, G M; Haber, M; Khan, J; Nakagawara, A; Schleiermacher, G; Speleman, F; Spitz, R; London, W B; Cohn, S L; Pearson, A D J; Maris, J M

    2009-01-01

    Neuroblastoma serves as a paradigm for utilising tumour genomic data for determining patient prognosis and treatment allocation. However, before the establishment of the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) Task Force in 2004, international consensus on markers, methodology, and data interpretation did not exist, compromising the reliability of decisive genetic markers and inhibiting translational research efforts. The objectives of the INRG Biology Committee were to identify highly prognostic genetic aberrations to be included in the new INRG risk classification schema and to develop precise definitions, decisive biomarkers, and technique standardisation. The review of the INRG database (n=8800 patients) by the INRG Task Force finally enabled the identification of the most significant neuroblastoma biomarkers. In addition, the Biology Committee compared the standard operating procedures of different cooperative groups to arrive at international consensus for methodology, nomenclature, and future directions. Consensus was reached to include MYCN status, 11q23 allelic status, and ploidy in the INRG classification system on the basis of an evidence-based review of the INRG database. Standardised operating procedures for analysing these genetic factors were adopted, and criteria for proper nomenclature were developed. Neuroblastoma treatment planning is highly dependant on tumour cell genomic features, and it is likely that a comprehensive panel of DNA-based biomarkers will be used in future risk assignment algorithms applying genome-wide techniques. Consensus on methodology and interpretation is essential for uniform INRG classification and will greatly facilitate international and cooperative clinical and translational research studies. PMID:19401703

  19. The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) staging system: an INRG Task Force report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclair, Tom; Brodeur, Garrett M; Ambros, Peter F; Brisse, Hervé J; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Holmes, Keith; Kaneko, Michio; London, Wendy B; Matthay, Katherine K; Nuchtern, Jed G; von Schweinitz, Dietrich; Simon, Thorsten; Cohn, Susan L; Pearson, Andrew D J

    2009-01-10

    The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) classification system was developed to establish a consensus approach for pretreatment risk stratification. Because the International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) is a postsurgical staging system, a new clinical staging system was required for the INRG pretreatment risk classification system. To stage patients before any treatment, the INRG Task Force, consisting of neuroblastoma experts from Australia/New Zealand, China, Europe, Japan, and North America, developed a new INRG staging system (INRGSS) based on clinical criteria and image-defined risk factors (IDRFs). To investigate the impact of IDRFs on outcome, survival analyses were performed on 661 European patients with INSS stages 1, 2, or 3 disease for whom IDRFs were known. In the INGRSS, locoregional tumors are staged L1 or L2 based on the absence or presence of one or more of 20 IDRFs, respectively. Metastatic tumors are defined as stage M, except for stage MS, in which metastases are confined to the skin, liver, and/or bone marrow in children younger than 18 months of age. Within the 661-patient cohort, IDRFs were present (ie, stage L2) in 21% of patients with stage 1, 45% of patients with stage 2, and 94% of patients with stage 3 disease. Patients with INRGSS stage L2 disease had significantly lower 5-year event-free survival than those with INRGSS stage L1 disease (78% +/- 4% v 90% +/- 3%; P = .0010). Use of the new staging (INRGSS) and risk classification (INRG) of neuroblastoma will greatly facilitate the comparison of risk-based clinical trials conducted in different regions of the world.

  20. Higher complication risk of totally implantable venous access port systems in patients with advanced cancer - a single institution retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Fang; Lo, An-Chi; Tsai, Chung-Hsin; Lee, Pei-Yi; Sun, Shen; Chang, Te-Hsin; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Chang, Yuan-Shin; Chen, Jen-Ruei

    2013-02-01

    Totally implantable port systems are generally recommended for prolonged central venous access in diverse settings, but their risk of complications remains unclear for patients with advanced cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of port system failure in patients with advanced cancer. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a comprehensive cancer centre. A detailed chart review was conducted among 566 patients with 573 ports inserted during January-June, 2009 (average 345.3 catheter-days). Cox regression analysis was applied to evaluate factors during insertion and early maintenance that could lead to premature removal of the port systems due to infection or occlusion. Port system-related infection was significantly associated with receiving palliative care immediately after implantation (hazard ratio, HR = 7.3, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI = 1.2-46.0), after adjusting for probable confounders. Primary cancer site also impacted the occurrence of device-related infection. Receiving oncologic/palliative care (HR = 3.0, P = 0.064), advanced cancer stage (HR = 6.5, P = 0.077) and body surface area above 1.71 m(2) (HR = 3.4, P = 0.029) increased the risk of port system occlusion. Our study indicates that totally implantable port systems yield a higher risk of complications in terminally ill patients. Further investigation should be carefully conducted to compare outcomes of various central venous access devices in patients with advanced cancer and to develop preventive strategies against catheter failure.

  1. Does vacuum delivery carry a higher risk of shoulder dystocia? Review and meta-analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Asta, Andrea; Ghi, Tullio; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Frusca, Tiziana

    2016-09-01

    Vacuum extractor has been increasingly used over the last decades and is acknowledged as a risk factor for shoulder dystocia (SD). In this meta-analysis we assess the actual risk of SD following a vacuum delivery compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) and forceps. Systematic literature search (English literature only) on MEDLINE, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, the Cochrane library and ClinicalTrials.gov conducted up to May 2015. Key search terms included: Operative/Vacuum/Forceps delivery [Mesh] and shoulder dystocia and subheadings. 2 stage-process study selection. We included only studies where data concerning the occurrence of SD following operative vaginal delivery were reported as adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and no significant difference in confounding factors for SD was recorded. Included trials clustered according to the delivery mode (1) vacuum vs. SVD, (2) forceps vs. vacuum. Methodological quality of each study evaluated with the Newcastle-Ottawa System (NOS). 87 potentially relevant papers. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria only 7 were selected for the meta-analysis. Vacuum delivery appeared associated with a higher risk of SD than SVD in both fixed and random model (OR 2.87 and 2.98 respectively). No difference in the rate of SD was found between vacuum and forceps (p>0.05). Vacuum extractor carries an increased risk of SD compared with spontaneous vaginal delivery whereas the occurrence of SD does not seem to vary following vacuum or forceps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Higher risk of developing major depression and bipolar disorder in later life among adolescents with asthma: a nationwide prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested an immunological dysfunction in mood disorders, but rarely have investigated the temporal association between allergic diseases and mood disorders. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we attempted to investigate the association between asthma in early adolescence and the risk of unipolar depression and bipolar disorder in later life. In all, 1453 adolescents with asthma aged between 10 and 15 years and 5812 age-/gender-matched controls were selected in 1998-2000. Subjects with unipolar depression and bipolar disorder that occurred up to the end of follow-up (December 31 2010) were identified. Adolescents with asthma had a higher incidence of major depression (2.8% vs. 1.1%, p bipolar disorder (1.0% vs. 0.3%, p adolescence was associated with an increased risk of developing major depression (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-2.89), any depressive disorder (HR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.27-2.37), and bipolar disorder (HR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.01-5.07), after adjusting for demographic data and comorbid allergic diseases. Adolescents with asthma had an elevated risk of developing mood disorders in later life. Further studies would be required to investigate the underlying mechanisms for this comorbid association and elucidate whether prompt intervention for asthma would decrease the risk of developing mood disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A newly identified group of adolescents at "invisible" risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group ("invisible" risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the "invisible" risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the "invisible" group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The "invisible" group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2014 World Psychiatric Association.

  4. The impact of supraventricular ectopic complexes in different age groups and risk of recurrent atrial fibrillation after antiarrhythmic medication or catheter ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Christina; Lauridsen, Trine K; Johannessen, Arne

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Supraventricular ectopic complexes (SVEC) are known risk factors of recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the impact of SVEC in different age groups is unknown. We aimed to investigate the risk of AF recurrence with higher SVEC burden in patients ±57years, respectively, after....... RESULTS: Age >57years were significantly associated with higher AF recurrence rate after CA (58% vs 36%, p=0.02). After CA, we observed a higher SVEC burden during follow-up in patients >57years which was not observed in the younger age group treated with CA (p=0.006). High SVEC burden at 3months after CA...... treatment with antiarrhythmic medication (AAD) or catheter ablation (CA). METHODS: In total, 260 patients with LVEF >40% and age ≤70 years were randomized to AAD (N=132) or CA (N=128) as first-line treatment for paroxysmal AF. All patients underwent 7-day Holter monitoring at baseline, and after 3, 6, 12...

  5. Development of risk-based nanomaterial groups for occupational exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuempel, E. D.; Castranova, V.; Geraci, C. L.; Schulte, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Given the almost limitless variety of nanomaterials, it will be virtually impossible to assess the possible occupational health hazard of each nanomaterial individually. The development of science-based hazard and risk categories for nanomaterials is needed for decision-making about exposure control practices in the workplace. A possible strategy would be to select representative (benchmark) materials from various mode of action (MOA) classes, evaluate the hazard and develop risk estimates, and then apply a systematic comparison of new nanomaterials with the benchmark materials in the same MOA class. Poorly soluble particles are used here as an example to illustrate quantitative risk assessment methods for possible benchmark particles and occupational exposure control groups, given mode of action and relative toxicity. Linking such benchmark particles to specific exposure control bands would facilitate the translation of health hazard and quantitative risk information to the development of effective exposure control practices in the workplace. A key challenge is obtaining sufficient dose–response data, based on standard testing, to systematically evaluate the nanomaterials’ physical–chemical factors influencing their biological activity. Categorization processes involve both science-based analyses and default assumptions in the absence of substance-specific information. Utilizing data and information from related materials may facilitate initial determinations of exposure control systems for nanomaterials.

  6. Development of risk-based nanomaterial groups for occupational exposure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuempel, E. D.; Castranova, V.; Geraci, C. L.; Schulte, P. A.

    2012-09-01

    Given the almost limitless variety of nanomaterials, it will be virtually impossible to assess the possible occupational health hazard of each nanomaterial individually. The development of science-based hazard and risk categories for nanomaterials is needed for decision-making about exposure control practices in the workplace. A possible strategy would be to select representative (benchmark) materials from various mode of action (MOA) classes, evaluate the hazard and develop risk estimates, and then apply a systematic comparison of new nanomaterials with the benchmark materials in the same MOA class. Poorly soluble particles are used here as an example to illustrate quantitative risk assessment methods for possible benchmark particles and occupational exposure control groups, given mode of action and relative toxicity. Linking such benchmark particles to specific exposure control bands would facilitate the translation of health hazard and quantitative risk information to the development of effective exposure control practices in the workplace. A key challenge is obtaining sufficient dose-response data, based on standard testing, to systematically evaluate the nanomaterials' physical-chemical factors influencing their biological activity. Categorization processes involve both science-based analyses and default assumptions in the absence of substance-specific information. Utilizing data and information from related materials may facilitate initial determinations of exposure control systems for nanomaterials.

  7. Risk Assessment Review Group report to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, H.W.; Budnitz, R.J.; Kouts, H.J.C.; Loewenstein, W.B.; Rowe, W.D.; von Hippel, F.; Zachariasen, F.

    1978-09-01

    The Risk Assessment Review Group was organized by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on July 1, 1977, with four elements to its charter: clarify the achievements and limitations of WASH-1400, the ''Rasmussen Report''; assess the peer comments thereon, and responses to those comments; study the present state of such risk assessment methodology; and recommend to the Commission how (and whether) such methodology can be used in the regulatory and licensing process. Areas of study include: risk assessment methodologies; statistical issues; completeness; the data base; and the WASH-1400 assessment of the damage to human health from radiation after a postulated accident. Specific items discussed include: Browns Ferry; common cause failure; human factors; format and scrutability; the peer review process; earthquakes; risk perception; allegations by UCS concerning WASH-1400 treatment of quality assurance and quality control; current role of probabilistic methods in the regulatory process; acts of violence; ATWS; influence of design defects in quality assurance failures; and calculation of population doses from given releases of radionuclides

  8. Risk-reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy in Women at Higher Risk of Ovarian and Breast Cancer: A Single Institution Prospective Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Enzo; Tomao, Federica; Aletti, Giovanni; Bazzurini, Luca; Bocciolone, Luca; Boveri, Sara; Landoni, Fabio; Lapresa, Maria Teresa; Maruccio, Matteo; Parma, Gabriella; Peccatori, Fedro; Petrella, Maria Cristina; Zanagnolo, Vanna; Colombo, Nicoletta; Maggioni, Angelo

    2017-09-01

    Occult cancers' reported rates vary from 2-12% and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) have been identified in 3-12% of the prophylactically removed tubes of women carrying a BRCA mutation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of tubal minor epithelial atypia (STIL), STIC, and occult invasive cancer and to evaluate the cancer-specific mortality in a prospective series of women at higher risk of ovarian and breast cancer undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) n a tertiary cancer center. A series of RRSO specimens (including endometrial biopsy) from women carrying a BRCA mutation, BRCA-unknown and BRCA-negative were collected between January 1998 and April 2016 at the Division of Gynecology at the European Institute of Oncology. Inclusion criteria were: asymptomatic women who had a negative gynecologic screening within 3 months prior to RRSO. Exclusion criteria were: women with ovarian/tubal cancer prior to RRSO. A total of 411 women underwent RRSO. Median age at RRSO was 47.0 years (range=32-70 years); 75.2% had a history of breast cancer. Fifteen women were diagnosed with an occult cancer (7 STIC, 4 invasive cancers, 2 breast cancers metastatic to the adnexa, 2 endometrial cancer) (3.6%). Sixteen showed a STIL (3.9%). When excluding cases with preoperative positive markers, the occult invasive cancer rate drops to 1.5%. Our study, covering an 18-year period, shows a substantial low risk of occult cancer among a high-risk population of women undergoing RRSO. Our data still support the indication for RRSO in higher-risk patients. An endometrial biopsy should also be routinely obtained as it raises the chances of detecting occult endometrial cancers that may be otherwise missed. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Individual-level movement bias leads to the formation of higher-order social structure in a mobile group of baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Tyler R; Clarke, Parry M; Henzi, S Peter; Barrett, Louise

    2017-07-01

    In mobile social groups, influence patterns driving group movement can vary between democratic and despotic. The arrival at any single pattern of influence is thought to be underpinned by both environmental factors and group composition. To identify the specific patterns of influence driving travel decision-making in a chacma baboon troop, we used spatially explicit data to extract patterns of individual movement bias. We scaled these estimates of individual-level bias to the level of the group by constructing an influence network and assessing its emergent structural properties. Our results indicate that there is heterogeneity in movement bias: individual animals respond consistently to particular group members, and higher-ranking animals are more likely to influence the movement of others. This heterogeneity resulted in a group-level network structure that consisted of a single core and two outer shells. Here, the presence of a core suggests that a set of highly interdependent animals drove routine group movements. These results suggest that heterogeneity at the individual level can lead to group-level influence structures, and that movement patterns in mobile social groups can add to the exploration of both how these structures develop (i.e. mechanistic aspects) and what consequences they have for individual- and group-level outcomes (i.e. functional aspects).

