WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher protein intake

  1. The Influence of Higher Protein Intake and Greater Eating Frequency on Appetite Control in Overweight and Obese Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J.; Armstrong, Cheryl L.H.; Tang, Minghua; Mattes, Richard D.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of dietary protein intake and eating frequency on perceived appetite, satiety, and hormonal responses in overweight/obese men. Thirteen men (age 51 ± 4 years; BMI 31.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2) consumed eucaloric diets containing normal protein (79 ± 2 g protein/day; 14% of energy intake as protein) or higher protein (138 ± 3 g protein/day; 25% of energy intake as protein) equally divided among three eating occasions (3-EO; every 4 h) or six eating occasions (6-EO; every 2 h) on four separate days in randomized order. Hunger, fullness, plasma glucose, and hormonal responses were assessed throughout 11 h. No protein × eating frequency interactions were observed for any of the outcomes. Independent of eating frequency, higher protein led to greater daily fullness (P < 0.05) and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations (P < 0.05). In contrast, higher protein led to greater daily ghrelin concentrations (P < 0.05) vs. normal protein. Protein quantity did not influence daily hunger, glucose, or insulin concentrations. Independent of dietary protein, 6-EO led to lower daily fullness (P < 0.05) and PYY concentrations (P < 0.05). The 6-EO also led to lower glucose (P < 0.05) and insulin concentrations (P < 0.05) vs. 3-EO. Although the hunger-related perceived sensations and hormonal responses were conflicting, the fullness-related responses were consistently greater with higher protein intake but lower with increased eating frequency. Collectively, these data suggest that higher protein intake promotes satiety and challenge the concept that increasing the number of eating occasions enhances satiety in overweight and obese men. PMID:20339363

  2. Higher protein intake strategies in human milk fortification for preterms infants feeding. Auxological and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasini, A; Neri, C; China, M C; Monti, F; Di Nicola, P; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal growth restriction and failure to thrive still remain a major problem in Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants . The goal for the nutritional care of these infants is to achieve rate of growth similar to those of the fetus in utero at the equivalent gestational age. Human milk fortified remains the best food for all these preterms. Two groups of preterm of weight 580-1250 g and gestational age 23-32 wk, were fed with different protein intake in the human/maternal milk fortified ( 3,5 g Kg-1 per day and 4,8 g Kg-1 per day in the control and intervention group respectively).The feeding tolerance, intrahospital growth, neurological outcome and anthropometric data until 12 months of corrected age, were evaluated. The protein supplemented group (PSG) showed an intrahospital highter growth rate ( mostly in head circumference, p 0,02, and length growth, p 0,04) only in the preterms with 580-980 g and 23-30 wk. In the same preterms, Griffith Development Mental Score at 3 and 12 months corrected age showed higher score than in the control group in the Performance (p 0,04) and Hearing/Language (p 0,03) items. The auxological evaluation in the postdischarge period showed in the PSG group mean z-score values for length higher than those in the control group at 9 (p 0,04) months of corrected age.

  3. Higher protein intake is not associated with decreased kidney function in pre-diabetic older adults following a one-year intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Grith; Andersen, Jens Rikardt; Ritz, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Concerns about detrimental renal effects of a high-protein intake have been raised due to an induced glomerular hyperfiltration, since this may accelerate the progression of kidney disease. The aim of this sub-study was to assess the effect of a higher intake of protein on kidney function in pre-diabetic...... intake and creatinine clearance, eGFR, ACR, or serum creatinine. We found no indication of impaired kidney function after one year with a higher protein intake in pre-diabetic older adults....

  4. Higher Protein Intake Is Not Associated with Decreased Kidney Function in Pre-Diabetic Older Adults Following a One-Year Intervention—A Preview Sub-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grith Møller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about detrimental renal effects of a high-protein intake have been raised due to an induced glomerular hyperfiltration, since this may accelerate the progression of kidney disease. The aim of this sub-study was to assess the effect of a higher intake of protein on kidney function in pre-diabetic men and women, aged 55 years and older. Analyses were based on baseline and one-year data in a sub-group of 310 participants included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World. Protein intake was estimated from four-day dietary records and 24-hour urinary urea excretion. We used linear regression to assess the association between protein intake after one year of intervention and kidney function markers: creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR, urinary urea/creatinine ratio (UCR, serum creatinine, and serum urea before and after adjustments for potential confounders. A higher protein intake was associated with a significant increase in UCR (p = 0.03 and serum urea (p = 0.05 after one year. There were no associations between increased protein intake and creatinine clearance, eGFR, ACR, or serum creatinine. We found no indication of impaired kidney function after one year with a higher protein intake in pre-diabetic older adults.

