The thesis deals with quality management theory as an important part of management science. The primary objective of this work is an identification, formulation and analysis of such managerial issues in quality of higher education, which either are not known, or whose resolution is not considered fully sufficient. The thesis contains a bibliography of more than 200 related scientific works and presents selected issues of quality management in higher education, such as quality perception or it...
is about constructing a more inclusive understanding of quality in higher education through combining the macro, meso and micro levels, i.e. from the perspectives of national policy, higher education institutions as organizations in society, individual teaching staff and students. It covers both......Quality in higher education was not invented in recent decades – universities have always possessed mechanisms for assuring the quality of their work. The rising concern over quality is closely related to the changes in higher education and its social context. Among others, the most conspicuous...... changes are the massive expansion, diversification and increased cost in higher education, and new mechanisms of accountability initiated by the state. With these changes the traditional internally enacted academic quality-keeping has been given an important external dimension – quality assurance, which...
Zou, Yihuan; Zhao, Yingsheng; Du, Xiangyun
. This transformation involves a broad scale of change at individual level, organizational level, and societal level. In this change process in higher education, staff development remains one of the key elements for university innovation and at the same time demands a systematic and holistic approach.......This paper starts with a critical approach to reflect on the current practice of quality assessment and assurance in higher education. This is followed by a proposal that in response to the global challenges for improving the quality of higher education, universities should take active actions...... of change by improving the quality of teaching and learning. From a constructivist perspective of understanding education and learning, this paper also discusses why and how universities should give more weight to learning and change the traditional role of teaching to an innovative approach of facilitation...
Lim, Yvonne Mei Fong; Yusof, Maryati; Sivasampu, Sheamini
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess National Medical Care Survey data quality. Design/methodology/approach Data completeness and representativeness were computed for all observations while other data quality measures were assessed using a 10 per cent sample from the National Medical Care Survey database; i.e., 12,569 primary care records from 189 public and private practices were included in the analysis. Findings Data field completion ranged from 69 to 100 per cent. Error rates for data transfer from paper to web-based application varied between 0.5 and 6.1 per cent. Error rates arising from diagnosis and clinical process coding were higher than medication coding. Data fields that involved free text entry were more prone to errors than those involving selection from menus. The authors found that completeness, accuracy, coding reliability and representativeness were generally good, while data timeliness needs to be improved. Research limitations/implications Only data entered into a web-based application were examined. Data omissions and errors in the original questionnaires were not covered. Practical implications Results from this study provided informative and practicable approaches to improve primary health care data completeness and accuracy especially in developing nations where resources are limited. Originality/value Primary care data quality studies in developing nations are limited. Understanding errors and missing data enables researchers and health service administrators to prevent quality-related problems in primary care data.
Full Text Available Higher education quality assurance system has drawn much attention since 1980s. Most countries are committed to build the higher education quality assurance system to meet international standards. Under such an international trend, Hungary also actively promotes higher education reform, and established Hungarian Accreditation Committee and in order to ensure the quality of higher education.
Quality assurance has been integrated into the fabric of higher education in China, with the issue of quality in higher education--how to evaluate it and how to enhance it--now taking centre stage in Chinese higher education. In the past decade, the development of quality assurance in Chinese higher education has covered a broad spectrum of…
Herr, Annika; Hottenrott, Hanna
This study investigates the relationship between prices and quality of 7400 German nursing homes. We use a cross section of public quality reports for all German nursing homes, which had been evaluated between 2010 and 2013 by external institutions. Our analysis is based on multivariate regressions in a two stage least squares framework, where we instrument prices to explain their effect on quality controlling for income, nursing home density, demographics, labour market characteristics, and infrastructure at the regional level. Descriptive analysis shows that prices and quality do not only vary across nursing homes, but also across counties and federal states and that quality and prices correlate positively. Second, the econometric analysis, which accounts for the endogenous relation between negotiated price and reported quality, shows that quality indeed positively depends on prices. In addition, more places in nursing homes per people in need are correlated with both lower prices and higher quality. Finally, unobserved factors at the federal state level capture some of the variation of reported quality across nursing homes. Our results suggest that higher prices increase quality. Furthermore, since reported quality and prices vary substantially across federal states, we conclude that the quality and prices of long-term care facilities may well be compared within federal states but not across. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Quality assurance in higher education is streamed in two interconnected concepts: (1 quality management according to ISO 9000 and (2 Bologna process. In this paper both concepts are presented, with point on internal state and term plan activities for quality improvement in higher education in Serbia.
Leihy, Peodair; Salazar, José Miguel
This article offers a new approach to quality, focusing on the dimensions that gather around it. The mismatched goals of controlling and improving higher education continue to trouble the conceptual clarity of accountability. Quality in higher education emerges as something agreed upon (to varying efficacy) through accountability measures, rather…
Seymour, Daniel T.
This book presents college and university education as a quality-oriented service with students, parents, and legislators as customers demanding quality. It attempts to blend the concept of strategic management of quality in industry with the latest thinking on the administration of higher education. The first chapter discusses the importance of…
Noaman, Amin Y.; Ragab, Abdul Hamid M.; Madbouly, Ayman I.; Khedra, Ahmed M.; Fayoumi, Ayman G.
This paper presents a developed higher education quality assessment model (HEQAM) that can be applied for enhancement of university services. This is because there is no universal unified quality standard model that can be used to assess the quality criteria of higher education institutes. The analytical hierarchy process is used to identify the…
Full Text Available Since 1993, the quality assurance system in Romania has gained considerable experience. This experience was recently recognized in 2008 by the ENQA: European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education through the admission of ARACIS as a full member of EQAR: the European Quality Assurance Register. The Board of ENQA agreed to grant ARACIS’s full membership of ENQA for five years from 2 June 2009. This article explores the benefits of membership for the Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education – ARACIS, comparing to other regional and global quality assurance agencies networks. The common features and differences between ARACIS and other European agencies are questioned through the frameworks of ENQA and INQAAHE as a case study.
Zou, Yihuan; Du, Xiangyun; Rasmussen, Palle
Based on a study of Chinese university self-evaluation reports, this paper argues that higher education institutions are trying to manage the tensions between educational and organisational quality and the increasing and worldwide concerns about quality assurance. After 30 years of dramatic...... remain an important basis for external review. In an attempt to examine the institutional understanding of quality in higher education, the authors conducted a content analysis study of 53 self-evaluation reports written by a wide range of higher education institutions in China. This study concludes...... educational reform, China has established a nationwide evaluation system for assessing its higher education institutions. This comprehensive system includes a series of procedures for both internal self-evaluation and external peer reviewing, among which self-evaluation reports prepared by each institution...
Lukas I. Ehlers
Full Text Available Background: A typology of desirable social conditions in supervisory relationships suggested that such conditions may also be desirable in other forms of labour relationships. A literature review confirmed that trust, compliance, fairness and good faith can be confidently regarded as universally desirable social conditions in all forms of individual or collective labour relationships between employers and employees. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine if primary labour relationship quality (PLQ can be confidently conceptualised as a social construct that strongly relates to the perceived levels of compliance, fairness and good faith in supervisory or primary labour relationships. Setting: A combination of random and convenience sampling approaches was implemented to collect PLQ related data from 454 voluntary respondents, who were subordinate employees in the Tshwane region. Methods: A quantitative research methodology was adopted. This included conceptual definition of the PLQ construct, objective measurement of PLQ levels of voluntary respondents in an adequately sized sample, factor analysis and testing for relationships and differences in means between variables. Results: Data analysis results confirmed that it can be confidently concluded that the conceptual definition of PLQ was valid, and that positive PLQ perceptions of subordinate employees were significantly related to at least two other forms of desirable organisational outcomes. Conclusion: PLQ perceptions can be confidently defined as a distinct subjective quality estimate that is assimilated from unique expectations and perceptions of the levels of compliance, fairness, good faith and trust that a supervisor displays in a labour relationship with an immediate subordinate.
Bendixen, Carsten; Jacobsen, Jens Christian
higher education. In the long run it will hardly benefit educational programmes if institutions of higher educations fail to ‘stand for’ quality that, in the very least, can supplement the fulfilment of politically determined targets and standards. In this way the market will have not only graduates who......The increasing dominance of educational markets means that quality of higher education has the character of open signifiers of periodic occurrence, embedded institutionally as ways of consensual communication on how to go on as smoothly as possible. This promotes the growth of context dependent...... nullification processes. On the other hand, institutions have to adopt standards in education as a measure of outcome indicators for benchmarking. When quality is replaced by standards and if standards are equivalent to labour market relevance this might signal the beginning of overall external control over...
The practice of "franchising" higher education programs, or provision of educational programs through vendors, is examined as it occurs in the United Kingdom as a result of recent educational policy changes. A set of principles for assuring the quality of such programs is proposed. (MSE)
The evaluation of educational or social programmes is paramount for establishing success or impact in higher education. Evaluation questions about programme goals (e.g. better performance of first-year students) or about the quality of programme strategies (design and implementation) and effectiveness of delivery ...
Garwe, Evelyn Chiyevo
The purpose of this paper is to furnish local and global stakeholders with detailed information regarding the development and current status of quality assurance in the Zimbabwean higher education sector. The study used document analysis, observation and interviews with key informants as sources of data. This paper addresses the dearth of…
The evaluation of educational or social programmes is paramount for establishing success or impact in higher education. Evaluation questions about programme goals (e.g. better performance of first-year students) or about the quality of programme strategies (design and implementation) and effectiveness of delivery (coordinator inputs and…
Giorgio, L Di; Filippini, M; Masiero, G
Widespread issues regarding quality in nursing homes call for an improved understanding of the relationship with costs. This relationship may differ in European countries, where care is mainly delivered by nonprofit providers. In accordance with the economic theory of production, we estimate a total cost function for nursing home services using data from 45 nursing homes in Switzerland between 2006 and 2010. Quality is measured by means of clinical indicators regarding process and outcome derived from the minimum data set. We consider both composite and single quality indicators. Contrary to most previous studies, we use panel data and control for omitted variables bias. This allows us to capture features specific to nursing homes that may explain differences in structural quality or cost levels. Additional analysis is provided to address simultaneity bias using an instrumental variable approach. We find evidence that poor levels of quality regarding outcome, as measured by the prevalence of severe pain and weight loss, lead to higher costs. This may have important implications for the design of payment schemes for nursing homes.
Mohr, David C; Young, Gary J
Research generally shows that greater resource utilization fails to translate into higher-quality healthcare. Organizational slack is defined as extra organizational resources needed to meet demand. Divergent views exist on organizational slack in healthcare. Some investigators view slack negatively because it is wasteful, inefficient, and costly, whereas others view slack positively because it allows flexibility in work practices, expanding available services, and protecting against environmental changes. We tested a curvilinear relationship between organizational slack and care quality. The study setting was primary care clinics (n=568) in the Veterans Health Administration. We examined organizational slack using the patient panel size per clinic capacity ratio and support staff per provider ratio staffing guidelines developed by the Veterans Health Administration. Patient-level measures were influenza vaccinations, continuity of care, and overall quality of care ratings. We obtained 2 independent patient samples with approximately 28,000 and 62,000 observations for the analysis. We used multilevel modeling and examined the linear and quadratic terms for both organizational slack measures. We found a significant curvilinear effect for panel size per clinic capacity for influenza vaccinations and overall quality of care. We also found support staff per provider exhibited a curvilinear effect for continuity of care and influenza vaccinations. Greater available resources led to better care, but at a certain point, additional resources provided minimal quality gains. Our findings highlight the importance of primary care clinic managers monitoring staffing levels. Healthcare systems managing a balanced provider workload and staff-mix may realize better patient care delivery and cost management.
Herr, Annika; Hottenrott, Hanna
Objectives: This study investigates the relationship between prices and quality of 7,400 German nursing homes controlling for income, nursing home density, demographics, labour market characteristics, and infrastructure at the regional level. Method: We use a cross section of public quality reports for all German nursing homes, which had been evaluated between 2010 and 2013 by external institutions. Our analysis is based on multivariate regressions in a two stage least squares framework, wher...
Full Text Available -Quality Assessment in the Primary care Dear Editor; I have read the article titled as “Implementation of Rogi Kalyan Samiti (RKS at Primary Health Centre Durvesh” with great interest. Shrivastava et all concluded that assessment mechanism for the achievement of objectives for the suggested RKS model was not successful (1. Hereby I would like to emphasize the importance of quality assessment (QA especially in the era of newly established primary care implementations in our country. Promotion of quality has been fundamental part of primary care health services. Nevertheless variations in quality of care exist even in the developed countries. Accomplishment of quality in the primary care has some barriers like administration and directorial factors, absence of evidence-based medicine practice lack of continuous medical education. Quality of health care is no doubt multifaceted model that covers all components of health structures and processes of care. Quality in the primary care set up includes patient physician relationship, immunization, maternal, adolescent, adult and geriatric health care, referral, non-communicable disease management and prescribing (2. Most countries are recently beginning the implementation of quality assessments in all walks of healthcare. Organizations like European society for quality and safety in family practice (EQuiP endeavor to accomplish quality by collaboration. There are reported developments and experiments related to the methodology, processes and outcomes of quality assessments of health care. Quality assessments will not only contribute the accomplishment of the program / project but also detect the areas where obstacles also exist. In order to speed up the adoption of QA and to circumvent the occurrence of mistakes, health policy makers and family physicians from different parts of the world should share their experiences. Consensus on quality in preventive medicine implementations can help to yield
Back in May 2011, an article in "Primary Science" described how the idea for a quality mark for primary science was developed from an initial conversation at an Association for Science Education annual conference (Turner, Marshall and Elsmore, 2011). Its intention then, as now, was to support and champion good practice and raise the…
Kerk, G.J.M. van der; Verbeek, J.H.; Cleton, J.C.F.
The esters of gallic acid and higher primary alcohols, especially fatty alcohols, have recently gained considerable interest as possible antioxidants for fats. Two independent methods for the preparation of these esters are described. In the first method the hitherto unknown compound galloyl
This paper examines the literature surrounding quality assurance in global higher education. It provides an overview of accreditation as a mechanism to ensure quality in higher education, examines models of QA, and explores the concept of quality (including definitions of quality and quality assurance). In addition, this paper provides a review of…
Basar, Gulsun; Altinay, Zehra; Dagli, Gokmen; Altinay, Fahriye
This study involves the assessment of the quality management models in Higher Education by explaining the importance of quality in higher education and by examining the higher education quality assurance system practices in other countries. The qualitative study was carried out with the members of the Higher Education Planning, Evaluation,…
Sherr, Lawrence A.; Lozier, G. Gredgory
Total Quality Management, based on theories of W. Edward Deming and others, is a style of management using continuous process improvement characterized by mission and customer focus, a systematic approach to operations, vigorous development of human resources, long-term thinking, and a commitment to ensuring quality. The values espoused by this…
Soomro, Tariq Rahim; Ahmad, Reyaz
Quality in higher education is the major concern among researchers. Managing quality in higher education in a multicultural population with different approaches is not only challenging but an uphill task. This paper will focus on quality concern in higher education keeping in view, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) perspectives. A model to maintain…
This paper asserts that there have not been adequate studies about the comparative quality of Turkish universities to provide information and data for prospective students, advisors, university administrators, and policymakers. Turkey has more than 70 state and private universities. Most of these are relatively new, although Turkish higher…
Leisyte, Liudvika; Westerheijden, Donald F.; Eggins, Heather
The various changes in post-bureaucratic organising, which are moving towards network approaches, coupled with the managerial agenda of corporate governance, have redefined the roles of various internal and external stakeholders in the governance of higher education institutions (Leisyte and Dee,
Rabosky, Daniel L
The disparity in species richness across the tree of life is one of the most striking and pervasive features of biological diversity. Some groups are exceptionally diverse, whereas many other groups are species poor. Differences in diversity among groups are frequently assumed to result from primary control by differential rates of net diversification. However, a major alternative explanation is that ecological and other factors exert primary control on clade diversity, such that apparent variation in net diversification rates is a secondary consequence of ecological limits on clade growth. Here, I consider a likelihood framework for distinguishing between these competing hypotheses. I incorporate hierarchical modeling to explicitly relax assumptions about the constancy of diversification rates across clades, and I propose several statistics for a posteriori evaluation of model adequacy. I apply the framework to a recent dated phylogeny of ants. My results reject the hypothesis that net diversification rates exert primary control on species richness in this group and demonstrate that clade diversity is better explained by total time-integrated speciation. These results further suggest that it may not possible to estimate meaningful speciation and extinction rates from higher-level phylogenies of extant taxa only.
Full Text Available As the number of students and higher education institutions in the world increases and there is a growing difficulty in financing the higher education systems, decision-makers have begun to show more interest in quality assurance. As quality assurance is given special attention in European countries, developing countries such as Turkey are interested in importing quality assurance systems. It is not possible to set quality assurance without sensitivity toward quality and without having quality as a cultural practice. The most likely encountered quality assurance approach in the world is that the higher education institution itself is responsible for its quality. In addition, external quality assurance procedures used are based on (academic peer review rather than on bureaucratic evaluations. Moreover, there is a lively debate across the world regarding the bureaucratic regulations of the quality assurance agencies and institutions that restrict the autonomy of higher education institutions. Without taking into consideration of the existing centralized structure of the higher education system in Turkey, of meeting social demands for the higher education, and of current higher education enrollment rates, the possible establishment of a quality assurance mechanism that may have sanctions on universities in Turkey is a threat to already limited autonomy of universities and is having a risk of additional bureaucratic burden. By laying out the roles and responsibilities of Turkish Council of Higher Education, the government and universities, this article discusses policies that should be adopted regarding the quality assurance.
Bergseth, Brita; Petocz, Peter; Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
The study examines two different models of measuring, assessing and ranking quality in higher education. Do different systems of quality assessment lead to equivalent conclusions about the quality of education? This comparative study is based on the rankings of 24 Swedish higher education institutions. Two ranking actors have independently…
Pham, Huong Thi; Starkey, Louise
Purpose: Vietnam is experiencing rapid expansion in the provision of higher education that requires quality assurance appropriate for the Vietnamese-centralised Confucian cultural context. This paper aims to examine the concept of quality from the perspectives of academic leaders, quality assurance members and academics at three higher education…
Mahdiuon, Rouhollah; Masoumi, Davoud; Farasatkhah, Maghsoud
The article aims to explore the attributes of quality and quality improvement including the process and specific actions associated with these attributes--that contribute enhancing quality in Iranian Virtual Higher Education (VHE) institutions. A total of 16 interviews were conducted with experts and key actors in Iranian virtual higher education.…
Kay, Carol; Healy, Margaret
The effect of quality circles at Iowa State University on absenteeism, performance evaluation, perceptions of the organization climate, job satisfaction, and perceived opportunities for professional and personal growth was measured in this study. The process of quality circles is designed to promote job fulfillment and organizational productivity…
Z. M. Sultalieva
Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the article is the improvement of quality assessment system of higher education institutions in the aspect of management. The problems of quality improvement are revealed and classified. The analysis of criteria assessment sets used to define the efficiency of higher education institutions activity is carried out. The components of quality of higher education institutions activity are specified. The structural model of quality assessment system of higher education institutions activity is offered. The analysis of macro environment of a university based on the method of strategic management is carried out, i.e. PEST analysis. As a result of the research a new model of macro criteria model of quality assessment system of higher education institutions, characterizing quality management as an approach to university efficiency is offered, moreover, this system can define the level of its competitiveness in the aspect of quality management.
Financial Intelligence and the Quality of Higher Education in Africa. ... Improving the quality of curriculum development in private Universities in Africa from time to time is a task that is very essential to achieving ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Full Text Available Economy in Bosnia and Herzegovina is striving towards growth and increased employment and it has been proven by empirical studies worldwide that higher education contributes to socio-economic development of a country. Universities are important for generation, preservation and dissemination of knowledge in order to contribute to socio-economic benefits of a country. Higher education institutions are being pressured to improve value for their activities and providing quality higher education service to students should be taken seriously. In this paper we will address the emerging demand for quality in higher education. Higher education institutions should assess quality of their services and establish methods for improving quality. Activities of quality assurance should be integrated into the management process at higher education institutions. This paper is addressing the issue of service quality measurement in higher education institutions. The most frequently used model in this context is the SERVQUAL model. This model is measuring quality from the students' point of view, since students are considered to be one of the most important stakeholders for a higher education institution. The main objective of this research is to provide empirical evidence that the adapted SERVQAL model can be used in higher education and to identify the service quality gap based on its application at one institution of higher education (Faculty of Economics in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Furthermore, results of the gap analysis using the SERVQUAL methodology provide relevant information in which areas improvement is necessary in order to enhance service quality.
academics. The article discusses various perceptions of QHE as well as the concern for quality nationally and internationally and distils out some general QP, QA, QC and QM strategies. This research was a case study. The sample consisted of 28 academics from the Faculty of Science. Data were gathered mainly through
Based on interviews with 18 UK women academics and managers on quality and power in higher education, this article interrogates the impact of quality assurance discourses and practices on women in higher education. Micro-level analysis of the effects of audit and the evaluative state seem to suggest that hegemonic masculinities and gendered power…
It does this by raising questions such as whether quality in higher education is the same as, for example, quality of clothing or the quality of meat in local butcheries. The article questions ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.
Bennett, Paul; Bergan, Sjur; Cassar, Daniela; Hamilton, Marlene; Soinila, Michele; Sursock, Andree; Uvalic-Trumbic, Stamenka; Williams, Peter
The present report is the product of an ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) Bologna Seminar "Quality Assurance in Transnational Education: from words to action" hosted by the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA, UK) in London in December, 2008. The seminar discussed the current trends in Transnational…
Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.
This document sets out for consultation proposals for a revised method for quality assurance of teaching and learning in higher education. The proposals cover: (1) the objectives and principles of quality assurance; (2) an approach to quality assurance based on external audit principles; (3) the collection and publication of information; (4)…
Tan, Kay C.; Kek, Sei W.
Customer service and quality are driving forces in the business community. As higher educational institutions tussle for competitive advantage and high service quality, the evaluation of educational service quality is essential to provide motivation for and to give feedback on the effectiveness of educational plans and implementation. This…
Miller, Richard I.
Discussion of various quality control strategies in American higher education looks at and compares Total Quality Management (TQM), outcomes assessment, Deming's 14 points, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, the ISO 9000 series, restructuring, reengineering, and performance indicators. It is suggested that colleges and universities will…
Pablo Ángel Martínez-Morales
Full Text Available The paper aims to present the results of the application of the methodology developed by the author, as a scientific result of his doctoral studies, aimed at the education of volitional qualities self control and perseverance, respect to teaching in primary school students. The evaluation of the methodology was carried out through a pretest and posttest pre-experiment with only one group, an intentional sample of two groups, one from third and one from fourth grade. Observation of teaching activities used and techniques designed to ascertain the level of knowledge, emotional bond and behavioral manifestations in primary school students in relation to volitional qualities in study. It was found, when analyzing the final results, positive changes in self-control and perseverance in the school sample, compared to the initial stage of the pre - experiment. These results were verified statistically by applying Spearman ́s rank correlation coefficient test and Wilcoxon ́s peer and allocated ranks, using SPSS.
Jhoel Ruber Mota Fonseca
Full Text Available This article has as objective to interpret the voices of teachers supervising vs quality of education in primary education, as today, supervision entails progress and improvement in the performance of the duties of teachers in the learning environment is therefore, that through this content conflicts present information to achieve changes within educational institutions towards organizational efficiency and under supplied. In it, a qualitative paradigmatic approach as a methodological foundation that allows us to interpret educational supervision through delos social actors which is made up of managers, teachers and supervisors in the context of primary education, established likewise was necessary to collect the information through direct observation technique using as an interview script whose implementation was key informants comprised of a primary teacher education, a supervisor and from this the researcher, thus achieving the corresponding analysis according to the information provided for each, which allowed the development of argumentative skills teachers, establishing rules and procedures that provide guidelines for creating answers to the problem. For with following aims determined in the investigation, vital agents that help teachers to be highly competent in their daily practice, using teaching strategies that will enable success in the classroom, whose purpose is the achievement orientation and optimization in the process of teaching and student learning. In this sense, a reflection about the role it should play the supervisor to achieve educational quality is performed, demonstrating spaces mediation, integration, participation and collaboration with respect to the performance of the master whose aim is to be efficient and effective in its educational work of the educational system.
Excellence in educational quality provisioning and accountability is an obligatory function for higher education. Currently certain scholars allege that poor provisioning and lack of accountability are rife in most higher education institutions. They cite varied reasons for the failures. Of note, African higher education institutions ...
Goutam Kumar Kundu
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of existing research and present a holistic understanding of quality in higher education. This literature review builds on major sources of relevant research relating to educational quality methodologies, quality literacy and multi-dimensional concept of quality. The paper attempts to understand quality in education as a relationship amongst all the participants and resources of an educational institution. Based on the results of the literature review, the paper attempts to establish the foundation for a comprehensive understanding and analysis of quality focussing on higher education. This literature review provides a frame of reference that serves as a basis for future research regarding role of quality in education.
Masters, Robert J.; Leiker, Linda
This article presents guidelines to aid administrators of institutions of higher education in applying the 14 principles of Total Quality Management. The principles stress understanding process improvements, handling variation, fostering prediction, and using psychology to capitalize on human resources. (DB)
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of five alternative measures of service quality in the high education sector--service quality (SERVQUAL), importance-weighted SERVQUAL, service performance (SERVPERF), importance-weighted SERVPERF, and higher education performance (HEdPERF). Design/methodology/approach: Data were…
Bendermacher, G. W. G.; oude Egbrink, M. G. A.; Wolfhagen, I. H. A. P.; Dolmans, D. H. J. M.
There is a growing belief that higher education institutions should nurture a "quality culture" in which structural/managerial and cultural/psychological elements act in synergy to continuously improve education. Notwithstanding the positive connotation of the "quality culture" concept, its exact configuration remains subject…
This article reports on research to form an understanding of how to account whether and how quality management (QM) has been adopted in Greek higher education. Greece only recently introduced quality assurance policies. In this study, I will describe governmental reforms related to QM policies until 2010. An issue that is frequently addressed…
Ali, Hairuddin Mohd; Musah, Mohammed Borhandden
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the quality culture and workforce performance in the Malaysian higher education sector. The study also aims to test and validate the psychometric properties of the quality culture and workforce performance instruments used in the study. Design/methodology/approach: A total…
Sogunro, Olusegun A.
The importance of quality instruction in motivating students in higher education cannot be overemphasized. Without quality instruction, students' motivation to learn recedes. Five focus groups of graduate students aided the data collection for this study. More than one-third of the 119 participating graduate students involved in this study claimed…
Kettis, Asa; Ring, Lena; Gustavsson, Maria; Wallman, Andy
Placements have the potential to contribute more effectively to the quality of higher education. The aim of this article is to discuss how placements can be made more worthwhile for individual students, while also contributing to the overall quality of teaching and learning at HEIs as well as to the development of workplace cultures that are…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the evolution of "folk" understandings of quality in higher hospitality education and the consequent implications of these understandings for current quality concerns in the field. Design/methodology/approach: The paper combines a historical survey of the stated topic…
Purpose: This study aims to analyze the quality of the Egyptian accreditation system. With a view on the high competition in the domestic labor market as well as with regards to the international competitiveness of Egyptian graduates and the potential role of Egyptian universities in the international market for higher education, a high quality of…
Baartman, Liesbeth; Gulikers, Judith; Dijkstra, Asha
The development of assessments that are fit to assess professional competence in higher vocational education requires a reconsideration of assessment methods, quality criteria and (self)evaluation. This article examines the self-evaluations of nine courses of a large higher vocational education institute. Per course, 4-11 teachers and 3-10…
with the transformation agenda in South Africa. It is proposed that a comprehensive quality assurance framework with embedded commitment to access is likely to respond appropriately to national development prerogatives of higher education access. South African Journal of Higher Education Vol. 21 (3) 2007: pp. 385-399.
The article considers the process of creating quality improvement in higher education institutions from the point of view of current organisational theory and social-science modelling techniques. The author considers the higher education institution as a functioning complex of rules, norms and other organisational features and reviews the social…
A. G. Kislov
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to introduction and implementation of quality management system in the sphere of Russian higher education. The research demanded the prehistory observation of the above processes, their legal bases analysis, as well as setting the existing practices of the state control and supervision of education in compliance with the principles of TQM (Total Quality Management. Different normative acts and documents have been reviewed concerning accreditation of higher educational establishments, and determining the state policy of quality improvement of the higher school functioning. The author emphasizes that participation of different organizations - including educational ones – in certification procedures and competitions in the quality sphere is considered voluntary according to the Russian legislation. However, for getting the state accreditation educational establishments have no other way apart from setting the internal structures responsible for students training quality. The above structures in educational establishments look rather strange and alien duplicating in their best the state control and supervision system. They appear to be quite expansive for educational establishments and demanding extra time and effort from the staff. In conclusion the author points out that the state policy forcing the quality management issues reflects the interests of certain social groups, namely those who directly participate in external supervision of higher educa- tional institutions. The research findings can be applied while correcting the educational policy of the Russian Federation, and developing the concepts of regulatory legal acts in the higher educational sphere.
Full Text Available The paper presents a survey conducted in November of 2013 in 120 higher education institutions in the Western Balkans Countries, with purpose to determine which models are used for quality improvement in Western Balkans higher educational institutions, and whether critical conditions for continuous quality improvement have been met by applying those models. Data were obtained by using questionnaire which consisted of 24 questions related to 2 previously defined hypotheses. Gathered data were tested with Student's t test to determine if there is a significant difference between the groups of higher educational institutions which use different quality models, as well as between private and public higher educational institutions. Authors argue that the rules imposed by Governments do not provide sufficient incentive for meeting the critical conditions for the continuous quality improvement. Legal framework and mandatory accreditation conducted by government bodies lead higher educational institutions to fulfil the formal requirements, distancing them from the essence of quality management, i.e. from self-criticism and motivation to consistently deliver better results than the previous ones and giving them the illusion of achieving quality through compliance with formal criteria.
Buchanan, H S
Continuous quality improvement (CQI), often implemented as part of an integrated management system called total quality management (TQM), has been institutionalized within many manufacturing, military and service organizations in the USA as a response to declining market share, low productivity and customer complaints about poor quality. Signs and symptoms suggest that higher education has similar problems which are systematic and relate to the quality ot higher education, financing, facilities, curriculum and graduates. In the 1990S, the quality movement has begun to spread to the field of education as a means of diagnosing and treating the problems widely recognized as residing in US educational institutions, especially in colleges and universities. Many business leaders and authors believe that 'quality is the most important strategic issue facing top management in the 1990s'. This belief arises partly due to the fact that managers are beginning to understand the relationship between healthy, high quality organizations and healthy profits. This article traces the recent US quality movement from its roots in manufacturing and the military, its adoption by service institutions, and its more recent application by higher education institutions.
Papadimitriou, A.; Papadimitriou, Antigoni
This study investigated the adoption of quality management in Greek universities as an outcome of organizational processes. It examined a period in the first decade of the 21st century when program evaluation and quality management were heavily debated in Greece. The study recognizes that higher
Đonlagić, Sabina; Fazlić, Samira
Economy in Bosnia and Herzegovina is striving towards growth and increased employment and it has been proven by empirical studies worldwide that higher education contributes to socio-economic development of a country. Universities are important for generation, preservation and dissemination of knowledge in order to contribute to socio-economic benefits of a country. Higher education institutions are being pressured to improve value for their activities and providing quality higher education s...
Maguire, Kate; Gibbs, Paul
The purpose of this article is to contribute to the debate on the notion of quality in higher education with particular focus on "objectifying through articulation" the assessment of quality by professional experts. The article gives an overview of the differentiations of quality as used in higher education. It explores a substantial…
The purpose of this paper is to assess and evaluate how higher education institutions (HEIs) using Quality Function Deployment draw out the relevancy and potential of the model in shaping their concept of "Quality" and how that Quality can be assured in higher education institutions' (HEIs') programmes. An intensive literature review was…
Full Text Available The importance of introduction of "Integrated quality management" into higher education curricula arises from the need for students to grasp synergetic application of new and advanced approaches to theoretical and practical management quality and process based management in particular as well as understanding a unified concept which improves conformity and linking of all levels in management hierarchy (normative, strategic and operational toward accomplishment of successful business performance. A curriculum is proposed (as a contribution to a map of necessary knowledge to be expected from prospective quality personnel with appropriate topics in accordance with studies objective and chosen up-to-date options of management concepts and methods.
This article focuses on recent trends in quality assurance initiatives, analyses how the European Higher Education Area promotes quality enhancement mechanisms and their implications for quality cultures in universities. It presents and discusses two approaches towards quality enhancement both at the institutional and programme level: 1. Quality…
O'Mahony, Kim; Garavan, Thomas N.
Purpose: This paper aims to report and analyse the lessons learned from a case study on the implementation of a quality management system within an IT Division in a higher education (HE) organisation. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a review of the relevant literatures and the use of primary sources such as document analysis,…
Teaching, and specifically quality teaching, has for many centuries been the defining characteristic of the academic profession. However, since the dawning of the 20th century, it seems that the very basis of the global higher education institutional reward system is the belief that working with, contributing to, and pursuing ...
Conceptually, education quality of higher education can be determined by evaluation of their stakeholders's satisfaction level. The purpose of this study is to describe how students as external stakeholder and lecturers as internal stakeholder, perceived their satisfaction of learning experience in the university. This study was conducted in…
Yingqiang, Zhang; Yongjian, Su
Quality assurance in modern higher education is both an accountability-oriented ideology and a technological method. It has also evolved into a increasingly rationalist and professionalized power mechanism. Its advocacy of compliance, technological mythology, and imbalance between power and responsibility are inherent disadvantages of higher…
Organisational culture and external quality assurance have both been presented as significant drivers of effectiveness, efficiency and excellence in higher education institutions. However, these assumptions have not been critically examined given the philosophical, conceptual and methodological contestations surrounding both constructs. A…
Motova, Galina; Pykko, Ritta
This article considers the relevance and implementation of European approaches to quality assurance in the context of the Russian educational system. It covers the issues of transformation of the higher education system during the post-Soviet period, specific features of the state accreditation system, the impact of the European Standards and…
Papanthymou, Anastasia; Darra, Maria
This paper is a review which presents a summary of 52 studies from 2006 to 2016 in Quality Management (QM) within Higher Education Institutes (HEIs). The aim of this paper is to submit evidence regarding the level of QM in HEIs, particularly in developing countries, and also to enhance the research in the field of QM. The findings reveal that from…
Wolf, Kenneth; Goodwin, Laura
Accreditation is a mark of distinction indicating that an institution has met high standards set by the profession, and an increasingly important feature of the accreditation process in higher education is "outcomes assessment." This article presents two rubrics for evaluating the quality of an institution's outcomes assessment system. One rubric…
El Hassan, K.
The last decades have witnessed an increased concern in higher education over accountability, quality and productivity, and a struggle to meet increasingly complex challenges. This is more so in Middle East and North African (MENA) economies that witnessed a large expansion as a result of a high social demand and massification policies adopted by…
Laila El Abbadi
Full Text Available Quality as a new requirement for the field of higher education leads institutions to seek to satisfy generic or specific quality standards imposed directly or indirectly by its customers. The aim of this study is to compare between ISO9001, as a generic quality standard, and the Code of Practice of the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA, as a specific quality standard. A correlation matrix is drawn and correlation rates are calculated to show similarities and differences between them. This paper shows, first, that ISO9001 and QAA Code of Practice are compatible. Second, implementing a quality management system in accordance with ISO9001 requirements can constitute an adequate framework for the application of the QAA Code of Practice requirements. Third, to make the ISO9001 requirements closer to a specific quality standard in the field of higher education, it is recommended to complete these standards by specific requirements to the field of higher education.
Tatyana V. Zak
Full Text Available The article deals with the situation in the Russian higher education system. The factors affecting the improvement of the quality of higher education are analyzed. The emphasis is on mass universities. The main obstacles to improving the quality of education in these institutions are the Institute of collective reputation and the high costs of the struggle for improving the quality of education.The necessity of focusing on the actuation of the internal resources to improve the quality associated with the change in the educational process: giving students the right to choose the timing exams and training period at university. The implementation of the proposed measures will reduce the opportunity costs associated with quality improvement activities. The proposed change in the organization of the learning process opens the possibility to estimate the activity of universities in terms of medium-term implementation of educational programs. The use of this indicator will not only combine the two different targets of universities, but also to minimize the costs of opportunistic behavior of teachers and management.
Olmos Gómez Maria del Carmen
Full Text Available The quality assessment is subject to multiple interpretations of its content and purpose, and also regarding to methods and techniques used to develop it. Although purposes of assessment are varied, usually pursuit three goals: Improvement, accountability and information. Currently, the concept of quality evaluation has been replaced by the management of educational quality, as Matthew  point “the new culture of evaluation is no longer oriented to penalty, ranking or selection of people, as provide a reasoned and reasonable information to guide the management of educational improvement”. Military Training Centres are externally evaluated by an experts External Evaluation Unit to identify strengths and weaknesses on their self-evaluation system and focus on important aspects related to the organization of the Centre, development of work plans, teacher’s style and students learning strategies, system of evaluation and qualification and accurate recommendations to improve all that. This research focuses on the evaluation of quality indicators for the external evaluation of higher education at Military Education Centres in Spain and it is funded by a joint project between University of Granada and MADOC. The technique used for collecting and analysing information was a content description of several documents provided by these military educational authorities, arising the identification and extraction of relevant indicators on the evaluation of higher education. This analysis was primarily based on standards and indicators systems by ANECA (National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation adapted to the Military Higher Education, but also it was consider other standards by international agencies and evaluative institutions, such as University of Chile, University of Paraguay, Canarias Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation and Agency for Quality Education System University of Castilla y León. The analysis realize a usual
Olmos Gómez Maria del Carmen
Full Text Available The quality assessment is subject to multiple interpretations of its content and purpose, and also regarding to methods and techniques used to develop it. Although purposes of assessment are varied, usually pursuit three goals: Improvement, accountability and information. Currently, the concept of quality evaluation has been replaced by the management of educational quality, as Matthew  point “the new culture of evaluation is no longer oriented to penalty, ranking or selection of people, as provide a reasoned and reasonable information to guide the management of educational improvement”. Military Training Centres are externally evaluated by an experts External Evaluation Unit to identify strengths and weaknesses on their self-evaluation system and focus on important aspects related to the organization of the Centre, development of work plans, teacher’s style and students learning strategies, system of evaluation and qualification and accurate recommendations to improve all that. This research focuses on the evaluation of quality indicators for the external evaluation of higher education at Military Education Centres in Spain and it is funded by a joint project between University of Granada and MADOC. The technique used for collecting and analysing information was a content description of several documents provided by these military educational authorities, arising the identification and extraction of relevant indicators on the evaluation of higher education. This analysis was primarily based on standards and indicators systems by ANECA (National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation adapted to the Military Higher Education, but also it was consider other standards by international agencies and evaluative institutions, such as University of Chile, University of Paraguay, Canarias Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation and Agency for Quality Education System University of Castilla y León. The analysis realize a usual
This book critically examines quality and quality assurance in the Ethiopian higher education context. More specifically, the main research problem that guided the study was: ‘how and under what circumstances do the public Universities in Ethiopia assure quality of their education, and what
Blanco Ramírez, Gerardo
Accountability and quality assurance have become central discourses in higher education policy throughout the world. However, accountability and quality assurance involve power and control. Practices and ideas about quality developed in the Global North are spreading rapidly across the Global South, leading to increased uniformity in the…
Full Text Available Students’ evaluation of quality in higher education is becoming increasingly important and widely accepted. Various researchers have reported that “high quality” education creates sustainability among students to accomplish their goals over a period of time. The intention of the present study was to explore students’ perceptions of quality in higher education in terms of curriculum content, learning and teaching experiences, institutional resources and outcome and assessment. A total of 91 students were randomly selected from the business and engineering colleges within Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics to obtain accurate results pertaining to the motif of the research. The findings revealed that total institutional factors emerged as one of the most prominent predictors of the outcome and assessment within the two different aforementioned disciplines. This paper concludes with suggestions for further investigation.
