Sung, Nak Jin; Markuns, Jeffrey F; Park, Ki Heum; Kim, Kyoungwoo; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Jae Ho
To ascertain the association between primary care quality and self-rated health status. A cross-sectional study using the Korean primary care assessment tool (K-PCAT). The K-PCAT is a validated tool based on the definition of primary care in Korea, consisting of 5 domains and 21 items providing a total primary care quality score. Data were collected from patients of family physicians working at nine private clinics as their usual source of care. The main outcome measure was self-rated health status. Data were analyzed for 531 study participants. Bivariate analysis of socio-demographic variables of patients, who participated in this study as primary care quality assessors, revealed that those with high self-ratings of health tended to have higher household incomes and more frequent exercise. Those with high self-ratings of health had higher total primary care scores than those with low self-ratings of health, as determined through bivariate analysis (P good health. Primary care quality, as assessed by the K-PCAT, was positively associated with good self-rated health status.
is about constructing a more inclusive understanding of quality in higher education through combining the macro, meso and micro levels, i.e. from the perspectives of national policy, higher education institutions as organizations in society, individual teaching staff and students. It covers both......Quality in higher education was not invented in recent decades – universities have always possessed mechanisms for assuring the quality of their work. The rising concern over quality is closely related to the changes in higher education and its social context. Among others, the most conspicuous...... changes are the massive expansion, diversification and increased cost in higher education, and new mechanisms of accountability initiated by the state. With these changes the traditional internally enacted academic quality-keeping has been given an important external dimension – quality assurance, which...
Zou, Yihuan; Zhao, Yingsheng; Du, Xiangyun
. This transformation involves a broad scale of change at individual level, organizational level, and societal level. In this change process in higher education, staff development remains one of the key elements for university innovation and at the same time demands a systematic and holistic approach.......This paper starts with a critical approach to reflect on the current practice of quality assessment and assurance in higher education. This is followed by a proposal that in response to the global challenges for improving the quality of higher education, universities should take active actions...... of change by improving the quality of teaching and learning. From a constructivist perspective of understanding education and learning, this paper also discusses why and how universities should give more weight to learning and change the traditional role of teaching to an innovative approach of facilitation...
Full Text Available Higher education quality assurance system has drawn much attention since 1980s. Most countries are committed to build the higher education quality assurance system to meet international standards. Under such an international trend, Hungary also actively promotes higher education reform, and established Hungarian Accreditation Committee and in order to ensure the quality of higher education.
Herr, Annika; Hottenrott, Hanna
This study investigates the relationship between prices and quality of 7400 German nursing homes. We use a cross section of public quality reports for all German nursing homes, which had been evaluated between 2010 and 2013 by external institutions. Our analysis is based on multivariate regressions in a two stage least squares framework, where we instrument prices to explain their effect on quality controlling for income, nursing home density, demographics, labour market characteristics, and infrastructure at the regional level. Descriptive analysis shows that prices and quality do not only vary across nursing homes, but also across counties and federal states and that quality and prices correlate positively. Second, the econometric analysis, which accounts for the endogenous relation between negotiated price and reported quality, shows that quality indeed positively depends on prices. In addition, more places in nursing homes per people in need are correlated with both lower prices and higher quality. Finally, unobserved factors at the federal state level capture some of the variation of reported quality across nursing homes. Our results suggest that higher prices increase quality. Furthermore, since reported quality and prices vary substantially across federal states, we conclude that the quality and prices of long-term care facilities may well be compared within federal states but not across. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Quality assurance in higher education is streamed in two interconnected concepts: (1 quality management according to ISO 9000 and (2 Bologna process. In this paper both concepts are presented, with point on internal state and term plan activities for quality improvement in higher education in Serbia.
A Single, One-Off Measure of Depression and Anxiety Predicts Future Symptoms, Higher Healthcare Costs, and Lower Quality of Life in Coronary Heart Disease Patients: Analysis from a Multi-Wave, Primary Care Cohort Study.
Palacios, Jorge E; Khondoker, Mizanur; Achilla, Evanthia; Tylee, Andre; Hotopf, Matthew
To determine whether a one-off, baseline measure of depression and anxiety in a primary care, coronary heart disease (CHD) population predicts ongoing symptoms, costs, and quality of life across a 3-year follow-up. Longitudinal cohort study. 16 General Practice surgeries across South-East London. 803 adults (70% male, mean age 71 years) contributing up to 7 follow-up points. Ongoing reporting of symptoms, health care costs, and quality of life. At baseline, 27% of the sample screened positive for symptoms of depression and anxiety, as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The probability of scoring above the cut-off throughout the follow-up was 71.5% (panxiety symptoms in CHD predicts future symptoms, costs, and quality of life over the subsequent three-years. These findings suggest symptoms of depression and anxiety in CHD persist throughout long periods and are detrimental to a patient's quality of life, whilst incurring higher health care costs for primary and secondary care services. Screening for these symptoms at the primary care level is important to identify and manage patients at risk of the negative effects of this comorbidity. Implementation of screening, and possible collaborative care strategies and interventions that help mitigate this risk should be the ongoing focus of researchers and policy-makers.
Leihy, Peodair; Salazar, José Miguel
This article offers a new approach to quality, focusing on the dimensions that gather around it. The mismatched goals of controlling and improving higher education continue to trouble the conceptual clarity of accountability. Quality in higher education emerges as something agreed upon (to varying efficacy) through accountability measures, rather…
This paper reviews recent research, literature and the views of a small sample of senior managers and academics in English higher education institutions on the challenges associated with embedding quality. When implemented by a university, quality enhancement models such as total quality management and the European Foundation for Quality…
Noaman, Amin Y.; Ragab, Abdul Hamid M.; Madbouly, Ayman I.; Khedra, Ahmed M.; Fayoumi, Ayman G.
This paper presents a developed higher education quality assessment model (HEQAM) that can be applied for enhancement of university services. This is because there is no universal unified quality standard model that can be used to assess the quality criteria of higher education institutes. The analytical hierarchy process is used to identify the…
Jungblut, Jens; Vukasovic, Martina; Stensaker, Bjørn
The study provides an insight into student perspectives on quality in higher education, using Harvey and Green conceptualizations as the point of departure, and exploring the linkages between the views on quality, the developments of the Bologna Process and related national reforms, as well as students' motivation for and expectations from higher…
This study examined quality assurance and academic accountability in ten higher education institutions in Nigeria, using UNESCO's input-processoutput framework for assessing the quality of education. Data were collected from staff and students of the universities as well as opinion leaders drawn from the communities ...
Full Text Available Since 1993, the quality assurance system in Romania has gained considerable experience. This experience was recently recognized in 2008 by the ENQA: European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education through the admission of ARACIS as a full member of EQAR: the European Quality Assurance Register. The Board of ENQA agreed to grant ARACIS’s full membership of ENQA for five years from 2 June 2009. This article explores the benefits of membership for the Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education – ARACIS, comparing to other regional and global quality assurance agencies networks. The common features and differences between ARACIS and other European agencies are questioned through the frameworks of ENQA and INQAAHE as a case study.
Zou, Yihuan; Du, Xiangyun; Rasmussen, Palle
Based on a study of Chinese university self-evaluation reports, this paper argues that higher education institutions are trying to manage the tensions between educational and organisational quality and the increasing and worldwide concerns about quality assurance. After 30 years of dramatic...... remain an important basis for external review. In an attempt to examine the institutional understanding of quality in higher education, the authors conducted a content analysis study of 53 self-evaluation reports written by a wide range of higher education institutions in China. This study concludes...... educational reform, China has established a nationwide evaluation system for assessing its higher education institutions. This comprehensive system includes a series of procedures for both internal self-evaluation and external peer reviewing, among which self-evaluation reports prepared by each institution...
Zou, Yihuan; Du, Xiangyun; Rasmussen, Palle
Based on a study of Chinese university self-evaluation reports, this paper argues that higher education institutions are trying to manage the tensions between educational and organisational quality and the increasing and worldwide concerns about quality assurance. After 30 years of dramatic...... educational reform, China has established a nationwide evaluation system for assessing its higher education institutions. This comprehensive system includes a series of procedures for both internal self-evaluation and external peer reviewing, among which self-evaluation reports prepared by each institution...... remain an important basis for external review. In an attempt to examine the institutional understanding of quality in higher education, the authors conducted a content analysis study of 53 self-evaluation reports written by a wide range of higher education institutions in China. This study concludes...
A Single, One-Off Measure of Depression and Anxiety Predicts Future Symptoms, Higher Healthcare Costs, and Lower Quality of Life in Coronary Heart Disease Patients: Analysis from a Multi-Wave, Primary Care Cohort Study.
Jorge E Palacios
Full Text Available To determine whether a one-off, baseline measure of depression and anxiety in a primary care, coronary heart disease (CHD population predicts ongoing symptoms, costs, and quality of life across a 3-year follow-up.Longitudinal cohort study.16 General Practice surgeries across South-East London.803 adults (70% male, mean age 71 years contributing up to 7 follow-up points.Ongoing reporting of symptoms, health care costs, and quality of life.At baseline, 27% of the sample screened positive for symptoms of depression and anxiety, as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. The probability of scoring above the cut-off throughout the follow-up was 71.5% (p<0.001 for those screening positive at baseline, and for those screening negative, the probability of scoring below the cut-off throughout the follow-up was 97.6% (p<0.001. Total health care costs were 39% higher during follow-up for those screening positive (p<0.05. Quality of life as measured by the SF-12 was lower on the mental component during follow-up for those screening positive (-0.75, CI -1.53 to 0.03, p = 0.059, and significantly lower on the physical component (-4.99, CI -6.23 to -.376, p<0.001.A one-off measure for depression and anxiety symptoms in CHD predicts future symptoms, costs, and quality of life over the subsequent three-years. These findings suggest symptoms of depression and anxiety in CHD persist throughout long periods and are detrimental to a patient's quality of life, whilst incurring higher health care costs for primary and secondary care services. Screening for these symptoms at the primary care level is important to identify and manage patients at risk of the negative effects of this comorbidity. Implementation of screening, and possible collaborative care strategies and interventions that help mitigate this risk should be the ongoing focus of researchers and policy-makers.
Bendixen, Carsten; Jacobsen, Jens Christian
The increasing dominance of educational markets means that quality of higher education has the character of open signifiers of periodic occurrence, embedded institutionally as ways of consensual communication on how to go on as smoothly as possible. This promotes the growth of context dependent...... nullification processes. On the other hand, institutions have to adopt standards in education as a measure of outcome indicators for benchmarking. When quality is replaced by standards and if standards are equivalent to labour market relevance this might signal the beginning of overall external control over...... higher education. In the long run it will hardly benefit educational programmes if institutions of higher educations fail to ‘stand for’ quality that, in the very least, can supplement the fulfilment of politically determined targets and standards. In this way the market will have not only graduates who...
Lukas I. Ehlers
Full Text Available Background: A typology of desirable social conditions in supervisory relationships suggested that such conditions may also be desirable in other forms of labour relationships. A literature review confirmed that trust, compliance, fairness and good faith can be confidently regarded as universally desirable social conditions in all forms of individual or collective labour relationships between employers and employees. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine if primary labour relationship quality (PLQ can be confidently conceptualised as a social construct that strongly relates to the perceived levels of compliance, fairness and good faith in supervisory or primary labour relationships. Setting: A combination of random and convenience sampling approaches was implemented to collect PLQ related data from 454 voluntary respondents, who were subordinate employees in the Tshwane region. Methods: A quantitative research methodology was adopted. This included conceptual definition of the PLQ construct, objective measurement of PLQ levels of voluntary respondents in an adequately sized sample, factor analysis and testing for relationships and differences in means between variables. Results: Data analysis results confirmed that it can be confidently concluded that the conceptual definition of PLQ was valid, and that positive PLQ perceptions of subordinate employees were significantly related to at least two other forms of desirable organisational outcomes. Conclusion: PLQ perceptions can be confidently defined as a distinct subjective quality estimate that is assimilated from unique expectations and perceptions of the levels of compliance, fairness, good faith and trust that a supervisor displays in a labour relationship with an immediate subordinate.
Bendixen, Carsten; Jacobsen, Jens Christian
The increasing dominance of educational markets means that quality of higher education has the character of open signifiers of periodic occurrence, embedded institutionally as ways of consensual communication on how to go on as smoothly as possible. This promotes the growth of context dependent...... and local interpretations of how to meet in agreement regarding quality in everyday practices. All interpretations are contextualised and as a result are nullified outside the context in which they occur. Discourses on quality promote flexibility and create periodic legitimacy through discursive...
The evaluation of educational or social programmes is paramount for establishing success or impact in higher education. Evaluation questions about programme goals (e.g. better performance of first-year students) or about the quality of programme strategies (design and implementation) and effectiveness of delivery ...
Bendixen, Carsten; Jacobsen, Jens Christian
The increasing dominance of educational markets means that quality of higher education has the character of open signifiers of periodic occurrence, embedded institutionally as ways of consensual communication on how to go on as smoothly as possible. This promotes the growth of context dependent and local interpretations of how to meet in agreement…
Giorgio, L Di; Filippini, M; Masiero, G
Widespread issues regarding quality in nursing homes call for an improved understanding of the relationship with costs. This relationship may differ in European countries, where care is mainly delivered by nonprofit providers. In accordance with the economic theory of production, we estimate a total cost function for nursing home services using data from 45 nursing homes in Switzerland between 2006 and 2010. Quality is measured by means of clinical indicators regarding process and outcome derived from the minimum data set. We consider both composite and single quality indicators. Contrary to most previous studies, we use panel data and control for omitted variables bias. This allows us to capture features specific to nursing homes that may explain differences in structural quality or cost levels. Additional analysis is provided to address simultaneity bias using an instrumental variable approach. We find evidence that poor levels of quality regarding outcome, as measured by the prevalence of severe pain and weight loss, lead to higher costs. This may have important implications for the design of payment schemes for nursing homes.
Boerma, W.G.W.; Kringos, D.S.; Verschuuren, M.; Pellny, M.; Baymirova, L.
The Uzbek government has a central role in primary care quality management. On paper, many quality management structures and procedures exist. Now, primary care practice should follow, as NIVEL research – done on the initiative of the World Health Organisation (WHO) – has shown. The results have
Full Text Available -Quality Assessment in the Primary care Dear Editor; I have read the article titled as “Implementation of Rogi Kalyan Samiti (RKS at Primary Health Centre Durvesh” with great interest. Shrivastava et all concluded that assessment mechanism for the achievement of objectives for the suggested RKS model was not successful (1. Hereby I would like to emphasize the importance of quality assessment (QA especially in the era of newly established primary care implementations in our country. Promotion of quality has been fundamental part of primary care health services. Nevertheless variations in quality of care exist even in the developed countries. Accomplishment of quality in the primary care has some barriers like administration and directorial factors, absence of evidence-based medicine practice lack of continuous medical education. Quality of health care is no doubt multifaceted model that covers all components of health structures and processes of care. Quality in the primary care set up includes patient physician relationship, immunization, maternal, adolescent, adult and geriatric health care, referral, non-communicable disease management and prescribing (2. Most countries are recently beginning the implementation of quality assessments in all walks of healthcare. Organizations like European society for quality and safety in family practice (EQuiP endeavor to accomplish quality by collaboration. There are reported developments and experiments related to the methodology, processes and outcomes of quality assessments of health care. Quality assessments will not only contribute the accomplishment of the program / project but also detect the areas where obstacles also exist. In order to speed up the adoption of QA and to circumvent the occurrence of mistakes, health policy makers and family physicians from different parts of the world should share their experiences. Consensus on quality in preventive medicine implementations can help to yield
Hansen, Peter Meredith; Peters, David H; Edward, Anbrasi; Gupta, Shivam; Arur, Aneesa; Niayesh, Haseebullah; Burnham, Gilbert
To identify factors associated with service quality provided by agencies implementing a basic package of health services in Afghanistan. Cross-sectional survey of outpatient health facilities, health workers, patients and caretakers. Primary health care facilities in every province of Afghanistan. Composite scale measuring the quality of clinical processes in four areas: patient histories, physical examinations, communication and time spent with patient. No difference in service quality was observed between male and female providers or between male and female patients, but when both the provider and patient were female quality was much higher. Overall, the quality of care at non-governmental organization and government-managed health facilities did not differ, but the poor received higher quality care at non-governmental facilities than at government facilities. Doctors provided higher quality care than lower level providers. Provision of six or more supervisory visits in the last 6 months was associated with higher service quality. Training doctors in integrated management of childhood illness was not associated with quality, but when lower level health workers received such training the quality of patient-provider communication was higher. Other recurrent inputs and geographic remoteness are not associated with the quality of care provided. The government's strategy to form partnerships with non-governmental organizations has led to higher quality of care provided to the poor. This represents a promising start in the reconstruction of Afghanistan's health system and provides useful evidence to other countries striving to increase access to quality care for the poor.
Back in May 2011, an article in "Primary Science" described how the idea for a quality mark for primary science was developed from an initial conversation at an Association for Science Education annual conference (Turner, Marshall and Elsmore, 2011). Its intention then, as now, was to support and champion good practice and raise the…
This paper examines the literature surrounding quality assurance in global higher education. It provides an overview of accreditation as a mechanism to ensure quality in higher education, examines models of QA, and explores the concept of quality (including definitions of quality and quality assurance). In addition, this paper provides a review of…
This article examines notions of quality and quality assurance in higher education. It does this by raising questions such as whether quality in higher education is the same as, for example, quality of clothing or the quality of meat in local butcheries. The article questions the assumption that if certain things, such as criteria or ...
Basar, Gulsun; Altinay, Zehra; Dagli, Gokmen; Altinay, Fahriye
This study involves the assessment of the quality management models in Higher Education by explaining the importance of quality in higher education and by examining the higher education quality assurance system practices in other countries. The qualitative study was carried out with the members of the Higher Education Planning, Evaluation,…
The focus is on the new system of quality assurance for higher education soon to be implemented by the Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC). The new quality system is subjected to analysis, and compared with not only the theory and practice of quality management, but also the systems used in this regard by ...
Soomro, Tariq Rahim; Ahmad, Reyaz
Quality in higher education is the major concern among researchers. Managing quality in higher education in a multicultural population with different approaches is not only challenging but an uphill task. This paper will focus on quality concern in higher education keeping in view, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) perspectives. A model to maintain…
Sullivan, Michael F.
This document consists largely of paper versions of the transparencies used by the author to give his conference paper on Total Quality Management (TQM) in the college and university setting. An introduction lists a series of definitional phrases, a list of what TQM is not, and 11 fundamental principles describing what TQM is. The three major…
This paper asserts that there have not been adequate studies about the comparative quality of Turkish universities to provide information and data for prospective students, advisors, university administrators, and policymakers. Turkey has more than 70 state and private universities. Most of these are relatively new, although Turkish higher…
Lemoine, Marie-Hélène; Lemoine, Claude; Cyr, Claude
To measure parents' satisfaction with paediatric primary care quality and accessibility. High-quality paediatric primary care is a cornerstone of efforts to improve health outcomes and access to care, as well as to control health care spending. A strong primary care infrastructure is related to improved health outcomes, including an improved mortality rate. A cross-sectional survey using the Parents' Perception of Primary Care questionnaire and evidence-based items from the Rourke Baby Record were used to measure parents' satisfaction. Of 200 questionnaires sent, 130 were returned. The mean number of children per family was 1.7+/-0.8 (mean +/- SD). Sixty-six per cent of children received their primary care from general practitioners, 19% received their primary care from paediatricians, and 15% had no regular physician and identified other professionals (community nurses, midwives or chiropractors) as their primary care providers. Parents were questioned about their child's hearing in 66% of cases. Only 41% of parents received guidance about breastfeeding, 37% about adequate sleeping position, 17% about the dangers of second-hand smoke and 16% about car safety seats. The level of satisfaction with communication, contextual knowledge and coordination of care was higher for families followed by general practitioners and paediatricians than for families followed by nonphysicians. According to the Parents' Perception of Primary Care scores, the overall satisfaction with primary care was higher for care given by general practitioners and paediatricians than for care given by midwives or chiropractors, and intermediate when given by nurses. In this survey, the majority of children received their primary care from physicians, most commonly general practitioners. Parents' overall satisfaction regarding their infant's primary health care was higher when it was delivered by physicians than by alternative health care providers. Evidence-based guidance recommendations were
Leisyte, Liudvika; Westerheijden, Donald F.; Eggins, Heather
The various changes in post-bureaucratic organising, which are moving towards network approaches, coupled with the managerial agenda of corporate governance, have redefined the roles of various internal and external stakeholders in the governance of higher education institutions (Leisyte and Dee,
Bergseth, Brita; Petocz, Peter; Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
The study examines two different models of measuring, assessing and ranking quality in higher education. Do different systems of quality assessment lead to equivalent conclusions about the quality of education? This comparative study is based on the rankings of 24 Swedish higher education institutions. Two ranking actors have independently…
Pham, Huong Thi; Starkey, Louise
Purpose: Vietnam is experiencing rapid expansion in the provision of higher education that requires quality assurance appropriate for the Vietnamese-centralised Confucian cultural context. This paper aims to examine the concept of quality from the perspectives of academic leaders, quality assurance members and academics at three higher education…
Mahdiuon, Rouhollah; Masoumi, Davoud; Farasatkhah, Maghsoud
The article aims to explore the attributes of quality and quality improvement including the process and specific actions associated with these attributes--that contribute enhancing quality in Iranian Virtual Higher Education (VHE) institutions. A total of 16 interviews were conducted with experts and key actors in Iranian virtual higher education.…
Examines quality assurance systems in higher education in general and of ISO 9000, a set of international quality standards, in particular. Reports on a survey of 23 institutions worldwide concerning implementation of quality systems and application of the ISO 9000 standards. Concludes that while institutions have found the quality assurance…
Full Text Available Economy in Bosnia and Herzegovina is striving towards growth and increased employment and it has been proven by empirical studies worldwide that higher education contributes to socio-economic development of a country. Universities are important for generation, preservation and dissemination of knowledge in order to contribute to socio-economic benefits of a country. Higher education institutions are being pressured to improve value for their activities and providing quality higher education service to students should be taken seriously. In this paper we will address the emerging demand for quality in higher education. Higher education institutions should assess quality of their services and establish methods for improving quality. Activities of quality assurance should be integrated into the management process at higher education institutions. This paper is addressing the issue of service quality measurement in higher education institutions. The most frequently used model in this context is the SERVQUAL model. This model is measuring quality from the students' point of view, since students are considered to be one of the most important stakeholders for a higher education institution. The main objective of this research is to provide empirical evidence that the adapted SERVQAL model can be used in higher education and to identify the service quality gap based on its application at one institution of higher education (Faculty of Economics in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Furthermore, results of the gap analysis using the SERVQUAL methodology provide relevant information in which areas improvement is necessary in order to enhance service quality.
ABSTRACT To meet the globalization challenges raising higher education quality to the world standard is essential. Because Economic Factors, An Era of Competition, Demographic Realities, lack of infrastectural development ,Governmental Political and Legal Challenges, Religious Factors, internal conflicts among educational institutions, corruption etc affect quality of higher education in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Govt. has taken initiatives to develop the quality of tertiary education. Govt...
Full Text Available The article deals with an international problem of quality assurance in higher education. Despite the enormous growth in national quality assurance processes in Great Britain, serious doubts remain about their effectiveness in achieving lasting quality improvement. The paper suggests that the quality of students’ experience of higher education can more effectively be improved by combining educational development with quality assurance to create a more positive, not punitive approach. The concept of “quality development” is explained and mechanisms of this approach are described.
The article presents the analysis of higher education internationalization, its conceptions and forms of manifestation. It investigates the ways and means of higher education internationalization, the diversity of higher school internationalization motives, the issues of higher education internationalization quality assessment, presenting an…
Interest in quality is well established within higher education. This paper will critically review the most commonly used definitions of quality: fitness for purpose and value for money. It will point out that these two definitions are important but they ignore the emancipatory power of higher education and the development needs of academics and…
Students in higher institutions are part and parcel of the system, thus their opinions should count in decision making concerning the quality of the education they are receiving. This study set out to examine from literature the place of feedback from students and its possible relevance in decision making on quality issues in higher education.…
Tan, Kay C.; Kek, Sei W.
Customer service and quality are driving forces in the business community. As higher educational institutions tussle for competitive advantage and high service quality, the evaluation of educational service quality is essential to provide motivation for and to give feedback on the effectiveness of educational plans and implementation. This…
Excellence in educational quality provisioning and accountability is an obligatory function for higher education. Currently certain scholars allege that poor provisioning and lack of accountability are rife in most higher education institutions. They cite varied reasons for the failures. Of note, African higher education institutions ...
Goutam Kumar Kundu
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of existing research and present a holistic understanding of quality in higher education. This literature review builds on major sources of relevant research relating to educational quality methodologies, quality literacy and multi-dimensional concept of quality. The paper attempts to understand quality in education as a relationship amongst all the participants and resources of an educational institution. Based on the results of the literature review, the paper attempts to establish the foundation for a comprehensive understanding and analysis of quality focussing on higher education. This literature review provides a frame of reference that serves as a basis for future research regarding role of quality in education.
Jhoel Ruber Mota Fonseca
Full Text Available This article has as objective to interpret the voices of teachers supervising vs quality of education in primary education, as today, supervision entails progress and improvement in the performance of the duties of teachers in the learning environment is therefore, that through this content conflicts present information to achieve changes within educational institutions towards organizational efficiency and under supplied. In it, a qualitative paradigmatic approach as a methodological foundation that allows us to interpret educational supervision through delos social actors which is made up of managers, teachers and supervisors in the context of primary education, established likewise was necessary to collect the information through direct observation technique using as an interview script whose implementation was key informants comprised of a primary teacher education, a supervisor and from this the researcher, thus achieving the corresponding analysis according to the information provided for each, which allowed the development of argumentative skills teachers, establishing rules and procedures that provide guidelines for creating answers to the problem. For with following aims determined in the investigation, vital agents that help teachers to be highly competent in their daily practice, using teaching strategies that will enable success in the classroom, whose purpose is the achievement orientation and optimization in the process of teaching and student learning. In this sense, a reflection about the role it should play the supervisor to achieve educational quality is performed, demonstrating spaces mediation, integration, participation and collaboration with respect to the performance of the master whose aim is to be efficient and effective in its educational work of the educational system.
Boccanfuso, Dorothée; Larouche, Alexandre; Trandafir, Mircea
While many studies examine the effect of primary education quality on labor market outcomes in developing countries, little is known about the effects at higher levels. We exploit the quasi-experiment provided by a large-scale education reform launched in Senegal in 2000 to investigate how quality......), suggesting a reduction in the mismatch between the quality of high-skill labor demanded and supplied....
Simmons, John; Kahn, Susan
The article examines reasons for the decline in use of quality circles in higher education. A 1988 survey of eight universities and colleges using circles in 1986 found that because quality circle principles were violated, similar problems (such as inadequate training, problematic group membership, and exclusion of supervisors) were encountered at…
This article inquires into the "calculative practices" that are used to regulate quality in higher education. After providing a historical snapshot of the antecedents of quality regimes, I discuss university ranking systems (league tables) and the UK's Research Assessment Exercise. I ask two questions: first, what do the visibilities of…
de Weert, Egbert
In most West European countries a quality control system for higher education is in a process of development. This article examines some general characteristics of the emerging structures, how quality is defined and what impact this definition has on internal evaluation. On the basis of a more
Purpose: This study aims to analyze the quality of the Egyptian accreditation system. With a view on the high competition in the domestic labor market as well as with regards to the international competitiveness of Egyptian graduates and the potential role of Egyptian universities in the international market for higher education, a high quality of…
Melnichuk, Marina; Varlamova, Alla
The article deals with the problem of quality assessment in the field of higher education in Russia and the USA. The authors describe the solution of the problem in the modern period of reforms and globalization and the authors' analysis of the main quality assessment approaches is presented in the article. [For the complete Volume 13, Number 2…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the evolution of "folk" understandings of quality in higher hospitality education and the consequent implications of these understandings for current quality concerns in the field. Design/methodology/approach: The paper combines a historical survey of the stated topic…
Bendermacher, G. W. G.; oude Egbrink, M. G. A.; Wolfhagen, I. H. A. P.; Dolmans, D. H. J. M.
There is a growing belief that higher education institutions should nurture a "quality culture" in which structural/managerial and cultural/psychological elements act in synergy to continuously improve education. Notwithstanding the positive connotation of the "quality culture" concept, its exact configuration remains subject…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of five alternative measures of service quality in the high education sector--service quality (SERVQUAL), importance-weighted SERVQUAL, service performance (SERVPERF), importance-weighted SERVPERF, and higher education performance (HEdPERF). Design/methodology/approach: Data were…
Ali, Hairuddin Mohd; Musah, Mohammed Borhandden
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the quality culture and workforce performance in the Malaysian higher education sector. The study also aims to test and validate the psychometric properties of the quality culture and workforce performance instruments used in the study. Design/methodology/approach: A total…
Sogunro, Olusegun A.
The importance of quality instruction in motivating students in higher education cannot be overemphasized. Without quality instruction, students' motivation to learn recedes. Five focus groups of graduate students aided the data collection for this study. More than one-third of the 119 participating graduate students involved in this study claimed…
This article reports on research to form an understanding of how to account whether and how quality management (QM) has been adopted in Greek higher education. Greece only recently introduced quality assurance policies. In this study, I will describe governmental reforms related to QM policies until 2010. An issue that is frequently addressed…
Patterson, Michael S.; Harris, Simon
Most researchers are aware of the increasing emphasis placed on citations as an indicator of quality by their colleagues, as well as by administrators and librarians. But is it true that high quality papers are cited more often? In what we believe to be the only previous publication to examine this question, West and McIlwaine (2002) selected 79 papers that had been published in the journal Addiction in 1997. These papers were rated by an assistant editor of the journal on a five-level quality scale (ranging from 'among the top 10%' to 'should not have been published') as well as a second 'blind' rater. The authors found that the number of citations to each paper from 1997 to 2000 did not correlate with the mean score of the two reviewers, the score assigned by the editors, or the score assigned by the blind referees. The peer-review system used by Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) facilitates a larger, prospective study with much less effort. In general, two reviewers are asked to assign each paper a score of 1 to 10 in each of three categories: originality, soundness and significance. The total scores (out of 30) are averaged and on this basis manuscripts are given a quality rating from Q1 (highest quality) to Q5. In a paper recently published in Scientometrics (Patterson and Harris 2009), we compared the number of citations to papers published in PMB in 2003, 2004 and 2005 to the mean quality rating assigned by the reviewers. In total, data were analyzed for 1095 published papers. For each year we found that there was a low but statistically robust correlation between citations and quality rating: for 2003, -0.227 (p group, the highest ranked papers were cited about twice as often as the average for all published papers. We also examined the data retrospectively by dividing the papers published in each year into five citation quintiles. A paper of the highest quality (Q1) was about ten times more likely to be found in the most-cited quintile than in the
Daniel, John; Kanwar, Asha; Uvalic-Trumbic, Stamenka
The requirements for a model that could allow higher education to expand rapidly in the developing world are that it be readily scalable (wide access), academically credible (high quality) and affordable (low cost). This could be achieved by building higher education networks around credible examination systems run by national or independent…
Baartman, L.; Gulikers, J.T.M.; Dijkstra, A.
The development of assessments that are fit to assess professional competence in higher vocational education requires a reconsideration of assessment methods, quality criteria and (self)evaluation. This article examines the self-evaluations of nine courses of a large higher vocational education
Full Text Available The paper presents a survey conducted in November of 2013 in 120 higher education institutions in the Western Balkans Countries, with purpose to determine which models are used for quality improvement in Western Balkans higher educational institutions, and whether critical conditions for continuous quality improvement have been met by applying those models. Data were obtained by using questionnaire which consisted of 24 questions related to 2 previously defined hypotheses. Gathered data were tested with Student's t test to determine if there is a significant difference between the groups of higher educational institutions which use different quality models, as well as between private and public higher educational institutions. Authors argue that the rules imposed by Governments do not provide sufficient incentive for meeting the critical conditions for the continuous quality improvement. Legal framework and mandatory accreditation conducted by government bodies lead higher educational institutions to fulfil the formal requirements, distancing them from the essence of quality management, i.e. from self-criticism and motivation to consistently deliver better results than the previous ones and giving them the illusion of achieving quality through compliance with formal criteria.
A. G. Kislov
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to introduction and implementation of quality management system in the sphere of Russian higher education. The research demanded the prehistory observation of the above processes, their legal bases analysis, as well as setting the existing practices of the state control and supervision of education in compliance with the principles of TQM (Total Quality Management. Different normative acts and documents have been reviewed concerning accreditation of higher educational establishments, and determining the state policy of quality improvement of the higher school functioning. The author emphasizes that participation of different organizations - including educational ones – in certification procedures and competitions in the quality sphere is considered voluntary according to the Russian legislation. However, for getting the state accreditation educational establishments have no other way apart from setting the internal structures responsible for students training quality. The above structures in educational establishments look rather strange and alien duplicating in their best the state control and supervision system. They appear to be quite expansive for educational establishments and demanding extra time and effort from the staff. In conclusion the author points out that the state policy forcing the quality management issues reflects the interests of certain social groups, namely those who directly participate in external supervision of higher educa- tional institutions. The research findings can be applied while correcting the educational policy of the Russian Federation, and developing the concepts of regulatory legal acts in the higher educational sphere.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a general view and a brief literature review of the main aspects related to quality assurance in global higher education. It provides an overview of accreditation as a mechanism to ensure quality in higher education, examines models of QA, and explores the concept of quality. In addition, this paper provides a review of research on the effectiveness of quality assurance practices, with a particular focus on student involvement with quality assurance. In reviewing the concept of quality assurance itself, the author noted there is a need for a common framework for a quality assurance model; however, there is no agreement as to a QA definition or a QA model. Furthermore, although quality is the utmost significant concern for accrediting bodies, accreditation structures are decentralized and complex at both the regional and international level. Another challenge identified revolves around the concerns of faculty members and other stakeholders, such as students, about the QA process. Given that students are at the center of higher education, and invest time and money in the system, the author concludes involving them could improve QA processes. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v5i4.257
Buchanan, H S
Continuous quality improvement (CQI), often implemented as part of an integrated management system called total quality management (TQM), has been institutionalized within many manufacturing, military and service organizations in the USA as a response to declining market share, low productivity and customer complaints about poor quality. Signs and symptoms suggest that higher education has similar problems which are systematic and relate to the quality ot higher education, financing, facilities, curriculum and graduates. In the 1990S, the quality movement has begun to spread to the field of education as a means of diagnosing and treating the problems widely recognized as residing in US educational institutions, especially in colleges and universities. Many business leaders and authors believe that 'quality is the most important strategic issue facing top management in the 1990s'. This belief arises partly due to the fact that managers are beginning to understand the relationship between healthy, high quality organizations and healthy profits. This article traces the recent US quality movement from its roots in manufacturing and the military, its adoption by service institutions, and its more recent application by higher education institutions.
Papadimitriou, A.; Papadimitriou, Antigoni
This study investigated the adoption of quality management in Greek universities as an outcome of organizational processes. It examined a period in the first decade of the 21st century when program evaluation and quality management were heavily debated in Greece. The study recognizes that higher
... effect on the status and quality of public primary school products. This paper examines the effect of educational services on the quality of public primary school in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area in Rivers State,. Keywords: primary education, challenges. Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria Vol.
Maguire, Kate; Gibbs, Paul
The purpose of this article is to contribute to the debate on the notion of quality in higher education with particular focus on "objectifying through articulation" the assessment of quality by professional experts. The article gives an overview of the differentiations of quality as used in higher education. It explores a substantial…
Full Text Available Quality is becoming one of the main factors of competitive advantage both in the manufacturing and commercial sectors, and therefore in education. In order to attract and retain a greater number of students, higher education institutions must constantly work on their services quality improvement and increase of student's satisfaction. The aim of this paper is to explore how certain dimensions of service quality of higher education affect the level of satisfaction of students. In accordance with the abovementioned aim, descriptive statistics measures were used, as well as reliability analysis, correlation and regression analysis. The originality of the paper is reflected in this, in particular. The data were collected through survey on a sample of 206 respondents and on that occasion the new model was tested, developed on the basis of earlier models for measuring the quality of services. The results suggest that all elements of the service quality of higher education have a statistically significant impact on satisfaction. Intangible elements have the strongest effect, followed by tangible elements, while the influence of the connection with the practice is weaker than the influence of the aforementioned independent variables. These results indicate that none of the dimensions should be ignored, but also emphasize the need to focus on those dimensions that contribute most to the satisfaction of students. Results of the conducted studies will contribute to the management of higher education institutions.
Full Text Available The importance of introduction of "Integrated quality management" into higher education curricula arises from the need for students to grasp synergetic application of new and advanced approaches to theoretical and practical management quality and process based management in particular as well as understanding a unified concept which improves conformity and linking of all levels in management hierarchy (normative, strategic and operational toward accomplishment of successful business performance. A curriculum is proposed (as a contribution to a map of necessary knowledge to be expected from prospective quality personnel with appropriate topics in accordance with studies objective and chosen up-to-date options of management concepts and methods.
O'Mahony, Kim; Garavan, Thomas N.
Purpose: This paper aims to report and analyse the lessons learned from a case study on the implementation of a quality management system within an IT Division in a higher education (HE) organisation. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a review of the relevant literatures and the use of primary sources such as document analysis,…
Krotseng, Marsha V.
Four works are reviewed that contrast cases of constructive state government/university partnerships with examples of inappropriate involvement, and profile the primary political and governing bodies influencing higher education. The quest for quality without undue intrusion emerges as a recurrent theme. (Author/MSE)
Papadimitriou, A.; Papadimitriou, Antigoni
This study investigated the adoption of quality management in Greek universities as an outcome of organizational processes. It examined a period in the first decade of the 21st century when program evaluation and quality management were heavily debated in Greece. The study recognizes that higher education institutions are complex organizations with multiple levels; moreover, they exist in a multi-level, multi-actor environment. Greece presents an environment that is well known for its difficu...