  5. High protein intake along with paternal part-time employment is associated with higher body fat mass among girls from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Zhe; Xue, Hong-Mei; Pan, Jay; Libuda, Lars; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Yang, Min; Quan, Liming; Cheng, Guo

    2017-05-23

    Protein intake has been suggested to be associated with body composition among western children. Our aim was to determine whether protein intake is associated with body composition among Chinese children and to investigate whether parental socioeconomic status modifies these associations. Cross-sectional data were collected from the baseline survey of an ongoing population-based prospective open cohort study conducted in 2013. In this survey, 2039 children in South China were recruited using cluster random sampling. Information of 1704 children (47% girls), aged 7-12 years from three primary schools (42 classes), on diet and anthropometry was included finally. Their daily protein intake was obtained by 3-day 24-h dietary recalls. Skinfold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI). Parental characteristics were collected by questionnaires. Among girls, protein intake was positively associated with %BF and FMI [estimate (SE) for %BF: 0.007 (0.003), p = 0.04; for FMI: 0.092 (0.002), p = 0.03], adjusted for pubertal stage, breast-feeding, maternal overweight, carbohydrate intake, energy intake, and physical activity level. Furthermore, there was interaction between paternal occupation and the relations of dietary protein with %BF and FMI (p for interaction  ≤ 0.04). None of the associations between protein intake and %BF, FMI, or FFMI was found among boys. Our data indicate that school-aged girls, but not boys, living in South China with higher dietary protein intake might have higher body fat mass, which could be modified by paternal occupation.

  6. Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Perform Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kim, Jung Eun; Amankwaah, Akua F; Gordon, Susannah L; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M

    2015-09-01

    Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants' usual diets. This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wk. Protein intake was assessed via 4-d food records. Multiple linear regression model and stratified analysis were applied for data analyses. Among all subjects, TPro and CTPro were inversely associated (P exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. A higher protein intake is not associated with 5-year change in mid-thigh muscle cross-sectional area by computed tomography in older adults : the health, aging, and body composition (Health ABC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreijen, A.M.; Engberink, M.F.; Brouwer, I.A.; Cawthon, P.M.; Newman, A.B.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Harris, T.B.; Weijs, P.J.M.; Visser, M.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: A higher protein intake is suggested to preserve muscle mass during aging, and may therefore reduce the risk for sarcopenia. We explored whether the amount, type (animal/vegetable) and essential amino acid (EAA) composition of protein intake were associated with 5-year change in mid-thigh

  8. In adolescence a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Perrar, Ines; Roßbach, Sarah; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2018-05-26

    The present manuscript addressed two hypotheses: (i) As children age, energy intake is shifted from morning (energy intake energy intake >6pm) (ii) A higher 'eveningness in energy intake' (i.e. evening minus morning energy intake) is associated with a higher total daily energy intake. Data were analyzed from 262 DONALD cohort study participants, who had completed at least one 3-day weighed dietary record in the age groups 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/12, 13/14, 15/16 and 17/18 years (y). 'Eveningness in energy intake' was compared across age groups and related to total daily energy intake for each age group (multiple cross-sectional analyses). 'Eveningness' increased progressively from age group 3/4y to age group 17/18y. A median surplus of evening energy intake (i.e. when evening intake exceeded morning intake) was firstly observed for age group 11/12y. From age group 11/12y onwards, a higher 'eveningness' was associated with a higher total daily energy intake (all p energy intake between the highest and the lowest tertile of 'eveningness' was largest for age group 17/18y, amounting to an 11% higher intake among adolescents in the highest as compared to those in the lowest tertile. In conclusion, energy intake progressively shifts from morning to evening hours as children age. Once evening energy intake exceeds morning energy intake, a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Higher Dietary Protein and Fiber Intakes at Breakfast on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, and 24-h Interstitial Glucose in Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwaah, Akua F; Sayer, R Drew; Wright, Amy J; Chen, Ningning; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2017-04-02