Lesley G Campbell
Full Text Available Here we present the first empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that a gender-heterogeneous problem-solving team generally produced journal articles perceived to be higher quality by peers than a team comprised of highly-performing individuals of the same gender. Although women were historically underrepresented as principal investigators of working groups, their frequency as PIs at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis is now comparable to the national frequencies in biology and they are now equally qualified, in terms of their impact on the accumulation of ecological knowledge (as measured by the h-index. While women continue to be underrepresented as working group participants, peer-reviewed publications with gender-heterogeneous authorship teams received 34% more citations than publications produced by gender-uniform authorship teams. This suggests that peers citing these publications perceive publications that also happen to have gender-heterogeneous authorship teams as higher quality than publications with gender uniform authorship teams. Promoting diversity not only promotes representation and fairness but may lead to higher quality science.
Campbell, Lesley G; Mehtani, Siya; Dozier, Mary E; Rinehart, Janice
Here we present the first empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that a gender-heterogeneous problem-solving team generally produced journal articles perceived to be higher quality by peers than a team comprised of highly-performing individuals of the same gender. Although women were historically underrepresented as principal investigators of working groups, their frequency as PIs at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis is now comparable to the national frequencies in biology and they are now equally qualified, in terms of their impact on the accumulation of ecological knowledge (as measured by the h-index). While women continue to be underrepresented as working group participants, peer-reviewed publications with gender-heterogeneous authorship teams received 34% more citations than publications produced by gender-uniform authorship teams. This suggests that peers citing these publications perceive publications that also happen to have gender-heterogeneous authorship teams as higher quality than publications with gender uniform authorship teams. Promoting diversity not only promotes representation and fairness but may lead to higher quality science.
Boerma, W.G.W.; Kringos, D.S.; Verschuuren, M.; Pellny, M.; Bulc, M.
Of all GPs in Slovenia 86% are not interested in activities to systematically improve care. A clear national quality policy, further education for care managers and financial incentives for GPs could change the picture, as NIVEL research – done on the initiative of the World Health Organisation
Semlitsch, Thomas; Abuzahra, Muna; Stigler, Florian; Jeitler, Klaus; Posch, Nicole; Siebenhofer, Andrea
Background The strengthening of primary health care is one major goal of the current national health reform in Austria. In this context, a new interdisciplinary concept was developed in 2014 that defines structures and requirements for future primary health care facilities. Objective The aim of this project was the development of quality indicators for the evaluation of the scheduled primary health care facilities in Austria, which are in accordance with the new Austrian concept. Methods We used the RAND/NPCRDC method for the development and selection of the quality indicators. We conducted systematic literature searches for existing measures in international databases for quality indicators as well as in bibliographic databases. All retrieved measures were evaluated and rated by an expert panel in a 2-step process regarding relevance and feasibility. Results Overall, the literature searches yielded 281 potentially relevant quality indicators, which were summarized to 65 different quality measures for primary health care. Out of these, the panel rated and accepted 30 measures as relevant and feasible for use in Austria. Five of these indicators were structure measures, 14 were process measures and the remaining 11 were outcome measures. Based on the Austrian primary health care concept, the ﬁnal set of quality indicators was grouped in the 5 following domains: Access to primary health care (5), quality of care (15), continuity of care (5), coordination of care (4), and safety (1). Conclusion This set of quality measures largely covers the four defined functions of primary health care. It enables standardized evaluation of primary health care facilities in Austria regarding the implementation of the Austrian primary health care concept as well as improvement in healthcare of the population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Ana Mami Yamaguchi
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we aim to contribute to the debate over accountability and assessment of higher education (HE by introducing the Japanese system. We first discuss the circumstances and issues surrounding Japanese HE and then examine the historical development of the quality assurance and evaluation system. Since the 1990s, with the implementation of policies that focused on liberalization, deregulation and increased institutional autonomy, the role of the government has shifted from setting strict regulations and quality standards to organizing an evaluation system for assessing the learning outcomes and improving accountability of the HE institutions. Finally, we suggest how Japan may take hints from Brazil in organizing an evaluation system on a national level that can more efficiently support and assess HE institutions
Prueangphitchayathon, Setthiya; Tesaputa, Kowat; Somprach, Kanokorn
The present study seeks to develop a total quality management (TQM) system that can be applied to primary schools. The approach focuses on customer orientation, total involvement of all constituencies and continuous improvement. TQM principles were studied and synthesized according to case studies of the best practices in 3 primary schools (small,…
High quality provision has been one of the key aims of the current reforms in higher educational institutions across the globe since the beginning of the century and the millennium. Consequently this has led to the increasing demand for quality assurance (QA). This report identifies those institutional processes and structures that support the…
Haworth, Jennifer Grant; Conrad, Clifton F.
This book proposes an "engagement" theory of program quality to evaluate and improve higher education programs at all degree levels. Based on interviews with 781 participants in a national study of Masters degree programs, it focuses on the interactive roles of students, faculty, and administrators in developing high-quality programs…
Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José C; Cabanach, Ramón G; González-Pienda, Julio A; Rodríguez, Susana; Rosário, Pedro; Muñoz-Cadavid, María A; Cerezo, Rebeca
In this paper, the relations between academic goals and various indicators that define the quality of the learning process are analyzed. The purpose was to determine to what extent high, moderate, or low levels of academic goals were positively or negatively related to effort regulation, the value assigned to academic tasks, meta-cognitive self-regulation, self-efficacy, beliefs about learning control, and management of time and study environment. The investigation was carried out with a sample of 632 university students (70% female and 30% male) and mean age of 21.22 (SD=2.2).The results show that learning goals, or task orientation, are positively related to all the indictors of learning quality considered herein. Although for other kinds of goals-work-avoidance goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals-significant relations were not found with all the indicators, there was a similar tendency of significant results in all cases; the higher the levels of these goals, the lower the levels of the indicators of learning quality.
Ali, Hairuddin Mohd
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nine-point strategic leadership characteristics of Malaysian Quality National Primary School Leaders (QNPSL) and to indicate the implications of these findings for the current educational management and leadership practices in their quest for Malaysian quality education.…
Sučević Vlasta M.
Full Text Available Education is one of the main pillars of the quality of knowledge, and, in turn, social progress in general. There are numerous positions concerning quality of education, some more, and some less detailed. In order to determine the quality of a primary school, for example as 'poor', 'mediocre' or 'excellent', we use, more or less precisely, a certain idea about the value, and thus identify, again with a certain extent of accuracy, the position of the school in question in relation to other schools. In terms of the quality of education, it is necessary to analyze all segments of educational process. This includes the analysis of objectives of educational process, products of quality education as well as adequate and accessible technical-instrumental, that is, operational-procedural level of quality of educational process. Most authors connect the quality of primary education to results, that is, outcomes of education. In order to achieve quality of education, we need to achieve quality of particular components or elements of the whole of education. This paper deals with theoretical review of elements and indicators of quality of basic education, and provides a review of pedagogical strategies and their effect on certain components of quality with the aim to improve the effects on pedagogical and didactical resources of the quality of education.
Bent, Gert Jan; Bakx, Anouke; den Brok, Perry
In this study teacher educators' beliefs concerning primary geography education have been investigated and compared with primary school teachers' beliefs. In this study 45 teacher educators and 489 primary school teachers completed a questionnaire, and nine teacher educators have been interviewed as well. It has been found that teacher educators…
Hegewald, Matthew J; Gallo, Heather M; Wilson, Emily L
Spirometry is necessary for the optimal management of patients with respiratory disease. The quality of spirometry performed in the primary care setting has been inconsistent. We aimed to evaluate spirometer accuracy, determine the clinical significance of inaccurate spirometers, and assess the quality of spirograms obtained in primary care offices. We tested 17 spirometers used in primary care offices with a waveform generator; accuracy and precision were assessed using American Thoracic Society criteria. The clinical significance of inaccurate instruments was determined by applying the FEV 1 /FVC error from an obstructed waveform to a clinical data set. Spirogram quality was determined by grading spirograms using acceptability and repeatability criteria. The relationship between the number of tests performed by a clinic and test quality was assessed. Only 1 of 17 spirometers met accuracy criteria, with mean errors for FVC, FEV 1 , and FEV 1 /FVC ranging from 1.7 to 3.1%. Applying the percentage error to a clinical data set resulted in 28% of tests being recategorized from obstructed to nonobstructed. Of the spirograms reviewed, 60% were considered acceptable for clinical use. There was no association between the number of tests performed by a clinic and spirometry quality. Most spirometers tested were not accurate. The magnitude of the errors resulted in significant changes in the categorization of patients with obstruction. Acceptable-quality tests were produced for only 60% of patients. Our results raise concerns regarding the utility of spirometry obtained in primary care offices without greater attention to quality assurance and training.
Song, Zirui; Rose, Sherri; Chernew, Michael E; Safran, Dana Gelb
As population-based payment models become increasingly common, it is crucial to understand how such payment models affect health disparities. We evaluated health care quality and spending among enrollees in areas with lower versus higher socioeconomic status in Massachusetts before and after providers entered into the Alternative Quality Contract, a two-sided population-based payment model with substantial incentives tied to quality. We compared changes in process measures, outcome measures, and spending between enrollees in areas with lower and higher socioeconomic status from 2006 to 2012 (outcome measures were measured after the intervention only). Quality improved for all enrollees in the Alternative Quality Contract after their provider organizations entered the contract. Process measures improved 1.2 percentage points per year more among enrollees in areas with lower socioeconomic status than among those in areas with higher socioeconomic status. Outcome measure improvement was no different between the subgroups; neither were changes in spending. Larger or comparable improvements in quality among enrollees in areas with lower socioeconomic status suggest a potential narrowing of disparities. Strong pay-for-performance incentives within a population-based payment model could encourage providers to focus on improving quality for more disadvantaged populations. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Murat K. Baymuldin
Full Text Available The article deals with the quality management system (QMS of a university as a combination of organizational structure, procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality policy with the help of quality planning, management, control and improvement, the need for automated information system of the university quality management system control
Ruedinger, G [Varta AG, Ellwangen (Germany, F.R.)
Apart from a few applications in tube sets, the use of primary batteries was limited until well into the fifties to the current supply of lighting units, predominantly of flashlights. Only with the invention of the transistor and of integrated circuits, the primary battery took an important place among electric components. As a consequence, this component had to meet much different requirements. In order to ensure the quality of an article produced in enormous quantities - several hundred million units per year with a great variety of types, with nine different systems and of approx. 100 different types - it became indispensable to set up a well equipped quality assurance system. (orig.).
Laura Belkis Parada Romero
Full Text Available Due to the globalization of education, it has become prevalent to strengthen the quality systems to ensure that educational actors in higher education institutions are the best. In this context teachers are given a main role since they are cornerstones in educational processes. Currently, teacher quality is assessed through an assessment or evaluation system. Almost every university evaluates its teachers, but there is no legal regulation on how to do it, in most institutions there is a professional in charge of designing and applying assessment instruments according to the authors he/she prefers. In most universities, on the one hand, it is used a traditional questionnaire aiming to collect data about dimensions associated with teaching, on the other hand, there is another option in which assessment models include self-evaluation, as in some cases in Chile. That’s why one of the concerns of this research is to propose guidelines for a more qualitative and formative assessment not exclusively following political parameters –based on administrative decisions–, but following emerging proposals with a deeper analysis. Nowadays the main actors in teacher evaluation are teachers, students and administrative staff, every six months these actors are evaluated by using an assessment tool that they usually do not know. The research investigates the perception actors in teacher evaluation have regarding its objectives, methods and stages, so they put forward ideas on how to restructure the current institutional assessment and propose improvements aiming at both the quantitative aspect and the qualitative analysis of performances and skills.
Irwin, Ryan; Stokes, Tim; Marshall, Tom
To present an overview of effective interventions for quality improvement in primary care at the practice level utilising existing systematic reviews. Quality improvement in primary care involves a range of approaches from the system-level to patient-level improvement. One key setting in which quality improvement needs to occur is at the level of the basic unit of primary care--the individual general practice. Therefore, there is a need for practitioners to have access to an overview of the effectiveness of quality improvement interventions available in this setting. A tertiary evidence synthesis was conducted (a review of systematic reviews). A systematic approach was used to identify and summarise published literature relevant to understanding primary-care quality improvement at the practice level. Quality assessment was via the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool for systematic reviews, with data extraction identifying evidence of effect for the examined interventions. Included reviews had to be relevant to quality improvement at the practice level and relevant to the UK primary-care context. Reviews were excluded if describing system-level interventions. A range of measures across care structure, process and outcomes were defined and interpreted across the quality improvement interventions. Audit and feedback, computerised advice, point-of-care reminders, practice facilitation, educational outreach and processes for patient review and follow-up all demonstrated evidence of a quality improvement effect. Evidence of an improvement effect was higher where baseline performance was low and was particularly demonstrated across process measures and measures related to prescribing. Evidence was not sufficient to suggest that multifaceted approaches were more effective than single interventions. Evidence exists for a range of quality improvement interventions at the primary-care practice level. More research is required to determine the use and impact of quality
Boccanfuso, Dorothée; Larouche, Alexandre; Trandafir, Mircea
While many studies examine the effect of primary education quality on labor market outcomes in developing countries, little is known about the effects at higher levels. We exploit the quasi-experiment provided by a large-scale education reform launched in Senegal in 2000 to investigate how quality...... improvements at the university level affect employment. Our difference-in-difference estimates suggest that young high-skilled workers experienced a nine percentage-point employment gain relative to older workers. They are also more likely to have “better” jobs (in the service industry or government......), suggesting a reduction in the mismatch between the quality of high-skill labor demanded and supplied....
Hofman, Roelande H.; de Boom, Jan; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan
This article presents findings of research into the quality control (QC) of schools from 2001-2006. In 2001 several targets for QC were set and the progress of 939 primary schools is presented. Furthermore, using cluster analysis, schools are classified into four QC-types that differ in their focus on school (self) evaluation and school…
Chaikoed, Wisithsak; Sirisuthi, Chaiyuth; Numnaphol, Kochaporn
This research aims to study the network and collaborative factors that enhance quality education of primary schools. Different methods were used in this research work: (1) Related approaches, theories, and research literatures and (2) Scholars were interviewed on 871 issues in the form of questionnaire, and the collaborative network factors were…
Toremen, Fatih; Karakus, Mehmet; Yasan, Tezcan
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent of total quality management (TQM) practices in primary schools based on teachers' perceptions, and how their perceptions are related to different variables. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, a survey based descriptive scanning model was used. This study was carried out in…
Etor, Comfort R.; Mbon, Usen F.; Ekanem, Ekpenyong E.
Primary education is universally accepted as the foundation laying level of education in all nations of the world. It provides the mini-structural framework on which the quality of other levels of education is anchored. It is on this premise that this paper examines the pertinent issues that, if properly addressed would recapture and refocus…
Goldzweig, Caroline Lubick; Parkerton, Patricia H; Washington, Donna L; Lanto, Andrew B; Yano, Elizabeth M
Despite the importance of early cancer detection, variation in screening rates among physicians is high. Insights into factors influencing variation can guide efforts to decrease variation and increase screening rates. To explore the association of primary care practice features and a facility's quality orientation with breast and cervical cancer screening rates. Cross-sectional study of screening rates among 144 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers and for a national sample of women. We linked practice structure and quality improvement characteristics of individual VA medical centers from 2 national surveys (1 to primary care directors and 1 to a stratified random sample of employees) to breast and cervical cancer screening rates determined from a review of random medical records. We conducted bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression of primary care practice and facility features on cancer screening rates, above and below the median. While the national screening rates were high for breast (87%) and cervical cancer (90%), higher screening rates were more likely when primary care providers were consistently notified of specialty visits and when staff perceived a greater organizational commitment to quality and anticipated rewards and recognition for better performance. Organization and quality orientation of the primary care practice and its facility can enhance breast and cervical cancer screening rates. Internal recognition of quality performance and an overall commitment to quality improvement may foster improved prevention performance, with impact varying by clinical service.
Friedberg, Mark W; Coltin, Kathryn L; Safran, Dana Gelb; Dresser, Marguerite; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Schneider, Eric C
Recent proposals to reform primary care have encouraged physician practices to adopt such structural capabilities as performance feedback and electronic health records. Whether practices with these capabilities have higher performance on measures of primary care quality is unknown. To measure associations between structural capabilities of primary care practices and performance on commonly used quality measures. Cross-sectional analysis. Massachusetts. 412 primary care practices. During 2007, 1 physician from each participating primary care practice (median size, 4 physicians) was surveyed about structural capabilities of the practice (responses representing 308 practices were obtained). Data on practice structural capabilities were linked to multipayer performance data on 13 Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) process measures in 4 clinical areas: screening, diabetes, depression, and overuse. Frequently used multifunctional electronic health records were associated with higher performance on 5 HEDIS measures (3 in screening and 2 in diabetes), with statistically significant differences in performance ranging from 3.1 to 7.6 percentage points. Frequent meetings to discuss quality were associated with higher performance on 3 measures of diabetes care (differences ranging from 2.3 to 3.1 percentage points). Physician awareness of patient experience ratings was associated with higher performance on screening for breast cancer and cervical cancer (1.9 and 2.2 percentage points, respectively). No other structural capabilities were associated with performance on more than 1 measure. No capabilities were associated with performance on depression care or overuse. Structural capabilities of primary care practices were assessed by physician survey. Among the investigated structural capabilities of primary care practices, electronic health records were associated with higher performance across multiple HEDIS measures. Overall, the modest magnitude and
Alsaif, Fatimah; Clementking, Arockisamy
Online education programs have been growing rapidly. While it is somehow difficult to specifically quantify quality, many recommendations have been suggested to specify and demonstrate quality of online education touching on common areas of program enhancement and administration. To design a model
Asiyai, Romina Ifeoma
This paper discusses the roles of stakeholders in improving quality of university education in Nigeria. Internal and external stakeholders are identified and the various roles they could play in improving the quality of university education are discussed. The paper contends that continuous and holistic improvement in university education system…
Quality has been a controversial issue in education generally and Business Education in particular. Business Education is aimed at equipping the recipients with the relevant knowledge, skills, attitude and values that will enable them function effectively as citizens. The quality of Business Teachers is paramount to the ...
Luijten, B.; Visser, J.
We performed an empirical study of the relation between technical quality of software products and the defect resolution performance of their maintainers. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that ratings for source code maintainability, as employed by the SIG quality model, are correlated with
Telli, S.; Brok, den P.J.; Wubbels, Th.; Brok, den P.; Tartwijk, van J.; Levy, J.; Fraser, B.
The purpose of the study was to compare the three versions of Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) developed for the Turkish context from the point of Model Teacher Interpersonal Behaviour (MITB) and its scales. Total number 1767 students from primary, secondary and higher education
Sztejnberg, A.; Brok, den P.J.; Hurek, J.
This study investigated differences between students’ perceptions of their best teachers in primary and higher education in Poland. Teacher behavior was conceptualized in terms of the teacher-student interpersonal relationship and described in terms of eight behavioral sectors – leadership,
The universities have to assure the highest level of quality management, to help teachers and students to acquire the European knowledge. The universities must be encouraged to develop better for the promotion of academic and civic values. However, the reality is often quite different: we find that the phrase "quality management" is understood differently, having different connotations ,depending on the beliefs and values of the institutional managers, but also depending on the financial reso...
Quality is the core of education and it is important to standardization construction of primary and secondary education in urban (U) and rural (R) areas. The ultimate goal of the integration of urban and rural education is to pursuit quality urban and rural education. Based on analysing the related policy basis and the existing assessment models…
Leticia do Nascimento
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to evaluate the quality of health care for children and adolescents living with HIV, among the different types of Primary Health Care services of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. Method: cross-sectional study, developed with 118 Primary Health Care professionals. The Primary Care Evaluation Instrument, Professional version, was used. For verification of the variables associated with the high score, Poisson Regression was used. Results: the professionals of the Family Health Strategy, when compared to those of the Primary Health Units, obtained a greater degree of orientation to primary care, both for the overall score and for the derived attributes score, as well as for the integrality and community orientation attributes. A specialization in Primary Health Care, other employment and a statutory work contract were associated with quality of care. Conclusion: the Family Health Strategy was shown to provide higher quality health care for children and adolescents living with HIV, however, the coverage is still low. The need was highlighted to expand this coverage and invest in vocational training directed toward Primary Care and making the professionals effective, through public selection procedure, as well as an improvement program that recognizes the care requirements, in these settings, of children and adolescents infected with HIV.
Van Hoof, Thomas J; Bisognano, Maureen; Reinertsen, James L; Meehan, Thomas P
Leadership is increasingly recognized as a potential factor in the success of primary care quality improvement efforts, yet little is definitively known about which specific leadership behaviors are most important. Until more research is available, the authors suggest that primary care clinicians who are committed to developing their leadership skills should commit to a series of actions. These actions include embracing a theory of leadership, modeling the approach for others, focusing on the goal of improving patient outcomes, encouraging teamwork, utilizing available sources of power, and reflecting on one's approach in order to improve it. Primary care clinicians who commit themselves to such actions will be more effective leaders and will be more prepared as new research becomes available on this important factor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pratasavitskaya, Halina; Stensaker, Bjorn
The article analyses how quality management is understood in higher education research. By reviewing a number of academic contributions addressing quality management issues in "Quality in Higher Education" from 1995-2008, the article identifies central concepts associated with quality management, discusses whether there are commonalities to be…
Akalu, Girmaw Abebe
This article chronicles the key challenges facing Ethiopia as it embarks on an ambitious, ideologically-driven and aggressive expansion of its higher education system in an effort to address its national goals of economic growth and poverty reduction. It is argued that the urge for higher education expansion has placed undue pressures particularly…
Mohr, David C; Young, Gary J; Meterko, Mark; Stolzmann, Kelly L; White, Bert
In recent years, hospitals and payers have increased their efforts to improve the quality of patient care by encouraging provider adherence to evidence-based practices. Although the individual provider is certainly essential in the delivery of appropriate care, a team perspective is important when examining variation in quality. In the present study, the authors modeled the relationship between a measure of aggregate job satisfaction for members of primary care teams and objective measures of quality based on process indicators and intermediate outcomes. Multilevel analyses indicated that aggregate job satisfaction ratings were associated with higher values on both types of quality measures. Team-level job satisfaction ratings are a potentially important marker for the effectiveness of primary care teams in managing patient care.
Nabaho, Lazarus; Aguti, Jessica Norah; Oonyu, Joseph
Objective: Since the 1990s studies on how stakeholders in higher education perceive quality have burgeoned. Nevertheless, the majority of studies on perception of quality in higher education focus on students and employers. The few studies on academics' perceptions of quality in higher education treat academics as a homogeneous group and,…
Pedrosa, Alex; Näslund, Dag; Jasmand, Claudia
analysis of 134 case study based articles published in six leading logistics and supply chain management (SCM) journals between 1998 and 2010 is used to assess and evaluate the quality of the case study based research approach as documented in these publications. Findings – This research provides...... to address to ensure high quality of the case study based research approach in published articles. Research limitations/implications – This study is limited to the analysis of published articles in six logistics and SCM journals. Further research should investigate different journals in logistics and other...
Full Text Available The article presents briefly the complexity of the concept of “excellence” in higher education. Taking into account this reality, the fundamental question is how agencies can consider this complexity in building up criteria on excellence and the use of the concept “excellence” in their improvement strategies and accountability processes in the sector of higher education. Public-private nature of higher education and its growing internationalisation have significant impact on how excellence in education is described and promoted as a tool.
Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris
Abstract Context The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient‐centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. Objective To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. Strategy SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. Results The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients’ perceptions rather than expectations. Discussion and conclusions This paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations–perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. PMID:22296402
Papanikolaou, Vicky; Zygiaris, Sotiris
The paper refers to the increased competition between health care providers and the need for patient-centred services in Greece. Using service quality methodology, this paper investigates service quality perceptions of patients in Greek public primary health centres. To test the internal consistency and applicability of SERVQUAL in primary health care centres in Greece. SERVQUAL was used to examine whether patients have different expectations from health care providers and whether different groups of patients may consider some dimensions of care more important than others. The analysis showed that there were gaps in all dimensions measured by SERVQUAL. The largest gap was detected in empathy. Further analysis showed that there were also differences depending on gender, age and education levels. A separate analysis of expectations and perceptions revealed that this gap was because of differences in patients' perceptions rather than expectations. THIS paper raises a number of issues that concern the applicability of SERVQUAL in health care services and could enhance current discussions about SERVQUAL improvement. Quality of health care needs to be redefined by encompassing multiple dimensions. Beyond a simple expectations-perceptions gap, people may hold different understandings of health care that, in turn, influence their perception of the quality of services. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hammonds, Frank; Mariano, Gina J.; Ammons, Gracie; Chambers, Sheridan
Student evaluations of teaching (SET) are widely used in both North America and the UK as a means of documenting and improving teaching quality. This article discusses current research on SET administration and interpretation in both regions. Sections of the article are dedicated to various problems associated with SETs and how these may be…
Byrne, John M; Hall, Susan; Baz, Sam; Kessler, Todd; Roman, Maher; Patuszynski, Mark; Thakkar, Kruti; Kashner, T Michael
Preparing residents for future practice, knowledge, and skills in quality improvement and safety (QI/S) is a requisite element of graduate medical education. Despite many challenges, residency programs must consider new curricular innovations to meet the requirements. We report the effectiveness of a primary care QI/S curriculum and the role of the chief resident in quality and patient safety in facilitating it. Through the Veterans Administration Graduate Medical Education Enhancement Program, we added a position for a chief resident in quality and patient safety, and 4 full-time equivalent internal medicine residents, to develop the Primary Care Interprofessional Patient-Centered Quality Care Training Curriculum. The curriculum includes a first-or second-year, 1-month block rotation that serves as a foundational experience in QI/S and interprofessional care. The responsibilities of the chief resident in quality and patient safety included organizing and teaching the QI/S curriculum and mentoring resident projects. Evaluation included prerotation and postrotation surveys of self-assessed QI/S knowledge, abilities, skills, beliefs, and commitment (KASBC); an end-of-the-year KASBC; prerotation and postrotation knowledge test; and postrotation and faculty surveys. Comparisons of prerotation and postrotation KASBC indicated significant self-assessed improvements in 4 of 5 KASBC domains: knowledge (P < .001), ability (P < .001), skills (P < .001), and belief (P < .03), which were sustained on the end-of-the-year survey. The knowledge test demonstrated increased QI/S knowledge (P = .002). Results of the postrotation survey indicate strong satisfaction with the curriculum, with 76% (25 of 33) and 70% (23 of 33) of the residents rating the quality and safety curricula as always or usually educational. Most faculty members acknowledged that the chief resident in quality and patient safety enhanced both faculty and resident QI/S interest and
Otegui, Javier; Guralnick, Robert P
We present a REST web service to assess the geospatial quality of primary biodiversity data. It enables access to basic and advanced functions to detect completeness and consistency issues as well as general errors in the provided record or set of records. The API uses JSON for data interchange and efficient parallelization techniques for fast assessments of large datasets. The Geospatial Data Quality API is part of the VertNet set of APIs. It can be accessed at http://api-geospatial.vertnet-portal.appspot.com/geospatial and is already implemented in the VertNet data portal for quality reporting. Source code is freely available under GPL license from http://www.github.com/vertnet/api-geospatial firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.
With the expansion of higher education across the globe in response to the creation of knowledge economies and learning societies, governments have become increasingly interested in ensuring value for money from their investments. In determining their comparative economic advantage, nation states have increasingly focused on the…
Koni, Aida; Zainal, Khalim; Ibrahim, Maznah
The history of the Palestinian universities is relatively recent; however their impact on the Palestinians case and wellbeing is undeniable. Today, almost forty years later the Palestinian universities like many higher education institutions in the region and worldwide tussle to fulfil the students' demands on education while trying to maintain…
Montanaro, Marilee Kaye Fannon
A variety of academic and financial performance metrics are used to assess higher education institution performance. However, there is no consensus on the best performance measures. Signaling theory and agency theory are used to frame the challenges of assessing post-secondary institution performance related to information asymmetry between the…
The study was based on literature review, which was augmented by key informant interviews, focus group discussions and observation. It revealed that the study centres marked a great stride in opening access to higher education, especially for the working class, and in increasing the number of graduates from secondary ...
Westerheijden, Donald F.; Kohoutek, Jan; Eggins, Heather
The Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG for short) have been part of the regulative infrastructure of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) since 2005 (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, 2009).
Mikalauskas, Rimantas; Jasinskas, Edmundas; Švagždienė, Biruta
The quality of higher education is predominantly determined by the work of academic staff and organization of instructional process; the criteria of higher education institution’s infrastructure are of moderate importance. Professional qualities of teaching staff that are related to communication with students during lectures are important for quality assurance; effective communication with others was found to be the most important personal quality of teaching staff. Professional qualities we...
Full Text Available Objective: Since the 1990s studies on how stakeholders in higher education perceive quality have burgeoned. Nevertheless, the majority of studies on perception of quality in higher education focus on students and employers. The few studies on academics’ perceptions of quality in higher education treat academics as a homogeneous group and, therefore, do not point out cross-disciplinary perspectives in perceptions of quality. This article explores how academics across six disciplines perceive quality in higher education. Method: The article is anchored in the interpretivist paradigm. Data was collected from 14 purposely selected academics at Makerere University in Uganda and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: The findings show that academics perceive quality in higher education as transformation, fitness for purpose, and exceptional. The findings further demonstrate that a stakeholder group or an individual stakeholder can subscribe to a notion of quality in higher education but voice divergent views on its variants. Similarly, the academic discipline, the perceived purpose of higher education, and the problems within a higher education system have an influence on stakeholders’ conception of quality in higher education. Conclusions: From the findings it can be inferred that quality in higher education defies a single definition and that stakeholders’ perceptions of quality do not take place in a vacuum. Implication for Theory and/or Practice: The multidimensional nature of quality and the contestations around it necessitate a multidimensional approach to assuring and assessing it.
Full Text Available Organizational performance is maximized when it is based on the management and sharing of knowledge within a culture of continuous learning, innovation and improvement. The methodology embodies the principle of self-evaluation or self-assessment. The higher education institutions would learn from feedback by reviewing impact of strategies and actions, trends in results and by comparing through benchmarking. The focus of this paper is the implementation of EFQM excellence model in the higher education (HE sector. This paper describes the specific issues in implementing the model in HE institutions, with a particular focus on the choice of self-assessment methodology. The early signs are that EFQM excellence model self-assessment can help to produce a more customer-oriented culture in HE institutions, providing that the lessons learned from the wider public sector are put into practice.
Rahayu, Fatik; Murtanto, Murtanto; Ekasari, Ayu
Educational literatures suggest that there is mounting pressure from customers of higher education to close the gap between their expectation of institutional performance and the actual performance (Widrick et al., 2002; Pariseau and Mc Daniel, 1997; Shank et al., 1995). Therefore, it is imperative that higher educations actively monitor the quality of their service. This study deals with measuring the service quality in higher education. The service quality of higher education in this resear...
Hann, Mark; Bower, Peter; Campbell, Stephen; Marshall, Martin; Reeves, David
Culture and climate represent shared beliefs and values that may influence quality of care in health care teams, and which could be manipulated for quality improvement. However, there is a lack of agreement on the theoretical and empirical relationships between climate and culture, and their relative power as predictors of quality of care. This study sought to examine the association between self-report measures of climate and culture in primary care teams and comprehensive measures of quality of care. The data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 492 professionals in 42 general practices in England. Self-report measures of culture (the Competing Values Framework) and climate (the Team Climate Inventory) were used, together with validated measures of quality of care from medical records and self-report. The majority of practices could be characterized as 'clan' culture type. Practices with a dominant clan culture scored higher on climate for participation and teamwork. There were no associations between culture and quality of care, and only limited evidence of associations between climate and quality. The current analysis would not support the hypothesis that culture and climate are important predictors of quality of care in primary care. Although larger studies are required to provide a definitive test, the results may suggest the need for a more complex model of the associations between culture, climate and outcomes, and further research may be required into the interaction between culture and climate with other determinants of behaviour such as internal and external incentives.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2000, Israel has had a national program for ongoing monitoring of the quality of the primary care services provided by the country's four competing non-profit health plans. Previous research has demonstrated that quality of care has improved substantially since the program's inception and that the program enjoys wide support among health plan managers. However, prior to this study there were anecdotal and journalistic reports of opposition to the program among primary care physicians engaged in direct service delivery; these raised serious questions about the extent of support among physicians nationally. Goals To assess how Israeli primary care physicians experience and rate health plan efforts to track and improve the quality of care. Method The study population consisted of primary care physicians employed by the health plans who have responsibility for the quality of care of a panel of adult patients. The study team randomly sampled 250 primary-care physicians from each of the four health plans. Of the 1,000 physicians sampled, 884 met the study criteria. Every physician could choose whether to participate in the survey by mail, e-mail, or telephone. The anonymous questionnaire was completed by 605 physicians – 69% of those eligible. The data were weighted to reflect differences in sampling and response rates across health plans. Main findings The vast majority of respondents (87% felt that the monitoring of quality was important and two-thirds (66% felt that the feedback and subsequent remedial interventions improved medical care to a great extent. Almost three-quarters (71% supported continuation of the program in an unqualified manner. The physicians with the most positive attitudes to the program were over age 44, independent contract physicians, and either board-certified in internal medicine or without any board-certification (i.e., residents or general practitioners. At the same time, support for the
... Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO[bdi2]) Primary National Ambient Air Quality... air quality designations for certain areas in the United States for the 2010 primary Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The EPA is issuing this rule to identify areas...
Full Text Available The article deals with the progress made to develop external and internal quality assurance systems in Polish and Ukrainian higher education in the European Higher Education Area background. The focus of the paper is on the extent to which quality assurance systems in these countries are following the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area. Furthermore, internal and external quality assur-ance in the European context is presented in the article. The authors of the article also conducted a comparative analysis of quality assurance systems in Polish and Ukrainian higher education.
Full Text Available This paper addresses and analyzes concepts that have been often used by important stakeholders to refer to challenges and to quality in higher education. The aim is to identify the conceptualizations of quality in higher education that underlie the use of different concepts such as efficiency and equity. Based on publications by important multilateral organizations, these terms are correlated with the conceptualizations of higher education and, at the political level, with two major contemporary socioeconomic models: neoliberalism and social welfare state. Finally, two ideological tendencies for the understanding of quality in higher education are presented: quality as productivity and quality as social responsibility.
This article explores the wicked problem of quality in higher education, arguing for a more robust theorising of the subject at national, institutional and local department level. The focus of the discussion rests on principles for theorising in more rigorous ways about the multidimensional issue of quality. Quality in higher education is proposed…
Quality practices in higher education involve more than mere compliance with standards and technical mandates; given the complexity of the decisions involved in quality in higher education, this concept, quality, can be analyzed as symbol and performance. This paper utilizes translation as heuristic to analyze the implementation of US…
Understanding how students perceive quality of education and identifying the most important quality factors from their perspectives represent a first stage for quality improvement and customer satisfaction in higher education. The purpose of this project was to investigate how higher education students in Lebanon perceived the concept of quality…
This book is intended as an introduction to the management of quality assurance and enhancement in higher education, particularly in England. The text focuses on the relationship between institutional quality assurance and the auditing authority of the British Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. The chapters of part 1, "The Quality…
Narimantas Kazimieras Paliulis
Full Text Available Conditioned by globalisation and constant change, higher education institutions (HEIs are forced to pursue new instruments for quality assurance in higher education. States seem to pursue this aim by attempting to create an efficiently operating system of higher education that satisfies needs of diverse societal groups. Quality dimension is the most important element of efficient and effective higher education. From the perspective of a state, assessment and monitoring of quality are instruments for the management of processes of higher education. The article substantiates these statements using the evolution of the dimension of quality in the European and Lithuanian higher education in the course of the Bologna Process. The article also presents a benchmarking method and discusses its development and application tendencies in business organisations. Also, it looks at possibilities to apply this method in higher education. The main aim of this article is to explore benchmarking as an effective instrument for the improvement of performance quality in HEIs and complement the already implemented quality management systems. Another aim is to suggest this method to national agencies for quality assurance in higher education for monitoring and analysis of qualitative changes on the systematic level. The object of the article is the improvement of performance quality in HEIs. Benchmarking is proposed for the use in higher education on the institutional level as an instrument that complements presently introduced quality management systems in Lithuanian HEIs. This way, it will contribute to the formation of the culture of quality in higher education.