Teaching, and specifically quality teaching, has for many centuries been the defining characteristic of the academic profession. However, since the dawning of the 20th century, it seems that the very basis of the global higher education institutional reward system is the belief that working with, contributing to, and pursuing ...
Yingqiang, Zhang; Yongjian, Su
Quality assurance in modern higher education is both an accountability-oriented ideology and a technological method. It has also evolved into a increasingly rationalist and professionalized power mechanism. Its advocacy of compliance, technological mythology, and imbalance between power and responsibility are inherent disadvantages of higher…
Improving the quality of curriculum development in private Universities in Africa from time to time is a task that is very essential to achieving effectiveness, efficiency, and relevance in the higher education system. Financial Intelligence is one of the five components of a twenty first century education, the kind of education that ...
Conceptually, education quality of higher education can be determined by evaluation of their stakeholders's satisfaction level. The purpose of this study is to describe how students as external stakeholder and lecturers as internal stakeholder, perceived their satisfaction of learning experience in the university. This study was conducted in…
Storen, Liv Anne; Aamodt, Per Olaf
In this paper, employability is regarded as an aspect of quality of higher education, or more precisely, the benefit and usefulness of the study programme for career and work tasks. The analyses are based on a comparative survey among graduates in 13 countries, five to six years after graduation. The information about employability, or the…
El Hassan, K.
The last decades have witnessed an increased concern in higher education over accountability, quality and productivity, and a struggle to meet increasingly complex challenges. This is more so in Middle East and North African (MENA) economies that witnessed a large expansion as a result of a high social demand and massification policies adopted by…
Motova, Galina; Pykko, Ritta
This article considers the relevance and implementation of European approaches to quality assurance in the context of the Russian educational system. It covers the issues of transformation of the higher education system during the post-Soviet period, specific features of the state accreditation system, the impact of the European Standards and…
The coefficient is statistically significant at 5% in the OLS regression but 1% in the OLOGIT and OPROBIT regressions. The study recommends that improving Quality of Leadership in institutions of higher learning requires clear identification of the vision, improved personal attributes of the leader and a tacit understanding of ...
Papanthymou, Anastasia; Darra, Maria
This paper is a review which presents a summary of 52 studies from 2006 to 2016 in Quality Management (QM) within Higher Education Institutes (HEIs). The aim of this paper is to submit evidence regarding the level of QM in HEIs, particularly in developing countries, and also to enhance the research in the field of QM. The findings reveal that from…
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Higher Learning Institions (HLIs) in provision of quality socio-economic development in Tanzania. In the new knowledge economy, the main roles of HLIs are: to provide high level manpower needs of the society, provide new knowledge and diffusing it into the ...
Malik, Sufiana Khatoon
The current paper was produced with the purpose of suggesting strategies for bringing quality in distance education programs at higher education level. In recent times distance education is becoming an indispensable part of education system globally. Every institution is trying to offer their educational course through general as well through…
Quality Assurance Practices of Public Higher Institutions of Learning in Ghana has been assessed with the aim of classifying the level of the practice as Excellent, High, Above Average, Ordinary or Poor. A conceptual framework that combined both quantitative and qualitative techniques in a heuristic approach was adopted.
Laila El Abbadi
Full Text Available Quality as a new requirement for the field of higher education leads institutions to seek to satisfy generic or specific quality standards imposed directly or indirectly by its customers. The aim of this study is to compare between ISO9001, as a generic quality standard, and the Code of Practice of the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA, as a specific quality standard. A correlation matrix is drawn and correlation rates are calculated to show similarities and differences between them. This paper shows, first, that ISO9001 and QAA Code of Practice are compatible. Second, implementing a quality management system in accordance with ISO9001 requirements can constitute an adequate framework for the application of the QAA Code of Practice requirements. Third, to make the ISO9001 requirements closer to a specific quality standard in the field of higher education, it is recommended to complete these standards by specific requirements to the field of higher education.
Tatyana V. Zak
Full Text Available The article deals with the situation in the Russian higher education system. The factors affecting the improvement of the quality of higher education are analyzed. The emphasis is on mass universities. The main obstacles to improving the quality of education in these institutions are the Institute of collective reputation and the high costs of the struggle for improving the quality of education.The necessity of focusing on the actuation of the internal resources to improve the quality associated with the change in the educational process: giving students the right to choose the timing exams and training period at university. The implementation of the proposed measures will reduce the opportunity costs associated with quality improvement activities. The proposed change in the organization of the learning process opens the possibility to estimate the activity of universities in terms of medium-term implementation of educational programs. The use of this indicator will not only combine the two different targets of universities, but also to minimize the costs of opportunistic behavior of teachers and management.
Olmos Gómez Maria del Carmen
Full Text Available The quality assessment is subject to multiple interpretations of its content and purpose, and also regarding to methods and techniques used to develop it. Although purposes of assessment are varied, usually pursuit three goals: Improvement, accountability and information. Currently, the concept of quality evaluation has been replaced by the management of educational quality, as Matthew  point “the new culture of evaluation is no longer oriented to penalty, ranking or selection of people, as provide a reasoned and reasonable information to guide the management of educational improvement”. Military Training Centres are externally evaluated by an experts External Evaluation Unit to identify strengths and weaknesses on their self-evaluation system and focus on important aspects related to the organization of the Centre, development of work plans, teacher’s style and students learning strategies, system of evaluation and qualification and accurate recommendations to improve all that. This research focuses on the evaluation of quality indicators for the external evaluation of higher education at Military Education Centres in Spain and it is funded by a joint project between University of Granada and MADOC. The technique used for collecting and analysing information was a content description of several documents provided by these military educational authorities, arising the identification and extraction of relevant indicators on the evaluation of higher education. This analysis was primarily based on standards and indicators systems by ANECA (National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation adapted to the Military Higher Education, but also it was consider other standards by international agencies and evaluative institutions, such as University of Chile, University of Paraguay, Canarias Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation and Agency for Quality Education System University of Castilla y León. The analysis realize a usual
Olmos Gómez Maria del Carmen
Full Text Available The quality assessment is subject to multiple interpretations of its content and purpose, and also regarding to methods and techniques used to develop it. Although purposes of assessment are varied, usually pursuit three goals: Improvement, accountability and information. Currently, the concept of quality evaluation has been replaced by the management of educational quality, as Matthew  point “the new culture of evaluation is no longer oriented to penalty, ranking or selection of people, as provide a reasoned and reasonable information to guide the management of educational improvement”. Military Training Centres are externally evaluated by an experts External Evaluation Unit to identify strengths and weaknesses on their self-evaluation system and focus on important aspects related to the organization of the Centre, development of work plans, teacher’s style and students learning strategies, system of evaluation and qualification and accurate recommendations to improve all that. This research focuses on the evaluation of quality indicators for the external evaluation of higher education at Military Education Centres in Spain and it is funded by a joint project between University of Granada and MADOC. The technique used for collecting and analysing information was a content description of several documents provided by these military educational authorities, arising the identification and extraction of relevant indicators on the evaluation of higher education. This analysis was primarily based on standards and indicators systems by ANECA (National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation adapted to the Military Higher Education, but also it was consider other standards by international agencies and evaluative institutions, such as University of Chile, University of Paraguay, Canarias Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation and Agency for Quality Education System University of Castilla y León. The analysis realize a usual
This book critically examines quality and quality assurance in the Ethiopian higher education context. More specifically, the main research problem that guided the study was: ‘how and under what circumstances do the public Universities in Ethiopia assure quality of their education, and what
Wali, Andy Fred; Wright, Len Tiu
This study with international students in the UK Higher Education (HE) sector adopts a qualitative research approach to examine the impact of customer relationship management (CRM) and service quality. From the literature six construct themes for measuring customer relationship management were suggested and the interview data with focus groups from a university in the north of Britain were analysed using a thematic template analysis technique. The study showed that an effective CRM programme ...
Gage, Anna D; Leslie, Hannah H; Bitton, Asaf; Jerome, J Gregory; Thermidor, Roody; Joseph, Jean Paul; Kruk, Margaret E
To develop a composite measure of primary care quality and apply it to Haiti's primary care system. Using the Primary Health Care Performance Initiative's framework, we defined four domains of primary care service delivery: (i) accessible care; (ii) effective service delivery; (iii) management and organization; and (iv) primary care functions. We gave each primary care facility in Haiti a quality score for each domain and overall, with poor, fair and good quality indicated by scores of 0.00-0.49, 0.50-0.74 and 0.75-1.00, respectively. We quantified access and effective access to primary care as the proportions of the population within 5 km of any primary care facility and a good facility, respectively. Of the 786 primary care facilities in Haiti in 2013, only 332 (43%) facilities were classified as good for accessible care. Fewer facilities were classified as good in the domains of effective service delivery (30; 4%), management and organization (91; 12%) and primary care functions (43; 5%). Although about 91% of the population lived within 5 km of a primary care facility, only an estimated 23% of the entire population - including just 5% of the rural population - had access to primary care of good quality. Despite an extensive network of health facilities, a minority of Haitians had access to a primary care facility of good quality. Such facilities were especially scarce in rural areas. Similar systematic analyses of the quality of primary care could inform national efforts to strengthen health systems.
Campbell, Lesley G.; Mehtani, Siya; Dozier, Mary E.; Rinehart, Janice
Here we present the first empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that a gender-heterogeneous problem-solving team generally produced journal articles perceived to be higher quality by peers than a team comprised of highly-performing individuals of the same gender. Although women were historically underrepresented as principal investigators of working groups, their frequency as PIs at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis is now comparable to the national frequencies in biology and they are now equally qualified, in terms of their impact on the accumulation of ecological knowledge (as measured by the h-index). While women continue to be underrepresented as working group participants, peer-reviewed publications with gender-heterogeneous authorship teams received 34% more citations than publications produced by gender-uniform authorship teams. This suggests that peers citing these publications perceive publications that also happen to have gender-heterogeneous authorship teams as higher quality than publications with gender uniform authorship teams. Promoting diversity not only promotes representation and fairness but may lead to higher quality science. PMID:24205372
Background: Drug therapy can improve a patient's quality of life and health outcomes if only used properly. However, data on prescription quality at primary health care facilities in Tanzania is scanty. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of drug prescriptions in selected health care facilities in two districts of ...
Freitas,Maria do Carmo; Canha, Nuno; Martinho, Maria; Almeida-Silva, Marina; Almeida, Susana Marta; Pegas, Priscilla; Alves, Célia; Pio, Casimiro; Trancoso, Maria; Sousa, Rita; Mouro, Filomena; Contreiras, Teresa
Clean air is a basic requirement of life (World Health Organization, 2010). The Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to an increasing concern within the scientific community on the effects of indoor air quality upon health, especially as people tend to spend more time indoors than outdoors (Franck et al., 2011; Canha et al., 2010; WHO, 2010; Environmental Protection Agency, 2010; Saliba et al., 2009; Fraga et al., 2008; Fromme et al., 2007; Guo et al., 2004; ...
Full Text Available Brazilian higher education has doubled its size in the 1990s, going from 1.5 million to more than 3 million students in the period. This expansion was mostly due to the growth of private education, which, in 2002, accounted for about two thirds of the enrollment. Is expansion making higher education more accessible to persons coming from the poorer segments of society? Is the quality of higher education suffering by the speed of this expansion? Is Brazil educating enough qualified persons to attend to the country's needs to participate in the new, knowledge-intensive and global economy? What public policies should be implemented, in order to foster the values of social equity and relevance? What are the policy implications of these developments? This article looks at the available evidence, and suggests some answers to these questions.
Kennedy, Denise M; Nordrum, Jon T; Edwards, Frederick D; Caselli, Richard J; Berry, Leonard L
A framework for improving health care service quality was implemented at a 12-provider family medicine practice in 2010. A national patient satisfaction research vendor conducted weekly telephone surveys of 840 patients served by that practice: 280 patients served in 2009, and 560 served during 2010 and 2011. After the framework was implemented, the proportion of "excellent" ratings of provider service (the highest rating on a 5-point scale) increased by 5% to 9%, most notably thoroughness (P = .04), listening (P = .04), and explaining (P = .04). Other improvements included prompt test result notification and telephone staff courtesy (each by 10%, P = .02), as well as teamwork (by 8%, P = .04). Overall quality increased by 10% (P = .01), moving the practice from the 68th to the 91st percentile of medical practices in the research vendor's database. Improvements in patient satisfaction suggest that this framework may be useful in value-based payment models. © 2014 by the American College of Medical Quality.
Berg, M.J. van den; Bakker, D.H. de
Background: GPs play a pivotal role in the Dutch healthcare system. Since GPs have a so-called gatekeeper-function, the overwhelming majority of medical problems is served by GPs. The Inspectorate of Health Care (IHC) is charged with the supervision of public health, including the quality of care
Full Text Available Socio-economic situation, liberalisation of life and commercialisation and legal regulations implemented with the amendment of the Higher Education Law pose new difficult challenges for universities. Higher education environment and legal regulations show numerous contradictions which make researchers and teaching staff's work difficult and reduce possibilities for high quality education. The author draws attention to selected issues (dilemmas pertaining to research and education at a university, its operation and organisation, while emphasising threat to academic traditions, trust and authority of a teacher. This necessity is strengthened by the social and economic changes. The competence of a teacher has appeared in the course of the process teaching, therefore the teachers’ education as a rule in a relation teacher-student.
Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José C; Cabanach, Ramón G; González-Pienda, Julio A; Rodríguez, Susana; Rosário, Pedro; Muñoz-Cadavid, María A; Cerezo, Rebeca
In this paper, the relations between academic goals and various indicators that define the quality of the learning process are analyzed. The purpose was to determine to what extent high, moderate, or low levels of academic goals were positively or negatively related to effort regulation, the value assigned to academic tasks, meta-cognitive self-regulation, self-efficacy, beliefs about learning control, and management of time and study environment. The investigation was carried out with a sample of 632 university students (70% female and 30% male) and mean age of 21.22 (SD=2.2).The results show that learning goals, or task orientation, are positively related to all the indictors of learning quality considered herein. Although for other kinds of goals-work-avoidance goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals-significant relations were not found with all the indicators, there was a similar tendency of significant results in all cases; the higher the levels of these goals, the lower the levels of the indicators of learning quality.
Prueangphitchayathon, Setthiya; Tesaputa, Kowat; Somprach, Kanokorn
The present study seeks to develop a total quality management (TQM) system that can be applied to primary schools. The approach focuses on customer orientation, total involvement of all constituencies and continuous improvement. TQM principles were studied and synthesized according to case studies of the best practices in 3 primary schools (small,…
Amalia N. DUȚU
Full Text Available Education and research are important pillars of society based on knowledge, aiming the ensurance of personal development of every citizen, the prosperity of society and sustainable development. A priority in its framework should be the education for labour market under the conditions of ensuring equal opportunities. The finality of education for the labour market should be the preparation for the permanent participation in the national and European labour market, the education being a preventing poverty factor. The purpose of this paper is to determine the differences between "ideal quality" of the higher education system from the point of view of the main stakeholders, namely direct clients (graduates and the actual quality appreciated by them based on their experience with the labour market. The research results highlight the existence of some gaps between the skills and abilities effectively developed and those that should be developed in accordance with the requirements of employers, in graduates’ opinion, formed on the basis of experience gained as employees or job applicants in the first year after graduation.
Hegewald, Matthew J; Gallo, Heather M; Wilson, Emily L
Spirometry is necessary for the optimal management of patients with respiratory disease. The quality of spirometry performed in the primary care setting has been inconsistent. We aimed to evaluate spirometer accuracy, determine the clinical significance of inaccurate spirometers, and assess the quality of spirograms obtained in primary care offices. We tested 17 spirometers used in primary care offices with a waveform generator; accuracy and precision were assessed using American Thoracic Society criteria. The clinical significance of inaccurate instruments was determined by applying the FEV 1 /FVC error from an obstructed waveform to a clinical data set. Spirogram quality was determined by grading spirograms using acceptability and repeatability criteria. The relationship between the number of tests performed by a clinic and test quality was assessed. Only 1 of 17 spirometers met accuracy criteria, with mean errors for FVC, FEV 1 , and FEV 1 /FVC ranging from 1.7 to 3.1%. Applying the percentage error to a clinical data set resulted in 28% of tests being recategorized from obstructed to nonobstructed. Of the spirograms reviewed, 60% were considered acceptable for clinical use. There was no association between the number of tests performed by a clinic and spirometry quality. Most spirometers tested were not accurate. The magnitude of the errors resulted in significant changes in the categorization of patients with obstruction. Acceptable-quality tests were produced for only 60% of patients. Our results raise concerns regarding the utility of spirometry obtained in primary care offices without greater attention to quality assurance and training.
Yuguero, Oriol; Marsal, Josep Ramon; Buti, Miquel; Esquerda, Montserrat; Soler-González, Jorge
The doctor-patient relationship is a crucial aspect of primary-care practice Research on associations between quality of care provision and burnout and empathy in a primary care setting could improve this relationship. Cross-sectional study of family physicians (108) and nurses (112) of twenty-two primary care centers in the health district of Lleida, Spain. Empathy and burnout were measured using the Jefferson Physician Empathy Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory, while quality of care delivery was evaluated using Quality Standard Indicator scores. JPSE and MBI results were grouped into low, medium, and high scores to analyze associations with QSI scores and sociodemographic variables. The mean QSI score recorded for the family physicians and nurses was 665 (out of a total of 1000). Higher, albeit insignificant, QSI scores were observed for practitioners with high burnout. No differences were observed according to level of empathy (p > 0.05). The differences with respect to sex, age, and area of practice (urban vs rural center) were not significant. Practitioners with low empathy had higher QSI scores than those with high empathy (672.8 vs. 654.4) while those with high burnout had higher scores than those with low burnout (702 vs. 671). Burnout and empathy did not significantly influence quality of care delivery scores in 22 primary care centers. More studies, however, are needed to investigate the unexpected trend observed that suggests that physicians and nurses with higher levels of burnout provide higher quality care.
Bent, Gert Jan; Bakx, Anouke; den Brok, Perry
In this study teacher educators' beliefs concerning primary geography education have been investigated and compared with primary school teachers' beliefs. In this study 45 teacher educators and 489 primary school teachers completed a questionnaire, and nine teacher educators have been interviewed as well. It has been found that teacher educators…
Chen, Alex Y; Schrager, Sheree M; Mangione-Smith, Rita
A well-recognized gap exists in assessing and improving the quality of care for medically complex patients. Our objective was to examine evidence for primary care based on the patient-centered medical home model and to identify valid and meaningful quality measures for use in complex pediatric patients. We conducted literature searches on Medline and the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse for existing measures, as well as evidence to inform the development of new quality measures. We used a 3-step process to select relevant sources from published literature: (1) the titles were screened by 2 independent reviewers; (2) the abstracts were reviewed for quality-of-care contents or constructs; and (3) full-text articles were obtained and reviewed for measure specification. All materials were reviewed for the Oxford Centre For Evidence-Based Medicine level of evidence and for relevance to primary care of complex pediatric patients. A national expert panel was convened to evaluate and rate the measures by using the Rand/University of California Los Angeles Appropriateness Method. We presented 74 quality measures to the expert panel for review and discussion. The panel rated and accepted 35 measures as valid and feasible for assessing primary care quality in complex pediatric patients. The final set of quality measures was grouped in the following domains: primary care-general (14), patient/family-centered care (8), chronic care (2), coordination of care (9), and transition of care (2). By using the patient-centered medical home framework of accessible, continuous, family-centered, coordinated, and culturally effective care, a national expert panel selected 35 primary care quality measures for complex pediatric patients.
Laura Belkis Parada Romero
Full Text Available Due to the globalization of education, it has become prevalent to strengthen the quality systems to ensure that educational actors in higher education institutions are the best. In this context teachers are given a main role since they are cornerstones in educational processes. Currently, teacher quality is assessed through an assessment or evaluation system. Almost every university evaluates its teachers, but there is no legal regulation on how to do it, in most institutions there is a professional in charge of designing and applying assessment instruments according to the authors he/she prefers. In most universities, on the one hand, it is used a traditional questionnaire aiming to collect data about dimensions associated with teaching, on the other hand, there is another option in which assessment models include self-evaluation, as in some cases in Chile. That’s why one of the concerns of this research is to propose guidelines for a more qualitative and formative assessment not exclusively following political parameters –based on administrative decisions–, but following emerging proposals with a deeper analysis. Nowadays the main actors in teacher evaluation are teachers, students and administrative staff, every six months these actors are evaluated by using an assessment tool that they usually do not know. The research investigates the perception actors in teacher evaluation have regarding its objectives, methods and stages, so they put forward ideas on how to restructure the current institutional assessment and propose improvements aiming at both the quantitative aspect and the qualitative analysis of performances and skills.
Callahan, C M
Two million older Americans suffer from depression annually. Depression causes more functional impairment than many other common medical conditions and older adults have the highest rate of suicide in the United States. Although many of these patients fail to seek or fail to receive care for depression, the majority will be seen in primary care for the treatment of other conditions. To review the health services research on quality improvement for late life depression. Qualitative literature review. During the past 30 years, multiple educational and quality improvement interventions have been designed and tested to improve the recognition and treatment of depression in primary care settings. The findings from this large body of health services research suggest that: (1) the outcome of major depression in the usual care of primary care is typically poor; this is particularly true of late life depression; (2) informational support provided to primary care physicians is necessary but insufficient to improve the outcomes of late life depression in primary care; achieving guideline-level therapy requires the substantial participation of an informed and motivated patient working in concert with a health care team and health care system designed to care for chronic conditions; (3) up to 30% of older primary care patients will fail to respond to excellent guideline-level therapy provided in primary care; and (4) the latest quality improvement efforts focus not only on the clinical skills of primary care physicians, but also on patient's self-care and on innovative strategies to improve the system of care. Late life depression is often a chronic disease and outcomes research demonstrates that quality improvement efforts that focus resources on improving systems of care and the active participation of patients offer the best evidence of improved patient outcomes.
Krczal, Eva; Mock, Tina
In Austria, the recent evolution of primary healthcare centres offers a new alternative to the people. In order to become attractive to the people the service quality dimension offers various opportunities for Primary Care Centres. Incorporating the principle of Integrated Care they offer more convenient opening times and a better continuity of care than practices working on an individual basis. Considering the fact that people have a free choice of visiting care providers the service dimensi...
Plentara, Radosław; Knyszyńska, Anna; Bazydło, Marta; Zabielska, Paulina; Kim, Andrzej; Kotwas, Artur; Rotter, Iwona; Kamola, Jolanta; Karakiewicz, Beata
Primary health care centers are subject to supply and demand, while being the foundation of the health care system in the country. The aim of the study determination of satisfaction level of the patients with basic health care services. 124 persons we studied using a standardized questionnaire EUROPEP, developed by The European Working Party on Quality in Family Practice. Experiences 68% of respondents indicate the kindness and helpfulness of nurses POS, and more than half of the respondents (52%) said the same in the case of receptionists. Most of the respondents had a positive opinion about the behavior of GPs emphasizing their delicacy during the medical examinations (83%), respect for intimacy (82%), as well as a benevolent attitude towards patients (77%). However, despite the positive assessment of behavior, doctors in the opinion of 52% of the respondents did not offer them any preventive examinations, and in many cases (43%) did not pass the information regarding the healthy lifestyle. Every third patient (32%) did not receive information from doctor about the side effects of drugs. The results showed that significantly fewer than half of the GPs was interested in the sphere of psychosocial of their patients. Only 27% of respondents received from the doctor's help in dealing with fears about health. An even smaller percentage of respondents experienced interest in respect of their personal (23%) or material (23%) situation, while questions about family members from doctors heard 35% of patients. 1. The overall level of patient satisfaction with primary care services is high. Positively evaluated is the availability of a doctor, kindness, interest in health issues. 2. Patients experience a deficit of prevention and health promotion and they consider inadequate medical attention psychosocial problems. 3. It is necessary increased involvement of staff in health promotion and health prevention education through training in interpersonal communication. 4
Toci, Ashley L; Hyer, J Madison; Silver, Richard M; Nietert, Paul J; Hant, Faye N
Among patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), early recognition of potentially life-threatening organ involvement is critical. Because prompt recognition of early signs of organ involvement can dramatically alter a patient׳s outcome, it is crucial that patients and primary care providers (PCPs) recognize these symptoms. We conducted a survey of patients with SSc regarding their perceptions of the quality of their primary care, and whether or not they perceive the quality of their primary care to be impaired by their scleroderma diagnosis. A mail survey was sent to 525 patients with SSc seen at the Medical University of South Carolina. Questionnaire items addressed demographics and perceptions of their quality of their primary care. Of n = 140 respondents, most (74.5%) did not feel as though their diagnosis of SSc has resulted in barriers to appropriate or satisfactory care, and most (81.3%) answered that they had not ever felt as though their medical concerns were not being addressed because they had SSc. Perceptions of barriers were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with female sex and younger age, along with poorer overall quality of care and satisfaction with their primary care. Most patients with SSc value the quality of their primary care. However, some patients with SSc feel that their PCPs do not adequately monitor their blood pressure, reflux symptoms or shortness of breath. These results highlight the importance of PCPs in the overall care of patients with SSc and the need for continued education regarding close monitoring of signs and symptoms suggestive of possible life-threatening internal organ involvement. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
La, Justin; Wang, Tracy S; Hammad, Abdulrahman Y; Burgardt, Laura; Doffek, Kara; Carr, Azadeh A; Shaker, Joseph L; Carroll, Ty B; Evans, Douglas B; Yen, Tina W F
This prospective survey study assessed changes in sleep quality in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism after parathyroidectomy. Patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism (n = 110) or thyroidectomy for benign euthyroid disease (control group; n = 45) were recruited between June 2013 and June 2015 and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index preoperatively and at 1- and 6 months postoperatively. "Poor" sleep quality was defined as a score >5; a clinically important and relevant improvement was a ≥3-point decrease. Preoperatively, parathyroid patients had worse sleep quality than thyroid patients (mean 8.1 vs 5.3; P sleep quality (P = .03). Postoperatively, only parathyroid patients demonstrated improvement in sleep quality; mean scores did not differ between the parathyroid and thyroid groups at 1 month (6.3 vs 5.3; P = .12) or 6 months (5.8 vs 4.6; P = .11). The proportion of patients with a clinically important improvement in sleep quality was greater in the parathyroid group at 1 month (37% vs 10%; P sleep quality between the 2 groups at 1 month (50% vs 40%; P = .32) and 6 months (40% vs 29%; P = .22). More than two-thirds of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism report poor sleep quality. After parathyroidectomy, over one-third experienced improvement, typically within the first month postoperatively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wu, Xiang; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yi
Teaching quality assessment is a judgment process by using the theory and technology of education evaluation system to test whether the process and result of teaching have got to a certain quality level. Many vocational schools have established teaching quality assessment systems of their own characteristics as the basic means to do self-examination and teaching behavior adjustment. Combined with the characteristics and requirements of the vocational education and by analyzing the problems exist in contemporary vocational school, form the perspective of the content, assessment criteria and feedback system of the teaching quality assessment to optimize the system, to complete the teaching quality information net and offer suggestions for feedback channels, to make the institutionalization, standardization of the vocational schools and indeed to make contribution for the overall improvement of the quality of vocational schools.
Hofman, Roelande H.; de Boom, Jan; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan
This article presents findings of research into the quality control (QC) of schools from 2001-2006. In 2001 several targets for QC were set and the progress of 939 primary schools is presented. Furthermore, using cluster analysis, schools are classified into four QC-types that differ in their focus on school (self) evaluation and school…
Toremen, Fatih; Karakus, Mehmet; Yasan, Tezcan
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent of total quality management (TQM) practices in primary schools based on teachers' perceptions, and how their perceptions are related to different variables. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, a survey based descriptive scanning model was used. This study was carried out in…
Chaikoed, Wisithsak; Sirisuthi, Chaiyuth; Numnaphol, Kochaporn
This research aims to study the network and collaborative factors that enhance quality education of primary schools. Different methods were used in this research work: (1) Related approaches, theories, and research literatures and (2) Scholars were interviewed on 871 issues in the form of questionnaire, and the collaborative network factors were…
Asiyai, Romina Ifeoma
This paper discusses the roles of stakeholders in improving quality of university education in Nigeria. Internal and external stakeholders are identified and the various roles they could play in improving the quality of university education are discussed. The paper contends that continuous and holistic improvement in university education system…
This study sought to accomplish three objectives: to examine the expansion of access to university education in Kenya; to examine the implications of expansion of access for the quality of university education; and to develop a model showing interrelationships between the expansion of access and quality assurance, based ...
Alsaif, Fatimah; Clementking, Arockisamy
Online education programs have been growing rapidly. While it is somehow difficult to specifically quantify quality, many recommendations have been suggested to specify and demonstrate quality of online education touching on common areas of program enhancement and administration. To design a model
Clery, Roger G.
This paper describes and explains the 20 elements of the International Organization for Standards 9000 (ISO 9000) series, a model for quality assurance in the business processes of design/development, production, installation and servicing. The standards were designed in 1987 to provide a common denominator for business quality particularly to…
Pérez Gama, Jesús Alfonso; Vega Vega, Anselmo
We look for the High Quality Accreditation of tertiary education in two ways: one, involving large amount of information, including issues such as self-assessment, high quality, statistics, indicators, surveys, and field work (process engineering), during several periods of time; and the second, in relation to the information contained there about…
Quality has been a controversial issue in education generally and Business Education in particular. Business Education is aimed at equipping the recipients with the relevant knowledge, skills, attitude and values that will enable them function effectively as citizens. The quality of Business Teachers is paramount to the ...
Cornesky, Robert A.; McCool, Samuel A.
This book describes the steps and tools of Total Quality Management (TQM) and their use in the academic units of colleges and universities for Total Quality Improvement (TQI), illustrated by a case study from the School of Arts & Sciences at a state university. Section 1 explains how to: (1) identify problems contributing to non-value-added…
Luijten, B.; Visser, J.
We performed an empirical study of the relation between technical quality of software products and the defect resolution performance of their maintainers. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that ratings for source code maintainability, as employed by the SIG quality model, are correlated with
Bijlsma, D.; Ferreira, M.A.; Luijten, B.; Visser, J.
We performed an empirical study of the relation between technical quality of software products and the issue resolution performance of their maintainers. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that ratings for source code maintainability, as employed by the Software Improvement Group (SIG) quality
adequacy of these initiatives needs to be evaluated in the context of institutional transformation. By introducing a quality assurance framework, institutions can ensure that access initiatives are institutionalised. Conceptions of access, however, need to be situated within appropriate definitions of quality. This would enable
... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air quality...
Simou, Effie; Pliatsika, Paraskevi; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Roumeliotou, Anastasia
Data have indicated that countries with a strong system of Primary Health Care (PHC) are more likely to have efficient health systems and better health outcomes than countries that focus strongly on hospital services. The aim of the article was to systematically review implemented quality projects used for evaluation of quality in PHC services. A systematic literature review was conducted via MEDLINE to identify papers referring to international or national PHC quality assessment projects, published in English from 1990 to 2010. Projects were included if they had been implemented, had a holistic approach, and reported specifications of the quality indicators used. Sixteen publications were considered eligible for further analyses, referring to 10 relevant projects and a total of 556 indicators. Number and content of indicators and their domains varied across projects. Regarding raw data, lack of standardization of collection tools between projects could lead to invalid comparisons. In areas that international projects operate in parallel to national initiatives, there may be problems regarding expenses and burden of data collection, which might create competing interests and low quality of information. Further actions for alignment of quality projects on primary health care are required, for future results to become comparable.
... RIN 9000-AM65 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Higher-Level Contract Quality Requirements AGENCY...(s). Examples of higher-level quality standards include, but are not limited to, ISO 9001, ASQ E...
Pedrosa, Alex; Näslund, Dag; Jasmand, Claudia
analysis of 134 case study based articles published in six leading logistics and supply chain management (SCM) journals between 1998 and 2010 is used to assess and evaluate the quality of the case study based research approach as documented in these publications. Findings – This research provides...... to address to ensure high quality of the case study based research approach in published articles. Research limitations/implications – This study is limited to the analysis of published articles in six logistics and SCM journals. Further research should investigate different journals in logistics and other......Purpose – This paper assesses the quality of the case study based research approach as documented in articles published during the past 13 years, based on a synthesis of indicators for the quality criteria truth-value, transferability, and traceability. Design/methodology/approach – Content...
The universities have to assure the highest level of quality management, to help teachers and students to acquire the European knowledge. The universities must be encouraged to develop better for the promotion of academic and civic values. However, the reality is often quite different: we find that the phrase "quality management" is understood differently, having different connotations ,depending on the beliefs and values of the institutional managers, but also depending on the financial reso...
Jørgensen, Malene Dahl; Sparre Kristensen, Regitze; Wimpf, Alexandre; Delplace, Stefan
The report is the project's first outcome, and provides an overview of quality tools, quality models and quality labels, currently in use in (professional) higher education. It is followed by a gap analysis as regards the Standards and Guidelines for quality assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG), and the identified characteristics…
Neelaveni, C.; Manimaran S.
Quality standards are evaluated by the Higher Educational Institutions by self evaluation at different levels and are also assessed by external agencies. Application of quality standards in administrative practices have been associated with the quality of higher education. To improve the quality of administrative practices, evaluation scales are…
Pratasavitskaya, Halina; Stensaker, Bjorn
The article analyses how quality management is understood in higher education research. By reviewing a number of academic contributions addressing quality management issues in "Quality in Higher Education" from 1995-2008, the article identifies central concepts associated with quality management, discusses whether there are commonalities to be…
Nabaho, Lazarus; Aguti, Jessica Norah; Oonyu, Joseph
Objective: Since the 1990s studies on how stakeholders in higher education perceive quality have burgeoned. Nevertheless, the majority of studies on perception of quality in higher education focus on students and employers. The few studies on academics' perceptions of quality in higher education treat academics as a homogeneous group and,…
Akalu, Girmaw Abebe
This article chronicles the key challenges facing Ethiopia as it embarks on an ambitious, ideologically-driven and aggressive expansion of its higher education system in an effort to address its national goals of economic growth and poverty reduction. It is argued that the urge for higher education expansion has placed undue pressures particularly…
Conclusion: Prescribing of higher number of drugs than the WHO recommendations and overuse of antibiotics is still a problem at health care facilities in Mwanza Tanzania. The frequency of occurrence of prescription errors found during the study was considerably high. Keywords: drug prescription, primary health care ...
Y. Hefer; M. C. Cant
Competition in the educational market is increasing at a rapid rate. With e-education and the increasing globalisation taking place, universities are competing more and more for student numbers. Service quality has become one of those factors that differentiate institutions from one another. As a result, higher education institutions can use service quality as a competitive advantage to ensure that they stay the first choice in the minds of potential students. It is a known fact that many con...
Full Text Available Quality has always been one of the most important objectives in Romanian education at all levels, crossing through and uniting the whole process. Even the multiple changes taking place in this field, some not very inspired, let alone inspirational, are, perhaps, the very proof of genuine preoccupation towards bettering things, which means basically a preoccupation towards quality. The paper focuses on some qualitative aspects in the Romanian tuition system from a multicultural perspective provided by both Romanian and foreign students studying together in ASE. The data was collected by means of questionnaires and direct observation during Business English seminars.
Leticia do Nascimento
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to evaluate the quality of health care for children and adolescents living with HIV, among the different types of Primary Health Care services of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. Method: cross-sectional study, developed with 118 Primary Health Care professionals. The Primary Care Evaluation Instrument, Professional version, was used. For verification of the variables associated with the high score, Poisson Regression was used. Results: the professionals of the Family Health Strategy, when compared to those of the Primary Health Units, obtained a greater degree of orientation to primary care, both for the overall score and for the derived attributes score, as well as for the integrality and community orientation attributes. A specialization in Primary Health Care, other employment and a statutory work contract were associated with quality of care. Conclusion: the Family Health Strategy was shown to provide higher quality health care for children and adolescents living with HIV, however, the coverage is still low. The need was highlighted to expand this coverage and invest in vocational training directed toward Primary Care and making the professionals effective, through public selection procedure, as well as an improvement program that recognizes the care requirements, in these settings, of children and adolescents infected with HIV.
Full Text Available The article presents briefly the complexity of the concept of “excellence” in higher education. Taking into account this reality, the fundamental question is how agencies can consider this complexity in building up criteria on excellence and the use of the concept “excellence” in their improvement strategies and accountability processes in the sector of higher education. Public-private nature of higher education and its growing internationalisation have significant impact on how excellence in education is described and promoted as a tool.
Hammonds, Frank; Mariano, Gina J.; Ammons, Gracie; Chambers, Sheridan
Student evaluations of teaching (SET) are widely used in both North America and the UK as a means of documenting and improving teaching quality. This article discusses current research on SET administration and interpretation in both regions. Sections of the article are dedicated to various problems associated with SETs and how these may be…
Bhengu, Theo; Cele, Nhlanhla; Menon, Kirti
Value for money as one of the principles of quality assurance in education has often been perceived and significantly misconstrued as placing emphasis on financial efficiency. This mechanistic view of "value for money" in South Africa has been given impetus by what Melck (2001) calls managerial practices and what Cele and Menon (2006)…
... institutions of learning in Ghana using data from three (3) public universities. Using a mixed method, the study employed both exploratory and causal design to investigate the dimensions of Quality of Leadership from the Ghanaian perspective. The paper proceeded with an exploration into the definition and dimensions of ...
Sabina Đonlagić; Samira Fazlić
Economy in Bosnia and Herzegovina is striving towards growth and increased employment and it has been proven by empirical studies worldwide that higher education contributes to socio-economic development of a country...
Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris
The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient-centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients' perceptions rather than expectations. THIS paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations-perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris
Abstract Context The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient‐centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. Objective To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. Strategy SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. Results The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients’ perceptions rather than expectations. Discussion and conclusions This paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations–perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. PMID:22296402
Westerheijden, Donald F.; Kohoutek, Jan; Eggins, Heather
The Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG for short) have been part of the regulative infrastructure of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) since 2005 (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, 2009).
Otegui, Javier; Guralnick, Robert P
We present a REST web service to assess the geospatial quality of primary biodiversity data. It enables access to basic and advanced functions to detect completeness and consistency issues as well as general errors in the provided record or set of records. The API uses JSON for data interchange and efficient parallelization techniques for fast assessments of large datasets. The Geospatial Data Quality API is part of the VertNet set of APIs. It can be accessed at http://api-geospatial.vertnet-portal.appspot.com/geospatial and is already implemented in the VertNet data portal for quality reporting. Source code is freely available under GPL license from http://www.github.com/vertnet/api-geospatial firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.
This paper aims to discuss access to, and use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in teaching and learning in higher education institutions in Nigeria. It discusses how some factors hinder or encourage the use of computers for teaching and learning by academic staff and students in institutions in Nigeria.
The economic modernization drive of the 21st century has not only fostered the growth of a market economy but has also created the need for a structural change in education (Zha, 2006). Mok (2009) explains that when the Chinese government realized that the state alone could not keep up with the increasing demand for higher education, it allowed…
With the expansion of higher education across the globe in response to the creation of knowledge economies and learning societies, governments have become increasingly interested in ensuring value for money from their investments. In determining their comparative economic advantage, nation states have increasingly focused on the…
Koni, Aida; Zainal, Khalim; Ibrahim, Maznah
The history of the Palestinian universities is relatively recent; however their impact on the Palestinians case and wellbeing is undeniable. Today, almost forty years later the Palestinian universities like many higher education institutions in the region and worldwide tussle to fulfil the students' demands on education while trying to maintain…
Full Text Available Objective: Since the 1990s studies on how stakeholders in higher education perceive quality have burgeoned. Nevertheless, the majority of studies on perception of quality in higher education focus on students and employers. The few studies on academics’ perceptions of quality in higher education treat academics as a homogeneous group and, therefore, do not point out cross-disciplinary perspectives in perceptions of quality. This article explores how academics across six disciplines perceive quality in higher education. Method: The article is anchored in the interpretivist paradigm. Data was collected from 14 purposely selected academics at Makerere University in Uganda and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: The findings show that academics perceive quality in higher education as transformation, fitness for purpose, and exceptional. The findings further demonstrate that a stakeholder group or an individual stakeholder can subscribe to a notion of quality in higher education but voice divergent views on its variants. Similarly, the academic discipline, the perceived purpose of higher education, and the problems within a higher education system have an influence on stakeholders’ conception of quality in higher education. Conclusions: From the findings it can be inferred that quality in higher education defies a single definition and that stakeholders’ perceptions of quality do not take place in a vacuum. Implication for Theory and/or Practice: The multidimensional nature of quality and the contestations around it necessitate a multidimensional approach to assuring and assessing it.
Full Text Available Organizational performance is maximized when it is based on the management and sharing of knowledge within a culture of continuous learning, innovation and improvement. The methodology embodies the principle of self-evaluation or self-assessment. The higher education institutions would learn from feedback by reviewing impact of strategies and actions, trends in results and by comparing through benchmarking. The focus of this paper is the implementation of EFQM excellence model in the higher education (HE sector. This paper describes the specific issues in implementing the model in HE institutions, with a particular focus on the choice of self-assessment methodology. The early signs are that EFQM excellence model self-assessment can help to produce a more customer-oriented culture in HE institutions, providing that the lessons learned from the wider public sector are put into practice.
Full Text Available The article deals with the progress made to develop external and internal quality assurance systems in Polish and Ukrainian higher education in the European Higher Education Area background. The focus of the paper is on the extent to which quality assurance systems in these countries are following the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area. Furthermore, internal and external quality assur-ance in the European context is presented in the article. The authors of the article also conducted a comparative analysis of quality assurance systems in Polish and Ukrainian higher education.
Hall, Molly Reas
The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of front-line faculty members in the United States related to quality and quality management in higher education. The study's three research questions were: (1) How do front-line faculty members in the United States define quality in higher education? (2) How do front-line faculty members in the…
Quality practices in higher education involve more than mere compliance with standards and technical mandates; given the complexity of the decisions involved in quality in higher education, this concept, quality, can be analyzed as symbol and performance. This paper utilizes translation as heuristic to analyze the implementation of US…
Steinhardt, Isabel; Schneijderberg, Christian; Götze, Nicolai; Baumann, Janosch; Krücken, Georg
The quality assurance of teaching and learning as part of universities' governance and quality management has become a major subject in higher education and higher education politics worldwide. In addition, increasing academic attention has been paid to the quality assurance of teaching and learning, as is evident from the growing number of…
This article explores the wicked problem of quality in higher education, arguing for a more robust theorising of the subject at national, institutional and local department level. The focus of the discussion rests on principles for theorising in more rigorous ways about the multidimensional issue of quality. Quality in higher education is proposed…
Narimantas Kazimieras Paliulis
Full Text Available Conditioned by globalisation and constant change, higher education institutions (HEIs are forced to pursue new instruments for quality assurance in higher education. States seem to pursue this aim by attempting to create an efficiently operating system of higher education that satisfies needs of diverse societal groups. Quality dimension is the most important element of efficient and effective higher education. From the perspective of a state, assessment and monitoring of quality are instruments for the management of processes of higher education. The article substantiates these statements using the evolution of the dimension of quality in the European and Lithuanian higher education in the course of the Bologna Process. The article also presents a benchmarking method and discusses its development and application tendencies in business organisations. Also, it looks at possibilities to apply this method in higher education. The main aim of this article is to explore benchmarking as an effective instrument for the improvement of performance quality in HEIs and complement the already implemented quality management systems. Another aim is to suggest this method to national agencies for quality assurance in higher education for monitoring and analysis of qualitative changes on the systematic level. The object of the article is the improvement of performance quality in HEIs. Benchmarking is proposed for the use in higher education on the institutional level as an instrument that complements presently introduced quality management systems in Lithuanian HEIs. This way, it will contribute to the formation of the culture of quality in higher education.
Bulut, Olcay Cem; Wallner, Frank; Oladokun, Dare; Kayser, Claire; Plath, Michaela; Schulz, Eric; Plinkert, Peter Karl; Baumann, Ingo
Health-related quality of life measurements are gaining in importance in clinical medicine. Little is known about the long-term quality of life changes after septorhinoplasty. This study was designed to analyse the long-term quality of life impacts of septorhinoplasty, using disease-specific instruments-rhinoplasty outcome evaluation (ROE) and Functional Rhinoplasty Outcome Inventory-17 (FROI-17); as well as a generic instrument-Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). Patients completed the FROI-17, the ROE and the SF-36 preoperatively and at 12 and 60 months postoperatively. General demographic and clinical information (age, gender, allergies, medication, medical and surgical history) were collected from all patients. We report a significant increase in disease-specific QOL after primary septorhinoplasty (as measured with the ROE & FROI-17) and in two scales of the SF-36 generic instrument (role-functioning physical and mental health) 1 year after surgery. Our patients showed further significant increase in disease-specific QOL (FROI-17) after their primary septorhinoplasty (1 year vs. 5 years postoperatively). SF-36 results showed significant improvements 5 years postoperatively (compared to preoperative scores) in six out of eight scales (physical functioning, role-functioning physical, bodily pain, vitality, social functioning and mental health). Septorhinoplasty can improve disease-specific and non-disease-specific QOL in the short- and long-term postoperative period. These improvements remain measurable 5 years after surgery.
This article defines total quality philosophy, its transformations and significance for study quality in higher education institution. It reveals the concepts, principles and problems of study quality management and provides overview of implementation of study quality management at today's European universities. The experience of two European…
Giannakis, Mihalis; Bullivant, Nicola
This article explores several aspects of service quality for the provision of higher education. Alongside the trend of the massification of higher education over the past two decades, higher education institutions are required to review quality across a range of outputs, besides teaching and learning. The study was undertaken within the…
Assaad, Ragui; Badawy, Eslam; Krafft, Caroline
A number of reasons have been proposed for the poor quality of higher education in the Arab world, including the poor incentive structures of public higher education institutions. The expansion of private higher education has been hailed as an important part of enhancing incentives and thus improving education quality. However, it is not clear…
Al-Shafei, Ahmad I; Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid; Al-Qumaizi, Khalid I; El-Mardi, Abdelmoniem S
The field of higher education has been progressing at a rapid pace in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia over the past decade, with doubling the number of government and private universities and colleges. Quality and accreditation are of great importance to higher education institutes world-wide. Thus, developing a generic model for quality management in higher education is badly needed in the country.
Full Text Available Higher education has a very strategic position to determine the quality of human capital. Therefore, a higher education must always strive to provide quality assurance services to the interested parties. The more quality customer service is given, the more college customer will satiesfied that have an impact on the increasing investment of the human resources (Human Capital.Keywords: Higher Education, Human Capital
Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.; Zee, J. van der; Groenewegen, P.
Strong primary care systems are often viewed as the bedrock of health care systems that provide high-quality care, but the evidence supporting this view is somewhat limited. We analyzed comparative primary care data collected in 2009-10 as part of a European Union-funded project, the Primary Health
Kringos, Dionne S.; Boerma, Wienke; van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter
Strong primary care systems are often viewed as the bedrock of health care systems that provide high-quality care, but the evidence supporting this view is somewhat limited. We analyzed comparative primary care data collected in 2009-10 as part of a European Union-funded project, the Primary Health
Saurbier, Ann L.
American post-secondary education faces unprecedented challenges in the dynamic 21st century environment. An appreciation of the higher education accreditation process, as a quality control mechanism, therefore may be seen as a significant priority. When American higher education is viewed systemically, the perceptions of quality held and…
Csizmadia, Tibor; Enders, Jürgen; Westerheijden, Donald F.
This article focuses on responses of higher education institutions to governmental policy. We investigate the influence of organisational characteristics on the implementation of quality management in Hungarian higher education institutions. Our theoretical framework is based on organisational
... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.16 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary and...
... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.12 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and secondary...
... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.17 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). (a) The level of the national primary 1-hour annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of sulfur is 75 parts...
The rapid quantitative growth of higher education in Ethiopia has triggered considerable concern for quality. The present paper analyses why expanding the higher education subsector took precedence over quality against the backdrop of the current Ethiopian political discourse. This article argues that the growing public demand due to globalization…
Al-Atiqi, Imad M.; Alharbi, Lafi M.
In Kuwait, as in other rapidly-developing higher education systems, one major area of concern is ensuring the quality of education offered by private providers. This paper briefly reviews the history of the development of higher education in Kuwait since its inception in 1936. It considers various quality systems currently in place in other…
Leiber, Theodor; Stensaker, Bjørn; Harvey, Lee
In this paper, the theoretical perspectives and general methodological elements of impact evaluation of quality assurance in higher education institutions are discussed, which should be a cornerstone of quality development in higher education and contribute to improving the knowledge about the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of quality…
Quality assurance (QA) and accreditation in higher education include the systematic management and assessment of procedures to monitor performance and to address areas of improvement. In the context of globalization, without assuring the quality of higher education programmes it is not possible to ensure credit transfer and student mobility, to…
Tausch, B D; Härter, M C
The main objectives of this study were to implement quality circle programs among general practitioners and to evaluate this quality management tool as a way to develop clinical guidelines in general practice. The quality circle program was evaluated within a formative and summative evaluation design by both participants and moderators for a period of 18 months using structured questionnaires. At time one, participants were asked about their goals and current job satisfaction, and rated the perceived effectiveness and the usefulness of predefined guidelines of each quality circle meeting. At time two, participants and moderators reported again about their achieved goals and job satisfaction. Two hundred and forty-three general practitioners in a district of South Germany (Südbaden), in 25 quality circle groups participated. Demographic variables of the participating physicians, quality circle goals, job satisfaction, usefulness of guidelines and perceived effectiveness of the quality circle process were collected. One hundred and six quality circle meetings were evaluated. When asked to rank the goals of quality circle work, participants provided the highest rankings for improvement of the doctor-doctor relationship, agreeing on consensus for diagnostic procedures and therapy management, and developing local guidelines. The comparison between time one and time two ratings provided evidence for an increase in overall job satisfaction. Higher benefit is correlated with more regular participation in quality circle meetings. Working with predefined guidelines is both feasible and effective in quality circles and may provide a starting point for developing guidelines in primary care. There is some empirical evidence that participating in quality circles may increase general practitioners' job satisfaction. Further studies using intervention and control group designs should investigate whether quality circles really improve daily practice through clinical audit and
The effectiveness of the higher education quality assessment system is essentially a matter of policy evaluation. On the macro level, such a system refers to external quality assessment, which includes government evaluation, quality certification, and university rankings. Depending on the degree of government intervention, the external quality…
Sarrico, Cláudia S.; Alves, André A.
Higher education accreditation frameworks typically consider academic staff quality a key element. This article embarks on an empirical study of what academic staff quality means, how it is measured, and how different aspects of staff quality relate to each other. It draws on the relatively nascent Portuguese experience with study programme…
Groen, Jovan F.
Stemming from increased levels of participation and diversity of the student base and from growing scrutiny on the quality of university degrees, governments have begun establishing mechanisms to monitor and support quality in higher education. Faced with administrative quality assurance structures, academics often complain that little is…
Kalpazidou Schmidt, Evanthia
Because there is close cooperation on quality assurance in the Scandinavian countries, one would expect there to be convergence of quality assurance policies and practices in Scandinavian higher education. Few studies have analysed these quality assurance policies and practices from a comparative viewpoint. Based on empirical evidence produced in…
Rodman, Karmen; Biloslavo, Roberto; Bratoz, Silva
The present paper proposes a theoretical model of institutional quality of a higher education institution (HEI) which, in addition to the internal dimensions of quality, incorporates also the external dimension, i.e. the outcomes dimension. This dimension has been neglected by the quality standards and models examined in our paper. Furthermore,…
Big data has the features like Volume, Variety, Value and Velocity. Here come the new opportunities and challenges for construction of Chinese quality assurance system of higher vocational education under big data era. There are problems in current quality assurance system of higher vocational education, such as imperfect main body, non-formation of internally and externally incorporated quality assurance system, non-scientific security standard and insufficiency in security investment. The c...
Full Text Available A fundamental paradox of the health care delivery systems in many industrialized nations is that desired population health metrics are often not achieved despite large expenditures in the health care delivery system. For example, the United States commits nearly 18% of its GDP to the health care delivery system, the largest amount of any nation, yet is 37th in achieving health or health care delivery metrics. This article addresses how general practice can be an important driver of population health in the Chinese health care delivery system through the application of quality improvement methods. The article shows examples of how the cause-and-effect diagram, the process map, and the plan, do, study, act (PDSA cycle are important techniques to assist primary care practitioners for improving population health.
Ruhe, Mary C.; Bobiak, Sarah N.; Litaker, David; Carter, Caroline A.; Wu, Laura; Schroeder, Casey; Zyzanski, Stephen; Weyer, Sharon M.; Werner, James J.; Fry, Ronald E.; Stange, Kurt C.
Purpose To test the effect of an Appreciative Inquiry (AI) quality improvement strategy, on clinical quality management and practice development outcomes. AI enables discovery of shared motivations, envisioning a transformed future, and learning around implementation of a change process. Methods Thirty diverse primary care practices were randomly assigned to receive an AI-based intervention focused on a practice-chosen topic and on improving preventive service delivery (PSD) rates. Medical record review assessed change in PSD rates. Ethnographic fieldnotes and observational checklist analysis used editing and immersion/crystallization methods to identify factors affecting intervention implementation and practice development outcomes. Results PSD rates did not change. Field note analysis suggested that the intervention elicited core motivations, facilitated development of a shared vision, defined change objectives and fostered respectful interactions. Practices most likely to implement the intervention or develop new practice capacities exhibited one or more of the following: support from key leader(s), a sense of urgency for change, a mission focused on serving patients, health care system and practice flexibility, and a history of constructive practice change. Conclusions An AI approach and enabling practice conditions can lead to intervention implementation and practice development by connecting individual and practice strengths and motivations to the change objective. PMID:21192206
Based on a survey of Quality Management (QM) practitioners at 21 colleges, this study presents the 10 most difficult implementation hurdles to QM in higher education and a set of hurdle-clearing strategies. The hurdles are: (1) lack of time to implement QM; (2) perception that QM is something for janitorial and housing staffs but not applicable to…
Full Text Available Big data has the features like Volume, Variety, Value and Velocity. Here come the new opportunities and challenges for construction of Chinese quality assurance system of higher vocational education under big data era. There are problems in current quality assurance system of higher vocational education, such as imperfect main body, non-formation of internally and externally incorporated quality assurance system, non-scientific security standard and insufficiency in security investment. The construction of higher vocational education under big data era requires a change in the idea of quality assurance system construction to realize the multiple main bodies and multiple layers development trend for educational quality assurance system, and strengthen the construction of information platform for quality assurance system.
At the beginning of the last 20 years so-called "quality revolution" it was expected from most of the established national quality agencies that internal quality systems and the development of an internal quality culture would emerge automatically in the HEI from the external quality impact. The author argues that a better balance must be found…
Sharifirad, Gholam R; Shamsi, Mohsen; Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Farzanegan, Parvin D
Quality gap is the gap between client's understanding and expectations. The first step in removing this gap is to recognize client's understanding and expectations of the services. This study aimed to determine women's viewpoint of quality gap in primary health care centers of Isfahan. This cross-sectional study was conducted on women who came to primary health care centers in Isfahan city. Sample size was 1280 people. Service Quality was used to collect data including tangible dimensions, confidence, responsiveness, assurance and sympathy in providing services. Data were analyzed by t test and chi square test. The results showed that women had controversy over all 5 dimensions. The least mean quality gap was seen in assurance (-11.08) and the highest mean quality gap was seen in tangible dimension (-14.41). The difference between women's viewpoint in all 5 dimensions was significant. (P < 0.05). Negative difference means clients' expectations are much higher than their understanding of the current situation, so there is a large space to improve services and satisfy clients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Living with a chronic disease, such as primary antibody deficiency, will often have consequences for quality of life. Previous quality-of-life studies in primary antibody deficiency patients have been limited to different treatment methods. We wanted to study how adults with primary antibody deficiencies manage their conditions and to identify factors that are conducive to coping, good quality of life and hope. Methods Questionnaires were sent to all patients ≥20 years of age with primary antibody deficiencies who were served by Rikshospitalet University Hospital. The questionnaires consisted of several standardized scales: Ferrans and Powers Quality of Life Index (QLI, Short Form-36 (SF-36, Jalowiec Coping Scale (JCS, Nowotny Hope Scale (NHS, and one scale we devised with questions about resources and pressures in the past. Of a total of 91, 55 patients (aged 23–76 years answered the questionnaires. The questionnaire study were supplemented with selected interviews of ten extreme cases, five with low and five with high quality of life scores. Results Among the 55 patients, low quality of life scores were related to unemployment, infections in more than four organs, more than two additional diseases, or more than two specific occurrences of stress in the last 2–3 months. Persons with selective IgA deficiency had significantly higher QLI scores than those with other antibody deficiencies. An optimistic coping style was most frequent used, and hope values were moderately high. Based on the interviews, the patients could be divided into three groups: 1 low QLI scores, low hope values, and reduced coping, 2 low QLI scores, moderate hope values, and good coping, and 3 high QLI scores, moderate to strong hope values, and good coping. Coping was related to the patients' sense of closeness and competence. Conclusion Low quality of life scores in adults with primary antibody deficiencies were linked to unemployment and disease
Eliophotou Menon, Maria
The paper investigates the views of Greek university graduates on the link between higher education and productivity in order to determine the extent to which productivity can be considered to be an indication of quality in higher education. It also investigates the perceived effect of the type and content of higher education on productivity;…
Lyytinen, Anu; Kohtamäki, Vuokko; Kivistö, Jussi; Pekkola, Elias; Hölttä, Seppo
Although the role and significance of the external stakeholders of higher education institutions has grown in recent years, quality assurance of stakeholder relationships remains a new phenomenon in the management practices of higher education institutions and in higher education research. Based on interviews and expert panel data, this article…
This article explores the relationship between mass education, higher education quality and policy development in Australia in the period 2008-2014, during which access to higher education was significantly increased. Over this time, which included a change of national government, the discursive relationship between mass higher education and…
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze the origin, evolution, performance and trends of higher education quality assurance systems in the following European countries: Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Netherlands, United Kingdom and France. It also studies the performance and impact of the organizations that join the European Quality Assurance Agencies together. The main sources of data collection were in situ semi-structured interviews to members of these agencies. It was found that in higher education institutions there is a strong trend towards the development of ‘internal quality assurance systems' in response to the public policies known as 'quality audits'.
Full Text Available Background: Noise, one of the major environmental nuisances, affects the learning ability of children negatively. Objective: With the assumption that in the existing German 4-type school system children are exposed to various noise levels in each type of school, we investigated the association between children's school type and environmental noise level. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 550 children—primary and secondary school students—aged 8–12 years, and who lived in 4 Bavarian cities. The environmental noise level was assessed by personal 24-h dosimeter measurements. The associations of interest were assessed by linear regression. Results: The average day noise level of 80.0 dB(A was relatively high, exceeding the threshold level of 60 dB(A. In the model adjusted for sex, socioeconomic status (SES, and place of residence, noise level was significantly higher for primary schools by almost 2.3 dB(A; however, after additional adjustments for age, this association was distorted. The mean night noise level of 43.7 dB(A was not associated with the school level. We could not find any significant differences in the noise level between different types of secondary schools. Conclusion: We found evidence that in Germany, children, especially of a younger age from primary school, are exposed to high noise levels during day in and outside the school environment. School administration and parents should work to make schools less noisy and more accomplished for learning to achieve a bright future for the children.
... Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50 and 58 Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... primary national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen...
... air quality standards for PM10. 50.6 Section 50.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.6 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10. (a) The level of the national...
... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an... applicable to all areas notwithstanding the promulgation of SO2 national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS...
... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the...
The article reveals specific features of functioning systems of higher education quality monitoring at the present stage, taking into account national traditions, historical experience and mentality of the population...
Ashwin, Paul; Abbas, Andrea; McLean, Monica
This article examines the ways in which a high-quality system of undergraduate education is represented in recent policy documents from a range of actors interested in higher education. Drawing on Basil Bernstein's ideas, the authors conceptualise the policy documents as reflecting a struggle over competing views of quality that are expressed…
Sarmiento Espinel, Jaime Andrés; Silva Arias, Adriana Carolina; Van Gameren, Edwin
Two key measures to determine the quality of higher education are the performance of students and the accreditation of a programme's quality. We analyse the difference in the distributions of the student's scores in a standardised test of economics knowledge between accredited and non-accredited undergraduate economics programmes in a…
Odhiambo, George O.
This article examines the unique challenges facing Kenya's public higher education institutions. It explores the struggle to develop quality and quality assurance mechanisms against a background of rapidly diminishing income, brain drain, political interference and the negative aspects of globalisation. The challenges have consequently led to a…
This study is based on a pragmatist analysis of selected international accounts on quality assurance in higher education. A pragmatist perspective was used to conceptualise a logical internal quality assurance model to embed and support the alignment of graduate competencies in curriculum and assessment of Ghanaian polytechnics. Through focus…
Ilyasin, Mukhamd; Zamroni
The main issue in improving the quality of Islamic Higher Education is to increase the competence and professionalism of teachers and education personnel to achieve its vision and mission in the middle of the complexity of the demands of society and the changing times. so that the quality of education and governance of Islamic Religion clean and…
Gallifa, Josep; Batalle, Pere
Purpose: This paper aims to present an in-depth case study with student perceptions of service quality, discussing the relevance of these perceptions for the important issue of quality improvement in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents institutional research carried out in a multi-campus system in Spain made up of…
de Jager, Johan; Gbadamosi, Gbolahan
This study commences a process of developing a scale for the measurement of service quality in higher education in South Africa and also examines the relationship between the measures of service quality on the one hand and some other related variables such as intention to leave the university, trust in management of the university and the overall…
This paper aims to examine the impact of service encounter quality on servicevalue evaluation within a higher education context, especially in classlearning process. Service encounter quality was approached with threedimensions, they are : instructor interaction competencies, instructor taskcompetencies and student interaction competencies. Service valueevaluation in this study was called as learning experience value. Somequstionares were distributed to 306 students in some classes. The data ...
Romenti, Stefania; Invernizzi, Emanuele; Biraghi, Silvia
This paper explores how employer engagement can enhance potential employability of graduates, which represents a fundamental institutional achievement to ameliorate quality of higher education. While the role of student and staff engagement in quality improvement has received in-depth research attention, the need for listening to expectations of…
Ferreira, Camino; Vidal, Javier; Vieira, María José
The main objective of this article is to analyse the importance given to student guidance and diversity in the standards and criteria used in the quality accreditation and evaluation processes in Europe and the US. Agencies selected in this study are the members of ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education), EQAR…
Holt, Dale; Palmer, Stuart; Gosper, Maree; Sankey, Michael; Allan, Garry
This article reports on the findings of senior leadership interviews in a nationally funded project on distributed leadership in the quality management of online learning environments (OLEs) in higher education. Questions were framed around the development of an OLE quality management framework and the situation of the characteristics of…
Twenty years ago, the federal government in the US first required institutional accrediting organisations, America's principal mechanism for quality assurance in higher education, to review institutional practices with respect to the assessment of student learning outcomes. Much that affects quality assurance has changed in the ensuing two decades…
Jose Javier Díaz-Lázaro
Full Text Available The concept of Learning Analytics, as we understand it today, is relatively new but the practice of evaluating user behavior is not innovative. For years, technological development, along with other educational aspects, have encouraged, developed and facilitated this practice as a way of providing a personalized quality experience to students. The main goal of this study, carried out in the Primary Education Degree of the University of Murcia, was to research, from the perspective of Social Learning Analytics, how students learn and collaborate in online environments, specifically through their use of social media. With the idea of improving and optimizing future teaching experiences, a pilot study was conducted using weblog, Twitter and Facebook to work with different topics on the subject. The method used in this research was a participant observation and the analysis performed was both quantitative, based mainly on the data gathered from the learning analytics, and qualitative (analyzing students’ content from comments. Results show that there was greater interaction on Facebook than weblogs, where students interacted to deal with aspects related to the learning process and the topic of the subject. This exchange of information grew during the development of the experience. In addition, learning analytics shows that there is a relationship between group members and their interaction and behavior in networks.
Lee, Jung Ah; Sunwoo, Sung; Kim, Young Sik; Yu, Byung Yeon; Park, Hoon Ki; Jeon, Tae Hee; Yoo, Byung Wook
Sleep has important effects on physical and mental health, and sleep disorders are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between sleep duration or sleep quality and the risk of type 2 diabetes. The FACTS (FAmily CohorT Study in primary care) was established to investigate the relations between familial environment and health which was conducted at 22 family medicine outpatient clinics in general hospitals. Total 563 patients without diabetes who received ≥1 year follow-up examination were included in the analysis. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to determine sleep quality, and a score of ≥5 was considered to define poor sleep quality. Patients taking oral hypoglycemic agents, having a fasting glucose level of >126 mg/dL, or diagnosed with diabetes by physicians were classified as having diabetes. The median follow-up period was 2.5 years. Poor sleep quality was associated with a higher risk of diabetes after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, income, physical activity, and family history of diabetes (relative risk=2.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-6.78). As a risk factor for the development of diabetes, poor sleep quality may independently increase the incidence of diabetes.
Reda, Nigusse W.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to highlight the congruence and roles of the balanced scorecard in the quality assurance practices in higher education institutions, and second, to propose a balanced scorecard model for higher education institutions. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive literature review was used to…
This paper explores the nascent field of risk management in higher education, which is of particular relevance in Australia currently, as the Commonwealth Government implements its plans for a risk-based approach to higher education regulation and quality assurance. The literature outlines the concept of risk management and risk-based approaches…
Strang, Lucy; Bélanger, Julie; Manville, Catriona; Meads, Catherine
In March 2016, the Higher Education Academy (HEA) commissioned RAND Europe to conduct a literature review of research published since 2012, with the aim of identifying and summarising the key trends and issues in the literature on how "quality teaching" and its impact are currently being defined and demonstrated at higher education…
Csizmadia, Tibor; Enders, Jurgen; Westerheijden, Don F.
This article focuses on responses of higher education institutions to governmental policy. We investigate the influence of organisational characteristics on the implementation of quality management in Hungarian higher education institutions. Our theoretical framework is based on organisational theories (resource dependency and…
Reda, Nigusse W.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to highlight the congruence and roles of the balanced scorecard in the quality assurance practices in higher education institutions, and second, to propose a balanced scorecard model for higher education institutions. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive literature review was used to…
Kusumastuti, Dyah; Idrus, Nirwan
This paper reviews the recently introduced National Higher Education ranking system in Indonesia in order to evaluate its potential as a sustainable model to improve the quality of higher education in the country. It is a scaffold towards an established world-universities ranking system that may prove formidable for a developing country. This…
This article presents a critical-political discourse analysis of the media debate over quality assurance in higher education, which occurred in Chile after the 2011 student movement. Students criticized the privatization of higher education and the multiple flaws of this sector, which included corruption scandals during the process of quality…
Garwe, Evelyn Chiyevo
A study on investigating the issues of quality associated with cross-border higher education was carried out using the case study approach focusing on Zimbabwe. The methodology involved document analysis of the cases of regulation and accreditation of cross-border higher education providers and assessment of qualifications acquired from foreign…
Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Linardakis, M.; Gregoriadis, A.; Oikonomidis, V.
The aim of the current study was to provide a valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of the teaching effectiveness in the Greek higher education system. Other objectives of the study were (a) the examination of the dimensionality and the higher-order structure of the Greek version of Students' Evaluation of Educational Quality (SEEQ)…
Akinyemi, Gbenga M.; Abiddin, Norhasni Zainal
The dynamic changes in today's world have made countries of the world masters of their own destinies. In this light, it has become noted today that "the affluence or penury of nations depends largely on the quality of higher education". This is informed by the fact that higher education systems of a nation is the "machinery of…
Patrinos, Harry Anthony
The World Bank's proposed changes for higher education funding in developing countries include decentralizing management, expanding private schools, introducing selective student loans and scholarships, and cost recovery. Obstacles in Colombia include quality of and access to higher education and upper class opposition to scholarships.…
Corruption and malpractices in higher education are today a major concern in nearly all higher education systems worldwide. It is a multifaceted phenomenon and has become particularly visible in the academic domain. This paper represents an exploration of the possible role that quality assurance can play in addressing corruption and malpractices.…
Lamarra, Norberto Fernandez
The article first considers a characterization of higher education in Latin America, the principal problems and the scenarios that have led to the inclusion of quality assessment and accreditation processes in higher education as a priority in the regional agenda. The following aspects are then developed from a comparative perspective: the main…
Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J.; Drewnowski, Adam
Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. PMID:23916974
Kalpazidou Schmidt, Evanthia
Because there is close cooperation on quality assurance in the Scandinavian countries, one would expect there to be convergence of quality assurance policies and practices in Scandinavian higher education. Few studies have analysed these quality assurance policies and practices from a comparative...... quality assurance. The debate is compelling with regard to the Swedish case in particular, with its ‘one size fits all’ approach and exclusive focus on outcomes which has been heavily criticised by the higher education institutions and has turned out to be controversial from the European viewpoint....... viewpoint. Based on empirical evidence produced in connection with studies of recent quality reforms in Scandinavia and an approach based on linking diffusion and translation theories with institutionalist perspectives focusing on path dependency, the paper contributes to the current debate on Scandinavian...
Low, Jessica Chooi Sun
The private higher education industry in Malaysia has been established for more than four decades with the aim to complement the public university education in response to the surplus demand for tertiary education initially. Over the years, many private higher education institutions (PHEIs) have mushroomed in the country with a total number of 547 private colleges in 2006 (Ministry of Higher Education). Although the establishment of the PHEIs was increasingly high, the service quality of thes...
Tripti Singh, MD
Conclusions. Patients with MN have higher incidence of acute rejection after kidney transplant but have similar 10-year allograft survival in comparison to the other glomerular diseases like IgAN, FSGS, and LN.
which is regarded as the era of Total Quality Management, Quality of care in primary health care centres leaves much to be desired. This therefore calls for an urgent, deliberate, sustained and purposeful effort to institutionalize Quality Assurance mechanism as an integral part of our health system. Keywords: Quality, Care ...
Streit, Sven; da Costa, Bruno R.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Weiler, Stefan; Zimmerli, Lukas; Frey, Peter; Cornuz, Jacques; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Battegay, Edouard; Kerr, Eve; Aujesky, Drahomir; Rodondi, Nicolas
Background Caring for patients with multimorbidity is common for generalists, although such patients are often excluded from clinical trials, and thus such trials lack of generalizability. Data on the association between multimorbidity and preventive care are limited. We aimed to assess whether comorbidity number, severity and type were associated with preventive care among patients receiving care in Swiss University primary care settings. Methods We examined a retrospective cohort composed of a random sample of 1,002 patients aged 50–80 years attending four Swiss university primary care settings. Multimorbidity was defined according to the literature and the Charlson index. We assessed the quality of preventive care and cardiovascular preventive care with RAND’s Quality Assessment Tool indicators. Aggregate scores of quality of provided care were calculated by taking into account the number of eligible patients for each indicator. Results Participants (mean age 63.5 years, 44% women) had a mean of 2.6 (SD 1.9) comorbidities and 67.5% had 2 or more comorbidities. The mean Charlson index was 1.8 (SD 1.9). Overall, participants received 69% of recommended preventive care and 84% of cardiovascular preventive care. Quality of care was not associated with higher numbers of comorbidities, both for preventive care and for cardiovascular preventive care. Results were similar in analyses using the Charlson index and after adjusting for age, gender, occupation, center and number of visits. Some patients may receive less preventive care including those with dementia (47%) and those with schizophrenia (35%). Conclusions In Swiss university primary care settings, two thirds of patients had 2 or more comorbidities. The receipt of preventive and cardiovascular preventive care was not affected by comorbidity count or severity, although patients with certain comorbidities may receive lower levels of preventive care. PMID:24760077
Full Text Available Caring for patients with multimorbidity is common for generalists, although such patients are often excluded from clinical trials, and thus such trials lack of generalizability. Data on the association between multimorbidity and preventive care are limited. We aimed to assess whether comorbidity number, severity and type were associated with preventive care among patients receiving care in Swiss University primary care settings.We examined a retrospective cohort composed of a random sample of 1,002 patients aged 50-80 years attending four Swiss university primary care settings. Multimorbidity was defined according to the literature and the Charlson index. We assessed the quality of preventive care and cardiovascular preventive care with RAND's Quality Assessment Tool indicators. Aggregate scores of quality of provided care were calculated by taking into account the number of eligible patients for each indicator.Participants (mean age 63.5 years, 44% women had a mean of 2.6 (SD 1.9 comorbidities and 67.5% had 2 or more comorbidities. The mean Charlson index was 1.8 (SD 1.9. Overall, participants received 69% of recommended preventive care and 84% of cardiovascular preventive care. Quality of care was not associated with higher numbers of comorbidities, both for preventive care and for cardiovascular preventive care. Results were similar in analyses using the Charlson index and after adjusting for age, gender, occupation, center and number of visits. Some patients may receive less preventive care including those with dementia (47% and those with schizophrenia (35%.In Swiss university primary care settings, two thirds of patients had 2 or more comorbidities. The receipt of preventive and cardiovascular preventive care was not affected by comorbidity count or severity, although patients with certain comorbidities may receive lower levels of preventive care.
Zwanikken, Prisca A C; Peterhans, Bernadette; Dardis, Lorraine; Scherpbier, Albert
Transnational or cross-border higher education has rapidly expanded since the 1980s. Together with that expansion issues on quality assurance came to the forefront. This article aims to identify key issues regarding quality assurance of transnational higher education and discusses the quality assurance of the tropEd Network for International Health in Higher Education in relation to these key issues. Literature review and review of documents. From the literature the following key issues regarding transnational quality assurance were identified and explored: comparability of quality assurance frameworks, true collaboration versus erosion of national education sovereignty, accreditation agencies and transparency. The tropEd network developed a transnational quality assurance framework for the network. The network accredits modules through a rigorous process which has been accepted by major stakeholders. This process was a participatory learning process and at the same time the process worked positive for the relations between the institutions. The development of the quality assurance framework and the process provides a potential example for others.
Introduction Transnational or cross-border higher education has rapidly expanded since the 1980s. Together with that expansion issues on quality assurance came to the forefront. This article aims to identify key issues regarding quality assurance of transnational higher education and discusses the quality assurance of the tropEd Network for International Health in Higher Education in relation to these key issues. Methods Literature review and review of documents. Results From the literature the following key issues regarding transnational quality assurance were identified and explored: comparability of quality assurance frameworks, true collaboration versus erosion of national education sovereignty, accreditation agencies and transparency. The tropEd network developed a transnational quality assurance framework for the network. The network accredits modules through a rigorous process which has been accepted by major stakeholders. This process was a participatory learning process and at the same time the process worked positive for the relations between the institutions. Discussion The development of the quality assurance framework and the process provides a potential example for others. PMID:23537108
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1983-4535.2014v7n3p61 The purpose of this research is to analyze the origin, evolution, performance and trends of higher education quality assurance systems in the following European countries: Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Netherlands, United Kingdom and France. It also studies the performance and impact of the organizations that join the European Quality Assurance Agencies together. The main sources of data collection were in situ semi-structured interviews to members of these agencies. It was found that in higher education institutions there is a strong trend towards the development of ‘internal quality assurance systems' in response to the public policies known as 'quality audits'. This overview about what is taking place in Europe may provide innovative instruments that could be considered for higher education quality evaluation and accreditation in Latin-American countries: quality audits, disciplinary agencies, evaluation of the quality assurance agencies, among others.