  10. Tuberculosis control in big cities and urban risk groups in the European Union: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hest, N A; Aldridge, R W; de Vries, G; Sandgren, A; Hauer, B; Hayward, A; Arrazola de Oñate, W; Haas, W; Codecasa, L R; Caylà, J A; Story, A; Antoine, D; Gori, A; Quabeck, L; Jonsson, J; Wanlin, M; Orcau, Å; Rodes, A; Dedicoat, M; Antoun, F; van Deutekom, H; Keizer, St; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    In low-incidence countries in the European Union (EU), tuberculosis (TB) is concentrated in big cities, especially among certain urban high-risk groups including immigrants from TB high-incidence countries, homeless people, and those with a history of drug and alcohol misuse. Elimination of TB in European big cities requires control measures focused on multiple layers of the urban population. The particular complexities of major EU metropolises, for example high population density and social structure, create specific opportunities for transmission, but also enable targeted TB control interventions, not efficient in the general population, to be effective or cost effective. Lessons can be learnt from across the EU and this consensus statement on TB control in big cities and urban risk groups was prepared by a working group representing various EU big cities, brought together on the initiative of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The consensus statement describes general and specific social, educational, operational, organisational, legal and monitoring TB control interventions in EU big cities, as well as providing recommendations for big city TB control, based upon a conceptual TB transmission and control model.

  11. Interactions among Candidate Genes Selected by Meta-Analyses Resulting in Higher Risk of Ischemic Stroke in a Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Luo

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke (IS is a multifactorial disorder caused by both genetic and environmental factors. The combined effects of multiple susceptibility genes might result in a higher risk for IS than a single gene. Therefore, we investigated whether interactions among multiple susceptibility genes were associated with an increased risk of IS by evaluating gene polymorphisms identified in previous meta-analyses, including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T, beta fibrinogen (FGB, β-FG A455G and T148C, apolipoprotein E (APOE ε2-4, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE insertion/deletion (I/D, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS G894T. In order to examine these interactions, 712 patients with IS and 774 controls in a Chinese Han population were genotyped using the SNaPshot method, and multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis was used to detect potential interactions among the candidate genes. The results of this study found that ACE I/D and β-FG T148C were significant synergistic contributors to IS. In particular, the ACE DD + β-FG 148CC, ACE DD + β-FG 148CT, and ACE ID + β-FG 148CC genotype combinations resulted in higher risk of IS. After adjusting for potential confounding IS risk factors (age, gender, family history of IS, hypertension history and history of diabetes mellitus using a logistic analysis, a significant correlation between the genotype combinations and IS patients persisted (overall stroke: adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.02, P < 0.001, large artery atherosclerosis subtype: adjusted OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.08-2.07, P = 0.016, small-artery occlusion subtype: adjusted OR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.43-2.91, P < 0.001. The results of this study indicate that the ACE I/D and β-FG T148C combination may result in significantly higher risk of IS in this Chinese population.

  12. Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Risk Is Increased with Higher Infancy Weight Gain and Decreased with Longer Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Khuc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is increasing in pediatric age groups worldwide. Meeting the criteria for the metabolic syndrome puts children at risk for later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Methods. Using linear regression, we examined the association between infant weight gain from birth to 3 months and risk for the metabolic syndrome among 16- to 17-year-old Chilean adolescents (n=357, accounting for the extent of breastfeeding in infancy and known covariates including gender, birth weight, and socioeconomic status. Results. Participants were approximately half male (51%, born at 40 weeks of gestation weighing 3.5 kg, and 48% were exclusively breastfed for ≥90 days. Factors independently associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome in adolescence were faster weight gain in the first 3 months of life (B=0.16, P<0.05 and male gender (B=0.24, P<0.05. Breastfeeding as the sole source of milk for ≥90 days was associated with significantly decreased risk of metabolic syndrome (B=−0.16. Conclusion. This study adds to current knowledge about early infant growth and breastfeeding and their long-term health effects.

  13. Modified risk stratification grouping using standard clinical and biopsy information for patients undergoing radical prostatectomy: Results from SEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumsteg, Zachary S; Chen, Zinan; Howard, Lauren E; Amling, Christopher L; Aronson, William J; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Kane, Christopher J; Terris, Martha K; Spratt, Daniel E; Sandler, Howard M; Freedland, Stephen J

    2017-12-01

    Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and risk stratification systems have been proposed to guide treatment decisions. However, significant heterogeneity remains for those with unfavorable-risk disease. This study included 3335 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy without adjuvant radiotherapy in the SEARCH database. High-risk patients were dichotomized into standard and very high-risk (VHR) groups based on primary Gleason pattern, percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPBC), number of NCCN high-risk factors, and stage T3b-T4 disease. Similarly, intermediate-risk prostate cancer was separated into favorable and unfavorable groups based on primary Gleason pattern, PPBC, and number of NCCN intermediate-risk factors. Median follow-up was 78 months. Patients with VHR prostate cancer had significantly worse PSA relapse-free survival (PSA-RFS, P < 0.001), distant metastasis (DM, P = 0.004), and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM, P = 0.015) in comparison to standard high-risk (SHR) patients in multivariable analyses. By contrast, there was no significant difference in PSA-RFS, DM, or PCSM between SHR and unfavorable intermediate-risk (UIR) patients. Therefore, we propose a novel risk stratification system: Group 1 (low-risk), Group 2 (favorable intermediate-risk), Group 3 (UIR and SHR), and Group 4 (VHR). The c-index of this new grouping was 0.683 for PSA-RFS and 0.800 for metastases, compared to NCCN-risk groups which yield 0.666 for PSA-RFS and 0.764 for metastases. Patients classified as VHR have markedly increased rates of PSA relapse, DM, and PCSM in comparison to SHR patients, whereas UIR and SHR patients have similar prognosis. Novel therapeutic strategies are needed for patients with VHR, likely involving multimodality therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Multi Criteria Group Decision-Making Model for Teacher Evaluation in Higher Education Based on Cloud Model and Decision Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ting-Cheng; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a cloud multi-criteria group decision-making model for teacher evaluation in higher education which is involving subjectivity, imprecision and fuzziness. First, selecting the appropriate evaluation index depending on the evaluation objectives, indicating a clear structural relationship between the evaluation index and…

  15. The relationship between career mobility and occupational expertise. A retrospective study among higher-level Dutch professionals in three age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between two career-related variables and occupational expertise of higher-level employees from large working organisations in three different age groups. The factors in question are: total number of jobs that have been performed; and the average period

  16. Cardiovascular risk management of different ethnic groups with type 2 diabetes in primary care in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elley, C Raina; Kenealy, Tim; Robinson, Elizabeth; Bramley, Dale; Selak, Vanessa; Drury, Paul L; Kerse, Ngaire; Pearson, Janet; Lay-Yee, Roy; Arroll, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    To examine cardiovascular preventive and renal protective treatment for different ethnic groups with diabetes in primary care. The study population included patients with type 2 diabetes attending an annual review in New Zealand primary care during 2004. Primary care data were linked to hospital admission data to identify previous cardiovascular disease (CVD). For those without previous CVD, 5-year cardiovascular risk was calculated. Proportions on, and predictors of appropriate treatment according to guidelines were investigated. Data were available on 29,179 patients. Maori and Pacific participants had high rates of obesity, poor glycaemic control and albuminuria. Two thirds of all participants with previous CVD (68% of Maori and 70% of Pacific) and 44% with high CVD risk received appropriate CVD treatment; 73% of Maori, 62% of Pacific and 65% of European patients with albuminuria received ACE-inhibitors. Those with high CVD risk were more likely, and those that were young were less likely, to receive anti-hypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment after controlling for other factors. Maori and Pacific people were receiving similar high rates of appropriate CVD and renal preventive drug therapy to Europeans, but their prevalence of smoking, obesity, raised HbA1c and albuminuria were substantially higher. Non-drug components of preventive care also need to be addressed to reduce major ethnic disparities in diabetes-related morbidity and mortality in New Zealand.

  17. Successful Reach and Adoption of a workplace health promotion RCT targeting a group of high-risk workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekner Dorte

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cleaners are rarely introduced to workplace health promotion programs. The study's objective was to evaluate the reach and adoption of a workplace randomized controlled trial (RCT among cleaners in Denmark. Methods Cleaning businesses with at least 30 employees, that could offer a weekly 1-hour intervention during working hours, were invited to participate. Employees working at least 20 hours/week were invited to answer a screening questionnaire and consent to participate. Analyses determined the differences in health variables between responders and non-responders, consenters and non-consenters, participants and non-participants and between participants of the RCT's three groups: physical coordination training, cognitive-behavioural theory-based training and reference group. Results From 16 eligible workplaces, a representative sample of 50% adopted the trial. Of 758 eligible employees, 78% responded to the screening questionnaire and 49% consented to participate. Consenters and participants differed from non-consenters and non-participants by having higher BMI, more chronic diseases and poorer musculoskeletal health. Conclusions This study indicates that workplace health promotion programs directed at health risk factors among cleaners enable significant adoption and reach to a high-risk subgroup of the Danish workforce. Trial registration Trial registration ISRCTN96241850

  18. A Policy Intervention Study to Identify High-Risk Groups to Prevent Industrial Accidents in Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kwan Hyung; Lee, Seung Soo

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to identify high-risk groups for industrial accidents by setting up 2003 as the base year and conducting an in-depth analysis of the trends of major industrial accident indexes the index of industrial accident rate, the index of occupational injury rate, the index of occupational illness and disease rate per 10,000 people, and the index of occupational injury fatality rate per 10,000 people for the past 10 years. This study selected industrial accident victims, who died or received more than 4 days of medical care benefits, due to occupational accidents and diseases occurring at workplaces, subject to the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act, as the study population. According to the trends of four major indexes by workplace characteristics, the whole industry has shown a decreasing tendency in all four major indexes since the base year (2003); as of 2012, the index of industrial accident rate was 67, while the index of occupational injury fatality rate per 10,000 people was 59. The manufacturing industry, age over 50 years and workplaces with more than 50 employees showed a high severity level of occupational accidents. Male workers showed a higher severity level of occupational accidents than female workers. The employment period of working period are likely to have more occupational accidents than others. Overall, an industrial accident prevention policy must be established by concentrating all available resources and capacities of these high-risk groups.

  19. A Systematic Review of Training Interventions Addressing Sexual Violence against Marginalized At-Risk Groups of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-01-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with…

  20. ABO blood groups: A risk factor for left atrial and left atrial appendage thrombogenic milieu in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuan; Li, Kuibao; Yang, Xinchun

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have identified ABO blood groups as predictors of thromboembolic diseases. In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), however, potential association between ABO blood groups and the risk of left atrial (LA) and/or left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombogenic milieu (TM) has not been established. This is a retrospective case-control study that included 125 consecutive patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) plus TM, as evidenced by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during a period from1 January 2010 to 31 December 2016. The controls were selected randomly from 1072 NVAF without TM at a 1:2 ratio. Potential association between ABO blood groups and TM was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The risk of TM was higher in patients with blood group A (33.6% vs. 20.2% in non-A blood groups, P=0.005). After adjusting for age, sex, oral anticoagulant use, AF type and duration, and relevant functional measures (e.g., NT-pro BNP level, left atrium diameter, and left ventricular ejection fraction), blood group A remained associated with an increased risk of TM (OR=2.99, 95% CI 1.4-6.388, P=0.005). Blood group A is an independent risk factor for TM in NVAF patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-11-01

    with schizophrenia and related disorders. The thesis contains a review of the risk of suicide in homeless. In all the studies included, increased suicide mortality was found, and in the studies that evaluated suicide risk in different age groups, the excess suicide mortality was most dominant in younger age groups. Our own study revealed an increased risk of suicide, and in univariate analysis, significant predictors for suicide were found to be associated with shortest stay in hostel less than 11 days and more than one stay during one year. The thesis also contains a review of the risk of suicide in first-episode patients with schizophrenia, and it was concluded on the basis of the identified studies that long-term risk of suicide was not 10 percent as previously accepted, but lower. Risk factors for suicide among patients with schizophrenia were evaluated in case control studies, in nested case control studies, and in prospective studies. The following risk factors were the most important and frequently observed predictors: male gender, young age, short duration of illness, many admissions during last year, current inpatient, short time since discharge, previous and recent suicide attempt, co-morbid depression, drug abuse, poor compliance with medication, poor adherence to treatment, high IQ, and suicidal ideations. The results of analyses of psychotic symptoms as risk factor for suicide were contradictory, but a recent meta-analysis concluded that both hallucinations and delusions seemed to be protective; however, there was a non-significant tendency that command hallucinations were associated with higher suicide risk. Prevention of suicide in schizophrenia must especially focus on improving assessment of risk of suicide during inpatient treatment and the first week after discharge, and special attention must be paid to patients with one or more of the identified risk factors. There is a need for large randomised clinical trials evaluating the effect on suicide and

  2. Screening in high-risk group of gestational diabetes mellitus with its maternal and fetal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angadi Rajasab Nilofer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a metabolic disorder defined as glucose intolerance with the onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Women with GDM are at increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The complications associated with GDM can be prevented by early recognition, intense monitoring and proper treatment. Aims: The present study was done to screen the high-risk pregnancy group for GDM, to find the incidence of abnormal results on screening and to correlate the abnormal results with the maternal and fetal outcomes. The study was done in a tertiary care hospital and teaching institute. It was a prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: Selective screening for GDM was done in 150 pregnant women with high-risk factors. Screening was done with 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT after 18 weeks, and if GCT was negative then the test was repeated after 28 weeks of pregnancy. The patients who were having an abnormal GCT were subjected to 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. All GDM patients were followed up and treated with diet and/or insulin therapy till delivery to know maternal and fetal outcomes. The period of study was from April 2008 to March 2009. Results: 7.3% of study population was OGCT positive. 6% of the study population was OGTT positive. Age >25 years, obesity, family history of DM, and past history of GDM were the risk factors significantly associated with GDM. One newborn had hypoglycemia and one had hyperbilirubinemia. The fetal and maternal outcome in GDM patients was good in our study due to early diagnosis and intervention. Conclusion: Women with GDM are at an increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The increased morbidity in GDM is preventable by meticulous antenatal care.