    Dietary protein and fiber independently influence insulin-mediated glucose control. However, potential additive effects are not well-known. Men and women ( n = 20; age: 26 ± 5 years; body mass index: 26.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; mean ± standard deviation) consumed normal protein and fiber (NPNF; NP = 12.5 g, NF = 2 g), normal protein and high fiber (NPHF; NP = 12.5 g, HF = 8 g), high protein and normal fiber (HPNF; HP = 25 g, NF = 2 g), or high protein and fiber (HPHF; HP = 25 g, HF = 8 g) breakfast treatments during four 2-week interventions in a randomized crossover fashion. On the last day of each intervention, meal tolerance tests were completed to assess postprandial (every 60 min for 240 min) serum glucose and insulin concentrations. Continuous glucose monitoring was used to measure 24-h interstitial glucose during five days of the second week of each intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVA was applied for data analyses. The HPHF treatment did not affect postprandial glucose and insulin responses or 24-h glucose total area under the curve (AUC). Higher fiber intake reduced 240-min insulin AUC. Doubling the amount of protein from 12.5 g to 25 g/meal and quadrupling fiber from 2 to 8 g/meal at breakfast was not an effective strategy for modulating insulin-mediated glucose responses in these young, overweight adults.

  10. Higher Maternal Protein Intake during Pregnancy Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood Concentrations of Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-II, IGF Binding Protein 3, and Insulin, but Not IGF-I, in a Cohort of Women with High Protein Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switkowski, Karen M; Jacques, Paul F; Must, Aviva; Hivert, Marie-France; Fleisch, Abby; Gillman, Matthew W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Oken, Emily

    2017-07-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to dietary protein may program growth-regulating hormones, consequently influencing early-life growth patterns and later risk of associated chronic diseases. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis is of particular interest in this context given its influence on pre- and postnatal growth and its sensitivity to the early nutritional environment. Objective: Our objective was to examine associations of maternal protein intake during pregnancy with cord blood concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and insulin. Methods: We studied 938 mother-child pairs from early pregnancy through delivery in the Project Viva cohort. Using multivariable linear regression models adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking, parity, height, and gestational weight gain and for child sex, we examined associations of second-trimester maternal protein intake [grams per kilogram (weight before pregnancy) per day], as reported on a food frequency questionnaire, with IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and insulin concentrations in cord blood. We also examined how these associations may differ by child sex and parity. Results: Mothers were predominantly white (71%), college-educated (64%), and nonsmokers (67%). Mean ± SD protein intake was 1.35 ± 0.35 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 Each 1-SD increment in second-trimester protein intake corresponded to a change of -0.50 ng/mL (95% CI: -2.26, 1.26 ng/mL) in IGF-I and -0.91 μU/mL (95% CI: -1.45, -0.37 μU/mL) in insulin. Child sex and parity modified associations of maternal protein intake with IGF-II and IGFBP-3: protein intake was inversely associated with IGF-II in girls ( P -interaction = 0.04) and multiparous mothers ( P -interaction = 0.05), and with IGFBP-3 in multiparous mothers ( P -interaction = 0.04). Conclusions: In a cohort of pregnant women with relatively high mean protein intakes, higher intake was associated with lower concentrations of growth-promoting hormones in cord

  11. Milk protein enriched beverage reduces post-exercise energy intakes in women with higher levels of cognitive dietary restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virgilio, Nicolina; Donno, De Roberta; Bandini, Enrica; Napolitano, Aurora; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Vitaglione, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the satiating efficacy of milk proteins compared to carbohydrates in twenty women during post-exercise period. Methods: A milk protein-enriched beverage (MPB), and an isocaloric carbohydrate-enriched beverage (CB) containing respectively 9.3. g and 0.3.

  12. Protein intake and ovulatory infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarro, Jorge E; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rosner, Bernard A; Willett, Walter C

    2008-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether intake of protein from animal and vegetable origin is associated with ovulatory infertility. A total of 18,555 married women without a history of infertility were followed up as they attempted a pregnancy or became pregnant during an 8 year period. Dietary assessments were related to the incidence of ovulatory infertility. During follow-up, 438 women reported ovulatory infertility. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]; P for trend) of ovulatory infertility comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of animal protein intake was 1.39 (1.01 to 1.90; 0.03). The corresponding RR (95% CI; P for trend) for vegetable protein intake was 0.78 (0.54 to 1.12; 0.07). Furthermore, consuming 5% of total energy intake as vegetable protein rather than as animal protein was associated with a more than 50% lower risk of ovulatory infertility (P =.007). Replacing animal sources of protein with vegetable sources of protein may reduce ovulatory infertility risk.