Winblad, Ulrika; Blomqvist, Paula; Karlsson, Andreas
Swedish nursing home care has undergone a transformation, where the previous virtual public monopoly on providing such services has been replaced by a system of mixed provision. This has led to a rapidly growing share of private actors, the majority of which are large, for-profit firms. In the wake of this development, concerns have been voiced regarding the implications for care quality. In this article, we investigate the relationship between ownership and care quality in nursing homes for the elderly by comparing quality levels between public, for-profit, and non-profit nursing home care providers. We also look at a special category of for-profit providers; private equity companies. The source of data is a national survey conducted by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare in 2011 at 2710 nursing homes. Data from 14 quality indicators are analyzed, including structure and process measures such as staff levels, staff competence, resident participation, and screening for pressure ulcers, nutrition status, and risk of falling. The main statistical method employed is multiple OLS regression analysis. We differentiate in the analysis between structural and processual quality measures. The results indicate that public nursing homes have higher quality than privately operated homes with regard to two structural quality measures: staffing levels and individual accommodation. Privately operated nursing homes, on the other hand, tend to score higher on process-based quality indicators such as medication review and screening for falls and malnutrition. No significant differences were found between different ownership categories of privately operated nursing homes. Ownership does appear to be related to quality outcomes in Swedish nursing home care, but the results are mixed and inconclusive. That staffing levels, which has been regarded as a key quality indicator in previous research, are higher in publicly operated homes than private is consistent with earlier
The world has realized that the economic success of the states is directly determined by the quality of their education systems and that the most effective factor of production is human capital expressed in knowledge, skills, creative abilities and moral qualities of individuals in society. In the past decade higher education institutions have been buffeted by a complex set of pressures all over across the globe. Foremost among them is the growing importance of knowledge-led economies that ha...
Ángela Corengia; Juan Carlos Del Bello; María Pita Carranza; Cecilia Adrogué
http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1983-4535.2014v7n3p61 The purpose of this research is to analyze the origin, evolution, performance and trends of higher education quality assurance systems in the following European countries: Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Netherlands, United Kingdom and France. It also studies the performance and impact of the organizations that join the European Quality Assurance Agencies together. The main sources of data collection w...
Van Gelder, Vincent A; Scherpbier-De Haan, Nynke D; De Grauw, Wim J C; Vervoort, Gerald M M; Van Weel, Chris; Biermans, Marion C J; Braspenning, Jozé C C; Wetzels, Jack F M
Early detection and appropriate management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in primary care are essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. To assess the quality of care (QoC) of CKD in primary healthcare in relation to patient and practice characteristics in order to tailor improvement strategies. Retrospective study using data between 2008 and 2011 from 47 general practices (207 469 patients of whom 162 562 were adults). CKD management of patients under the care of their general practitioner (GP) was qualified using indicators derived from the Dutch interdisciplinary CKD guideline for primary care and nephrology and included (1) monitoring of renal function, albuminuria, blood pressure, and glucose, (2) monitoring of metabolic parameters, and alongside the guideline: (3) recognition of CKD. The outcome indicator was (4) achieving blood pressure targets. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied to identify associated patient and practice characteristics. Kidney function or albuminuria data were available for 59 728 adult patients; 9288 patients had CKD, of whom 8794 were under GP care. Monitoring of disease progression was complete in 42% of CKD patients, monitoring of metabolic parameters in 2%, and blood pressure target was reached in 43.1%. GPs documented CKD in 31.4% of CKD patients. High QoC was strongly associated with diabetes, and to a lesser extent with hypertension and male sex. Room for improvement was found in all aspects of CKD management. As QoC was higher in patients who received structured diabetes care, future CKD care may profit from more structured primary care management, e.g. according to the chronic care model. Quality of care for chronic kidney disease patients in primary care can be improved. In comparison with guideline advice, adequate monitoring of disease progression was observed in 42%, of metabolic parameters in 2%, correct recognition of impaired renal function in 31%, and reaching blood pressure targets in 43% of chronic
Khanthaphum, Udomsin; Tesaputa, Kowat; Weangsamoot, Visoot
This research aimed: 1) to study the current and desirable states of the co-operative network in developing the learners' quality in Thai primary schools, 2) to develop a model of the co-operative network in developing the learners' quality, and 3) to examine the results of implementation of the co-operative network model in the primary school.…
Full Text Available The article touches on the issue of meeting the students' educational needs as a crucial point in the quality of education improvement. The main consumers of educational services are students whose perceptions of the educational quality is analyzed. According to the research the primary attention of the administration have be paid to the dissatisfaction of the consumer and only then to ensure the satisfaction. The focus on the factors causing negative evaluation and dissatisfaction of students, using tactics quick fix ("quick patch" is recommended.
Madeline Melchor Cardona
Full Text Available Recognizing that higher education institutions (HEI are currently competing aggressively through competitive advantages and high service quality, the assessment of the service quality is essential to provide information on the effectiveness of educational plans and improvement programs. This article presents a study which tests the 5Q's model proposed by Zineldin (2007, and examines the service quality factors that most impact on student satisfaction. Factor analysis and regression analysis showed significant variables in explaining student satisfaction as: trust developed toward the university and the academic program, and the perception they have of assessment techniques as a challenge to improve intellectual growth.
Human power’s quality plays the key role in the growth and development of societies where the quality of human powers can be enriched with the high quality education provided by the higher education institutions...
Shamliyan, Tatyana; Kane, Robert L; Jansen, Stacy
To evaluate how systematic reviews assess the quality of primary studies of incidence, prevalence, or risk factors for chronic diseases. We searched several databases, identified 145 systematic reviews, and evaluated methods of quality assessment and quantitative synthesis of evidence by external or internal validity or overall quality of primary studies. Of 145 reviews, 54 (37%) reported a planned quality assessment of primary studies with checklists or scales and 26 (18%) reported evaluation of some selected quality criteria. Thirty-nine percent of reviews judged appropriateness of sampling and proper controls for confounding factors in primary studies. Twelve percent synthesized evidence by overall quality, 17% by design, 42% by criteria of internal validity, and 24% by external validity of primary studies. Masking of quality assessment was conducted on 2.1% of reviews and 4% tested interobserver agreement for quality assessment. Evaluation of internal and external validity of primary studies is uncommon in systematic reviews of studies of incidence, prevalence, or risk factors for chronic diseases. Inconsistent quality assessment practices reflect the absence of uniformly accepted standards and tools to examine the quality of observational nontherapeutic studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J; Drewnowski, Adam
Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Level 6 (final-year BSc) students undertook case studies on between-site and temporal variation in river-water quality. They used professionally-collected datasets supplied by the Environment Agency. The exercise gave students the experience of working with large, real-world datasets and led to their understanding how the quality of river water is…
water security, reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and sustaining water resources. The microbial and chemical quality of RWH samples collected from tanks in a sustainable housing development in Kleinmond, South Africa, were monitored. Results indicated that the tank water quality was within all the ...
Huitema, D.; Jeliazkova, Margarita I.; Westerheijden, Donald F.
This article examines parallel developments in the 1elds of quality assurance in higher education and in environmental policy. Starting from empirically grounded analytical frameworks for the two 1elds separately, Fischer’s framework of policy argumentation is overlaid on both to gain deeper
Almuntashiri, Abdulrahman; Davies, Michael D.; McDonald, Christine V.
This paper investigated the level of application of teaching quality indicators (TQIs) in Saudi higher education by the perspective of academics. Data were collected through an online survey of 467 academics in 21 Faculties of Education (SFEs). The online survey consisted of (20) items. Participants were asked to indicate the level of application…
Blanco Ramírez, Gerardo
This article explores the concepts of "brand" and "franchise" in the development of international quality assurance. The impact of corporate language and culture on higher education is evident and has been extensively analysed. Recent attention given to branding of universities reflects the ever-growing influence of corporate…
Macheridis, Nikos; Paulsson, Alexander
The starting point of this article is the relation between teaching quality and expectations by different governance actors in higher education. Managing a department in a public university is, to a large extent, about the coordination of governance actors, involving government authorities as well as the university and the faculty. Internally, the…
Yeo, Roland K.
Purpose: The paper seeks to explore the influences of service quality in higher education and the perceptions associated with the implementation of a Singapore tertiary institution. It draws on the underpinnings of SERVQUAL, and discusses the dichotomy and interrelation between customer perception and expectation. Design/methodology/approach:…
Galeeva, Railya B.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an adaptation of the SERVQUAL survey method for measuring the quality of higher educational services in a Russian university context. We use a new analysis and a graphical technique for presentation of results. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology of this research follows the classic…
This article analyses the characteristics and driving forces of regional quality assurance activity in Southeast Asia, which has been actively promoted in recent years by the ASEAN University Network, an organisation for higher education under the auspices of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). There are now more collaborative…
Psomas, Evangelos; Antony, Jiju
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the main total quality management (TQM) elements adopted and the respective results achieved by higher education institutions (HEIs) in Greece. Design/methodology/approach: A research study was designed and carried out in private sector Greek HEIs. Fifteen HEIs were approached through interviews…
This contribution focuses on quality assurance (QA) agencies in the sphere of higher education. It develops a theoretical framework that interrelates systems theory with Gramsci's theory of hegemony with a view to situating this new control of universities in the broader context of a further...
The article reveals specific features of functioning systems of higher education quality monitoring at the present stage, taking into account national traditions, historical experience and mentality of the population. The article introduces a comparative analysis of monitoring actors at national, regional and local levels in two countries. The…
Teeroovengadum, Viraiyan; Kamalanabhan, T. J.; Seebaluck, Ashley Keshwar
Purpose: This paper aims to develop and empirically test a hierarchical model for measuring service quality in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The first phase of the study consisted of qualitative research methods and a comprehensive literature review, which allowed the development of a conceptual model comprising 53 service quality…
Nguyen, Huu Cuong; Ta, Thi Thu Hien; Nguyen, Thi Thu Huong
Higher education quality assurance and accreditation were officially implemented in Vietnam over twelve years ago. From a totally centralized model, Vietnam's accreditation system has been becoming more independent, especially with the establishment of accrediting agencies. The first accreditation certificates were also awarded to universities…
O'Neill, Martin A.; Palmer, Adrian
This paper addresses the issue of service quality evaluation within the higher education sector and stresses the need to develop measures that are both psychometrically and practically sound. The paper argues that recent debate surrounding the development of such measures has been too strongly geared toward their psychometric performance, with…
Hou, Angela Yung-Chi
In response to the global competitiveness in higher education, the government, in recent years, has encouraged Taiwan colleges and universities to seek international accreditation, which raises several questions, such as jurisdiction over national accreditation, a single set of standards for local and global quality assurance, demand for the…
Accreditation has become an important issue in Spain. This paper presents an overview of Spain's accreditation system; a system which is relatively new and has evolved rapidly, fostered by legislative mandates which established accreditation bodies to regulate the quality of higher education institutions. One of the initial challenges faced by…
de Paor, Cathal
This article examines the extent to which the professional accreditation of professional higher education programmes can complement other quality assurance endeavours being carried out. An analysis of a sample of professional accreditation reports for pharmacy education programmes in Ireland provides insight into the priorities of the regulatory…
The most widely recognized quality management standard in the world, the International Organization for Standardization's ISO 9000, is considered by some in higher education to have much potential for college administration. Its advantages include its focus on organizational infrastructure, adaptability, articulation of tangible requirements for…
Clark, Melissa; Fine, Monica B.; Scheuer, Cara-Lynn
The landscape in consumer marketing is changing due to the rise in popularity of social media. This shift has also affected how higher education institutions build relationships with their stakeholders. This study explores how social media engagement impacts relationship quality between the university and one of its key stakeholder groups,…
Tsinidou, Maria; Gerogiannis, Vassilis; Fitsilis, Panos
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the quality determinants for education services provided by higher education institutions (HEIs) in Greece and to measure their relative importance from the students' points of view. Design/methodology/approach: A multi-criteria decision-making methodology was used for assessing the relative importance…
Goos, Maarten; Salomons, Anna
Student evaluations of teaching (SETs) are widely used to measure teaching quality in higher education and compare it across different courses, teachers, departments and institutions. Indeed, SETs are of increasing importance for teacher promotion decisions, student course selection, as well as for auditing practices demonstrating institutional…
Stanka, Hadzhikoleva; Hadzhikolev, Emil; Totkov, George; Doneva, Rositsa
The article examines the main approaches to external evaluation and accreditation in higher education. It also presents COMPASS-OK: a social network for electronic evaluation and management of the quality of education, which utilizes mechanisms for management of documentation flows and supports tools for modeling of evaluation methods and procedures.
Baia, Patricia L.
This study examined the importance of faculty's commitment to pedagogical quality (CPQ) in predicting instructional technology adoption. A customized electronic survey of 27 questions was developed and implemented to four higher educational institutions and yielded 104 usable surveys. Data were analyzed with SPSS using correlation and backward…
Malechwanzi, J. Muthiani; Shen, Hong; Mbeke, Caroline
This paper traces the development and current situations of higher education in China and Kenya. This paper calls for rethinking on how to address increasing demand for access and quality through creating a conducive environment for learning and researching for both students and faculties. The paper presents a comparative study where China has…
Full Text Available In this study, a model offer developed by considering the legislations, current structure and the higher education system in our country after world's existing quality assurance systems were examined. Turkey's potential to be one of the leading countries in the field of higher education can be utilized by creating a well-functioning quality assurance system. It is a crucial point that the accreditation process, which is an important component of quality assurance system, should be conducted by independent accreditation bodies. On the other hand, unlike many Western countries, the establishment of the universities by law and being financed almost entirely by the central government in our country necessitate the existence of a central structure. The model presented in this study aims to reach a balanced solution and to create a dynamic structure. The model will allow significant progress and development in such fields as research and service because of directly affecting the functioning of higher education institutions as well as being mainly for providing quality assurance of education activities in higher education.
Barnabe, Federico; Riccaboni, Angelo
This article explores the role of voluntary quality assessments in higher education, underscoring their main features and potentialities, and showing that basic principles and guidelines can be customised in different countries or single institutions. The article extensively presents an assessment project developed at the University of Siena, the…
McIntosh, Benjamin T.
This doctoral research project examined perceptual gaps of service quality and value in the context of higher education. The researcher performed quantitative analysis of survey data gathered from students at a small, Midwestern Bible college. Students self-selected to participate in this research project and, using class status as an independent…
Prisacariu, Anca; Shah, Mahsood
The context of higher education across the world currently presents evidence of university failures. These failures are evident in areas such as governance, financial and risk management, conduct of senior leaders and quality assurance issues surrounding international education. Having this in mind, the present paper argues the need to add a new…
Schindler, Laura; Puls-Elvidge, Sarah; Welzant, Heather; Crawford, Linda
The aim of this paper is to provide a synthesis of the literature on defining quality in the context of higher education. During a search for relevant literature, the authors intentionally cast a wide net, beginning with a broad search in Google Scholar and followed by a narrower search in educational databases, including Academic Search Complete,…
Petrovskiy, Igor V.; Agapova, Elena N.
The aim of the research is to develop the policy and strategy recommendations to increase the quality of higher education in Russian Federation. The study examines the significance of equal educational opportunities and the influence of this factor on the educational systems of developing countries. Transformational processes in the domain of…
This study aims to understand equity issues of international students' learning in Korean higher education institutions by engaging with the issue of racism and identifies how international students in Korea reshape their learning trajectory and how we could provide equitable and quality education for international students. Espousing a…
Jorge González González; Rocío Santamaría Ambriz
The paper discusses the concepts of «quality» and «accreditation» in education with different meanings, and proposes comprehensive definitions that have been put into practice by the Union of Universities of Latin America and the Caribbean and the International Network of Evaluators through model «V» evaluation planningfor continuous improvement, integration and internationalization of higher education.
Arribas Díaz, Jorge Antonio; Martínez-Mediano, Catalina
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the application of quality management systems (QMS) based on international standards of quality in education (ISO 9001:2008) and ascertain the influence of this quality model on primary and secondary schools in Spain. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted in 26 publicly funded,…
... quality data; (2) emissions- related data; (3) meteorology; (4) geography/topography; and (5... contributes to ambient air quality in a nearby area that does not meet) the national primary or secondary... protects all those residing, working, attending school, or otherwise present in those areas regardless of...
Full Text Available In South Africa four key policy discourses underpin doctoral education: growth, capacity, efficiency, and quality discourses. This article contributes to the discourse on quality by engaging with quality assurance from the perspective of the decision makers and implementers of macro policy (national, meso (institutional, and micro (faculty/departmental levels. We explore the perceptions that members of higher degree committees in the field of Education have of the quality assurance of doctoral education. Our data are drawn from a national survey questionnaire completed by these respondents at all public South African institutions that offer a doctorate in Education. The insights gained reside within four categories: positionality, policy, programmes, and people (stakeholders. Thereafter, we problematised the main results using academic freedom in a mode 3 knowledge production environment as a lens, which revealed thought provoking directions for future research about doctoral education.
Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah
Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions......, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women...... of lower educational attainment, the effect of general self-efficacy on quality of diet was mediated through perceptions of control and through food involvement, but that there were also direct effects of social support for healthy eating and having positive outcome expectancies. There was no effect...
Ríos-Rodríguez, María de Los Ángeles; García-Cerdán, María Rosa; Calonge-Vallejo, Ana Rosa; Tobella-Andreu, Laia; Baena-Díez, José Miguel; Schröder, Helmut
To study the feasibility and results of the self-reported short diet quality screener (sDQS) in Primary Care. The variables associated with difficulty and inadequate diet are also determined. Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with 196 participants aged >18 years with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or hypercholesterolaemia, consecutively included from 4 Primary Health Care Centres in Barcelona. The main variables collected were, age, sex, educational level, cardiovascular risk factors, body mass index, time to complete the sDQS, degree of difficulty, and diet score: inadequate diet ≤18, adequate in some aspects 19-27, adequate >27. The mean age was 48.8 years (52% males). The analysis of the variables showed that the prevalence of having higher than a primary education level, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity was 50%, 54.6%, 23.5%, 56.6%, and 27.5%, respectively. The mean time to complete the questionnaire was 2.3min. More than 80% considered it easy or very easy. An inadequate diet was reported by 21.4%, adequate in some aspects by 76.5%, and an adequate diet only by 2%. To be older than 49 years and a low diet quality increased the risk of needing ≥2min to complete the sDQS (OR 2.0, 95% CI; 1.0-4.3, and OR 2.3, 95% CI; 1.1-5.1, respectively). Not following a low cholesterol diet and age less than 49 years increased the risk of a low diet quality (OR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5, and OR 2.9; 95% CI: 1.2-6.8, respectively). The completion of the sDQS is easy and was not a significant time-burden in Primary Care. A significant proportion of participants with cardiovascular risk reported a low diet quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a synthesis of the literature on defining quality in the context of higher education. During a search for relevant literature, the authors intentionally cast a wide net, beginning with a broad search in Google Scholar and followed by a narrower search in educational databases, including Academic Search Complete, Education Research Complete, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC, and SAGE Premier. The authors identified both peer-reviewed journal articles and publications from professional organizations, such as the International Organization for Standardization. The paper begins with a discussion of the existing challenges and strategies for defining quality. Next, the authors provide a conceptual model of quality based on their review of the literature. Then, they examine some considerations for defining quality assurance and provide recommendations to help bring greater clarity and alignment to existing quality assurance practices. Their findings reveal important gaps in the literature. First, more research is needed to determine the feasibility of developing a universal definition of quality that would apply to different types of institutions in diverse geographic locations. Second, more research is needed to better understand the influence of culture on the use and meaning of quality terminology. Specifically, research is needed to determine whether the terms, quality and quality assurance, are applicable across cultures and, if so, whether there are distinct regional and national meanings of these terms. Finally, the relationship between quality assurance and accreditation in the literature is unclear. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v5i3.244
Ahmed Ali Saleh Al Ajmi
Full Text Available Academic research remains a prime source of knowledge and innovation for higher education institutions (HEIs that strive to grow, expand and develop their academic reputations and standards. Yet, research informs teaching practices, shapes social changes and it has financial outcomes for HEIs. Therefore, it is imperative to develop institutional policies and strategies for promoting and sustaining quality research in HEIs in Oman. There are a number of international frameworks and models which have been developed to measure research quality in HEIs around the world. For example, bibliometrics were used to assess research quality in HEIs in the UK because bibliometric data can provide a number of component variables. An appropriate bibliometric model may include components such as output volume, diversity of outputs, citation volume, journal impact factor and average citations per publication, etc. Moreover, other popular examples of models for assessing research quality are Multidimensional Research Assessment Matrix (MRAM used in Europe and the UK’s Research Assessment Exercise (RAE. However, neither of the above mentioned models is adopted by HEIs in Oman. Thus, the current study is an attempt to explore some institutional, international, logistic and pragmatic factors that impact academic research and publication quality, review popular international research quality assessment models and explore the possibility of applying them in the Omani context. To achieve the study objectives, 20 teacher researchers were surveyed and the findings and recommendations were presented. Keywords: Quality Research, HEIs in Oman, International Models, Factors, Teacher Researchers' Views
antibiotic was prescribed in almost half (65/141) of the consultations, but antibiotic use was unwarranted in one-third of these cases. Health ... with clearly defined and monitored standard clinical practice routines and norms, is required to change the status quo. Primary .... Although both dosage and frequency of antibiotic ...
Also, interview schedules were used to collect data from Ministry of Education officers. The findings revealed that there was disjointed communication between the Kenyan Ministry of Education and textbook publishers and users. The study also established that the evaluation and vetting process of primary school textbooks ...
Steiner, Rose M.; Walsworth, David T.
Introduction: Improving Performance in Practice (IPIP) is an initiative convened by the American Board of Medical Specialties. It investigates the efficacy of coaches in helping primary-care practices improve the care of patients with diabetes and asthma. Most IPIP states use coaches who have a health care background, and are trained in quality…
Zou, Yaming; Zhang, Xiao; Hao, Yuantao; Shi, Leiyu; Hu, Ruwei
The primary care in China can be provided by general practitioners (GPs) and other physicians (non-GPs). However, China's general practice system has never been really established. Chinese patients tend to consider the quality of primary care provided by GPs much lower than that of non-GPs. Besides, many GPs presently prefer leaving their own positions and seeking better development in big hospitals, which has made the already weak GP system weaker. Yet, few studies have specially compared the quality of primary care provided by Chinese GPs and other physicians and no studies have explored the independent predictors of Chinese GPs' intentions to stay on their current job. In this study, we aimed to compare the quality of primary care offered by GPs with non-GPs and to explore the independent predictors of GPs' future work intentions. This cross-sectional study applied multi-stage random cluster sampling methodology. The data were collected from November 2013 to September 2014 in Guangdong Province. In total, 401 effective questionnaires were selected from the physicians. Quality of primary care was assessed using the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) Provider Part, representing six primary care domains: ongoing care, coordination (i.e., referrals and information systems), comprehensiveness (i.e., service available and service provided), family-centeredness, community orientation and cultural competence. Of 401 participating physicians, 163 (40.6 %) were GPs. The total PCAT score was 26.32 ± 2.24 which was the sum score of the six domains and represent the quality of primary care. GPs achieved significantly different total scores and scores on three individual scales: comprehensiveness: service available, comprehensiveness: service provided and community orientation. Multiple linear regressions revealed GPs had a higher total score and scores for comprehensiveness: service provided and community orientation after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics
Gavornik, Jeffrey P.; Bear, Mark F.
It has been more than 50 years since the first description of ocular dominance plasticity--the profound modification of primary visual cortex (V1) following temporary monocular deprivation. This discovery immediately attracted the intense interest of neurobiologists focused on the general question of how experience and deprivation modify the brain…
José Ribas Milanez de Campos
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperhidrosis or excessive sudoresis is a chronic disease associated with important subjective distress. OBJECTIVE: To propose a specific questionnaire to evaluate the quality of life of patients with hyperhidrosis. METHODS: From October 1995 to March 2002, 378 patients (234 females, with a mean age of 26.8 years, were evaluated before and after video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy. RESULTS: Therapeutic success was obtained in 90% of the procedures. The recurrence rate was 10% for palmar and 11% for axillary hyperhidrosis; 27% of the patients who had recurrence were re-operated successfully. No serious complications were reported. Of the total number of patients, 91% answered to the quality of life questionnaire, and 86% of them reported improvement after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Thoracic sympathectomy is a therapeutic method capable of changing the quality of life of patients with hyperhidrosis. The questionnaire applied has shown these changes.
Salchev, P.; Schäfer, W.; Boerma, W.; Groenewegen, P.
Today, strengthening primary care is worldwide probably higher than ever on the agenda of scientist and policy makers (1). Primary care is expected to be an effective response to effects of the current economic crisis on health and health care. The policy strategy towards primary care reinforcement
Claire van Deventer
With the added complexity of managing children, there was a concern in the research district that children were not being optimally managed at PHC level. Method: A quality improvement project was initiated to assess HIV-positive children's management at PHC clinics and to implement an intervention to improve this care.
van Tulder, Maurits W.; Tuut, Mariska; Pennick, Victoria; Bombardier, Claire; Assendelft, Willem J J
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review of clinical guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To assess the methodologic quality of existing guidelines for the management of acute low back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Guidelines are playing an increasingly important role in evidence-based practice. After publication of
The survey and discussion focus on the challenges to quality education in Uganda. It is over136 years since formal education was introduced in Uganda by the Christian Missionaries in 1877 and 1879. These were Anglican and Roman Catholic Missionaries respectively. Given the plethora of implicit and explicit challenges ...
Families, communities, schools and churches play a crucial role in reducing or reinforcing both social and educational inequalities in Zimbabwe. Leadership in schools plays a pivotal role in ensuring discipline and promoting quality education in their institutions. This paper seeks to highlight the issues that affect schools in ...
Tapp, L.; Elwyn, G.; Edwards, A.; Holm, S.; Eriksson, T.
PURPOSE: Quality improvement (QI) processes in family medicine are becoming increasingly complex. Their influence on the organisation of the sector and on the daily work processes is profound and increasing. The literature indicates that many ethical issues are arising from QI work. Therefore this
Objectives: To assess patient satisfaction with quality of PHC assessed in terms of (a) customer profile, (b) patient satisfaction, and (c) health care-seeking behavior. Methodology: A sample of nine health centers and seven polyclinics from various locations in Benghazi, Libya were selected for gathering information by ...
Growth monitoring and nutritional counselling at well child visits was generally inadequate, with not one of 11 children who qualified for food supplementation receiving it. Conclusion. The poor quality of PHC offered to children in the richest city in Africa is a sad indictment of the inability of health service providers to address ...
Aug 8, 2013 ... water security, reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and sustaining water resources. The microbial and chemical quality .... provided the researcher with useful information, such as the fact that the community is ... Framework Policy for the Assurance and Promotion of. Ethically Accountable ...
Simon DeLusignan; Tom Valentin; Tom Chan; Nigel Hague; Oliver Wood; Jeremy VanVlymen; Neil Dhoul
Objective To report problems implementing a data quality programme in osteoporosis. Design Analysis of data extracted using Morbidity Information Query and Export Syntax (MIQUEST) from participating general practices’ systems and recommendations of practitioners who attended an action research workshop. Setting Computerised general practices using different Read code versions to record structured data. Participants 78 practices predominantly from London and the south east, with repre...
Ascef, Bruna de Oliveira; Haddad, João Paulo Amaral; Álvares, Juliana; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Costa, Ediná Alves; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Guibu, Ione Aquemi; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Soeiro, Orlando Mario; Leite, Silvana Nair; Silveira, Micheline Rosa
To analyze the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of patients of the primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) and its associated factors. This is a cross-sectional study with data from the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015). Data were collected with a questionnaire that included the EuroQol 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) instrument. Patients from the five regions of Brazil were interviewed. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze their Health-Related Quality of Life and its associated factors. Of the total of 8,590 patients, the most frequent dimensions were pain/discomfort (50.7%) and anxiety/depression (38.8%). About 10% of the patients reported extreme problems in these dimensions. The following factors were significantly associated with a worse quality of life: being female; having arthritis, osteoarthritis, or rheumatism; cerebrovascular accident; heart disease; depression; health self-assessment as poor or very poor; drinking alcoholic beverages once or more per month; dieting to lose weight, avoiding salt consumption, and reducing fat intake. Significant association was observed between a better quality of life and: living in the North and Southeast regions of Brazil; practicing physical activities; and having a higher educational level. No association was observed with factors related to the health services. The Health-Related Quality of Life of patients was influenced by demographic and socioeconomic factors that were related to health conditions and lifestyle, being useful to guide specific actions for promoting health and the integral care to patients of the Brazilian Unified Health System.
Bruna de Oliveira Ascef
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL of patients of the primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS and its associated factors. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with data from the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos – Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM – National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines – Services, 2015. Data were collected with a questionnaire that included the EuroQol 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D instrument. Patients from the five regions of Brazil were interviewed. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze their Health-Related Quality of Life and its associated factors. RESULTS Of the total of 8,590 patients, the most frequent dimensions were pain/discomfort (50.7% and anxiety/depression (38.8%. About 10% of the patients reported extreme problems in these dimensions. The following factors were significantly associated with a worse quality of life: being female; having arthritis, osteoarthritis, or rheumatism; cerebrovascular accident; heart disease; depression; health self-assessment as poor or very poor; drinking alcoholic beverages once or more per month; dieting to lose weight, avoiding salt consumption, and reducing fat intake. Significant association was observed between a better quality of life and: living in the North and Southeast regions of Brazil; practicing physical activities; and having a higher educational level. No association was observed with factors related to the health services. CONCLUSIONS The Health-Related Quality of Life of patients was influenced by demographic and socioeconomic factors that were related to health conditions and lifestyle, being useful to guide specific actions for promoting health and the integral care to patients of the Brazilian Unified Health System.
Díaz-Lázaro, José Javier; Fernández, Isabel M. Solano; del Mar Sánchez Vera, María
The concept of Learning Analytics, as we understand it today, is relatively new but the practice of evaluating user behavior is not innovative. For years, technological development, along with other educational aspects, have encouraged, developed and facilitated this practice as a way of providing a personalized quality experience to students. The…
Using a 10 year time-series dataset, we analyzed the effects of two severe droughts on water quality and ecosystem processes in a temperate, eutrophic estuary (Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina). During the droughts, dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations were on average 4...
Hyland, Marie; Layte, Richard; Lyons, Seán; McCoy, Selina; Silles, Mary
This paper combines data from a government programme providing broadband access to primary schools in Ireland with survey microdata on schools', teachers' and pupils use of the internet to examine the links between public subsidies, classroom use of the internet and educational performance. Provision of broadband service under a government scheme was associated with more than a doubling of teachers' use of the internet in class after about a two year lag. Better computing facilities in school...
F. K. Bondinuba
Full Text Available The researchers developed an instrument for measuring student housing quality (SHQ in Higher Institutions of Learning (HIL in Ghana. The paper sought to validate the student housing quality scale (SHOQUAL through factor analysis approach. 700 respondents were sampled from two public HIL in Ghana in a cross-sectional survey that used a self-administered structured questionnaire for data collection. Confirmatory factor fnalysis (CFA was conducted to detect the underlying latent variables that significantly determine SHQ in Ghanaian HIL. The findings indicate that four emerged SHQ dimensions relevant to the research context were labelled as follows: core facility quality, enabling facility quality, support facility quality, and cost of housing. The constructs in the derived model possess high reliability and validity. Student housing service providers could conveniently use the derived instrument items for measuring SHQ in HIL. Implications are discussed and limitations are noted. The paper contributes to the literature in the areas of models of service quality in student housing management in HIL.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent decades international and national guidelines have been formulated to ensure that patients suffering from specific diseases receive evidence-based care. In 2004 the National Swedish Board of Health and Welfare (SoS published guidelines concerning the management of patients with asthma and COPD. The guidelines identify quality indicators that should be fulfilled. The aim of this study was to survey structure and process indicators, according to the asthma and COPD guidelines, in primary health care, and to identify correlations between structure and process quality results. Methods A cross-sectional study of existing structure by using a questionnaire, and a retrospective study of process quality based on a review of measures documented in asthma and COPD medical records. All 42 primary health care centres in the county council of Östergötland, Sweden, were included. Results All centres showed high quality regarding structure, although there was a large difference in time reserved for Asthma and COPD Nurse Practice (ACNP. The difference in reserved time was reflected in process quality results. The time needed to reach the highest levels of spirometry and current smoking habit documentation was between 1 and 1 1/2 hours per week per 1000 patients registered at the centre. Less time resulted in fewer patients examined with spirometry, and fewer medical records with smoking habits documented. More time did not result in higher levels, but in more frequent contact with each patient. In the COPD group more time resulted in higher levels of pulse oximetry and weight registration. Conclusion To provide asthma and COPD patients with high process quality in primary care according to national Swedish guidelines, at least one hour per week per 1000 patients registered at the primary health care centre should be reserved for ACNP.
Kellici, Neritan; Dibra, Arvin; Mihani, Joana; Kellici, Suela; Burazeri, Genc
Aim: To date, the available information regarding the quality of primary health care services in Albania is scarce. The aim of our study was to assess the quality of primary health care services in Albania based on physicians’ perceptions towards the quality of the services provided to the general population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in January-March 2013 including a representative sample of 132 physicians (59 men aged 41.3±6.9 years and 73 women aged 43.7±4.8 years; overall response rate: 132/150=88%) providing primary health care services in several polyclinics (health centers) of Tirana, the Albanian capital city. A structured self-administered and anonymous questionnaire was applied including physicians’ perceptions regarding different dimensions of the quality of primary health care. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of self-perceived quality of health care services with baseline characteristics of physicians. Results: Self-perceived adequate quality of health care services was positively related to the age of physicians, their working experience, female gender, a lower population served, and specialization in family medicine. Conclusion: Our findings provide useful evidence on the self-perceived quality of health services from primary health care physicians’ perspective in transitional Albania. Health authorities in Albania should implement suitable instruments to measure the quality of health care services at all levels. PMID:26005264
Kilburn, Brandon; Kilburn, Ashley; Davis, Dexter
E-service quality of online higher education reflects the student's perception of quality of online exchanges across four dimensions: fulfillment, efficiency, system availability and privacy. This study links e-service quality to intentions to remain loyal as mediated by perceived value in an online higher education environment. AMOS is used to…
Boonen, Annemie; Bijnens, Helena
European higher education institutions will need significant reforms, in order to guarantee their leading role in a globalized knowledge economy. These reforms can be enhanced by improving the way in which traditional universities integrate new technologies both in their educational activities and throughout their strategic and operational processes. The UNIQUe institutional accreditation scheme, analyzed and described in this chapter, intends to support this process of integrating the use of new technologies in higher education. With its specific open approach to quality in e-Learning, UNIQUe emphasizes innovation and creativity in a process that includes self-assessment and constructive dialog with peers and stakeholders involved. UNIQUe intends to use the institutional quality label as a catalyst for continuous improvement and change while setting up collaborative bench learning processes among universities for the adoption and integration of e-Learning.
Cintia Kath Blank
Full Text Available Introduction: The issue EAD has been studied now, however, it considered that with regard to the librarian's work there is still much to be debated.Objective: To contribute to insights into the activities of the librarian combined with the items listed in the "Benchmarks of Quality for Distance Higher Education."Methodology: Literature review.Results: The higher the distance is reality that is increasingly present in our society, both in the public and in particular in big cities or towns and all professionals involved in education should pay attention to the issue of quality in EAD in order to be offered an educational process that enables the full development of the student in their learning process.Conclusion: It was observed that the role of the librarian is renewed every moment, this requires ongoing professional reflection and reinvention of their skills, knowledge and techniques to better serve the users of information service.
Licskai, Christopher J; Sands, Todd W; Paolatto, Lisa; Nicoletti, Ivan; Ferrone, Madonna
BACKGROUND: Primary care office spirometry can improve access to testing and concordance between clinical practice and asthma guidelines. Compliance with test quality standards is essential to implementation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of spirometry performed onsite in a regional primary care asthma program (RAP) by health care professionals with limited training. METHODS: Asthma educators were trained to perform spirometry during two 2 h workshops and supervised during up to six patient encounters. Quality was analyzed using American Thoracic Society (ATS) 1994 and ATS/European Respiratory Society (ERS) 2003 (ATS/ERS) standards. These results were compared with two regional reference sites: a primary care group practice (Family Medical Centre [FMC], Windsor, Ontario) and a teaching hospital pulmonary function laboratory (London Health Sciences Centre [LHSC], London, Ontario). RESULTS: A total of 12,815 flow-volume loops (FVL) were evaluated: RAP – 1606 FVL in 472 patient sessions; reference sites – FMC 4013 FVL in 573 sessions; and LHSC – 7196 in 1151 sessions. RAP: There were three acceptable FVL in 392 of 472 (83%) sessions, two reproducible FVL according to ATS criteria in 428 of 469 (91%) sessions, and 395 of 469 (84%) according to ATS/ERS criteria. All quality criteria – minimum of three acceptable and two reproducible FVL according to ATS criteria in 361 of 472 (77%) sessions and according to ATS/ERS criteria in 337 of 472 (71%) sessions. RAP met ATS criteria more often than the FMC (388 of 573 [68%]); however, less often than LHSC (1050 of 1151 [91%]; Pspirometry in the majority of sessions in a primary care setting. The quality performance approached pulmonary function laboratory standards. PMID:22891184
Full Text Available A preprocessing scheme based on linear prediction coefficient (LPC residual is applied to higher-order statistics (HOSs for automatic assessment of an overall pathological voice quality. The normalized skewness and kurtosis are estimated from the LPC residual and show statistically meaningful distributions to characterize the pathological voice quality. 83 voice samples of the sustained vowel /a/ phonation are used in this study and are independently assessed by a speech and language therapist (SALT according to the grade of the severity of dysphonia of GRBAS scale. These are used to train and test classification and regression tree (CART. The best result is obtained using an optima l decision tree implemented by a combination of the normalized skewness and kurtosis, with an accuracy of 92.9%. It is concluded that the method can be used as an assessment tool, providing a valuable aid to the SALT during clinical evaluation of an overall pathological voice quality.