Giannakis, Mihalis; Bullivant, Nicola
This article explores several aspects of service quality for the provision of higher education. Alongside the trend of the massification of higher education over the past two decades, higher education institutions are required to review quality across a range of outputs, besides teaching and learning. The study was undertaken within the…
Assaad, Ragui; Badawy, Eslam; Krafft, Caroline
A number of reasons have been proposed for the poor quality of higher education in the Arab world, including the poor incentive structures of public higher education institutions. The expansion of private higher education has been hailed as an important part of enhancing incentives and thus improving education quality. However, it is not clear…
Szecsenyi, Joachim; Campbell, Stephen; Broge, Bjoern; Laux, Gunter; Willms, Sara; Wensing, Michel; Goetz, Katja
Background: The European Practice Assessment program provides feedback and outreach visits to primary care practices to facilitate quality improvement in five domains (infrastructure, people, information, finance, and quality and safety). We examined the effectiveness of this program in improving management in primary care practices in Germany, with a focus on the domain of quality and safety. Methods: In a before–after study, 102 primary care practices completed a practice assessment using the European Practice Assessment instrument at baseline and three years later (intervention group). A comparative group of 102 practices was included that completed their first assessment using this instrument at the time of the intervention group’s second assessment. Mean scores were based on the proportion of indicators for which a positive response was achieved by all of the practices, on a scale of 0 to 100. Results: We found significant improvements in all domains between the first and second assessments in the intervention group. In the domain of quality and safety, improvements in scores (mean scores were based on the proportion of indicators for which a positive response was achieved by all of the practices, on a scale of 0 to 100) were observed in the following dimensions: complaint management (from a mean score of 51.2 at first assessment to 80.7 at second assessment); analysis of critical incidents (from 79.1 to 89.6); and quality development, quality policy (from 40.7 to 55.6). Overall scores at the time of the second assessment were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the comparative group. Interpretation: Primary care practices that completed the European Practice Assessment instrument twice over a three-year period showed improvements in practice management. Our findings show the value of the quality-improvement cycle in the context of practice assessment and the use of established organizational standards for practice management with the
Shurair, Amal S.
Managing quality of services offered by institutions of higher education is important in any country due to the inherent aim of producing quality graduates from programs offered in the university. Qatar has made substantial investments in higher education. Qatar University, being the national university of the country, the perception of stakeholders on the service quality in education becomes an important factor for developing a quality education system. Therefore, the main goal of this thesi...
This paper is an in attempt to open discussion about the impact of globalization and theories of neoliberalism on higher education. More specifically, viewing higher education institutions as a market place, where the more a product costs, the greater supply and quality of the product should be received; the quality of education received by university students should also reflect this. Considering the conflict between teaching and research in higher education, quality of education beco...
Schäfer, W.L.A.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Kringos, D.S.; Maeseneer, J. de; Gress, S.; Heinemann, S.; Rotar-Pavlic, D.; Seghieri, C.; Svab, I.; Berg, M.J. van den; Vainieri, M.; Westert, G.P.; Willems, S.; Groenewegen, P.P.
Background: The QUALICOPC (Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe) study aims to evaluate the performance of primary care systems in Europe in terms of quality, equity and costs. The study will provide an answer to the question what strong primary care systems entail and which effects primary
Full Text Available Food price is a determining factor of food choices; however its relationship with diet quality is unclear in Malaysia. This study aimed to examine socio-economic characteristics and daily dietary cost (DDC in relation to diet quality in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Dietary intake was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ and diet quality was estimated using a Malaysian Healthy Eating Index (M-HEI. DDC in Malaysian Ringgit (RM was calculated from dietary intake and national food prices. Linear regression models were fitted to determine associations between DDC and M-HEI scores and predictors of diet quality. The mean M-HEI score of respondents was 61.31 ± 10.88 and energy adjusted DDC was RM10.71/2000 kcal (USD 2.49. The highest quintile of adjusted DDC had higher M-HEI scores for all respondents (Q1: 57.14 ± 10.07 versus Q5: 63.26 ± 11.54, p = 0.001. There were also positive associations between DDC and M-HEI scores for fruits (p < 0.001 and vegetables (p = 0.017 for all respondents. Predictors of diet quality included carbohydrate (β = 0290; p < 0.001 and fat intakes (β = −0.242; p < 0.001 and energy adjusted DDC (β = 0.196; p < 0.001. Higher dietary cost is associated with healthy eating among Malaysian adults.
Blok, Amanda C; May, Christine N; Sadasivam, Rajani S; Houston, Thomas K
Engaging health care staff in new quality improvement programs is challenging. We developed 2 virtual patient (VP) avatars in the context of a clinic-level quality improvement program. We sought to determine differences in preferences for VPs and the perceived influence of interacting with the VP on clinical staff engagement with the quality improvement program. Using a participatory design approach, we developed an older male smoker VP and a younger female smoker VP. The older male smoker was described as a patient with cardiovascular disease and was ethnically ambiguous. The female patient was younger and was worried about the impact of smoking on her pregnancy. Clinical staff were allowed to choose the VP they preferred, and the more they engaged with the VP, the more likely the VP was to quit smoking and become healthier. We deployed the VP within the context of a quality improvement program designed to encourage clinical staff to refer their patients who smoke to a patient-centered Web-assisted tobacco intervention. To evaluate the VPs, we used quantitative analyses using multivariate models of provider and practice characteristics and VP characteristic preference and analyses of a brief survey of positive deviants (clinical staff in practices with high rates of encouraging patients to use the quit smoking innovation). A total of 146 clinical staff from 76 primary care practices interacted with the VPs. Clinic staff included medical providers (35/146, 24.0%), nurse professionals (19/146, 13.0%), primary care technicians (5/146, 3.4%), managerial staff (67/146, 45.9%), and receptionists (20/146, 13.7%). Medical staff were mostly male, and other roles were mostly female. Medical providers (OR 0.031; CI 0.003-0.281; P=.002) and younger staff (OR 0.411; CI 0.177-0.952; P=.038) were less likely to choose the younger, female VP when controlling for all other characteristics. VP preference did not influence online patient referrals by staff. In high
Al-Atiqi, Imad M.; Alharbi, Lafi M.
In Kuwait, as in other rapidly-developing higher education systems, one major area of concern is ensuring the quality of education offered by private providers. This paper briefly reviews the history of the development of higher education in Kuwait since its inception in 1936. It considers various quality systems currently in place in other…
Leiber, Theodor; Stensaker, Bjørn; Harvey, Lee
In this paper, the theoretical perspectives and general methodological elements of impact evaluation of quality assurance in higher education institutions are discussed, which should be a cornerstone of quality development in higher education and contribute to improving the knowledge about the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of quality…
Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2015
The Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency's (TEQSA's) role is to assure that quality standards are being met by all registered higher education providers. This paper explains how TEQSA's risk-based approach to assuring higher education standards is applied in broad terms to a diverse sector. This explanation is…
Pitman, Tim; Koshy, Paul; Phillimore, John
In the pursuit of mass higher education, fears are often expressed that the quality of higher education suffers as access is increased. This quantitative study considers three proxies of educational quality: (1) prior academic achievement of the student, (2) attrition and retention rates and (3) progression rates, to establish whether educational…
Popa Simona; Constantinescu Lucreþia Mariana; Ionescu Romaniþa Valentina
Our paper focus to approch an analitical analysis between the quality assurance process and the organizational quality culture. The main but was to demonstrate that, the both process are providing together to Romanian universities performance.
Ruhe, Mary C; Bobiak, Sarah N; Litaker, David; Carter, Caroline A; Wu, Laura; Schroeder, Casey; Zyzanski, Stephen J; Weyer, Sharon M; Werner, James J; Fry, Ronald E; Stange, Kurt C
To test the effect of an Appreciative Inquiry (AI) quality improvement strategy on clinical quality management and practice development outcomes. Appreciative inquiry enables the discovery of shared motivations, envisioning a transformed future, and learning around the implementation of a change process. Thirty diverse primary care practices were randomly assigned to receive an AI-based intervention focused on a practice-chosen topic and on improving preventive service delivery (PSD) rates. Medical-record review assessed change in PSD rates. Ethnographic field notes and observational checklist analysis used editing and immersion/crystallization methods to identify factors affecting intervention implementation and practice development outcomes. The PSD rates did not change. Field note analysis suggested that the intervention elicited core motivations, facilitated development of a shared vision, defined change objectives, and fostered respectful interactions. Practices most likely to implement the intervention or develop new practice capacities exhibited 1 or more of the following: support from key leader(s), a sense of urgency for change, a mission focused on serving patients, health care system and practice flexibility, and a history of constructive practice change. An AI approach and enabling practice conditions can lead to intervention implementation and practice development by connecting individual and practice strengths and motivations to the change objective.
The effectiveness of the higher education quality assessment system is essentially a matter of policy evaluation. On the macro level, such a system refers to external quality assessment, which includes government evaluation, quality certification, and university rankings. Depending on the degree of government intervention, the external quality…
Groen, Jovan F.
Stemming from increased levels of participation and diversity of the student base and from growing scrutiny on the quality of university degrees, governments have begun establishing mechanisms to monitor and support quality in higher education. Faced with administrative quality assurance structures, academics often complain that little is…
Sarrico, Cláudia S.; Alves, André A.
Higher education accreditation frameworks typically consider academic staff quality a key element. This article embarks on an empirical study of what academic staff quality means, how it is measured, and how different aspects of staff quality relate to each other. It draws on the relatively nascent Portuguese experience with study programme…
Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon; Barrenetxea-Ayesta, Miren; Cardona-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mijangos-Del Campo, Juan José; Barandiaran-Galdós, Marta
The literature on quality management at higher education institutions has for some time been working on the basis of two issues: a) the diversity of ideas as to what "quality" means, which makes it harder to apply the principles of quality management in this context; and b) the idea that this diversity is in some way a response to the…
Pondor, Ibnteesam; Gan, Wan Ying; Appannah, Geeta
Food price is a determining factor of food choices; however its relationship with diet quality is unclear in Malaysia. This study aimed to examine socio-economic characteristics and daily dietary cost (DDC) in relation to diet quality in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Dietary intake was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and diet quality was estimated using a Malaysian Healthy Eating Index (M-HEI). DDC in Malaysian Ringgit (RM) was calculated from dietary intake and national food prices. Linear regression models were fitted to determine associations between DDC and M-HEI scores and predictors of diet quality. The mean M-HEI score of respondents was 61.31 ± 10.88 and energy adjusted DDC was RM10.71/2000 kcal (USD 2.49). The highest quintile of adjusted DDC had higher M-HEI scores for all respondents (Q1: 57.14 ± 10.07 versus Q5: 63.26 ± 11.54, p = 0.001). There were also positive associations between DDC and M-HEI scores for fruits ( p diet quality included carbohydrate (β = 0290; p healthy eating among Malaysian adults.
Background Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. Methods This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health workers. Data were collected by interviews. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF; general quality of life, as well as the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were considered, with scores from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate a better quality of life. Poor quality of life was defined by the lowest quartiles of the WHOQOL score distributions for each of the domains. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. Associations were verified using multiple logistic regression. Results Poor quality of life was observed in 117 (15.4%) workers. Workers with imbalanced effort-reward (high effort/low reward) had an increased probability of general poor quality of life (OR = 1.91; 1.07–3.42), and in the physical (OR = 1.62; 1.02–2.66), and environmental (OR = 2.39; 1.37–4.16) domains; those with low effort/low reward demonstrated a greater probability of poor quality of life in the social domain (OR = 1.82; 1.00–3.30). Workers with overcommitment at work had an increased likelihood of poor quality of life in the physical (OR = 1.55, 1.06–2.26) and environmental (OR = 1.69; 1.08–2.65) domains. These associations were independent of individual characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle, perception of general health, or psychological and biological functions. Conclusions There is an association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among
Teles, Mariza Alves Barbosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gomes, Viviane Elizângela; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição
Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health workers. Data were collected by interviews. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF; general quality of life, as well as the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were considered, with scores from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate a better quality of life. Poor quality of life was defined by the lowest quartiles of the WHOQOL score distributions for each of the domains. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. Associations were verified using multiple logistic regression. Poor quality of life was observed in 117 (15.4%) workers. Workers with imbalanced effort-reward (high effort/low reward) had an increased probability of general poor quality of life (OR = 1.91; 1.07–3.42), and in the physical (OR = 1.62; 1.02–2.66), and environmental (OR = 2.39; 1.37–4.16) domains; those with low effort/low reward demonstrated a greater probability of poor quality of life in the social domain (OR = 1.82; 1.00–3.30). Workers with overcommitment at work had an increased likelihood of poor quality of life in the physical (OR = 1.55, 1.06–2.26) and environmental (OR = 1.69; 1.08–2.65) domains. These associations were independent of individual characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle, perception of general health, or psychological and biological functions. There is an association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers.
Campbell, S M; Sheaff, R; Sibbald, B; Marshall, M N; Pickard, S; Gask, L; Halliwell, S; Rogers, A; Roland, M O
To investigate the concept of clinical governance being advocated by primary care groups/trusts (PCG/Ts), approaches being used to implement clinical governance, and potential barriers to its successful implementation in primary care. Qualitative case studies using semi-structured interviews and documentation review. Twelve purposively sampled PCG/Ts in England. Fifty senior staff including chief executives, clinical governance leads, mental health leads, and lay board members. Participants' perceptions of the role of clinical governance in PCG/Ts. PCG/Ts recognise that the successful implementation of clinical governance in general practice will require cultural as well as organisational changes, and the support of practices. They are focusing their energies on supporting practices and getting them involved in quality improvement activities. These activities include, but move beyond, conventional approaches to quality assessment (audit, incentives) to incorporate approaches which emphasise corporate and shared learning. PCG/Ts are also engaged in setting up systems for monitoring quality and for dealing with poor performance. Barriers include structural barriers (weak contractual levers to influence general practices), resource barriers (perceived lack of staff or money), and cultural barriers (suspicion by practice staff or problems overcoming the perceived blame culture associated with quality assessment). PCG/Ts are focusing on setting up systems for implementing clinical governance which seek to emphasise developmental and supportive approaches which will engage health professionals. Progress is intentionally incremental but formidable challenges lie ahead, not least reconciling the dual role of supporting practices while monitoring (and dealing with poor) performance.
Based on a survey of Quality Management (QM) practitioners at 21 colleges, this study presents the 10 most difficult implementation hurdles to QM in higher education and a set of hurdle-clearing strategies. The hurdles are: (1) lack of time to implement QM; (2) perception that QM is something for janitorial and housing staffs but not applicable to…
Brousseau, Holli; Pohl, Dieter
In the era of changes in the evaluation of medical services and performance, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has determined that the key components are quality, value, and clinical practice improvement (MACRA). Weight Loss Surgery, also called Bariatric or Obesity Surgery, has been at the forefront of quality improvement and quality reporting through the Center of Excellence Program since 2005. As a result, weight loss surgery is now as safe as gallbladder surgery.1 Even within this culture of quality and safety, improvements are still possible, as described in this article. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-03.asp].
Full Text Available Big data has the features like Volume, Variety, Value and Velocity. Here come the new opportunities and challenges for construction of Chinese quality assurance system of higher vocational education under big data era. There are problems in current quality assurance system of higher vocational education, such as imperfect main body, non-formation of internally and externally incorporated quality assurance system, non-scientific security standard and insufficiency in security investment. The construction of higher vocational education under big data era requires a change in the idea of quality assurance system construction to realize the multiple main bodies and multiple layers development trend for educational quality assurance system, and strengthen the construction of information platform for quality assurance system.
This article explores the relationship between mass education, higher education quality and policy development in Australia in the period 2008-2014, during which access to higher education was significantly increased. Over this time, which included a change of national government, the discursive relationship between mass higher education and…
Lyytinen, Anu; Kohtamäki, Vuokko; Kivistö, Jussi; Pekkola, Elias; Hölttä, Seppo
Although the role and significance of the external stakeholders of higher education institutions has grown in recent years, quality assurance of stakeholder relationships remains a new phenomenon in the management practices of higher education institutions and in higher education research. Based on interviews and expert panel data, this article…
Eliophotou Menon, Maria
The paper investigates the views of Greek university graduates on the link between higher education and productivity in order to determine the extent to which productivity can be considered to be an indication of quality in higher education. It also investigates the perceived effect of the type and content of higher education on productivity;…
Snijders, Ingrid; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Wijnia, Lisette; Loyens, Sofie M. M.
This study investigated the overall "quality" of the interpersonal relationship students have with faculty and staff, that is, relationship quality (RQ). In relationship management research, RQ is paramount for the creation of bonds with customers, which in turn is necessary for the sustainability of organizations, that is, continuity…
Kellici, Neritan; Dibra, Arvin; Mihani, Joana; Kellici, Suela; Burazeri, Genc
AIM: To date, the available information regarding the quality of primary health care services in Albania is scarce. The aim of our study was to assess the quality of primary health care services in Albania based on physicians' perceptions towards the quality of the services provided to the general
Jose Javier Díaz-Lázaro
Full Text Available The concept of Learning Analytics, as we understand it today, is relatively new but the practice of evaluating user behavior is not innovative. For years, technological development, along with other educational aspects, have encouraged, developed and facilitated this practice as a way of providing a personalized quality experience to students. The main goal of this study, carried out in the Primary Education Degree of the University of Murcia, was to research, from the perspective of Social Learning Analytics, how students learn and collaborate in online environments, specifically through their use of social media. With the idea of improving and optimizing future teaching experiences, a pilot study was conducted using weblog, Twitter and Facebook to work with different topics on the subject. The method used in this research was a participant observation and the analysis performed was both quantitative, based mainly on the data gathered from the learning analytics, and qualitative (analyzing students’ content from comments. Results show that there was greater interaction on Facebook than weblogs, where students interacted to deal with aspects related to the learning process and the topic of the subject. This exchange of information grew during the development of the experience. In addition, learning analytics shows that there is a relationship between group members and their interaction and behavior in networks.
Full Text Available Service quality, students' satisfaction and their behavioural intentions are recognised as rather important aspects in higher education institution's strategy in a competitive higher education marketplace, which enable them to attract and retain students in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM and information-communication (IC study areas. This research aimed to study the relationship between service quality, students' satisfaction and behavioural intentions of STEM and IC students of the University of Rijeka Departments. Partial least squares structural equation modelling using SmartPLS 3.0 software was performed on student survey data, confirming a direct, positive and significant relationship between higher education service quality and students' satisfaction and between students' satisfaction and their behavioural intentions. According to indirect effects analysis, perceived higher education service quality has an an indirect, positive and significant impact on students' behavioural intentions through students' satisfaction. The results indicate that higher education service quality is an imperative for higher education sector. Based on the findings of this study, useful to policy makers in the services industry in general and in higher education sector in particular, improvements can be planned all service quality dimensions as a key factor to attract, educate and retain STEM and IC students in Croatia.
Full Text Available The present paper approaches the topic of the quality of educational services, emphasizing on higher education, as a field of services of large public interest that has high influences at individual, group and society level. The paper starts by looking at the influencing factors for the quality of higher education from the perspective of the regulations and practices at both European and national level. In this context, the internal evaluation of quality at institutional level is a new requirement for higher education institutions in Romania. Part of the evaluation process is represented by the requirement to develop informational data bases. The paper exemplifies the results that can be obtained by monitoring quality and collecting information, and concludes with a set of recommendations for managing quality at institutional level.
Prof. Rene Butter
Theme: Quality Assurance in Higher Education An online tool was developed for (potential) students to assess the congruence between the characteristics of an educational program and student preferences (Butter & Van Raalten, 2010)
Coyne, Daniel W
The Normal Hematocrit Trial (NHT) was the largest trial of epoetin randomizing 1265 hemodialysis patients with cardiac disease to lower (9-11 g/dl) or higher (13-15 g/dl) hemoglobin (Hgb), hypothesizing that higher Hgb would reduce mortality, and improve survival and quality of life. The trial was terminated early, and a 1998 publication reported that targeting higher hematocrit levels led to an insignificant increase in the primary end points (death or myocardial infarct), or risk ratio 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.9-1.90, but the P-value was not given, and all-cause death risk was not reported. A higher target reportedly did not increase hospitalization rates, but did significantly improve the 'physical function' domain of quality of life. Comparing the 1996 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-filed clinical trial report to the 1998 publication, however, found several discrepancies. Among these, the 1998 article reported interim trial results with only the adjusted CI but did not state that the unadjusted CIs were 99.912th percentile, and despite being a secondary end point, reported only the association of achieved Hgb with higher quality of life score. Randomization to the higher target had actually increased the risk for the primary end point (risk ratio 1.28, 95% CI=1.06-1.56; P=0.0112; 99.92% CI=0.92-1.78), the risk of death (risk ratio 1.27, 95% CI=1.04-1.54), non-access thrombotic events (P=0.041), and hospitalization rate (P=0.04), while 'physical function' did not improve (P=0.88). Hence, disclosure of these results in the 1998 publication or access to the FDA-filed report on the NHT in the late 1990s would likely have led to earlier concerns about epoetin safety and greater doubts about its benefits.
Discusses the impact of external quality monitoring (EQM) on higher education and identifies areas in which changes have taken place as a result of such external initiatives. Suggests that the lack of effects related directly to quality improvement should not be conceived as an EQM design error, but rather as a misconception of how organizational…
Daukilas, Sigitas; Kaciniene, Irma; Vaisnoriene, Daiva; Vascila, Vytautas
The article analyzes and assesses factors that have impact upon the quality of eTeaching/learning technologies in higher education; it is on their basis that the concept of eTeaching/learning quality is denied. Research data about the students' motives in choosing various teaching/learning technologies for the development of their competence are…
Holt, Dale; Palmer, Stuart; Gosper, Maree; Sankey, Michael; Allan, Garry
This article reports on the findings of senior leadership interviews in a nationally funded project on distributed leadership in the quality management of online learning environments (OLEs) in higher education. Questions were framed around the development of an OLE quality management framework and the situation of the characteristics of…
de Jager, Johan; Gbadamosi, Gbolahan
This study commences a process of developing a scale for the measurement of service quality in higher education in South Africa and also examines the relationship between the measures of service quality on the one hand and some other related variables such as intention to leave the university, trust in management of the university and the overall…
Gallifa, Josep; Batalle, Pere
Purpose: This paper aims to present an in-depth case study with student perceptions of service quality, discussing the relevance of these perceptions for the important issue of quality improvement in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents institutional research carried out in a multi-campus system in Spain made up of…
Bejan, Stelian Andrei; Janatuinen, Tero; Jurvelin, Jouni; Klöpping, Susanne; Malinen, Heikki; Minke, Bernhard; Vacareanu, Radu
This paper reports on methodological approaches, experiences and expectations referring to impact analysis of quality assurance from the perspective of three higher education institutions (students, teaching staff, quality managers) from Germany, Finland and Romania. The presentations of the three sample institutions focus on discussing the core…
The paper is a reflection on the pasts and futures of quality assurance in higher education. It poses questions about the correlation between the geographical and political spread of quality assurance on the one hand and the resulting educational benefits on the other; about the divergences between critics and practitioners on the likely impacts…
Odhiambo, George O.
This article examines the unique challenges facing Kenya's public higher education institutions. It explores the struggle to develop quality and quality assurance mechanisms against a background of rapidly diminishing income, brain drain, political interference and the negative aspects of globalisation. The challenges have consequently led to a…
Ilyasin, Mukhamd; Zamroni
The main issue in improving the quality of Islamic Higher Education is to increase the competence and professionalism of teachers and education personnel to achieve its vision and mission in the middle of the complexity of the demands of society and the changing times. so that the quality of education and governance of Islamic Religion clean and…
Sarmiento Espinel, Jaime Andrés; Silva Arias, Adriana Carolina; Van Gameren, Edwin
Two key measures to determine the quality of higher education are the performance of students and the accreditation of a programme's quality. We analyse the difference in the distributions of the student's scores in a standardised test of economics knowledge between accredited and non-accredited undergraduate economics programmes in a…
Sarrico, Claudia S.; Rosa, Maria J.; Teixeira, Pedro N.; Cardoso, Margarida F.
This paper reflects on quality assessment and performance evaluation in higher education, namely by analysing the insufficient link between those two aspects. We start by reviewing the current state of the art regarding different processes and mechanisms of quality assessment and performance evaluation and discuss some of the major issues…
This paper argues that the current approach to educational quality formation in transnational higher education promotes educational imperialism, and that guidelines and practices should be altered to embrace context-sensitive measures of quality. The claims are sustained by findings from a study that investigated how academics understood and…
Shields, Patricia M.
Uses Robert Pirsig's ideas in "Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance" to explore two ways of viewing quality in higher education: the romantic and the classic. Analyzes historical and contemporary literature on quality using insights of Alfred Whitehead, Pirsig, and John Dewey, urging a vision that is honest and that incorporates…
Mbabazi Bamwesiga, Penelope; Fejes, Andreas; Dahlgren, Lars-Owe
The aim of this study is to understand the different ways that university students conceptualise quality in learning by drawing on a phenomenographic approach. A total of 20 students in higher education in Rwanda were interviewed and analysis of the interviews generated an outcome space of conceptions of quality in learning as transformation,…
Full Text Available This paper is an in attempt to open discussion about the impact of globalization and theories of neoliberalism on higher education. More specifically, viewing higher education institutions as a market place, where the more a product costs, the greater supply and quality of the product should be received; the quality of education received by university students should also reflect this. Considering the conflict between teaching and research in higher education, quality of education becomes questionable. This paper explores issues of neoliberalism resulting in a greater demand for the completion of research in higher education institutions. Furthermore, the imperialism of higher education leading towards the demand for more research, the teaching versus research nexus within universities, and discussion of how these theories impact international students will be examined throughout this paper
Conclusions In the group of practices studied, levels of recording were generally assessed to be of sufficient quality to enable a database of quality-evaluated, anonymised primary care records to be created.
Tripti Singh, MD
Conclusions. Patients with MN have higher incidence of acute rejection after kidney transplant but have similar 10-year allograft survival in comparison to the other glomerular diseases like IgAN, FSGS, and LN.
Stockdale, Susan E; Zuchowski, Jessica; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Sapir, Negar; Yano, Elizabeth M; Altman, Lisa; Fickel, Jacqueline J; McDougall, Skye; Dresselhaus, Timothy; Hamilton, Alison B
Although the patient-centered medical home endorses quality improvement principles, methods for supporting ongoing, systematic primary care quality improvement have not been evaluated. We introduced primary care quality councils at six Veterans Health Administration sites as an organizational intervention with three key design elements: (a) fostering interdisciplinary quality improvement leadership, (b) establishing a structured quality improvement process, and (c) facilitating organizationally aligned frontline quality improvement innovation. Our evaluation objectives were to (a) assess design element implementation, (b) describe implementation barriers and facilitators, and (c) assess successful quality improvement project completion and spread. We analyzed administrative records and conducted interviews with 85 organizational leaders. We developed and applied criteria for assessing design element implementation using hybrid deductive/inductive analytic techniques. All quality councils implemented interdisciplinary leadership and a structured quality improvement process, and all but one completed at least one quality improvement project and a toolkit for spreading improvements. Quality councils were perceived as most effective when service line leaders had well-functioning interdisciplinary communication. Matching positions within leadership hierarchies with appropriate supportive roles facilitated frontline quality improvement efforts. Two key resources were (a) a dedicated internal facilitator with project management, data collection, and presentation skills and (b) support for preparing customized data reports for identifying and addressing practice level quality issues. Overall, quality councils successfully cultivated interdisciplinary, multilevel primary care quality improvement leadership with accountability mechanisms and generated frontline innovations suitable for spread. Practice level performance data and quality improvement project management support
Papanthymou, Anastasia; Darra, Maria
The basic aim of this paper is to investigate the perceptions, attitudes and experiences of the students of the Department of Primary Education of University of the Aegean about the quality of the provided services to them by the Secretariat of Administrative Electronic Services. The survey was conducted during the second semester of the academic…
Raharjo, H.; Xie, M.; Goh, T.N.; Brombacher, A.C.
In order to formulate an effective strategic plan in a customer-driven education context, it is important to recognize who the customers are and what they want. Using Quality Function Deployment (QFD), this information can be translated into strategies to achieve customer satisfaction. Since the
Kaghed, Nabeel; Dezaye, Ahmed
This paper reports on two different strategies that have been implemented in Iraq to improve quality assurance in the higher education sector in Iraq. One strategy has been developed by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Baghdad. It involved conducting a pilot study at the University of Babylon. This pilot included…
Strang, Lucy; Bélanger, Julie; Manville, Catriona; Meads, Catherine
In March 2016, the Higher Education Academy (HEA) commissioned RAND Europe to conduct a literature review of research published since 2012, with the aim of identifying and summarising the key trends and issues in the literature on how "quality teaching" and its impact are currently being defined and demonstrated at higher education…
Akinyemi, Gbenga M.; Abiddin, Norhasni Zainal
The dynamic changes in today's world have made countries of the world masters of their own destinies. In this light, it has become noted today that "the affluence or penury of nations depends largely on the quality of higher education". This is informed by the fact that higher education systems of a nation is the "machinery of…
Corruption and malpractices in higher education are today a major concern in nearly all higher education systems worldwide. It is a multifaceted phenomenon and has become particularly visible in the academic domain. This paper represents an exploration of the possible role that quality assurance can play in addressing corruption and malpractices.…
Kusumastuti, Dyah; Idrus, Nirwan
This paper reviews the recently introduced National Higher Education ranking system in Indonesia in order to evaluate its potential as a sustainable model to improve the quality of higher education in the country. It is a scaffold towards an established world-universities ranking system that may prove formidable for a developing country. This…
Wang, Naixia; Morgan, W. John
This article examines an important and yet neglected aspect of the relationship between higher education and the labour market in contemporary China. It does this through a detailed case study of student motivations, quality and status in adult higher education (AHE) in the city of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province. This is a region which has seen major…
Seyfried, Markus; Ansmann, Moritz
Quality management (QM) in teaching and learning has strongly "infected" the higher education sector and spread around the world. It has almost everywhere become an integral part of higher education reforms. While existing research on QM mainly focuses on the national level from a macro-perspective, its introduction at the institutional…
Reda, Nigusse W.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to highlight the congruence and roles of the balanced scorecard in the quality assurance practices in higher education institutions, and second, to propose a balanced scorecard model for higher education institutions. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive literature review was used to…
Oon, Pey-Tee; Spencer, Benson; Kam, Chester Chun Seng
Student evaluations of teaching (SET) are used globally by higher education institutions for performance assessment of academic staff and evaluation of course quality. Higher education institutions commonly develop their own SETs to measure variables deemed relevant to them. However, "home-grown" SETs are rarely assessed…
Since the Robbins Report of 1963, higher education in the UK has undergone major expansion, changing it from an elite to a mass system. This chapter explores the changing socio-economic context in which this transformation has taken place, and considers how the expansion of higher education has raised issues of control, quality and funding.
Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Linardakis, M.; Gregoriadis, A.; Oikonomidis, V.
The aim of the current study was to provide a valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of the teaching effectiveness in the Greek higher education system. Other objectives of the study were (a) the examination of the dimensionality and the higher-order structure of the Greek version of Students' Evaluation of Educational Quality (SEEQ)…
This article presents a critical-political discourse analysis of the media debate over quality assurance in higher education, which occurred in Chile after the 2011 student movement. Students criticized the privatization of higher education and the multiple flaws of this sector, which included corruption scandals during the process of quality…
Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J.; Drewnowski, Adam
Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. PMID:23916974
Full Text Available Caring for patients with multimorbidity is common for generalists, although such patients are often excluded from clinical trials, and thus such trials lack of generalizability. Data on the association between multimorbidity and preventive care are limited. We aimed to assess whether comorbidity number, severity and type were associated with preventive care among patients receiving care in Swiss University primary care settings.We examined a retrospective cohort composed of a random sample of 1,002 patients aged 50-80 years attending four Swiss university primary care settings. Multimorbidity was defined according to the literature and the Charlson index. We assessed the quality of preventive care and cardiovascular preventive care with RAND's Quality Assessment Tool indicators. Aggregate scores of quality of provided care were calculated by taking into account the number of eligible patients for each indicator.Participants (mean age 63.5 years, 44% women had a mean of 2.6 (SD 1.9 comorbidities and 67.5% had 2 or more comorbidities. The mean Charlson index was 1.8 (SD 1.9. Overall, participants received 69% of recommended preventive care and 84% of cardiovascular preventive care. Quality of care was not associated with higher numbers of comorbidities, both for preventive care and for cardiovascular preventive care. Results were similar in analyses using the Charlson index and after adjusting for age, gender, occupation, center and number of visits. Some patients may receive less preventive care including those with dementia (47% and those with schizophrenia (35%.In Swiss university primary care settings, two thirds of patients had 2 or more comorbidities. The receipt of preventive and cardiovascular preventive care was not affected by comorbidity count or severity, although patients with certain comorbidities may receive lower levels of preventive care.
Wada, Yoichi; Ibe, Eishi; Watanabe, Atsushi.
The present invention is suitable for preventing defects due to corrosion of structural materials in a primary coolant system of a BWR type reactor. Namely, a concentration measuring means measures the concentration of oxidative ingredients contained in a reactor water. A reducing electrode is disposed along a reactor water flow channel in the primary coolant system and reduces the oxidative ingredients. A reducing counter electrode is disposed along the reactor water flow channel in the primary coolant system, and electrically connected to the reducing electrode. The reactor structural materials are used as a reference electrode providing a reference potential to the reducing electrode and the reducing counter electrode. A potential control means controls the potential of the reducing electrode relative to the reference potential based on the signals from the concentration measuring means. A stable reference potential in a region where an effective oxygen concentration is stable can be obtained irrespective of the change of operation conditions by using the reactor structural materials disposed to a boiling region in the reactor core as a reference electrode. As a result, the water quality can be controlled at high accuracy. (I.S.)
Kalpazidou Schmidt, Evanthia
Because there is close cooperation on quality assurance in the Scandinavian countries, one would expect there to be convergence of quality assurance policies and practices in Scandinavian higher education. Few studies have analysed these quality assurance policies and practices from a comparative...... quality assurance. The debate is compelling with regard to the Swedish case in particular, with its ‘one size fits all’ approach and exclusive focus on outcomes which has been heavily criticised by the higher education institutions and has turned out to be controversial from the European viewpoint....... viewpoint. Based on empirical evidence produced in connection with studies of recent quality reforms in Scandinavia and an approach based on linking diffusion and translation theories with institutionalist perspectives focusing on path dependency, the paper contributes to the current debate on Scandinavian...
Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah
Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions......, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women...... of self-efficacy, perceived control or outcome expectancies on the quality of diet of women of higher educational attainment, though having more social support and food involvement were associated with improved quality of diet in these women. Our analysis confirms our hypothesis that control...
Fernández-Martínez, Gladyz; Zamora-Legoff, Víctor; Hernández Molina, Gabriela
To assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and oral health-related quality of life, and correlate them with unstimulated whole salivary flow (UWSF) and oral sicca symptoms in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS). We included 60 patients with PSS and 60 healthy controls matched according to gender and age (±3 years). We measured the UWSF and scored the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Sjögren's Syndrome Patient Reported Index (ESSPRI). We assessed the short version of the SF-36 as a generic measurement of HRQoL and the Xerostomia Quality of Life Scale (XeQoLS) questionnaire to evaluate oral quality of life. We evaluated oral symptoms using an 8-item Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questionnaire. We observed a poorer HRQoL (lower scores in SF-36) and oral quality of life (higher scores in XeQoLS), as well as a greater severity of symptoms in the VAS questionnaire upon comparing patients vs. controls. The XeQoL correlated with the UWSF (τ = -0.24, P = .008), the ESSPRI (τ =0.45, P = .0001), VAS 1-2 and VAS 5-8 and the SF-36 score (τ = -0.28, P = .002). Patients with PSS had a poorer HRQoL and oral quality of life than controls. UWSF contributes to the oral quality of life which, in turn, has an impact on HRQoL. Symptomatic treatment of xerostomia as well as the prevention of infections, decay and tooth loss would help to improve the oral quality of life in these patients. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Sloane, Philip D; Wroth, Thomas; Halladay, Jacquie; Bray, Paul; Spragens, Lynn; Stearns, Sally; Zimmerman, Sheryl
Primary care medical practices increasingly are asked by payers, employers, and government agencies to report quality data, but the process of doing so is not well delineated. Providers and office staff in a diverse sample of eight primary care practices in North Carolina comprised this study population. Interviews were conducted and self-administered questionnaires were disseminated in practices that were successfully reporting data to one or more of 4 reporting programs. Our measures included responses to open-ended and Likert scale questions about experiences and potential facilitators and barriers, as well as subscales of the Practice Assessment tool and the Culture of Group Practices instrument. Study practices had stronger change histories, higher information and quality emphases, and lower business emphases than historical comparison practices. Motivation to participate, a leader who catalyzes the process, and establishment of new systems characterized successful practices. Staff time, information technology challenges, and resistance from some providers were common barriers. Practices achieve a sustainability state when numerous barriers have been successfully overcome and tangible results achieved from the process. Implementing and sustaining quality reporting requires a complex set of motivators, facilitators, and strategies to overcome inherent barriers that can present themselves in practices that seek to implement changes in this direction.
Razinkina, Elena; Pankova, Ludmila; Trostinskaya, Irina; Pozdeeva, Elena; Evseeva, Lidiya; Tanova, Anna
Topicality of the research is confirmed by increasing student involvement into the educational process, when not only the academic staff and administration participate in the improvement of higher education institution's activity, but also education customers - students. This adds a new dimension to the issue of monitoring education quality and student satisfaction with higher education. This issue echoes the ideas of M. Weber about the relationship between such components as cognitive motivation, personal development and student satisfaction with higher education. Besides, it is essential to focus on the approach of R. Barnet to defining the quality of education with the emphasis on a priority of development of an educational institution as the system that meets customers' needs. Monitoring student satisfaction with education quality has become an integral part of the educational process not only in a number of European universities, which have used this monitoring for decades, but also in Russian universities, which are interested in education quality improvement. Leading universities in Russia, including Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, are implementing policies targeted at increasing student satisfaction with higher education quality. Education quality monitoring as a key element in the system of providing feedback to students contributes greatly to this process.
Van Gelder, Vincent A; Scherpbier-De Haan, Nynke D; De Grauw, Wim J C; Vervoort, Gerald M M; Van Weel, Chris; Biermans, Marion C J; Braspenning, Jozé C C; Wetzels, Jack F M
Early detection and appropriate management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in primary care are essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. To assess the quality of care (QoC) of CKD in primary healthcare in relation to patient and practice characteristics in order to tailor improvement strategies. Retrospective study using data between 2008 and 2011 from 47 general practices (207 469 patients of whom 162 562 were adults). CKD management of patients under the care of their general practitioner (GP) was qualified using indicators derived from the Dutch interdisciplinary CKD guideline for primary care and nephrology and included (1) monitoring of renal function, albuminuria, blood pressure, and glucose, (2) monitoring of metabolic parameters, and alongside the guideline: (3) recognition of CKD. The outcome indicator was (4) achieving blood pressure targets. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied to identify associated patient and practice characteristics. Kidney function or albuminuria data were available for 59 728 adult patients; 9288 patients had CKD, of whom 8794 were under GP care. Monitoring of disease progression was complete in 42% of CKD patients, monitoring of metabolic parameters in 2%, and blood pressure target was reached in 43.1%. GPs documented CKD in 31.4% of CKD patients. High QoC was strongly associated with diabetes, and to a lesser extent with hypertension and male sex. Room for improvement was found in all aspects of CKD management. As QoC was higher in patients who received structured diabetes care, future CKD care may profit from more structured primary care management, e.g. according to the chronic care model. Quality of care for chronic kidney disease patients in primary care can be improved. In comparison with guideline advice, adequate monitoring of disease progression was observed in 42%, of metabolic parameters in 2%, correct recognition of impaired renal function in 31%, and reaching blood pressure targets in 43% of chronic
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1983-4535.2014v7n3p61 The purpose of this research is to analyze the origin, evolution, performance and trends of higher education quality assurance systems in the following European countries: Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Netherlands, United Kingdom and France. It also studies the performance and impact of the organizations that join the European Quality Assurance Agencies together. The main sources of data collection were in situ semi-structured interviews to members of these agencies. It was found that in higher education institutions there is a strong trend towards the development of ‘internal quality assurance systems' in response to the public policies known as 'quality audits'. This overview about what is taking place in Europe may provide innovative instruments that could be considered for higher education quality evaluation and accreditation in Latin-American countries: quality audits, disciplinary agencies, evaluation of the quality assurance agencies, among others.