  3. Group decision making with the analytic hierarchy process in benefit-risk assessment: a tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, J Marjan; Bridges, John F P; IJzerman, Maarten J

    2014-01-01

    The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been increasingly applied as a technique for multi-criteria decision analysis in healthcare. The AHP can aid decision makers in selecting the most valuable technology for patients, while taking into account multiple, and even conflicting, decision criteria. This tutorial illustrates the procedural steps of the AHP in supporting group decision making about new healthcare technology, including (1) identifying the decision goal, decision criteria, and alternative healthcare technologies to compare, (2) structuring the decision criteria, (3) judging the value of the alternative technologies on each decision criterion, (4) judging the importance of the decision criteria, (5) calculating group judgments, (6) analyzing the inconsistency in judgments, (7) calculating the overall value of the technologies, and (8) conducting sensitivity analyses. The AHP is illustrated via a hypothetical example, adapted from an empirical AHP analysis on the benefits and risks of tissue regeneration to repair small cartilage lesions in the knee.

  4. Selection of high risk groups among prognostically favorable patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J A; Fischermann, K; Hou-Jensen, K; Henriksen, E; Andersen, K W; Johansen, H; Brincker, H; Mouridsen, H T; Castberg, T; Rossing, N; Rørth, M

    1981-01-01

    In a prospective, nationwide, decentralized breast cancer project conducted by The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) the recurrence rate within the first year after surgery was analysed in relation to tumor anaplasia. One thousand forty-eight patients met the requirements of eligibility, i.e. tumor size less than or equal to 5 cm with negative axillary nodes, and no skin or deep invasion. The recurrence rates in tumors with anaplasia Grades I, II, and III were 4, 9, and 14%, respectively (p = 0.001). Therefore, it seems possible, prospectively, among otherwise prognostically favorable patients, to select a group with high risk of recurrence which might benefit from adjuvant systemic therapy. PMID:7247527

  5. Diversity and composition of vaginal microbiota of pregnant women at risk for transmitting Group B Streptococcus treated with intrapartum penicillin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Wurdig Roesch

    Full Text Available Administering intravenous antibiotics during labor to women at risk for transmitting Group B Streptococcus (GBS can prevent infections in newborns. However, the impact of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on mothers' microbial community composition is largely unknown. We compared vaginal microbial composition in pregnant women experiencing preterm birth at ≤ 32 weeks gestation that received intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with that in controls.Microbiota in vaginal swabs collected shortly before delivery from GBS positive women that received penicillin intravenously during labor or after premature rupture of membranes was compared to controls. Microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing using the PGM Ion Torrent to determine the effects of penicillin use during hospitalization and GBS status on its composition.Penicillin administration was associated with an altered vaginal microbial community composition characterized by increased microbial diversity. Lactobacillus sp. contributed only 13.1% of the total community in the women that received penicillin compared to 88.1% in the controls. Streptococcus sp. were present in higher abundance in GBS positive woman compared to controls, with 60% of the total vaginal microbiota in severe cases identified as Streptococcus sp.Vaginal communities of healthy pregnant women were dominated by Lactobacillus sp. and contained low diversity, while Group B Streptococcus positive women receiving intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis had a modified vaginal microbiota composition with low abundance of Lactobacillus but higher microbial diversity.

  6. Diversity and composition of vaginal microbiota of pregnant women at risk for transmitting Group B Streptococcus treated with intrapartum penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig; Silveira, Rita C; Corso, Andréa L; Dobbler, Priscila Thiago; Mai, Volker; Rojas, Bruna S; Laureano, Álvaro M; Procianoy, Renato S

    2017-01-01

    Administering intravenous antibiotics during labor to women at risk for transmitting Group B Streptococcus (GBS) can prevent infections in newborns. However, the impact of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on mothers' microbial community composition is largely unknown. We compared vaginal microbial composition in pregnant women experiencing preterm birth at ≤ 32 weeks gestation that received intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with that in controls. Microbiota in vaginal swabs collected shortly before delivery from GBS positive women that received penicillin intravenously during labor or after premature rupture of membranes was compared to controls. Microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing using the PGM Ion Torrent to determine the effects of penicillin use during hospitalization and GBS status on its composition. Penicillin administration was associated with an altered vaginal microbial community composition characterized by increased microbial diversity. Lactobacillus sp. contributed only 13.1% of the total community in the women that received penicillin compared to 88.1% in the controls. Streptococcus sp. were present in higher abundance in GBS positive woman compared to controls, with 60% of the total vaginal microbiota in severe cases identified as Streptococcus sp. Vaginal communities of healthy pregnant women were dominated by Lactobacillus sp. and contained low diversity, while Group B Streptococcus positive women receiving intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis had a modified vaginal microbiota composition with low abundance of Lactobacillus but higher microbial diversity.

  7. A comparative analysis of cardiovascular disease risk profiles of five Pacific ethnic groups assessed in New Zealand primary care practice: PREDICT CVD-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Corina; Wells, Sue; Riddell, Tania; Pylypchuk, Romana; Marshall, Roger; Drury, Paul; Elley, Raina; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Gentles, Dudley; Erick-Peletiy, Stephanie; Bell, Fionna; Kerr, Andrew; Jackson, Rod

    2010-11-05

    Data on the cardiovascular disease risk profiles of Pacific peoples in New Zealand is usually aggregated and treated as a single entity. Little is known about the comparability or otherwise of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk between different Pacific groups. To compare CVD risk profiles for the main Pacific ethnic groups assessed in New Zealand primary care practice to determine if it is reasonable to aggregate these data, or if significant differences exist. A web-based clinical decision support system for CVD risk assessment and management (PREDICT) has been implemented in primary care practices in nine PHOs throughout Auckland and Northland since 2002, covering approximately 65% of the population of these regions. Between 2002 and January 2009, baseline CVD risk assessments were carried out on 11,642 patients aged 35-74 years identifying with one or more Pacific ethnic groups (4933 Samoans, 1724 Tongans, 1366 Cook Island Maori, 880 Niueans, 1341 Fijians and 1398 people identified as Other Pacific or Pacific Not Further Defined). Fijians were subsequently excluded from the analyses because of a probable misclassification error that appears to combine Fijian Indians with ethnic Fijians. Prevalences of smoking, diabetes and prior history of CVD, as well as mean total cholesterol/HDL ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and Framingham 5-year CVD risk were calculated for each Pacific group. Age-adjusted risk ratios and mean differences stratified by gender were calculated using Samoans as the reference group. Cook Island women were almost 60% more likely to smoke than Samoan women. While Tongan men had the highest proportion of smoking (29%) among Pacific men, Tongan women had the lowest smoking proportion (10%) among Pacific women. Tongan women and Niuean men and women had a higher burden of diabetes than other Pacific ethnic groups, which were 20-30% higher than their Samoan counterparts. Niuean men and women had lower blood pressure levels than all

  8. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment is superior to the Mini-Mental State Examination in detecting patients at higher risk of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, YanHong; Lee, Wah Yean; Basri, Nur Adilah; Collinson, Simon Lowes; Merchant, Reshma A; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian

    2012-11-01

    To examine the discriminant validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in detecting patients with cognitive impairment at higher risk for dementia at a memory clinic setting. Memory clinic patients were administered the MoCA, MMSE, and a comprehensive formal neuropsychological battery. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes were dichotomized into two groups: single domain-MCI (sd-MCI) and multiple domain-MCI (md-MCI). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to compare the discriminatory ability of the MoCA and the MMSE. Two hundred thirty patients were recruited, of which 136 (59.1%) were diagnosed with dementia, 61 (26.5%) with MCI, and 33 (14.3%) with no cognitive impairment (NCI). The majority of MCI patients had md-MCI (n = 36, 59%). The MoCA had significantly larger AUCs than the MMSE in discriminating md-MCI from the lower risk group for incident dementia (NCI and sd-MCI) [MoCA 0.92 (95% CI, 0.86-0.98) vs. MMSE 0.84 (95% CI, 0.75-0.92), p = 0.02). At their optimal cut-off points, the MoCA (19/20) remained superior to the MMSE (23/24) in detecting md-MCI [sensitivity: 0.83 vs. 0.72; specificity: 0.86 vs. 0.83; PPV: 0.79 vs. 0.72; NPV: 0.89 vs. 0.83; correctly classified: 85.1% vs. 78.7%]. The MoCA is superior to the MMSE in the detection of patients with cognitive impairment at higher risk for incident dementia at a memory clinic setting.

  9. Higher direct bilirubin levels during mid-pregnancy are associated with lower risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoqun; Zhong, Chunrong; Zhou, Xuezhen; Chen, Renjuan; Wu, Jiangyue; Wang, Weiye; Li, Xiating; Ding, Huisi; Guo, Yanfang; Gao, Qin; Hu, Xingwen; Xiong, Guoping; Yang, Xuefeng; Hao, Liping; Xiao, Mei; Yang, Nianhong

    2017-01-01

    Bilirubin concentrations have been recently reported to be negatively associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined the association between bilirubin concentrations and gestational diabetes mellitus. In a prospective cohort study, 2969 pregnant women were recruited prior to 16 weeks of gestation and were followed up until delivery. The value of bilirubin was tested and oral glucose tolerance test was conducted to screen gestational diabetes mellitus. The relationship between serum bilirubin concentration and gestational weeks was studied by two-piecewise linear regression. A subsample of 1135 participants with serum bilirubin test during 16-18 weeks gestation was conducted to research the association between serum bilirubin levels and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus by logistic regression. Gestational diabetes mellitus developed in 8.5 % of the participants (223 of 2969). Two-piecewise linear regression analyses demonstrated that the levels of bilirubin decreased with gestational week up to the turning point 23 and after that point, levels of bilirubin were increased slightly. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the relative risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus was lower in the highest tertile of direct bilirubin than that in the lowest tertile (RR 0.60; 95 % CI, 0.35-0.89). The results suggested that women with higher serum direct bilirubin levels during the second trimester of pregnancy have lower risk for development of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  10. Living at a Geographically Higher Elevation Is Associated with Lower Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: Prospective Analysis of the SUN Cohort

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    Amaya Lopez-Pascual

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Living in a geographically higher altitude affects oxygen availability. The possible connection between environmental factors and the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS feature is not fully understood, being the available epidemiological evidence still very limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the longitudinal association between altitude and incidence of MetS and each of its components in a prospective Spanish cohort, The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN project. Our study included 6860 highly educated subjects (university graduates free from any MetS criteria at baseline. The altitude of residence was imputed with the postal code of each individual subject residence according to the data of the Spanish National Cartographic Institute and participants were categorized into tertiles. MetS was defined according to the harmonized definition. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between the altitude of residence and the risk of MetS during follow-up. After a median follow-up period of 10 years, 462 incident cases of MetS were identified. When adjusting for potential confounders, subjects in the highest category of altitude (>456 m exhibited a significantly lower risk of developing MetS compared to those in the lowest tertile (<122 m of altitude of residence [Model 2: Hazard ratio = 0.75 (95% Confidence interval: 0.58–0.97; p for trend = 0.029]. Living at geographically higher altitude was associated with a lower risk of developing MetS in the SUN project. Our findings suggest that geographical elevation may be an important factor linked to metabolic diseases.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii infection among three Orang Asli ethnic groups in Malaysia.

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    Tengku Shahrul Anuar

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia.Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150 of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139 of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211 of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi.Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and implementation of specific

  12. Continuous glucose monitoring system and new era of early diagnosis of diabetes in high risk groups

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    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM systems are an emerging technology that allows frequent glucose measurements to monitor glucose trends in real time. Their use as a diagnostic tool is still developing and appears to be promising. Combining intermittent glucose self-monitoring (SGM and CGM combines the benefits of both. Significant improvement in the treatment modalities that may prevent the progress of prediabetes to diabetes have been achieved recently and dictates screening of high risk patients for early diagnosis and management of glycemic abnormalities. The use of CGMS in the diagnosis of early dysglycemia (prediabetes especially in high risk patients appears to be an attractive approach. In this review we searched the literature to investigate the value of using CGMS as a diagnostic tool compared to other known tools, namely oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C in high risk groups. Those categories of patients include adolescents and adults with obesity especially those with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO, gestational diabetes, cystic fibrosis, thalassemia major, acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and after renal transplantation. It appears that the ability of the CGMS for frequently monitoring (every 5 min glucose changes during real-life settings for 3 to 5 days stretches the chance to detect more glycemic abnormalities during basal and postprandial conditions compared to other short-timed methods.

  13. Detection of high GS risk group prostate tumors by diffusion tensor imaging and logistic regression modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas, Gokhan

    2018-07-01

    To assess the value of joint evaluation of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures by using logistic regression modelling to detect high GS risk group prostate tumors. Fifty tumors imaged using DTI on a 3 T MRI device were analyzed. Regions of interests focusing on the center of tumor foci and noncancerous tissue on the maps of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were used to extract the minimum, the maximum and the mean measures. Measure ratio was computed by dividing tumor measure by noncancerous tissue measure. Logistic regression models were fitted for all possible pair combinations of the measures using 5-fold cross validation. Systematic differences are present for all MD measures and also for all FA measures in distinguishing the high risk tumors [GS ≥ 7(4 + 3)] from the low risk tumors [GS ≤ 7(3 + 4)] (P Logistic regression modelling provides a favorable solution for the joint evaluations easily adoptable in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundheim, Leif; Lillegaard, Inger Therese; Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Brodal, Guro; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl

    2017-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group. PMID:28165414

  15. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Sundheim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group.