  13. Dietary protein intake and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gang Jee; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tortorici, Amanda R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    High-protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low-protein diet (LPD) of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD in the CKD management. Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remains substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD. Notwithstanding the inconclusive results of the 'Modification of Diet in Renal Disease' (MDRD) study, the largest randomized controlled trial to examine protein restriction in CKD, several prior and subsequent studies and meta-analyses appear to support the role of LPD on retarding progression of CKD and delaying initiation of maintenance dialysis therapy. LPD can also be used to control metabolic derangements in CKD. Supplemented LPD with essential amino acids or their ketoanalogs may be used for incremental transition to dialysis especially on nondialysis days. The LPD management in lieu of dialysis therapy can reduce costs, enhance psychological adaptation, and preserve residual renal function upon transition to dialysis. Adherence and adequate protein and energy intake should be ensured to avoid protein-energy wasting. A balanced and individualized dietary approach based on LPD should be elaborated with periodic dietitian counseling and surveillance to optimize management of CKD, to assure adequate protein and energy intake, and to avoid or correct protein-energy wasting.

  14. Dietary Protein Intake and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gang Jee; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tortoricci, Amanda R.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review High protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low protein diet (LPD) of 0.6–0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD the CKD management. Recent findings Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remain substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD. Notwithstanding the inconclusive results of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study, the largest randomized controlled trial to examine protein restriction in CKD, several prior and subsequent studies and meta-analyses including secondary analyses of the MDRD data appear to support the role of LPD on retarding progression of CKD and delaying initiation of maintenance dialysis therapy. LPD can also be used to control metabolic derangements in CKD. Supplemented LPD with essential amino acids or their keto-analogs may be used for incremental transition to dialysis especially in non-dialysis days. An LPD management in lieu of dialysis therapy can reduce costs, enhance psychological adaptation, and preserve residual renal function upon transition to dialysis. Adherence and adequate protein and energy intake should be ensured to avoid protein-energy wasting. Summary A balanced and individualized dietary approach based on LPD should be elaborated with periodic dietitian counselling and surveillance to optimize management of CKD, to assure adequate protein and energy intake and to avoid or correct protein-energy wasting. PMID:27801685

  15. Protein intake in renal and hepatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambühl, Patrice M

    2011-03-01

    The kidney and the liver play a central role in protein metabolism. Synthesis of albumin and other proteins occurs mainly in the liver, whereas protein breakdown and excretion are handled through an intricate interaction between these two organ systems. Thus, disease states of either the liver and/or the kidney invariably result in clinically relevant disturbances of protein metabolism. Conversely, metabolic processes regulated by these two organs are directly affected by dietary protein intake. Of particular importance in this respect is the maintenance of acid/base homeostasis. Finally, both the amount and composition of ingested proteins have a direct impact on renal function, especially in a state of diseased kidneys. Consequently, dietary protein intake is of paramount importance in patients with chronic nephropathy and renal insufficiency. Limitation of ingested protein, particularly from animal sources, is crucial in order to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease and impaired renal function. In contrast, patients with chronic renal failure undergoing renal replacement therapy by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, have an increased protein demand. The syndrome of "protein-energy malnutrition" is a relevant factor for morbidity and mortality in this population and requires early detection and vigorous treatment. Protein intake in patients with cirrhosis of the liver should not be diminished as has been earlier suggested but rather increased to 1.0 - 1.2 g/kg body weight/day, in order to prevent protein malnutrition. Moderate restriction depending on protein tolerance (0.5 - 1.2 g/kg body weight/day), with the possible addition of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), has been recommended only in patients with advanced hepatic encephalopathy. Proteins of plant origin are theoretically superior to animal proteins.

  16. Protein leverage effects of beef protein on energy intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Eveline A; Tan, Sze-Yen; Dunlop, Mandy V; Mattes, Richard D; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2014-06-01