Zwanikken, Prisca A C; Peterhans, Bernadette; Dardis, Lorraine; Scherpbier, Albert
Transnational or cross-border higher education has rapidly expanded since the 1980s. Together with that expansion issues on quality assurance came to the forefront. This article aims to identify key issues regarding quality assurance of transnational higher education and discusses the quality assurance of the tropEd Network for International Health in Higher Education in relation to these key issues. Literature review and review of documents. From the literature the following key issues regarding transnational quality assurance were identified and explored: comparability of quality assurance frameworks, true collaboration versus erosion of national education sovereignty, accreditation agencies and transparency. The tropEd network developed a transnational quality assurance framework for the network. The network accredits modules through a rigorous process which has been accepted by major stakeholders. This process was a participatory learning process and at the same time the process worked positive for the relations between the institutions. The development of the quality assurance framework and the process provides a potential example for others.
Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah; Skinner, Timothy C; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary
Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women of lower educational attainment, the effect of general self-efficacy on quality of diet was mediated through perceptions of control and through food involvement, but that there were also direct effects of social support for healthy eating and having positive outcome expectancies. There was no effect of self-efficacy, perceived control or outcome expectancies on the quality of diet of women of higher educational attainment, though having more social support and food involvement were associated with improved quality of diet in these women. Our analysis confirms our hypothesis that control-related factors are more important in determining dietary quality in women of lower educational attainment than in women of higher educational attainment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khanthaphum, Udomsin; Tesaputa, Kowat; Weangsamoot, Visoot
This research aimed: 1) to study the current and desirable states of the co-operative network in developing the learners' quality in Thai primary schools, 2) to develop a model of the co-operative network in developing the learners' quality, and 3) to examine the results of implementation of the co-operative network model in the primary school.…
Dietrichson, Jens; Ellegård, Lina Maria; Kjellsson, Gustav
quality is scarce, in particular regarding primary care. This paper adds evidence from recent reforms of Swedish primary care that affected competition in municipal markets differently depending on the pre- reform market structure. Using a difference-in-differences strategy, we demonstrate...... that the reforms led to substantially more entry of private care providers in municipalities where there were many patients per provider before the reforms. The effects on primary care quality in these municipalities are modest: we find small improvements in subjective measures of overall care quality......, but no significant effects on the rate of avoidable hospitalizations or patients’ satisfaction with access to care. We find no indications of quality reductions....
Muthima, Ndirangu Wahome; Udoto, Maurice O.; Anditi, Zephania O.
The Free Primary Education (FPE) programme was commissioned in Kenya in January 2003 to provide basic education to all children of school going age and to ease the burden of cost sharing from the parents. However, even though the public primary school class teachers were to shoulder the greatest responsibility in the implementation of this…
Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of higher education service quality measurement and stresses the need of devising psychometrically as well as diagnostically sound measurement instruments, suitable to the context being investigated. The study builds upon the SERVQUAL scale, the inventory successfully tried and tested across a broad spectrum of service industries. Notwithstanding significant resemblance with the original five dimensions of service quality, research findings indicate six-dimensional structure of the construct of higher education service quality. Study performed on a sample of Engineering Management students reveals perceptions falling short of expectations across all of the determinants of service quality. The largest negative gap between students’ perceptions and expectations has been discovered concerning the potential for future career development, whereas research findings indicate the same dimension to be the most important predictor of students’ future behavioral intentions. In an attempt to inspire further interests in this field, managerial implications and directions for future research have been discussed.
Winblad, Ulrika; Blomqvist, Paula; Karlsson, Andreas
Swedish nursing home care has undergone a transformation, where the previous virtual public monopoly on providing such services has been replaced by a system of mixed provision. This has led to a rapidly growing share of private actors, the majority of which are large, for-profit firms. In the wake of this development, concerns have been voiced regarding the implications for care quality. In this article, we investigate the relationship between ownership and care quality in nursing homes for the elderly by comparing quality levels between public, for-profit, and non-profit nursing home care providers. We also look at a special category of for-profit providers; private equity companies. The source of data is a national survey conducted by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare in 2011 at 2710 nursing homes. Data from 14 quality indicators are analyzed, including structure and process measures such as staff levels, staff competence, resident participation, and screening for pressure ulcers, nutrition status, and risk of falling. The main statistical method employed is multiple OLS regression analysis. We differentiate in the analysis between structural and processual quality measures. The results indicate that public nursing homes have higher quality than privately operated homes with regard to two structural quality measures: staffing levels and individual accommodation. Privately operated nursing homes, on the other hand, tend to score higher on process-based quality indicators such as medication review and screening for falls and malnutrition. No significant differences were found between different ownership categories of privately operated nursing homes. Ownership does appear to be related to quality outcomes in Swedish nursing home care, but the results are mixed and inconclusive. That staffing levels, which has been regarded as a key quality indicator in previous research, are higher in publicly operated homes than private is consistent with earlier
Background: Good quality of care in family planning (FP) services help individuals and couples to meet their reproductive health needs safely and effectively. Therefore, assessment and improvement of the quality of family planning services could enhance family planning services utilization. This study was thus conducted ...
Full Text Available The article touches on the issue of meeting the students' educational needs as a crucial point in the quality of education improvement. The main consumers of educational services are students whose perceptions of the educational quality is analyzed. According to the research the primary attention of the administration have be paid to the dissatisfaction of the consumer and only then to ensure the satisfaction. The focus on the factors causing negative evaluation and dissatisfaction of students, using tactics quick fix ("quick patch" is recommended.
Ugo, Okoli; Ezinne, Eze-Ajoku; Modupe, Oludipe; Nicole, Spieker; Winifred, Ekezie; Kelechi, Ohiri
Background: Nigeria has a high population density but a weak health-care system. To improve the quality of care, 3 organizations carried out a quality improvement pilot intervention at the primary health-care level in selected rural areas. Objective: To assess the change in quality of care in primary health-care facilities in rural Nigeria following the provision of technical governance support and to document the successes and challenges encountered. Method: A total of 6 states were selected...
Gu, Li-Na; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Hui; Liu, Jing-Yao
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder often co-exists with primary Sjögren's syndrome. We compared the clinical features of 16 neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients with ( n = 6) or without primary Sjögren's syndrome ( n = 10). All patients underwent extensive clinical, laboratory, and MRI evaluations. There were no statistical differences in demographics or first neurological involvement at onset between neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients with and without primary Sjögren's syndrome. The laboratory findings of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal banding, serum C-reactive protein, antinuclear autoantibody, anti-Sjögren's-syndrome-related antigen A antibodies, anti-Sjögren's-syndrome-related antigen B antibodies, and anti-Sm antibodies were significantly higher in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome than those without. Anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies were detectable in 67% (4/6) of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and in 60% (6/10) of patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome. More brain abnormalities were observed in patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome than in those with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Segments lesions (> 3 centrum) were noted in 50% (5/10) of patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome and in 67% (4/6) of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. These findings indicate that the clinical characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients with and without primary Sjögren's syndrome are similar. However, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome have a high frequency of brain abnormalities.
Wada, Yoichi; Ibe, Hidefumi.
The present invention is suitable to water quality diagnosis at each of the portions in a reactor upon hydrogen injection for preventing stress corrosion crackings (SCC) of a BWR type reactor. That is, a plurality of simulations are conducted how the water quality at each of the portions in the reactor is changed when hydrogen injection amount is changed depending on the design and operation conditions of the plant. The result of the calculation is stored in a memory device. A water quality distribution in a pressure vessel having a solution which agrees with a value actually measured by a water quality measuring device disposed at the outside of a reactor core is retrieved from the results of the calculation. If no agreeing solution can be found, water quality distribution containing the actually measured value is determined based on the result of the calculation by using interpolation. In the present invention, the result of the calculation obtained by the simulation and the actually measured value at the outside of the reactor core can be utilized, to map the distribution of reactor water ingredients on a screen, which can accurately estimate the water quality at the periphery of the reactor core on real time. As a result, an operational efficiency of a reactor which can control water quality upon hydrogen injection at an optimum condition. (I.S.)
Olufunmilayo T. Iyunade, Ph.D
Full Text Available Recent empirical evidences on higher technical education at a national scale focused on the relevance, student’s poor perception, low enrolment and progression rates, and the growing impact of globalization on the management of higher technical and vocational education with little or no reference point to the factor of quality assurance. This paper therefore correlates quality assurance factors in higher technical education and the context of youth empowerment for sustainable development. A survey of public technical colleges was done in Ogun State. From an estimate population of 637 final year students and 28 instructors and management staff, a simple of 376 students and 17 instructors and management staff were selected using the stratify random sampling technique. A 4-point rating scale validated questionnaires tagged: ‘Higher Technical Education, Youth Empowerment and Sustainable Development Scale (HTEYESDS (r=0.79, complemented with focus Group Discussion (FGD was used for data collection. Three research questions were raised and answered. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics of Pearson correlation, multiple regression and analysis of variance at 0.05 apha level. Results showed that poor quality assurance limits the capacity of higher technical education in the empowerment of youth for sustainable development (82.6%. Quality assurance factors significantly correlated with higher technical education in the empowerment of youth for sustainable development (r=0.188; P < 0.05. It was therefore recommended that government should neither neglect nor compromise the factors of quality assurance in higher technical education as they predicts youth empowerment drive in the system.
Education is the most influential tool whose efficient use requires the power of determination, devoted work and sacrifice. As teachers are major handler of this tool therefore, they must possess qualities of high education and competency for deliver. Education extends attractive way of life, talent and manners which make an individual a fine civilian. Primary and secondary education is one of the foundation stone of development of children and country. It acts as a vital part in placing the ...
Aug 8, 2013 ... Results indicated that the tank water quality was within all the chemical standards (cations and .... Framework Policy for the Assurance and Promotion of ..... LEE JY, YANG JS, HAN M, and CHOI J (2010) Comparison of the.
north-western Tanzania. GIVENESS ... Background: Drug therapy can improve a patient's quality of life and health outcomes if only used properly. .... Irrational use of drugs occurs in all countries and causes harm to people (El Mahalli 2012).
optimal performance) in relation to thresholds of a standard performance ... PHC is a recognised means of quality .... 20.26 The population reference was created ... This was done by calculating ... performance were then used to stratify units'.
Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J; Drewnowski, Adam
Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arribas Díaz, Jorge Antonio; Martínez-Mediano, Catalina
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the application of quality management systems (QMS) based on international standards of quality in education (ISO 9001:2008) and ascertain the influence of this quality model on primary and secondary schools in Spain. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted in 26 publicly funded,…
Gage, Anna D; Leslie, Hannah H; Bitton, Asaf; Jerome, J Gregory; Joseph, Jean Paul; Thermidor, Roody; Kruk, Margaret E
Expanding coverage of primary healthcare services such as antenatal care and vaccinations is a global health priority; however, many Haitians do not utilize these services. One reason may be that the population avoids low quality health facilities. We examined how facility infrastructure and the quality of primary health care service delivery were associated with community utilization of primary health care services in Haiti. We constructed two composite measures of quality for all Haitian facilities using the 2013 Service Provision Assessment survey. We geographically linked population clusters from the Demographic and Health Surveys to nearby facilities offering primary health care services. We assessed the cross-sectional association between quality and utilization of four primary care services: antenatal care, postnatal care, vaccinations and sick child care, as well as one more complex service: facility delivery. Facilities performed poorly on both measures of quality, scoring 0.55 and 0.58 out of 1 on infrastructure and service delivery quality respectively. In rural areas, utilization of several primary cares services (antenatal care, postnatal care, and vaccination) was associated with both infrastructure and quality of service delivery, with stronger associations for service delivery. Facility delivery was associated with infrastructure quality, and there was no association for sick child care. In urban areas, care utilization was not associated with either quality measure. Poor quality of care may deter utilization of beneficial primary health care services in rural areas of Haiti. Improving health service quality may offer an opportunity not only to improve health outcomes for patients, but also to expand coverage of key primary health care services.
Gavornik, Jeffrey P.; Bear, Mark F.
It has been more than 50 years since the first description of ocular dominance plasticity--the profound modification of primary visual cortex (V1) following temporary monocular deprivation. This discovery immediately attracted the intense interest of neurobiologists focused on the general question of how experience and deprivation modify the brain…
Yi, Jungran; Kellogg, David
This study is a modest attempt to use three Korean primary school children and their English diaries as go-betweens to mediate in an apparent dispute between the founding fathers of socio-cultural theory about the nature of language and language awareness. According to Bruner, Vygotsky holds that mediation by others and self-mediation of written…
Macheridis, Nikos; Paulsson, Alexander
The starting point of this article is the relation between teaching quality and expectations by different governance actors in higher education. Managing a department in a public university is, to a large extent, about the coordination of governance actors, involving government authorities as well as the university and the faculty. Internally, the…
Prisacariu, Anca; Shah, Mahsood
The context of higher education across the world currently presents evidence of university failures. These failures are evident in areas such as governance, financial and risk management, conduct of senior leaders and quality assurance issues surrounding international education. Having this in mind, the present paper argues the need to add a new…
Campos, Domingos Fernandes; dos Santos, Guido Salvi; Castro, Felipe Nalon
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine, through a longitudinal study, undergraduate student perceptions of service expectations, priorities and quality of the higher education institution that they attend, using an importance-performance rating matrix. Design/methodology/approach: This research was carried out with students exposed to a…
Galeeva, Railya B.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an adaptation of the SERVQUAL survey method for measuring the quality of higher educational services in a Russian university context. We use a new analysis and a graphical technique for presentation of results. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology of this research follows the classic…
McIntosh, Benjamin T.
This doctoral research project examined perceptual gaps of service quality and value in the context of higher education. The researcher performed quantitative analysis of survey data gathered from students at a small, Midwestern Bible college. Students self-selected to participate in this research project and, using class status as an independent…
Edwards, Julian A.; Van Laar, Darren; Easton, Simon; Kinman, Gail
Previous research suggests that higher education employees experience comparatively high levels of job stress. A range of instruments, both generic and job-specific, has been used to measure stressors and strains in this occupational context. The Work-related Quality of Life (WRQoL) scale is a measure designed to capture perceptions of the working…
As online education has entered the main stream of the U.S. higher education, quality assurance in online course development has become a critical topic in distance education. This short article summarizes the major benchmarks related to online course development, listing and comparing the benchmarks of the National Education Association (NEA),…
Barczyk, Casimir; Buckenmeyer, Janet; Feldman, Lori
This article presents a four-stage model for mentoring faculty in higher education to deliver high quality online instruction. It provides a timeline that shows the stages of program implementation. Known as the Distance Education Mentoring Program, its major outcomes include certified instructors, student achievement, and the attainment of a…
Lenert, Kathleen Anne; Diane P. Janes
A survey was designed incorporating questions on 28 attributes (compiled through a literature review) and considered to be quality features in online academic courses in higher education. This study sought to investigate the ongoing practice of instructional designers and instructors in the United States with respect to their incorporation of…
Teeroovengadum, Viraiyan; Kamalanabhan, T. J.; Seebaluck, Ashley Keshwar
Purpose: This paper aims to develop and empirically test a hierarchical model for measuring service quality in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The first phase of the study consisted of qualitative research methods and a comprehensive literature review, which allowed the development of a conceptual model comprising 53 service quality…
Nguyen, Huu Cuong; Ta, Thi Thu Hien; Nguyen, Thi Thu Huong
Higher education quality assurance and accreditation were officially implemented in Vietnam over twelve years ago. From a totally centralized model, Vietnam's accreditation system has been becoming more independent, especially with the establishment of accrediting agencies. The first accreditation certificates were also awarded to universities…
Psomas, Evangelos; Antony, Jiju
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the main total quality management (TQM) elements adopted and the respective results achieved by higher education institutions (HEIs) in Greece. Design/methodology/approach: A research study was designed and carried out in private sector Greek HEIs. Fifteen HEIs were approached through interviews…
Weenink, Kasja; Aarts, Noelle; Jacobs, Sandra
Higher education quality is a vague, ambiguous, multiple, and essentially contested concept. Quality’s contested character involves endless disputes about its proper use which makes it problematic to handle in governmental policies. Wittgenstein’s notion of language games is used to understand how,
Blanco Ramírez, Gerardo
This article explores the concepts of "brand" and "franchise" in the development of international quality assurance. The impact of corporate language and culture on higher education is evident and has been extensively analysed. Recent attention given to branding of universities reflects the ever-growing influence of corporate…
Yeo, Roland K.
Purpose: The paper seeks to explore the influences of service quality in higher education and the perceptions associated with the implementation of a Singapore tertiary institution. It draws on the underpinnings of SERVQUAL, and discusses the dichotomy and interrelation between customer perception and expectation. Design/methodology/approach:…
Goos, Maarten; Salomons, Anna
Student evaluations of teaching (SETs) are widely used to measure teaching quality in higher education and compare it across different courses, teachers, departments and institutions. Indeed, SETs are of increasing importance for teacher promotion decisions, student course selection, as well as for auditing practices demonstrating institutional…
It is argued that bringing the cultures of business, industry and advertising into higher education, in the form of quality assurance systems, goes beyond a healthy challenge to be destructive of many traditional values of university culture. Imposition, and acceptance, of the language of management reflects this phenomenon. (MSE)
Clark, Melissa; Fine, Monica B.; Scheuer, Cara-Lynn
The landscape in consumer marketing is changing due to the rise in popularity of social media. This shift has also affected how higher education institutions build relationships with their stakeholders. This study explores how social media engagement impacts relationship quality between the university and one of its key stakeholder groups,…
Petrovskiy, Igor V.; Agapova, Elena N.
The aim of the research is to develop the policy and strategy recommendations to increase the quality of higher education in Russian Federation. The study examines the significance of equal educational opportunities and the influence of this factor on the educational systems of developing countries. Transformational processes in the domain of…
de Paor, Cathal
This article examines the extent to which the professional accreditation of professional higher education programmes can complement other quality assurance endeavours being carried out. An analysis of a sample of professional accreditation reports for pharmacy education programmes in Ireland provides insight into the priorities of the regulatory…
Pham, Michael N; Barbaro, Nicole; Holub, Andrew M; Holden, Christopher J; Mogilski, Justin K; Lopes, Guilherme S; Nicolas, Sylis C A; Sela, Yael; Shackelford, Todd K; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Welling, Lisa L M
Sperm competition theory can be used to generate the hypothesis that men alter the quality of their ejaculates as a function of sperm competition risk. Using a repeated measures experimental design, we investigated whether men produce a higher quality ejaculate when primed with cues to sperm competition (i.e., imagined partner infidelity) relative to a control prime. Men ( n = 45) submitted two masturbatory ejaculates-one ejaculate sample for each condition (i.e., sperm competition and control conditions). Ejaculates were assessed on 17 clinical parameters. The results did not support the hypothesis: Men did not produce higher quality ejaculates in the sperm competition condition relative to the control condition. Despite the null results of the current research, there is evidence for psychological and physiological adaptations to sperm competition in humans. We discuss methodological limitations that may have produced the null results and present methodological suggestions for research on human sperm competition.
van der Molen, T; Meyboom-de Jong, B; Mulder, HH; Postma, DS
New British guidelines on the treatment of asthma (9) advocate starting with a higher dose of inhaled corticosteroids in newly detected asthma patients. We investigated whether initiating inhaled steroid treatment with a higher dose is clinically more effective than a lower dose in steroid naive
Zou, Yaming; Zhang, Xiao; Hao, Yuantao; Shi, Leiyu; Hu, Ruwei
The primary care in China can be provided by general practitioners (GPs) and other physicians (non-GPs). However, China's general practice system has never been really established. Chinese patients tend to consider the quality of primary care provided by GPs much lower than that of non-GPs. Besides, many GPs presently prefer leaving their own positions and seeking better development in big hospitals, which has made the already weak GP system weaker. Yet, few studies have specially compared the quality of primary care provided by Chinese GPs and other physicians and no studies have explored the independent predictors of Chinese GPs' intentions to stay on their current job. In this study, we aimed to compare the quality of primary care offered by GPs with non-GPs and to explore the independent predictors of GPs' future work intentions. This cross-sectional study applied multi-stage random cluster sampling methodology. The data were collected from November 2013 to September 2014 in Guangdong Province. In total, 401 effective questionnaires were selected from the physicians. Quality of primary care was assessed using the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) Provider Part, representing six primary care domains: ongoing care, coordination (i.e., referrals and information systems), comprehensiveness (i.e., service available and service provided), family-centeredness, community orientation and cultural competence. Of 401 participating physicians, 163 (40.6 %) were GPs. The total PCAT score was 26.32 ± 2.24 which was the sum score of the six domains and represent the quality of primary care. GPs achieved significantly different total scores and scores on three individual scales: comprehensiveness: service available, comprehensiveness: service provided and community orientation. Multiple linear regressions revealed GPs had a higher total score and scores for comprehensiveness: service provided and community orientation after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics
Abu Al Hamayel, Nebras; Isenberg, Sarina R; Hannum, Susan M; Sixon, Joshua; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Dy, Sydney M
Despite increased focus on measuring and improving quality of serious illness care, there has been little emphasis on the primary care context or incorporation of the patient perspective. To explore older patients' perspectives on the quality of serious illness care in primary care. Qualitative interview study. Twenty patients aged 60 or older who were at risk for or living with serious illness and who had participated in the clinic's quality improvement initiative. We used a semistructured, open-ended guide focusing on how older patients perceived quality of serious illness care, particularly in primary care. We transcribed interviews verbatim and inductively identified codes. We identified emergent themes using a thematic and constant comparative method. We identified 5 key themes: (1) the importance of patient-centered communication, (2) coordination of care, (3) the shared decision-making process, (4) clinician competence, and (5) access to care. Communication was an overarching theme that facilitated coordination of care between patients and their clinicians, empowered patients for shared decision-making, related to clinicians' perceived competence, and enabled access to primary and specialty care. Although access to care is not traditionally considered an aspect of quality, patients considered this integral to the quality of care they received. Patients perceived serious illness care as a key aspect of quality in primary care. Efforts to improve quality measurement and implementation of quality improvement initiatives in serious illness care should consider these aspects of care that patients deem important, particularly communication as an overarching priority.
Full Text Available In South Africa four key policy discourses underpin doctoral education: growth, capacity, efficiency, and quality discourses. This article contributes to the discourse on quality by engaging with quality assurance from the perspective of the decision makers and implementers of macro policy (national, meso (institutional, and micro (faculty/departmental levels. We explore the perceptions that members of higher degree committees in the field of Education have of the quality assurance of doctoral education. Our data are drawn from a national survey questionnaire completed by these respondents at all public South African institutions that offer a doctorate in Education. The insights gained reside within four categories: positionality, policy, programmes, and people (stakeholders. Thereafter, we problematised the main results using academic freedom in a mode 3 knowledge production environment as a lens, which revealed thought provoking directions for future research about doctoral education.
Ibnteesam Pondor; Wan Ying Gan; Geeta Appannah
Food price is a determining factor of food choices; however its relationship with diet quality is unclear in Malaysia. This study aimed to examine socio-economic characteristics and daily dietary cost (DDC) in relation to diet quality in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Dietary intake was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and diet quality was estimated using a Malaysian Healthy Eating Index (M-HEI). DDC in Malaysian Ringgit (RM) was calculated from dietary intake and nationa...
The relationship between quality control in radiography and radiation protection is emphasized. Methods of dose reduction discussed are the 0.1 mm fractional focal spot, the use of high speed intensifying screens, and automatic exposure control. The need for recommendations for the establishment of improved systems of radiography is discussed. The development of revised educational concepts for radiologists is considered. (U.S.)
Oct 21, 2010 ... units, and workplaces (1), free of cost and within close proximity. ... and reduce gross inequality in health status. Quality of .... scores of all the items except items 2 and 14 (payment and billing ... Women have been reported to ...
Families, communities, schools and churches play a crucial role in reducing or reinforcing both social and educational inequalities in Zimbabwe. Leadership in schools plays a pivotal role in ensuring discipline and promoting quality education in their institutions. This paper seeks to highlight the issues that affect schools in ...
Objectives: To assess patient satisfaction with quality of PHC assessed in terms of (a) customer profile, (b) patient satisfaction, and (c) health care-seeking behavior. Methodology: A sample of nine health centers and seven polyclinics from various locations in Benghazi, Libya were selected for gathering information by ...
The survey and discussion focus on the challenges to quality education in Uganda. It is over136 years since formal education was introduced in Uganda by the Christian Missionaries in 1877 and 1879. These were Anglican and Roman Catholic Missionaries respectively. Given the plethora of implicit and explicit challenges ...
Hyland, Marie; Layte, Richard; Lyons, Sean; McCoy, Selina; Silles, Mary
This paper combines data from a government programme providing broadband access to primary schools in Ireland with survey microdata on schools', teachers' and pupils use of the internet to examine the links between public subsidies, classroom use of the internet and educational performance. Provision of broadband service under a government scheme was associated with more than a doubling of teachers' use of the internet in class after about a two year lag. Better computing facilities in school...
Ahmed Ali Saleh Al Ajmi
Full Text Available Academic research remains a prime source of knowledge and innovation for higher education institutions (HEIs that strive to grow, expand and develop their academic reputations and standards. Yet, research informs teaching practices, shapes social changes and it has financial outcomes for HEIs. Therefore, it is imperative to develop institutional policies and strategies for promoting and sustaining quality research in HEIs in Oman. There are a number of international frameworks and models which have been developed to measure research quality in HEIs around the world. For example, bibliometrics were used to assess research quality in HEIs in the UK because bibliometric data can provide a number of component variables. An appropriate bibliometric model may include components such as output volume, diversity of outputs, citation volume, journal impact factor and average citations per publication, etc. Moreover, other popular examples of models for assessing research quality are Multidimensional Research Assessment Matrix (MRAM used in Europe and the UK’s Research Assessment Exercise (RAE. However, neither of the above mentioned models is adopted by HEIs in Oman. Thus, the current study is an attempt to explore some institutional, international, logistic and pragmatic factors that impact academic research and publication quality, review popular international research quality assessment models and explore the possibility of applying them in the Omani context. To achieve the study objectives, 20 teacher researchers were surveyed and the findings and recommendations were presented. Keywords: Quality Research, HEIs in Oman, International Models, Factors, Teacher Researchers' Views
Telli, S.; Brok, den P.J.; Wubbels, T.; Brok, den P.J.; Tartwijk, van J.; Levy, J.
Teacher- student interactions are relevant in many teaching and learning processes in the classroom. The literature consistently provides support for the premise that high-quality teacher-student relationships are an important factor in effective teaching. Teachers’ behaviours as perceived by
Díaz-Lázaro, José Javier; Fernández, Isabel M. Solano; del Mar Sánchez Vera, María
The concept of Learning Analytics, as we understand it today, is relatively new but the practice of evaluating user behavior is not innovative. For years, technological development, along with other educational aspects, have encouraged, developed and facilitated this practice as a way of providing a personalized quality experience to students. The…
Bruna de Oliveira Ascef
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL of patients of the primary health care of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS and its associated factors. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with data from the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos – Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM – National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines – Services, 2015. Data were collected with a questionnaire that included the EuroQol 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D instrument. Patients from the five regions of Brazil were interviewed. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze their Health-Related Quality of Life and its associated factors. RESULTS Of the total of 8,590 patients, the most frequent dimensions were pain/discomfort (50.7% and anxiety/depression (38.8%. About 10% of the patients reported extreme problems in these dimensions. The following factors were significantly associated with a worse quality of life: being female; having arthritis, osteoarthritis, or rheumatism; cerebrovascular accident; heart disease; depression; health self-assessment as poor or very poor; drinking alcoholic beverages once or more per month; dieting to lose weight, avoiding salt consumption, and reducing fat intake. Significant association was observed between a better quality of life and: living in the North and Southeast regions of Brazil; practicing physical activities; and having a higher educational level. No association was observed with factors related to the health services. CONCLUSIONS The Health-Related Quality of Life of patients was influenced by demographic and socioeconomic factors that were related to health conditions and lifestyle, being useful to guide specific actions for promoting health and the integral care to patients of the Brazilian Unified Health System.
Taylor, Benjamin J.; Schalk, Dane R.; Jeanne, Robert L.
While foraging, social insects encounter a dynamic array of food resources of varying quality and profitability. Because food acquisition influences colony growth and fitness, natural selection can be expected to favor colonies that allocate their overall foraging effort so as to maximize their intake of high-quality nutrients. Social wasps lack recruitment communication, but previous studies of vespine wasps have shown that olfactory cues influence foraging decisions. Odors associated with food brought into the nest by successful foragers prompt naive foragers to leave the nest and search for the source of those odors. Left unanswered, however, is the question of whether naive foragers take food quality into account in making their decisions about whether or not to search. In this study, two different concentrations of sucrose solutions, scented differently, were inserted directly into each of three Vespula germanica nests. At a feeder away from the nest, arriving foragers were given a choice between two 1.5 M sucrose solutions with the same scents as those in the nest. We show that wasps chose higher-quality resources in the field using information in the form of intranidal food-associated odor cues. By this simple mechanism, the colony can bias the allocation of its foraging effort toward higher-quality resources in the environment.
Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lee, Chun-Te; Lu, Huei-Lan; Tsai, Yun-Fang
To examine influencing factors of health-related quality of life in primary family caregivers of people with schizophrenia receiving inpatient psychiatric rehabilitation services. Families, particularly primary family caregivers, have become more important than ever in mental health care. Yet, research on health-related quality of life among primarily family caregivers is limited. A correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 122 primary family caregivers participated in the study. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, Pearson's product-moment correlation, t test, one-way analysis of variance and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Primary family caregivers who were parents, older, less educated, and had a lower monthly household income, increased affiliate stigma and decreased quality of family-centred care experienced poor health-related quality of life. Particularly, monthly household income, affiliate stigma and quality of family-centred care appeared to be the most critical determinants of health-related quality of life. Efforts to enhance satisfaction of life should focus on reducing affiliate stigma as well as increasing monthly household income and strengthening the quality of family-centred care. Findings may assist in the development of culturally integrated rehabilitation programmes to decrease affiliate stigma and increase family engagement as a means of promoting quality of life for primary family caregivers living with people who have schizophrenia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gonçalves, Marcelo Rodrigues; Hauser, Lisiane; Prestes, Isaías Valente; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Harzheim, Erno
To investigate the relation of hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) with the quality of public primary care health services in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Cohort study constructed by probabilistic record linkage performed from August 2006 to December 2011 in a population ≥18 years of age that attended public primary care health services. The Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool-Brazil) was used for evaluation of primary care services. Of 1200 subjects followed, 84 were hospitalized for primary care sensitive conditions. The main causes of ACSC hospital admissions were cardiovascular (40.5%) and respiratory (16.2%) diseases. The PCATool average score was 5.3, a level considerably below that considered to represent quality care. After adjustment through Cox proportional hazard modelling for covariates, >60 years of age [hazard ratio (HR): 1.13; P = 0.001), lesser education (HR: 0.66; P = 0.02), ethnicity other than white (HR: 1.77; P = 0.01) and physical inactivity (HR: 1.65; P = 0.04) predicted hospitalization, but higher quality of primary health care did not. Better quality of health care services, in a setting of overwhelmingly low quality services not adapted to the care of chronic conditions, did not influence the rate of avoidable hospitalizations, while social and demographic characteristics, especially non-white ethnicity and lesser schooling, indicate that social inequities play a predominant role in health outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
This study assessed perceived quality of primary health care and identified predictors in the ... Outcome measured were patients' satisfaction with doctors and nurses' ... using regression analyses with p-value < 0.005 considered significant.
Conclusion: The prevalence of both depressive symptomatology and impairment of quality of life is significant and primary care with simple, validated tools can be the setting for identifying and helping such patients.
Atilla ÖZDEMİR; Selahattin GELBAL
It is seen that education has a significant effect that changes an individual’s life in our country in which education is a way of moving up the social ladder. In order to continue to a higher education program after graduating from high school, students have to succeed in transition to higher education examination. Thus, the entrance exam is an important factor to determine the future of the students. In our country, middle school grades and high school grade point average that is added to u...
Alfatih Alamin Elfaki
Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the importance of having national standards and their role in achieving quality, as well as establishing a framework for the actual application of national standards in quality assurance so as to achieve quality in higher education institutions. The researchers followed a descriptive analytical method to achieve the objectives of the study and developed a questionnaire covering primary and secondary variables that have a role in the design of specific models to help in applying the national standards by the Sudanese universities. The questionnaire included one dependent variable; the effective application of national standards of quality assurance in higher education institutions, and the four main variables (independent are: the national standards of quality assurance in higher education in Sudan, the standard of quality assurance, the standard of teaching and learning and the standard of scientific research and publication. The study revealed a number of conclusions: there were statistically significant differences in the extent of familiarity with the national quality assurance standards in Sudan according to the academic rank of the faculty members; there were also significant differences in the extent of compliance with the national quality assurance standards in Sudan according to the academic rank of the faculty members; there was full agreement between the national standards for quality assurance in Sudan and the international standards for quality assurance; and there were statistically significant differences in that the absence of specific models would have a negative impact on effective application of national standards of quality assurance in higher education in Sudan, according to the academic rank of the faculty members. Keywords: Quality, The program, Standards, University, Total quality management.
Dillen, S.M. van; Noordman, J.; Dulmen, S. van; Hiddink, G.J.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of weight-loss counseling provided by Dutch primary care practice nurses (PNs) to overweight and obese patients including both PNs' compliance with the Five A's Model for behavioral counseling in primary care, and the use of different communication styles.
This paper examines Uganda's recent undertaking to reform her Primary School education System with a focus on the effect of structural dynamics of education reforms and the quality of primary education. Structural dynamics in the context of this study is in reference to the organizational composition of the education system at the government,…
Mackatiani, Caleb Imbova
This paper provides a critical appraisal of the influence of examinations oriented approaches on quality education in primary schools in Kenya. The purpose of the study was to determine effects of examination oriented teaching approaches on learning achievement among primary school pupils in Kakamega County, Kenya. It explored the assumptions…
This contribution focuses on quality assurance (QA) agencies in the sphere of higher education. It develops a theoretical framework that interrelates systems theory with Gramsci's theory of hegemony with a view to situating this new control of universities in the broader context of a further...... differentiation of society and emerging heterarchical modes of governance. A closer study of the emerging European market of QA agencies highlights the European dimension of this differentiation and the role of the market in advancing a variable geometry in the context of the European Higher Education Area....
Alemu, Daniel S.
Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led to mixed feelings among the Ethiopian public. While some laud the opportunities and advantages these new institutions bring, others are apprehensive that the quality of education might be compromised by an expansion motivated by monetary gain. This article sheds light on these paradoxes and provides suggestions for policy and practices.
Teles, Mariza Alves Barbosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gomes, Viviane Elizângela; e Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição
Background Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. Methods This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health...
Boonen, Annemie; Bijnens, Helena
European higher education institutions will need significant reforms, in order to guarantee their leading role in a globalized knowledge economy. These reforms can be enhanced by improving the way in which traditional universities integrate new technologies both in their educational activities and throughout their strategic and operational processes. The UNIQUe institutional accreditation scheme, analyzed and described in this chapter, intends to support this process of integrating the use of new technologies in higher education. With its specific open approach to quality in e-Learning, UNIQUe emphasizes innovation and creativity in a process that includes self-assessment and constructive dialog with peers and stakeholders involved. UNIQUe intends to use the institutional quality label as a catalyst for continuous improvement and change while setting up collaborative bench learning processes among universities for the adoption and integration of e-Learning.
Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to study the relationship between perceived quality (PQ and satisfaction in Higher education, and especially to identify if these variables could differ between groups of students exposed to different teaching methods. A quantitative study was conducted at a Portuguese Faculty of Health Sciences, through a survey applied to a final sample of 359 students. Data analysis was performed through a structural equation model, using, for this purpose, the PLS method. Results confirm that PQ is positively related to students' satisfaction in the Higher Education Institutions (HEI context, and that PQ and satisfaction are significantly different when students are exposed to different teaching approaches. Although there is a substantial body of evidence regarding teaching methods in HEI, to our knowledge there is no reliable prior study that explicitly approached the influence of alternative teaching methods on students' satisfaction and their perception of service quality.
Full Text Available Quality management is an important aspect in all kinds of businesses – manufacturing or service. Idea generation plays a pivotal role in managing quality in organizations. It is thenew and innovative ideas which can help corporations to survive in the turbulent business environment. Research in group dynamics has shown that more ideas are generated by individuals working alone but in a group environment than the individuals engaged in a formal group discussion. In Nominal Group Technique (NGT, individuals work alone but in a group setting. This paper shows how NGT can be applied to generate large number of ideas to solve quality related problems specifically in Malaysian higher education setting. The paper also discusses the details of NGT working procedure andexplores the areas of its further applications.
Full Text Available A preprocessing scheme based on linear prediction coefficient (LPC residual is applied to higher-order statistics (HOSs for automatic assessment of an overall pathological voice quality. The normalized skewness and kurtosis are estimated from the LPC residual and show statistically meaningful distributions to characterize the pathological voice quality. 83 voice samples of the sustained vowel /a/ phonation are used in this study and are independently assessed by a speech and language therapist (SALT according to the grade of the severity of dysphonia of GRBAS scale. These are used to train and test classification and regression tree (CART. The best result is obtained using an optima l decision tree implemented by a combination of the normalized skewness and kurtosis, with an accuracy of 92.9%. It is concluded that the method can be used as an assessment tool, providing a valuable aid to the SALT during clinical evaluation of an overall pathological voice quality.