  16. Women undergoing aortic surgery are at higher risk for unplanned readmissions compared with men especially when discharged home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flink, Benjamin J; Long, Chandler A; Duwayri, Yazan; Brewster, Luke P; Veeraswamy, Ravi; Gallagher, Katherine; Arya, Shipra

    2016-06-01

    Women undergoing vascular surgery have higher morbidity and mortality. Our study explores gender-based differences in patient-centered outcomes such as readmission, length of stay (LOS), and discharge destination (home vs nonhome facility) in aortic aneurysm surgery. Patients were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database (2011-2013) undergoing abdominal, thoracic, and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (N = 17,763), who were discharged and survived their index hospitalization. The primary outcome was unplanned readmission, and secondary outcomes were discharge to a nonhome facility, LOS, and reasons for unplanned readmission. Univariate, multivariate, and stratified analyses based on gender and discharge destination were used. Overall, 1541 patients (8.7%) experienced an unplanned readmission, with a significantly higher risk in women vs men (10.8% vs 8%; P women compared with men persisted in multivariate analysis after controlling for covariates (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.4). Similarly, the rate of discharge to a nonhome facility was nearly double in women compared with men (20.6% vs 10.7%; P women compared with men occurred in patients who were discharged home (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.02-1.4) but not in those who were discharged to a nonhome facility (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4). Significant differences in LOS were seen in patients who were discharged home. No gender differences were found in reasons for readmission with the three most common reasons being thromboembolic events, wound infections, and pneumonia. Gender disparity exists in the risk of unplanned readmission among aortic aneurysm surgery patients. Women who were discharged home have a higher likelihood of unplanned readmission despite longer LOS than men. These data suggest that further study into the discharge planning processes, social factors, and use of rehabilitation services is needed for women

  17. Deficits in implicit attention to social signals in schizophrenia and high risk groups: behavioural evidence from a new illusion.

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    Mascha van 't Wout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing body of evidence suggests that the apparent social impairments observed in schizophrenia may arise from deficits in social cognitive processing capacities. The ability to process basic social cues, such as gaze direction and biological motion, effortlessly and implicitly is thought to be a prerequisite for establishing successful social interactions and for construing a sense of "social intuition." However, studies that address the ability to effortlessly process basic social cues in schizophrenia are lacking. Because social cognitive processing deficits may be part of the genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia, we also investigated two groups that have been shown to be at increased risk of developing schizophrenia-spectrum pathology: first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and men with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY. RESULTS: We compared 28 patients with schizophrenia, 29 siblings of patients with schizophrenia, and 29 individuals with Klinefelter syndrome with 46 matched healthy control subjects on a new paradigm. This paradigm measures one's susceptibility for a bias in distance estimation between two agents that is induced by the implicit processing of gaze direction and biological motion conveyed by these agents. Compared to control subjects, patients with schizophrenia, as well as siblings of patients and Klinefelter men, showed a lack of influence of social cues on their distance judgments. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the insensitivity for social cues is a cognitive aspect of schizophrenia that may be seen as an endophenotype as it appears to be present both in relatives who are at increased genetic risk and in a genetic disorder at risk for schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. These social cue-processing deficits could contribute, in part, to the difficulties in higher order social cognitive tasks and, hence, to decreased social competence that has been observed in these groups.

  18. Deficits in implicit attention to social signals in schizophrenia and high risk groups: behavioural evidence from a new illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Wout, Mascha; van Rijn, Sophie; Jellema, Tjeerd; Kahn, René S; Aleman, André

    2009-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that the apparent social impairments observed in schizophrenia may arise from deficits in social cognitive processing capacities. The ability to process basic social cues, such as gaze direction and biological motion, effortlessly and implicitly is thought to be a prerequisite for establishing successful social interactions and for construing a sense of "social intuition." However, studies that address the ability to effortlessly process basic social cues in schizophrenia are lacking. Because social cognitive processing deficits may be part of the genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia, we also investigated two groups that have been shown to be at increased risk of developing schizophrenia-spectrum pathology: first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and men with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY). We compared 28 patients with schizophrenia, 29 siblings of patients with schizophrenia, and 29 individuals with Klinefelter syndrome with 46 matched healthy control subjects on a new paradigm. This paradigm measures one's susceptibility for a bias in distance estimation between two agents that is induced by the implicit processing of gaze direction and biological motion conveyed by these agents. Compared to control subjects, patients with schizophrenia, as well as siblings of patients and Klinefelter men, showed a lack of influence of social cues on their distance judgments. We suggest that the insensitivity for social cues is a cognitive aspect of schizophrenia that may be seen as an endophenotype as it appears to be present both in relatives who are at increased genetic risk and in a genetic disorder at risk for schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. These social cue-processing deficits could contribute, in part, to the difficulties in higher order social cognitive tasks and, hence, to decreased social competence that has been observed in these groups.

  19. Protocol for the melatools skin self-monitoring trial: a phase II randomised controlled trial of an intervention for primary care patients at higher risk of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katie; Emery, Jon; Lantaff, Rebecca; Radford, Michael; Pannebakker, Merel; Hall, Per; Burrows, Nigel; Williams, Kate; Saunders, Catherine L; Murchie, Peter; Walter, Fiona M

    2017-11-28

    Melanoma is the fifth most common cancer in the UK. Incidence rates have quadrupled over the last 30 years and continue to rise, especially among younger people. As routine screening of the general population is not currently recommended in the UK, a focus on secondary prevention through early detection and prompt treatment in individuals at increased risk of melanoma could make an important contribution to improve melanoma outcomes. This paper describes the protocol for a phase II, multisite, randomised controlled trial, in the primary care setting, for patients at increased risk of melanoma. A skin self-monitoring (SSM) smartphone 'App' was used to improve symptom appraisal and encourage help seeking in primary care, thereby promoting early presentation with skin changes suspicious of melanoma. We aim to recruit 200 participants from general practice waiting rooms in the East of England. Eligible patients are those identified at higher melanoma risk (using a real-time risk assessment tool), without a personal history of melanoma, aged 18 to 75 years. Participants will be invited to a primary care nurse consultation, and randomised to the intervention group (standard written advice on skin cancer detection and sun protection, loading of an SSM 'App' onto the participant's smartphone and instructions on use including self-monitoring reminders) or control group (standard written advice alone). The primary outcomes are consultation rates for changes to a pigmented skin lesion, and the patient interval (time from first noticing a skin change to consultation). Secondary outcomes include patient sun protection behaviours, psychosocial outcomes, and measures of trial feasibility and acceptability. NHS ethical approval has been obtained from Cambridgeshire and Hertfordshire research ethics committee (REC reference 16/EE/0248). The findings from the MelaTools SSM Trial will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and scientific conferences. ISCTRN16061621

  20. Westinghouse Owners Group Risk-Informed Regulation Efforts: Options 2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Jason A.; Osterrieder, Robert A.; Lutz, Robert J.; Dingler, Maurice; Ward, Lewis A.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has initiated efforts to incorporate risk-informed methods to redefine the scope of the existing 10 CFR 50 regulations (Option 2) and to change the technical requirements of the regulations (Option 3). The overall objectives of these efforts are to enhance plant safety, provide a framework for risk-informed regulations, add flexibility to plant operations, and reduce regulatory burden. The Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) has a variety of active programs in the risk-informed area, including a program in the Option 2 and Option 3 areas. These two programs will be summarized including the benefits and the technical approach. The purpose of Option 2 is to make changes to the overall scope of structures, systems and components (SSCs) covered by 10 CFR 50 requiring special treatment by formulating new risk-informed safety classification categories that are linked to current definitions of safety-related and important-to-safety. This initiative would permit possible changes to the current special treatment requirements based on risk insights. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) has developed an Option 2 implementation guideline (NEI 00-04 Draft Revision B). The WOG has initiated a program to validate the NEI guideline and to provide an initial cost-benefit assessment of the revised categorization and treatment under Option 2 via trial application to two systems at both Surry Unit 1 and Wolf Creek. The WOG Option 2 program includes consideration of all of the components in the selected systems, regardless of whether or not they are modeled in the respective plant probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies. As a result, quantitative risk measures are not available for many of the components being considered. In this case, the WOG program will provide valuable input to the NEI guideline. Additionally, the WOG program extends the use of both of the dominant methodologies for risk-informed ISI (RI-ISI) to address repair and

  1. Challenges and Thoughts on Risk Management and Control for the Group Construction of a Super-Long Tunnel by TBM

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    Mingjiang Deng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The total length of the second stage of the water supply project in the northern areas of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is 540 km, of which the total length of the tunnels is 516 km. The total tunneling mileage is 569 km, which includes 49 slow-inclined shafts and vertical shafts. Among the tunnels constructed in the project, the Ka–Shuang tunnel, which is a single tunnel with a length of 283 km, is currently the longest water-conveyance tunnel in the world. The main tunnel of the Ka–Shuang tunnel is divided into 18 tunnel-boring machine (TBM sections, and 34 drilling-and-blasting sections, with 91 tunnel faces. The construction of the Ka–Shuang tunnel has been regarded as an unprecedented challenge for project construction management, risk control, and safe and efficient construction; it has also presented higher requirements for the design, manufacture, operation, and maintenance of the TBMs and their supporting equipment. Based on the engineering characteristics and adverse geological conditions, it is necessary to analyze the major problems confronted by the construction and systematically locate disaster sources. In addition, the risk level should be reasonably ranked, responsibility should be clearly identified, and a hierarchical-control mechanism should be established. Several techniques are put forward in this paper to achieve the objectives mentioned above; these include advanced geological prospecting techniques, intelligent tunneling techniques combined with the sensing and fusion of information about rock parameters and mechanical parameters, monitoring and early-warning techniques, and modern information technologies. The application of these techniques offers scientific guidance for risk control and puts forward technical ideas about improving the efficiency of safe tunneling. These techniques and ideas have great significance for the development of modern tunneling technologies and research into major

  2. Group Sex Events and HIV/STI Risk in an Urban Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Samuel R.; Bolyard, Melissa; Khan, Maria; Maslow, Carey; Sandoval, Milagros; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Krauss, Beatrice; Aral, Sevgi O.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe: a. the prevalence and individual and network characteristics of group sex events (GSE) and GSE attendees; and b. HIV/STI discordance among respondents who said they went to a GSE together. Methods and Design In a sociometric network study of risk partners (defined as sexual partners, persons with whom respondents attended a GSE, or drug-injection partners) in Brooklyn, NY, we recruited a high-risk sample of 465 adults. Respondents reported on GSE attendance, the characteristics of GSEs, and their own and others’ behaviors at GSEs. Sera and urines were collected and STI prevalence was assayed. Results Of the 465 participants, 36% had attended a GSE in the last year, 26% had sex during the most recent of these GSEs, and 13% had unprotected sex there. Certain subgroups (hard drug users, men who have sex with men, women who have sex with women, and sex workers) were more likely to attend and more likely to engage in risk behaviors at these events. Among 90 GSE dyads in which at least one partner named the other as someone with whom they attended a GSE in the previous three months, STI/HIV discordance was common (HSV-2: 45% of dyads, HIV: 12% of dyads, Chlamydia: 21% of dyads). Many GSEs had 10 or more participants, and multiple partnerships at GSEs were common. High attendance rates at GSEs among members of large networks may increase community vulnerability to STI/HIV, particularly since network data show that almost all members of a large sociometric risk network either had sex with a GSE attendee or had sex with someone who had sex with a GSE attended. Conclusions Self-reported GSE attendance and participation was common among this high-risk sample. STI/HIV discordance among GSE attendees was high, highlighting the potential transmission risk associated with GSEs. Research on sexual behaviors should incorporate measures of GSE behaviors as standard research protocol. Interventions should be developed to reduce transmission at GSEs. PMID

  3. Male sex workers: Are we ignoring a risk group in Mumbai, India?

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    Shinde Santosh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Male sex workers (MSWs have recently been recognized as an important risk group for sexually transmitted infections (STIs including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Although there are global studies on MSWs, few such studies describe the behavioral patterns and STIs among this population in India. Methods: MSWs were evaluated at the Humsafar trust, a community based organization situated in suburban Mumbai, India. We report on the demographics, sexual behaviors, and STIs including HIV of these sex workers. Results: Of the 75 MSWs, 24 were men and 51 were transgenders. The mean age of the group was 23.3 (+ 4.9 years. About 15% were married or lived with a permanent partner. Of these individuals, 85% reported sex work as a main source of income and 15% as an additional source. All the individuals reported anal sex (87% anal receptive sex and 13% anal insertive sex. About 13% of MSWs had never used a condom. The HIV prevalence was 33% (17% in men vs 41% in transgenders, P = 0.04. The STI prevalence was 60% (58% in men vs 61% in transgenders, P = 0.8. Syphilis was the most common STI (28% in these MSWs. HIV was associated with being a transgender (41 vs 17%, P = 0.04, age > 26 years (57 vs 28%, P = 0.04, more than one year of sex work (38 vs 8%, P = 0.05, and income < Rs. 2000 per month (62 vs 27%, P = 0.02. Conclusions: The MSWs have high-risk behaviors, low consistent condom use, and high STI/HIV infections. These groups should be the focus of intensive public health interventions aimed at reduction of risky sexual practices, and STI/HIV prevention and care.