    The protein leverage hypothesis requires specific evidence that protein intake is regulated more strongly than energy intake. The objective was to determine ad libitum energy intake, body weight changes, appetite profile, and nitrogen balance in response to 3 diets with different protein-to-carbohydrate + fat ratios over 12 consecutive days, with beef as a source of protein. A 3-arm, 12-d randomized crossover study was performed in 30 men and 28 women [mean ± SD age: 33 ± 16 y; body mass index (in kg/m²): 24.4 ± 4.0] with the use of diets containing 5%, 15%, and 30% of energy (En%) from protein, predominantly from beef. Energy intake was significantly lower in the 30En%-protein condition (8.73 ± 1.93 MJ/d) than in the 5En%-protein (9.48 ± 1.67 MJ/d) and 15En%-protein (9.30 ± 1.62 MJ/d) conditions (P = 0.001), stemming largely from lower energy intake during meals (P = 0.001). Hunger (P = 0.001) and desire to eat (P = 0.001) ratings were higher and fullness ratings were lower (P = 0.001) in the 5En%-protein condition than in the 15En%-protein and 30En%-protein conditions. Nitrogen excretion was lower in the 5En%-protein condition (4.7 ± 1.5 g/24 h; P = 0.001) and was higher in the 30En%-protein condition (15.3 ± 8.7 g/24 h; P = 0.001) compared with the 15En%-protein condition (10.0 ± 5.2 g/24 h). Nitrogen balance was maintained in the 5En%-protein condition and was positive in the 15En%- and 30En%-protein conditions (P = 0.001). Complete protein leverage did not occur because subjects did not consume to a common protein amount at the expense of energy balance. Individuals did underconsume relative to energy requirements from high-protein diets. The lack of support for protein leverage effects on a low-protein diet may stem from the fact that protein intake was sufficient to maintain nitrogen balance over the 12-d trial. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Higher versus lower amino acid intake in parenteral nutrition for newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, David A; Schindler, Tim; Jones, Lisa J; Sinn, John Kh; Bolisetty, Srinivas

    2018-03-05

    Sick newborn and preterm infants frequently are not able to be fed enterally, necessitating parenteral fluid and nutrition. Potential benefits of higher parenteral amino acid (AA) intake for improved nitrogen balance, growth, and infant health may be outweighed by the infant's ability to utilise high intake of parenteral AA, especially in the days after birth. The primary objective is to determine whether higher versus lower intake of parenteral AA is associated with improved growth and disability-free survival in newborn infants receiving parenteral nutrition.Secondary objectives include determining whether:• higher versus lower starting or initial intake of amino acids is associated with improved growth and disability-free survival without side effects;• higher versus lower intake of amino acids at maximal intake is associated with improved growth and disability-free survival without side effects; and• increased amino acid intake should replace non-protein energy intake (glucose and lipid), should be added to non-protein energy intake, or should be provided simultaneously with non-protein energy intake.We conducted subgroup analyses to look for any differences in the effects of higher versus lower intake of amino acids according to gestational age, birth weight, age at commencement, and condition of the infant, or concomitant increases in fluid intake. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2 June 2017), MEDLINE (1966 to 2 June 2017), Embase (1980 to 2 June 2017), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to 2 June 2017). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and citations of articles. Randomised controlled trials of higher versus lower intake of AAs as parenteral nutrition in newborn infants. Comparisons of higher intake at commencement, at maximal intake, and at both commencement and maximal

  18. Do recommended protein intakes improve neurodevelopment in extremely preterm babies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cester, E A; Bloomfield, F H; Taylor, J; Smith, S; Cormack, B E

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether achieving recommended protein intakes for extremely low birthweight (ELBW; birth weight growth, improves neurodevelopmental outcomes. A prospective cohort study of ELBW babies before and after the introduction of a new nutritional policy designed to meet international consensus protein recommendations. Forty-five children born 'before' and 42 born 'after' the policy change were assessed at 2 years' corrected age (CA). Associations between nutritional intakes, growth and neurodevelopmental outcome (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third edition (Bayley-III), motor and sensory impairment) were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Bayley-III cognitive (mean (SD) 96 (12) vs 96 (15)), motor (96 (13) vs 95 (15)) or language scores (89 (11) vs 91 (17)) were not different between the 'before' and 'after' cohorts. In the 'before' cohort, motor scores were positively associated with enteral nutrition intakes and growth velocity. Neither were sensory impairments different between groups (visual impairment 4 vs 2, hearing impairment 2 vs 0) nor was the gross motor function classification score (any cerebral palsy 2 vs 1). In this prospective cohort study, increasing intravenous and enteral protein intakes to recommended levels in the first month after birth was not associated with improved cognitive, language or motor scores or decreased sensory impairments at 2 years' CA despite significantly improved early growth and reduced postnatal faltering growth. Appropriate randomised controlled trials are needed to answer definitively whether higher early protein intakes improve neurodevelopmental outcome in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Dietary protein intake in Dutch elderly people : a focus on protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, Michael; Borgonjen-Van den Berg, Karin J.; Van Loon, Luc J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. OBJECTIVES: to assess the