Kilburn, Brandon; Kilburn, Ashley; Davis, Dexter
E-service quality of online higher education reflects the student's perception of quality of online exchanges across four dimensions: fulfillment, efficiency, system availability and privacy. This study links e-service quality to intentions to remain loyal as mediated by perceived value in an online higher education environment. AMOS is used to…
Raj, Sony Jalarajan; Massey, Susan R.; Jose, Soumya
Quality education and teacher accountability are predominant issues generating apprehension in higher education. Traditional methods of evaluation are giving way to more contemporary methods. One technique that is being implemented in many universities throughout the world that provides feedback and improves pedagogical approaches is a formative and collaborative process known as peer review of teaching (PRT). Review of the literature included 34 studies which identified five themes that offe...
Jorge González González
Full Text Available The paper discusses the concepts of «quality» and «accreditation» in education with different meanings, and proposes comprehensive definitions that have been put into practice by the Union of Universities of Latin America and the Caribbean and the International Network of Evaluators through model «V» evaluation planningfor continuous improvement, integration and internationalization of higher education.
Nathan Kanuma Taremwa
Full Text Available Developing knowledge infrastructure by massive investments in education and training are taken as a benchmark in facilitating the acceleration and possible increases in skills, capacities and competences of Rwandan people has become apriority issue in the recent years. This notion is relevant to vision 2020 where human resource development and building of a knowledge based economy are fundamental pillars. In the past years, several policy reforms have taken place in education sector. However, the overarching question is if such reforms are becoming adaptive or complex and if such reforms will not compromise the quality of education in higher learning education in Rwanda? The main objective of the study was to investigate the impact of changes in Higher Learning Institutions on the quality of education in Rwanda. This research had three hypotheses, namely; there is an impact of changes in Higher Learning Institutions on quality of education in Rwanda; the current complexity in Rwandan education system is affecting the quality of education in HLIs; Tailoring education system to the regional reforms and implementation strategies is affecting the quality of education in Rwanda. This study was carried out in 10 higher learning institutions (5 public, 5 private and 2 Ministry of Education directorates (HEC and REB. Key informants were the senior management/head of institutions, experienced academic staff, and students. The parameters considered included; the learning methods, assessment styles, workloads, language of instruction, merging of public HLIs, curriculum, and the transformation of some private higher learning institutions into company forms. Main research instruments were questionnaires and interview guides. Both qualitative and quantitative research was collected. Analyses were done using SPSS and excel packages. Major findings indicate that the system is still in transition with indicative gaps. Ample time would therefore be necessary for
Full Text Available Progressive importance, swelling investment, and mounting national and global competition necessitate evaluation of the service quality of higher education. Quantifiable indicators such as student teacher ratio, student number, women participation, establishing new departments, and increase in the number of universities are no longer enough unless the student’s stand point is considered. This research probed the service quality of higher education in a public university in southern Bangladesh utilizing modified SERVQUAL gap model. The t-test results suggest that there is a significant service gap in all the selected service dimensions such as learning, teaching, recognition, assessment system, internet and library facilities, campus life, and non-academic administration. The results also mirror that little more than half (54.1% students are satisfied with the service quality of the selected university and almost similar proportion (52.1 % of the students have future interest in studying in the same university. Regression analysis reveals that learning and recognition are two important determinants of client’s overall satisfaction with the service of selected university. Importance Performance Analysis (IPA advocates that the university should take immediate step in improving internet and library facilities, campus life, and non-academic administration. Factor analysis output confirms that slight modification of the proposed seven set model into six set factors can be employed by the management as off-the-rack service quality measurement tool.
Teelken, Christine; Lomas, Laurie
This paper focuses on the way lecturers observe, feel restrained by and cope with quality management systems that have been implemented in the higher education systems of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. As two sides of the same coin, quality enhancement and quality control are of increased significance in European Higher Education…
González, Grisel Zacca; Klazinga, Niek; ten Asbroek, Guus; Delnoij, Diana M.
An appropriate quality of medical care including dental care should be an objective of every government that aims to improve the oral health of its population. OBJECTIVES: To determine performance indicators that could be used to assess the quality of primary dental care at different levels of a
Marshall, Martin; Klazinga, Niek; Leatherman, Sheila; Hardy, Charlie; Bergmann, Eckhard; Pisco, Luis; Mattke, Soeren; Mainz, Jan
PURPOSE: This article describes a project undertaken as part of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)'s Healthcare Quality Indicator (HCQI) Project, which aimed to develop a set of quality indicators representing the domains of primary care, prevention and health
Au, Lauren E; Rosen, Nila J; Fenton, Keenan; Hecht, Kenneth; Ritchie, Lorrene D
Few studies have assessed the dietary quality of children who eat meals from home compared with school meals according to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The objective of this study was to examine diet quality for elementary school students in relation to source of breakfast and lunch (whether school meal or from an outside source). An observational study was conducted of students in 43 schools in San Diego, CA, during the 2011-2012 school year. Fourth- and fifth-grade students (N=3,944) completed a diary-assisted 24-hour food recall. The Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores of children who ate breakfast and lunch at school were compared with the HEI-2010 scores of children who obtained their meals from home and a combination of both school and home. Analysis of variance, χ 2 test, and generalized estimating equation models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, grade, language, and school level clustering were performed. School lunch eaters had a higher mean±standard deviation overall diet quality score (HEI-2010=49.0±11.3) compared with students who ate a lunch obtained from home (46.1±12.2; P=0.02). There was no difference in overall diet quality score by breakfast groups. Students who ate school breakfast had higher total fruit (P=0.01) and whole fruit (P=0.0008) scores compared with students who only ate breakfast obtained from home. Students who ate school foods had higher scores for dairy (P=0.007 for breakfast and Pempty calories from solid fats and added sugars (P=0.01 for breakfast and P=0.007 for lunch). Eating school lunch was associated with higher overall diet quality compared with obtaining lunch from home. Future studies are needed that assess the influence of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act on children's diet quality. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Žibeniene, Gintaute; Savickiene, Izabela
The article presents which conceptions of higher education quality are most acceptable to first-year students of the study field of pedagogy. It is significant to analyse students' opinions as more than 10 years ago the EU member states agreed that higher education institutions bear responsibility for the quality of higher education. Being members…
Lin, Mengquan; Chang, Kai; Gong, Le
The higher education quality evaluation and assurance frameworks and their operating mechanisms of countries such as the United Kingdom, France, and the United States show that higher education systems, traditional culture, and social background all impact quality assurance operating mechanisms. A model analysis of these higher education quality…
Putri, R. I. I.; Zulkardi, Z.
This article aimed at reporting research result on a case study of a lesson using a HOTS problem. The task was about data representation using baby growth context. The study used a design research method consisting of three stages: preparing for an experiment, experiment in the classroom (pilot and teaching), and retrospective analysis. Participants were sixth grade students who were learning data representations in a Primary School in Palembang Indonesia. A set of instructional activities were designed using Indonesian version of Realistic Mathematics Education (PMRI) approach. The result showed that students were able to solve the problem and present their solution in front of the classroom. The conclusion indicated that that HOTS problem using the growth of a child as the context could lead students to use their mathematical thinking. During the learning activities along with teacher orchestra’s guidance, and discussion, students were able to solve the problem using line graph although some of them used a bar graph. In the future, teachers are necessary to focus on the role of real-world figure in mathematics learning.
Hortlund, Maria; Sundström, Karin; Lamin, Helena; Hjerpe, Anders; Dillner, Joakim
As primary HPV screening programs are rolled out, methods are needed for routine quality assurance of HPV laboratory analyzes. To explore the use of similar design for audit as currently used in cytology-based screening, to estimate the clinical sensitivity to identify women at risk for CIN 3 or worse (CIN3+). Population-based cohort study conducted within the cervical screening program in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2011-2012. All women with histopathologically confirmed CIN3+ in the following two years were identified by registry analysis. Primary HPV and cytology screening results were collected. For women who had not been HPV tested, biobanked cytology samples were HPV-tested. If the original HPV result had been negative, the sample and subsequent biopsies were analyzed with broad HPV typing (general primer PCR and Luminex). 154 women had a biobanked prediagnostic cytology sample taken up to 2 years before a histopathologically confirmed CIN3+. The high-risk HPV-positivity was 97% (148/154 women), whereas 143/154 (94%) women had had a cytological abnormality. Among the six HPV-negative samples, one sample was HPV 33 positive in repeat testing whereas the other five cases were HPV-negative also on repeat testing, but HPV-positive in the subsequent tumor tissue. A sensitivity of the HPV test that is higher than the sensitivity of cytology suggests adequate quality of the testing. Regular audits of clinical sensitivity, similar to those of cytology-based screening, should be used also in HPV-based screening programs, in order to continuously monitor the performance of the analyzes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kurpas, Donata; Szwamel, Katarzyna; Mroczek, Bożena
There are scarce reports in the literature on factors affecting the assessment of the quality of care for patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Such information is relevant in the accreditation process on implementing the healthcare. The study group consisted of 133 adult patients with chronic respiratory diseases and 125 adult patients with chronic non-respiratory diseases. In the present study, the level of satisfaction from healthcare provided by the primary healthcare unit, disease acceptance, quality of life, health behaviors, and met needs were examined, as well as associations between variables with the use of correspondence analysis. The results are that in patients with chronic respiratory diseases an increase in satisfaction depends on the improvement of well-being in the mental sphere. The lack of problems with obtaining a referral to a specialist and a higher level of fulfilled needs also have a positive effect. Additionally, low levels of satisfaction should be expected in those patients with chronic respiratory diseases who wait for an appointment in front of the office for a long time, report problems with obtaining a referral to additional tests, present a low level of health behaviors, and have a low index of benefits.
Navarro-Martínez, A; Suárez-Beke, M P; Sánchez-Nicolás, J A; Lázaro-Aragues, P; de Jesús Jiménez-Vázquez, E; Huertas-de Mora, O
The aim of this study was to evaluate and improve the quality of medical care provided to diabetic patients following the standards proposed by the American Diabetes Association. The study was conducted in three phases by analyzing data from the computerized clinical history of a sample of 340 patients. First phase (2010): cross-sectional, descriptive study which assessed the proportion of patients who met the standards related to the screening of diabetes, and goals of control and treatment. Subsequently, health professionals reviewed the results in order to promote the implementation of corrective action. Finally (2012), a new assessment with the same standards was performed. An increase in the number of patients treated with insulin (12.7% in 2010 and 20.2% in 2012) was observed (P < .01). There were also percentage increases in the number of patients who met the screening standards as regards analytical determinations: glycosylated hemoglobin (from 44.4% to 68.2%), lipid profile (47.6%-73.8%), creatinine (32.5% - 73.5%), and albumin-creatinine ratio (9.2%-24.4%) (P < .001). Only 6.4% (CI: 3.2- 9.8) of diabetic patients attained the composite target of glycosylated hemoglobin < 7%, blood pressure < 130/80 mmHg and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 100 mg/dl in 2012. This study shows that medical care has improved the goals related to analytical determinations and the number of insulin-treated diabetic type 2 patients. An optimal level was also maintained in metabolic control of diabetes, but there was still poor control of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Saust, Laura Trolle; Monrad, Rikke Nygaard; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup
QIs, especially disease-specific QIs concerning the diagnostic process, is needed. KEY POINTS In order to improve the use of antibiotics in primary care, measurable instruments, such as quality indicators, are needed to assess the quality of care being provided. A total of 11 studies were found......OBJECTIVE: To identify existing quality indicators (QIs) for diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of patients with infectious diseases in primary care. DESIGN: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE. We included studies with a description of the development of QIs...... for diagnosis and antibiotic use in patients with infectious diseases in primary care. We extracted information about (1) type of infection; (2) target for quality assessment; (3) methodology used for developing the QIs; and (4) whether the QIs were developed for a national or international application. The QIs...
Ping, Owi Wei; Ahmad, Azhar; Adnan, Mazlini; Hua, Ang Kean
Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) is a new concept of education reform based on the Taxonomies Bloom. The concept concentrate on student understanding in learning process based on their own methods. Through the HOTS questions are able to train students to think creatively, critic and innovative. The aim of this study was to identify the student's proficiency in solving HOTS Mathematics question by using i-Think map. This research takes place in Sabak Bernam, Selangor. The method applied is quantitative approach that involves approximately all of the standard five students. Pra-posttest was conduct before and after the intervention using i-Think map in solving the HOTS questions. The result indicates significant improvement for post-test, which prove that applying i-Think map enhance the students ability to solve HOTS question. Survey's analysis showed 90% of the students agree having i-Thinking map in analysis the question carefully and using keywords in the map to solve the questions. As conclusion, this process benefits students to minimize in making the mistake when solving the questions. Therefore, teachers are necessarily to guide students in applying the eligible i-Think map and methods in analyzing the question through finding the keywords.
Jawad Ghaleb Obaidi
Full Text Available Background: Cancer diagnosis has a significant impact not only on women, but also on their Primary caregivers. Understanding the effects of a breast cancer diagnosis on physical and mental health outcomes in caregivers is important because these variables are key components of quality of life. Quality of life is a multi-dimensionalconstruct measuring overall enjoyment of life. This study intends to describe the impact of caring for women with breast cancer on the quality of life among their primary caregivers.Method: We conducted a comprehensive search in PubMed, MEDLINE andCINAHL. In addition, we used the web search engine “Google” for abstracts from 2007 to 2012. A total of eight studies were reviewed that met the following inclusion criteria: adult women with breast cancer, research conducted in English. Studies ranged from 2007-2011. The total sample size in the eight studies on adult caregivers totaled 789 participants. The average age of participants in all of the studies was 49.55 years.There were seven studies that had a quantitative focus,which mainly used a questionnaire and survey to estimate quality of life among primary caregivers. The qualitative approach included in-depth interviews and a focus group.Results: Accumulating evidence has supported the concept that cancer affects not only the patients but also their primary caregiver's quality of life.They face multiple challenges in caring for women with breast cancer, including physical, emotional, social, and financial stress that affects the caregiver's quality of life.Conclusion: Breast cancer diagnosis not only affects the patient's quality of life, but in parallel, also affects the quality of life of the primary caregiver. Thus more focus should be placed on providing moral and social support, and educational resources to improve the level of the caretaker's quality of life.
Full Text Available The article explores quality-related funding and its global outcomes in the context of Romanian higher education by focusing on the funding allocations provided to public universities throughout a period of nine years based on their institutional performance on the quality indicators integrated in the funding algorithm. Global funding allocations between universities are analysed and a summative appraisal for the entire nine-year window is provided. The article also explores the relation between quality- related funding, institutional disciplinary profiles and the results of a comprehensive evaluation conducted in 2011 by the Ministry of Education to complete a classification of the universities. The main findings indicate a low overall impact of qualityrelated funding for many institutions, but also a clear pattern in which universities focused on science, technology, engineering and mathematics overwhelmingly outperformed mixed institutions, as well as those focused on humanities, arts and social sciences. Furthermore, the global quality-related funding outcomes of the 2003 – 2011 period studied in the paper are shown to be significantly associated with the results of the 2011 classification
Full Text Available Much has been attempted, and many projects are still underway aimed at achieving equality in higher education and research. Today, the key argument to demand and support the integration of gender in academia is that equality is indeed about the quality on which academic work is supposed to be based. Although more or less national political, social and cultural contexts matter as much as academic environments, regarding higher education and research, the integration of gender into the field of law seems particularly interesting. Faculties of law enjoy a certain standing and status, are closely connected to power and politics, and are likely to feature resistance to equality efforts, both in the law itself and in the curriculum and research agenda. However, a multidimensional, intersectional gender analysis helps to reframe cases and doctrines, rulings and regulations far beyond the law that evidently affects women, which the headscarf controversies illustrate. In addition to gender competence, team diversity is a procedural device for success, and non-discrimination is a key requirement when diversity is meant to work. After all, such efforts - to expose bias and educate about gender in an academic field, to insist and integrate it continuously, and to not only demand but also do it - produce quality. Thus, gender equality is crucial for the achievement of the best possible results in higher education and research.
Amalia, A.; Gunawan, D.; Hardi, S. M.; Rachmawati, D.
The Internal Quality Assurance System (in Indonesian: SPMI (Sistem Penjaminan Mutu Internal) is a systemic activity of quality assurance of higher education in Indonesia. SPMI should be done by all higher education or universities in Indonesia based on the Regulation of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia Number 62 of 2016. Implementation of SPMI must refer to the principle of SPMI that is independent, standardize, accurate, well planned and sustainable, documented and systematic. To assist the SPMI cycle properly, universities need a supporting software to monitor all the activities of SPMI. But in reality, many universities are not optimal in building this SPMI monitoring system. One of the obstacles is the determination of system requirements in support of SPMI principles is difficult to achieve. In this paper, we observe the initial phase of the engineering requirements elicitation. Unlike other methods that collect system requirements from users and stakeholders, we find the system requirements of the SPMI principles from SPMI guideline book. The result of this paper can be used as a choice in determining SPMI software requirements. This paper can also be used by developers and users to understand the scenario of SPMI so that could overcome the problems of understanding between this two parties.
Full Text Available This study addresses sport in higher education in rel ation to its organization structure, quality and sports performance. We have studied documents, normative acts and the way in which certain decisional factors involved in higher education sports activities are organized. The lack of a concrete strategy inthis respect, renders the information sources to be relatively limited. Particularly, our research was based on scientific documentation, historical method and document analysis. There is a small number of legitimated athletes related to the number of higher education students. Higher education sport is a non-functional system, it cannot generate a representative number of participants in the National University Championships, and the international representation is not a natural consequence of the internal competition. Therefore, it is imperative for higher education sports to be the foundation of performance sports. This involves changing both the approach to this phenomenon and its organizational structure. Also, the development of human resources and sports infrastructure are essential conditions for the development ofsports activity.
Full Text Available To strength training of the professional quality of students in the higher vocational college, and then explore an effective way to train the professional quality of students in the higher vocational college is a very necessary and urgent task. On this basis, this paper aims at investigating the situation of the professional quality of the students majored with the logistics management in the higher vocational college according to the requirements of the industry and enterprise, constructs a multi-dimensional space of the professional quality by the use of the AHP analysis method, and proposes the training method of the professional quality, in order to further improve the professional quality of students in the higher vocational college, and provide reference for the training of the students majored with the logistics management in the higher vocational college.
Meena, R.; Pramanik, D.; Sairam, S.; Rajkumar, J.V.; Rao, R.V.R.L.V.; Sinha, T.K.; Santra, N.; Rao, G.V.S.H.; Jayaraj, R.N.
At Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), in the production of UO 2 fuel for PHWRs, a standard set of process parameters are monitored regularly for every lot of powder and pellet. Quality of intermediate products in the production process like UNP, ADU(dry), U 3 O 8 , UO 2+x , UO 2 granules, green pellets, sintered pellets are also regularly analysed/monitored apart from the final finished pellet and ensured to be within specified range. This range is decided by final product specifications and sometimes also based on the feed requirement in the next process in the downstream of the flow sheet. Vast experience gained over the years, behavior of various equipment under given set of conditions, feed back from the customer plants etc; have been primary criteria hither to, for defining the process conditions and chemical/physical properties of intermediate products
This study aims to understand equity issues of international students' learning in Korean higher education institutions by engaging with the issue of racism and identifies how international students in Korea reshape their learning trajectory and how we could provide equitable and quality education for international students.Espousing a qualitative case study design,six students from different background were interviewed to examine features of perceived institutional racism based on their learning experience in Korea.Major findings showed that internationalization has not been fulfilled in terms of engaging with international students although Korean government and higher education institutions have developed relevant policy to attract international students.This study indicates that Korean universities need to reconstruct their social,cultural,and institutional systems to embrace equity,diversity and inclusiveness to empower international students' capacity.
van Gils, Jan A; Beekman, Jan H; Coehoorn, Pieter; Corporaal, Els; Dekkers, Ten; Klaassen, Marcel; van Kraaij, Rik; de Leeuw, Rinze; de Vries, Peter P
1. Within the broad field of optimal foraging, it is increasingly acknowledged that animals often face digestive constraints rather than constraints on rates of food collection. This therefore calls for a formalization of how animals could optimize food absorption rates. 2. Here we generate predictions from a simple graphical optimal digestion model for foragers that aim to maximize their (true) metabolizable food intake over total time (i.e. including nonforaging bouts) under a digestive constraint. 3. The model predicts that such foragers should maintain a constant food retention time, even if gut length or food quality changes. For phenotypically flexible foragers, which are able to change the size of their digestive machinery, this means that an increase in gut length should go hand in hand with an increase in gross intake rate. It also means that better quality food should be digested more efficiently. 4. These latter two predictions are tested in a large avian long-distance migrant, the Bewick's swan (Cygnus columbianus bewickii), feeding on grasslands in its Dutch wintering quarters. 5. Throughout winter, free-ranging Bewick's swans, growing a longer gut and experiencing improved food quality, increased their gross intake rate (i.e. bite rate) and showed a higher digestive efficiency. These responses were in accordance with the model and suggest maintenance of a constant food retention time. 6. These changes doubled the birds' absorption rate. Had only food quality changed (and not gut length), then absorption rate would have increased by only 67%; absorption rate would have increased by only 17% had only gut length changed (and not food quality). 7. The prediction that gross intake rate should go up with gut length parallels the mechanism included in some proximate models of foraging that feeding motivation scales inversely to gut fullness. We plea for a tighter integration between ultimate and proximate foraging models.
Sardar, Amber; Amjad, Shehla; Ali, Ubaid
This survey investigated the relationship and gap between students' expectations and perceptions of perceived service quality of education, emphasizing the least effective service quality dimension. The study was based on primary data, which turned out to be most significant. Data were collected from 349 of 405 students through a questionnaire…
Santos, Alaneir de Fátima Dos; Fonseca, Délcio; Araujo, Lucas Lobato; Procópio, Cristiane da Silva Diniz; Lopes, Érica Araújo Silva; Lima, Angela Maria de Lourdes Dayrell de; Reis, Clarice Magalhães Rodrigues Dos; Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier de; Jorge, Alzira Oliveira; Matta-Machado, Antonio Thomaz
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are means to handle information, streamline communication, and contribute to patient care. This article describes the incorporation of Information and Communication Technologies in primary care and its association with quality, based on the Brazilian National Program for the Improvement of Access and Quality in Primary Care (PMAQ in portuguese). This was a cross-sectional study with 17,053 teams. An Index of Incorporation of ICTs was created, which included: information infrastructure, systems, and utilization. Regression analysis was used to assess associations. Only 13.5% of the teams had a high degree of ICTs. The strongest association was seen in the utilization of information. ICTs can contribute to improving quality of primary care.
Background:Since the discontinuation of Standard Attainment Tests (SATs) in science at age 11 in England, pupil performance data in science reported to the UK government by each primary school has relied largely on teacher assessment undertaken in the classroom. Purpose:The process by which teachers are making these judgements has been unclear, so this study made use of the extensive Primary Science Quality Mark (PSQM) database to obtain a 'snapshot' (as of March 2013) of the approaches taken by 91 English primary schools to the formative and summative assessment of pupils' learning in science. PSQM is an award scheme for UK primary schools. It requires the science subject leader (co-ordinator) in each school to reflect upon and develop practice over the course of one year, then upload a set of reflections and supporting evidence to the database to support their application. One of the criteria requires the subject leader to explain how science is assessed within the school. Sample:The data set consists of the electronic text in the assessment section of all 91 PSQM primary schools which worked towards the Quality Mark in the year April 2012 to March 2013. Design and methods:Content analysis of a pre-existing qualitative data set. Text in the assessment section of each submission was first coded as describing formative or summative processes, then sub-coded into different strategies used. Results:A wide range of formative and summative approaches were reported, which tended to be described separately, with few links between them. Talk-based strategies are widely used for formative assessment, with some evidence of feedback to pupils. Whilst the use of tests or tracking grids for summative assessment is widespread, few schools rely on one system alone. Enquiry skills and conceptual knowledge were often assessed separately. Conclusions:There is little consistency in the approaches being used by teachers to assess science in English primary schools. Nevertheless
Full Text Available Introduction Health assistants are important functionaries of the primary health care system in India. Their role is supervision of field-based services among other things. A quality assurance mechanism for these health assistants is lacking. The present study was undertaken with the objectives of developing a tool to assess the quality of health assistants in primary health centres (PHCs and to assess their quality using this tool. Methodology Health assistants from three PHCs in the Wardha district of India were observed for a year using a tool developed from primary health care management Aavancement program modules. Data was collected by direct observation, interview, and review of records for quality of activities. Results Staff strength of health assistants was 87.5%. None of the health assistants were clear about their job descriptions. A supervisory schedule for providing supportive supervision to auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs was absent; most field activities pertaining to maternal and child health received poor focus. Monthly meetings lacked a clear agenda, and comments on quality improvement of services provided by the ANMs were missing. Conclusion Continuous training with sensitization on quality issues is required to improve the unsatisfactory quality.
Ugo, Okoli; Ezinne, Eze-Ajoku; Modupe, Oludipe; Nicole, Spieker; Winifred, Ekezie; Kelechi, Ohiri
Nigeria has a high population density but a weak health-care system. To improve the quality of care, 3 organizations carried out a quality improvement pilot intervention at the primary health-care level in selected rural areas. To assess the change in quality of care in primary health-care facilities in rural Nigeria following the provision of technical governance support and to document the successes and challenges encountered. A total of 6 states were selected across the 6 geopolitical zones of the country. However, assessments were carried out in 40 facilities in only 5 states. Selection was based on location, coverage, and minimum services offered. The facilities were divided randomly into 2 groups. The treatment group received quality-of-care assessment, continuous feedback, and improvement support, whereas the control group received quality assessment and no other support. Data were collected using the SafeCare Healthcare Standards and managed on the SafeCare Data Management System-AfriDB. Eight core areas were assessed at baseline and end line, and compliance to quality health-care standards was compared. Outcomes from 40 facilities were accepted and analyzed. Overall scores increased in the treatment facilities compared to the control facilities, with strong evidence of improvement ( t = 5.28, P = .0004) and 11% average improvement, but no clear pattern of improvement emerged in the control group. The study demonstrated governance support and active community involvement offered potential for quality improvement in primary health-care facilities.
Skånér, Ylva; Arrelöv, Britt; Backlund, Lars G; Fresk, Magdalena; Aström, Amanda Waleh; Nilsson, Gunnar H
In the period 2004-2009, national and regional initiatives were developed in Sweden to improve the quality of sickness certificates. Parameters for assessing the quality of sickness certificates in primary health care have been proposed. The aim of this study was to measure the quality of sickness certification in primary health care by means of assessing sickness certificates issued between 2004 and 2009 in Stockholm. This was a retrospective study using data retrieved from sickness certificates contained in the electronic patient records of 21 primary health care centres in Stockholm County covering six consecutive years. A total number of 236 441 certificates were used in the current study. Seven quality parameters were chosen as outcome measures. Descriptive statistics and regression models with time, sex and age group as explanatory variables were used. During the study period, the quality of the sickness certification practice improved as the number of days on first certification decreased and the proportion of duly completely and acceptable certificates increased. Assessment of need for vocational rehabilitation and giving a prognosis for return to work were not significantly improved during the same period. Time was the most influential variable. The quality of sickness certification practice improved for most of the parameters, although additional efforts to improve the quality of sickness certificates are needed. Measures, such as reminders, compulsory certificate fields and structured guidance, could be useful tools to achieve this objective.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to raise awareness of the importance of the policy makers’ knowledge and expertise about quality infrastructure (QI for the successful policy-making. This article, which addresses the role of higher education in Serbian quality infrastructure policy-making, is an analysis of QI related contents of higher education institution curriculum. The target institutions are public faculties from whose official websites the data were collected. Depending on the keywords, the analysis was performed in order to classify the faculties into three categories. After reviewing the 307 subject titles and descriptions of undergraduate courses, the results show that the concepts of QI are widely recognized as an important and popular topic. The analysis of the QI adoption and diffusion indicates that although some of the faculties might be ‘leaders’ in a particular dimension, they still do not necessarily fall into the ‘leader’ category. JEL Classification:I21, I23, H54, L15
Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Haggerty, Jeannie; Tousignant, Pierre; Barnsley, Janet; Hogg, William; Geneau, Robert; Hudon, Éveline; Duplain, Réjean; Denis, Jean-Louis; Bonin, Lucie; Del Grande, Claudio; Dragieva, Natalyia
No primary practice care model has been shown to be superior in achieving high-quality primary care. We aimed to identify the organizational characteristics of primary care practices that provide high-quality primary care. We performed a cross-sectional observational study involving a stratified random sample of 37 primary care practices from 3 regions of Quebec. We recruited 1457 patients who had 1 of 2 chronic care conditions or 1 of 6 episodic care conditions. The main outcome was the overall technical quality score. We measured organizational characteristics by use of a validated questionnaire and the Team Climate Inventory. Statistical analyses were based on multilevel regression modelling. The following characteristics were strongly associated with overall technical quality of care score: physician remuneration method (27.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 19.0-35.0), extent of sharing of administrative resources (7.6; 95% CI 0.8-14.4), presence of allied health professionals (15.3; 95% CI 5.4-25.2) and/or specialist physicians (19.6; 95% CI 8.3-30.9), the presence of mechanisms for maintaining or evaluating competence (7.7; 95% CI 3.0-12.4) and average organizational access to the practice (4.9; 95% CI 2.6-7.2). The number of physicians (1.2; 95% CI 0.6-1.8) and the average Team Climate Inventory score (1.3; 95% CI 0.1-2.5) were modestly associated with high-quality care. We identified a common set of organizational characteristics associated with high-quality primary care. Many of these characteristics are amenable to change through practice-level organizational changes.
Full Text Available Australian universities face increased challenges in a global higher education marketplace. They have responded to this competitive environment by introducing greater efficiency and accountability measures. One key measure is the quality of teaching and in particular, the delivery of student-centred teaching. However, the reforms have changed the working lives of academic teachers who now have greater reporting and administrative responsibilities with less sense of collegiality in the sector. In these circumstances, it is not clear that teaching staff will share the same perceptions of quality teaching as their institutions expect. This paper examines the utility of role theory and learning organization theory as part of a project which will examine the ways in which implicit knowledge can be made explicit and shared in the organization as part of academic teachers’ roles. The paper hypothesizes that when academics share their perceptions of good teaching, universities will benefit from a coherent set of quality teaching indicators which are aligned with their organizational cultures.
Mosha, Herme Joseph
This article seeks to identify factors affecting the quality of primary education in five regions of Tanzania by extensively reviewing relevant literature and empirical data. Some of the shortcomings emphasised by the author are: frequent staff turnover, declining financial support for primary education, ineffective curricula, shortage of teachers' guides and textbooks, and unfavourable working conditions for teachers in rural areas. Beyond this, the need for freely available material, efficient school management and regular inspections is stressed by the author.
Anaam, Mahyoub Ali; Alhammadi, Abdullah Othman; Kwairan, Abdulwahab Awadh
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the status of quality assurance and accreditation systems within higher education institutions in Yemen. The paper initially describes the stages of development and changes that have occurred in the field of quality and accreditation in Yemeni higher education. The paper shows that no formal…
Full Text Available The evaluation of a program’s compliance with service delivery and features necessary for the attainment of the programs educational objectives, student outcomes and continuous improvement is an important element in program accreditation and continuous improvement process. The study reported in this paper investigated the possible effects of students’ feedback on the improvement of adult higher education distance learning service quality in a South African rural-based university. The study interrogated the service provision factors that seemingly helped in improving the delivery of the program. Such information are vital for planning, good governance, policy formulation, monitoring and evaluation, and for decision-making. The study used a quantitative descriptive statistics analysis of data generated ranging from 2013-2014. It comprised of overall student satisfaction as the dependent variable and the explanatory variables were given by program management, facilitation, assessment, learner support, systems, resources, program outcomes and subject matter. Analytical results were obtained from the Mann Whitney Test. The population consisted of students enrolled in the Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE program by distance mode. The 313 respondents sampled were randomly selected from a total population of 916 students. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results revealed that service qualities linked to effective management, facilitation, academic support and subject matter delivery were the main qualities that the students recommended for the improvement of the program. It is therefore recommended that adult higher education programs must have a documented systematically utilized and effective process involving program service delivery constituencies like assessment, academic support and resources provided, for the periodic review of the program educational objectives to ensure that the program remains consistent
Crossland, Lisa; Janamian, Tina; Jackson, Claire L
To identify elements that are integral to high-quality practice and determine considerations relating to high-quality practice organisation in primary care. A narrative systematic review of published and grey literature. Electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Emerald Insight, PsycInfo, the Primary Health Care Research and Information Service website, Google Scholar) were searched in November 2013 and used to identify articles published in English from 2002 to 2013. Reference lists of included articles were searched for relevant unpublished articles and reports. Data were configured at the study level to allow for the inclusion of findings from a broad range of study types. Ten elements were most often included in the existing organisational assessment tools. A further three elements were identified from an inductive thematic analysis of descriptive articles, and were noted as important considerations in effective quality improvement in primary care settings. Although there are some validated tools available to primary care that identify and build quality, most are single-strategy approaches developed outside health care settings. There are currently no validated organisational improvement tools, designed specifically for primary health care, which combine all elements of practice improvement and whose use does not require extensive external facilitation.
Crozier, Fiona, Ed.; Costes, Nathalie, Ed.; Ranne, Paula, Ed.; Stalter, Maria, Ed.
The history of ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) arises in the late 1990s when the first formal procedures for quality assurance begun to stabilize on a national level. As a result of the European Pilot Projects in the field of external quality assurance during the nineties, participants felt the need for…
Kleijnen, Jan; Dolmans, Diana; Willems, Jos; van Hout, Hans
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore faculty's perceptions of quality management activities (QMA) within their departments, attention being paid to relevant quality aspects and whether quality management contributes to control or improvement of higher education. Furthermore, it examines differences between departments and relationships…
Sasser, Maja; Sørensen, Ole H.
and thus their assessment of primary task quality. The paper proposes a measure for primary task quality and uses it in the analyses of responses from 1,247 preschool teachers and teaching assistants in 94 public daycare centers in Denmark. The results indicate that an important factor for employees......This paper investigates whether employees’ assessment of their primary task quality has a significant impact on their well-being and job satisfaction, respectively. Furthermore, the paper hypothesizes that professional values and norms affect employees’ quality expectations on their work tasks...... of the quality of their primary task job performance....
Maria de Lourdes Campos
Full Text Available Introduction: Burnout Syndrome, in the twenty-first century, appears among the most common mental disorder among teachers resulting from the interaction between individual aspects and the working environment, interpreted as a response to chronic job stress. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of burnout syndrome and quality of life of higher education teachers in the city of Cajazeiras, Paraíba, Brazil. Method: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study performed with 174 teachers from institutions of higher education. Results: The burnout syndrome was observed in only 3.4% of teachers. However, the recorded data require a closer look at the health of the teachers investigated, since a considerable part of them are in the score limit for disease development. Regarding the quality of life of teachers who presented the manifestations of the syndrome, the physical and psychological domains were shown to be the worst for most subjects. Conclusion: There are teachers in higher education, executing their profession, affected by burnout syndrome, suggesting a relationship between this psychosocial phenomenon and the labor context, permeating the three dimensions proposed by Maslach and Leiter: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and the lack of personal fulfillment. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3823/2512
Marx, Charlotte; Bendixen, Anette; Høgdall, Claus
The positive effect on survival of maximal primary cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer is well established, and the highest rates of optimal cytoreduction are achieved by gynecological oncologists. Danish women have not only one of the highest incidences of ovarian cancer, but also the highest...... mortality rate. From 1981 to 1989, the overall Danish optimal debulking rate was 25% in patients with stage III and IV tumors. The primary aim of the present study was, therefore, to evaluate the organisation and quality of current primary surgical intervention for ovarian cancer in Denmark....
Gea-Caballero, Vicente; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Júarez-Vela, Raúl; Díaz-Herrera, Miguel Ángel; de Miguel-Montoya, Isabel; Martínez-Riera, José Ramón
Nursing work environments are key determinants of care quality. Our study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of nursing environments in primary care settings in the Canary Islands, and identify crucial components of such environments to improve quality. We conducted a cross-sectional study in primary care organisations using the Practice Environment Scale - Nursing Work Index tool. We collected sociodemographic variables, scores, and selected the essential items conducive to optimal care. Appropriate parametric and non-parametric statistical tests were used to analyse relations between variables (CI = 95%, error = 5%). One hundred and forty-four nurses participated. The mean total score was 81.6. The results for the five dimensions included in the Practice Environment Scale - Nursing Work Index ranged from 2.25 - 2.92 (Mean). Twelve key items for quality of care were selected; six were positive in the Canary Islands, two were mixed, and four negative. 7/12 items were included in Dimension 2 (fundamentals of nursing). Being a manager was statistically associated with higher scores (p<.000). Years of experience was inversely associated with scores in the 12 items (p<.021). Nursing work environments in primary care settings in the Canary Islands are comparable to others previously studied in Spain. Areas to improve were human resources and participation of nurses in management decisions. Nurse managers must be knowledgeable about their working environments so they can focus on improvements in key dimensions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Wargocki, Pawel; Foldbjerg, Peter; Eriksen, Kurt Emil
are taken into consideration: a) increased PISA score increases productivity; b) increased PISA score reduces the duration of primary education; c) improved indoor air quality reduces absenteeism in teachers. The results show that improved air quality in Danish schools could result in an increase...... in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of €173 million per annum, and in the public finances of €37 million per annum...
Full Text Available Aim: To explore users’ expectations, their perceived quality and their satisfaction with primary care services an anonymous questionnaire has been administered to a sample of 212 users.Background: Patient satisfaction with quality of primary care is a dominant concept in quality assurance and quality improvement programs.Methods: It has been used the Expectations-Perceived Quality-Satisfaction with Primary Care Services Scale (E-PQ-SPCSS that was developed and validated in this study. Data were analysed using SPSS, version 18.Results: The overall satisfaction with the primary care services was 97.2%, with the medical care provided was 95.3% and with nursing care was 92.5%. Nursing care was provided to 126 (59.4% users. These users were more satisfied (p<0.0001 with global nursing care provided (4.52±0.70 than those who were not provided a nursing care intervention (3.53±1.73. Age correlated with global satisfaction with primary care (r=0.315, p<0.001 with medical (r=0.194, p<0.001 and nursing care (r=0.183, p<0.001 as well as with expectations totalscore (r=0.295, p<0.001, perceived quality of care total score (r=0.366, p<0.001 and satisfaction with care total score (r=0.207, p=0.002. Based on Cattell’s visual scree plot, four factors accounting for 64.34% of the item covariance were extracted and rotated through factor analysis (nurse’s technical and interpersonal competence, physician’s interpersonal competence, physician’s technical competence and structure characteristics.Conclusions: The psychometric properties of the E-PQ-SPCSS were good enough indicating that the scales are reliable and adequate for group comparisons.