  4. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, Kevin B

    2015-07-09

    In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group's National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during 2011-2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group's Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week); n = 2584, Average Can Users (3-5 canned items/week); n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week); n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients-potassium, calcium and fiber-when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  5. Higher energy efficient homes are associated with increased risk of doctor diagnosed asthma in a UK subpopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Richard A; Thornton, Christopher R; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Osborne, Nicholas J

    2015-02-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) has one of the highest prevalence of asthma in the world, which represents a significant economic and societal burden. Reduced ventilation resulting from increased energy efficiency measures acts as a modifier for mould contamination and risk of allergic diseases. To our knowledge no previous study has combined detailed asset management property and health data together to assess the impact of household energy efficiency (using the UK Government's Standard Assessment Procedure) on asthma outcomes in an adult population residing in social housing. Postal questionnaires were sent to 3867 social housing properties to collect demographic, health and environmental information on all occupants. Detailed property data, residency periods, indices of multiple deprivation (IMD) and household energy efficiency ratings were also investigated. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals while allowing for clustering of individuals coming from the same location. Eighteen percent of our target social housing population were recruited into our study. Adults had a mean age of 59 (SD±17.3) years and there was a higher percentage of female (59%) and single occupancy (58%) respondents. Housing demographic characteristics were representative of the target homes. A unit increase in household Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) rating was associated with a 2% increased risk of current asthma, with the greatest risk in homes with SAP >71. We assessed exposure to mould and found that the presence of a mouldy/musty odour was associated with a two-fold increased risk of asthma (OR 2.2 95%; CI 1.3-3.8). A unit increase in SAP led to a 4-5% reduction in the risk of visible mould growth and a mouldy/musty odour. In contrast to previous research, we report that residing in energy efficient homes may increase the risk of adult asthma. We report that mould contamination increased the risk of asthma, which is in agreement with existing

  6. Use of nonstatistical techniques for pattern recognition to detect risk groups among liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident aftereffects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, N.N.; Guslistyj, V.P.; Misyurev, A.V.; Novitskaya, N.N.; Snigireva, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    Attempt of using of the nonstatistical techniques for pattern recognition to detect the risk groups among liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident aftereffects was described. 14 hematologic, biochemical and biophysical blood serum parameters of the group of liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident impact as well as the group of donors free of any radiation dose (controlled group) were taken as the diagnostic parameters. Modification of the nonstatistical techniques for pattern recognition based on the assessment calculations were used. The patients were divided into risk group at the truth ∼ 80%

  7. No Higher Risk of CRPS After External Fixation of Distal Radial Fractures - Subgroup Analysis Under Randomised Vitamin C Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, Paul E; Kreis, Robert W; van der Meulen, Hub G; van der Elst, Maarten; Breederveld, Roelf S; Tuinebreijer, Wim E

    2010-02-17

    Operative and conservative treatment of wrist fractures might lead to complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I.In our multicenter dose response study in which patients with distal radial fractures were randomly allocated to placebo or vitamin C in a daily dose of 200mg, 500mg or 1500mg during 50 days, an operated subgroup was analyzed.48 (of 427) fractures) were operated (11.2%). Twenty-nine patients (60%) were treated with external fixation, 14 patients (29%) with K-wiring according to Kapandji and five patients (10%) with internal plate fixation. The 379 remaining patients were treated with a plaster.In the operated group of patients who received vitamin C no CRPS (0/37) was seen in comparison with one case of CRPS (Kapandji technique) in the operated group who received placebo (1/11 = 9%, p=.23). There was no CRPS after external fixation.In the conservatively treated group 17 cases of CRPS (17/379 = 4.5%) occurred in comparison with one in case of CRPS in the operated group (1/48 = 2.1%, p=.71).External fixation doesn't necessarily lead to a higher incidence of CRPS in distal radial fractures. Vitamin C may also play a role in this. This subgroup analysis in operated distal radial fractures showed no CRPS occurrence with vitamin C prophylaxis.

  8. The discourse around usefulness, morality, risk and trust: a focus group study on prenatal genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivetti, Monica; Montali, Lorenzo; Simonetti, Giorgia

    2012-12-01

    This study explores the underlying values and beliefs that guide women's reasoning on prenatal genetic test (PGT) uptake, as framed by their own words, during a group discussion, in a Catholic country such as Italy. Women's reasoning was explored by means of five focus group consisting of seven pregnant women and 13 new mothers. The focus group material content was analysed using the Nudist software. The discourse around PGT was rooted into four frames of reference: The usefulness dimension was used to express the positions in favour of PGT, whereas morality, risk and trust were used to express negative evaluations on such a technology. Participants advocated for themselves the choice of being tested, besides giving some credit to the partner's opinion. Moreover, participants reported little knowledge on PGT. The research shed some light on the frames of reference used by participants to build their positions on PGT uptake, confirming the public's ability to translate scientific accounts into personally meaningful information. A more complete understanding of the reasons for decisions to test would help counsellors to better communicate with women and couples, and to better assist them to make a better informed testing decision. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. One-Hour Postload Hyperglycemia Confers Higher Risk of Hepatic Steatosis to HbA1c-Defined Prediabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Pedace, Elisabetta; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)-defined prediabetes (HbA1c value of 5.7-6.4%) and 1-hour plasma glucose ≥155 mg/dL during an oral glucose tolerance test have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. To evaluate the degree to which HbA1c-defined prediabetes and 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL individually and jointly associate with hepatic steatosis and related biomarkers. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on 1108 White individuals. Ambulatory care. Anthropometric and metabolic characteristics including hepatic steatosis assessed by ultrasonography. Compared with the normal group (HbA1c prediabetic and diabetic individuals exhibit higher values of fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour postload glucose; fasting and 2-hour postload insulin; triglycerides; uric acid; homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance; liver insulin resistance index; liver enzymes; and inflammatory biomarkers; and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and IGF-1. Prediabetic and diabetic subjects have increased risk of hepatic steatosis (1.5- and 2.46-fold, respectively). Stratifying participants according to HbA1c and 1-hour postload glucose, we found that individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL have significantly higher risk of hepatic steatosis as compared with individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes but 1-hour postload glucose prediabetes and 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL exhibit higher values of liver enzymes; fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour postload glucose; insulin; triglycerides; uric acid; and inflammatory biomarkers; and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein and IGF-1. These data suggest that a value of 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL may be helpful to identify a subset of individuals within HbA1c-defined glycemic categories at higher risk of hepatic steatosis.

  10. Improving the Grade Point Average of Our At-Risk Students: A Collaborative Group Action Research Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurino, Dan R.; Hinson, Kenneth; Bouma, Amy

    This paper focuses on the use of a group action research approach to help student teachers develop strategies to improve the grade point average of at-risk students. Teaching interventions such as group work and group and individual tutoring were compared to teaching strategies already used in the field. Results indicated an improvement in the…

  11. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezioso, Domenico; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Lotti, Tullio; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Borghi, Loris; Caione, Paolo; Carini, Marco; Caudarella, Renata; Ferraro, Manuel; Gambaro, Giovanni; Gelosa, Marco; Guttilla, Andrea; Illiano, Ester; Martino, Marangella; Meschi, Tiziana; Messa, Piergiorgio; Miano, Roberto; Napodano, Giorgio; Nouvenne, Antonio; Rendina, Domenico; Rocco, Francesco; Rosa, Marco; Sanseverino, Roberto; Salerno, Annamaria; Spatafora, Sebastiano; Tasca, Andrea; Ticinesi, Andrea; Travaglini, Fabrizio; Trinchieri, Alberto; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2015-07-07

    consumption of chocolate and cola according to general nutritional guidelines, although no studies have assessed in pediatric stone formers the effect of fruit and vegetables supplementation on urinary citrate and the effects of chocolate and cola restriction on urinary oxalate in pediatric stone formers. Despite the low level of scientific evidence, a low-protein ( 3 liters/day) is strongly advised in children with cystinuria. ELDERLY: In older patients dietary counseling for renal stone prevention has to consider some particular aspects of aging. A restriction of sodium intake in association with a higher intake of potassium, magnesium and citrate is advisable in order to reduce urinary risk factors for stone formation but also to prevent the loss of bone mass and the incidence of hypertension, although more hemodynamic sensitivity to sodium intake and decreased renal function of the elderly have to be considered. A diet rich in calcium (1200 mg/day) is useful to maintain skeletal wellness and to prevent kidney stones although an higher supplementation could involve an increase of risk for both the formation of kidney stones and cardiovascular diseases. A lower content of animal protein in association to an higher intake of plant products decrease the acid load and the excretion of uric acid has no particular contraindications in the elderly patients, although overall nutritional status has to be preserved.

  12. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Prezioso

    2015-07-01

    reasonable to advice a balanced consumption of fruit and vegetables and a low consumption of chocolate and cola according to general nutritional guidelines, although no studies have assessed in pediatric stone formers the effect of fruit and vegetables supplementation on urinary citrate and the effects of chocolate and cola restriction on urinary oxalate in pediatric stone formers. Despite the low level of scientific evidence, a low-protein (< 20 g/day low-salt (< 2 g/day diet with high hydration (> 3 liters/day is strongly advised in children with cystinuria. Elderly: In older patients dietary counseling for renal stone prevention has to consider some particular aspects of aging. A restriction of sodium intake in association with a higher intake of potassium, magnesium and citrate is advisable in order to reduce urinary risk factors for stone formation but also to prevent the loss of bone mass and the incidence of hypertension, although more hemodynamic sensitivity to sodium intake and decreased renal function of the elderly have to be considered. A diet rich in calcium (1200 mg/day is useful to maintain skeletal wellness and to prevent kidney stones although an higher supplementation could involve an increase of risk for both the formation of kidney stones and cardiovascular diseases. A lower content of animal protein in association to an higher intake of plant products decrease the acid load and the excretion of uric acid has no particular contraindications in the elderly patients, although overall nutritional status has to be preserved.

  13. Higher vitamin D intake during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk of dental caries in young Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keiko; Hitsumoto, Shinichi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Arakawa, Masashi

    2015-08-01

    The intrauterine environment, including maternal nutrition status, may affect the development, formation, and mineralization of children's teeth. We assessed the relationship between self-reported maternal dietary vitamin D intake during pregnancy and the risk of dental caries among young Japanese children. This study is based on a prospective analysis of 1210 Japanese mother-child pairs. Information on maternal intake during pregnancy was collected using a validated diet history questionnaire. Data on oral examination at 36-46 months of age were obtained from the mothers, who transcribed the information from their maternal and child health handbooks to our self-administered questionnaire. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or had been filled. Compared with the lowest quartile of maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4 were 1.06 (0.72-1.56), 0.53 (0.34-0.81), and 0.67 (0.44-1.02), respectively (P for trend = .01). When maternal vitamin D intake was treated as a continuous variable, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.94 (0.89-0.995). Higher maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy may be associated with a lower risk of dental caries in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence for higher tropical storm risks in Haiti due to increasing population density in hazard prone urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, Christian D

    2011-01-01

    Since the 18th century, the Republic of Haiti has experienced numerous tropical cyclones. In 2011, the United Nations Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction outlined that the worldwide physical exposure to natural hazards, which includes tropical storms and hurricanes in Haiti, increased by 192 per cent between 1970 and 2010. Now, it can be hypothesized that the increased physical exposure to cyclones that made landfall in Haiti has affected the country's development path. This study shows that tropical storm risks in Haiti increased due to more physical exposure of the population in urban areas rather than a higher cyclone frequency in the proximity of Hispaniola island. In fact, the population density accelerated since the second half of the 20th century in regions where historically more storms made landfall, such as in the departments Ouest, Artibonite, Nord and Nord-Ouest including Haiti's four largest cities: Port-au-Prince, Gonaïves, Cap-Haïtien and Port-de-Paix. Thus, urbanization in and migration into storm hazard prone areas could be considered as one of the major driving forces of Haiti's fragility.

  15. Semi-Professional Rugby League Players have Higher Concussion Risk than Professional or Amateur Participants: A Pooled Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor

    2017-02-01

    A combined estimate of injuries within a specific sport through pooled analysis provides more precise evidence and meaningful information about the sport, whilst controlling for between-study variation due to individual sub-cohort characteristics. The objective of this analysis was to review all published rugby league studies reporting injuries from match and training participation and report the pooled data estimates for rugby league concussion injury epidemiology. A systematic literature analysis of concussion in rugby league was performed on published studies from January 1990 to October 2015. Data were extracted and pooled from 25 studies that reported the number and incidence of concussions in rugby league match and training activities. Amateur rugby league players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in match activities (19.1 per 1000 match hours) while semi-professional players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in training activities (3.1 per 1000 training hours). This pooled analysis showed that, during match participation activities, amateur rugby league participants had a higher reported concussion injury rate than professional and semi-professional participants. Semi-professional participants had nearly a threefold greater concussion injury risk than amateur rugby league participants during match participation. They also had nearly a 600-fold greater concussion injury risk than professional rugby league participants during training participation.

  16. Quantitative weight of evidence assessment of higher tier studies on the toxicity and risks of neonicotinoids in honeybees. 3. Clothianidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Stephenson, Gladys L

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative weight of evidence (QWoE) methodology was used to assess higher tier studies on the effects of clothianidin (CTD) on honeybees. Assessment endpoints were population size and viability of commercially managed bees and quantity of hive products. A colony-level no-observed-adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) of 25 µg CTD/kg syrup, equivalent to an oral no-observed-adverse effect-dose (NOAED) of 7.3 ng/bee/d for all responses measured. Based on a NOAEC of 19.7 µg/kg pollen, the NOAED for honeybee larvae was 2.4 ng/bee larva/d. For exposures via dust, a no-observed-adverse effect rate of 4 g CTD/ha was used to assess relevance of exposures via deposition of dust. The overall weight of evidence suggested that there is minimal risk to honeybees from exposure to CTD from its use as a seed treatment. For exposures via dust, dust/seed and dust/foliar applications, there were no exposures greater than the NOAED for CTD in nectar and pollen, indicating a de minimis risk to honeybees when the route of exposure was via uptake in plants. Analysis of effect studies in the field indicated a consistent lack of relevant effects, regardless of the way CTD was applied. For exposures via dust, there were no adverse effects because of these applications and there were no exposures greater than the NOAED for CTD in nectar and pollen. The overall weight of evidence based on many studies indicated no adverse effects on colony viability or survival of the colony. Thus, the overall conclusion is that clothianidin, as currently used in good agricultural practices, does not present a significant risk to honeybees at the level of the colony.