Full Text Available Quality management is an important aspect in all kinds of businesses – manufacturing or service. Idea generation plays a pivotal role in managing quality in organizations. It is thenew and innovative ideas which can help corporations to survive in the turbulent business environment. Research in group dynamics has shown that more ideas are generated by individuals working alone but in a group environment than the individuals engaged in a formal group discussion. In Nominal Group Technique (NGT, individuals work alone but in a group setting. This paper shows how NGT can be applied to generate large number of ideas to solve quality related problems specifically in Malaysian higher education setting. The paper also discusses the details of NGT working procedure andexplores the areas of its further applications.
Campos, José Ribas Milanez de; Kauffman, Paulo; Werebe, Eduardo de Campos; Andrade Filho, Laert Oliveira; Kuzniek, Sergio; Wolosker, Nelson; Jatene, Fábio Biscegli; Amir, Mariane
BACKGROUND: Hyperhidrosis or excessive sudoresis is a chronic disease associated with important subjective distress. OBJECTIVE: To propose a specific questionnaire to evaluate the quality of life of patients with hyperhidrosis. METHODS: From October 1995 to March 2002, 378 patients (234 females), with a mean age of 26.8 years, were evaluated before and after video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy. RESULTS: Therapeutic success was obtained in 90% of the procedures. The recurrence rate was 10% f...
Conclusions There is variability in inter-practice data quality. Some clinically important codes are lacking, and there are multiple ways that the same clinical concept can be represented. Different practice computer systems have different versions of Read code, making some data incompatible. Manual searching is still required to find data. Clinicians with an understanding of what data are clinically relevant need to have a stronger voice in the production of codes, and in the creation of recommended lists.
Siswandari; *, Susilaningsih; Sumaryati, Sri; Muchsini, Binti
The objective of this research is to improve the quality of higher education institution, namely: the Study Program of Accounting Education through well-traced graduates from the view of the alumni of the Study Program of Accounting Education – the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education Sebelas Maret University and their users. The population of this research was all of the alumni. Its samples consisted of 860 alumni of the class of 2000s. The data of research were collected through observ...
Jorge González González
Full Text Available The paper discusses the concepts of «quality» and «accreditation» in education with different meanings, and proposes comprehensive definitions that have been put into practice by the Union of Universities of Latin America and the Caribbean and the International Network of Evaluators through model «V» evaluation planningfor continuous improvement, integration and internationalization of higher education.
Nathan Kanuma Taremwa
Full Text Available Developing knowledge infrastructure by massive investments in education and training are taken as a benchmark in facilitating the acceleration and possible increases in skills, capacities and competences of Rwandan people has become apriority issue in the recent years. This notion is relevant to vision 2020 where human resource development and building of a knowledge based economy are fundamental pillars. In the past years, several policy reforms have taken place in education sector. However, the overarching question is if such reforms are becoming adaptive or complex and if such reforms will not compromise the quality of education in higher learning education in Rwanda? The main objective of the study was to investigate the impact of changes in Higher Learning Institutions on the quality of education in Rwanda. This research had three hypotheses, namely; there is an impact of changes in Higher Learning Institutions on quality of education in Rwanda; the current complexity in Rwandan education system is affecting the quality of education in HLIs; Tailoring education system to the regional reforms and implementation strategies is affecting the quality of education in Rwanda. This study was carried out in 10 higher learning institutions (5 public, 5 private and 2 Ministry of Education directorates (HEC and REB. Key informants were the senior management/head of institutions, experienced academic staff, and students. The parameters considered included; the learning methods, assessment styles, workloads, language of instruction, merging of public HLIs, curriculum, and the transformation of some private higher learning institutions into company forms. Main research instruments were questionnaires and interview guides. Both qualitative and quantitative research was collected. Analyses were done using SPSS and excel packages. Major findings indicate that the system is still in transition with indicative gaps. Ample time would therefore be necessary for
Full Text Available Progressive importance, swelling investment, and mounting national and global competition necessitate evaluation of the service quality of higher education. Quantifiable indicators such as student teacher ratio, student number, women participation, establishing new departments, and increase in the number of universities are no longer enough unless the student’s stand point is considered. This research probed the service quality of higher education in a public university in southern Bangladesh utilizing modified SERVQUAL gap model. The t-test results suggest that there is a significant service gap in all the selected service dimensions such as learning, teaching, recognition, assessment system, internet and library facilities, campus life, and non-academic administration. The results also mirror that little more than half (54.1% students are satisfied with the service quality of the selected university and almost similar proportion (52.1 % of the students have future interest in studying in the same university. Regression analysis reveals that learning and recognition are two important determinants of client’s overall satisfaction with the service of selected university. Importance Performance Analysis (IPA advocates that the university should take immediate step in improving internet and library facilities, campus life, and non-academic administration. Factor analysis output confirms that slight modification of the proposed seven set model into six set factors can be employed by the management as off-the-rack service quality measurement tool.
Teelken, Christine; Lomas, Laurie
This paper focuses on the way lecturers observe, feel restrained by and cope with quality management systems that have been implemented in the higher education systems of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. As two sides of the same coin, quality enhancement and quality control are of increased significance in European Higher Education…
ÖZDEMİR, Atilla; Selahattin GELBAL
It is seen that education has a significant effect that changes an individual’s life in our country in which education is a way of moving up the social ladder. In order to continue to a higher education program after graduating from high school, students have to succeed in transition to higher education examination. Thus, the entrance exam is an important factor to determine the future of the students. In our country, middle school grades and high school grade point average that is added to u...
Tapp, Laura; Elwyn, Glyn; Edwards, Adrian; Holm, Søren; Eriksson, Tina
Quality improvement (QI) processes in family medicine are becoming increasingly complex. Their influence on the organisation of the sector and on the daily work processes is profound and increasing. The literature indicates that many ethical issues are arising from QI work. Therefore this paper aims to identify the experiences of professionals involved in planning and performing QI programmes in European family medicine on the ethical implications involved in those processes. Four focus groups were carried out with 29 general practitioners (GPs) and administrators of general practice quality work in Europe. Two focus groups comprised EQuiP members and two focus groups comprised attendees to an invitational conference on QI in family medicine held by EQuiP in Barcelona in November 2006. Four overarching themes were identified, including implications of using patient data, prioritising QI projects, issues surrounding the ethical approval dilemma and the impact of QI. Each theme was accompanied by an identified solution. Prioritising is necessary and in doing that GPs should ensure that a variety of work is conducted so that some patient groups are not neglected. Transparency and flexibility on various levels is necessary to avoid harmful consequences of QI in terms of bureaucratisation, increased workload and burnout on part of the GP and harmful effects on the doctor-patient relationship. There is a need to address the system of approval for national QI programmes and QI projects utilising more sophisticated methodologies. This study provides data from GPs who are experienced quality improvers across 17 countries. Many ethical issues were identified and it was possible to clearly map the themes and their relationships and to summarise the identified solutions from an international perspective.
Kolozsvári, László Róbert; Rurik, Imre
The Hungarian primary care quality indicator system has been introduced in 2009, and has been continuously developed since then. The system offers extra financing for family physicians who are achieving the expected levels of indicators. There are currently 16 indicators for adult and mixed practices and 8 indicators are used in paediatric care. Authors analysed the influencing factors of the indicators other than those related to the performance of family physicians. Expectations and compliance of patients, quality of outpatient (ambulatory) care services, insufficient flow of information, inadequate primary care softwares which need to be updated could be considered as the most important factors. The level of financial motivations should also be significantly increased besides changes in the reporting system. It is recommended, that decision makers in health policy and financing have to declare clearly their expectations, and professional bodies should find the proper solution. These indicators could contribute properly to the improvement of the quality of primary care services in Hungary.
Lin, Mengquan; Chang, Kai; Gong, Le
The higher education quality evaluation and assurance frameworks and their operating mechanisms of countries such as the United Kingdom, France, and the United States show that higher education systems, traditional culture, and social background all impact quality assurance operating mechanisms. A model analysis of these higher education quality…
Žibeniene, Gintaute; Savickiene, Izabela
The article presents which conceptions of higher education quality are most acceptable to first-year students of the study field of pedagogy. It is significant to analyse students' opinions as more than 10 years ago the EU member states agreed that higher education institutions bear responsibility for the quality of higher education. Being members…
Wensing, M.J.P.; Broge, B.; Riens, B.; Kaufmann-Kolle, P.; Akkermans, R.P.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Szecsenyi, J.
PURPOSE: To determine the effectiveness of quality circles on prescribing patterns of primary care physicians in Germany and to explore the influence of specific factors on changes. METHODS: Three large non-randomised comparative studies were performed in primary care in Germany, with baseline
Iyer, Padmini; Moore, Rhiannon
This paper examines the way in which learning quality has been conceptualised and measured in school effectiveness surveys conducted by Young Lives, a longitudinal study of child poverty. Primary school surveys were conducted in Vietnam in 2010-11 and Ethiopia in 2012-13, and surveys at upper-primary and secondary level were conducted in Ethiopia,…
Mackatiani, Caleb Imbova
This paper provides a critical appraisal of the influence of examinations oriented approaches on quality education in primary schools in Kenya. The purpose of the study was to determine effects of examination oriented teaching approaches on learning achievement among primary school pupils in Kakamega County, Kenya. It explored the assumptions…
This paper examines Uganda's recent undertaking to reform her Primary School education System with a focus on the effect of structural dynamics of education reforms and the quality of primary education. Structural dynamics in the context of this study is in reference to the organizational composition of the education system at the government,…
Harrison, R. Van; Standiford, Connie J.; Green, Lee A.; Bernstein, Steven J.
Introduction: In 1996 the University of Michigan Health System created the Guidelines Utilization, Implementation, Development, and Evaluation Studies (GUIDES) unit to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of primary care for common medical problems. GUIDES's primary functions are to oversee the development of evidence-based, practical…
de Lusignan, Simon; Valentin, Tom; Chan, Tom; Hague, Nigel; Wood, Oliver; van Vlymen, Jeremy; Dhoul, Neil
To report problems implementing a data quality programme in osteoporosis. Analysis of data extracted using Morbidity Information Query and Export Syntax (MIQUEST) from participating general practices' systems and recommendations of practitioners who attended an action research workshop. Computerised general practices using different Read code versions to record structured data. 78 practices predominantly from London and the south east, with representation from north east, north west and south west England. Patients at risk can be represented in many ways within structured data. Although fracture data exists, it is unclear which are fragility fractures. T-scores, the gold standard for measuring bone density, cannot be extracted using the UK's standard data extraction tool, MIQUEST; instead manual searches had to be implemented. There is a hundredfold variation in data recording levels between practices. Therapy is more frequently recorded than diagnosis. A multidisciplinary forum of experienced practitioners proposed that a limited list of codes should be used. There is variability in inter-practice data quality. Some clinically important codes are lacking, and there are multiple ways that the same clinical concept can be represented. Different practice computer systems have different versions of Read code, making some data incompatible. Manual searching is still required to find data. Clinicians with an understanding of what data are clinically relevant need to have a stronger voice in the production of codes, and in the creation of recommended lists.
Przylog, Adam; Stroka, Magdalena A; Engel, Susanne; Linder, Roland
In 2009 a new system for the objective evaluation of nursing homes was introduced in Germany. The so-called nursing transparency agreement (Pflege-Transparenzvereinbarungen) was introduced to provide a reliable tool for an objective comparison of inpatient (PTVS) and outpatient (PTVA) care; however, the new regulations have been the subject of a broad discussion regarding reliability, efficiency and objectivity. To overcome the lack of objective health outcomes, this study used administrative data from Germany's largest health insurance fund, the Techniker Krankenkasse, in order to analyze the association between the quality ratings and objective quality measures on an individual level. This is the first study that provides empirical evidence on this topic using administrative data. The administrative dataset contained information on several individual characteristics as well as data on injuries, poisoning and other extrinsic effects on care-dependent individuals over the age of 64 years who were living in a nursing home in 2009. Based on these data an objective measure was constructed to test whether higher quality ratings of nursing homes led to a better quality of care of the respective patients using non-linear regression models. The results of the estimated models showed no significant evidence of such a relationship, neither considering the probability nor the number of injuries, poisoning and other extrinsic effects. Significant effects were only observed for gender and specific diseases. The results of this study support the argument that the current rating procedure for nursing homes has to be refined. Using quality indicators in combination with the administrative data could possibly contribute to such an enhancement.
Dietrichson, Jens; Ellegård, Lina Maria; Kjellsson, Gustav
In the last decades, many health systems have implemented policies to make care providers engage in quality competition. But care quality is a multi-dimensional concept, and competition may have different impacts on different dimensions of quality. The empirical evidence on competition and care q......, but no significant effects on the rate of avoidable hospitalizations or patients’ satisfaction with access to care. We find no indications of quality reductions....... that the reforms led to substantially more entry of private care providers in municipalities where there were many patients per provider before the reforms. The effects on primary care quality in these municipalities are modest: we find small improvements in subjective measures of overall care quality......In the last decades, many health systems have implemented policies to make care providers engage in quality competition. But care quality is a multi-dimensional concept, and competition may have different impacts on different dimensions of quality. The empirical evidence on competition and care...
... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary...
... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.7 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary and...
... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.11 National primary and secondary ambient air... national primary annual ambient air quality standard for oxides of nitrogen is 53 parts per billion (ppb...
Full Text Available Education, especially higher education, no doubt, is one of the most important values in the modern world. To imagine the prospects of the nearest and medium-term development of the country, its share in the intellectual world `coin box`, you need to appreciate the state of functioning within it higher education system properly, to assess the impact of external and internal environment on its quality. The existent global changes make it necessary to construct a new model of the learning process, the creation of a qualitatively new education management system, the formation of a new university model that exists in an open information society. Reforming of higher school - is a priority in terms of national interests of Russia, without which it is impossible to create a competitive innovative economy based on knowledge in our country.
Man, Shumei; Cox, Margueritte; Patel, Puja; Smith, Eric E; Reeves, Mathew J; Saver, Jeffrey L; Bhatt, Deepak L; Xian, Ying; Schwamm, Lee H; Fonarow, Gregg C
Primary stroke center (PSC) certification was established to identify hospitals providing evidence-based care for stroke patients. The numbers of PSCs certified by Joint Commission (JC), Healthcare Facilities Accreditation Program, Det Norske Veritas, and State-based agencies have significantly increased in the past decade. This study aimed to evaluate whether PSCs certified by different organizations have similar quality of care and in-hospital outcomes. The study population consisted of acute ischemic stroke patients who were admitted to PSCs participating in Get With The Guidelines-Stroke between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012. Measures of care quality and outcomes were compared among the 4 different PSC certifications. A total of 477 297 acute ischemic stroke admissions were identified from 977 certified PSCs (73.8% JC, 3.7% Det Norske Veritas, 1.2% Healthcare Facilities Accreditation Program, and 21.3% State-based). Composite care quality was generally similar among the 4 groups of hospitals, although State-based PSCs underperformed JC PSCs in a few key measures, including intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator use. The rates of tissue-type plasminogen activator use were higher in JC and Det Norske Veritas (9.0% and 9.8%) and lower in State and Healthcare Facilities Accreditation Program certified hospitals (7.1% and 5.9%) (Pcertification, acute ischemic stroke quality of care and outcomes may differ according to which organization provided certification. These findings may have important implications for further improving systems of care. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Andréia Soprani dos Santos
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the quality of the health care provided to children aged under one year old performed by primary health services in the South and Northeast regions of Brazil. METHODS This is a cross-sectional, population-based study carried out in 2010 with 7,915 children aged from one to four years, whose homes are located in the areas of health service coverage. We described the prevalence of procedures and guidelines, such as weight and height measurement, vaccination, newborn blood spot screening, evaluation of umbilical cord, instruction on breastfeeding and introduction of new food, and their respective 95% confidence intervals. The differences were analyzed using the chi-square test of heterogeneity and linear trend. We considered the main outcome of high-quality infant care if the child had received all recommended procedures and guidelines in the first year of life. For this analysis, we used the Poisson regression considering hierarchical model. RESULTS There was low prevalence for the instruction on breastfeeding in the first week of life (58.8%, 95%CI 57.5–60.0 and on the introduction of new food in the fourth month care. The prevalence of high-quality in childcare was 42.0% (95%CI 40.5–43.5. The adjusted analysis according to hierarchical model indicated greater probability of this outcome in the Northeast region (PR = 1.17, 95%CI 1.09–1.26, in smaller municipalities (PR = 1.17, 95%CI 1.03–1.33, and in municipalities with 50,000 and 99,000 inhabitants (PR = 1.20, 95%CI 1.09–1.34. CONCLUSIONS The Northeast region has higher-quality infant care services, which can be explained by the consolidation of the Family Health Strategy in that region.
Wensing, M.J.P.; Broge, B.; Kaufmann-Kolle, P.; Andres, E.; Szecsenyi, J.
RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Quality circles comprise small group sessions of doctors and written feedback on their individual practice patterns. Although 50% of German primary care doctors participate in quality circles, their effectiveness has hardly been evaluated in Germany. This study
Gonzalez, G.Z.; Klazinga, N.; Asbroek, G. ten; Delnoij, D.M.
An appropriate quality of medical care including dental care should be an objective of every government that aims to improve the oral health of its population. OBJECTIVES: To determine performance indicators that could be used to assess the quality of primary dental care at different levels of a
González, Grisel Zacca; Klazinga, Niek; ten Asbroek, Guus; Delnoij, Diana M.
An appropriate quality of medical care including dental care should be an objective of every government that aims to improve the oral health of its population. OBJECTIVES: To determine performance indicators that could be used to assess the quality of primary dental care at different levels of a
Monkeviciene, Ona; Stankeviciene, Kristina
Over the last decade, the changes in Lithuanian pre-school and pre-primary education have been predetermined by changes in paradigms of children's education and strategic education documents that provided for guidelines of high quality children's (self-)education, an increasing attention of society to the quality of children's education, training…
Romero, Alejandra Mendez; Wunderink, Wouter; van Os, Rob M.; Nowak, Peter J. C. M.; Helimen, Ben J. M.; Nuyttens, Joost J.; Brandwijk, Rene P.; Verhoef, Cornelis; Ijzermans, Jan N. M.; Levendag, Peter C.
Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) provides a high local control rate for primary and metastatic liver tumors. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of this treatment on the patient's quality of life. This is the first report of quality of life associated with liver SBRT.
Li, Haitao; Wei, Xiaolin; Wong, Martin C.; Yang, Nan; Wong, Samuel Y.; Lao, Xiangqian; Griffiths, Sian M.
Abstract Strong primary care is in urgent need for the management and control of hypertension. This study aimed to compare the quality of hypertensive care delivered by community health centers (CHCs) in Shanghai and Shenzhen. Multistage random sampling method was used to select 4 CHCs in each city as study settings. A cohort of hypertensive patients under the hypertensive management program in the CHCs was selected from the electronic information system by using a systematic random sampling method. Binary logistic regression models were constructed for comparison between the 2 cities. A total of 3196 patients’ records were assessed. The proportions of hypertensive patients who received advice on smoking cessation (33.8 vs 7.7%, P hypertension control rate in Shenzhen was lower than that in Shanghai (76.3 vs 83.2%, P hypertensive care in terms of increasing physical activity advice, low-sodium diet advice, regular follow-up, and drug prescription was associated with a higher rate of hypertension control. The study indicates that primary care is effective in managing hypertension irrespective of management and operation models of CHCs in urban China. Our study suggests that improvements in the process of hypertensive care may lead to better hypertension control. PMID:25654383
The high costs of American health care, the related problem of the uninsured, and the grim fiscal prognosis of Medicare and Medicaid are among the most pressing challenges facing the United States today. A solution to the cost problem that does not reduce access or quality is sought by those at all points on the political spectrum. This article discusses the experience of an independent practice association that has collaborated with a related business partner and a health plan to improve the quality of care of 16,000 Medicare Advantage beneficiaries while substantially reducing hospitalization rates and overall service use. The capacity to reduce service use frees funds that are used to support the infrastructure for high-value care and to reward those who provide it. Higher performing primary care, supported by changes in payment, has driven a sustainable business model that preserves the option of independent practice for physicians. We are now testing competencies developed for Medicare Advantage in the Pioneer Accountable Care Organization program, which preserves the broad patient choice that is an important feature of traditional Medicare.
Full Text Available The article explores quality-related funding and its global outcomes in the context of Romanian higher education by focusing on the funding allocations provided to public universities throughout a period of nine years based on their institutional performance on the quality indicators integrated in the funding algorithm. Global funding allocations between universities are analysed and a summative appraisal for the entire nine-year window is provided. The article also explores the relation between quality- related funding, institutional disciplinary profiles and the results of a comprehensive evaluation conducted in 2011 by the Ministry of Education to complete a classification of the universities. The main findings indicate a low overall impact of qualityrelated funding for many institutions, but also a clear pattern in which universities focused on science, technology, engineering and mathematics overwhelmingly outperformed mixed institutions, as well as those focused on humanities, arts and social sciences. Furthermore, the global quality-related funding outcomes of the 2003 – 2011 period studied in the paper are shown to be significantly associated with the results of the 2011 classification
Durán Agüero, Samuel; Vásquez Leiva, Alejandra
In Chile there has been an increase in the elderly population (AM). There is an interest in the group aged in 80 and older, because it has been described that they have different characteristics in relation to nutritional status, habits and quality of life. To describe the characteristics of autonomous -AM of 80 years and over considering different aspects such as anthropometry, styles and quality of life. Cross-sectional study, 271 AM of both genders, anthropometry was assessed by body mass index (BMI), two criteria for nutritional diagnosis were considered:, one from the Ministry of Health of Chile (MINSAL) and the other from the World Health Organization (WHO). Subsequently surveys of food frequency , Pittsburgh Sleep, sleepiness and quality of life perception were applied. The mean BMI was similar in both sexes (p = 0.06). However the intake of energy, macronutrients and micronutrients was higher in men (p frecuency (p <0.01). Moreover an excessive daytime sleepiness and moderate quality of life in the AM were perceived in the studied population. There is a significant prevalence of overweight in this age group, indepentently of criteria used. Although there are still some critical micronutrient deficiencies for this emerging age group. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Amalia, A.; Gunawan, D.; Hardi, S. M.; Rachmawati, D.
The Internal Quality Assurance System (in Indonesian: SPMI (Sistem Penjaminan Mutu Internal) is a systemic activity of quality assurance of higher education in Indonesia. SPMI should be done by all higher education or universities in Indonesia based on the Regulation of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia Number 62 of 2016. Implementation of SPMI must refer to the principle of SPMI that is independent, standardize, accurate, well planned and sustainable, documented and systematic. To assist the SPMI cycle properly, universities need a supporting software to monitor all the activities of SPMI. But in reality, many universities are not optimal in building this SPMI monitoring system. One of the obstacles is the determination of system requirements in support of SPMI principles is difficult to achieve. In this paper, we observe the initial phase of the engineering requirements elicitation. Unlike other methods that collect system requirements from users and stakeholders, we find the system requirements of the SPMI principles from SPMI guideline book. The result of this paper can be used as a choice in determining SPMI software requirements. This paper can also be used by developers and users to understand the scenario of SPMI so that could overcome the problems of understanding between this two parties.
Bhalla, Rohit; Yongue, Brandon G; Currie, Brian P; Greenberg, Mark A; Myrie-Weir, Jacqueline; Defino, Maryrose; Esses, David; Menegus, Mark A; McAllen, Susan J; Monrad, E Scott; Galhotra, Sanjay; Kalkut, Gary
It has been well established that there are racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular care. Quality improvement initiatives have been recommended to proactively address these disparities. An initiative was implemented to improve timeliness of and access to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures among myocardial infarction patients at an academic medical center serving a predominantly minority population. The effort was part of a national quality improvement collaborative focused on improving cardiovascular care for Hispanic/Latino and African American/ black populations. The proportion of primary PCI procedures performed within 90 minutes improved significantly from 17% in the first quarter of 2006 to 93% in the fourth quarter of 2008 (P < .001). There were no significant differences in the frequency with which Hispanic/Latino or African American/black patients received primary PCI therapy in comparison to nonmembers of these groups. Quality improvement techniques can improve the quality of and access to acute cardiovascular care for minority populations.
Hsieh, Chuo-Chun; Huisman, Jeroen
In the context of globalising higher education (HE) policies, there is an increasing interest among scholars in detecting patterns of policy change, including the rate and magnitude of policy change and the direction of change (convergence or divergence) This paper adds to that literature by comparing the pattern of policy change and by providing…
Navarro-Martínez, A; Suárez-Beke, M P; Sánchez-Nicolás, J A; Lázaro-Aragues, P; de Jesús Jiménez-Vázquez, E; Huertas-de Mora, O
The aim of this study was to evaluate and improve the quality of medical care provided to diabetic patients following the standards proposed by the American Diabetes Association. The study was conducted in three phases by analyzing data from the computerized clinical history of a sample of 340 patients. First phase (2010): cross-sectional, descriptive study which assessed the proportion of patients who met the standards related to the screening of diabetes, and goals of control and treatment. Subsequently, health professionals reviewed the results in order to promote the implementation of corrective action. Finally (2012), a new assessment with the same standards was performed. An increase in the number of patients treated with insulin (12.7% in 2010 and 20.2% in 2012) was observed (P < .01). There were also percentage increases in the number of patients who met the screening standards as regards analytical determinations: glycosylated hemoglobin (from 44.4% to 68.2%), lipid profile (47.6%-73.8%), creatinine (32.5% - 73.5%), and albumin-creatinine ratio (9.2%-24.4%) (P < .001). Only 6.4% (CI: 3.2- 9.8) of diabetic patients attained the composite target of glycosylated hemoglobin < 7%, blood pressure < 130/80 mmHg and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 100 mg/dl in 2012. This study shows that medical care has improved the goals related to analytical determinations and the number of insulin-treated diabetic type 2 patients. An optimal level was also maintained in metabolic control of diabetes, but there was still poor control of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Hu, Ruwei; Liao, Yu; Du, Zhicheng; Hao, Yuantao; Liang, Hailun; Shi, Leiyu
In China, most people tend to use hospitals rather than health centers for their primary care generally due to the perception that quality of care provided in the hospital setting is superior to that provided at the health centers. No studies have been conducted in China to compare the quality of primary care provided at different health care settings. The purpose of this study is to compare the quality of primary care provided in different types of health care facilities in China. A cross-sectional survey with patients was conducted in Guangdong province of China, using the validated Chinese Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT). ANOVA was performed to compare the overall and 10 domains of primary care quality for patients in tertiary, secondary, and primary health care settings. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the association between types of facility and quality of primary care attributes while controlling for sociodemographic and health care characteristics. The final number of respondents was 864 including 161 from county hospitals, 190 from rural community health centers (CHCs), 164 from tertiary hospitals, 80 from secondary hospitals, and 269 from urban CHCs. Type of health care facilities was significantly associated with total PCAT score and domain scores. CHC was associated with higher total PCAT score and scores for first contact-access, ongoing care, comprehensiveness-services available, and community orientation than secondary and/or tertiary hospitals, after controlling for patients' demographic and health characteristics. Higher PCAT score was associated with greater satisfaction with primary care received. CHC patients were more likely to report satisfactory experiences compared to patients from secondary and tertiary facilities. The study demonstrated that CHCs provided better quality primary care when compared with secondary and tertiary health care facilities, justifying CHCs as a model of primary care delivery.
Full Text Available Improving the quality of education needs to move her to an innovative way of development. The paper states that innovation in education – a key condition of its availability, efficient use of resources. Innovations in Education author examines how the introduction of something new in higher education, the implementation of new ideas, new methods. Reviewed state of scientific and technical progress in Ukraine, noting that the volume of scientific and technical work performed by enterprises grows. Emphasizes the role of higher education, which is an integral component of the economy. Systematized indicators characterizing the level of development of higher education in Ukraine. The changes that have occurred and the factors that led to them. Emphasized the importance of implementing the various components of the innovation in the educational process and proved a number of measures for its development. Revealed the importance of financial components to provide the resource base for the transition of the educational sector in the innovation way of development. The need for structural changes in higher education, in training, which has a positive impact on the socio-economic performance of the country and the economic activity of the population. It is emphasized that confirm the activity of higher education transition to an innovative way of development is closely associated with this process in a secondary school. And therefore stresses the need for further computerization and informatization of secondary school and in higher education needs to accelerate the development and implementation of new learning technologies, formation of creative innovation teams and ensure their mobility, financial security model of higher education, including through public-private partnership.
Full Text Available This study explored the stakeholders’ construction of quality of Pre-primary Education (PPE based on the various dimensions of PPE in Tanzania with special attention being paid to policy as discourse. The study involved a total of 129 informants sampled differently. The study sampled parents through convenience sampling technique, while teachers and experts were sampled through maximum variation technique. The study used descriptive cross-sectional design underpinned by interpretive paradigm. It generated data through semi-structured interviews employed to primary school inspectors, public PPE teachers, curriculum developer and policymakers. Meanwhile, FGDs were conducted to parents on the quality of PPE. Furthermore, documentary analysis was conducted to determine the extent to which stakeholders’ construction on the quality of PPE was reflected in the TETP of 1995 as well as other related curricular documents. The findings indicate that stakeholders viewed the quality of PPE in three perspectives: i quality as expectations; ii quality as process or practice; and iii quality as programme structure. Overall, stakeholders viewed PPE as an important early childhood provision for the future school life and participation in all walks of life. Although PPE seemed to be important, the study findings suggest that, the quality of public PPE in Tanzania is poor. Specifically, stakeholders identified important indicators constituting the quality of PPE as: i furnished and safe learning environment; ii well-qualified, committed and loving teachers; iii smaller class-size; iv provision of nutrition services; and v good relationship among teachers, the teacher and parents, and with the head teacher. The study concluded that physical visits by primary school supervisors and making PPE independent are essential for quick and close monitoring for solving problems hindering provision of quality services in PPE in Tanzania. Keywords: pre-primary education
Full Text Available It is seen that education has a significant effect that changes an individual’s life in our country in which education is a way of moving up the social ladder. In order to continue to a higher education program after graduating from high school, students have to succeed in transition to higher education examination. Thus, the entrance exam is an important factor to determine the future of the students. In our country, middle school grades and high school grade point average that is added to university placement score are also determinants. When spiral structure of our curriculum is considered, it is expected that related courses’ grades at middle school will predict the scores obtained from the first stage of transition to higher education exam (YGS. Since high school grade point average forms university placement score, being aware of how related courses’ achievement scores at secondary school predict raw scores of YGS subtests is significant in terms of our education system’s feedback and integrity. As a result, observing students’ achievement scores in related courses during their middle and high school education longitudinally and predicting raw scores on the subtests of the first stage of university entrance exam, YGS, from middle school and high scool achievement scores are substantial with regards to provide feedback to our education system. Because of those reasons, the predictive power of 7th - 12th grade year-end grade point averages ofstudents who took YGS in 2013 on their 2013 YGS subtests’ raw scvores is examined. Students who took YGS exam in Ankara province at 2012-2013 school year formed the aimed population of this study and 533 students who took YGS exam in 2013 in Altındağ district of Ankara formed target population of the study. Data was obtained from 533 students at three different schools in Altındağ district of Ankara province. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to answer research questions
Jawad Ghaleb Obaidi
Full Text Available Background: Cancer diagnosis has a significant impact not only on women, but also on their Primary caregivers. Understanding the effects of a breast cancer diagnosis on physical and mental health outcomes in caregivers is important because these variables are key components of quality of life. Quality of life is a multi-dimensionalconstruct measuring overall enjoyment of life. This study intends to describe the impact of caring for women with breast cancer on the quality of life among their primary caregivers.Method: We conducted a comprehensive search in PubMed, MEDLINE andCINAHL. In addition, we used the web search engine “Google” for abstracts from 2007 to 2012. A total of eight studies were reviewed that met the following inclusion criteria: adult women with breast cancer, research conducted in English. Studies ranged from 2007-2011. The total sample size in the eight studies on adult caregivers totaled 789 participants. The average age of participants in all of the studies was 49.55 years.There were seven studies that had a quantitative focus,which mainly used a questionnaire and survey to estimate quality of life among primary caregivers. The qualitative approach included in-depth interviews and a focus group.Results: Accumulating evidence has supported the concept that cancer affects not only the patients but also their primary caregiver's quality of life.They face multiple challenges in caring for women with breast cancer, including physical, emotional, social, and financial stress that affects the caregiver's quality of life.Conclusion: Breast cancer diagnosis not only affects the patient's quality of life, but in parallel, also affects the quality of life of the primary caregiver. Thus more focus should be placed on providing moral and social support, and educational resources to improve the level of the caretaker's quality of life.
Ping, Owi Wei; Ahmad, Azhar; Adnan, Mazlini; Hua, Ang Kean
Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) is a new concept of education reform based on the Taxonomies Bloom. The concept concentrate on student understanding in learning process based on their own methods. Through the HOTS questions are able to train students to think creatively, critic and innovative. The aim of this study was to identify the student's proficiency in solving HOTS Mathematics question by using i-Think map. This research takes place in Sabak Bernam, Selangor. The method applied is quantitative approach that involves approximately all of the standard five students. Pra-posttest was conduct before and after the intervention using i-Think map in solving the HOTS questions. The result indicates significant improvement for post-test, which prove that applying i-Think map enhance the students ability to solve HOTS question. Survey's analysis showed 90% of the students agree having i-Thinking map in analysis the question carefully and using keywords in the map to solve the questions. As conclusion, this process benefits students to minimize in making the mistake when solving the questions. Therefore, teachers are necessarily to guide students in applying the eligible i-Think map and methods in analyzing the question through finding the keywords.
Wu, Hon-Yen; Fukuma, Shingo; Shimizu, Sayaka; Norton, Edward C; Tu, Yu-Kang; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Mei-Ru; Chien, Kuo-Liong; Fukuhara, Shunichi
The burden of diabetes-related chronic kidney disease (CKD) on individuals and society is increasing, shifting attention toward improving the quality of care for patients with CKD and diabetes. We assessed the quality of CKD care and its association with long-term dialysis, acute kidney injury (AKI), and death. Retrospective cohort study (2004-2011). Adults in Taiwan with incident CKD enrolled in the Longitudinal Cohort of Diabetes Patients. 3 CKD-care quality indicators based on medical and pharmacy claims data were studied: prescription of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, testing for proteinuria, and nutritional guidance. Each was examined individually, and all were summed into an overall quality score. The primary outcome was initiation of long-term dialysis therapy. Secondary outcomes were hospitalization due to AKI and death from any cause. Using instrumental variables related to the quality indicators to minimize both unmeasured and measured confounding, we fit a 2-stage residual inclusion model to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for each outcome. Among the 63,260 patients enrolled, 43.9% were prescribed renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, 60.6% were tested for proteinuria, and 13.4% received nutritional guidance. During a median follow-up of 37.9 months, 1,471 patients started long-term dialysis therapy, 2,739 patients were hospitalized due to AKI, and 4,407 patients died. Higher overall quality scores were associated with lower hazards for long-term dialysis in instrumental variable analyses (HR of 0.62 [95% CI, 0.40-0.98] per 1-point greater score) and hospitalization due to AKI (HR of 0.69 [95% CI, 0.50-0.96] per 1-point greater score). The hazard for all-cause death was nonsignificantly lower (HR of 0.80 [95% CI, 0.62-1.03] per 1-point greater score). Potential misclassification and uncontrolled confounding by indication. Our findings suggest potential opportunities to improve long-term outcomes among patients with diabetes and CKD by improving the quality
Sardar, Amber; Amjad, Shehla; Ali, Ubaid
This survey investigated the relationship and gap between students' expectations and perceptions of perceived service quality of education, emphasizing the least effective service quality dimension. The study was based on primary data, which turned out to be most significant. Data were collected from 349 of 405 students through a questionnaire…
Wensing, Michel; Broge, Björn; Kaufmann-Kolle, Petra; Andres, Edith; Szecsenyi, Joachim
Quality circles comprise small group sessions of doctors and written feedback on their individual practice patterns. Although 50% of German primary care doctors participate in quality circles, their effectiveness has hardly been evaluated in Germany. This study determined the impact of a large-scale programme of quality circles on quality and costs of prescribing. A controlled before-after study was performed, in which primary care doctors were allocated to a quality circles group or a control group. Subjects were 100,000 patients in 1996 and in 1998, who had visited one of 177 doctors in the 3 month registration periods in one region in Germany. The intervention comprised a quality circles programme, comprising 11 sessions and repeated feedback on prescribing. Main outcome measures were proportion of patients who received a prescription, mean prescription costs per patient and proportion of generic prescriptions. The absolute numbers of prescriptions decreased in both groups, but the mean prescription costs per patient increased. The quality circles reduced the proportion of patients who received a prescription (OR = 0.86) and the mean prescription costs per patient (B = -3.99 euro), while it increased the proportion of generic drugs (OR = 1.10). The intervention had intended effects on four of the 15 secondary indicators. Large-scale application of quality circles had intended effects on prescribing decisions in primary care in Germany. The effects found in this study may reflect better what improvements can be achieved than randomized trials of similar interventions.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to raise awareness of the importance of the policy makers’ knowledge and expertise about quality infrastructure (QI for the successful policy-making. This article, which addresses the role of higher education in Serbian quality infrastructure policy-making, is an analysis of QI related contents of higher education institution curriculum. The target institutions are public faculties from whose official websites the data were collected. Depending on the keywords, the analysis was performed in order to classify the faculties into three categories. After reviewing the 307 subject titles and descriptions of undergraduate courses, the results show that the concepts of QI are widely recognized as an important and popular topic. The analysis of the QI adoption and diffusion indicates that although some of the faculties might be ‘leaders’ in a particular dimension, they still do not necessarily fall into the ‘leader’ category. JEL Classification:I21, I23, H54, L15
Li, Chen; Wang, Zhuan-Hua; Yu, Deng-Guang
This study investigates the usage of a spinneret with a Teflon nozzle for fabrication of higher quality drug sustained-release electrospun nanofibers. Ethyl cellulose (EC) and quercetin were used as a filament-forming polymer matrix and an active pharmaceutical ingredient, respectively. The electrospinning was conducted using both a traditional stainless steel spinneret and a spinneret with a Teflon nozzle. Experimental results demonstrated that a Teflon-fluid interface at the spinneret's nozzle provided a better performance for implementing electrospinning than a traditional metal-fluid interface in the following aspects: (1) keeping more electrical energy on the working fluids for an efficacious process; (2) exerting less negative effect on the fluid to draw it back to the tube; and (3) making less possibility of clogging. The resulted nanofibers from the spinneret with a Teflon nozzle exhibited higher quality than those from the traditional spinneret in those: (1) smaller diameter and narrower distribution, 520±70 nm for the former and 750±280 nm for the later, as indicated by the field emission scanning electron microscopic images; and (2) better sustained-release profiles of quercetin from the former than the latter, as demonstrated by the in vitro dissolution tests. The new protocols about usage of Teflon as a spinneret's nozzle and the related knowledge disclosed here should promote the preparation and application of electrospun functional nanofibers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Anaam, Mahyoub Ali; Alhammadi, Abdullah Othman; Kwairan, Abdulwahab Awadh
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the status of quality assurance and accreditation systems within higher education institutions in Yemen. The paper initially describes the stages of development and changes that have occurred in the field of quality and accreditation in Yemeni higher education. The paper shows that no formal…
Full Text Available Australian universities face increased challenges in a global higher education marketplace. They have responded to this competitive environment by introducing greater efficiency and accountability measures. One key measure is the quality of teaching and in particular, the delivery of student-centred teaching. However, the reforms have changed the working lives of academic teachers who now have greater reporting and administrative responsibilities with less sense of collegiality in the sector. In these circumstances, it is not clear that teaching staff will share the same perceptions of quality teaching as their institutions expect. This paper examines the utility of role theory and learning organization theory as part of a project which will examine the ways in which implicit knowledge can be made explicit and shared in the organization as part of academic teachers’ roles. The paper hypothesizes that when academics share their perceptions of good teaching, universities will benefit from a coherent set of quality teaching indicators which are aligned with their organizational cultures.