Full Text Available We previously showed the impairment of insulin-regulated gene expression in the primary hepatocytes from Zucker fatty (ZF rats, and its association with alterations of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the molecular mechanism is unknown. A preliminary experiment shows that the expression level of protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ, a member of atypical PKC family, is higher in the liver and hepatocytes of ZF rats than that of Zucker lean (ZL rats. Herein, we intend to investigate the roles of atypical protein kinase C in the regulation of hepatic gene expression. The insulin-regulated hepatic gene expression was evaluated in ZL primary hepatocytes treated with atypical PKC recombinant adenoviruses. Recombinant adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PKCζ, or the other atypical PKC member PKCι/λ, alters the basal and impairs the insulin-regulated expressions of glucokinase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, the catalytic subunit of glucose 6-phosphatase, and insulin like growth factor-binding protein 1 in ZL primary hepatocytes. PKCζ or PKCι/λ overexpression also reduces the protein level of insulin receptor substrate 1, and the insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473 and Thr308. Additionally, PKCι/λ overexpression impairs the insulin-induced Prckz expression, indicating the crosstalk between PKCζ and PKCι/λ. We conclude that the PKCζ expression is elevated in hepatocytes of insulin resistant ZF rats. Overexpressions of aPKCs in primary hepatocytes impair insulin signal transduction, and in turn, the down-stream insulin-regulated gene expression. These data suggest that elevation of aPKC expression may contribute to the hepatic insulin resistance at gene expression level.
В Ю Григорьев
Full Text Available The article highlights the main objectives of Informatization of higher education institutions, including the requirements of normative documents stipulating the creation of an electronic University environment, including an electronic library, an information database and organisation of students to access the necessary learning electronic resources. Analyzed regulatory documents, to make demands for distance and online education, as well as the form of its implementation; the documents governing the form of assessment of students using remote methods and requirements for organizations conducting such assessments. On the basis of the analysis the selected indicators of Informatization, which can be further used in the evaluation of the effectiveness of it development and its impact on the quality of education in universities.
Jones, P. W.; Brusselle, G.; Dal Negro, R. W.; Ferrer, M.; Kardos, P.; Levy, M. L.; Perez, T.; Soler-Cataluna, J. J.; van der Molen, T.; Adamek, L.; Banik, N.
Pan-European data on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are lacking. This cross-sectional epidemiological study evaluated health status in 1817 COPD patients from an 'all-comers' primary care population in seven European countries (87% stable
Borges, Nicole J.; Jones, Bonnie J.
Medical schools must use selection methods that validly measure applicants' noncognitive qualities, but primary-care (PC) schools have a particular need. This study correlated entering students' personality and values scores with their professed interest in PC. 93 medical students completed instruments assessing personality (16PF & PSP), values,…
Cardoso, Ricardo de Souza; Bossio, Francisco; Quaresma, Daniel da Silva; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme Pereira
Activities radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology and radiation protection, require knowledge of physical and dosimetric parameters, to be applied safely. Aiming to meet demand in Brazil, the National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionising Radiation - LNMRI - is deploying the primary standard for the calibration of secondary standard chambers, used in quality control in hospitals, clinics and industries. (author)
Kelderman-Bolk, Nienke; Visser, Theo J.; Tijssen, Jan P.; Berghout, Arie
Objective: Many patients treated for primary hypothyroidism have an unexplained reduced quality of life (QOL). We studied the relation between QOL and various parameters in treated hypothyroid patients. Design and methods: QOL analysis was done in 90 consecutive patients (77.8% females) treated for
Objectives: To investigate emotional symptoms and domain quality of life (QOL) among primary caregivers of stroke survivors and to determine survivor-related and caregiver-related predictors of these variables. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Medical units of the two major hospitals of the Obafemi Awolowo ...
Nyenje, Aida; Nkata, James
This paper establishes the extent to which attitudinal variables affect the education reforms and subsequently the quality of primary education in Uganda. The paper is based on the views of a wide spectrum of different education stakeholders including: policy analysts, Members of Parliament (MPs), education officers, Headteachers, teaching staff,…
Lynch, Timothy; Soukup, Gregory J., Sr.
Quality physical education (QPE) in primary school optimises children's well-being. However, international research indicates that the preparation of classroom teachers is impeded by systemic barriers, resulting in low-classroom teacher confidence, competence and subsequent interest. This empirical research investigates school principal…
Sahagia, Maria; Razdolescu, Anamaria Cristina; Luca, Aurelian; Ivan, Constantin
The paper presents some specific aspects of the implementation of the quality management in the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory, from IFIN-HH, the owner of the primary Romanian standard in radioactivity. The description of the accreditation, according to the EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005, is presented.
Sahagia, Maria; Razdolescu, Anamaria Cristina; Luca, Aurelian; Ivan, Constantin
The paper presents some specific aspects of the implementation of the quality management in the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory, from IFIN-HH, the owner of the primary Romanian standard in radioactivity. The description of the accreditation, according to the EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005, is presented
Avramidis, Elias; Avgeri, Georgia; Strogilos, Vasilis
The study addresses the social participation of integrated students with special educational needs (SEN) in upper primary regular classes in Greece alongside their perceptions of best friend quality. Social participation was defined as consisting of four key dimensions: students' acceptance by classmates, friendships, social self-perceptions, and…
The Primary Health Care (PHC) system has been the foundation for the operation of the health system in most of Sub-Sahara Africa following the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978. Quality of care is an important determinant of health services utilization, and is a health outcome of public health importance. It is known that the ...
Ayalon, Liat; Gross, Revital; Tabenkin, Hava; Porath, Avi; Heymann, Anthony; Porter, Boaz
Using a cross-sectional design of 400 primary care patients with diabetes, the authors evaluated demographics, health status, subjective health and mental health, health behaviors, health beliefs, knowledge of diabetes treatment, satisfaction with medical care, and quality of medical care as potential predictors of QoL and QoL in the hypothetical…
Susilana, Rudi; Asra
The purpose of national education is to develop skills and build dignified national character and civilization in educating nation life (Act No. 20, 2003). The paper describes a system of quality assurance in culture and character education in primary education. This study employs the six sigma model which consists of the formula DMAIC (Define,…
This paper sets out to provide further insight as to the reasons why many schools within the primary sector continue to find it difficult to ensure quality provision for physical education (PE) and school sport. It examines why class teachers, including the subject coordinator, possess concerns about teaching PE. It asks the question of who is…
Dembele, Martial; Lefoka, Pulane
This article assumes that pedagogical renewal and teacher development are two sides of the same coin, and that the achievement of a universal primary education that is equitable and of acceptable quality in Sub-Saharan Africa will depend to a large extent on both. The need for pedagogical renewal stems from the evidence that (i) teaching is…
Sarrico, Cláudia S.; Veiga, Amélia; Amaral, Alberto
While a lot has been written regarding the changing management and governance arrangements in higher education, less is known about how this progression relates to quality in higher education. The purpose of this article is to describe the context of governance in Portuguese higher education institutions and how institutional governance…
Carozzi, Francesca Maria; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Cuschieri, Kate; Frayle, Helena; Sani, Cristina; Burroni, Elena
This review aims to highlight the importance of Quality Assurance for Laboratories performing HPV test for Cervical Cancer Screening. An HPV test, to be used as primary screening test, must be validated according to international criteria, based on comparison of its clinical accuracy to HC2 or GP5+/6+ PCR-EIA tests. The number of validated platforms is increasing and appropriate Quality Assurance Programs (QAPs) which can interrogate longitudinal robustness and quality are paramount. This document describes the following topics: (1) the characteristics of an HPV laboratory and the personnel training needs, to ensure an elevated quality of the entire process and the optimal use of the resources; (2) the Quality Assurance, as both internal (IQA) and external quality assessment (EQA) systems, to be implemented and performed, and the description of the existing EQAs, including limitations; (3) general considerations for an optimal EQA program for hrHPV primary screening Due to the importance of Quality Assurance for this field, international efforts are necessary to improve QA International Collaboration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marina Malanda, Nuria; López de Santa María, Elena; Gutiérrez, Asunción; Bayón, Juan Carlos; Garcia, Larraitz; Gáldiz, Juan B
Forced spirometry is essential for diagnosing respiratory diseases and is widely used across levels of care. However, several studies have shown that spirometry quality in primary care is not ideal, with risks of misdiagnosis. Our objective was to assess the feasibility and performance of a telemedicine-based training and quality assurance program for forced spirometry in primary care. The two phases included (1) a 9-month pilot study involving 15 centers, in which spirometry tests were assessed by the Basque Office for Health Technology Assessment, and (2) the introduction of the program to all centers in the Public Basque Health Service. Technicians first received 4 h of training, and, subsequently, they sent all tests to the reference laboratory using the program. Quality assessment was performed in accordance with clinical guidelines (A and B, good; C-F, poor). In the first phase, 1,894 spirometry tests were assessed, showing an improvement in quality: acceptable quality tests increased from 57% at the beginning to 78% after 6 months and 83% after 9 months (passessed after the inclusion of 36 additional centers, maintaining the positive trend (61%, 87%, and 84% at the same time points; pquality of spirometry tests improved in all centers. (2) The program provides a tool for transferring data that allows monitoring of its quality and training of technicians who perform the tests. (3) This approach is useful for improving spirometry quality in the routine practice of a public health system.
Gotthardt, Daniel Nils; Rupp, Christian; Bruhin, Miriam; Schellberg, Dieter; Weiss, Karl H; Stefan, Reinhard; Donnerstag, Nadine; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Löwe, Bernd; Juenger, Jana; Sauer, Peter
Quality of life, fundamental to the individual patient, has shown a lack of correlation with severity in research on several diseases. Thus, we aimed to identify factors associated with quality of life in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. The Short Form Health Survey and the Patient Health Questionnaire were used to assess quality of life and depression. Complete data sets of 113 patients were analyzed for correlation with sex, age, presence of concomitant inflammatory bowel disease and dominant stenosis, frequency of pruritus, and Mayo Risk Score. Physical functioning decreased with age (P<0.001). Further, women experienced more prominent role limitations because of physical (P<0.03) and emotional (P<0.01) problems. Although patients' quality of life and depression scores were only slightly lower than normal, more frequent pruritus was associated with a considerable reduction in quality of life in terms of physical and social functioning, general and mental health, bodily pain, vitality, and roles (because of physical problems) (P<0.01). It did not differ significantly according to the Mayo Risk Score or the presence of dominant stenoses. Depression scores were only significantly affected in patients with more frequent pruritus. Pruritus severely affects quality of life in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and is associated with depression to varying extents, although the most commonly used parameters of disease severity do not correspond to quality of life in these patients. These findings need to be considered with respect to treatment outcomes and indications for liver transplantation.
Adams, William G; Mann, Adriana M; Bauchner, Howard
To evaluate the quality of pediatric primary care, including preventive services, before and after the introduction of an electronic medical record (EMR) developed for use in an urban pediatric primary care center. A pre-postintervention analysis was used in the study. The intervention was a pediatric EMR. Routine health care maintenance visits for children eye-to-eye contact with patients was reduced, and 4 of 7 reported that use of the system increased the duration of visits (mean: 9.3 minutes longer). All users recommended continued use of the system. Use of the EMR in this study was associated with improved quality of care. This experience suggests that EMRs can be successfully used in busy urban pediatric primary care centers and, as recommended by the Institute of Medicine, must play a central role in the redesign of the US health care system.
Nascimento, Leticia do; Paula, Cristiane Cardoso de; Magnago, Tania Solange Bosi de Souza; Padoin, Stela Maris de Mello; Harzheim, Erno; Silva, Clarissa Bohrer da
to evaluate the quality of health care for children and adolescents living with HIV, among the different types of Primary Health Care services of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. cross-sectional study, developed with 118 Primary Health Care professionals. The Primary Care Evaluation Instrument, Professional version, was used. For verification of the variables associated with the high score, Poisson Regression was used. the professionals of the Family Health Strategy, when compared to those of the Primary Health Units, obtained a greater degree of orientation to primary care, both for the overall score and for the derived attributes score, as well as for the integrality and community orientation attributes. A specialization in Primary Health Care, other employment and a statutory work contract were associated with quality of care. the Family Health Strategy was shown to provide higher quality health care for children and adolescents living with HIV, however, the coverage is still low. The need was highlighted to expand this coverage and invest in vocational training directed toward Primary Care and making the professionals effective, through public selection procedure, as well as an improvement program that recognizes the care requirements, in these settings, of children and adolescents infected with HIV. avaliar a qualidade de atenção à saúde da criança e adolescente vivendo com HIV, entre os diferentes tipos de serviço de Atenção Primária à Saúde, de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. estudo transversal, desenvolvido com 118 profissionais da Atenção Primária à Saúde. Utilizou-se o Instrumento de Avaliação da Atenção Primária, versão Profissionais. Para verificação das variáveis associadas ao alto escore, foi utilizada a Regressão de Poisson. os profissionais da Estratégia Saúde da Família, quando comparados aos de Unidades Básicas de Saúde, obtiveram maior grau de orientação à atenção primária, tanto pelo escore geral quanto
Praveen, Angam; Vijayarekha, K; Abraham, Saju T; Venkatraman, B
Time of flight diffraction (TOFD) technique is a well-developed ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT) method and has been applied successfully for accurate sizing of defects in metallic materials. This technique was developed in early 1970s as a means for accurate sizing and positioning of cracks in nuclear components became very popular in the late 1990s and is today being widely used in various industries for weld inspection. One of the main advantages of TOFD is that, apart from fast technique, it provides higher probability of detection for linear defects. Since TOFD is based on diffraction of sound waves from the extremities of the defect compared to reflection from planar faces as in pulse echo and phased array, the resultant signal would be quite weak and signal to noise ratio (SNR) low. In many cases the defect signal is submerged in this noise making it difficult for detection, positioning and sizing. Several signal processing methods such as digital filtering, Split Spectrum Processing (SSP), Hilbert Transform and Correlation techniques have been developed in order to suppress unwanted noise and enhance the quality of the defect signal which can thus be used for characterization of defects and the material. Wavelet Transform based thresholding techniques have been applied largely for de-noising of ultrasonic signals. However in this paper, higher order wavelets are used for analyzing the de-noising performance for TOFD signals obtained from Austenitic Stainless Steel welds. It is observed that higher order wavelets give greater SNR improvement compared to the lower order wavelets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Van den Berg Michael J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The QUALICOPC (Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe study aims to evaluate the performance of primary care systems in Europe in terms of quality, equity and costs. The study will provide an answer to the question what strong primary care systems entail and which effects primary care systems have on the performance of health care systems. QUALICOPC is funded by the European Commission under the "Seventh Framework Programme". In this article the background and design of the QUALICOPC study is described. Methods/design QUALICOPC started in 2010 and will run until 2013. Data will be collected in 31 European countries (27 EU countries, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey and in Australia, Israel and New Zealand. This study uses a three level approach of data collection: the system, practice and patient. Surveys will be held among general practitioners (GPs and their patients, providing evidence at the process and outcome level of primary care. These surveys aim to gain insight in the professional behaviour of GPs and the expectations and actions of their patients. An important aspect of this study is that each patient's questionnaire can be linked to their own GP's questionnaire. To gather data at the structure or national level, the study will use existing data sources such as the System of Health Accounts and the Primary Health Care Activity Monitor Europe (PHAMEU database. Analyses of the data will be performed using multilevel models. Discussion By its design, in which different data sources are combined for comprehensive analyses, QUALICOPC will advance the state of the art in primary care research and contribute to the discussion on the merit of strengthening primary care systems and to evidence based health policy development.
Caron, Philippe J; Bevan, John S; Petersenn, Stephan; Houchard, Aude; Sert, Caroline; Webb, Susan M
To evaluate the effects of lanreotide Autogel on patient-reported outcomes and association with biochemical control, using PRIMARYS data. PRIMARYS was a 1-year, open-label study of lanreotide Autogel (Depot in USA) 120 mg every 4 weeks in 90 treatment-naïve patients with acromegaly. Symptoms were assessed using Patient-assessed Acromegaly Symptom Questionnaire (PASQ) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using the AcroQoL questionnaire. Correlations between PASQ and AcroQoL scores, and between PASQ/AcroQoL and growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels were also evaluated (post hoc). Acromegaly symptoms and HRQoL significantly improved from week 12 to week 48, with modest correlations at week 48 between PASQ total score (R = -0.55, p 50% of baseline standard deviation) in PASQ total score and >40% achieved a MID in AcroQoL global score (post hoc). Changes in PASQ scores were similar in biochemically controlled (GH levels ≤2.5 μg/L and normal IGF-1 levels) and uncontrolled groups, while changes in global and psychological AcroQoL scores were greater in the controlled group. There was no correlation between changes in PASQ or AcroQoL scores and changes in GH or IGF-1 levels. Primary treatment with lanreotide Autogel over 1 year was associated with rapid and sustained improvements in clinical signs and symptoms and HRQoL in patients with acromegaly. Improvements in HRQoL, but not symptoms, were greater in those achieving biochemical control (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00690898; EudraCT: 2007-000155-34).
Alani, Farooq; Yaqoub, Yasir; Hamdan, Mahani
No one doubts the value and importance of quality education, and quality assurance is one major driving force to achieve this. Measuring the performance of service quality of education services of Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD), as part of the quality assessment, was assessed based on Parasuraman's five Servqual dimensions. The assessment was…
Ugo, Okoli; Ezinne, Eze-Ajoku; Modupe, Oludipe; Nicole, Spieker; Kelechi, Ohiri
Background: Nigeria has a high population density but a weak health-care system. To improve the quality of care, 3 organizations carried out a quality improvement pilot intervention at the primary health-care level in selected rural areas. Objective: To assess the change in quality of care in primary health-care facilities in rural Nigeria following the provision of technical governance support and to document the successes and challenges encountered. Method: A total of 6 states were selected across the 6 geopolitical zones of the country. However, assessments were carried out in 40 facilities in only 5 states. Selection was based on location, coverage, and minimum services offered. The facilities were divided randomly into 2 groups. The treatment group received quality-of-care assessment, continuous feedback, and improvement support, whereas the control group received quality assessment and no other support. Data were collected using the SafeCare Healthcare Standards and managed on the SafeCare Data Management System—AfriDB. Eight core areas were assessed at baseline and end line, and compliance to quality health-care standards was compared. Result: Outcomes from 40 facilities were accepted and analyzed. Overall scores increased in the treatment facilities compared to the control facilities, with strong evidence of improvement (t = 5.28, P = .0004) and 11% average improvement, but no clear pattern of improvement emerged in the control group. Conclusion: The study demonstrated governance support and active community involvement offered potential for quality improvement in primary health-care facilities. PMID:28462280
Jackson-Blake, Leah; Helliwell, Rachel
Process-based catchment water quality models are increasingly used as tools to inform land management. However, for such models to be reliable they need to be well calibrated and shown to reproduce key catchment processes. Calibration can be challenging for process-based models, which tend to be complex and highly parameterised. Calibrating a large number of parameters generally requires a large amount of monitoring data, spanning all hydrochemical conditions. However, regulatory agencies and research organisations generally only sample at a fortnightly or monthly frequency, even in well-studied catchments, often missing peak flow events. The primary aim of this study was therefore to investigate how the quality and uncertainty of model simulations produced by a process-based, semi-distributed catchment model, INCA-P (the INtegrated CAtchment model of Phosphorus dynamics), were improved by calibration to higher frequency water chemistry data. Two model calibrations were carried out for a small rural Scottish catchment: one using 18 months of daily total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) concentration data, another using a fortnightly dataset derived from the daily data. To aid comparability, calibrations were carried out automatically using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo - DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (MCMC-DREAM) algorithm. Calibration to daily data resulted in improved simulation of peak TDP concentrations and improved model performance statistics. Parameter-related uncertainty in simulated TDP was large when fortnightly data was used for calibration, with a 95% credible interval of 26 μg/l. This uncertainty is comparable in size to the difference between Water Framework Directive (WFD) chemical status classes, and would therefore make it difficult to use this calibration to predict shifts in WFD status. The 95% credible interval reduced markedly with the higher frequency monitoring data, to 6 μg/l. The number of parameters that could be reliably auto
Dearing, Eric; McCartney, Kathleen; Taylor, Beck A
Higher quality child care during infancy and early childhood (6-54 months of age) was examined as a moderator of associations between family economic status and children's (N = 1,364) math and reading achievement in middle childhood (4.5-11 years of age). Low income was less strongly predictive of underachievement for children who had been in higher quality care than for those who had not. Consistent with a cognitive advantage hypothesis, higher quality care appeared to promote achievement indirectly via early school readiness skills. Family characteristics associated with selection into child care also appeared to promote the achievement of low-income children, but the moderating effect of higher quality care per se remained evident when controlling for selection using covariates and propensity scores.
McGovern, Christina E; Cheung, Corjena
Primary dysmenorrhea is a prevalent condition causing quality of life (QOL) reduction for many women, resulting from pain as well as parallel social and psychological distress. Yoga reduces pain and sympathetic reactivity, thus promoting QOL. This article reports a systematic review of the evidence for the effectiveness of yoga as a QOL improvement method for women with primary dysmenorrhea. The PRISMA guidelines were used in preparation of this review. Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were screened through January 2017 using the keywords yoga, meditation, menstrual cycle, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, and prostaglandins. English-language randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental studies regarding yoga, primary dysmenorrhea, and QOL were eligible; all yoga styles were included. Two independent reviewers rated the methodological quality of each study selected for review using the Downs and Black checklist; possible scores ranged from 0 to 32. Ratings were established through consensus. The search yielded a total of 378 articles, of which 14 (age range 13-45 years, N = 1409) met the criteria for final review: 8 RCTs and 6 quasi-experimental studies. Downs and Black ratings were predominantly moderate in quality with moderate risk of bias, ranging from 15 to 23 (RCTs) and 10 to 17 (quasi-experimental studies). Statistically significant improvements along most QOL domains, including physical pain, sleep, concentration, negative feelings, social relationships, work capacity, and overall QOL, were identified after a yoga intervention. Results indicate preliminary evidence for yoga as a safe and effective QOL improvement method for women with primary dysmenorrhea. Practitioners may consider yoga for management of primary dysmenorrhea. However, future research using larger RCTs of high methodological quality is needed to
Full Text Available The potential to use data on family history of premature disease to assess disease risk is increasingly recognised, particularly in scoring risk for coronary heart disease (CHD. However the quality of family health information in primary care records is unclear.To assess the availability and quality of family history of CHD documented in electronic primary care records.Cross-sectional study.537 UK family practices contributing to The Health Improvement Network database.Data were obtained from patients aged 20 years or more, registered with their current practice between 1(st January 1998 and 31(st December 2008, for at least one year. The availability and quality of recorded CHD family history was assessed using multilevel logistic and ordinal logistic regression respectively.In a cross-section of 1,504,535 patients, 19% had a positive or negative family history of CHD recorded. Multilevel logistic regression showed patients aged 50-59 had higher odds of having their family history recorded compared to those aged 20-29 (OR:1.23 (1.21 to 1.25, however most deprived patients had lower odds compared to those least deprived (OR: 0.86 (0.85 to 0.88. Of the 140,058 patients with a positive family history recorded (9% of total cohort, age of onset was available in 45%; with data specifying both age of onset and relative affected available in only 11% of records. Multilevel ordinal logistic regression confirmed no statistical association between the quality of family history recording and age, gender, deprivation and year of registration.Family history of CHD is documented in a small proportion of primary care records; and where positive family history is documented the details are insufficient to assess familial risk or populate cardiovascular risk assessment tools. Data capture needs to be improved particularly for more disadvantaged patients who may be most likely to benefit from CHD risk assessment.
Dhiman, Paula; Kai, Joe; Horsfall, Laura; Walters, Kate; Qureshi, Nadeem
The potential to use data on family history of premature disease to assess disease risk is increasingly recognised, particularly in scoring risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). However the quality of family health information in primary care records is unclear. To assess the availability and quality of family history of CHD documented in electronic primary care records. Cross-sectional study. 537 UK family practices contributing to The Health Improvement Network database. Data were obtained from patients aged 20 years or more, registered with their current practice between 1(st) January 1998 and 31(st) December 2008, for at least one year. The availability and quality of recorded CHD family history was assessed using multilevel logistic and ordinal logistic regression respectively. In a cross-section of 1,504,535 patients, 19% had a positive or negative family history of CHD recorded. Multilevel logistic regression showed patients aged 50-59 had higher odds of having their family history recorded compared to those aged 20-29 (OR:1.23 (1.21 to 1.25)), however most deprived patients had lower odds compared to those least deprived (OR: 0.86 (0.85 to 0.88)). Of the 140,058 patients with a positive family history recorded (9% of total cohort), age of onset was available in 45%; with data specifying both age of onset and relative affected available in only 11% of records. Multilevel ordinal logistic regression confirmed no statistical association between the quality of family history recording and age, gender, deprivation and year of registration. Family history of CHD is documented in a small proportion of primary care records; and where positive family history is documented the details are insufficient to assess familial risk or populate cardiovascular risk assessment tools. Data capture needs to be improved particularly for more disadvantaged patients who may be most likely to benefit from CHD risk assessment.
Jéssica Maria Arouca de Miranda
Full Text Available Background: To characterize the demands of health and quality of elderly peoplemonitored in the primary care of Rio Grande do Norte/Brazil. Methods and Findings: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study of a quantitative approach with elderly patients monitored by the primary care. The sample was given for convenience, obtaining 120 participants. The research was conducted through an interview with theapplication of the following questionnaires: Mini Mental State Examination, Socio-demographic Data and Pain Characteristics, Short-Form-36, Mini Nutritional Assessment, the primary activities of daily living, the instrumental activities of daily living, Prism 7 and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS statistical program, in which descriptive and association tests were used.The main demands were related to functionality, followed by nutritional and geriatric depression. The quality of life presented worse results in the domain of general health status and better scores in the emotional and mental health aspects. Regarding the dimensions, the physical health obtained aworse score. Conclusion: Based on the characterization of the health demands found, it is suggested to perform other studies with the same population, enabling to plan and implementing a multidimensional intervention and improving the quality of life of the elderly people. Keywords: Elderly; Quality of Life; Aging; Elderly Health; Nursing.
Zou, Yihuan; Du, Xiangyun; Rasmussen, Palle
Based on a study of Chinese university self-evaluation reports, this paper argues that higher education institutions are trying to manage the tensions between educational and organisational quality and the increasing and worldwide concerns about quality assurance. After 30 years of dramatic educational reform, China has established a nationwide…
Logermann, Frauke; Leisyte, Liudvika; Curaj, Adrian; Matei, Liviu; Pricopie, Remus; Salmi, Jamil; Scott, Peter
The European Standard and Guidelines for Quality Assurance (ESG) of 2005 can be defined as one of the major Bologna documents aimed at furthering the role of students as stakeholders in internal quality assurance processes at higher education institutions (HEIs). Still little is known about
McCalman, Janya; Bailie, Ross; Bainbridge, Roxanne; McPhail-Bell, Karen; Percival, Nikki; Askew, Deborah; Fagan, Ruth; Tsey, Komla
Continuous quality improvement (CQI) processes for improving clinical care and health outcomes have been implemented by primary health-care services, with resultant health-care impacts. But only 10–20% of gain in health outcomes is contributed by health-care services; a much larger share is determined by social and cultural factors. This perspective paper argues that health care and health outcomes can be enhanced through applying CQI as a systems approach to comprehensive primary health care. Referring to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian context as an example, the authors provide a systems framework that includes strategies and conditions to facilitate evidence-based and local decision making by primary health-care services. The framework describes the integration of CQI vertically to improve linkages with governments and community members and horizontally with other sectors to influence the social and cultural determinants of health. Further, government and primary health-care service investment is required to support and extend integration and evaluation of CQI efforts vertically and horizontally. PMID:29623271
Full Text Available Continuous quality improvement (CQI processes for improving clinical care and health outcomes have been implemented by primary health-care services, with resultant health-care impacts. But only 10–20% of gain in health outcomes is contributed by health-care services; a much larger share is determined by social and cultural factors. This perspective paper argues that health care and health outcomes can be enhanced through applying CQI as a systems approach to comprehensive primary health care. Referring to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian context as an example, the authors provide a systems framework that includes strategies and conditions to facilitate evidence-based and local decision making by primary health-care services. The framework describes the integration of CQI vertically to improve linkages with governments and community members and horizontally with other sectors to influence the social and cultural determinants of health. Further, government and primary health-care service investment is required to support and extend integration and evaluation of CQI efforts vertically and horizontally.
McCalman, Janya; Bailie, Ross; Bainbridge, Roxanne; McPhail-Bell, Karen; Percival, Nikki; Askew, Deborah; Fagan, Ruth; Tsey, Komla
Continuous quality improvement (CQI) processes for improving clinical care and health outcomes have been implemented by primary health-care services, with resultant health-care impacts. But only 10-20% of gain in health outcomes is contributed by health-care services; a much larger share is determined by social and cultural factors. This perspective paper argues that health care and health outcomes can be enhanced through applying CQI as a systems approach to comprehensive primary health care. Referring to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian context as an example, the authors provide a systems framework that includes strategies and conditions to facilitate evidence-based and local decision making by primary health-care services. The framework describes the integration of CQI vertically to improve linkages with governments and community members and horizontally with other sectors to influence the social and cultural determinants of health. Further, government and primary health-care service investment is required to support and extend integration and evaluation of CQI efforts vertically and horizontally.
Trindade Thiago G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brazil has developed a primary care system based on multidisciplinary teams which include not only a physician and a nurse, but also 4–6 lay community health workers. This system now consists of 26,650 teams, covering 46% of the Brazilian population. Yet relatively few investigations have examined its effectiveness, especially in contrast with that of the traditional multi-specialty physician team approach it is replacing, or that of other existing family medicine approaches placing less emphasis on lay community health workers. Primary health care can be defined through its domains of access to first contact, continuity, coordination, comprehensiveness, community orientation and family orientation. These attributes can be ascertained via instruments such as the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool, and correlated with the effectiveness of care. The objectives of our study are to validate the adult version of this instrument in Portuguese, identify the extent (quality of primary care present in different models of primary care services, and correlate this extent with measures of process and outcomes in patients with diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods/Design We are conducting a population-based cross-sectional study of primary care in the municipality of Porto Alegre. We will interview a random sample totaling 3000 adults residing in geographic areas covered by four distinct models of primary care of the Brazilian national health system or, alternatively, by one nationally prominent complementary health care service, as well as the physicians and nurses of the health teams of these services. Interviews query perceived quality of care (PCATool-Adult Version, patient satisfaction, and process indicators of management of diabetes, hypertension and known CHD. We are measuring blood pressure, anthropometrics and, in adults with known diabetes, glycated hemoglobin. Discussion We hope to
Desai, Gaurav; Vasisth, Smriti; Patel, Maharshi; Mehta, Vaibhav; Bhavsar, Bharat
16 water samples were collected to study the physical and chemical quality of water of main source of drinking water in the villages of Primary Health Centre, Waghodia of Vadodara district of Gujarat. The values recommended by Indian Standard for Drinking Water (IS 10500:1991) were used for comparison of observed values. The study indicates that the contamination problem in these villages is not alarming at present, but Waghodia being industrial town, ground water quality may deteriorate with passage of time, which needs periodical monitoring. The study provides the local area baseline data which may be useful for the comparison of future study.
Serrano-Velarde, Kathia E.
Most European countries have introduced systematic quality assurance as part of an overall governance reform aimed at enhancing universities' autonomy. Researchers and economic entrepreneurs tend, however, to underestimate the political dimension of accreditation and evaluation when they consider the contribution of quality assurance to the…
Oyier, Charles Richard; Odundo, Paul Amollo; Obat, Rispa Atieno; Lilian, Ganira Khavugwi; Akondo, Joseph Ochieng
Kenyan government launched Free Primary Education (FPE) in 2003 to make schooling affordable to all parents, but less attention has been paid to the quality assurance and equity of the education system. Studies have indicated that the FPE policy sacrificed the quality of education and this led to parents avoiding FPE offered in primary schools and…
... the data handling procedures for the reported data). 2.3Comparisons with the Primary and Secondary... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY...
Wagner, Daniel J; Durbin, Janet; Barnsley, Jan; Ivers, Noah M
Despite its popularity, the effectiveness of audit and feedback in support quality improvement efforts is mixed. While audit and feedback-related research efforts have investigated issues relating to feedback design and delivery, little attention has been directed towards factors which motivate interest and engagement with feedback interventions. This study explored the motivating factors that drove primary care teams to participate in a voluntary audit and feedback initiative. Interviews were conducted with leaders of primary care teams who had participated in at least one iteration of the audit and feedback program. This intervention was developed by an organization which advocates for high-quality, team-based primary care in Ontario, Canada. Interview transcripts were coded using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and the resulting framework was analyzed inductively to generate key themes. Interviews were completed with 25 individuals from 18 primary care teams across Ontario. The majority were Executive Directors (14), Physician leaders (3) and support staff for Quality Improvement (4). A range of motivations for participating in the audit and feedback program beyond quality improvement were emphasized. Primarily, informants believed that the program would eventually become a best-in-class audit and feedback initiative. This reflected concerns regarding existing initiatives in terms of the intervention components and intentions as well as the perception that an initiative by primary care, for primary care would better reflect their own goals and better support desired patient outcomes. Key enablers included perceived obligations to engage and provision of support for the work involved. No teams cited an evidence base for A&F as a motivating factor for participation. A range of motivating factors, beyond quality improvement, contributed to participation in the audit and feedback program. Findings from this study highlight that efforts to
Halladay, Jacqueline R; Stearns, Sally C; Wroth, Thomas; Spragens, Lynn; Hofstetter, Sara; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Sloane, Philip D
We wanted to determine how much it costs primary care practices to participate in programs that require them to gather and report data on care quality indicators. Using mixed quantitative-qualitative methods, we gathered data from 8 practices in North Carolina that were selected purposively to be diverse by size, ownership, type, location, and medical records. Formal practice visits occurred between January 2008 and May 2008. Four quality-reporting programs were studied: Medicare's Physician Quality Reporting Initiative (PQRI), Community Care of North Carolina (CCNC), Bridges to Excellence (BTE), and Improving Performance in Practice (IPIP). We estimated direct costs to the practice and on-site costs to the quality organization for implementation and maintenance phases of program participation. Major expenses included personnel time for planning, training, registry maintenance, visit coding, data gathering and entry, and modification of electronic systems. Costs per full-time equivalent clinician ranged from less than $1,000 to $11,100 during program implementation phases and ranged from less than $100 to $4,300 annually during maintenance phases. Main sources of variation included program characteristics, amount of on-site assistance provided, experience and expertise of practice personnel, and the extent of data system problems encountered. The costs of a quality-reporting program vary greatly by program and are important to anticipate and understand when undertaking quality improvement work. Incentives that would likely improve practice participation include financial payment, quality improvement skills training, and technical assistance with electronic system troubleshooting.
Cohen, Deborah J.; Dorr, David A.; Knierim, Kyle; DuBard, C. Annette; Hemler, Jennifer R.; Hall, Jennifer D.; Marino, Miguel; Solberg, Leif I.; McConnell, K. John; Nichols, Len M.; Nease, Donald E.; Edwards, Samuel T.; Wu, Winfred Y.; Pham-Singer, Hang; Kho, Abel N.; Phillips, Robert L.; Rasmussen, Luke V.; Duffy, F. Daniel; Balasubramanian, Bijal A.
Federal value-based payment programs require primary care practices to conduct quality improvement activities, informed by the electronic reports on clinical quality measures that their electronic health records (EHRs) generate. To determine whether EHRs produce reports adequate to the task, we examined survey responses from 1,492 practices across twelve states, supplemented with qualitative data. Meaningful-use participation, which requires the use of a federally certified EHR, was associated with the ability to generate reports—but the reports did not necessarily support quality improvement initiatives. Practices reported numerous challenges in generating adequate reports, such as difficulty manipulating and aligning measurement time frames with quality improvement needs, lack of functionality for generating reports on electronic clinical quality measures at different levels, discordance between clinical guidelines and measures available in reports, questionable data quality, and vendors that were unreceptive to changing EHR configuration beyond federal requirements. The current state of EHR measurement functionality may be insufficient to support federal initiatives that tie payment to clinical quality measures. PMID:29608365
Cohen, Deborah J; Dorr, David A; Knierim, Kyle; DuBard, C Annette; Hemler, Jennifer R; Hall, Jennifer D; Marino, Miguel; Solberg, Leif I; McConnell, K John; Nichols, Len M; Nease, Donald E; Edwards, Samuel T; Wu, Winfred Y; Pham-Singer, Hang; Kho, Abel N; Phillips, Robert L; Rasmussen, Luke V; Duffy, F Daniel; Balasubramanian, Bijal A
Federal value-based payment programs require primary care practices to conduct quality improvement activities, informed by the electronic reports on clinical quality measures that their electronic health records (EHRs) generate. To determine whether EHRs produce reports adequate to the task, we examined survey responses from 1,492 practices across twelve states, supplemented with qualitative data. Meaningful-use participation, which requires the use of a federally certified EHR, was associated with the ability to generate reports-but the reports did not necessarily support quality improvement initiatives. Practices reported numerous challenges in generating adequate reports, such as difficulty manipulating and aligning measurement time frames with quality improvement needs, lack of functionality for generating reports on electronic clinical quality measures at different levels, discordance between clinical guidelines and measures available in reports, questionable data quality, and vendors that were unreceptive to changing EHR configuration beyond federal requirements. The current state of EHR measurement functionality may be insufficient to support federal initiatives that tie payment to clinical quality measures.
Ada, Sefer; Baysal, Z. Nurdan; Erkan, Senem Seda Sahenk
The purpose of this research is to evaluate the quality service in higher education in Marmara and Nigde Omer Halisdemir Universities' department of education students. This study was prepared using a screening model from quantitative research methods. The sample of this research comprised 886 university students attending the higher education…
Capshaw, Norman Clark
The disruptive technologies of the Internet and computers are changing our world in myriad ways. These technologies are also increasingly being employed in higher education but to what effect? Are the effects on higher education quality measurable, and if so, what is the effect on the traditional gap between high-income and low- to middle-income…
Goh, Teik T; Eccles, Martin P
Attributes of teams could affect the quality of care delivered in primary care. The aim of this study was to systematically review studies conducted within the UK NHS primary care that have measured team climate using the Team Climate Inventory (TCI), and to describe, if reported, the relationship between the TCI and measures of quality of care. The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched. The reference lists of included article were checked and one relevant journal was hand-searched. Eight papers were included. Three studies used a random sample; the remaining five used convenience or purposive samples. Six studies were cross sectional surveys, whilst two were before and after studies. Four studies examined the relationship between team climate and quality of care. Only one study found a positive association between team climate and higher quality care in patients with diabetes, positive patient satisfaction and self-reported effectiveness. While the TCI has been used to measure team attributes in primary care settings in the UK it is difficult to generalise from these data. A small number of studies reported higher TCI scores being associated with only certain aspects of quality of care; reasons for the pattern of association are unclear. There are a number of methodological challenges to conducting such studies in routine service settings. Further research is needed in order to understand how to measure team functioning in relation to quality of care.