  20. Dietary protein intake in Dutch elderly people: a focus on protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the

  1. Protein and energy intake improved by breakfast intervention in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beermann, T; Mortensen, M N; Skadhauge, L B; Høgsted, R H; Rasmussen, H H; Holst, Mette

    2016-06-01

    Undernutrition affects about 40% of patients in hospitals. Ordinary food is recommended as the first choice to prevent and correct undernutrition. Meanwhile, sufficient intake, especially regarding protein, is difficult to reach, in patients at nutritional risk. The aim of this study was to improve protein intake at breakfast to at least 20% of total daily requirement or at least 20 g. A protein rich breakfast including 20 g of protein was served in the departments of heart and lung surgery and vascular surgery for three months. Nutrition intake was registered before and after intervention. Food intake records were collected from 32 and 30 patients respectively, mean age 69 (SD 8) years. At breakfast, protein intake was improved from 14% of individual requirements to 22% (penergy intake was improved from 18% to 25% (p=0.01). Total amount of protein intake for breakfast was increased from 14 g to 20 g (pprotein intake increased from 64% to 77% (p=0.05) and total energy intake from 76% to 99% (pProtein and energy intake for surgical patients at breakfast as well as total daily intake was significantly increased to meet recommended average level for minimum individually measured requirements. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum uric acid, protein intake and mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Christina; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Streja, Elani; Rhee, Connie M; Catabay, Christina J; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-10-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) and mortality has been conflicting among studies using hemodialysis (HD) patients. Given the close link between purine and protein in foods, we hypothesized that normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), a dietary protein intake surrogate, modifies the SUA-mortality association in the HD population. We identified 4298 patients who initiated HD and had one or more SUA measurement in a contemporary cohort of HD patients over 5 years (1 January 2007-31 December 2011), and examined survival probability according to the first uric acid measurement, adjusting for dialysis vintage, case-mix and malnutrition-inflammation complex-related variables. Mean SUA concentration was 6.6 ± 1.8 mg/dL. There was a consistent association of higher SUA with better nutritional status and lower all-cause mortality irrespective of adjusted models (Ptrend 6.0-7.0 mg/dL) showed no significant mortality risk [hazard ratio (HR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-1.13], while the lowest category (HD patients. Contrary to the general population, low but not high SUA is associated with higher all-cause mortality in HD patients, especially in those with low protein intake. Nutritional features of SUA warrant additional studies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  3. The Associations of Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause Mortality in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaorui; Wei, Guo; Jalili, Thunder; Metos, Julie; Giri, Ajay; Cho, Monique E; Boucher, Robert; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2016-03-01

    Plant protein intake is associated with lower production of uremic toxins and lower serum phosphorus levels. Therefore, at a given total protein intake, a higher proportion of dietary protein from plant sources might be associated with lower mortality in chronic kidney disease. Observational study. 14,866 NHANES III participants 20 years or older without missing data for plant and animal protein intake and mortality. Plant protein to total protein ratio and total plant protein intake. Patients were stratified by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)protein intakes were estimated from 24-hour dietary recalls. Mortality was ascertained by probabilistic linkage with National Death Index records through December 31, 2000. Mean values for plant protein intake and plant protein to total protein ratio were 24.6±13.2 (SD) g/d and 33.0% ± 14.0%, respectively. The prevalence of eGFRsprotein intake, and physical inactivity, each 33% increase in plant protein to total protein ratio was not associated with mortality (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74-1.04) in the eGFR≥60mL/min/1.73m(2) subpopulation, but was associated with lower mortality risk (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.96) in the eGFRprotein itself or to other factors associated with more plant-based diets is difficult to establish. A diet with a higher proportion of protein from plant sources is associated with lower mortality in those with eGFRprotein intake in reducing mortality in those with eGFR<60mL/min/1.73m(2). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate regression relationships were used to measure the effect of dietary protein level on the patterns of DE intake, daily gain and the deposition rates of protein (PDR) and fat (FDR) over the growth period 30-90 kg live mass. Dietary CP content had no significant effect on mean voluntary DE intakes and daily gains.