Gazan, Rozenn; Sondey, Juliette; Maillot, Matthieu; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Lluch, Anne
This study aimed to examine the association between drinking water intake and diet quality, and to analyse the adherence of French men and women to the European Food Safety Authority 2010 Adequate Intake (EFSA AI). A representative sample of French adults (≥18) from the Individual and National Survey on Food Consumption (INCA2) was classified, by sex, into small, medium, and large drinking water consumers. Diet quality was assessed with several nutritional indices (mean adequacy ratio (MAR), mean excess ratio (MER), probability of adequate intakes (PANDiet), and solid energy density (SED)). Of the total sample, 72% of men and 46% of women were below the EFSA AI. This percentage of non-adherence decreased from the small to the large drinking water consumers (from 95% to 34% in men and from 81% to 9% in women). For both sexes, drinking water intake was associated with higher diet quality (greater MAR and PANDiet). This association remained significant independently of socio-economic status for women only. Low drinking water consumers did not compensate with other sources (beverages and food moisture) and a high drinking water intake was not a guarantee for reaching the EFSA AI, meaning that increasing consumption of water should be encouraged in France. PMID:27809236
Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the association between drinking water intake and diet quality, and to analyse the adherence of French men and women to the European Food Safety Authority 2010 Adequate Intake (EFSA AI. A representative sample of French adults (≥18 from the Individual and National Survey on Food Consumption (INCA2 was classified, by sex, into small, medium, and large drinking water consumers. Diet quality was assessed with several nutritional indices (mean adequacy ratio (MAR, mean excess ratio (MER, probability of adequate intakes (PANDiet, and solid energy density (SED. Of the total sample, 72% of men and 46% of women were below the EFSA AI. This percentage of non-adherence decreased from the small to the large drinking water consumers (from 95% to 34% in men and from 81% to 9% in women. For both sexes, drinking water intake was associated with higher diet quality (greater MAR and PANDiet. This association remained significant independently of socio-economic status for women only. Low drinking water consumers did not compensate with other sources (beverages and food moisture and a high drinking water intake was not a guarantee for reaching the EFSA AI, meaning that increasing consumption of water should be encouraged in France.
Kleijnen, Jan; Dolmans, Diana; Willems, Jos; van Hout, Hans
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore faculty's perceptions of quality management activities (QMA) within their departments, attention being paid to relevant quality aspects and whether quality management contributes to control or improvement of higher education. Furthermore, it examines differences between departments and relationships…
Pietragalla, Barbara; Sigg, Christian; Güsewell, Sabine; Clot, Bernard
Long-term phenological observations are now recognized as important indicators for climate change impact studies. With the increased need for phenological data, there is also an increased need for higher data quality. Since 1951 MeteoSwiss has been operating a national phenological observation network. Currently the network consists of about 150 active stations observing up to 69 different phenophases. An important aim of a running three years project at MeteoSwiss is a further increase of the quality of the collected data. The higher data quality will be achieved by an automated procedure performing plausibility checks on the data and by online data-entry. Further measures such as intensified observer instructions and collection of more detailed metadata also contribute to a high data quality standard. The plausibility checks include the natural order of the phenophases within a species and also between different species (with regard to possible natural deviation). Additionally it will be checked if the observed date differs by less than two standard deviations from the average for this phenophase at the altitude of the station. A value outside of these limits is not necessarily a false value, since occurrences of extreme values will be beyond these limits. Therefore, within this check of the limits, the timing of the season of the respective year will also be taken into account. In case of an implausible value a comparison with other stations of the same region and sea level is proposed. A further possibility of data quality control could be to model the different phenophases statistically and to use this model for estimating the likelihood of observed values. An overall exploratory data analysis is currently performed providing a solid basis to implement the best possible methods for the plausibility checks. Important advantages of online data-entry are the near real-time availability of the data as well as the avoidance of various kinds of typical mistakes
Full Text Available The evaluation of a program’s compliance with service delivery and features necessary for the attainment of the programs educational objectives, student outcomes and continuous improvement is an important element in program accreditation and continuous improvement process. The study reported in this paper investigated the possible effects of students’ feedback on the improvement of adult higher education distance learning service quality in a South African rural-based university. The study interrogated the service provision factors that seemingly helped in improving the delivery of the program. Such information are vital for planning, good governance, policy formulation, monitoring and evaluation, and for decision-making. The study used a quantitative descriptive statistics analysis of data generated ranging from 2013-2014. It comprised of overall student satisfaction as the dependent variable and the explanatory variables were given by program management, facilitation, assessment, learner support, systems, resources, program outcomes and subject matter. Analytical results were obtained from the Mann Whitney Test. The population consisted of students enrolled in the Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE program by distance mode. The 313 respondents sampled were randomly selected from a total population of 916 students. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results revealed that service qualities linked to effective management, facilitation, academic support and subject matter delivery were the main qualities that the students recommended for the improvement of the program. It is therefore recommended that adult higher education programs must have a documented systematically utilized and effective process involving program service delivery constituencies like assessment, academic support and resources provided, for the periodic review of the program educational objectives to ensure that the program remains consistent
Knaapila, Antti J; Sandell, Mari A; Vaarno, Jenni; Hoppu, Ulla; Puolimatka, Tuuli; Kaljonen, Anne; Lagström, Hanna
Food neophobia has been associated with decreased consumption of vegetables mainly among children. We hypothesized that food neophobia in adults is also associated with lower overall dietary quality and higher BMI. Data for the present cross-sectional analyses were derived from parents in a follow-up family study. The STEPS study, a longitudinal study of health and development of a cohort of children born in south-west Finland. The parents, 1178 women (age 19-45 years, mean 32·2 years) and 1013 men (age 18-57 years, mean 34·1 years), completed a questionnaire at home when their child was 13 months old. The questionnaire included the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS; range 10-70), the Index of Diet Quality (IDQ; range 0-16) and a measure of fruit and vegetable consumption. At that time the participants' height and weight were also measured by a research nurse to calculate BMI. Compared with the food neophilics (FNS score 10-24), the food neophobics (FNS score 40-70) consumed fewer vegetables (women: 15 v. 10 portions/week; men: 13 v. 7 portions/week), scored lower on the IDQ (women: 9·7 v. 8·5; men: 8·8 v. 7·8) and had higher BMI (women: 24·2 v. 26·0 kg/m²; men: 26·5 v. 27·5 kg/m²) as tested by one-way ANOVA, with all P values food neophobics followed a diet lower in nutritional quality than did the food neophilics, especially regarding vegetables. Food neophobia may complicate adaptation to dietary recommendations and predispose to overweight.
Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Jaycox, Lisa H; Duan, Naihua; LaBorde, Anne P; Rea, Margaret M; Murray, Pamela; Anderson, Martin; Landon, Christopher; Tang, Lingqi; Wells, Kenneth B
Depression is a common condition associated with significant morbidity in adolescents. Few depressed adolescents receive effective treatment for depression in primary care settings. To evaluate the effectiveness of a quality improvement intervention aimed at increasing access to evidence-based treatments for depression (particularly cognitive-behavior therapy and antidepressant medication), relative to usual care, among adolescents in primary care practices. Randomized controlled trial conducted between 1999 and 2003 enrolling 418 primary care patients with current depressive symptoms, aged 13 through 21 years, from 5 health care organizations purposively selected to include managed care, public sector, and academic medical center clinics in the United States. Usual care (n = 207) or 6-month quality improvement intervention (n = 211) including expert leader teams at each site, care managers who supported primary care clinicians in evaluating and managing patients' depression, training for care managers in manualized cognitive-behavior therapy for depression, and patient and clinician choice regarding treatment modality. Participating clinicians also received education regarding depression evaluation, management, and pharmacological and psychosocial treatment. Depressive symptoms assessed by Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) score. Secondary outcomes were mental health-related quality of life assessed by Mental Health Summary Score (MCS-12) and satisfaction with mental health care assessed using a 5-point scale. Six months after baseline assessments, intervention patients, compared with usual care patients, reported significantly fewer depressive symptoms (mean [SD] CES-D scores, 19.0 [11.9] vs 21.4 [13.1]; P = .02), higher mental health-related quality of life (mean [SD] MCS-12 scores, 44.6 [11.3] vs 42.8 [12.9]; P = .03), and greater satisfaction with mental health care (mean [SD] scores, 3.8 [0.9] vs 3.5 [1.0]; P = .004). Intervention
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Articles whose authors have supplemented subscription-based access to the publisher's version by self-archiving their own final draft to make it accessible free for all on the web ("Open Access", OA are cited significantly more than articles in the same journal and year that have not been made OA. Some have suggested that this "OA Advantage" may not be causal but just a self-selection bias, because authors preferentially make higher-quality articles OA. To test this we compared self-selective self-archiving with mandatory self-archiving for a sample of 27,197 articles published 2002-2006 in 1,984 journals. METHDOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The OA Advantage proved just as high for both. Logistic regression analysis showed that the advantage is independent of other correlates of citations (article age; journal impact factor; number of co-authors, references or pages; field; article type; or country and highest for the most highly cited articles. The OA Advantage is real, independent and causal, but skewed. Its size is indeed correlated with quality, just as citations themselves are (the top 20% of articles receive about 80% of all citations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The OA advantage is greater for the more citable articles, not because of a quality bias from authors self-selecting what to make OA, but because of a quality advantage, from users self-selecting what to use and cite, freed by OA from the constraints of selective accessibility to subscribers only. It is hoped that these findings will help motivate the adoption of OA self-archiving mandates by universities, research institutions and research funders.
Maria de Lourdes Campos
Full Text Available Introduction: Burnout Syndrome, in the twenty-first century, appears among the most common mental disorder among teachers resulting from the interaction between individual aspects and the working environment, interpreted as a response to chronic job stress. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of burnout syndrome and quality of life of higher education teachers in the city of Cajazeiras, Paraíba, Brazil. Method: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study performed with 174 teachers from institutions of higher education. Results: The burnout syndrome was observed in only 3.4% of teachers. However, the recorded data require a closer look at the health of the teachers investigated, since a considerable part of them are in the score limit for disease development. Regarding the quality of life of teachers who presented the manifestations of the syndrome, the physical and psychological domains were shown to be the worst for most subjects. Conclusion: There are teachers in higher education, executing their profession, affected by burnout syndrome, suggesting a relationship between this psychosocial phenomenon and the labor context, permeating the three dimensions proposed by Maslach and Leiter: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and the lack of personal fulfillment. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3823/2512
Santos, Alaneir de Fátima Dos; Fonseca, Délcio; Araujo, Lucas Lobato; Procópio, Cristiane da Silva Diniz; Lopes, Érica Araújo Silva; Lima, Angela Maria de Lourdes Dayrell de; Reis, Clarice Magalhães Rodrigues Dos; Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier de; Jorge, Alzira Oliveira; Matta-Machado, Antonio Thomaz
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are means to handle information, streamline communication, and contribute to patient care. This article describes the incorporation of Information and Communication Technologies in primary care and its association with quality, based on the Brazilian National Program for the Improvement of Access and Quality in Primary Care (PMAQ in portuguese). This was a cross-sectional study with 17,053 teams. An Index of Incorporation of ICTs was created, which included: information infrastructure, systems, and utilization. Regression analysis was used to assess associations. Only 13.5% of the teams had a high degree of ICTs. The strongest association was seen in the utilization of information. ICTs can contribute to improving quality of primary care.
Full Text Available Introduction Health assistants are important functionaries of the primary health care system in India. Their role is supervision of field-based services among other things. A quality assurance mechanism for these health assistants is lacking. The present study was undertaken with the objectives of developing a tool to assess the quality of health assistants in primary health centres (PHCs and to assess their quality using this tool. Methodology Health assistants from three PHCs in the Wardha district of India were observed for a year using a tool developed from primary health care management Aavancement program modules. Data was collected by direct observation, interview, and review of records for quality of activities. Results Staff strength of health assistants was 87.5%. None of the health assistants were clear about their job descriptions. A supervisory schedule for providing supportive supervision to auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs was absent; most field activities pertaining to maternal and child health received poor focus. Monthly meetings lacked a clear agenda, and comments on quality improvement of services provided by the ANMs were missing. Conclusion Continuous training with sensitization on quality issues is required to improve the unsatisfactory quality.
Leff, Bruce; Weston, Christine M; Garrigues, Sarah; Patel, Kanan; Ritchie, Christine
To describe the characteristics of home-based primary care practices: staffing, administrative, population served, care practices, and quality of care challenges. Survey of home-based primary care practices. Home-based primary care practices in the United States. Members of the American Academy of Home Care Medicine and nonmember providers identified by surveyed members. A 58-item questionnaire that assessed practice characteristics, care provided by the practice, and how the quality of care that the practice provided was assessed. Survey response rate was 47.9%, representing 272 medical house calls practices. Mean average daily census was 457 patients (median 100 patients, range 1-30,972 patients). Eighty-eight percent of practices offered around-the-clock coverage for urgent concerns, 60% held regularly scheduled team meetings, 89% used an electronic medical record, and one-third used a defined quality improvement process. The following factors were associated with practices that used a defined quality improvement process: practice holds regularly scheduled team meetings to discuss specific patients (odds ratio (OR)=2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.02-4.21), practice conducts surveys of patients (OR=8.53, 95% CI=4.07-17.88), and practice is involved in National Committee for Quality Assurance patient-centered medical home (OR=3.27, 95% CI=1.18-9.07). Ninety percent of practices would or might participate in quality improvement activities that would provide them timely feedback on patient and setting-appropriate quality indicators. There is a substantial heterogeneity of home-based primary care practice types. Most practices perform activities that lend themselves to robust quality improvement efforts, and nearly all indicated interest in a national registry to inform quality improvement. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.
Mosha, Herme Joseph
This article seeks to identify factors affecting the quality of primary education in five regions of Tanzania by extensively reviewing relevant literature and empirical data. Some of the shortcomings emphasised by the author are: frequent staff turnover, declining financial support for primary education, ineffective curricula, shortage of teachers' guides and textbooks, and unfavourable working conditions for teachers in rural areas. Beyond this, the need for freely available material, efficient school management and regular inspections is stressed by the author.
Background:Since the discontinuation of Standard Attainment Tests (SATs) in science at age 11 in England, pupil performance data in science reported to the UK government by each primary school has relied largely on teacher assessment undertaken in the classroom. Purpose:The process by which teachers are making these judgements has been unclear, so this study made use of the extensive Primary Science Quality Mark (PSQM) database to obtain a 'snapshot' (as of March 2013) of the approaches taken by 91 English primary schools to the formative and summative assessment of pupils' learning in science. PSQM is an award scheme for UK primary schools. It requires the science subject leader (co-ordinator) in each school to reflect upon and develop practice over the course of one year, then upload a set of reflections and supporting evidence to the database to support their application. One of the criteria requires the subject leader to explain how science is assessed within the school. Sample:The data set consists of the electronic text in the assessment section of all 91 PSQM primary schools which worked towards the Quality Mark in the year April 2012 to March 2013. Design and methods:Content analysis of a pre-existing qualitative data set. Text in the assessment section of each submission was first coded as describing formative or summative processes, then sub-coded into different strategies used. Results:A wide range of formative and summative approaches were reported, which tended to be described separately, with few links between them. Talk-based strategies are widely used for formative assessment, with some evidence of feedback to pupils. Whilst the use of tests or tracking grids for summative assessment is widespread, few schools rely on one system alone. Enquiry skills and conceptual knowledge were often assessed separately. Conclusions:There is little consistency in the approaches being used by teachers to assess science in English primary schools. Nevertheless
Crossland, Lisa; Janamian, Tina; Jackson, Claire L
To identify elements that are integral to high-quality practice and determine considerations relating to high-quality practice organisation in primary care. A narrative systematic review of published and grey literature. Electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Emerald Insight, PsycInfo, the Primary Health Care Research and Information Service website, Google Scholar) were searched in November 2013 and used to identify articles published in English from 2002 to 2013. Reference lists of included articles were searched for relevant unpublished articles and reports. Data were configured at the study level to allow for the inclusion of findings from a broad range of study types. Ten elements were most often included in the existing organisational assessment tools. A further three elements were identified from an inductive thematic analysis of descriptive articles, and were noted as important considerations in effective quality improvement in primary care settings. Although there are some validated tools available to primary care that identify and build quality, most are single-strategy approaches developed outside health care settings. There are currently no validated organisational improvement tools, designed specifically for primary health care, which combine all elements of practice improvement and whose use does not require extensive external facilitation.
João Batista Baroncello
Full Text Available Objective: To assess quality of life before and after thoracoscopic sympathectomy for treatment of primary hyperhidrosis.Methods: we conducted an observational, analytical, cross-sectional and quantitative study. We evaluated patients undergoing thoracoscopic sympathectomy for primary axillary hyperhidrosis, primary palmar hyperhidrosis, and axillary hyperhidrosis associated with palmar one. We applied a questionnaire on quality of life related to hyperhidrosis before and after the operation.Results: The questionnaire was administered to 51 patients with a mean age of 32.4 years, 45 women and six men. The average quality of life related to hyperhidrosis in a score of 0-100 before sympathectomy was 34.6 and after the operation it was 77.1. Compensatory hyperhidrosis occurred in 84.3% of patients.Conclusion: thoracoscopic sympathectomy improves the quality of life of patients with primary hyperhidrosis, with results supported over time. Compensatory hyperhidrosis occurred in most patients, but did not significantly influence the improved quality of life.
Gea-Caballero, Vicente; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Júarez-Vela, Raúl; Díaz-Herrera, Miguel Ángel; de Miguel-Montoya, Isabel; Martínez-Riera, José Ramón
Nursing work environments are key determinants of care quality. Our study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of nursing environments in primary care settings in the Canary Islands, and identify crucial components of such environments to improve quality. We conducted a cross-sectional study in primary care organisations using the Practice Environment Scale - Nursing Work Index tool. We collected sociodemographic variables, scores, and selected the essential items conducive to optimal care. Appropriate parametric and non-parametric statistical tests were used to analyse relations between variables (CI = 95%, error = 5%). One hundred and forty-four nurses participated. The mean total score was 81.6. The results for the five dimensions included in the Practice Environment Scale - Nursing Work Index ranged from 2.25 - 2.92 (Mean). Twelve key items for quality of care were selected; six were positive in the Canary Islands, two were mixed, and four negative. 7/12 items were included in Dimension 2 (fundamentals of nursing). Being a manager was statistically associated with higher scores (p<.000). Years of experience was inversely associated with scores in the 12 items (p<.021). Nursing work environments in primary care settings in the Canary Islands are comparable to others previously studied in Spain. Areas to improve were human resources and participation of nurses in management decisions. Nurse managers must be knowledgeable about their working environments so they can focus on improvements in key dimensions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Reddy, Ashok; Pollack, Craig E; Asch, David A; Canamucio, Anne; Werner, Rachel M
PCP turnover and those who had a PCP turnover was less than 1 percentage point. These effects were moderated by the patients' continuity with their PCP prior to turnover, with a larger detrimental effect of PCP turnover among those with higher continuity prior to the turnover. Primary care provider turnover was associated with worse patient experiences of care but did not have a major effect on ambulatory care quality.
... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of...
... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of...
Allar, A D; Beler Baykal, B
Source-separated human urine may be used as a source of fertilizers indirectly through processing with clinoptilolite. The suggested form of fertilizer is clinoptilolite loaded with plant nutrients from urine, where nitrogen and phosphorus will be released upon contact with water. Triggered by the need for handling high concentrations remaining in the liquid phase to be disposed of, this paper aims to present the option of improving the residual nutrient quality through stagewise processing with clinoptilolite, while investigating any improvement in nutrient removal. Two sets of experiments, stagewise operation under (i) constant loadings and (ii) variable loadings in each stage, are discussed. Stagewise operation has been observed to be successful for attaining reduced residual liquid phase concentrations as well as improvements in nitrogen recovery as compared to single-stage operation. Comparing constant and variable stagewise loadings, the final concentration is 10 times lower with variable loadings. The latter is comparable to a level found in only 1% of conventional domestic wastewater volume. Stagewise operation was beneficial from the standpoint of both additional nutrient recovery and for residuals control, with more pronounced benefits for attaining higher quality residual liquid phase concentrations to be disposed of.
Dembélé, Martial; Lefoka, Pulane
This article assumes that pedagogical renewal and teacher development are two sides of the same coin, and that the achievement of a universal primary education that is equitable and of acceptable quality in Sub-Saharan Africa will depend to a large extent on both. The need for pedagogical renewal stems from the evidence that (i) teaching is arguably the strongest school-level determinant of student achievement; (ii) teaching effect on student learning is reportedly higher in Sub-Saharan Africa than it is in high-income countries; (iii) learning achievement is considerably lower in the sub-continent's schools; and (iv) the kind of teaching that takes place in these schools confines students to a passive role and only fosters lower order skills. An overview of experiences with pedagogical renewal highlights the challenges involved in adopting open-ended instructional practices on the sub-continent. It further points to bilingual education as one of the most promising strategies. Regardless of the route taken for renewing pedagogy, the professional development of teacher educators/trainers must be considered a critical enabling condition.
Full Text Available We previously showed the impairment of insulin-regulated gene expression in the primary hepatocytes from Zucker fatty (ZF rats, and its association with alterations of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the molecular mechanism is unknown. A preliminary experiment shows that the expression level of protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ, a member of atypical PKC family, is higher in the liver and hepatocytes of ZF rats than that of Zucker lean (ZL rats. Herein, we intend to investigate the roles of atypical protein kinase C in the regulation of hepatic gene expression. The insulin-regulated hepatic gene expression was evaluated in ZL primary hepatocytes treated with atypical PKC recombinant adenoviruses. Recombinant adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PKCζ, or the other atypical PKC member PKCι/λ, alters the basal and impairs the insulin-regulated expressions of glucokinase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, the catalytic subunit of glucose 6-phosphatase, and insulin like growth factor-binding protein 1 in ZL primary hepatocytes. PKCζ or PKCι/λ overexpression also reduces the protein level of insulin receptor substrate 1, and the insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473 and Thr308. Additionally, PKCι/λ overexpression impairs the insulin-induced Prckz expression, indicating the crosstalk between PKCζ and PKCι/λ. We conclude that the PKCζ expression is elevated in hepatocytes of insulin resistant ZF rats. Overexpressions of aPKCs in primary hepatocytes impair insulin signal transduction, and in turn, the down-stream insulin-regulated gene expression. These data suggest that elevation of aPKC expression may contribute to the hepatic insulin resistance at gene expression level.
Margolis A. A.
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the main aspects of working towards making quality higher education accessible for persons with disabilities. The paper reveals specific educational conditions necessary for teaching and supporting students with disabilities, such as: developing and implementing career guidance programmes, adapted educational programmes, programmes for social psychological support, programmes for employment assistance and post-graduate support of students. Adaptation of educational programmes implies not only establishing a set of common requirements for adjusting the educational process to teaching individuals with disabilities depending on the specifics of their disability, but it also implies developing universal approaches and requirements for providing special settings in which their learning takes place. It is important that physical (architectural, informational, academic services and facilities be available for students with different disabilities and that members of the staff of an education organization have special competencies for working with the disabled persons. The paper also stresses the necessity of developing and implementing an effective model of extending the successful experience that a number of universities have in teaching students with disabilities to the system of higher education in general. This major goal could be achieved through the establishment of a network of resource and training centers in the regions of Russia.
... SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary... appendix explains the data handling conventions and computations necessary for determining when the primary... the primary monitor, if this results in a valid design value. If data from the primary monitor do not...
Wargocki, Pawel; Foldbjerg, Peter; Eriksen, Kurt Emil
are taken into consideration: a) increased PISA score increases productivity; b) increased PISA score reduces the duration of primary education; c) improved indoor air quality reduces absenteeism in teachers. The results show that improved air quality in Danish schools could result in an increase......This paper reports an attempt to estimate the socio-economic effects of upgrading the indoor air quality in Danish schools to the level of Swedish schools. The OECD “PISA” score is used to quantify the effects together with the Danish Rational Economic Agent Model (DREAM). The following effects...
A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the impact of perceived quality and cost of utilisation of primary health care services, in relation to malaria, in rural and urban districts in Tanzania. This study intended to explore whether there are differences between rural and urban users in terms of their perceptions of ...
Susilana, Rudi; Asra
The purpose of national education is to develop skills and build dignified national character and civilization in educating nation life (Act No. 20, 2003). The paper describes a system of quality assurance in culture and character education in primary education. This study employs the six sigma model which consists of the formula DMAIC (Define,…
The Primary Health Care (PHC) system has been the foundation for the operation of the health system in most of Sub-Sahara Africa following the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978. Quality of care is an important determinant of health services utilization, and is a health outcome of public health importance. It is known that the ...
Nyenje, Aida; Nkata, James
This paper establishes the extent to which attitudinal variables affect the education reforms and subsequently the quality of primary education in Uganda. The paper is based on the views of a wide spectrum of different education stakeholders including: policy analysts, Members of Parliament (MPs), education officers, Headteachers, teaching staff,…
Objectives: To investigate emotional symptoms and domain quality of life (QOL) among primary caregivers of stroke survivors and to determine survivor-related and caregiver-related predictors of these variables. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Medical units of the two major hospitals of the Obafemi Awolowo ...
The school inspectorates of the four jurisdictions of the UK are sources of evidence about the quality of humanities teaching, learning and curriculum in primary schools. The term "humanities" usually refers to the subjects of geography, history and Religious Education, but here they are considered holistically, not separately. Discrete…
Background: Primary health care involves a sustained partnership between patients and providers that addresses the majority of a population's health needs over time. Patients' perception of satisfaction is an aspect of healthcare quality that is being increasingly recognised for its importance. The objective of this study was ...
Christie, Donald; Tolmie, Andrew; Thurston, Allen; Howe, Christine; Topping, Keith
A large body of research has demonstrated the value of fostering peer interaction in the context of collaborative group work as an effective strategy to facilitate learning. The present study attempted to enable teachers in a varied sample of 24 Scottish primary classrooms to improve the quality of collaborative group work interaction among their…
Marina Malanda, Nuria; López de Santa María, Elena; Gutiérrez, Asunción; Bayón, Juan Carlos; Garcia, Larraitz; Gáldiz, Juan B
Forced spirometry is essential for diagnosing respiratory diseases and is widely used across levels of care. However, several studies have shown that spirometry quality in primary care is not ideal, with risks of misdiagnosis. Our objective was to assess the feasibility and performance of a telemedicine-based training and quality assurance program for forced spirometry in primary care. The two phases included (1) a 9-month pilot study involving 15 centers, in which spirometry tests were assessed by the Basque Office for Health Technology Assessment, and (2) the introduction of the program to all centers in the Public Basque Health Service. Technicians first received 4 h of training, and, subsequently, they sent all tests to the reference laboratory using the program. Quality assessment was performed in accordance with clinical guidelines (A and B, good; C-F, poor). In the first phase, 1,894 spirometry tests were assessed, showing an improvement in quality: acceptable quality tests increased from 57% at the beginning to 78% after 6 months and 83% after 9 months (pspirometry tests were assessed after the inclusion of 36 additional centers, maintaining the positive trend (61%, 87%, and 84% at the same time points; pspirometry tests improved in all centers. (2) The program provides a tool for transferring data that allows monitoring of its quality and training of technicians who perform the tests. (3) This approach is useful for improving spirometry quality in the routine practice of a public health system.
Carozzi, Francesca Maria; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Cuschieri, Kate; Frayle, Helena; Sani, Cristina; Burroni, Elena
This review aims to highlight the importance of Quality Assurance for Laboratories performing HPV test for Cervical Cancer Screening. An HPV test, to be used as primary screening test, must be validated according to international criteria, based on comparison of its clinical accuracy to HC2 or GP5+/6+ PCR-EIA tests. The number of validated platforms is increasing and appropriate Quality Assurance Programs (QAPs) which can interrogate longitudinal robustness and quality are paramount. This document describes the following topics: (1) the characteristics of an HPV laboratory and the personnel training needs, to ensure an elevated quality of the entire process and the optimal use of the resources; (2) the Quality Assurance, as both internal (IQA) and external quality assessment (EQA) systems, to be implemented and performed, and the description of the existing EQAs, including limitations; (3) general considerations for an optimal EQA program for hrHPV primary screening Due to the importance of Quality Assurance for this field, international efforts are necessary to improve QA International Collaboration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mehdi, Syed K; Tanenbaum, Joseph E; Alentado, Vincent J; Miller, Jacob A; Lubelski, Daniel; Benzel, Edward C; Mroz, Thomas E
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) defines "adverse quality events" as the incidence of certain complications such as postsurgical hematoma or iatrogenic pneumothorax during an inpatient stay. Patient safety indicators (PSI) are a means to measure the incidence of these adverse events. When adverse events occur, reimbursement to the hospital decreases. The incidence of adverse quality events among patients hospitalized for primary spinal neoplasms is unknown. Similarly, it is unclear what the impact of insurance status is on adverse care quality among this patient population. We aimed to determine the incidence of PSI among patients admitted with primary spinal neoplasms, and to determine the association between insurance status and the incidence of PSI in this population. This is a retrospective cohort study. We included all patients, 18 years and older, in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) who were hospitalized for primary spine neoplasms from 1998 to 2011. Incidence of PSI from 1998 to 2011 served as outcome variable. The NIS was queried for all hospitalizations with a diagnosis of primary spinal neoplasm during the inpatient episode from 1998 to 2011. Incidence of PSI was determined using publicly available lists of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes. Logistic regression models were used to determine the effect of primary payer status on PSI incidence. All comparisons were made between privately insured patients and Medicaid or self-pay patients. We identified 6,095 hospitalizations in which a primary spinal neoplasm was recorded during the inpatient episode. We excluded patients younger than 18 years and those with "other" or "missing" primary insurance status, leaving 5,880 patients for analysis. After adjusting for patient demographics and hospital characteristics, Medicaid or self-pay patients had significantly greater odds of experiencing one or more PSI (odds
Alani, Farooq; Yaqoub, Yasir; Hamdan, Mahani
No one doubts the value and importance of quality education, and quality assurance is one major driving force to achieve this. Measuring the performance of service quality of education services of Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD), as part of the quality assessment, was assessed based on Parasuraman's five Servqual dimensions. The assessment was…
Taking the evolution of the quality agenda in the UK as its centrepiece, this article analyses the politics of legitimation accompanying the emergence of quality assurance and the contribution of quality enhancement to the power play therein. This article argues that over the last 25 years the quality agenda has been used as a proxy--a state…
Wensing, Michel; Broge, Björn; Riens, Burgi; Kaufmann-Kolle, Petra; Akkermans, Reinier; Grol, Richard; Szecsenyi, Joachim
To determine the effectiveness of quality circles on prescribing patterns of primary care physicians in Germany and to explore the influence of specific factors on changes. Three large non-randomised comparative studies were performed in primary care in Germany, with baseline measurements in 2001 and follow-up measurements in 2003. 1090 physicians were in intervention groups and 2090 physicians in control groups. For each physician, data on 444 patients and 1201 prescriptions were available, on average, at each measurement moment. Quality circles comprising of a series of small group moderated meetings of physicians, provision of evidence-based information and repeated written feedback on individual prescribing patterns. Compared to the control groups, physicians in the intervention groups reduced mean prescription cost per patient per 3-month period by 1.87 euro (95%CI 0.51 to 3.22), increased generic drugs of all potentially generic prescriptions by 0.75% (95%CI 0.40 to 1.10), increased prescription of recommended lipid lowering drugs by 4.24% (95%CI 2.40 to 6.10), increased the prescription of recommended antibiotics by 1.72% (95%CI 0.33 to 3.10). Groups with more positive views of performance feedback, evidence-based indicators and price comparisons showed more change of prescribing. Quality circles had a modest effect on prescribing quality and costs. If widely implemented, they could have nationwide impact on the quality and costs of prescribing in primary care.
Full Text Available Since the current quality framework, called Thailand Qualification Frameworks for Higher Education (TQF-HEd, has been enforced in the past years by the Office ofthe Higher Education Commission (OHEC, the quality of the graduates produced and the quality of teaching Public Administration particularly graduate study seems to be in the opposite directions. This paper investigates the quality of higher education in Public Administration at Master level in Thailand. Data such as curriculums, program philosophy, etc. were collected from universities offering graduate study in Public Administration. In-depth interviews were conducted from public and private universities. In the midst of the Administrative Reform in Thailand during the economic crisis in 1997, the author analyzed the impacts of the reform, particularly the influential practice of New Public Management (NPM, on the quality of teaching graduate study in Public Administration in Thailand.
Antônio Thomaz Gonzaga da Matta-Machado
Full Text Available Objective. To provide an overview of the distribution of institutional support in primary care in Brazil and to identify associations between the activities of institutional support and the outcome of the certification of the National Programme for Improving Access and Quality in Primary Health Care (PMAQ. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted through interviews with 16 960 profes- sionals in Brazil in 2012. To examine the relationship between the received support and the quality of health care it was made a multiple binary logistic regression. Results. A positive relationship between high-level support and certification in the sub-dimensions analyzed was observed: women and child care, diabetes mellitus/ hypertension and mental health. The support activities which contributed most were: self-assessment, shared assessment, targeted workshops and training. Conclusion. Institutional support activities have helped to improve the quality and access of the population to healthcare in the country.
Dearing, Eric; McCartney, Kathleen; Taylor, Beck A
Higher quality child care during infancy and early childhood (6-54 months of age) was examined as a moderator of associations between family economic status and children's (N = 1,364) math and reading achievement in middle childhood (4.5-11 years of age). Low income was less strongly predictive of underachievement for children who had been in higher quality care than for those who had not. Consistent with a cognitive advantage hypothesis, higher quality care appeared to promote achievement indirectly via early school readiness skills. Family characteristics associated with selection into child care also appeared to promote the achievement of low-income children, but the moderating effect of higher quality care per se remained evident when controlling for selection using covariates and propensity scores.