Goh Teik T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Attributes of teams could affect the quality of care delivered in primary care. The aim of this study was to systematically review studies conducted within the UK NHS primary care that have measured team climate using the Team Climate Inventory (TCI, and to describe, if reported, the relationship between the TCI and measures of quality of care. Findings The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched. The reference lists of included article were checked and one relevant journal was hand-searched. Eight papers were included. Three studies used a random sample; the remaining five used convenience or purposive samples. Six studies were cross sectional surveys, whilst two were before and after studies. Four studies examined the relationship between team climate and quality of care. Only one study found a positive association between team climate and higher quality care in patients with diabetes, positive patient satisfaction and self-reported effectiveness. Conclusion While the TCI has been used to measure team attributes in primary care settings in the UK it is difficult to generalise from these data. A small number of studies reported higher TCI scores being associated with only certain aspects of quality of care; reasons for the pattern of association are unclear. There are a number of methodological challenges to conducting such studies in routine service settings. Further research is needed in order to understand how to measure team functioning in relation to quality of care.
Ko?er, Belgin; Tezcan, Mehmet Engin; Batur, Hale Zeynep; Haznedaro?lu, ?eminur; G?ker, Berna; ?rke?, Ceyla; ?etinkaya, R?meysa
Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of cognitive dysfunction observed in primary Sj?gren's syndrome (PSS) and to examine the relationships between cognitive abilities, depression, fatigue, and quality of life. Materials and Methods Thirty?two subjects with PSS were compared with 19 healthy controls on comprehensive neuropsychological, depression, fatigue, health state, and daily?life activities tests. Results There was low performance ...
Orr, James K.; Peltier, Daryl
Thsi slide presentation reviews the avionics software system on board the space shuttle, with particular emphasis on the quality and reliability. The Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) provides automatic and fly-by-wire control of critical shuttle systems which executes in redundant computers. Charts given show the number of space shuttle flights vs time, PASS's development history, and other charts that point to the reliability of the system's development. The reliability of the system is also compared to predicted reliability.
Tabrizi, Jafar-Sadegh; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Shahgoli, Javad; Rahbar, Mohammad Reza; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Ahadi, Hamid-Reza; Azami-Aghdash, Saber
Excellence and quality models are comprehensive methods for improving the quality of healthcare. The aim of this study was to design excellence and quality model for training centers of primary health care using Delphi method. In this study, Delphi method was used. First, comprehensive information were collected using literature review. In extracted references, 39 models were identified from 34 countries and related sub-criteria and standards were extracted from 34 models (from primary 39 models). Then primary pattern including 8 criteria, 55 sub-criteria, and 236 standards was developed as a Delphi questionnaire and evaluated in four stages by 9 specialists of health care system in Tabriz and 50 specialists from all around the country. Designed primary model (8 criteria, 55 sub-criteria, and 236 standards) were concluded with 8 criteria, 45 sub-criteria, and 192 standards after 4 stages of evaluations by specialists. Major criteria of the model are leadership, strategic and operational planning, resource management, information analysis, human resources management, process management, costumer results, and functional results, where the top score was assigned as 1000 by specialists. Functional results had the maximum score of 195 whereas planning had the minimum score of 60. Furthermore the most and the least sub-criteria was for leadership with 10 sub-criteria and strategic planning with 3 sub-criteria, respectively. The model that introduced in this research has been designed following 34 reference models of the world. This model could provide a proper frame for managers of health system in improving quality.
Full Text Available This investigation is focused on two objectives: 1 explaining the relationship between quality management and performance management in higher education; 2 evaluating the existing quality management systems in the higher education institutions of the Republic of Moldova. In order to accomplish the first objective, a comparative theoretical analysis of the quality management and performance management was carried out in terms of common aspects and distinctive peculiarities. Consequently, it was reasoned that the performance management system of a higher education institution is created and functions on the basis of the quality management system by extending the area of the quality objectives to the level at which they will ensure performance or, in other terms, by moving towards excellence. In order to achieve the second objective, an opinion survey for the teaching and managerial staff from 6 universities was carried out. As a consequence of processing the obtained results, there were identified problems related to the functioning of the quality management systems. The investigation resulted in the formulation of a set of recommendations for the higher education institutions of the Republic of Moldova in order to increase the efficiency of the quality management systems functioning and thus to ensure an efficient management.
Full Text Available Human power’s quality plays the key role in the growth and development of societies where the quality of human powers can be enriched with the high quality education provided by the higher education institutions. The higher education institutions are hereby an important sector of any society since it defines the overall quality of human lives. This research will investigate the application of Total Quality Management (TQM tools at the higher education institutions; specifically at ALHOSN University. In this study five tools were implemented at ALHOSN University’s engineering college including: Quality Function Deployment, Affinity Diagrams, Tree Diagrams, Pareto Charts, and Fishbone Diagrams. The research will reveal that the implementation of TQM tools has a great benefit for higher education institutions where they have uncovered many area of potential improvement as well as the main causes of some of the problems the Faculty of Engineering is facing. Also, it will show that the implementation of TQM tools on higher education institution systems will enhance the performance of such institutions.
Ringdal, Kristen; Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Olsen, Helene Kristin; Mamen, Asgeir; Fredriksen, Per Morten
The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between parents' level of education, measurements of physical attributes, and quality of life in a general sample of primary school children. The children's and the parents' versions of the Inventory of Life Quality in Children and Adolescents (ILC) were used to measure health-related quality of life (QOL) in 2140 school children (response rate 93%) and 1639 parents (response rate 71%) recruited from nine primary schools in Norway. A set of physical characteristics were also measured in the children: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, average daily minutes of physical activity, aerobic fitness, and handgrip strength. The regression analysis showed stronger relationships between the covariates and QOL for the parents' assessments than for the children's. Parents' level of education was significantly related to children's QOL, with the strongest association for parental QOL assessment. Among the physical variables, aerobic fitness ( B = 0.01, p > .001 in both samples), and handgrip strength in the parents' sample ( B = 0.21, p < .05) were significantly related to the children's QOL. The present study replicated the well-known finding that parents' sociodemographic status is important for children's QOL. Our new contribution is to show that the physiological variables aerobic fitness and muscular strength also contributed significantly to explain variance in QOL. This opens up interesting perspectives on how to improve QOL among children through more emphasis on physical activity and physical fitness in schools.
von Ferber, L; Luciano, A; Köster, I; Krappweis, J
Drugs in primary health care are often prescribed for nonrational reasons. Drug utilization research investigates the prescription of drugs with an eye to medical, social and economic causes and consequences of the prescribed drug's utilization. The results of this research show distinct differences in drug utilization in different age groups and between men and women. Indication and dosage appear irrational from a textbook point of view. This indicates nonpharmacological causes of drug utilization. To advice successfully changes for the better quality assessment groups of primary health care physicians get information about their established behavior by analysis of their prescriptions. The discussion and the comparisons in the group allow them to recognize their irrational prescribing and the social, psychological and economic reasons behind it. Guidelines for treatment are worked out which take into account the primary health care physician's situation. After a year with 6 meetings of the quality assessment groups the education process is evaluated by another drug utilization analysis on the basis of the physicians prescription. The evaluation shows a remarkable improvement of quality and cost effectiveness of the drug therapy of the participating physicians.
Beehler, Gregory P; Lilienthal, Kaitlin R
The Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) model of integrated primary care is challenging to implement with high fidelity. The Primary Care Behavioral Health Provider Adherence Questionnaire (PPAQ) was designed to assess provider adherence to essential model components and has recently been adapted into a quality improvement toolkit. The aim of this pilot project was to gather preliminary feedback on providers' perceptions of the acceptability and utility of the PPAQ toolkit for making beneficial practice changes. Twelve mental health providers working in Department of Veterans Affairs integrated primary care clinics participated in semistructured interviews to gather quantitative and qualitative data. Descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis were used to analyze data. Providers identified several positive features of the PPAQ toolkit organization and structure that resulted in high ratings of acceptability, while also identifying several toolkit components in need of modification to improve usability. Toolkit content was considered highly representative of the (PCBH) model and therefore could be used as a diagnostic self-assessment of model adherence. The toolkit was considered to be high in applicability to providers regardless of their degree of prior professional preparation or current clinical setting. Additionally, providers identified several system-level contextual factors that could impact the usefulness of the toolkit. These findings suggest that frontline mental health providers working in (PCBH) settings may be receptive to using an adherence-focused toolkit for ongoing quality improvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Lofters, Aisha; Guilcher, Sara; Maulkhan, Niraj; Milligan, James; Lee, Joseph
To compare the potential risk factors for lower-quality primary care, the potential markers of unmet needs in primary care, and the willingness to participate in future research among primary care patients with versus without physical disabilities. A waiting room survey using a convenience sample. A family health team (FHT) in Kitchener-Waterloo, Ont, with a designated Mobility Clinic. A total of 40 patients seen at the FHT Mobility Clinic and 80 patients from the general patient population of the same FHT. Socioeconomic status and social capital, number of self-reported emergency department visits and hospitalizations in the preceding year, and willingness of the patients in the 2 groups to participate in future research studies. Patients from the Mobility Clinic were more than twice as likely to be receiving benefits or social assistance (75.0% vs 32.1%, P data for research, 82.5% of Mobility Clinic patients agreed versus 55.0% of those in the general patient population (P = .004). In this study, patients with disabilities were at a social disadvantage compared with their peers without disabilities and were more likely to use the emergency department, suggesting that they had unmet health needs. Future research should continue to explore this patient population and to investigate if an interprofessional primary health care team approach focused on patients with disabilities can help to increase quality of care. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.
Veronese, Guido; Pepe, Alessandro; Almurnak, Feda; Jaradah, Alaa; Hamdouna, Husam
Many researchers have reported that exposure to war and ongoing political violence increases mental health problems in children. Results of studies have also shown a high prevalence (58-80%) of post-traumatic stress disorder in war-affected children living in the occupied Palestinian territory. The aim of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect effects of perceived life satisfaction on the consequences of children's exposure to trauma and the balance of positive and negative affect. Palestinian children were recruited from primary schools in four refugee camps in the Gaza Strip (Bureij, Gaza Beach Camp, Jabalia, Rafah). All children had been involved in or witnessed one or more episodes of violence involving other people in the 2 months prior to the study (the 2012 Gaza War). We used the Multidimensional Students Life Satisfaction Scale (peers, self, living environment, school, family), the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children, and the revised Children Impact of Events scale (intrusion and avoidance symptoms) to test (through structural equation modelling) the moderation effect of life satisfaction on war trauma via positive emotions. 1276 Palestinian children were enrolled in this study. The model tested with structural equation modelling was robust. Children's life satisfaction influenced both the intrusion (β=-0·48; p=0.003) and avoidance (β=-11; p=0·021) effects of primary traumatisation. The consequences of primary traumatisation by intrusion (β=0·34; p=0·008) and avoidance (β=0·27; p=0.011) contributed to increasing negative affect. Finally, perceived life satisfaction had direct effects on affective experience, specifically increasing positive affect and diminishing negative affect. Perceived quality of life in children has a role in controlling war-related traumas. Life satisfaction contributes both directly and indirectly to change affectivity. When children perceive themselves to be highly satisfied with their home and
Lanham, Holly J; McDaniel, Reuben R; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Miller, William L; Stange, Kurt C; Tallia, Alfred F; Nutting, Paula
Understanding the role of relationships health care organizations (HCOs) offers opportunities for shaping health care delivery. When quality is treated as a property arising from the relationships within HCOs, then different contributors of quality can be investigated and more effective strategies for improvement can be developed. Data were drawn from four large National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded studies, and an iterative analytic strategy and a grounded theory approach were used to understand the characteristics of relationships within primary care practices. This multimethod approach amassed rich and comparable data sets in all four studies, which were all aimed at primary care practice improvement. The broad range of data included direct observation of practices during work activities and of patient-clinician interactions, in-depth interviews with physicians and other key staff members, surveys, structured checklists of office environments, and chart reviews. Analyses focused on characteristics of relationships in practices that exhibited a range of success in achieving practice improvement. Complex adaptive systems theory informed these analyses. Trust, mindfulness, heedfulness, respectful interaction, diversity, social/task relatedness, and rich/lean communication were identified as important in practice improvement. A model of practice relationships was developed to describe how these characteristics work together and interact with reflection, sensemaking, and learning to influence practice-level quality outcomes. Although this model of practice relationships was developed from data collected in primary care practices, which differ from other HCOs in some important ways, the ideas that quality is emergent and that relationships influence quality of care are universally important for all HCOs and all medical specialties.
Podell, Rachel; Shriqui, Vered Kaufman; Sagy, Yael Wolff; Manor, Orly; Ben-Yehuda, Arie
In view of increasing global and local trends in population ageing and the high healthcare utilization rates among the elderly, this study assesses the quality of primary care provided to the elderly population in Israel. It examines changes in quality over time, how quality varies across sub-groups of the elderly, and how quality in Israel compares with other countries. Data originate from the National Program for Quality Indicators in Community Healthcare (QICH), which operates in full collaboration with Israel's four HMOs. The study population included all elderly Israeli residents aged 65 years or older during 2002-2015 (N = 879,671 residents in 2015). Seven elderly-specific quality indicators from within the QICH framework were included: influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations, benzodiazepine overuse, long-acting benzodiazepine use, body weight documentation, weight loss and underweight. In addition, two non-age specific quality indicators relating to diabetes mellitus were included: the rate of HbA1C documentation and uncontrolled diabetes. Data were collected from patient electronic medical records (EMR) in accordance with each HMO, and aggregated by three variables: gender, age, and socio-economic position (SEP). During the measurement period, vaccination rates significantly increased (Influenza: from 42.0% in 2002 to 63.2% in 2015; and pneumococcal vaccination: from 25.8% in 2005 to 77.0% in 2015). Body weight documentation (in 65-74 year old persons) increased from only 16.3% in 2003 to 80.9% in 2015. The rate of underweight (BMI quality of care for the elderly in comparison with the international healthcare community. Overall, the quality of care received by elderly Israelis has improved substantially since measurements first began; yet, females receive lower quality care than males. Monitoring results of primary care quality indicators can contribute to population's successful aging; both chronic conditions at earlier ages (e.g. diabetes), and
Johnson, Courtney R; Weems, Andrew D; Brewer, Jennifer M; Thorner, Jeremy; McMurray, Michael A
Septin hetero-oligomers polymerize into cytoskeletal filaments with essential functions in many eukaryotic cell types. Mutations within the oligomerization interface that encompasses the GTP-binding pocket of a septin (its "G interface") cause thermoinstability of yeast septin hetero-oligomer assembly, and human disease. When coexpressed with its wild-type counterpart, a G interface mutant is excluded from septin filaments, even at moderate temperatures. We show that this quality control mechanism is specific to G interface mutants, operates during de novo septin hetero-oligomer assembly, and requires specific cytosolic chaperones. Chaperone overexpression lowers the temperature permissive for proliferation of cells expressing a G interface mutant as the sole source of a given septin. Mutations that perturb the septin G interface retard release from these chaperones, imposing a kinetic delay on the availability of nascent septin molecules for higher-order assembly. Un-expectedly, the disaggregase Hsp104 contributes to this delay in a manner that does not require its "unfoldase" activity, indicating a latent "holdase" activity toward mutant septins. These findings provide new roles for chaperone-mediated kinetic partitioning of non-native proteins and may help explain the etiology of septin-linked human diseases. © 2015 Johnson et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Full Text Available The article describes the particular features of the organization of educational process in order to develop professional mobility of future primary school teachers. The terms and criteria for the definition of "professional mobility of teachers" are analyzed. The main states of the problem of the organization of the educational process in the higher pedagogical school to develop mobile professional are determined. Keywords: professional mobility of primary school teachers, the criteria for determining, the educational process in the higher pedagogical school.
Hudson Smith, Mel; Smith, David
To examine the influence of dimensions of service quality on patient experience of primary care. Data from the national GP Patient Survey in England 2014/15, with responses from 858,351 patients registered at 7,918 practices. Expert panel and principal component analysis helped identify relevant dimensions of service quality. Regression was then used to examine the relationships between these dimensions and reported patient experience. Aggregated scores for each practice were used, comprising the proportion of positive responses to each element of the study. Of eight service quality dimensions identified, six have statistically significant impacts on patient experience but only two have large effects. Patient experience is highly influenced by practice responsiveness and the interactions with the physician. Other dimensions have small or even slightly negative influence. Service quality provided by nurses has negligible effect on patient experience. To improve patient experience in primary health care, efforts should focus on practice responsiveness and interactions with the physician. Other areas have little influence over patient experience. This suggests a gap in patients' perspectives on health care, which has policy implications for patient education. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Saraiva, Margarida; Reis, Elizabeth
Total quality management is a process based on a “to do differently” strategy. This strategy implies trying to achieve continuous improvement by sharing responsibilities reducing misused resource and meeting customer’s expectations. Typically, Total Quality Management is implemented in industry and services using a group of principles. The implementation of such principles guides the organizations towards the improvement of quality standards. Deming contributed to the total qua...
Lemak, Christy Harris; Nahra, Tammie A; Cohen, Genna R; Erb, Natalie D; Paustian, Michael L; Share, David; Hirth, Richard A
As policy makers and others seek to reduce health care cost growth while improving health care quality, one approach gaining momentum is fee-for-value reimbursement. This payment strategy maintains the traditional fee-for-service arrangement but includes quality and spending incentives. We examined Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan's Physician Group Incentive Program, which uses a fee-for-value approach focused on primary care physicians. We analyzed the program's impact on quality and spending from 2008 to 2011 for over three million beneficiaries in over 11,000 physician practices. Participation in the incentive program was associated with approximately 1.1 percent lower total spending for adults (5.1 percent lower for children) and the same or improved performance on eleven of fourteen quality measures over time. Our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence about the potential effectiveness of models that align payment with cost and quality performance, and they demonstrate that it is possible to transform reimbursement within a fee-for-service framework to encourage and incentivize physicians to provide high-quality care, while also reducing costs. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Full Text Available The quality of Islamic education is generally influenced by several factors, among other things: leadership, organizational culture, lecturercompetence versus faculty student ratio, dynamic curriculum, library collections and learning facilities. The factors above are most likely to influence and impact the quality of education process in general. Developing a model of management strategy for quality learning is a minimal effort to improve quality graduates of a university. The model was developed on the basis of the following theories: (1 transformative leadership (Tichy and Devana (1997, (2 strategy of learning organization, (Peter (2002, and (3 a quality-based management (Griffin, 2004. Furthermore, the model shares the following characteristics: (1 a quality learning emerges from an effective and efficient management of academic service; (2 developing management of a quality learning is continuous lecture development; (3 lecture plays an important role in developing a quality learning; (4 a quality learning stipulates that a leader be loyal and committed to their job, wise and have a sense of democracy.
Scott, Anthony; Sivey, Peter; Ait Ouakrim, Driss; Willenberg, Lisa; Naccarella, Lucio; Furler, John; Young, Doris
The use of blended payment schemes in primary care, including the use of financial incentives to directly reward 'performance' and 'quality' is increasing in a number of countries. There are many examples in the US, and the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QoF) for general practitioners (GPs) in the UK is an example of a major system-wide reform. Despite the popularity of these schemes, there is currently little rigorous evidence of their success in improving the quality of primary health care, or of whether such an approach is cost-effective relative to other ways to improve the quality of care. The aim of this review is to examine the effect of changes in the method and level of payment on the quality of care provided by primary care physicians (PCPs) and to identify:i) the different types of financial incentives that have improved quality;ii) the characteristics of patient populations for whom quality of care has been improved by financial incentives; andiii) the characteristics of PCPs who have responded to financial incentives. We searched the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, HealthSTAR, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychLIT, and ECONLIT. Searches of Internet-based economics and health economics working paper collections were also conducted. Finally, studies were identified through the reference lists of retrieved articles, websites of key organisations, and from direct contact with key authors in the field. Articles were included if they were published from 2000 to August 2009. Randomised controlled trials (RCT), controlled before and after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series analyses (ITS) evaluating the impact of different financial interventions on the quality of care delivered by primary healthcare physicians (PCPs). Quality of care was defined as patient reported outcome
Tembuyser, Lien; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Normanno, Nicola; Delen, Sofie; van Krieken, J Han; Dequeker, Elisabeth M C
Precision medicine is now a key element in clinical oncology. RAS mutational status is a crucial predictor of responsiveness to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor agents in metastatic colorectal cancer. In an effort to guarantee high-quality testing services in molecular pathology, the European Society of Pathology has been organizing an annual KRAS external quality assessment program since 2009. In 2012, 10 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples, of which 8 from invasive metastatic colorectal cancer tissue and 2 artificial samples of cell line material, were sent to more than 100 laboratories from 26 countries with a request for routine KRAS testing. Both genotyping and clinical reports were assessed independently. Twenty-seven percent of the participants genotyped at least 1 of 10 samples incorrectly. In total, less than 5% of the distributed specimens were genotyped incorrectly. Genotyping errors consisted of false negatives, false positives, and incorrectly genotyped mutations. Twenty percent of the laboratories reported a technical error for one or more samples. A review of the written reports showed that several essential elements were missing, most notably a clinical interpretation of the test result, the method sensitivity, and the use of a reference sequence. External quality assessment serves as a valuable educational tool in assessing and improving molecular testing quality and is an important asset for monitoring quality assurance upon incorporation of new biomarkers in diagnostic services. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ralph W. Clements
Acid waste from over-treatment and old, wornout iron cups have contributed significantly to the generally poor quality of gum marketed. Today producers are reluctant to purchase new cups and gutters and invest up to $1.80 per tree for production when the market price for gum averages 14.54 per pound annually. Guidelines are given for improving the quality by...
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven autonomous emirates that follow different economic models. There is a process for quality assurance at the federal level, however, each emirate takes its own approach to assure the quality of its institutions. This has resulted in different procedures and varying levels of oversight and…
Skolnik, Michael L.
Although the literature on institutional diversity suggests that quality assurance practices could affect institutional diversity, there has been little empirical research on this relationship. This article seeks to shed some light on the possible connection between quality assurance practices and institutional diversity by examining the…
Houston, Don; Paewai, Shelley
Internationally, quality assurance schemes persist despite long-standing dissatisfaction and critique of their impact and outcomes. Adopting a critical systems perspective, the article explores the relationships between the knowledge, power and meanings that stakeholder groups bring to the design and implementation of quality assurance systems.…
Ruhupatty, LeRoy; Maguad, Ben A.
Most critical activities in colleges and universities are driven by financial considerations. It is thus important that revenues are found to support these activities or ways identified to streamline costs. One way to cut cost is to improve the efficiency of schools to address the issue of poor quality. In this paper, the cost of poor quality in…
Dill, David D.
Efforts to improve the quality of academic programs in the United Kingdom, United States, and Netherlands have followed three general approaches: the logic of competitive markets; application of incentives; and professional self-regulation. Strengths and weaknesses of these approaches for improving academic quality are examined through the lens of…
Job, Jennifer; Sriraman, Bharath
In this paper we theorize a framework for discussing quality assurance of globalized models of education used internationally. The philosophical assumption that homogeneity of perspectives achieves objectivity in practice is argued against using the examples of (a) Brain drain, and (b) Profit over quality. We present a coherent real world scenario…
Manning, Blaine T; Kearns, Sean M; Bohl, Daniel D; Edmiston, Tori; Sporer, Scott M; Levine, Brett R
Sleep disruption is a common, yet rarely addressed, complaint among patients who have undergone total joint arthroplasty (TJA). This study assessed sleep quality before and after primary TJA. A total of 105 patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) prospectively completed questionnaires during the preoperative, early postoperative, and late postoperative periods. The survey included the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, current sleeping habits, and patient perspectives of sleep quality and duration. In the early postoperative period (4.7±2.0 weeks), patients reported significant increases in sleep disturbance as denoted by increased length of time to fall asleep (P=.006) and mean nightly awakenings (P=.002) compared with the preoperative baseline. At late postoperative follow-up (40.8±19.5 weeks), patients' sleep quality subsequently improved above the preoperative baseline. Approximately 40% of patients tried a new sleeping method postoperatively, the most common being new pillow placement. No significant differences in pre- or postoperative sleeping trends were noted between THA and TKA patients. These findings suggest transient sleep disturbance is common in the early postoperative period, with subsequent improvement by 10-month follow-up after a primary TJA. Given the growing importance of patient satisfaction in health care systems, orthopedic surgeons must manage patients' expectations while working with them to optimize sleep quality after TJA. A multimodal approach with preoperative counseling, early postoperative sleep modifications, and possibly preemptive use of medications may improve transient sleep disturbance among TJA patients. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(4):e636-e640.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Doronin Stepan A.
Full Text Available The necessity of creation of a national conception of formation of the internal system of quality assurance of higher education institutions with obligatory introduction of methodological approach in its structure is substantiated; the variant of its terminological provision with clarification of the content of concepts of «quality of education», «internal system of quality of education», «methodological approach» is proposed; positioning of the approach in the system of other standard scientific instruments (method, methodology, program, algorithm is done; arguments for the orientation of the methodology of formation of the internal system of quality assurance of higher education institutions towards the socio-cultural model of paradigm are provided; a hierarchical classification of methodological approaches with allocation of the philosophical, scientific, concrete-scientific, technological levels and the characteristics of their purpose and contents is presented.
Describes two action research projects undertaken at an Australian university to improve quality of services to foreign students and improve the institution's image through word of mouth, or informal marketing. Each project, although small, facilitated changes or improvements to a targeted service. The role of management in empowering employees…
Tembuyser, L.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Normanno, N.; Delen, S.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Dequeker, E.M.
Precision medicine is now a key element in clinical oncology. RAS mutational status is a crucial predictor of responsiveness to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor agents in metastatic colorectal cancer. In an effort to guarantee high-quality testing services in molecular pathology, the European
Klein, David A; Malcolm, Nikita M; Berry-Bibee, Erin N; Paradise, Scott L; Coulter, Jessica S; Keglovitz Baker, Kristin; Schvey, Natasha A; Rollison, Julia M; Frederiksen, Brittni N
LGBT clients have unique healthcare needs but experience a wide range of quality in the care that they receive. This study provides a summary of clinical guideline recommendations related to the provision of primary care and family planning services for LGBT clients. In addition, we identify gaps in current guidelines, and inform future recommendations and guidance for clinical practice and research. PubMed, Cochrane, and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality electronic bibliographic databases, and relevant professional organizations' websites, were searched to identify clinical guidelines related to the provision of primary care and family planning services for LGBT clients. Information obtained from a technical expert panel was used to inform the review. Clinical guidelines meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed to determine their alignment with Institute of Medicine (IOM) standards for the development of clinical practice guidelines and content relevant to the identified themes. The search parameters identified 2,006 clinical practice guidelines. Seventeen clinical guidelines met the inclusion criteria. Two of the guidelines met all eight IOM criteria. However, many recommendations were consistent regarding provision of services to LGBT clients within the following themes: clinic environment, provider cultural sensitivity and awareness, communication, confidentiality, coordination of care, general clinical principles, mental health considerations, and reproductive health. Guidelines for the primary and family planning care of LGBT clients are evolving. The themes identified in this review may guide professional organizations during guideline development, clinicians when providing care, and researchers conducting LGBT-related studies.
The increasing rate of private higher education institutions in Ghana has called for the need to research into the quality management methods for their credibility. The government is giving out less funding and thus losing steering capacity. Public universities are unable to provide placements for all qualifying students in the institutions and therefore private universities have come to the aid of the public universities. The aim of the research is to find out the quality management methods ...
Zubairi, Akbar Jaleel; Bin Mahmood, Syed Usman; Ali, Moiz; Noordin, Shahryar
This prospective, cohort study was carried out to assess the improvement in quality of life of patients undergoing elective primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). It was conducted at the orthopaedic department of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from June 2014 to May 2015, and comprised patients who had undergone THA. A total of 89 patients having a mean age of 41.5±12.0 years with a baseline core outcomes measure index (COMI)-hip score of > 3.5 were included. A decrease in COMI-hip score by >3 points six months post-operatively was considered improvement in quality of life. Patient satisfaction with restriction to squatting was assessed separately. The mean reduction in COMI-hip was 4.9±1.3 with 83(93%) patients experiencing significant improvement in quality of life. Age >50 years and American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) level >III was significantly associated with no improvement in quality of life. Most patients were satisfied with their disability to squat irrespective of COMI-hip score. THA was found to be associated with significant improvement in quality of life and COMI-hip score was applicable in our population despite its inability to assess disability with restriction in squatting.
Hirsch, Jameson K; Molnar, Danielle; Chang, Edward C; Sirois, Fuschia M
Temporal perspective, including views about future goals, may influence motivational processes related to health. An adaptive sense of future orientation is linked to better health, but little research has examined potential underlying factors, such as vitality. In a sample of 101 primary care patients, we examined whether belief in the changeability of the future was related to mental and physical energization and, in turn, to health-related quality of life. Participants were working, uninsured primary care patients, who completed self-report measures of future orientation, vitality, and health-related quality of life. Mediation models, covarying age, sex, and race/ethnicity indicated that vitality significantly mediated the association between future orientation and the outcomes of general health, mental health, social functioning, bodily pain, and role limitations due to emotional and physical reasons. Vitality exerted an indirect-only effect on the relation between future orientation and physical functioning. Our findings suggest that adaptive beliefs about the future may promote, or allow access to, physical and mental energy and, in turn, may result in better mental and physical health functioning. Individual-level and public health interventions designed to promote future orientation and vitality may beneficially influence quality of life and well-being.
Giesen, Paul; Smits, Marleen; Huibers, Linda; Grol, Richard; Wensing, Michel
Many Western countries are seeking an organizational model for after-hours primary care that is safe, efficient, and satisfactory for patients and health care professionals. Around the year 2000, Dutch primary care physicians (PCPs) reorganized their after-hours primary care and shifted from small rotation groups to large-scale PCP cooperatives. This article provides a narrative review of studies on a range of issues about after-hours primary care in the Netherlands, including experiences of health care professionals and patients, patient-safety incidents, adherence to practice guidelines, waiting times, and quality of telephone triage. Physicians expressed high satisfaction with PCP cooperatives; their workload decreased, and job satisfaction increased compared with the situation before the reorganization. In general, patients were also satisfied, but areas for improvement included telephone consultations, patient education, and distance to a pharmacy. A study identified patient-safety incidents in 2.4% of all contacts, of which most did not result in harm to patients. The average adherence to clinical guidelines by physicians was 77%, with lowest adherence scores for prescribing antibiotics and treatment in emergency cases. The average waiting time for home visits was 30 minutes. Seventy percent of patients with life-threatening problems were visited within the time target of 15 minutes. Telephone triage by nurses had positive effects on care efficiency by increasing the proportion of telephone consultations and decreasing the proportion of clinic consultations and home visits. The after-hours primary care system in the Netherlands might set an example for other countries struggling to find a good solution for the problems they encounter with after-hours primary care. Future developments in the Netherlands include integration and extensive collaboration with the accident and emergency departments of hospitals, in which PCPs take care of self-referring patients.
Full Text Available The article deals with the main trends in the development of the system of learning quality control connected with the European integration of higher education and the democratization of education. The authors analyze the state of information systems of learning quality control existing in European higher education and identify their strong and weak points. The authors show that in the learning process universities actively use innovative analytic methods as well as modern means of collecting, storing and transferring information that ensure the successful management of such a complex object as the university of the 21st century.
Mendez Romero, Alejandra; Wunderink, Wouter; Os, Rob M. van; Nowak, Peter J.C.M.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Nuyttens, Joost J.; Brandwijk, Rene P.; Verhoef, Cornelis; IJzermans, Jan N.M.; Levendag, Peter C.
Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) provides a high local control rate for primary and metastatic liver tumors. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of this treatment on the patient's quality of life. This is the first report of quality of life associated with liver SBRT. Methods and Materials: From October 2002 to March 2007, a total of 28 patients not suitable for other local treatments and with Karnofsky performance status of at least 80% were entered in a Phase I-II study of SBRT for liver tumors. Quality of life was a secondary end point. Two generic quality of life instruments were investigated, EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and EuroQoL-Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-5D VAS), in addition to a disease-specific questionnaire, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ C-30). Points of measurement were directly before and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Mean scores and SDs were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using paired-samples t-test and Student t-test. Results: The calculated EQ-5D index, EQ-5D VAS and QLQ C-30 global health status showed that mean quality of life of the patient group was not significantly influenced by treatment with SBRT; if anything, a tendency toward improvement was found. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy combines a high local control rate, by delivering a high dose per fraction, with no significant change in quality of life. Multicenter studies including larger numbers of patients are recommended and under development
Li, Yan; Hou, Cai-Lan; Ma, Xin-Rong; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Zang, Yu; Jia, Fu-Jun; Lin, Yong-Qiang; Lai, Kelly Y C; Chiu, Helen F K; Ungvari, Gabor S; Hall, Brian J; Cai, Mei-Ying; Ng, Chee H; Xiang, Yu-Tao
In China, maintenance treatment for clinically stable patients with schizophrenia is usually provided by primary care physicians. This study examined the quality of life (QOL) in patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care and explored the demographic and clinical characteristics associated with QOL. Altogether, 612 patients with schizophrenia treated in 22 randomly selected primary care services in China formed the study sample. QOL, psychotic and depressive symptoms, extra-pyramidal symptoms and insight were assessed using standardized instruments. Data analyses were conducted with the one sample t-test and multiple linear regression analyses. Compared with the normative data for the Chinese general population, significantly lower scores in physical and mental QOL domains were found in the patient group. Older age, being unemployed, major medical conditions, no smoking, more severe depressive and negative symptoms, more frequent insomnia, and suicidality were independently associated with poor physical QOL. Male gender, more severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, more frequent insomnia, and suicidality were independently associated with poor mental QOL. Patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care had lower level of QOL in comparison with general population. Effective measures need to be implemented to improve their QOL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There is an urgent need to reform the educational system to achieve universal primary education in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Even after 35 years of independence, PNG has been struggling to educate an estimated 2 million elementary- and primary-aged children and faces numerous challenges in providing Education for All (EFA. This study was conducted in four primary schools of Buma Yong area of Lae district of Morobe Province, PNG. The study revealed that the quality of education has been deteriorated over the past few decades. Many schools in PNG do not have classrooms, teachers, and basic facilities. As a result, the children are losing interest in going to school. The children dropped out of school so as to assist their families in the household and agricultural activities. It also reveals that the dropout rate of girls is more than that of the boys due to the gender disparity in the country. The study recommended that budgetary allocations should be increased so as to improve the infrastructural facilities and encourage the children to attend primary school and thus achieve the Millennium Development Goal/Education For All in PNG.
Elkin, L L; Harden, D G; Saldanha, S; Ferguson, H; Cheney, D L; Pieniazek, S N; Maloney, D P; Zewinski, J; O'Connell, J; Banks, M
Compound pooling, or multiplexing more than one compound per well during primary high-throughput screening (HTS), is a controversial approach with a long history of limited success. Many issues with this approach likely arise from long-term storage of library plates containing complex mixtures of compounds at high concentrations. Due to the historical difficulties with using multiplexed library plates, primary HTS often uses a one-compound-one-well approach. However, as compound collections grow, innovative strategies are required to increase the capacity of primary screening campaigns. Toward this goal, we have developed a novel compound pooling method that increases screening capacity without compromising data quality. This method circumvents issues related to the long-term storage of complex compound mixtures by using acoustic dispensing to enable "just-in-time" compound pooling directly in the assay well immediately prior to assay. Using this method, we can pool two compounds per well, effectively doubling the capacity of a primary screen. Here, we present data from pilot studies using just-in-time pooling, as well as data from a large >2-million-compound screen using this approach. These data suggest that, for many targets, this method can be used to vastly increase screening capacity without significant reduction in the ability to detect screening hits. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.