  17. The relationship between modifiable health risks and group-level health care expenditures. Health Enhancement Research Organization (HERO) Research Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D R; Whitmer, R W; Goetzel, R Z; Ozminkowski, R J; Dunn, R L; Wasserman, J; Serxner, S

    2000-01-01

    To assess the relationship between modifiable health risks and total health care expenditures for a large employee group. Risk data were collected through voluntary participation in health risk assessment (HRA) and worksite biometric screenings and were linked at the individual level to health care plan enrollment and expenditure data from employers' fee-for-service plans over the 6-year study period. The setting was worksite health promotion programs sponsored by six large private-sector and public-sector employers. Of the 50% of employees who completed the HRA, 46,026 (74.7%) met all inclusion criteria for the analysis. Eleven risk factors (exercise, alcohol use, eating, current and former tobacco use, depression, stress, blood pressure, cholesterol, weight, and blood glucose) were dichotomized into high-risk and lower-risk levels. The association between risks and expenditures was estimated using a two-part regression model, controlling for demographics and other confounders. Risk prevalence data were used to estimate group-level impact of risks on expenditures. Risk factors were associated with 25% of total expenditures. Stress was the most costly factor, with tobacco use, overweight, and lack of exercise also being linked to substantial expenditures. Modifiable risk factors contribute substantially to overall health care expenditures. Health promotion programs that reduce these risks may be beneficial for employers in controlling health care costs.

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY PATIENTS INTO LOW AND HIGH BLEEDING RISK GROUPS USING THROMBELASTOGRAPHY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elenius Madsen, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Title: CLASSIFICATION OF ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY PATIENTS INTO LOW AND HIGH BLEEDING RISK GROUPS USING THROMBELASTOGRAPHY Objectives: Orthognathic surgery involves surgical manipulation of jaw and face skeletal structure. A subgroup of patients undergoing orthognathic surgery suffers from excessive...... into account the complex interplay between coagulation factors, blood platelets and components of the fibrinolytic system. Patients undergoing orthognathic surgery were included in this prospective study, and their preoperative thrombelastographic data were collected and compared to their intraoperative blood...... predictive values. An α angleex above 67o did with 95% certainty predict a blood loss below 400 mL, and a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.8. Conclusion: By means of the α angleex it is possible to separate orthognathic surgery patients according...

  19. Screening for TB by sputum culture in high-risk groups in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sidse Graff; Wrona Olsen, Nete; Seersholm, Niels

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: On seven occasions, from September 2012 through June 2014, we offered TB screening to all persons present at 11 locations where socially marginalised people gather in Copenhagen. Spot sputum samples from participants were examined by smear microscopy and culture. Genotype, nucleic acid......INTRODUCTION: Evidence on screening high-risk groups for TB by mobile X-ray in low-incidence countries is building, but knowledge on other possible screening methods is limited. In this retrospective study we report results from a community based programme screening for TB by spot sputum culture...... amplification test and chest X-ray were done if TB was found. RESULTS: Among 1075 participants, we identified 36 cases of TB. Twenty-four cases (66.7%) were identified at the first screening of each participant, that is, the prevalence of TB was 2233/100 000. Thirty-five (97%) of the TB cases were culture...

  20. Zaire program expands to cover high-risk groups in two cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This article announces the expansion of Zaire's social marketing program for condoms to high-risk groups in the cities of Goma and Matadi. The program will use proven marketing techniques from Kinshasha, printed materials, and direct marketing to retail outlets, emphasizing hotels, bars, and other areas frequented by prostitutes, migrants, and other travelers. In addition to retail outlets such as pharmacies, 50 taxis will be tested as additional retail sources for Prudence condoms. Once under way, this effort could reach as many as 96,000 people/day. 5 new AIDS information spots are being televised, and an anti-AIDS song and jingle are on the air. Condom social marketing representatives report a 357% increase in condom sales through March, 1989, over 1988, and that products are now available in 85% of Kinshasha pharmacies. Medical center coverage has increased to 14 from 9 zones, while products reach 11 additional cities and 5 interior provinces.

  1. Risk-avoidance or utmost commitment. : Dutch focus group research on views on cohabitation and marriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske Keizer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dutch adults grew up in a highly individualized country, characterized by high divorce rates, which may have influenced their views on cohabitation and marriage. Objective: We examine Dutch adults' perceptions of how similar or different cohabitation and marriage are, whether they believe that cohabitation would be a strategy to avoid the risk of divorce, as well as their views on why people marry in individualized societies. Methods: We analyze seven focus group interviews with 40 Dutch participants, collected in 2012 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Results: Many participants discussed differences and similarities between cohabitation and marriage in a context of high divorce rates, and frequently viewed cohabitation as a risk-reduction strategy. At the same time, marriage was often seen as ―the real deal‖, in terms of legal arrangements, but also as a symbol of utmost commitment. Less educated participants viewed more financial advantages in cohabitation compared to marriage, and felt more strongly about the symbolic value of marriage than their highly educated counterparts. There was strong consensus that there is not, and should not be, a social norm to marry. Conclusions: In a context of high relationship instability, cohabitation has become a risk-reduction strategy. When norms to marry are weak, people may marry in order to emphasize the uniqueness of their relationship. However, the individualistic nature of Dutch society is mirrored in respondents' reluctance to set standards or proscribe norms on why and when to marry and their emphasis that cohabitation can also imply high levels of commitment.

  2. Basal cell carcinoma in farmers: an occupation group at high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Mateusz; Pazdrowski, Jakub; Golusiński, Paweł; Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Łuczewski, Łukasz; Marszałek, Sławomir; Majchrzak, Ewa; Golusiński, Wojciech

    2016-04-01

    Skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer type worldwide, and 80 % of skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The main risk factor for developing BCC is exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), particularly high-dose exposure at a young age. Outdoor workers, particularly farmers, are at high risk of developing BCC. However, studies of BCC in this population are scant. To comprehensively evaluate all cases of BCC of the head and neck region treated during the years 2007-2013 at our hospital in Poland, and to compare the tumour characteristics in farmers to non-farmers. Retrospective analysis of 312 patients treated for head and neck BCC during the study period (2007-2013). Most patients (198 cases; 63 %) were males, with 114 females (37 %). Median age was 73 years (range 32-96 years). The most common tumour location was the nose and cheek (114 pts; 37 %) followed by the auricle (82 pts; 26 %), lips (54 pts; 18 %), scalp (26 pts; 8 %), and eye (36 pts; 12 %). The most common disease stage on presentation was stage T2 (104 pts, 33 %), followed by stage T1 (79 pts; 25 %), stage T3 (89 pts; 28 %), and stage T4 (40 pts; 14 %). By occupation, farmers accounted for 33 % of all patients (102 of 312 pts). The most common tumour localisations in the farmer subgroup were the nose and cheek (50 pts; 49 %; p farmer group were significantly younger than non-farmers (62 vs. 73 years; p Farmers were significantly more likely to present disease recurrence (27 vs. 12 % of cases; p farmers. It is therefore necessary to consider enhancing educational programmes and other preventative measures in this occupational group and to evaluate the effectiveness of such programmes.

  3. Sexual risk attitudes and intentions of youth aged 12-14 years: survey comparisons of parent-teen prevention and control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Regina P; Chan, Wenyaw; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared differences in sexual risk attitudes and intentions for three groups of youth (experimental program, n = 90; attention control, n = 80; and nonparticipant control, n = 634) aged 12-14 years. Two student groups participated with their parents in programs focused on strengthening family interaction and prevention of sexual risks, HIV, and adolescent pregnancy. Surveys assessed students' attitudes and intentions regarding early sexual and other health-risk behaviors, family interactions, and perceived parental disapproval of risk behaviors. The authors used general linear modeling to compare results. The experimental prevention program differentiated the total scores of the 3 groups (p < .05). A similar result was obtained for student intentions to avoid sex (p < .01). Pairwise comparisons showed the experimental program group scored higher than the nonparticipant group on total scores (p < .01) and on students' intention to avoid sex (p < .01). The results suggest this novel educational program involving both parents and students offers a promising approach to HIV and teen pregnancy prevention.

  4. The Joint Effects of Risk Status, Gender, Early Literacy and Cognitive Skills on the Presence of Dyslexia among a Group of High-Risk Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Simpson W. L.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Lam, Fanny W. F.; Doo, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to examine factors that are predictive of future developmental dyslexia among a group of 5-year-old Chinese children at risk for dyslexia, including 62 children with a sibling who had been previously diagnosed with dyslexia and 52 children who manifested clinical at-risk factors in aspects of language according to testing by…

  5. Higher protein diets consumed ad libitum improve cardiovascular risk markers in children of overweight parents from eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Papadaki, Angeliki; Jensen, Signe M; Ritz, Christian; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Hlavaty, Petr; Saris, Wim H M; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Andersen, Malene R; Stender, Steen; Larsen, Thomas M; Astrup, Arne; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2013-06-01

    Dietary strategies to improve early cardiovascular markers in overweight children are needed. We investigated the effect of dietary protein and glycemic index (GI) on cardiovascular markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) scores in 5- to 18-y-old children of overweight/obese parents from 8 European centers. Families were randomized to 1 of 5 diets consumed ad libitum: high protein (HP) or low protein (LP) combined with high GI (HGI) or low GI (LGI), or a control diet. At 6 centers, families received dietary instruction (instruction centers); at 2 centers, free foods were also provided (supermarket centers). Diet, anthropometry, blood pressure, and serum cardiovascular markers (lipid profile, glucose regulation, and inflammation) were measured in 253 children at baseline, 1 mo, and/or 6 mo. Protein intake was higher in the HP groups (19.9 ± 1.3% energy) than in the LP groups at 6 mo (16.8 ± 1.2% energy) (P = 0.001). The GI was 4.0 points lower (95% CI: 2.1, 6.1) in the LGI compared with the HGI groups (P pressure (P children, particularly in those undergoing most intensive intervention.

  6. Overexpression of ETV4 protein in triple-negative breast cancer is associated with a higher risk of distant metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan ZY

    2014-09-01

    -overexpressed tumor had a significantly higher risk of developing distant metastasis (P<0.0001 and shorter overall survival and disease-free survival. Overexpression of ETV4 protein was an independent predictor of short disease-free survival of TNBC patients (P=0.021. Conclusion: Overexpression of ETV4 protein increases risk of developing distant metastasis and results in a poor prognosis for TNBC patients. Thus, ETV4 might be a novel target for developing an alternative therapeutic strategy for prevention of TNBC distant metastasis. Keywords: breast carcinoma, triple-negative, ETS translocation variant 4, ETV4, prognosis

  7. Risk-associated health disorders occuring in junior schoolchildren who attend schools with higher stress and intensity of educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We performed comparative sanitary-hygienic assessment of regime, stress and intensity of educational process in different educational establishments, a comprehensive secondary school and an innovative educational establishment - lyceum. We detected that studying regime tended to be tight, classes were longer and more intense than in an ordinary school, and educational process involved considerable intellectual, sensory and emotional loads for children; such loads reached "1st category intense" level. Schoolchildren attending lyceums are also busy with additional educational programs and it significantly increases length of total educational load on them. By the end of a school year 20% of lyceum pupils suffer from sympathoadrenal system overstress and it doesn't only determine emotional tonus level in children but also leads to disorders in concentration and decision-making speed, lower reading speed and articulation, slower motor reactions. 15% of lyceum pupils have higher activity of autonomous nervous system and lower adaptation of cardiovascular system to psycho emotional and physical loads. Lyceum pupils also run 2.5 times higher risk of chronic nervous system diseases evolvement than school children attending ordinary schools. Autonomous nervous system disorders, posture disorders and nutrition disorders are predominant nosologic pathology forms in lyceum pupils as they occur in them 1.6-2.9 times more frequent than in schoolchildren of the same age who attend an ordinary comprehensive school. We detected direct correlation between higher intellectual and emotional components of educational process, and total educational intensity as well, and frequency of autonomous system disorders and musculoskeletal system diseases in pupils.

  8. Female medical students are estimated to have a higher risk for developing eating disorders than male medical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Nete; Bak, Nanna Hasle; Pedersen, Laura Erna Toftegaard

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that university students are at risk for eating disorders. However, risk behaviour has not been studied among Danish medical students, nor have the gender differences in risk behaviour been described in a Danish context....

  9. SU-F-T-244: Radiotherapy Risk Estimation Based On Expert Group Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, J; Yoon, M [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, W; Chung, M; Kim, D [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Gangdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the reliability of RPN (Risk Priority Number) decided by expert group and to provide preliminary data for adapting FMEA in Korea. Methods: 1163 Incidents reported in ROSIS for 11 years were used as a real data to be compared with, and were categorized into 146 items. The questionnaire was composed of the 146 items and respondents had to valuate ‘occurrence (O)’, ‘severity (S)’, ‘detectability (D)’ of each item on a scale from 1 to 10 according to the proposed AAPM TG-100 rating scales. 19 medical physicists from 19 different organizations in Korea had participated in the survey. Because the number of ROSIS items was not evenly spread enough to be classified into 10 grades, 1–5 scale was chosen instead of 1–10 and survey result was also fit to 5 grades to compare. Results: The average O,S,D were 1.77, 3.50, 2.13, respectively and the item which had the highest RPN(32) was ‘patient movement during treatment’ in the survey. When comparing items ranked in the top 10 of each survey(O) and ROSIS database, two items were duplicated and ‘Simulation’ and ’Treatment’ were the most frequently ranked RT process in top 10 of survey and ROSIS each. The Chronbach α of each RT process were ranged from 0.74 to 0.99 and p-value was <0.001. When comparing O*D, the average difference was 1.4. Conclusion: This work indicates the deviation between actual risk and expectation. Considering that the respondents were Korean and ROSIS is mainly composed of incidents happened in European countries and some of the top 10 items of ROSIS cannot be applied in radiotherapy procedure in Korea, the deviation could have been came from procedural difference. Moreover, if expert group was consisted of experts from various parts, expectation might have been more accurate. Therefore, further research on radiotherapy risk estimation is needed.