Nascimento, Leticia do; Paula, Cristiane Cardoso de; Magnago, Tania Solange Bosi de Souza; Padoin, Stela Maris de Mello; Harzheim, Erno; Silva, Clarissa Bohrer da
to evaluate the quality of health care for children and adolescents living with HIV, among the different types of Primary Health Care services of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. cross-sectional study, developed with 118 Primary Health Care professionals. The Primary Care Evaluation Instrument, Professional version, was used. For verification of the variables associated with the high score, Poisson Regression was used. the professionals of the Family Health Strategy, when compared to those of the Primary Health Units, obtained a greater degree of orientation to primary care, both for the overall score and for the derived attributes score, as well as for the integrality and community orientation attributes. A specialization in Primary Health Care, other employment and a statutory work contract were associated with quality of care. the Family Health Strategy was shown to provide higher quality health care for children and adolescents living with HIV, however, the coverage is still low. The need was highlighted to expand this coverage and invest in vocational training directed toward Primary Care and making the professionals effective, through public selection procedure, as well as an improvement program that recognizes the care requirements, in these settings, of children and adolescents infected with HIV. avaliar a qualidade de atenção à saúde da criança e adolescente vivendo com HIV, entre os diferentes tipos de serviço de Atenção Primária à Saúde, de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. estudo transversal, desenvolvido com 118 profissionais da Atenção Primária à Saúde. Utilizou-se o Instrumento de Avaliação da Atenção Primária, versão Profissionais. Para verificação das variáveis associadas ao alto escore, foi utilizada a Regressão de Poisson. os profissionais da Estratégia Saúde da Família, quando comparados aos de Unidades Básicas de Saúde, obtiveram maior grau de orientação à atenção primária, tanto pelo escore geral quanto
Gidley, Jennifer M.; Hampson, Gary P.; Wheeler, Leone; Bereded-Samuel, Elleni
Equitable access, success and quality in higher education are examined from a variety of ideological perspectives. "Quality" is positioned as a complex generic concept while "access" and "success" are identified as key concepts in the social inclusion domain, supplemented by the concept of "participation."…
Logermann, Frauke; Leisyte, Liudvika; Curaj, Adrian; Matei, Liviu; Pricopie, Remus; Salmi, Jamil; Scott, Peter
The European Standard and Guidelines for Quality Assurance (ESG) of 2005 can be defined as one of the major Bologna documents aimed at furthering the role of students as stakeholders in internal quality assurance processes at higher education institutions (HEIs). Still little is known about
Osseo-Asare, Augustus E.; Longbottom, David; Murphy, William D.
Purpose: To deepen the understanding and to encourage further research on leadership best practices for sustaining quality improvement in UK higher education institutions (HEIs). Design/methodology/approach: The literature on leadership provides the theoretical context for the survey of quality managers from 42 UK HEIs. A mix of questionnaires,…
Roy-Byrne, Peter P.; Craske, Michelle G.; Campbell-Sills, Laura; Lang, Ariel J.; Golinelli, Daniella; Rose, Raphael D.; Bystritsky, Alexander; Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy D.
Background Most patients with anxiety disorders receive their care from primary care practitioners (PCPs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate quality of and patient satisfaction with primary healthcare for anxiety disorders. Methods Survey of 1004 outpatients with anxiety disorders referred by their PCP for participation in a therapeutic trial. Quality indicators (referring to the 6 months prior to referral) were self-reported type, dose and duration of anti-anxiety medication and psychotherapy with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) elements. Results 576 patients (57.4%) had received appropriate anti-anxiety medication in the previous 6 months, but only 292 (29.1% of patients) at adequate dose and duration. 465 patients (46.3%) had received some counseling, but only 213 (21.2%) with a CBT focus. Overall, 416 patients (41.4%) had received quality pharmacotherapy and/or psychotherapy. Few patients (44.8%) were at least somewhat satisfied with their mental health care. Receipt of quality psychotherapy was the sole positive predictor (adjusted odds ratio = 2.71, 95% CI [1.94–3.80], p anxiety treatment study, fewer than half of patients had in the 6 months prior received quality pharmacological and/or psychosocial mental healthcare. Receipt of CBT-oriented, quality psychosocial (but not pharmacological) care showed a strong dose-response relationship with satisfaction with mental health care. PMID:21367351
Van den Berg Michael J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The QUALICOPC (Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe study aims to evaluate the performance of primary care systems in Europe in terms of quality, equity and costs. The study will provide an answer to the question what strong primary care systems entail and which effects primary care systems have on the performance of health care systems. QUALICOPC is funded by the European Commission under the "Seventh Framework Programme". In this article the background and design of the QUALICOPC study is described. Methods/design QUALICOPC started in 2010 and will run until 2013. Data will be collected in 31 European countries (27 EU countries, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey and in Australia, Israel and New Zealand. This study uses a three level approach of data collection: the system, practice and patient. Surveys will be held among general practitioners (GPs and their patients, providing evidence at the process and outcome level of primary care. These surveys aim to gain insight in the professional behaviour of GPs and the expectations and actions of their patients. An important aspect of this study is that each patient's questionnaire can be linked to their own GP's questionnaire. To gather data at the structure or national level, the study will use existing data sources such as the System of Health Accounts and the Primary Health Care Activity Monitor Europe (PHAMEU database. Analyses of the data will be performed using multilevel models. Discussion By its design, in which different data sources are combined for comprehensive analyses, QUALICOPC will advance the state of the art in primary care research and contribute to the discussion on the merit of strengthening primary care systems and to evidence based health policy development.
Wu, Keliang; Zheng, Ye; Zhu, Yueting; Li, Hongchang; Yu, Guanling; Yan, Junhao; Chen, Zi-Jiang
To evaluate the relationship between day 3 embryo quality and nucleus spreading rate/signal resolution rate in Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) during the PGD procedure. This study was a retrospective data analysis. 367 day-3 embryos were classified based on morphological scoring: grade 1 to grade 4 were defined from worse to better embryo quality. Day 3 embryos were classified as good quality when the number of blastomeres was between 6 and 10 and grade better than 2'. Nucleus spreading rate, signal rate and the full signal rate were compared between embryos with different morphological scoring. Nucleus spreading rate of blastomeres from morphological high-quality embryos was significantly higher (86.25 %) than from poor-quality embryos (76.53 %) (p quality group than in poor-quality group (64.54 %) (p quality had higher nucleus spreading rate and higher full signal rate during FISH. Through this study, we speculate on whether it should reconsider the necessity of FISH application in embryos with poor quality.
Bailie, Ross; Bailie, Jodie; Chakraborty, Amal; Swift, Kevin
The quality of data derived from primary healthcare electronic systems has been subjected to little critical systematic analysis, especially in relation to the purported benefits and substantial investment in electronic information systems in primary care. Many indicators of quality of care are based on numbers of certain types of patients as denominators. Consistency of denominator data is vital for comparison of indicators over time and between services. This paper examines the consistency of denominator data extracted from electronic health records (EHRs) for monitoring of access and quality of primary health care. Data collection and analysis were conducted as part of a prospective mixed-methods formative evaluation of the Commonwealth Government's Indigenous Chronic Disease Package. Twenty-six general practices and 14 Aboriginal Health Services (AHSs) located in all Australian States and Territories and in urban, regional and remote locations were purposively selected within geographically defined locations. Percentage change in reported number of regular patients in general practices ranged between -50% and 453% (average 37%). The corresponding figure for AHSs was 1% to 217% (average 31%). In approximately half of general practices and AHSs, the change was ≥ 20%. There were similarly large changes in reported numbers of patients with a diagnosis of diabetes or coronary heart disease (CHD), and Indigenous patients. Inconsistencies in reported numbers were due primarily to limited capability of staff in many general practices and AHSs to accurately enter, manage, and extract data from EHRs. The inconsistencies in data required for the calculation of many key indicators of access and quality of care places serious constraints on the meaningful use of data extracted from EHRs. There is a need for greater attention to quality of denominator data in order to realise the potential benefits of EHRs for patient care, service planning, improvement, and policy. We
Peabody, John; Saldivar, Juan-Sebastien; Swagel, Eric; Fugaro, Steven; Paculdo, David; Tran, Mary
Sub-optimal colorectal cancer (CRC) evaluations have been attributed to both physician and patient factors. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate physician practice variation in patients with a higher risk of CRC. We wanted to identify the physician characteristics and the types of patients that were associated with missed screening opportunities; we also explored whether screening for CRC served as a proxy for better preventive care practices. A total of 213 board-certified family and internal medicine physicians participated in the study, conducted between September and December 2016. We used Clinical Performance and Value (CPV®) vignettes, simulated patients, to collect data on CRC screening. The CPV patients presented with a typical range of signs and symptoms of potential CRC. The care provided to the simulated patients was scored against explicit evidence-based criteria. The main outcome measure was rate a diagnostic CRC workup was ordered. This data quantified the clinical practice variability for CRC screening in high risk patients and other preventive and screening practices. A total of 81% of participants ordered appropriate CRC workup in patients at risk for CRC, with a majority (71%) selecting diagnostic colonoscopy over FIT/FOBT. Only 6% of physicians ordering CRC workup, however, counseled patients on their higher risk for CRC. The most commonly recognized symptoms prompting testing were unexplained weight loss or inadequate screening history, while the least recognized symptoms of CRC risk were abdominal discomfort found on review of systems. This study shows that primary care physician screening of CRC varies widely. Those physicians who successfully screened for CRC were more likely to complete other prevention and screening practices.
Maricica Druţu (Ivan
Full Text Available It is undisputed that in the present world, we need a creative education, applied and applicable. Education must remain the foundation and theoretical basis of the evolutionary pyramid students and future graduates, but creative education should be top. Theoretical knowledge should be implemented even during years of study, so that the graduate to "see" concrete and applicability of what they learn, the only way he will be able to "give wings" to become an entrepreneur in the field of particular study. Innovation and entrepreneurship does not occur arbitrarily, but they must be developed at national level through major investments in technological education, creative education, research, policy and legislation and infrastructure support for business development. In this paper we try to characterize the socio-economic situation in the educational process is carried out to present, a series of fundamental issues on creative education and to identify its influence on the growth of the Romanian higher education quality. The main research methods used in the compilation of this material were: theoretical and practical scientific documentation, surveys and observations. In Romania, there are still enormous challenges in terms of overcoming obstacles to initiating and developing a business. Authorities, businesses, educational institutions and civil society are key actors who can shape their strategies, measures and actions for effective development of small business to start from considerations of minimum risk and should be developed gradually under the new self-financing business started.
Dhiman, Paula; Kai, Joe; Horsfall, Laura; Walters, Kate; Qureshi, Nadeem
The potential to use data on family history of premature disease to assess disease risk is increasingly recognised, particularly in scoring risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). However the quality of family health information in primary care records is unclear. To assess the availability and quality of family history of CHD documented in electronic primary care records. Cross-sectional study. 537 UK family practices contributing to The Health Improvement Network database. Data were obtained from patients aged 20 years or more, registered with their current practice between 1(st) January 1998 and 31(st) December 2008, for at least one year. The availability and quality of recorded CHD family history was assessed using multilevel logistic and ordinal logistic regression respectively. In a cross-section of 1,504,535 patients, 19% had a positive or negative family history of CHD recorded. Multilevel logistic regression showed patients aged 50-59 had higher odds of having their family history recorded compared to those aged 20-29 (OR:1.23 (1.21 to 1.25)), however most deprived patients had lower odds compared to those least deprived (OR: 0.86 (0.85 to 0.88)). Of the 140,058 patients with a positive family history recorded (9% of total cohort), age of onset was available in 45%; with data specifying both age of onset and relative affected available in only 11% of records. Multilevel ordinal logistic regression confirmed no statistical association between the quality of family history recording and age, gender, deprivation and year of registration. Family history of CHD is documented in a small proportion of primary care records; and where positive family history is documented the details are insufficient to assess familial risk or populate cardiovascular risk assessment tools. Data capture needs to be improved particularly for more disadvantaged patients who may be most likely to benefit from CHD risk assessment.
Full Text Available The potential to use data on family history of premature disease to assess disease risk is increasingly recognised, particularly in scoring risk for coronary heart disease (CHD. However the quality of family health information in primary care records is unclear.To assess the availability and quality of family history of CHD documented in electronic primary care records.Cross-sectional study.537 UK family practices contributing to The Health Improvement Network database.Data were obtained from patients aged 20 years or more, registered with their current practice between 1(st January 1998 and 31(st December 2008, for at least one year. The availability and quality of recorded CHD family history was assessed using multilevel logistic and ordinal logistic regression respectively.In a cross-section of 1,504,535 patients, 19% had a positive or negative family history of CHD recorded. Multilevel logistic regression showed patients aged 50-59 had higher odds of having their family history recorded compared to those aged 20-29 (OR:1.23 (1.21 to 1.25, however most deprived patients had lower odds compared to those least deprived (OR: 0.86 (0.85 to 0.88. Of the 140,058 patients with a positive family history recorded (9% of total cohort, age of onset was available in 45%; with data specifying both age of onset and relative affected available in only 11% of records. Multilevel ordinal logistic regression confirmed no statistical association between the quality of family history recording and age, gender, deprivation and year of registration.Family history of CHD is documented in a small proportion of primary care records; and where positive family history is documented the details are insufficient to assess familial risk or populate cardiovascular risk assessment tools. Data capture needs to be improved particularly for more disadvantaged patients who may be most likely to benefit from CHD risk assessment.
Jacob, Eufemia; Childress, Courtney; Nathanson, Joana Duran
The aims of this study were: to (1) identify barriers to care in children with sickle cell disease; (2) examine the quality of primary care services received by these children and (3) examine the relationship between barriers to care and quality of primary care services in children with sickle cell disease. Effective management in children with sickle cell disease requires early access to a comprehensive range of preventive screenings, urgent care treatments for vaso-occlusive pain crisis and ongoing prophylactic treatments. A cross-sectional survey of parents of children with sickle cell disease was conducted between April-September 2011. Parents of children with sickle cell disease completed the Barriers to Care Questionnaire and Parent's Perceptions of Primary Care. Parents of children with sickle cell disease (n = 38) reported health system barriers such as inability to contact doctors or clinics, extended wait times and inconvenient clinic hours. Some barriers were reported more frequently among children with concurrent sickle cell disease and asthma, compared with those children without a concurrent asthma condition. Parents who reported more barriers were least likely to perceive their care as accessible, comprehensive and coordinated. Minimizing healthcare barriers may improve the quality of primary care services received by children with sickle cell disease and consequently prevent complications associated with sickle cell disease. Nurses and other care providers need to identify healthcare barriers, so that access, coordination, comprehensiveness and overall quality of primary care services may be improved in children with sickle cell disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Adams, William G; Mann, Adriana M; Bauchner, Howard
To evaluate the quality of pediatric primary care, including preventive services, before and after the introduction of an electronic medical record (EMR) developed for use in an urban pediatric primary care center. A pre-postintervention analysis was used in the study. The intervention was a pediatric EMR. Routine health care maintenance visits for children lead risk assessment (RR: 106.54), exposure to domestic or community violence (RR: 35.19), guns in the home (RR: 58.11), behavioral or social developmental milestones (RR: 2.49), infant sleep position (RR: 9.29), breastfeeding (RR: 1.99), poison control (RR: 3.82), and child safety (RR: 1.29). Trends toward improved lead exposure, vision, and hearing screening were seen; however, differences were not significant. Users of the system reported that its use had improved the overall quality of care delivered, was well-accepted by families, and improved guidance quality; however, 5 of 7 users reported that eye-to-eye contact with patients was reduced, and 4 of 7 reported that use of the system increased the duration of visits (mean: 9.3 minutes longer). All users recommended continued use of the system. Use of the EMR in this study was associated with improved quality of care. This experience suggests that EMRs can be successfully used in busy urban pediatric primary care centers and, as recommended by the Institute of Medicine, must play a central role in the redesign of the US health care system.
Jéssica Maria Arouca de Miranda
Full Text Available Background: To characterize the demands of health and quality of elderly peoplemonitored in the primary care of Rio Grande do Norte/Brazil. Methods and Findings: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study of a quantitative approach with elderly patients monitored by the primary care. The sample was given for convenience, obtaining 120 participants. The research was conducted through an interview with theapplication of the following questionnaires: Mini Mental State Examination, Socio-demographic Data and Pain Characteristics, Short-Form-36, Mini Nutritional Assessment, the primary activities of daily living, the instrumental activities of daily living, Prism 7 and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS statistical program, in which descriptive and association tests were used.The main demands were related to functionality, followed by nutritional and geriatric depression. The quality of life presented worse results in the domain of general health status and better scores in the emotional and mental health aspects. Regarding the dimensions, the physical health obtained aworse score. Conclusion: Based on the characterization of the health demands found, it is suggested to perform other studies with the same population, enabling to plan and implementing a multidimensional intervention and improving the quality of life of the elderly people. Keywords: Elderly; Quality of Life; Aging; Elderly Health; Nursing.
Chin, W Y; Lam, Cindy L K; Lo, S V
To review the literature regarding quality of care of nurse-led and allied health personnel-led primary care clinics with specific attention to the quality indicators for fall prevention, continence care, pulmonary rehabilitation, mental health, pharmaceutical care, and wound care services. Literature search from 1990 to 2010 including Ovid Medline, Cochrane Database, RAND (Research and Development) Corporation Health Database, the ACOVE (Assessing the Care of Vulnerable Elders) project and clinical guidelines from the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and the United States. This review was limited to studies involving adult, primary care patients. Where available, evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses were used to synthesise findings. Combinations of the following terms (and related terms) were used to identify studies: primary care, clinic, allied-health, nurse-led, fall prevention, continence care, incontinence, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, pulmonary disease, respiratory rehabilitation, mental health, mental wellbeing, depression, anxiety, wound care, leg ulcer, venous ulcer, dressings clinic, wound clinic, medication review, pharmacist-led, pharmaceutical care. A total of 21 international guidelines and 33 studies were selected for data synthesis. Despite a lack of consistent outcomes data, it is apparent that certain aspects of organisational structure and clinical care processes are important though not necessarily sufficient indicators of quality of care, because they themselves can influence care outcomes. Seven key factors were identified which seem important determinants of the quality of care provided by nurse- and allied health personnel-led clinics. Delivery of primary health care by nurse and allied health personnel-led teams is a well-established model, internationally. Evidence from the literature provides benchmarks for standards of good practice. Knowledge of factors influencing quality of care can assist the planning
Banu Aktaş Yılmaz
Full Text Available Purpose: Data about neuropsychological impairment and health-related quality of life (HRQOL in patients with asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism (APHPT is limited. We aimed to investigate the HRQOL, neuropyschological impairment, including depression, anxiety in patients with APHPT who have mildly elevated serum calcium (Ca levels. Material and Method: Thirty-seven patients with APHPT and 37 controls were included. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and the General Health Questionnaire were administered in all patients, HRQOL was investigated using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36. Results: Serum levels of Ca and parathyroid hormone (PTH were significantly higher in patients than in controls [(10.92±0.66 vs. 9.49±0.66, p=0.016, and 133 (34-736 vs. 52.95 (25-75.50, p<0.001, respectively]. The levels of serum vitamin D were lower in patients than in controls [12.85 (4.0-62.50 vs. 20.30 (5.90-55.00, p=0.041]. The patient group had higher BDI scores than controls (12.49±10.34 vs. 7.46±5.33, p=0.011. Patients with APHPT showed lower scores in SF-36 mental health (60.55±20.75 vs. 69.62±14.31, p=0.034, SF-36 physical functioning (55.83±27.30 vs. 75.67±24.18, p=0.002, SF-36 social functioning (66.32±27.69 vs. 82.08±14.89, p=0.003, and SF-36 emotional role functioning (42.55±37.85 vs. 69.30±35.43, p=0.003. The patients showed higher STAI-1 scores (39.95±11.52 vs. 34.70±8.01, p=0.026. We observed that STAI-1 score positively correlated with serum Ca level (r=0.391; p=0.018; and PTH (r=0.341; p=0.042. Discussion: Our study demonstrated that patients with APHPT have more depressive and anxiety symptoms and lower HRQOL. Our results suggest that HRQOL and neuropsychological changes should also be considered during the clinical follow-up of patients with APHT.
Pigini, Claudia; Staffolani, Stefano
We analyze the effects of costs, geographical accessibility, and quality of higher education institutions on participation and on the composition of enrolled students, in terms of their educational and socioeconomic backgrounds. We develop a theoretical framework for higher education choices of secondary school graduates where differently talented…
Capshaw, Norman Clark
The disruptive technologies of the Internet and computers are changing our world in myriad ways. These technologies are also increasingly being employed in higher education but to what effect? Are the effects on higher education quality measurable, and if so, what is the effect on the traditional gap between high-income and low- to middle-income…
Blanco Ramirez, Gerardo
Institutional accreditation in higher education presents a dual reality: Accreditation is intended to hold colleges and universities accountable through external evaluation and, at the same time, accreditation constitutes an opportunity for higher education leaders to assess, improve, and communicate the quality of their undertakings. In an…
Ada, Sefer; Baysal, Z. Nurdan; Erkan, Senem Seda Sahenk
The purpose of this research is to evaluate the quality service in higher education in Marmara and Nigde Omer Halisdemir Universities' department of education students. This study was prepared using a screening model from quantitative research methods. The sample of this research comprised 886 university students attending the higher education…
Biancone, Tricia L; Farquharson, Kelly; Justice, Laura M; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Logan, Jessica A R
This study had two aims: (a) to describe the quality of language intervention provided by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to children with language impairment in the primary grades with respect to the quality of emotional support, instructional support, and proactive management during SLP-child interactions, and (b) to determine if key characteristics of the SLPs are predictors of variance in intervention quality. Participants were 174 children nested within 40 SLPs' caseloads from various districts in two Midwestern states involved in a larger study of speech-language therapy practices in the public schools. A total of 208 videotaped language intervention sessions were coded for emotional support, instructional support, and proactive management using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS; Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008). The quality of language intervention varied widely and was generally mid-range to high with respect to emotional support and proactive management, and low to mid-range in terms of instructional support. The quality of interactions varied and a large percentage of the observed variance in quality was attributed to SLPs. Time pressure was a strong predictor of the quality of emotional support, instructional support, and proactive management, and job satisfaction was a significant predictor of instructional support and proactive management. This descriptive information about school-based language intervention highlights the impact of the individual SLP in terms of the quality of the interactions taking place and the potential need to ease job pressures and promote job satisfaction. Readers will be able to: (1) identify and define three aspects of SLP-child interaction quality during intervention as framed in this study using the CLASS observation tool (Pianta, La Paro, et al., 2008); (2) discuss the relevance of those three aspects of quality to children with LI; and (3) identify SLP-level factors that significantly predict
Trindade Thiago G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brazil has developed a primary care system based on multidisciplinary teams which include not only a physician and a nurse, but also 4–6 lay community health workers. This system now consists of 26,650 teams, covering 46% of the Brazilian population. Yet relatively few investigations have examined its effectiveness, especially in contrast with that of the traditional multi-specialty physician team approach it is replacing, or that of other existing family medicine approaches placing less emphasis on lay community health workers. Primary health care can be defined through its domains of access to first contact, continuity, coordination, comprehensiveness, community orientation and family orientation. These attributes can be ascertained via instruments such as the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool, and correlated with the effectiveness of care. The objectives of our study are to validate the adult version of this instrument in Portuguese, identify the extent (quality of primary care present in different models of primary care services, and correlate this extent with measures of process and outcomes in patients with diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods/Design We are conducting a population-based cross-sectional study of primary care in the municipality of Porto Alegre. We will interview a random sample totaling 3000 adults residing in geographic areas covered by four distinct models of primary care of the Brazilian national health system or, alternatively, by one nationally prominent complementary health care service, as well as the physicians and nurses of the health teams of these services. Interviews query perceived quality of care (PCATool-Adult Version, patient satisfaction, and process indicators of management of diabetes, hypertension and known CHD. We are measuring blood pressure, anthropometrics and, in adults with known diabetes, glycated hemoglobin. Discussion We hope to
Kay, Margaret; Wijayanayaka, Shanika; Cook, Harriet; Hollingworth, Samantha
Although refugee health issues are increasingly experienced in primary health care, few studies have explored the quality use of medicines in refugee communities even though access to and quality use of medicines is a key component of care delivery. To identify strategies to support the quality use of medicines in refugee communities. Qualitative study with primary healthcare providers and refugee health leaders in Brisbane, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with refugee health leaders, pharmacists, practice nurses, and GPs. Data were recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify key barriers and facilitators for the quality use of medicines. Five barriers, including communication and language barriers, limited health literacy and financial cost, and four facilitators, including better coordination between healthcare providers and improved healthcare provider training, were identified. This study provides a rich exploration relating to medication use and examines the engagement between pharmacists and refugees, highlighting some communication concerns. It recognises the supportive role of the practice nurse and offers practical strategies for improving community knowledge about safe medicines use. This preliminary study builds on previous studies investigating refugee health access and health literacy. It offers new understandings towards enhancing quality use of medicines in refugee communities and practical insights to assist the targeting of resources for future interventions. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.
Horta, Paula Martins; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza; Caroline, Luana; dos Santos, Luana Caroline
The present study aimed to evaluate the dietary quality maintained among 113 overweight [body mass index (BMI) > or =25.0 kg/m2] women aged > or =20 years, who were enrolled in a Brazilian primary healthcare service in 2009. Dietary quality was evaluated using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-1995, which was adapted in the Brazilian context. Statistical analysis included linear regression adjusted by self-reporting energy intake. The prevalence of obesity (BMI > or = 30.0 kg/m2), elevated waist-circumference, and excessive body-fat were 85.8%, 98.2%, and 100% respectively. Data on dietary quality indicated an HEI score of 66.6 (11.3), with low mean scores for 'milk and dairy products' (2.6) and 'vegetables' (3.1). The calcium (beta=0.40) and vitamin C (beta=0.27) intake was positively associated with the HEI score. Fat (13 = -0.38) and sodium (beta = -0.21) intake and protein adequacy (beta = -18.17) were inversely associated with the dietary quality. We found that the dietary quality in this study population needs improvement, demonstrating the importance of nutritional counselling within the primary healthcare service.
Humphreys, John; Harvey, Gill; Hegarty, Janet
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health issue. From 2009 to 2014, the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care Greater Manchester (NIHR CLAHRC GM) in England ran 4 phased, 12-month quality improvement (QI) projects with 49 primary care practices in GM. Two measureable aims were set - halve undiagnosed CKD in participating practices using modelled estimates of prevalence; and optimise blood pressure (BP) control (close, with self-reported data regularly requested from practices throughout the projects. Halving undiagnosed CKD as per aim was exceeded in 3 of the 4 projects. The optimising BP aim was met in 2 projects. Total CKD cases after the programme increased by 2,347 (27%) from baseline to 10,968 in a total adult population (aged ≥18 years) of 231,568. The percentage of patients who managed to appropriate BP targets increased from 34 to 74% (P1), from 60 to 83% (P2), from 68 to 71% (P3), and from 63 to 76% (P4). In nonproteinuric CKD patients, 88, 90, 89, and 91%, respectively, achieved a target BP of <140/90 mm Hg. In proteinuric CKD patients, 69, 46, 48, and 45%, respectively, achieved a tighter target of <130/80 mm Hg. Analysis of national data over similar timeframes indicated that practices participating in the programme achieved higher CKD detection rates. Participating practices identified large numbers of "missing" CKD patients with comparator data showing they outperformed non-QI practices locally and nationally over similar timeframes. Improved BP control also occurred through this intervention, but overall achievement of the tighter BP target in proteinuric patients was notably less.
Sasser, Maja; Sørensen, Ole H.
and thus their assessment of primary task quality. The paper proposes a measure for primary task quality and uses it in the analyses of responses from 1,247 preschool teachers and teaching assistants in 94 public daycare centers in Denmark. The results indicate that an important factor for employees...
Goh Teik T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Attributes of teams could affect the quality of care delivered in primary care. The aim of this study was to systematically review studies conducted within the UK NHS primary care that have measured team climate using the Team Climate Inventory (TCI, and to describe, if reported, the relationship between the TCI and measures of quality of care. Findings The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched. The reference lists of included article were checked and one relevant journal was hand-searched. Eight papers were included. Three studies used a random sample; the remaining five used convenience or purposive samples. Six studies were cross sectional surveys, whilst two were before and after studies. Four studies examined the relationship between team climate and quality of care. Only one study found a positive association between team climate and higher quality care in patients with diabetes, positive patient satisfaction and self-reported effectiveness. Conclusion While the TCI has been used to measure team attributes in primary care settings in the UK it is difficult to generalise from these data. A small number of studies reported higher TCI scores being associated with only certain aspects of quality of care; reasons for the pattern of association are unclear. There are a number of methodological challenges to conducting such studies in routine service settings. Further research is needed in order to understand how to measure team functioning in relation to quality of care.
Natalia V. Buhanova
Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to perform comparative analysis of the quality assessment and policies of quality assurance in postsecondary education in Canada and Russian Federation.Methods. The theoretical methods involve comparative analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, extrapolation and modelling.Results. Russia and Canada have different policies on quality assurance in the distance learning and are at different stages of implementation of distance learning into postsecondary curricula. The Canadian system of postsecondary education is regulated not by the State but by professional societies, licensing organisations, and experts. Canadian postsecondary institutions have efficient systems of quality assurance, quality standards and accreditation. Blended learning is widely used in Canadian medical schools and is mandatory for continuous professional development. In Russia, the system of quality assurance for distance learning is regulated by the State. At present, Russia has developed policies on distance learning but unified quality standards in this field are absent. Blended learning is used in the medical schools but its implementation has just begun as continuous professional development.Scientific novelty. For the first time, the results of comparative analysis of the policies on quality assurance in distance learning in Russia and Canada are described.Practical significance. This research has showed the needs of the development of the system of quality standards and the policy on quality assurance of distance learning in the Russia postsecondary education.
Wagner, Daniel J; Durbin, Janet; Barnsley, Jan; Ivers, Noah M
Despite its popularity, the effectiveness of audit and feedback in support quality improvement efforts is mixed. While audit and feedback-related research efforts have investigated issues relating to feedback design and delivery, little attention has been directed towards factors which motivate interest and engagement with feedback interventions. This study explored the motivating factors that drove primary care teams to participate in a voluntary audit and feedback initiative. Interviews were conducted with leaders of primary care teams who had participated in at least one iteration of the audit and feedback program. This intervention was developed by an organization which advocates for high-quality, team-based primary care in Ontario, Canada. Interview transcripts were coded using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and the resulting framework was analyzed inductively to generate key themes. Interviews were completed with 25 individuals from 18 primary care teams across Ontario. The majority were Executive Directors (14), Physician leaders (3) and support staff for Quality Improvement (4). A range of motivations for participating in the audit and feedback program beyond quality improvement were emphasized. Primarily, informants believed that the program would eventually become a best-in-class audit and feedback initiative. This reflected concerns regarding existing initiatives in terms of the intervention components and intentions as well as the perception that an initiative by primary care, for primary care would better reflect their own goals and better support desired patient outcomes. Key enablers included perceived obligations to engage and provision of support for the work involved. No teams cited an evidence base for A&F as a motivating factor for participation. A range of motivating factors, beyond quality improvement, contributed to participation in the audit and feedback program. Findings from this study highlight that efforts to
Ko?er, Belgin; Tezcan, Mehmet Engin; Batur, Hale Zeynep; Haznedaro?lu, ?eminur; G?ker, Berna; ?rke?, Ceyla; ?etinkaya, R?meysa
Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of cognitive dysfunction observed in primary Sj?gren's syndrome (PSS) and to examine the relationships between cognitive abilities, depression, fatigue, and quality of life. Materials and Methods Thirty?two subjects with PSS were compared with 19 healthy controls on comprehensive neuropsychological, depression, fatigue, health state, and daily?life activities tests. Results There was low performance ...
Selmi, Carlo; Gershwin, M. Eric; Lindor, Keith D.; Worman, Howard J.; Gold, Ellen B.; Watnik, Mitchell; Utts, Jessica; Invernizzi, Pietro; Kaplan, Marshall M.; Vierling, John M.; Bowlus, Christopher L.; Silveira, Marina G.; Bossi, Ilaria
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is generally a slowly progressive disease that may lead to cirrhosis and liver failure. However, patients with PBC often suffer from a variety of symptoms long before the development of cirrhosis that include issues of daily living that have an impact on their work environment and their individual quality of life. We therefore examined multiple parameters by taking advantage of the database of our cohort of 1032 patients with PBC and 1041 matched controls. The ...
Tabrizi, Jafar-Sadegh; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Shahgoli, Javad; Rahbar, Mohammad Reza; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Ahadi, Hamid-Reza; Azami-Aghdash, Saber
Excellence and quality models are comprehensive methods for improving the quality of healthcare. The aim of this study was to design excellence and quality model for training centers of primary health care using Delphi method. In this study, Delphi method was used. First, comprehensive information were collected using literature review. In extracted references, 39 models were identified from 34 countries and related sub-criteria and standards were extracted from 34 models (from primary 39 models). Then primary pattern including 8 criteria, 55 sub-criteria, and 236 standards was developed as a Delphi questionnaire and evaluated in four stages by 9 specialists of health care system in Tabriz and 50 specialists from all around the country. Designed primary model (8 criteria, 55 sub-criteria, and 236 standards) were concluded with 8 criteria, 45 sub-criteria, and 192 standards after 4 stages of evaluations by specialists. Major criteria of the model are leadership, strategic and operational planning, resource management, information analysis, human resources management, process management, costumer results, and functional results, where the top score was assigned as 1000 by specialists. Functional results had the maximum score of 195 whereas planning had the minimum score of 60. Furthermore the most and the least sub-criteria was for leadership with 10 sub-criteria and strategic planning with 3 sub-criteria, respectively. The model that introduced in this research has been designed following 34 reference models of the world. This model could provide a proper frame for managers of health system in improving quality.
Prezzi, Davide; Goh, V.; Virdi, S.; Mallett, S; Grierson, C; Breen, D.J.
Objectives: To determine the effect of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) on perfusion CT (pCT) parameter quantitation and image quality in primary colorectal cancer. Methods: Prospective observational study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent, 32 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma underwent pCT (100 kV, 150 mA, 120 s acquisition, axial mode). Tumour regional blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and permeability sur...
Orr, James K.; Peltier, Daryl
Thsi slide presentation reviews the avionics software system on board the space shuttle, with particular emphasis on the quality and reliability. The Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) provides automatic and fly-by-wire control of critical shuttle systems which executes in redundant computers. Charts given show the number of space shuttle flights vs time, PASS's development history, and other charts that point to the reliability of the system's development. The reliability of the system is also compared to predicted reliability.
Full Text Available The quality of Islamic education is generally influenced by several factors, among other things: leadership, organizational culture, lecturercompetence versus faculty student ratio, dynamic curriculum, library collections and learning facilities. The factors above are most likely to influence and impact the quality of education process in general. Developing a model of management strategy for quality learning is a minimal effort to improve quality graduates of a university. The model was developed on the basis of the following theories: (1 transformative leadership (Tichy and Devana (1997, (2 strategy of learning organization, (Peter (2002, and (3 a quality-based management (Griffin, 2004. Furthermore, the model shares the following characteristics: (1 a quality learning emerges from an effective and efficient management of academic service; (2 developing management of a quality learning is continuous lecture development; (3 lecture plays an important role in developing a quality learning; (4 a quality learning stipulates that a leader be loyal and committed to their job, wise and have a sense of democracy.
... the data handling procedures for the reported data). 2.3Comparisons with the Primary and Secondary... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. P Appendix P to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient...
Barrera, Terri L; Hiatt, Emily L; Dunn, Nancy Jo; Teng, Ellen J
Panic disorder is a debilitating and costly mental health condition which commonly presents in primary care settings; however, little is known about the impact of panic disorder on quality of life and health utility valuations among Veterans in primary care. A cross-sectional investigation of quality of life was conducted in a sample of 21 Veterans with panic disorder in a VA primary care clinic. Health utilities were determined using an algorithm based upon the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). Veterans in the current sample reported significantly greater impairment on all eight of the SF-36 subscales in comparison to published norms. Veterans with panic and comorbid mood disorders reported significantly greater impairment on the Vitality, Social Functioning, and Mental Health subscales, while Veterans with panic and comorbid anxiety disorders reported significantly greater impairment on the Physical Functioning and Bodily pain subscales. Health utilities for the current sample were comparable to previous reports of Veterans with PTSD and depression, as well as health utilities of persons with chronic pulmonary disease and irritable bowel syndrome. The findings from this study highlight the devastating nature of panic disorder and reflect the need for increased attention to the identification and treatment of panic disorder in VA primary care settings. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ruhupatty, LeRoy; Maguad, Ben A.
Most critical activities in colleges and universities are driven by financial considerations. It is thus important that revenues are found to support these activities or ways identified to streamline costs. One way to cut cost is to improve the efficiency of schools to address the issue of poor quality. In this paper, the cost of poor quality in…
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven autonomous emirates that follow different economic models. There is a process for quality assurance at the federal level, however, each emirate takes its own approach to assure the quality of its institutions. This has resulted in different procedures and varying levels of oversight and…
Krämer, N; Rudolph, H; Garcia-Godoy, F; Frankenberger, R
To evaluate the effect of thermo-mechanical loading (TML) on marginal quality and wear of different crown types for primary molars. Eighty extracted human primary molars were used. After preparation, five groups received different crowns (n=16): preformed metal crowns (3M ESPE) and NuSmile crowns (Orthodontic Technologies Inc.) were inserted as preformed metal crowns; as semi-preformed crowns Protemp crowns (3M ESPE) were luted; and as individually manufactured resin composite crowns Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) and Heliomolar (Ivoclar Vivadent) were used. Specimens were subjected to 2,500 thermal cycles between 5-55(o)C and chewing simulation for 100,000 cycles at 50N at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. Before and after thermo-mechanical loading, impressions of the teeth were taken and replicas were made. The replicas received marginal quality evaluation under a SEM at x200 magnification. Occlusal wear was measured as vertical height loss using a 3-D laser scanning microscope. After TML, all crowns were intact. The adhesively bonded crowns showed significantly better marginal quality to dentine/cementum compared with GIC luted crowns (pcrowns showed a good fit and nearly transition-free margins also after TML. Preformed metal crowns showed the significantly lowest wear rates compared to the resin composites (pcrown types under investigation showed a good performance concerning the evaluated parameters marginal quality and wear.