Full Text Available Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a worldwide public health issue. From 2009 to 2014, the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care Greater Manchester (NIHR CLAHRC GM in England ran 4 phased, 12-month quality improvement (QI projects with 49 primary care practices in GM. Two measureable aims were set – halve undiagnosed CKD in participating practices using modelled estimates of prevalence; and optimise blood pressure (BP control (<140/90 mm Hg in CKD patients without proteinuria; <130/80 mm Hg in CKD patients with proteinuria for 75% of recorded cases of CKD. The 4 projects ran as follows: P1 = Project 1 with 19 practices (September 2009 to September 2010, P2 = Project 2 with 11 practices (March 2011 to March 2012, P3 = Project 3 with 12 practices (September 2012 to October 2013, and P4 = Project 4 with 7 practices (April 2013 to March 2014. Methods: Multifaceted intervention approaches were tailored based on a contextual analysis of practice support needs. Data were collected from practices by facilitators at baseline and again at project close, with self-reported data regularly requested from practices throughout the projects. Results: Halving undiagnosed CKD as per aim was exceeded in 3 of the 4 projects. The optimising BP aim was met in 2 projects. Total CKD cases after the programme increased by 2,347 (27% from baseline to 10,968 in a total adult population (aged ≥18 years of 231,568. The percentage of patients who managed to appropriate BP targets increased from 34 to 74% (P1, from 60 to 83% (P2, from 68 to 71% (P3, and from 63 to 76% (P4. In nonproteinuric CKD patients, 88, 90, 89, and 91%, respectively, achieved a target BP of <140/90 mm Hg. In proteinuric CKD patients, 69, 46, 48, and 45%, respectively, achieved a tighter target of <130/80 mm Hg. Analysis of national data over similar timeframes indicated that practices participating in the programme achieved
Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary health care is recognized as a main driver of equitable health service delivery. For it to function optimally, routine health information systems (HIS are necessary to ensure adequate provision of health care and the development of appropriate health policies. Concerns about the quality of routine administrative data have undermined their use in resource-limited settings. This evaluation was designed to describe the availability, reliability, and validity of a sample of primary health care HIS data from nine health facilities across three districts in Sofala Province, Mozambique. HIS data were also compared with results from large community-based surveys. Methodology We used a methodology similar to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria data verification bottom-up audit to assess primary health care HIS data availability and reliability. The quality of HIS data was validated by comparing three key indicators (antenatal care, institutional birth, and third diptheria, pertussis, and tetanus [DPT] immunization with population-level surveys over time. Results and discussion The data concordance from facility clinical registries to monthly facility reports on five key indicators--the number of first antenatal care visits, institutional births, third DPT immunization, HIV testing, and outpatient consults--was good (80%. When two sites were excluded from the analysis, the concordance was markedly better (92%. Of monthly facility reports for immunization and maternity services, 98% were available in paper form at district health departments and 98% of immunization and maternity services monthly facility reports matched the Ministry of Health electronic database. Population-level health survey and HIS data were strongly correlated (R = 0.73, for institutional birth, first antenatal care visit, and third DPT immunization. Conclusions Our results suggest that in this setting, HIS data are both reliable and
Weng, Cathy; Weng, Apollo; Tsai, Kevin
The primary purpose of this study was to uncover determines of students' intention to adopt online teaching evaluation at the end of semester by proposing a research model based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The second purpose was to investigate the efficacy of the theory for predicting such intention. Besides users' attitude and…
Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Abdin, Edimansyah; Zhang, YunJue; Chang, Sherilyn; Shafie, Saleha; Rahman, Restria Fauziana Abdul; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
This study aimed to explore the psychological status and quality of life among primary caregivers of individuals suffering from various mental illnesses including early psychosis, chronic schizophrenia, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and dementia. A total of 350 primary caregivers with relatives seeking treatment at a tertiary psychiatric hospital were recruited for this study. Socio-demographic data was obtained and the brief version of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life instrument was used to assess caregiver's quality of life (QOL). Psychological status among primary caregivers was assessed using the General Anxiety Disorder - 7 item (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire - 9 item (PHQ-9) scales. Family Interview Schedule (FIS) was used to assess the impact of caregiving relating to social problems, interpersonal strain among family members, work related problems and financial difficulties as a result of their relative's illness. The socio-demographic and clinical correlates of QOL, PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were examined using multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Associations between QOL domains and psychological status was examined using multiple linear regression analyses. The mean age of the primary caregivers was 49.7 years (SD = 13.2), ranging from 21 to 82 years, with a preponderance of females (67.6%), aged 50-64 years old (45.7%). Majority were of Chinese ethnicity (57.5%), had secondary level education (43.1%), were married (65.2%), and employed (64.9%). 18.3% of primary caregivers had symptoms of depression (based on PHQ-9 cut-off point of 10 or greater) while 12.7% had symptoms of anxiety (based on GAD-7 cut-off point of 10 or greater). Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that primary caregivers aged between 35-49 years and 50-64 years, unemployed, living with others, providing care to those diagnosed with dementia and who had higher FIS scores were significantly more likely to report symptoms
Dale, Stacy B; Ghosh, Arkadipta; Peikes, Deborah N; Day, Timothy J; Yoon, Frank B; Taylor, Erin Fries; Swankoski, Kaylyn; O'Malley, Ann S; Conway, Patrick H; Rajkumar, Rahul; Press, Matthew J; Sessums, Laura; Brown, Randall
The 4-year, multipayer Comprehensive Primary Care Initiative was started in October 2012 to determine whether several forms of support would produce changes in care delivery that would improve the quality and reduce the costs of care at 497 primary care practices in seven regions across the United States. Support included the provision of care-management fees, the opportunity to earn shared savings, and the provision of data feedback and learning support. We tracked changes in the delivery of care by practices participating in the initiative and used difference-in-differences regressions to compare changes over the first 2 years of the initiative in Medicare expenditures, health care utilization, claims-based measures of quality, and patient experience for Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries attributed to initiative practices and a group of matched comparison practices. During the first 2 years, initiative practices received a median of $115,000 per clinician in care-management fees. The practices reported improvements in approaches to the delivery of primary care in areas such as management of the care of high-risk patients and enhanced access to care. Changes in average monthly Medicare expenditures per beneficiary did not differ significantly between initiative and comparison practices when care-management fees were not taken into account (-$11; 95% confidence interval [CI], -$23 to $1; P=0.07; negative values indicate less growth in spending at initiative practices) or when these fees were taken into account ($7; 95% CI, -$5 to $19; P=0.27). The only significant differences in other measures were a 3% reduction in primary care visits for initiative practices relative to comparison practices (Pinitiative practices relative to comparison practices (P=0.006 and Pinitiative have reported progress in transforming the delivery of primary care. However, at this point these practices have not yet shown savings in expenditures for Medicare Parts A and B after
Monteiro Grendene, Gabriela; Szczecinski Rodrigues, Átila; Katz, Natan; Harzheim, Erno
This paper presents results of an assessment of the quality research of endocrinology referrals in the public health system in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. From the analysis of 4,458 requests for endocrinology referrals, it was found that 15% of referrals had insufficient information for evaluation and 71% showed no clinical justification for authorization of referencing. The partial results of the study indicated that the lack of information makes it impossible to clinically regulate these requests. The use of referencing protocols associated with telemedicine tools can assist doctors in primary health care in the clinical management and make access to specialized services more equitable and timely.
Guerrieri, Gioia M; Martinez, Pedro E; Klug, Summer P; Haq, Nazli A; Vanderhoof, Vien H; Koziol, Deloris E; Popat, Vaishali B; Kalantaridou, Sophia N; Calis, Karim A; Rubinow, David R; Schmidt, Peter J; Nelson, Lawrence M
Women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) display low androgen levels, which could contribute to mood and behavioral symptoms observed in this condition. We examined the effects of physiologic testosterone therapy added to standard estrogen/progestin therapy on quality of life, self-esteem, and mood in women with POI. One hundred twenty-eight women with 46,XX spontaneous POI participated in a 12-month randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-design investigation of the efficacy of testosterone augmentation of estrogen/progestin therapy. Quality of life, self-esteem, and mood symptoms were evaluated with standardized rating scales and a structured clinical interview. Differences in outcome measures between the testosterone and placebo treatments were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum tests. No differences in baseline characteristics, including serum hormone levels (P > 0.05), were found. Baseline mean (SD) Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores were 10.7 (8.6) and 9.2 (7.8) for testosterone and placebo, respectively (P = 0.35). After 12 months of treatment, measures of quality of life, self-esteem, and mood symptoms did not differ between treatment groups. Serum testosterone levels achieved physiologic levels in the testosterone group and were significantly higher compared with placebo (P self-esteem and had minimal effects on mood. Other mechanisms might play a role in the altered mood accompanying this disorder.
Burquel, Nadine; van Vught, Frans
This paper presents the findings of a two-year EU-funded project (DG Education and Culture) "Benchmarking in European Higher Education", carried out from 2006 to 2008 by a consortium led by the European Centre for Strategic Management of Universities (ESMU), with the Centre for Higher Education Development, UNESCO-CEPES, and the…
Magzan, Masa; Aleksic-Maslac, Karmela
Responding to the impact of globalization on delivering education and the increasing need to adapt to the needs of economic and social life, higher education institutions (HEI) effectiveness is depending on the use of technology and contribution to national development. While increasing access to higher education remains to be an important…
Lee, Lung-Sheng; Ko, Hui-Min; Wang, Mei-Tyng; Pan, Ying-Ju
As the third-party planner and implementer of higher education institutional and program evaluations, the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT) completed program evaluations for all 145 undergraduate business and management (B&M) programs in 43 universities/colleges from 2006 to 2010. In the 145 programs…
Wagner, Shannon L; Cepeda, Ivan; Krieger, Dena; Maggi, Stefania; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E
Child executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory) are key to success in school. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, is known to affect cognition; however, there is limited information about how child cortisol levels, parenting factors and child care context relate to executive functions in young children. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between child cortisol, parenting stress, parent coping, and daycare quality in relation to executive functions in children aged 3-5 years. We hypothesized that (1) poorer executive functioning would be related to higher child cortisol and higher parenting stress, and (2) positive daycare quality and positive parent coping style would buffer the effects of child cortisol and parenting stress on executive functions. A total of 101 children (53 girls, 48 boys, mean age 4.24 years ±0.74) with complete data on all measures were included. Three saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected at the child's daycare/preschool in one morning. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - Revised (ECERS-R) was used to measure the quality of daycare. It was found that children with poorer executive functioning had higher levels of salivary cortisol, and their parents reported higher parenting stress. However, parent coping style and quality of daycare did not modulate these relationships. Identifying ways to promote child executive functioning is an important direction for improving school readiness.
Wagner, Shannon L.; Cepeda, Ivan; Krieger, Dena; Maggi, Stefania; D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E.
Child executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory) are key to success in school. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, is known to affect cognition; however, there is limited information about how child cortisol levels, parenting factors and child care context relate to executive functions in young children. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between child cortisol, parenting stress, parent coping, and daycare quality in relation to executive functions in children aged 3–5 years. We hypothesized that (1) poorer executive functioning would be related to higher child cortisol and higher parenting stress, and (2) positive daycare quality and positive parent coping style would buffer the effects of child cortisol and parenting stress on executive functions. A total of 101 children (53 girls, 48 boys, mean age 4.24 years ±0.74) with complete data on all measures were included. Three saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected at the child’s daycare/preschool in one morning. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale – Revised (ECERS-R) was used to measure the quality of daycare. It was found that children with poorer executive functioning had higher levels of salivary cortisol, and their parents reported higher parenting stress. However, parent coping style and quality of daycare did not modulate these relationships. Identifying ways to promote child executive functioning is an important direction for improving school readiness. PMID:26335047
Full Text Available Cereals and legumes are important part of dietaries and contribute substantially to nutrient intake of human beings. They are significant source of energy, protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. Primary processing of cereals and legumes is an essential component of their preparation before use. For some grains, dehusking is an essential step, whereas for others, it could be milling the grain into flour. Grains are subjected to certain processing treatments to impart special characteristics and improve organoleptic properties such as expanded cereals. All these treatments result in alteration of their nutritional quality which could either be reduction in nutrients, phytochemicals and antinutrients or an improvement in digestibility or availability of nutrients. It is important to understand these changes occurring in grain nutritional quality on account of pre-processing treatments to select appropriate techniques to obtain maximum nutritional and health benefits. This review attempts to throw light on nutritional alterations occurring in grains due to pre-processing treatments.
Grifoll, Josep; Hopbach, Achim; Kekalainen, Helka; Lugano, Nathalie; Rozsnyai, Christina; Shopov, Todor
Higher education reforms over the last decade, resulting in the establishment of the European Higher Education Area, with new social demands and expectations, have greatly impacted quality assurance in higher education. As a follow-up activity to two previous surveys on external quality procedures, the European Association for Quality Assurance in…
Full Text Available In all universities, the Office for Quality Assurance defines the procedure for assessing the performance of the teaching staff, with a view to establishing students’ perception as regards the teachers’ activity from the point of view of the quality of the teaching process, of the relationship with the students and of the assistance provided for learning. The present paper aims at creating a combined model for evaluation, based on Data Mining statistical methods: starting from the findings revealed by the evaluations teachers performed to students, using the cluster analysis and the discriminant analysis, we identified the subjects which produced significant differences between students’ grades, subjects which were subsequently subjected to an evaluation by students. The results of these analyses allowed the formulation of certain measures for enhancing the quality of the evaluation process.
darsih darsih darsih
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Assessing the quality of e-learning courses to measure the success of e-learning systems in online learning is essential. The system can be used to improve education. The study analyzes the quality of e-learning course on the web site www.kulon.undip.ac.id used a questionnaire with questions based on the variables of ISO 9126. Penilaiann Likert scale was used with a web app. Rule-base reasoning method is used to subject the quality of e-learningyang assessed. A case study conducted in four e-learning courses with 133 sample / respondents as users of the e-learning course. From the obtained results of research conducted both for the value of e-learning from each subject tested. In addition, each e-learning courses have different advantages depending on certain variables. Keywords : E-Learning, Rule-Base, Questionnaire, Likert, Measuring.
Full Text Available Background: Infectious disease and malnutrition are common in children. Primary health care came into being to decrease the morbidity. Quality assessment is neither clinical research nor technology assessment. It is primarily an administrative device used to monitor performance to determine whether it continues to remain within acceptable bounds. Aims and Objectives: To assess the quality of service in the delivery of child health care in a primary health care setting. To evaluate client satisfaction. To assess utilization of facilities by the community. Materials and Methods: Study Type: Cross-sectional community-based study. Quality assessment was done by taking 30-50%, of the service provider. Client satisfaction was determined with 1 Immunization and child examination-90 clients each. Utilization of services was assessed among 478 households. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Likert′s scale to grade the services and Chi-square. Results: Immunization service: Identification of needed vaccine, preparation and care was average. Vaccination technique, documentation, EPI education, maintenance of cold chain and supplies were excellent. Client satisfaction was good. Growth monitoring: It was excellent except for mother′s education andoutreach educational session . Acute respiratory tract infection care: History, physical examination, ARI education were poor. Classification, treatment and referral were excellent. Client satisfaction was good. Diarrheal disease care: History taking was excellent. But examination, classification, treatment, ORT education were poor. Conclusion: Mothers education was not stressed by service providers. Service providers′ knowledge do not go with the quality of service rendered. Physical examination of the child was not good. Except for immunization other services were average.
Ariva Sugandi Permana
Full Text Available Bandung City is characterized by concentric land use pattern as found in many naturally grown cities. It radiates from mixed commercial areas in the center to low density residential areas in the periphery. This pattern generates significant traffic volume towards city center. The gener-ated traffic releases emissions and degrades urban air quality since fossil fuel is predominantly used by vehicles in Bandung. In the absence of air polluting industries as well as construction and demolition activities, traffic load generated by land use changes is the only major contribu-tor to air quality degradation in the city. The land use change can therefore be seen as primary determinant of air pollution in Bandung. This study analyses land use changes and its impacts on traffic pattern and air quality. Multivariate correlation between traffic load and land use changes is employed as tool to substantiate the proposition. Relationships between the degree of chang-es in land use, as reflected in traffic loads, and the quantity of two principal air pollutants, namely SO2 and HC are also established to validate the argument. The result of analysis sub-stantiates the correlation between land use changes and air quality degradation.
Poblano-Verástegui, Ofelia; Vieyra-Romero, Waldo I; Galván-García, Ángel F; Fernández-Elorriaga, María; Rodríguez-Martínez, Antonia I; Saturno-Hernández, Pedro J
To assess the quality and compliance of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) applicable to chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) in primary healthcare (CS), and views of staff on the barriers, facilitators and their use. 18 valued CPG with AGREEII, 3 are selected to develop indicators and assess compliance using lot quality acceptance sample (LQAS, standard 75 / 95% threshold 40 / 75% respectively, α:0. 05, β:0. 10) on 5 CS. 70 professionals surveyed about knowledge and use of CPG. Average quality of the CPG was 57.2%; low rating in domains: "Applicability" (<25%), "Stakeholder involvement" (43.5%) and "Rigour of development" (55.0%). Compliance in CS ranges from 39 to 53.4%. Professionals show uneven knowledge of CPG; 44 to 45% (according to CPG), they declare that they are not used, they identify as main barriers the lack of training, and their difficult accessibility and management. The quality and implementation of evaluated CPG is deficient constituting an opportunity of improvement in health services.
Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Geneau, Robert; Del Grande, Claudio; Denis, Jean-Louis; Hudon, Eveline; Haggerty, Jeannie L; Bonin, Lucie; Duplain, Réjean; Goudreau, Johanne; Hogg, William
To gain a deeper understanding of how primary care (PC) practices belonging to different models manage resources to provide high-quality care. Multiple-case study embedded in a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 37 practices. Three regions of Quebec. Health care professionals and staff of 5 PC practices. Five cases showing above-average results on quality-of-care indicators were purposefully selected to contrast on region, practice size, and PC model. Data were collected using an organizational questionnaire; the Team Climate Inventory, which was completed by health care professionals and staff; and 33 individual interviews. Detailed case histories were written and thematic analysis was performed. The core common feature of these practices was their ongoing effort to make trade-offs to deliver services that met their vision of high-quality care. These compromises involved the same 3 areas, but to varying degrees depending on clinic characteristics: developing a shared vision of high-quality care; aligning resource use with that vision; and balancing professional aspirations and population needs. The leadership of the physician lead was crucial. The external environment was perceived as a source of pressure and dilemmas rather than as a source of support in these matters. Irrespective of their models, PC practices' pursuit of high-quality care is based on a vision in which accessibility is a key component, balanced by appropriate management of available resources and of external environment expectations. Current PC reforms often create tensions rather than support PC practices in their pursuit of high-quality care. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.
Funk, John D., Jr.; Beck, Corin P.; Johns, John B.
With a pilots' increasing use of visual cue augmentation, much requiring extensive pre-processing, there is a need to establish criteria for new avionics/display design. The timeliness and synchronization of the augmented cues is vital to ensure the performance quality required for precision mission task elements (MTEs) where augmented cues are the primary source of information to the pilot. Processing delays incurred while transforming sensor-supplied flight information into visual cues are unavoidable. Relationships between maximum control system delays and associated flying qualities levels are documented in MIL-F-83300 and MIL-F-8785. While cues representing aircraft status may be just as vital to the pilot as prompt control response for operations in instrument meteorological conditions, presently, there are no specification requirements on avionics system latency. To produce data relating avionics system latency to degradations in flying qualities, the Navy conducted two simulation investigations. During the investigations, flying qualities and performance data were recorded as simulated avionics system latency was varied. Correlated results of the investigation indicates that there is a detrimental impact of latency on flying qualities. Analysis of these results and consideration of key factors influencing their application indicate that: (1) Task performance degrades and pilot workload increases as latency is increased. Inconsistency in task performance increases as latency increases. (2) Latency reduces the probability of achieving Level 1 handling qualities with avionics system latency as low as 70 ms. (3) The data suggest that the achievement of desired performance will be ensured only at display latency values below 120 ms. (4) These data also suggest that avoidance of inadequate performance will be ensured only at display latency values below 150 ms.
Silva, Danilo Soares; de Morales, Gustavo Hermínio Salati Marcondes; Makiya, Ieda Kanashiro; Cesar, Francisco Ignácio Giocondo
Purpose: This study aims to find evidence of the HEdPERF scale use for measuring the perceived service quality from the perspective of students in higher education institutions (HEIs) worldwide. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to find evidence of the scale use in articles published between January…
Polkinghorne, Martyn; Roushan, Gelareh; Taylor, Julia
The marketization of higher education has ensured that students have become consumers. As a result, students are demanding increased levels of information regarding potential university courses so that they can make informed decisions regarding how best to invest their money, time and opportunity. A comparison of the teaching quality delivered on…
Downs, M; Capstick, A; Baldwin, P C; Surr, C; Bruce, E
There is now widespread concern about the inadequate care and support provided to people with dementia from diagnosis to death. It is acknowledged that while there is a range of effective ways to care for and support people with dementia and their families from diagnosis to death, these have yet to become integral to practice. In England, for example, the National Dementia Strategy seeks to transform the quality of dementia care. One of the key components to transforming the quality of care is to ensure we have an informed and effective workforce. We argue here that in order to transform the quality of care we need to distinguish between the aims of training and education. Whilst there is a place for skills-based workplace training, Higher Education in dementia studies has a key role to play in the provision of specialist knowledge and skills in dementia care emphasizing as it does the development of critical thinking, reflection and action. In this paper we describe dementia studies at Bradford University available at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. We outline their aims and learning outcomes, curricula, approach to teaching, learning and assessment. We describe the nature of students who study with us, noting their fit with the Higher Education Funding Council in England's agenda for widening participation in higher education. Higher Education in dementia studies has a unique role to play in equipping practitioners and professionals with the information, skills and attitudes to realize the potential for quality of life for people with dementia and their families.
This study aims to investigate the direction and strength of the relationships among service recovery, relationship quality, and brand image in higher education industries. This research provides a framework for school managers to understand service recovery from an operations perspective. Structural equation models were used to test the proposed…
Quigley, Charles J., Jr.; Bingham, Frank G., Jr.; Notarantonio, Elaine M.; Murray, Keith
A survey of 303 potential college students and their parents found that high price and low price institutions are evaluated higher on quality attributes than are moderately priced institutions. Further, discounts (such as financial aid) were found to have little effect on the attendance decision. Implications for the pricing strategies used by…
Tadesse, Tefera; Manathynga, Catherine E.; Gillies, Robyn M.
Current approaches for assessing the quality of teaching and learning in higher education focus solely on compliance and accountability, and use quantitative measures that serve as indicators of institutional effectiveness and efficiency, yet whether such approaches have linked to instructional activities or students learning in universities are…
This paper focuses on the process and mechanism of higher education policy change related to quality assurance in a globalized world. In particular, the purpose of the study was to identify the impact of globalization on domestic policy change in Taiwan, characterized as a peripheral country. Taiwan's experience in terms of developing a national…
Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Poplas-Susič, Antonija
To determine the possible associations between higher levels of selected quality indicators and the characteristics of providers. In 2011, an ongoing project on a new model of family medicine practice was launched in Slovenia; the family physicians' working team (a family physician and a practice nurse) was extended by a nurse practitioner working 0.5 full-time equivalents. This was an example of a personalised team approach to managing chronic patients. We included all family medicine practices in the six units of the Community Health Centre Ljubljana which were participating in the project in December 2015 (N = 66). Data were gathered from automatic electronic reports on quality indicators provided monthly by each practice. We also collected demographic data. There were 66 family medicine teams in the sample, with 165 members of their teams (66 family physicians, 33 nurse practitioners and 66 practice nurses). Fifty-six (84.4%) of the family physicians were women, as were 32 (97.0%) of the nurse practitioners, and 86 (95.5%) of the practice nurses. Multivariate analysis showed that a higher level of the quality indicator "Examination of diabetic foot once per year" was independently associated with nurse practitioners having attended additional education on diabetes, duration of participation in the project, age and years worked since graduation of nurse practitioners, working in the Center unit and not working in the Bezigrad unit. Characteristics of team members are important in fostering quality management of chronic patients. Nurse practitioners working in new model family practices need obligatory, continuous professional education in the management of chronic patients. The quality of care of chronic patients depends on the specific characteristics of the members of the team, which should be taken into account when planning quality improvements. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Palfai, Tibor P; Cheng, Debbie M; Bernstein, Judith A; Palmisano, Joseph; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine A; Goodness, Tracie; Saitz, Richard
Although a number of brief intervention approaches for drug use are based on motivational interviewing (MI), relatively little is known about whether the quality of motivational interviewing skills is associated with intervention outcomes. The current study examined whether indices of motivational interviewing skill were associated with subsequent drug use outcomes following two different MI-based brief interventions delivered in primary care; a 15 min Brief Negotiated Interview (BNI) and a 45 min adaptation of motivational interviewing (MOTIV). Audio recordings from 351 participants in a randomized controlled trial for drug use in primary care were coded using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Scale, (MITI Version 3.1.1). Separate negative binomial regression analyses, stratified by intervention condition, were used to examine the associations between six MITI skill variables and the number of days that the participant used his/her main drug 6 weeks after study entry. Only one of the MITI variables (% reflections to questions) was significantly associated with the frequency of drug use in the MOTIV condition and this was opposite to the hypothesized direction (global p=0.01, adjusted IRR 1.50, 95%CI: 1.03-2.20 for middle vs. lowest tertile [higher skill, more drug use]. None were significantly associated with drug use in the BNI condition. Secondary analyses similarly failed to find consistent predictors of better drug outcomes. Overall, this study provides little evidence to suggest that the level of MI intervention skills are linked with better drug use outcomes among people who use drugs and receive brief interventions in primary care. Findings should be considered in light of the fact that data from the study are from negative trial of SBI and was limited to primary care patients. Future work should consider alternative ways of examining these process variables (i.e., comparing thresholds of proficient versus non-proficient skills) or
Snihurowych, Roman R; Cornelius, Felix; Amelung, Volker Eric
Despite the widespread use of branding in nearly all other major industries, most health care service delivery organizations have not fully embraced the practices and processes of branding. Facilitating the increased and appropriate use of branding among health care delivery organizations may improve service and technical quality for patients. This article introduces the concepts of branding, as well as making the case that the use of branding may improve the quality and financial performance of organizations. The concepts of branding are reviewed, with examples from the literature used to demonstrate their potential application within health care service delivery. The role of branding for individual organizations is framed by broader implications for health care markets. Branding strategies may have a number of positive effects on health care service delivery, including improved technical and service quality. This may be achieved through more transparent and efficient consumer choice, reduced costs related to improved patient retention, and improved communication and appropriateness of care. Patient satisfaction may be directly increased as a result of branding. More research into branding could result in significant quality improvements for individual organizations, while benefiting patients and the health system as a whole.
Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…
The goal of this paper is to report on the SERVQUAL gap which causes unsuccessful service delivery at a University of Technology in South Africa. Using a quantitative research design, the study adopts a SERVQUAL model adapted to a tertiary environment containing five dimensions of service quality (tangibles, responsiveness, empathy, assurance, and…
Blanco Ramírez, Gerardo
This article reports on findings from a sociolinguistic qualitative study exploring inter-discursive relations manifested in the approaches and strategies that regional accrediting agencies in the United States utilise when recognising foreign universities. Even as most countries have developed national quality assurance systems and whilst…
Hulsegge, Gerben; Boer, Jolanda Ma; van der Beek, Allard J; Verschuren, Wm Monique; Sluijs, Ivonne; Vermeulen, Roel; Proper, Karin I
OBJECTIVE: Shift work is associated with adverse health outcomes, and an unhealthy diet may be a contributing factor. We compared diet quantity and quality between day and shift workers, and studied exposure-response relationships regarding frequency of night shifts and years of shift work. METHODS:
Gonzalez, Marlen Z.; Allen, Joseph P.; Coan, James A.
Life history theory suggests that adult reward sensitivity should be best explained by childhood, but not current, socioeconomic conditions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, 83 participants from a larger longitudinal sample completed the monetary incentive delay (MID) task in adulthood (~25 years old). Parent-reports of neighborhood quality and parental SES were collected when participants were 13 years of age. Current income level was collected concurrently with scanning. Lower adolescent neighborhood quality, but neither lower current income nor parental SES, was associated with heightened sensitivity to the anticipation of monetary gain in putative mesolimbic reward areas. Lower adolescent neighborhood quality was also associated with heightened sensitivity to the anticipation of monetary loss activation in visuo-motor areas. Lower current income was associated with heightened sensitivity to anticipated loss in occipital areas and the operculum. We tested whether externalizing behaviors in childhood or adulthood could better account for neighborhood quality findings, but they did not. Findings suggest that neighborhood ecology in adolescence is associated with greater neural reward sensitivity in adulthood above the influence of parental SES or current income and not mediated through impulsivity and externalizing behaviors. PMID:27838595
Venhorst, Viktor; Cörvers, F.
We estimate the impact of spatial mobility on job match quality by using a data set of recent Dutch university and college graduates We find positive wage returns related to spatial mobility. However, after controlling for the self-selection of migrants with an IV approach, this effect is no longer
Venhorst, Viktor; Cörvers, Frank
We estimate the impact of internal migration on job-match quality for recent Dutch university and college graduates. We find positive yet modest wage returns. After controlling for the self-selection of migrants with an IV approach, this effect is no longer significant for university graduates and
Holt, Dale; Palmer, Stuart; Munro, Judy; Solomonides, Ian; Gosper, Maree; Hicks, Margaret; Sankey, Michael; Allan, Garry; Hollenbeck, Robert
The paper presents the findings of the first year of a nationally funded Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) project on the quality management of online learning environments by and through distributed leadership. The project is being undertaken by five Australian universities with major commitments to online and distance education.…
Yeo, Roland K.; Marquardt, Michael J.
The paper draws on the underpinnings of SERVQUAL (a Service Quality measurement model) and explores three key aspects of service standards as adopted by an Engineering School in Singapore: customer orientation, course design/delivery and support services. Qualitative methodology was employed and data were collected by means of structured in-depth…
Jarrell, Charles M.
Researchers and marketers lack information about possible relationships between service quality and online brand equity in intangible and often undifferentiated service businesses. The services sector of the economy is large with 72% of the economic output and 80% of the workers in the United States in 2007. Within the services sector, Internet…
Benefield, Larry D.; And Others
A study of a continuous quality improvement effort at Auburn University (Alabama) is reported. The study investigated variables predicting which students are at risk of failure. Data were drawn from the records of pre-engineering students enrolling at the university in fall terms of 1991 and 1993-95 (n=2,505). Data sources included achievement…
Salomons, Anna; Goos, Maarten
Student evaluations of teaching are widely used to measure teaching quality and compare it across different courses, teachers, departments and institutions: as such, they are of increasing importance for teacher promotion decisions as well as student course selection. However, the response on course
In universities around the world, plagiarism management is an ongoing issue of quality assurance and risk management. Plagiarism management discourses are often framed by legal concepts of authorial rights, and plagiarism policies outline penalties for infringement. Learning and teaching discourses argue that plagiarism management is, and should…
Venhorst, V.; Cörvers, Frank
We estimate the impact of internal migration on job-match quality for recent Dutch university and college graduates. We find positive yet modest wage returns. After controlling for the self-selection of migrants with an IV approach, this effect is no longer significant for university graduates and
Marlen Z. Gonzalez
Full Text Available Life history theory suggests that adult reward sensitivity should be best explained by childhood, but not current, socioeconomic conditions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, 83 participants from a larger longitudinal sample completed the monetary incentive delay (MID task in adulthood (∼25 years old. Parent-reports of neighborhood quality and parental SES were collected when participants were 13 years of age. Current income level was collected concurrently with scanning. Lower adolescent neighborhood quality, but neither lower current income nor parental SES, was associated with heightened sensitivity to the anticipation of monetary gain in putative mesolimbic reward areas. Lower adolescent neighborhood quality was also associated with heightened sensitivity to the anticipation of monetary loss activation in visuo-motor areas. Lower current income was associated with heightened sensitivity to anticipated loss in occipital areas and the operculum. We tested whether externalizing behaviors in childhood or adulthood could better account for neighborhood quality findings, but they did not. Findings suggest that neighborhood ecology in adolescence is associated with greater neural reward sensitivity in adulthood above the influence of parental SES or current income and not mediated through impulsivity and externalizing behaviors.
Kloosterman, Rianne; Ruiter, Stijn; de Graaf, Paul M; Kraaykamp, Gerbert
According to Boudon, social background affects educational transitions as a result of differences in children's academic performance (primary effects) and differences in transition probabilities given children's level of academic performance (secondary effects). This study addresses historical changes in both primary and secondary effects on the educational transition from primary school to higher secondary education in The Netherlands. In addition, it considers changes over time in the relative importance of these effects. The study compares five cohorts of Dutch pupils, specifically those enrolling in secondary education in 1965, 1977, 1989, 1993 and 1999, and it employs counterfactual analyses. The main findings are that secondary effects have been stable and primary effects have fluctuated to some extent. As a result, the proportion of the total effect of social background accounted for by primary effects has increased somewhat, from 53 per cent to 58 per cent.
Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi
Full Text Available Background The common methods of payment to healthcare providers such as capitation and salary are not designed to be stimulation for high quality healthcare. The pay-for -quality (P4Q programs are designed to provide the financial incentives to the service providers in order to improve quality of services based on specified criteria. Aims This study describes the design and implementation of a P4Q program in the primary healthcare (PHc in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Methods The present study is a case study that describes the process of designing and implementing the P4Q program in PHC in East-Azerbaijan province in 2015. To design the P4Q program, after identifying core components of the program through literature review and Focus Group Discussion (FGD, final decision about each component was made by achieving consensus from a panel of recognised experts in the area of PHc. Altogether two FGD and seven expert panel sessions were hold in EAPHC in order to design the P4Q program. Results Key components of P4Q program were selected by qualitative studies and the results were categorized in five headings including P4Q formula, quality measures, payment strategy, data reporting and performance evaluation. The formula consists of five elements including fixed payment, individual, team and organization performance and managerial appraisal. A total of 37 measures, which covers the domains of quality of PHc, human resource development and responsibility were selected. ‘Improvement’ and ‘absolute level of measures’ were selected as the payment strategy. The methods of data reporting included valid questionnaire, organization’s documents and medical records. The final P4Q program was used for paying incentives to all primary health care providers in public health centres affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Conclusion Designing and implementing the P4Q program led to a shift in paying the incentives to healthcare providers
Rahman, Aminur; Hashem, Abul; Nur-A-Tomal, Shahruk
Safe potable water is essential for good health. Worldwide, school-aged children especially in the developing countries are suffering from various water-borne diseases. In the study, drinking water supplies for primary school children were monitored at Magura district, Bangladesh, to ensure safe potable water. APHA standard analytical methods were applied for determining the physicochemical parameters of the water samples. For determination of the essential physicochemical parameters, the samples were collected from 20 randomly selected tube wells of primary schools at Magura. The metal contents, especially arsenic (As), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn), in the water samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The range of physicochemical parameters found in water samples were as follows: pH 7.05-9.03, electrical conductivity 400-2340 μS/cm, chloride 10-640 mg/L, hardness 200-535 mg/L as CaCO 3 , and total dissolved solids 208-1216 mg/L. The level of metals in the tube well water samples were as follows: As 1 to 55 μg/L, Fe 40 to 9890 μg/L, and Mn 10 to 370 μg/L. Drinking water parameters of Magura district did not meet the requirement of the World Health Organization drinking water quality guideline, or the Drinking Water Quality Standards of Bangladesh.
Hou, Angela Yung-chi
Cross-border higher education has created a need to build capacity -- particularly in the internationalization dimension -- for national quality assurance agencies to evaluate cross-border education provided by foreign educational providers, or jointly by local and foreign institutions. This is quickly becoming a key issue in the Asia-Pacific…
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the involvement of student organizations toward quality assurance and enhancement in higher education institutions in Romania. In order to achieve this purpose, a survey among student organizations from the main university cities in Romania has been conducted between December 2013 and May 2014. In order to analyze the results we used the frequency distribution method. One of the main findings of this paper is that there is a strong desire of a high quality education among student organizations, yet some of them do not become involved in activities contributing to quality assurance and enhancement. This paper can become a valuable tool for policy makers of the Romanian national students federations in order to design the best policies meant to encourage all the organizations participate in the quality assurance and enhancement process.
Colla J. MacDonald
Full Text Available This paper addresses the need for quality e-Learning experiences. We used the Demand-Driven Learning Model (MacDonald, Stodel, Farres, Breithaupt, and Gabriel, 2001 to evaluate an online Masters in Education course. Multiple data collection methods were used to understand the experiences of stakeholders in this case study: the learners, design team, and facilitators. We found that all five dimensions of the model (structure, content, delivery, service, and outcomes must work in concert to implement a quality e-Learning course. Key themes include evolving learner needs, the search for connection, becoming an able e-participant, valued interactions, social construction of content, integration of delivery partners, and mindful weighing of benefits and trade-offs. By sharing insights into what is needed to design and deliver an e-Learning experience, our findings add to the growing knowledge of online learning. Using this model to evaluate perceptions of quality by key stakeholders has led to insights and recommendations on the Demand Driven Learning Model itself which may be useful for researchers in this area and strengthen the model. Quality has been defined in terms of the design of the e-Learning experience, the contextualized experience of learners, and evidence of learning outcomes (Carr and Carr, 2000; Jung 2000; Salmon, 2000. Quality and design of e-Learning courses, however, are sometimes compromised in an “ . . . effort to simply get something up and running��� in response to pressing consumer demands (Dick, 1996, p. 59. Educators and researchers have voiced concern over the lack of rigorous evaluation studies of e-Learning programs (e.g., Arbaugh, 2000; Howell, Saba, Lindsay, and Williams, 2004; Lockyer, Patterson, and Harper, 1999; Robinson, 2001. McGorry (2003 adds, “although the number of courses being delivered via the Internet is increasing rapidly, our knowledge of what makes these courses effective learning experiences
Kelly, George; Lassa, Peter
The speed with which UPE was introduced to Nigeria has meant enormous problems of both a logistical and educational nature. After six years many have proved all but impossible to overcome. While generalising may be wrong, it is questionable whether the government's objectives for UPE can be achieved. Vast regional discrepancies of implementation have meant that the reduction in the previous imblance of opportunity is unlikely. A high rate of unemployment and disaffection among terminal primary leavers will offset the concept of UPE as an investment. Grassroots support will weaken if primary schooling offers no tangible returns. A further problem is present. The curriculum of UPE has been inappropriate for a system which is terminal for the majority. Basic skills are often unlearned. The national curriculum has not been sufficiently localised and, with staff and material shortages, has been impossible to teach. In current conditions it is academic and certificate-orientated. There is an urgent need to review the structure of primary education before it is too late. A community base might be considered in the face of weakening government funding but the redesign of the curriculum is an essential prerequisite. The content and quality of education is as important as the logistics of its provision.
Korom-Djakovic, Danijela; Canamucio, Anne; Lempa, Michele; Yano, Elizabeth M; Long, Judith A
This study examined how aspects of quality improvement (QI) culture changed during the introduction of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patient-centered medical home initiative and how they were influenced by existing organizational factors, including VHA facility complexity and practice location. A voluntary survey, measuring primary care providers' (PCPs') perspectives on QI culture at their primary care clinics, was administered in 2010 and 2012. Participants were 320 PCPs from hospital- and community-based primary care practices in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Ohio. PCPs in community-based outpatient clinics reported an improvement in established processes for QI, and communication and cooperation from 2010 to 2012. However, their peers in hospital-based clinics did not report any significant improvements in QI culture. In both years, compared with high-complexity facilities, medium- and low-complexity facilities had better scores on the scales assessing established processes for QI, and communication and cooperation. © The Author(s) 2014.
Upham, Susan J; Janamian, Tina; Crossland, Lisa; Jackson, Claire L
To determine the relevance and utility of online tools and resources to support organisational performance development in primary care and to complement the Primary Care Practice Improvement Tool (PC-PIT). A purposively recruited Expert Advisory Panel of 12 end users used a modified Delphi technique to evaluate 53 tools and resources identified through a previously conducted systematic review. The panel comprised six practice managers and six general practitioners who had participated in the PC-PIT pilot study in 2013-2014. Tools and resources were reviewed in three rounds using a standard pre-tested assessment form. Recommendations, scores and reasons for recommending or rejecting each tool or resource were analysed to determine the final suite of tools and resources. The evaluation was conducted from November 2014 to August 2015. Recommended tools and resources scored highly (mean score, 16/20) in Rounds 1 and 2 of review (n = 25). These tools and resources were perceived to be easily used, useful to the practice and supportive of the PC-PIT. Rejected resources scored considerably lower (mean score, 5/20) and were noted to have limitations such as having no value to the practice and poor utility (n = 6). A final review (Round 3) of 28 resources resulted in a suite of 21 to support the elements of the PC-PIT. This suite of tools and resources offers one approach to supporting the quality improvement initiatives currently in development in primary care reform.