  10. SU-F-T-244: Radiotherapy Risk Estimation Based On Expert Group Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J; Yoon, M; Chung, W; Chung, M; Kim, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the reliability of RPN (Risk Priority Number) decided by expert group and to provide preliminary data for adapting FMEA in Korea. Methods: 1163 Incidents reported in ROSIS for 11 years were used as a real data to be compared with, and were categorized into 146 items. The questionnaire was composed of the 146 items and respondents had to valuate ‘occurrence (O)’, ‘severity (S)’, ‘detectability (D)’ of each item on a scale from 1 to 10 according to the proposed AAPM TG-100 rating scales. 19 medical physicists from 19 different organizations in Korea had participated in the survey. Because the number of ROSIS items was not evenly spread enough to be classified into 10 grades, 1–5 scale was chosen instead of 1–10 and survey result was also fit to 5 grades to compare. Results: The average O,S,D were 1.77, 3.50, 2.13, respectively and the item which had the highest RPN(32) was ‘patient movement during treatment’ in the survey. When comparing items ranked in the top 10 of each survey(O) and ROSIS database, two items were duplicated and ‘Simulation’ and ’Treatment’ were the most frequently ranked RT process in top 10 of survey and ROSIS each. The Chronbach α of each RT process were ranged from 0.74 to 0.99 and p-value was <0.001. When comparing O*D, the average difference was 1.4. Conclusion: This work indicates the deviation between actual risk and expectation. Considering that the respondents were Korean and ROSIS is mainly composed of incidents happened in European countries and some of the top 10 items of ROSIS cannot be applied in radiotherapy procedure in Korea, the deviation could have been came from procedural difference. Moreover, if expert group was consisted of experts from various parts, expectation might have been more accurate. Therefore, further research on radiotherapy risk estimation is needed.

  11. A Cloud Computing Approach to Personal Risk Management: The Open Hazards Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, W. R.; Holliday, J. R.; Rundle, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    According to the California Earthquake Authority, only about 12% of current California residences are covered by any form of earthquake insurance, down from about 30% in 1996 following the 1994, M6.7 Northridge earthquake. Part of the reason for this decreasing rate of insurance uptake is the high deductible, either 10% or 15% of the value of the structure, and the relatively high cost of the premiums, as much as thousands of dollars per year. The earthquake insurance industry is composed of the CEA, a public-private partnership; modeling companies that produce damage and loss models similar to the FEMA HAZUS model; and financial companies such as the insurance, reinsurance, and investment banking companies in New York, London, the Cayman Islands, Zurich, Dubai, Singapore, and elsewhere. In setting earthquake insurance rates, financial companies rely on models like HAZUS, that calculate on risk and exposure. In California, the process begins with an official earthquake forecast by the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities. Modeling companies use these 30 year earthquake probabilities as inputs to their attenuation and damage models to estimate the possible damage factors from scenario earthquakes. Economic loss is then estimated from processes such as structural failure, lost economic activity, demand surge, and fire following the earthquake. Once the potential losses are known, rates can be set so that a target ruin probability of less than 1% or so can be assured. Open Hazards Group was founded with the idea that the global public might be interested in a personal estimate of earthquake risk, computed using data supplied by the public, with models running in a cloud computing environment. These models process data from the ANSS catalog, updated at least daily, to produce rupture forecasts that are backtested with standard Reliability/Attributes and Receiver Operating Characteristic tests, among others. Models for attenuation and structural damage

  12. Contribution of DNA Repair Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group D Genotype to Gastric Cancer Risk in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong-Xue; Chang, Wen-Shin; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Wang, Ju-Yu; Huang, Nai-Kuei; Lee, An-Sheng; Shen, Ming-Yi; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Shih, Tzu-Ching; Hsu, Chin-Mu; Bau, Da-Tian

    2015-09-01

    It has been proposed that genetic variations of DNA repair genes confer susceptibility to cancer, and the DNA repair gene xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD), the caretaker of genome stability, is thought to play a major role in the nucleotide excision repair system. We investigated three genotypes of XPD, at promoter -114 (rs3810366), and codon 312 (rs1799793), 751 (rs13181), and their associated with gastric cancer susceptibility in a Taiwanese population. In the present study, 121 patients with gastric cancer and 363 gender- and age-matched healthy controls were recruited and genotyped for XPD by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methodology, and the association of XPD genotype with gastric cancer risk was investigated. We found a significant difference in the distribution of A allele-bearing XPD codon 312 genotypes [odds ratio (OR)=1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.20-2.25, p=0.0019], but not in XPD codon 751 or promoter -114 sites, between the gastric cancer and control groups. Those who had G/A or A/A at XPD codon 312 had a 1.83-fold (95% CI=1.14-2.95, p=0.0159) and 1.87-fold (95% CI=1.04-3.34, p=0.0378) increased risk of gastric cancer compared to those with G/G. The risk for G/A and A/A genotypes had synergistic effects with alcohol drinking (OR=11.27, 95% CI=3.72-34.17, p=0.0001), cigarette smoking (OR=23.20, 95% CI=6.24-86.23, p=0.0001) and Helicobacter pylori infection (OR=5.38, 95% CI=2.76-10.52, p=0.0001) on gastric cancer susceptibility. Our findings suggest that the A allele of XPD codon 312 may contribute to gastric carcinogenesis and may be useful for early detection and prevention of gastric cancer. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. Risk factors for treatment related clinical fluctuations in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Dutch Guillain-Barré study group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H. Visser (Leendert); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); J. Meulstee (Jan); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe risk factors for treatment related clinical fluctuations, relapses occurring after initial therapeutic induced stabilisation or improvement, were evaluated in a group of 172 patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic features

  14. Risk of infection and adverse outcomes among pregnant working women in selected occupational groups: A study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llopis-González Agustín

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to infectious pathogens is a frequent occupational hazard for women who work with patients, children, animals or animal products. The purpose of the present study is to investigate if women working in occupations where exposure to infections agents is common have a high risk of infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort, a population-based cohort study and studied the risk of Infection and adverse outcomes in pregnant women working with patients, with children, with food products or with animals. The regression analysis were adjusted for the following covariates: maternal age, parity, history of miscarriage, socio-occupational status, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habit, alcohol consumption. Results Pregnant women who worked with patients or children or food products had an excess risk of sick leave during pregnancy for more than three days. Most of negative reproductive outcomes were not increased in these occupations but the prevalence of congenital anomalies (CAs was slightly higher in children of women who worked with patients. The prevalence of small for gestational age infants was higher among women who worked with food products. There was no association between occupation infections during pregnancy and the risk of reproductive failures in the exposed groups. However, the prevalence of CAs was slightly higher among children of women who suffered some infection during pregnancy but the numbers were small. Conclusion Despite preventive strategies, working in specific jobs during pregnancy may impose a higher risk of infections, and working in some of these occupations may impose a slightly higher risk of CAs in their offspring. Most other reproductive failures were not increased in these occupations.

  15. Measurements of benzene and formaldehyde in a medium sized urban environment. Indoor/outdoor health risk implications on special population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilidis, Georgios A; Karakitsios, Spyros P; Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Kazos, Elias A; Stalikas, Constantine D

    2009-03-01

    In the present study, the results of a measurement campaign aiming to assess cancer risk among two special groups of population: policemen and laboratory technicians exposed to the toxic substances, benzene and formaldehyde are presented. The exposure is compared to general population risk. The results show that policemen working outdoor (traffic regulation, patrol on foot or in vehicles, etc.) are exposed at a significantly higher benzene concentration (3-5 times) than the general population, while the exposure to carbonyls is in general lower. The laboratory technicians appear to be highly exposed to formaldehyde while no significant variation of benzene exposure in comparison to the general population is recorded. The assessment revealed that laboratory technicians and policemen run a 20% and 1% higher cancer risk respectively compared to the general population. Indoor working place air quality is more significant in assessing cancer risk in these two categories of professionals, due to the higher Inhalation Unit Risk (IUR) of formaldehyde compared to benzene. Since the origin of the danger to laboratory technicians is clear (use of chemicals necessary for the experiments), in policemen the presence of carbonyls in indoor air concentrations due to smoking or used materials constitute a danger equal to the exposure to traffic originated air pollutants.

  16. Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks increases the risk of hyperuricemia in Korean population: The Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jisuk; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Park, Pil Sook; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung; Shin, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2014-04-01

    The clinical implication of sugar-sweetened soft drinks on the risk of hyperuricemia has increased, especially in Western population studies. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks made from oranges and apples and the risk of hyperuricemia in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort. A total of 9400 subjects were enrolled in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study, and a cross-sectional analysis was performed. Five quintiles (Q1-Q5) according to consumption of soft drinks and other fruit/fruit juices were classified and then categorized into three groups (Q1-Q3, Q4, and Q5) to assess the risk of hyperuricemia. Information on dietary intake was collected by well-trained interviewers using validated food frequency questionnaires. Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (Q5) increased the risk of hyperuricemia in males (adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.07-1.71) with a linear trend (p for trend = 0.01) and in females (adjusted OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.03-1.90) with no linear trend (p for trend = 0.09), compared to lower consumption (Q1-Q3). However, there were no significant differences of serum uric acid level according to the three categories of soft drink consumption, Q1-Q3, Q3, and Q5, in males (p = 0.21) or in females (p = 0.16), whereas all subjects showed statistical significance of serum uric acid level within the categories (p Korean population, showing a differential linear trend for hyperuricemia according to gender. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Group dynamics of zebra and wildebeest in a woodland savanna: effects of predation risk and habitat density.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Thaker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group dynamics of gregarious ungulates in the grasslands of the African savanna have been well studied, but the trade-offs that affect grouping of these ungulates in woodland habitats or dense vegetation are less well understood. We examined the landscape-level distribution of groups of blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, and Burchell's zebra, Equus burchelli, in a predominantly woodland area (Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa; KGR to test the hypothesis that group dynamics are a function of minimizing predation risk from their primary predator, lion, Panthera leo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using generalized linear models, we examined the relative importance of habitat type (differing in vegetation density, probability of encountering lion (based on utilization distribution of all individual lions in the reserve, and season in predicting group size and composition. We found that only in open scrub habitat, group size for both ungulate species increased with the probability of encountering lion. Group composition differed between the two species and was driven by habitat selection as well as predation risk. For both species, composition of groups was, however, dominated by males in open scrub habitats, irrespective of the probability of encountering lion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Distribution patterns of wildebeest and zebra groups at the landscape level directly support the theoretical and empirical evidence from a range of taxa predicting that grouping is favored in open habitats and when predation risk is high. Group composition reflected species-specific social, physiological and foraging constraints, as well as the importance of predation risk. Avoidance of high resource open scrub habitat by females can lead to loss of foraging opportunities, which can be particularly costly in areas such as KGR, where this resource is limited. Thus, landscape-level grouping dynamics are species specific and particular to the

  18. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case-control study on genetic and environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomp, E R; Van Stralen, K J; Le Cessie, S; Vandenbroucke, J P; Rosendaal, F R; Doggen, C J M

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case-control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present body mass index (BMI). Both control groups had lower BMIs than the patients. The distribution in the partner controls was closer to that of the patients, likely due to similar lifestyles. A statistical approach was used to pool the results of both analyses, wherein partners were analyzed with a matched analysis, while RDDs were analyzed without matching. Even with a matched analysis, the odds ratio with partner controls remained closer to unity than with RDD controls, which is probably due to unmeasured confounders in the comparison with the random controls as well as intermediary factors. However, when studying injuries as a risk factor, the odds ratio remained higher with partner control subjects than with RRD control subjects, even after taking the matching into account. Finally we used factor V Leiden as an example of a genetic risk factor. The frequencies of factor V Leiden were identical in both control groups, indicating that for the analyses of this genetic risk factor the two control groups could be combined in a single unmatched analysis. In conclusion, the effect measures with the two control groups were in the same direction, and of the same order of magnitude. Moreover, it was not always the same control group that produced the higher or lower estimates, and a matched analysis did not remedy the differences. Our experience with the intricacies of dealing with two control groups may be useful to others when thinking about an optimal research design or the best statistical approach.

  19. Nutrition and cardiovascular risk factors in four age groups of female individuals: The pep family heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schwandt

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of CVD risk factors increased con-tinuously from girls and adolescents to junior and senior women. However, dietary intake was different in the four age groups. Ca-loric intake was associated with overweight and clustering of risk factors in adult women.