Rosenthal, Meredith B; Sinaiko, Anna D; Eastman, Diana; Chapman, Benjamin; Partridge, Gregory
Patient-centered medical homes (PCMH) may improve the quality of primary care while reducing costs and utilization. Early evidence on the effectiveness of PCMH has been mixed. We analyze the impact of a PCMH intervention in Rochester NY on costs, utilization, and quality of care. A propensity score-matched difference-in-differences analysis of the effect of the PCMH intervention relative to a comparison group of practices. Qualitative interviews with PCMH practice managers on their experiences and challenges with PCMH practice transformation. Seven pilot practices and 61 comparison practices (average of 36,531 and 30,192 attributed member months per practice, respectively). Interviews with practice leaders at all pilot sites. Individual HEDIS quality measures of preventive care, diabetes care, and care for coronary artery disease. Utilization measures of hospital use, office visits, imaging and laboratory tests, and prescription drug use. Cost measures are inpatient, prescription drug, and total spending. After 3 years, PCMH practices reported decreased ambulatory care sensitive emergency room visits and use of imaging tests, and increased primary care visits and laboratory tests. Utilization of prescription drugs increased but drug spending decreased. PCMH practices reported increased rates of breast cancer screening and low-density lipid screening for diabetes patients, and decreased rates of any prevention quality indicator. The PCMH model leads to significant changes in patient care, with reductions in some services and increases in others. This study joins a growing body of work that finds no effect of PCMH transformation on total health care spending.
Scott, Anthony; Sivey, Peter; Ait Ouakrim, Driss; Willenberg, Lisa; Naccarella, Lucio; Furler, John; Young, Doris
The use of blended payment schemes in primary care, including the use of financial incentives to directly reward 'performance' and 'quality' is increasing in a number of countries. There are many examples in the US, and the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QoF) for general practitioners (GPs) in the UK is an example of a major system-wide reform. Despite the popularity of these schemes, there is currently little rigorous evidence of their success in improving the quality of primary health care, or of whether such an approach is cost-effective relative to other ways to improve the quality of care. The aim of this review is to examine the effect of changes in the method and level of payment on the quality of care provided by primary care physicians (PCPs) and to identify:i) the different types of financial incentives that have improved quality;ii) the characteristics of patient populations for whom quality of care has been improved by financial incentives; andiii) the characteristics of PCPs who have responded to financial incentives. We searched the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, HealthSTAR, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychLIT, and ECONLIT. Searches of Internet-based economics and health economics working paper collections were also conducted. Finally, studies were identified through the reference lists of retrieved articles, websites of key organisations, and from direct contact with key authors in the field. Articles were included if they were published from 2000 to August 2009. Randomised controlled trials (RCT), controlled before and after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series analyses (ITS) evaluating the impact of different financial interventions on the quality of care delivered by primary healthcare physicians (PCPs). Quality of care was defined as patient reported outcome
Full Text Available The rise of globalization has highlighted the issue of internationalization of quality assurance in education. The COMPASS-OK software application for (self assessment and accreditation, developed at the Plovdiv University, maintains features for modeling of methods and procedures for quality assessment of education. Its successful application has raised the idea of extending it as a universal tool developed on the basis of cloud services – a tool which provides services to ensure the quality of education for educational institutions and accreditation agencies from around the world. This article offers a conceptual framework and discusses the advantages and benefits of such a development.
Skolarus, Ted A; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Northouse, Laurel L; Fagerlin, Angela; Garlinghouse, Carol; Demers, Raymond Y; Rovner, David R; Darwish-Yassine, May; Wei, John T
Primary care providers often care for men with prostate cancer due to its prolonged clinical course and an increasing number of survivors. However, their attitudes and care patterns are inadequately studied. In this context, we surveyed primary care providers regarding the scope of their prostate cancer survivorship care. The 2006 Early Detection and Screening for Prostate Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice Survey conducted by the Michigan Public Health Institute investigated the beliefs and practice patterns of primary care providers in Michigan. We evaluated responses from 902 primary care providers regarding the timing and content of their prostate cancer survivorship care and relationships with specialty care. Two-thirds (67.6%) of providers cared for men during and after prostate cancer treatment. Providers routinely inquired about incontinence, impotence and bowel problems (83.3%), with a few (14.2%) using surveys to measure symptoms. However, only a minority felt 'very comfortable' managing the side effects of prostate cancer treatment. Clear plans (76.1%) and details regarding management of treatment complications (65.2%) from treating specialists were suboptimal. Nearly one-half (45.1%) of providers felt it was equally appropriate for them and treating specialists to provide prostate cancer survivorship care. Primary care providers reported that prostate cancer survivorship care is prevalent in their practice, yet few felt very comfortable managing side effects of prostate cancer treatment. To improve quality of care, implementing prostate cancer survivorship care plans across specialties, or transferring primary responsibility to primary care providers through survivorship guidelines, should be considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Swan, Melanie; Ferguson, Sacha; Chang, Alice; Larson, Elaine; Smaldone, Arlene
To conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the safety and effectiveness of primary care provided by advanced practice nurses (APNs) and evaluate the potential of their deployment to help alleviate primary care shortages. PubMed, Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. RCTs and their follow-up reports that compared outcomes of care provided to adults by APNs and physicians in equivalent primary care provider roles were selected for inclusion. Ten articles (seven RCTs, plus two economic evaluations and one 2-year follow-up study of included RCTs) met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted regarding study design, setting and outcomes across four common categories. The seven RCTs include data for 10 911 patients who presented for ongoing primary care (four RCTs) or same-day consultations for acute conditions (three RCTs) in the primary care setting. Study follow-up ranged from 1 day to 2 years. APN groups demonstrated equal or better outcomes than physician groups for physiologic measures, patient satisfaction and cost. APNs generally had longer consultations compared with physicians; however, two studies reported that APN patients required fewer consultations over time. There were few differences in primary care provided by APNs and physicians; for some measures APN care was superior. While studies are needed to assess longer term outcomes, these data suggest that the APN workforce is well-positioned to provide safe and effective primary care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.
Wang, Wenhua; Maitland, Elizabeth; Nicholas, Stephen; Loban, Ekaterina; Haggerty, Jeannie
In rural China, patients have free choice of health facilities for outpatient services. Comparison studies exploring the attributes of different health facilities can help identify optimal primary care service models. Using a representative sample of Chinese provinces, this study aimed to compare patients' rating of three primary care service models used by rural residents (public clinics, public hospitals and private clinics) on a range of health care attributes related to responsiveness. This was a secondary analysis using the household survey data from World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). Using a multistage cluster sampling strategy, eight provinces were selected and finally 3435 overall respondents reporting they had visited public clinics, public hospitals or private clinics during the last year, were included in our analysis. Five items were used to measure patient perceived quality in five domains including prompt attention, communication and autonomy, dignity and confidentiality. ANOVA and Turkey's post hoc tests were used to conduct comparative analysis of five domains. Separate multivariate linear regression models were estimated to examine the association of primary care service models with each domain after controlling for patient characteristics. The distribution of last health facilities visited was: 29.5% public clinics; 31.2% public hospitals and; 39.3% private clinics. Public clinics perform best in all five domains: prompt attention (4.15), dignity (4.17), communication (4.07), autonomy (4.05) and confidentiality (4.02). Public hospitals perform better than private clinics in dignity (4.03 vs 3.94), communication (3.97 vs 3.82), autonomy (3.92 vs 3.74) and confidentiality (3.94 vs 3.73), but equivalently in prompt attention (3.92 vs 3.93). Rural residents who are older, wealthier, and with higher self-rated health status have significantly higher patient perceived quality of care in all domains. Rural
Marty, Lucile; Dubois, Christophe; Gaubard, Malu S; Maidon, Audrey; Lesturgeon, Audrey; Gaigi, Hind; Darmon, Nicole
It is unknown whether diet quality is correlated with actual food expenditure. According to the positive deviance theory, the study of actual food expenditure by people with limited economic resources could help identify beneficial food-purchasing behavior. The aims were to investigate the relation between actual expenditure on food and nutritional quality and to identify "positive deviants" among low-income households. Individuals in deprived social situations (n = 91) were recruited as part of the "Opticourses" nutrition intervention conducted in 2012-2014 in poor districts of Marseille, France. Opticourses participants collected food-purchase receipts for their household over a 1-mo period. "Actual diet costs" and "estimated diet costs" were calculated per 2000 kcal of food purchases by using actual expenditures and a standard food price database of food consumed by a representative sample of French adults, respectively. Mean adequacy ratio (MAR), mean excess ratio (MER), and energy density (ED) were used as nutritional quality indicators. "Positive deviants" were defined as having a higher MAR and a lower MER than the respective median values. Opticourses participants selected less-expensive food options than the average French population, both within a food group and for a given food item. Higher diet costs were associated with higher nutritional quality (higher MAR, lower ED), regardless of whether costs were calculated from actual expenditure or on the basis of standard food prices. Twenty-one positive deviants were identified. They made significantly healthier purchases than did other participants (MAR: +13%; MER: -90%. ED: -22%) at higher estimated diet costs. Yet, they did not spend more on food (having the same actual diet costs), which showed that they purchased food with a higher nutritional quality for their price. In this low-income population, actual diet cost was positively correlated with nutritional quality, yet the results showed that higher
Full Text Available The article deals with the main trends in the development of the system of learning quality control connected with the European integration of higher education and the democratization of education. The authors analyze the state of information systems of learning quality control existing in European higher education and identify their strong and weak points. The authors show that in the learning process universities actively use innovative analytic methods as well as modern means of collecting, storing and transferring information that ensure the successful management of such a complex object as the university of the 21st century.
McManus, Margaret; White, Patience; Barbour, April; Downing, Billie; Hawkins, Kirsten; Quion, Nathalie; Tuchman, Lisa; Cooley, W Carl; McAllister, Jeanne W
To examine the relationship between quality improvement activities with pediatric and adult primary care practices and improvements in transition from pediatric to adult care. This was a time-series comparative study of changes in pediatric and adult practices involving five large pediatric and adult academic health centers in the District of Columbia. Using the Health Care Transition Index (pediatric and adult versions), we examined improvements in specific indicators of transition performance, including development of an office transition policy, provider knowledge and skills related to transition, identification of transitioning youth, transition preparation of youth, transition planning, and transfer of care. Improvements took place in all six transition quality indicators in the pediatric and adult practices that participated in a 2-year learning collaborative to implement the "Six Core Elements of Health Care Transition," a quality improvement intervention modeled after the American Academy of Pediatrics/American Academy of Family Physicians/American College of Physicians Clinical Report on Transition. All sites established a practice-wide policy on transition and created an organized clinical process for tracking transition preparation. The pediatric sites conducted transition readiness assessments with 88% of eligible youth and prepared transition plans for 29% of this group. The adult sites conducted transition readiness assessments with 73% of eligible young adults and developed plans for 33%. A total of 50 were transferred in a systematic way to adult primary care practices. Quality improvement using the Six Core Elements of Health Care Transition resulted in the development of a systematic clinical transition process in pediatric and adult academic primary care practices. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Villarín Castro, A; Méndez García, T; Zuzuárregui Gironés, M S; Sánchez Serrano, S; Conejo Ocaña, R
To determine the professional quality of life in the workers of the Toledo Primary Care Health Area and to analyse its components. Descriptive, cross-sectional study, performed on workers of the Toledo Primary Care Health Area with an online self-administered questionnaire. age, sex, health centre, professional group, seniority, management experience, collaboration in working groups, employment situation, and the PQL-35 professional quality of life questionnaire. A total of 430 completed questionnaires were received (45.3%), of which 68.4% were women. The mean age was 47.7±8.6 years old. Mean seniority was 21.5±9.7 years. PQL-35 results were: perception of management support 4.8±1.5; perception of workload 6.2±1.3; intrinsic motivation 7.9±1.1; job disconnection capacity 6.3±2.6; and professional quality of life 5.2±2.1. Gender differences were found in perception of management support (4.5±1.5 in males vs 4.9±1.5 in females; P=.031) and professional quality of life (4.9±2.0 vs 5.3±2.1; p=.044). Depending on the professional group, differences were found in the perception of workload (6.4±1.1 in physicians, 6.3±1.3 in nurses, 5.9±1.6 in non-sanitary professionals, and 5.3±1.2 in support units professionals; PToledo Primary Care Health Area is similar to that of other Spanish Health Areas, even in a time of economic crisis. The intrinsic motivation of the professionals is very high, in contrast with their high perception of workload and their low perception of management support. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Manning, Blaine T; Kearns, Sean M; Bohl, Daniel D; Edmiston, Tori; Sporer, Scott M; Levine, Brett R
Sleep disruption is a common, yet rarely addressed, complaint among patients who have undergone total joint arthroplasty (TJA). This study assessed sleep quality before and after primary TJA. A total of 105 patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) prospectively completed questionnaires during the preoperative, early postoperative, and late postoperative periods. The survey included the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, current sleeping habits, and patient perspectives of sleep quality and duration. In the early postoperative period (4.7±2.0 weeks), patients reported significant increases in sleep disturbance as denoted by increased length of time to fall asleep (P=.006) and mean nightly awakenings (P=.002) compared with the preoperative baseline. At late postoperative follow-up (40.8±19.5 weeks), patients' sleep quality subsequently improved above the preoperative baseline. Approximately 40% of patients tried a new sleeping method postoperatively, the most common being new pillow placement. No significant differences in pre- or postoperative sleeping trends were noted between THA and TKA patients. These findings suggest transient sleep disturbance is common in the early postoperative period, with subsequent improvement by 10-month follow-up after a primary TJA. Given the growing importance of patient satisfaction in health care systems, orthopedic surgeons must manage patients' expectations while working with them to optimize sleep quality after TJA. A multimodal approach with preoperative counseling, early postoperative sleep modifications, and possibly preemptive use of medications may improve transient sleep disturbance among TJA patients. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(4):e636-e640.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Sopina, Liza Elizaveta; McNeill, Rob
Feedback can have a great impact on student learning. However, in order for it to be effective, feedback needs to be of high quality. Electronic marking has been one of the latest adaptations of technology in teaching and offers a new format of delivering feedback. There is little research...... investigating the impact the format of feedback has on quality of feedback and subsequently on student learning. This study sets out to investigate the impact paper-based and electronic methods of assignment submission and return have on students’ and markers’ perceived quality of feedback. Students and markers...... on an undergraduate course were asked to complete an anonymous online survey investigating their perceptions of quality, format and timeliness of feedback delivered electronically and on paper. The results showed that marking and providing feedback electronically was an acceptable method for markers, reporting...
Gill Peter J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children make up about 20% of the UK population and caring for them is an important part of a general practitioner’s (GP’s workload. However, the UK Quality Outcomes Framework (pay-for-performance system largely ignores children – less than 3% of the quality markers relate to them. As no previous research has investigated whether GPs would support or oppose the introduction of child-specific quality markers, we sought their views on this important question. Methods Qualitative interview study with 20 GPs from four primary care trusts in Thames Valley, England. Semi-structured interviews explored GPs’ viewpoints on quality markers and childhood conditions that could be developed into markers in general practice. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Analysis was thematic and used constant comparative method to look for anticipated and emergent themes as the analysis progressed. Results All the GPs interviewed supported the development of ‘benchmarks’ or ‘standards’ to measure and improve quality of care for children. However no consensus was expressed about the clinical conditions for which quality markers should be developed. Many participants reflected on their concerns about unmet health care needs and felt there may be opportunities to improve proactive care in ‘at risk’ groups. Some expressed feelings of powerlessness that important child-relevant outcomes such as emergency department visits and emergency admissions were out of their control and more directly related to public health, school and parents/carers. The importance of access was a recurrent theme; access to urgent general practice appointments for children and GP access to specialists when needed. Conclusion The GPs expressed support for the development of quality markers for the care of children in UK general practice. However, they flagged up a number of important challenges which need to be addressed if markers are to be
Kumar, S; Khade, H D; Dhokane, V S; Behere, A G; Sharma, A
Freshly harvested and well-suberized potato (Solanum tuberosum) of varieties Kufri Jyoti, Lady Rosata, Kufri Laukar, and Hermises were processed by radiation at 78/149 Gy (D(min)/D(max)) dose and stored at 12 +/- 2 degrees C for 8 mo from March to October for assessment of chip-making quality. The firmness of the tubers in all the varieties processed remained unchanged during the period of storage. Chips of the desirable quality could be prepared from 7-mo stored Lady Rosata, Hermises, and Kufri Jyoti varieties, whereas, in Kufri Laukar, the quality chips could be prepared with tubers stored not beyond 5 mo. In the present study, varietal differences were found to influence the chip-making quality of irradiated potato. Tubers with high reducing and total sugar (>2%) were found to be unsuitable for chip-making. The quality of chips, however, was not affected much by the change in internal color of the tuber during storage beyond 6 mo. The results suggested the efficacy of gamma irradiation for ensuring availability of the processing quality potato during lean periods from September to October.
Marques, Daniel Ruivo; Meia-Via, Ana Maria Soares; da Silva, Carlos Fernandes; Gomes, Ana Allen
The association between sleep quality and quality of life (QoL) in clinical samples diagnosed with sleep disorders, mental disorders, or other medical conditions has been widely investigated. However, few studies focused on this relationship in samples of mostly young and healthy adults. This study analyzed the associations between sleep quality and several dimensions of QoL in higher education students and examined whether or not sleep quality would significantly predict QoL after statistically controlling for psychopathological symptoms. Observational and transversal. Non-clinical; higher education. A sample of 324 college students, aged 17 to 47 years (M=20.89±2.85) were enrolled. European Portuguese versions of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the WHOQOL-Bref to measure QoL, and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) to measure psychopathological symptoms. All PSQI components were significantly associated with general QoL and the psychological and physical QoL domains. The subjective sleep quality and daytime dysfunction PSQI components were consistently associated with all WHOQOL-Bref domains and general QoL. Hierarchical regression analyses further showed that the PSQI components as a whole, and in particular subjective sleep quality, added significant contributions to the general QoL facet and to the psychological, physical, and environmental QoL domains, after controlling for psychopathological symptoms. Several components of sleep quality and different facets/domains of QoL are associated in higher education students, particularly subjective sleep quality, which remains a significant predictor of most aspects of QoL, regardless of the presence of psychopathological symptoms. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the gender related impact of osteoarthritis (OA on quality of life (QoL and health service utilization (HSU of primary care patients in Germany. Methods Cross sectional study with 1250 OA patients attending 75 primary care practices from March to May 2005. QoL was assessed using the GERMAN-AIMS2-SF. Data about comorbidities, prescriptions, health service utilization, and physical activity were obtained by questioning patients or from the patients' medical files. Depression was assessed by means of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Results 1021 (81.7% questionnaires were returned. 347 (34% patients were male. Impact of OA on QoL was different between gender: women achieved significantly higher scores in the AIMS 2-SF dimensions lower body (p Conclusion The extent to which OA impacts men and women differs in primary care patients. This might have resulted in the revealed differences in the pharmacological treatment and the HSU. Further research is needed to confirm our findings and to assess causality.
Bobiak, Sarah N; Zyzanski, Stephen J; Ruhe, Mary C; Carter, Caroline A; Ragan, Brian; Flocke, Susan A; Litaker, David; Stange, Kurt C
Capacity for change, or the ability and willingness to undertake change, is an organizational characteristic with potential to foster quality management in health care. We report on the development and psychometric properties of a quantitative measure of capacity for change for use in primary care settings. Following review of previous conceptual and empirical studies, we generated 117 items that assessed organizational structure, climate, and culture. Using information from direct observation and key informant interviews, a research team member rated these items for 15 primary care practices engaged in a quality improvement intervention. Distributional statistics, pairwise correlation analysis, Rasch modeling, and item content review guided item reduction and instrument finalization. Reliability and convergent validity were assessed. Ninety-two items were removed because of limited response distributions and redundancy or because of poor Rasch model fit. The final instrument comprising 25 items had excellent reliability (alpha = .94). A Rasch model-derived capacity for change score correlated well with an independently determined, qualitatively derived summary assessment of each practice's capacity for change (rhoS = 0.82), suggesting good convergent validity. We describe a new instrument for quantifying organizational capacity for change in primary care settings. The ability to quantify capacity for change may enable better recognition of practices likely to be successful in their change efforts and those first requiring capacity building prior to change interventions.
Moreo, Kathleen; Sapir, Tamar; Greene, Laurence
In the U.S., where the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions, many patients with this disease are treated by primary care physicians in community-based systems, including accountable care organisations (ACOs). To address gaps in the quality of diabetes care, national quality measures have been established, including patient-centered measures adopted by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for its Shared Savings Program for ACOs. From a patient-centered perspective, high-quality diabetes care depends on effective communication between clinicians and patients, along with patient education and counseling about medications and lifestyle. We designed and implemented a quality improvement (QI) program for 30 primary care physicians treating patients with type 2 diabetes in three structurally similar but geographically diverse ACOs. Retrospective chart audits were conducted before (n = 300) and after (n = 300) each physician participated in accredited continuing medical education (CME) courses that focused on QI strategies. Randomly selected charts were audited to measurably assess essential interventions for improved outcomes in type 2 diabetes including the physicians' documentation of patient counseling and assessment of side effects, and patients' medication adherence status and changes in hemoglobin A1C (A1C) and body mass index (BMI). Paced educational interventions included a private performance improvement Internet live course conducted for each physician, small-group Internet live courses involving peer discussion, and a set of enduring materials, which were also multi-accredited for all clinicians in the physician's practice. Continual improvement cycles were guided by analysis of the baseline chart audits, quantitative survey data, and qualitative feedback offered by participants. To extend the benefit of the education, the enduring materials were offered to the interprofessional team of clinicians throughout the U.S. who did
Priori, Roberta; Minniti, Antonina; Derme, Martina; Antonazzo, Barbara; Brancatisano, Filippo; Ghirini, Silvia; Valesini, Guido; Framarino-dei-Malatesta, Marialuisa
To assess the quality of sexual life of women with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) and to identify its correlations with disease activity and damage, quality of life, and mood disorders. The quality of sexual life of 24 women with pSS was assessed with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Twenty-four healthy women, matched by age and hormonal status, were enrolled as controls. Mood disorders and quality of life were investigated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36. Patients underwent a gynecological visit with vaginal pH measurement, cervicovaginal swabs, and Pap smears. Disease activity and damage were assessed by the European League Against Rheumatism Sjögren syndrome disease activity and damage indexes. Patients with pSS showed a pathological mean FSFI score (19.1 ± 7.33) significantly different from controls (p = 0.004), both in menstruating women (p = 0.006) and in menopausal women (p = 0.03). Major differences between the 2 groups were detected in dyspareunia (p women with pSS have a worse sexual quality of life. We reported a greater prevalence of dyspareunia that is statistically significant when compared with controls. The FSFI could be a useful tool to assess this topic, but has been neglected in the care of patients with pSS heretofore.
Full Text Available Insomnia is a condition of inadequate quality or quantity of sleep that has extremely adverse effects on daytime activities. Th e aim of this study was to compare the quality of life in patients with primary insomnia before and after a 3-week treatment with lorazepam (n=20 and zolpidem (n=21 and to compare the potential differences in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes regarding patients’ sleep between the two groups. Th e diagnosis of primary insomnia was established using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria, and patients had to complete a specially designed sleep log every day; on scheduled visits, we also administered a Visual Analogue Scale for quality of life and a self-evaluation questionnaire about Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes related to Sleep at the beginning and end of this study. In summary, the examinees in our study had significantly decreased parameters of quality of life, quite lower than expected based on previous findings in this area. However, by the end of the study, quality of life significantly improved with treatment: it improved by approximately 2/3 in the Lorazepam group and more than twice in the Zolpidem group, with a significant difference in favour of Zolpidem (p=0.047. Th is finding is most likely a consequence of its better safety profile and in part its better efficiency in terms of influence on certain domains of sleep itself, as previously discussed. Further specialized studies in this area with larger samples and a more detailed methodology are clearly warranted.
Weng, Cathy; Weng, Apollo; Tsai, Kevin
The primary purpose of this study was to uncover determines of students' intention to adopt online teaching evaluation at the end of semester by proposing a research model based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The second purpose was to investigate the efficacy of the theory for predicting such intention. Besides users' attitude and…
Wagner, Shannon L.; Cepeda, Ivan; Krieger, Dena; Maggi, Stefania; D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E.
Child executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory) are key to success in school. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, is known to affect cognition; however, there is limited information about how child cortisol levels, parenting factors and child care context relate to executive functions in young children. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between child cortisol, parenting stress, parent coping, and daycare quality in relation to executive functions in children aged 3–5 years. We hypothesized that (1) poorer executive functioning would be related to higher child cortisol and higher parenting stress, and (2) positive daycare quality and positive parent coping style would buffer the effects of child cortisol and parenting stress on executive functions. A total of 101 children (53 girls, 48 boys, mean age 4.24 years ±0.74) with complete data on all measures were included. Three saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected at the child’s daycare/preschool in one morning. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale – Revised (ECERS-R) was used to measure the quality of daycare. It was found that children with poorer executive functioning had higher levels of salivary cortisol, and their parents reported higher parenting stress. However, parent coping style and quality of daycare did not modulate these relationships. Identifying ways to promote child executive functioning is an important direction for improving school readiness. PMID:26335047
Wagner, Shannon L; Cepeda, Ivan; Krieger, Dena; Maggi, Stefania; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E
Child executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory) are key to success in school. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, is known to affect cognition; however, there is limited information about how child cortisol levels, parenting factors and child care context relate to executive functions in young children. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between child cortisol, parenting stress, parent coping, and daycare quality in relation to executive functions in children aged 3-5 years. We hypothesized that (1) poorer executive functioning would be related to higher child cortisol and higher parenting stress, and (2) positive daycare quality and positive parent coping style would buffer the effects of child cortisol and parenting stress on executive functions. A total of 101 children (53 girls, 48 boys, mean age 4.24 years ±0.74) with complete data on all measures were included. Three saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected at the child's daycare/preschool in one morning. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - Revised (ECERS-R) was used to measure the quality of daycare. It was found that children with poorer executive functioning had higher levels of salivary cortisol, and their parents reported higher parenting stress. However, parent coping style and quality of daycare did not modulate these relationships. Identifying ways to promote child executive functioning is an important direction for improving school readiness.
Burquel, Nadine; van Vught, Frans
This paper presents the findings of a two-year EU-funded project (DG Education and Culture) "Benchmarking in European Higher Education", carried out from 2006 to 2008 by a consortium led by the European Centre for Strategic Management of Universities (ESMU), with the Centre for Higher Education Development, UNESCO-CEPES, and the…
Eid, Fatima H.
Higher education plays an essential role in society by creating new knowledge, transmitting it to students and fostering innovation. Research-based education has lately received increasing interest both among researchers in higher education and in public discussion. The aim of this paper is to develop a thorough understanding of teacher education…
Lee, Lung-Sheng; Ko, Hui-Min; Wang, Mei-Tyng; Pan, Ying-Ju
As the third-party planner and implementer of higher education institutional and program evaluations, the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT) completed program evaluations for all 145 undergraduate business and management (B&M) programs in 43 universities/colleges from 2006 to 2010. In the 145 programs…
Full Text Available In all universities, the Office for Quality Assurance defines the procedure for assessing the performance of the teaching staff, with a view to establishing students’ perception as regards the teachers’ activity from the point of view of the quality of the teaching process, of the relationship with the students and of the assistance provided for learning. The present paper aims at creating a combined model for evaluation, based on Data Mining statistical methods: starting from the findings revealed by the evaluations teachers performed to students, using the cluster analysis and the discriminant analysis, we identified the subjects which produced significant differences between students’ grades, subjects which were subsequently subjected to an evaluation by students. The results of these analyses allowed the formulation of certain measures for enhancing the quality of the evaluation process.
Zaid, A; Rinno, T; Jaradat, N; Jodeh, S; Khammash, S
The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of 10 commercial paracetamol products available on the Palestinian market. We carried out a survey on the price of all paracetamol tablet products and assessed their quality. To assess quality, all products were examined visually for their organoleptic properties, tested for weight uniformity, friability, disintegration, and dissolution profile, and assayed for paracetamol content. All imported products were 2 to 3 times more expensive than the locally produced generic products. Based on our testing procedure, all paracetamol products were equivalent to the innovator product except for 1 imported product which fell below the approved specifications developed for the innovator product. Although the majority of generic products met the dissolution specification requirement that 80% of the drug must dissolve in 30 minutes, 1 generic product failed. These results demonstrate that generic paracetamol tablets produced by local manufacturers are often comparable in vitro to the innovator product and have lower costs.
Full Text Available Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a worldwide public health issue. From 2009 to 2014, the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care Greater Manchester (NIHR CLAHRC GM in England ran 4 phased, 12-month quality improvement (QI projects with 49 primary care practices in GM. Two measureable aims were set – halve undiagnosed CKD in participating practices using modelled estimates of prevalence; and optimise blood pressure (BP control (<140/90 mm Hg in CKD patients without proteinuria; <130/80 mm Hg in CKD patients with proteinuria for 75% of recorded cases of CKD. The 4 projects ran as follows: P1 = Project 1 with 19 practices (September 2009 to September 2010, P2 = Project 2 with 11 practices (March 2011 to March 2012, P3 = Project 3 with 12 practices (September 2012 to October 2013, and P4 = Project 4 with 7 practices (April 2013 to March 2014. Methods: Multifaceted intervention approaches were tailored based on a contextual analysis of practice support needs. Data were collected from practices by facilitators at baseline and again at project close, with self-reported data regularly requested from practices throughout the projects. Results: Halving undiagnosed CKD as per aim was exceeded in 3 of the 4 projects. The optimising BP aim was met in 2 projects. Total CKD cases after the programme increased by 2,347 (27% from baseline to 10,968 in a total adult population (aged ≥18 years of 231,568. The percentage of patients who managed to appropriate BP targets increased from 34 to 74% (P1, from 60 to 83% (P2, from 68 to 71% (P3, and from 63 to 76% (P4. In nonproteinuric CKD patients, 88, 90, 89, and 91%, respectively, achieved a target BP of <140/90 mm Hg. In proteinuric CKD patients, 69, 46, 48, and 45%, respectively, achieved a tighter target of <130/80 mm Hg. Analysis of national data over similar timeframes indicated that practices participating in the programme achieved
Li, Yan; Hou, Cai-Lan; Ma, Xin-Rong; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Zang, Yu; Jia, Fu-Jun; Lin, Yong-Qiang; Lai, Kelly Y C; Chiu, Helen F K; Ungvari, Gabor S; Hall, Brian J; Cai, Mei-Ying; Ng, Chee H; Xiang, Yu-Tao
In China, maintenance treatment for clinically stable patients with schizophrenia is usually provided by primary care physicians. This study examined the quality of life (QOL) in patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care and explored the demographic and clinical characteristics associated with QOL. Altogether, 612 patients with schizophrenia treated in 22 randomly selected primary care services in China formed the study sample. QOL, psychotic and depressive symptoms, extra-pyramidal symptoms and insight were assessed using standardized instruments. Data analyses were conducted with the one sample t-test and multiple linear regression analyses. Compared with the normative data for the Chinese general population, significantly lower scores in physical and mental QOL domains were found in the patient group. Older age, being unemployed, major medical conditions, no smoking, more severe depressive and negative symptoms, more frequent insomnia, and suicidality were independently associated with poor physical QOL. Male gender, more severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, more frequent insomnia, and suicidality were independently associated with poor mental QOL. Patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care had lower level of QOL in comparison with general population. Effective measures need to be implemented to improve their QOL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There is an urgent need to reform the educational system to achieve universal primary education in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Even after 35 years of independence, PNG has been struggling to educate an estimated 2 million elementary- and primary-aged children and faces numerous challenges in providing Education for All (EFA. This study was conducted in four primary schools of Buma Yong area of Lae district of Morobe Province, PNG. The study revealed that the quality of education has been deteriorated over the past few decades. Many schools in PNG do not have classrooms, teachers, and basic facilities. As a result, the children are losing interest in going to school. The children dropped out of school so as to assist their families in the household and agricultural activities. It also reveals that the dropout rate of girls is more than that of the boys due to the gender disparity in the country. The study recommended that budgetary allocations should be increased so as to improve the infrastructural facilities and encourage the children to attend primary school and thus achieve the Millennium Development Goal/Education For All in PNG.
Results: Most of validated indicators belonged to the health-care management of people with established cardiovascular disease. Fewer numbers of indicators were validated for primary prevention, mostly on life style recording and advice. Only very few indicators on outcome measures (level of risk factors were validated. No indicators of patients’ involvement or new risk factors, such as socioeconomic circumstances, got consensus. Conclusion: Slovenia validated more indicators than the international study, especially indicators of primary prevention. The experts did not achieve consensus on indicators of patients’ perspective, despite the paradigm of family medicine that the patient is in the centre of care. Validated indicators can now be tested for systematic quality assessment of cardiovascular prevention in the country.
Downs, M; Capstick, A; Baldwin, P C; Surr, C; Bruce, E
There is now widespread concern about the inadequate care and support provided to people with dementia from diagnosis to death. It is acknowledged that while there is a range of effective ways to care for and support people with dementia and their families from diagnosis to death, these have yet to become integral to practice. In England, for example, the National Dementia Strategy seeks to transform the quality of dementia care. One of the key components to transforming the quality of care is to ensure we have an informed and effective workforce. We argue here that in order to transform the quality of care we need to distinguish between the aims of training and education. Whilst there is a place for skills-based workplace training, Higher Education in dementia studies has a key role to play in the provision of specialist knowledge and skills in dementia care emphasizing as it does the development of critical thinking, reflection and action. In this paper we describe dementia studies at Bradford University available at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. We outline their aims and learning outcomes, curricula, approach to teaching, learning and assessment. We describe the nature of students who study with us, noting their fit with the Higher Education Funding Council in England's agenda for widening participation in higher education. Higher Education in dementia studies has a unique role to play in equipping practitioners and professionals with the information, skills and attitudes to realize the potential for quality of life for people with dementia and their families.
The purpose of this mixed study was to investigate the differences between higher and lower achievement middle school rates pertaining to leadership qualities, opportunity to learn, instructional practices, parental involvement, and professional development. Qualitatively, principals were interviewed using a semi-structured interview protocol.…
Pham, Thi Lan Phuong
Significant changes in the policies of higher education in Vietnam have changed the structure and governance of the system since the mid-1990s. The most commonly agreed-upon positive outcome of the governance renovation process is that the formation of a nationwide quality assurance scheme, which is stimulated by accreditation, in the higher…
Hou, Angela Yung-Chi
Cross-border higher education resulting in the increased mobility of students, academic staff, programs, institutions and professionals has grown considerably in global times. Therefore, how to ensure that the quality of academic programs has met the local and international standards simultaneously has become a great challenge in many nations. In…
Dunrong, Bie; Fan, Meng
Student evaluation of teaching is a fundamental system for assuring teaching quality at higher education institutions (HEIs). Its establishment has provided students with a routine channel for voicing their wishes with regard to teaching and is helpful for HEIs to establish "serve the students" as the aim of their operations. Student…
Silva, Danilo Soares; de Morales, Gustavo Hermínio Salati Marcondes; Makiya, Ieda Kanashiro; Cesar, Francisco Ignácio Giocondo
Purpose: This study aims to find evidence of the HEdPERF scale use for measuring the perceived service quality from the perspective of students in higher education institutions (HEIs) worldwide. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to find evidence of the scale use in articles published between January…
Quigley, Charles J., Jr.; Bingham, Frank G., Jr.; Notarantonio, Elaine M.; Murray, Keith
A survey of 303 potential college students and their parents found that high price and low price institutions are evaluated higher on quality attributes than are moderately priced institutions. Further, discounts (such as financial aid) were found to have little effect on the attendance decision. Implications for the pricing strategies used by…
Dearing, Eric; McCartney, Kathleen; Taylor, Beck A.
Higher quality child care during infancy and early childhood (6-54 months of age) was examined as a moderator of associations between family economic status and children's (N = 1,364) math and reading achievement in middle childhood (4.5-11 years of age). Low income was less strongly predictive of underachievement for children who had been in…
Walker, Simon; Mason, Anne R; Claxton, Karl; Cookson, Richard; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Fleetcroft, Robert; Sculpher, Mark
The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) is a pioneering attempt to improve the quality of primary care in the UK through the use of financial rewards. Despite its achievements, there are concerns that the QOF may offer poor value for money. To assess the cost-effectiveness of QOF payments. Economic analysis. England, UK. Cost-effectiveness evidence was identified for a subset of nine QOF indicators with a direct therapeutic impact. These data were then applied to an analytic framework to determine the conditions under which QOF payments would be cost-effective. This framework was constructed to assess the cost-effectiveness of QOF payments by modelling the incentive structure using cost-effectiveness thresholds of 20 000 and 30 000 UK pounds per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained, to represent good value to the NHS. It used 2004/2005 data on the QOF performance of all English primary care practices. Average indicator payments ranged from 0.63 to 40.61 UK pounds per patient, and the percentage of eligible patients treated ranged from 63% to 90%. The proportional changes required for QOF payments to be cost-effective varied widely between the indicators. Although most indicators required only a fraction of a 1% change to be cost-effective, for some indicators improvements in performance of around 20% were needed. For most indicators that can be assessed, QOF incentive payments are likely to be a cost-effective use of resources for a high proportion of primary care practices, even if the QOF achieves only modest improvements in care. However, only a small subset of the indicators has been considered, and no account has been taken of the costs of administering the QOF scheme.
Snihurowych, Roman R; Cornelius, Felix; Amelung, Volker Eric
Despite the widespread use of branding in nearly all other major industries, most health care service delivery organizations have not fully embraced the practices and processes of branding. Facilitating the increased and appropriate use of branding among health care delivery organizations may improve service and technical quality for patients. This article introduces the concepts of branding, as well as making the case that the use of branding may improve the quality and financial performance of organizations. The concepts of branding are reviewed, with examples from the literature used to demonstrate their potential application within health care service delivery. The role of branding for individual organizations is framed by broader implications for health care markets. Branding strategies may have a number of positive effects on health care service delivery, including improved technical and service quality. This may be achieved through more transparent and efficient consumer choice, reduced costs related to improved patient retention, and improved communication and appropriateness of care. Patient satisfaction may be directly increased as a result of branding. More research into branding could result in significant quality improvements for individual organizations, while benefiting patients and the health system as a whole.