  20. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET® database during 2011–2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group’s Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week; n = 2584, Average Can Users (3–5 canned items/week; n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week; n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients—potassium, calcium and fiber—when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  1. Risk group dependence of dose-response for biopsy outcome after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levegruen, Sabine; Jackson, Andrew; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Venkatraman, Ennapadam S.; Skwarchuk, Mark W.; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Fuks, Zvi; Leibel, Steven A.; Ling, C. Clifton

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: We fit phenomenological tumor control probability (TCP) models to biopsy outcome after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of prostate cancer patients to quantify the local dose-response of prostate cancer. Materials and methods: We analyzed the outcome after photon beam 3D-CRT of 103 patients with stage T1c-T3 prostate cancer treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) (prescribed target doses between 64.8 and 81 Gy) who had a prostate biopsy performed ≥2.5 years after end of treatment. A univariate logistic regression model based on D mean (mean dose in the planning target volume of each patient) was fit to the whole data set and separately to subgroups characterized by low and high values of tumor-related prognostic factors T-stage ( 6), and pre-treatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (≤10 ng/ml vs. >10 ng/ml). In addition, we evaluated five different classifications of the patients into three risk groups, based on all possible combinations of two or three prognostic factors, and fit bivariate logistic regression models with D mean and the risk group category to all patients. Dose-response curves were characterized by TCD 50 , the dose to control 50% of the tumors, and γ 50 , the normalized slope of the dose-response curve at TCD 50 . Results: D mean correlates significantly with biopsy outcome in all patient subgroups and larger values of TCD 50 are observed for patients with unfavorable compared to favorable prognostic factors. For example, TCD 50 for high T-stage patients is 7 Gy higher than for low T-stage patients. For all evaluated risk group definitions, D mean and the risk group category are independent predictors of biopsy outcome in bivariate analysis. The fit values of TCD 50 show a clear separation of 9-10.6 Gy between low and high risk patients. The corresponding dose-response curves are steeper (γ 50 =3.4-5.2) than those obtained when all patients are analyzed together (γ 50 =2

  2. [Seroprevalence of tularemia in risk groups of humans and animals in Van, eastern Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Yasemin; Özkaçmaz, Ayşe; Parlak, Mehmet; Başbuğan, Yıldıray; Kılıç, Selçuk; Güdücüoğlu, Hüseyin

    2015-10-01

    Tularemia has become a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Turkey recently. The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of tularemia in humans and their animals living in rural risky areas of our region and to investigate the risk factors. Between January and July 2012, people living in rural areas of Van province (located at eastern part of Turkey) and their domestic animals were included in the study. The sample size was determined by using cluster sampling method like in an event with known prevalence and planned as a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Proportional random sampling method was used to determine which individuals will be included in the study. Presence of tularemia antibodies in the sera of a total 495 voluntary persons (343 female, 152 male; age range: 18-79 years, mean age: 40.61) and their 171 animals (40 cattle, 124 sheep and 7 goats) were screened by microagglutination test using safranin O-stained F.tularensis antigen (Public Health Agency of Turkey). For the evaluation of cross-reactivity between Brucella spp., tularemia positive serum samples were also tested with brucella microagglutination test. Among human and animal samples, 11.9% (59/495) and 44% (76/171) yielded positive results with the titers of ≥ 1:20 in F.tularensis microagglutination test, respectively. However, 69.5% (41/59) of human sera and 78.9% (60/76) of animal sera demonstrated equal or higher titers in the brucella test, so those sera were considered as cross-reactive. After exclusion of these sera, the seroprevalence for F.tularensis were calculated as 3.6% (18/495) for humans and 9.4% (16/171) for animals. Among the 16 animals with positive results, 12 were sheep, three were cattle and one was goat. The difference between seropositivity rates among the domestic animal species was not statistically significant (p> 0.05). In addition, no statistically significant differences were found between risk factors including insect bite, tick bite, contact with

  3. Patients with eating disorders. A high-risk group for fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter; Emborg, C.; Stoving, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze fracture risk and bone mineral density in patients with eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders). DESIGN: Clinical overview. FINDINGS: Bone mineral density is decreased and fracture risk increased in patients with anorexia nervosa....... In patients with bulimia nervosa, bone mineral is only marginally decreased and fracture risk marginally increased. In patients with other eating disorders (eating disorders not otherwise specified), bone mineral density is decreased and fracture risk increased. CONCLUSIONS: Fracture risk is increased...

  4. A rapid assessment scorecard to identify informal settlements at higher maternal and child health risk in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osrin, David; Das, Sushmita; Bapat, Ujwala; Alcock, Glyn A; Joshi, Wasundhara; More, Neena Shah

    2011-10-01

    The communities who live in urban informal settlements are diverse, as are their environmental conditions. Characteristics include inadequate access to safe water and sanitation, poor quality of housing, overcrowding, and insecure residential status. Interventions to improve health should be equity-driven and target those at higher risk, but it is not clear how to prioritise informal settlements for health action. In implementing a maternal and child health programme in Mumbai, India, we had conducted a detailed vulnerability assessment which, though important, was time-consuming and may have included collection of redundant information. Subsequent data collection allowed us to examine three issues: whether community environmental characteristics were associated with maternal and newborn healthcare and outcomes; whether it was possible to develop a triage scorecard to rank the health vulnerability of informal settlements based on a few rapidly observable characteristics; and whether the scorecard might be useful for future prioritisation. The City Initiative for Newborn Health documented births in 48 urban slum areas over 2 years. Information was collected on maternal and newborn care and mortality, and also on household and community environment. We selected three outcomes-less than three antenatal care visits, home delivery, and neonatal mortality-and used logistic regression and classification and regression tree analysis to test their association with rapidly observable environmental characteristics. We developed a simple triage scorecard and tested its utility as a means of assessing maternal and newborn health risk. In analyses on a sample of 10,754 births, we found associations of health vulnerability with inadequate access to water, toilets, and electricity; non-durable housing; hazardous location; and rental tenancy. A simple scorecard based on these had limited sensitivity and positive predictive value, but relatively high specificity and negative

  5. Risk indicators and potential risk factors for caries in 5-year-olds of different ethnic groups in Amsterdam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, G.H.; Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Horst, G. ter; Filedt Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was threefold: first, to assess the oral health of Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Dutch and "other" 5-yr-old children living in Amsterdam; second, to identify risk indicators for caries, in addition to ethnicity; and third, to identify potential risk factors related to

  6. Communication of geohazard risks by focus group discussions in the Mount Cameroon area, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Marmol, M.-A.; Suh Atanga, M. Bi; Njome, S.; Mafany Teke, G.; Jacobs, P.; Suh, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    The inappropriate translation of scientific information of geohazard (volcanic, landslide and crater lake outgassing) risks to any local population leaves people with incongruent views of the real dangers. Initial workshops organized under the supervision of the VLIR-OI (Flemish Interuniversity Council - Own Initiatives) members have led to the deployment of billboards as requested and drawn up by the locals. The VLIR-OI project has also organized focus group discussions (FGD) with the local stakeholders to find out in various cities, the state of preparedness, the response to emergency situations, the recovery from the emergency and the mitigation. Researchers have preferred open discussion with the local population and its representatives in order to elicit information that otherwise might not be found on a structured questionnaire. FGD provide a meaningful interactive opportunity to collect information and reflection on a wide range of input. The method provides an insight into problems that require a solution through a process of discovering the meaning attributed to certain events or issues. In this research four cardinal points as preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation (Fothergill, 1996) guided the FGD. The population (i.e. local town councils) were constituted by a mix of chiefs, engineers, technicians and civil servants and government officials. In all the three city councils concerned, the engineers in charge complained about the lack of strategic planning, and about the missing of an elaborated strategy for disasters. They are aware of the existence of an organigram in the "Département de l'Action Civile" in Yaounde but never received any "strategic" document. Therefore inappropriate actions might be taken by the municipalities themselves. Fortunately all people interrogated at the FDG always mentioned solidarity in any event. Fothergill, 1996, Gender, Risk, and Disasters, Intern. Jour. of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, vol.14, n°1, 33-56

  7. Dental erosion, prevalence and risk factors among a group of adolescents in Stockholm County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalsky Jarkander, M; Grindefjord, M; Carlstedt, K

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of dental erosion (DE) among a group of adolescents in Stockholm County. This cross sectional cohort study was conducted at three clinics of the Public Dental Service in Stockholm County. Fifteen and 17 year old adolescents (1335) who scheduled their regular dental health examination were asked to participate. After drop-outs a sample of 1071 individuals, 547 males and 524 females were enrolled in the study. Presence of erosive wear was diagnosed (yes/no) on marker teeth by trained dentists/dental hygienists and photographs were taken. The adolescents answered a questionnaire regarding oral symptoms, dietary and behavioural factors. Two calibrated specialist dentists performed evaluation of the photographs for severity of DE using a modified version of the Simplified Erosion Partial Recording System (SEPRS). DE was clinically diagnosed in 28.3% of 15 years old and 34.3% of 17 years old. Severe erosive wear (grade 3 and 4 according to SEPRS) was found in 18.3% of the adolescents based upon the intra-oral photographs. DE was more prevalent and severe among males than females. Clinically diagnosed erosive lesions correlated significantly with soft drink consumption (p < 0.001), the use of juice or sport drinks as a thirst quencher after exercise (p = 0.006) and tooth hypersensitivity when eating and drinking (p = 0.012). Furthermore, self-assessed gastric reflux was a factor strongly associated with DE (p < 0.001). The study indicated that DE was common among adolescents in Stockholm County and associated with both internal and external risk factors.

  8. Codevelopment of Microbiota and Innate Immunity and the Risk for Group B Streptococcal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kolter

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOD, which manifests between the third day and the third month of life, remains poorly understood. Group B Streptococcus (GBS is the most important cause of LOD in infants without underlying diseases or prematurity and the third most frequent cause of meningitis in the Western world. On the other hand, GBS is a common intestinal colonizer in infants. Accordingly, despite its adaption to the human lower gastrointestinal tract, GBS has retained its potential virulence and its transition from a commensal to a dangerous pathogen is unpredictable in the individual. Several cellular innate immune mechanisms, in particular Toll-like receptors, the inflammasome and the cGAS pathway, are engaged by GBS effectors like nucleic acids. These are likely to impact on the GBS-specific host resistance. Given the long evolution of streptococci as a normal constituent of the human microbiota, the emergence of GBS as the dominant neonatal sepsis cause just about 50 years ago is remarkable. It appears that intensive usage of tetracycline starting in the 1940s has been a selection advantage for the currently dominant GBS clones with superior adhesive and invasive properties. The historical replacement of Group A by Group B streptococci as a leading neonatal pathogen and the higher frequency of other β-hemolytic streptococci in areas with low GBS prevalence suggests the existence of a confined streptococcal niche, where locally competing streptococcal species are subject to environmental and immunological selection pressure. Thus, it seems pivotal to resolve neonatal innate immunity at mucous surfaces and its impact on microbiome composition and quality, i.e., genetic heterogeneity and metabolism, at the microanatomical level. Then, designer pro- and prebiotics, such as attenuated strains of GBS, and oligonucleotide priming of mucosal immunity may unfold their potential and facilitate adaptation of potentially

  9. Codevelopment of Microbiota and Innate Immunity and the Risk for Group B Streptococcal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, Julia; Henneke, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenesis of neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOD), which manifests between the third day and the third month of life, remains poorly understood. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most important cause of LOD in infants without underlying diseases or prematurity and the third most frequent cause of meningitis in the Western world. On the other hand, GBS is a common intestinal colonizer in infants. Accordingly, despite its adaption to the human lower gastrointestinal tract, GBS has retained its potential virulence and its transition from a commensal to a dangerous pathogen is unpredictable in the individual. Several cellular innate immune mechanisms, in particular Toll-like receptors, the inflammasome and the cGAS pathway, are engaged by GBS effectors like nucleic acids. These are likely to impact on the GBS-specific host resistance. Given the long evolution of streptococci as a normal constituent of the human microbiota, the emergence of GBS as the dominant neonatal sepsis cause just about 50 years ago is remarkable. It appears that intensive usage of tetracycline starting in the 1940s has been a selection advantage for the currently dominant GBS clones with superior adhesive and invasive properties. The historical replacement of Group A by Group B streptococci as a leading neonatal pathogen and the higher frequency of other β-hemolytic streptococci in areas with low GBS prevalence suggests the existence of a confined streptococcal niche, where locally competing streptococcal species are subject to environmental and immunological selection pressure. Thus, it seems pivotal to resolve neonatal innate immunity at mucous surfaces and its impact on microbiome composition and quality, i.e., genetic heterogeneity and metabolism, at the microanatomical level. Then, designer pro- and prebiotics, such as attenuated strains of GBS, and oligonucleotide priming of mucosal immunity may unfold their potential and facilitate adaptation of potentially hazardous streptococci as

  10. Use of focus groups to develop methods to communicate cardiovascular disease risk and potential for risk reduction to people with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Hermione C; Dudley, Christina; Barrow, Beryl; Kennedy, Ian; Griffin, Simon J; Holman, Rury R

    2009-10-01

    People need to perceive a risk in order to build an intention-to-change behaviour yet our ability to interpret information about risk is highly variable. We aimed to use a user-centred design process to develop an animated interface for the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Risk Engine to illustrate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and the potential to reduce this risk. In addition, we sought to use the same approach to develop a brief lifestyle advice intervention. Three focus groups were held. Participants were provided with examples of materials used to communicate CVD risk and a leaflet containing a draft brief lifestyle advice intervention and considered their potential to increase motivation-to-change behaviours including diet, physical activity, and smoking in order to reduce CVD risk. Discussions were tape-recorded, transcribed and coded and recurring themes sought. Sixty-two percent of participants were male, mean age was 66 years (range = 47-76 years) and median age at leaving full-time education was 18 years (range = 15-40 years). Sixteen had type 2 diabetes and none had a prior history of CVD. Recurring themes from focus group discussions included the following: being less numerate is common, CVD risk reduction is important and a clear visual representation aids comprehension. A simple animated interface of the UKPDS Risk Engine to illustrate CVD risk and the potential for reducing this risk has been developed for use as a motivational tool, along with a brief lifestyle advice intervention. Future work will investigate whether use of this interactive version of the UKPDS Risk Engine and brief lifestyle advice is associated with increased behavioural intentions and changes in health behaviours designed to reduce CVD risk.

  11. Using risk analysis in Health Impact Assessment: the impact of different relative risks for men and women in different socio-economic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilunger, Louise; Diderichsen, Finn; Burström, Bo

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the emerging field of quantification of Health Impact Assessment (HIA), by analysing how different relative risks affect the burden of disease for various socio-economic groups (SES). Risk analysis, utilising attributable and impact fraction, raises several...... methodological considerations. The present study illustrates this by measuring the impact of changed distribution levels of smoking on lung cancer, ischemic heart disease (IHD), chronic obstructive lung disorder (COLD) and stroke for the highest and lowest socio-economic groups measured in disability adjusted...... the highest and lowest socio-economic groups may decrease by 75% or increase by 21% depending on the size of the relative risk. Assuming the same smoking prevalence for the lowest socio-economic group as for the highest (impact fraction), then the inequality may decrease by 7-26%. Consequently, the size...

  12. Differences in Hospital Readmission Risk across All Payer Groups in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Axon, Robert Neal; Brittingham, Jordan; Lyons, Genevieve Ray; Cole, Laura; Turley, Christine B

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate differences in hospital readmission risk across all payers in South Carolina (SC). South Carolina Revenue and Fiscal Affairs Office (SCRFA) statewide all payer claims database including 2,476,431 hospitalizations in SC acute care hospitals between 2008 and 2014. We compared the odds of unplanned all-cause 30-day readmission for private insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, uninsured, and other payers and examined interaction effects between payer and index admission characteristics using generalized estimating equations. SCRFA receives claims and administrative health care data from all SC health care facilities in accordance with SC state law. Odds of readmission were lower for females compared to males in private, Medicare, and Medicaid payers. African Americans had higher odds of