  5. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were......: probable for an estimated average requirement of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance studies, suggestive for a relationship between increased all-cause mortality risk and long-term low-carbohydrate-high-protein (LCHP) diets; but inconclusive for a relationship...... between all-cause mortality risk and protein intake per se; suggestive for an inverse relationship between cardiovascular mortality and vegetable protein intake; inconclusive for relationships between cancer mortality and cancer diseases, respectively, and protein intake; inconclusive for a relationship...

  6. Protein intake and stress levels in nurses and housewives of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattoo, Feroza Hamid; Memon, Muhammad Saleh; Memon, Allah Nawaz; Wattoo, Muhammad Hamid Sarwar; Asad, Muhammad Javaid; Siddique, Farzana

    2011-01-01

    Stress has many biological effects on human daily life. In the present study, dietary protein intake was correlated with the investigated stress levels of nurses and housewives of the targeted urban population. Age group ranged from 30 to 45 years and both the groups belonged to middle socioeconomic status. After calculations of environmental, psychological and physiological stresses, it was observed that the levels of stress in housewives were significantly higher than those of nurses. Recommended dietary allowances, RDA and actual protein intakes, API were also compared in both the groups. The found protein intake was less in housewives as compared to that of nurses. PMID:23961140

  7. urban dietary heavy metal intake from protein foods and vegetables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Contamination of food and food products by heavy metals has made dietary intake as one of the ... metals cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from protein-foods (beans, meat, fish, milk) and green ..... on food additives Technical report series. No.

  8. Dietary Protein Intake in Dutch Elderly People: A Focus on Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tieland

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the consumption of protein sources as well as the distribution of protein sources over the day in community-dwelling, frail and institutionalized elderly people. Methods: Habitual dietary intake was evaluated using 2- and 3-day food records collected from various studies involving 739 community-dwelling, 321 frail and 219 institutionalized elderly people. Results: Daily protein intake averaged 71 ± 18 g/day in community-dwelling, 71 ± 20 g/day in frail and 58 ± 16 g/day in institutionalized elderly people and accounted for 16% ± 3%, 16% ± 3% and 17% ± 3% of their energy intake, respectively. Dietary protein intake ranged from 10 to 12 g at breakfast, 15 to 23 g at lunch and 24 to 31 g at dinner contributing together over 80% of daily protein intake. The majority of dietary protein consumed originated from animal sources (≥60% with meat and dairy as dominant sources. Thus, 40% of the protein intake in community-dwelling, 37% in frail and 29% in institutionalized elderly originated from plant based protein sources with bread as the principle source. Plant based proteins contributed for >50% of protein intake at breakfast and between 34% and 37% at lunch, with bread as the main source. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, with meat as the dominant source. Conclusion: Daily protein intake in these older populations is mainly (>80% provided by the three main meals, with most protein consumed during dinner. More than 60% of daily protein intake consumed is of animal origin, with plant based protein sources representing nearly 40% of total protein consumed. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from

  9. First-trimester maternal protein intake and childhood kidney outcomes: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliku, Kozeta; Voortman, Trudy; van den Hooven, Edith H; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2015-07-01

    Nutritional exposures during in utero development may have long-lasting consequences for postnatal renal health. Animal studies suggest that specifically maternal dietary protein intake during pregnancy influences childhood kidney function. We examined the associations of total, animal, and vegetable maternal protein intake during pregnancy with kidney volume and function in school-aged children. This study was conducted in 3650 pregnant women and their children who were participating in a population-based cohort study from early life onward. First-trimester energy-adjusted maternal protein intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. At the child's age of 6 y, we assessed kidney volume, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using serum creatinine and cystatin C concentrations, and microalbuminuria using urine albumin:creatinine ratios. First-trimester maternal total protein intake was associated with a higher childhood creatinine-based eGFR (difference: 0.06 mL × min(-1) × 1.73 m(-2); 95% CI: 0.01, 0.12 mL · min(-1) · 1.73 m(-2) per gram of protein intake). This association was mainly driven by vegetable protein intake (0.22 mL × min(-1) × 1.73 m(-2); 95% CI: 0.10, 0.35 mL · min(-1) · 1.73 m(-2) per gram of vegetable protein intake). These associations were not explained by protein intake in early childhood. First-trimester maternal protein intake was not significantly associated with childhood kidney volume, cystatin C-based eGFR, or the risk of microalbuminuria. Our findings suggest that higher total and vegetable, but not animal, maternal protein intake during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with a higher eGFR in childhood. Further follow-up studies are needed to investigate whether maternal protein intake in early pregnancy also affects the risk of kidney diseases in later life. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. High dietary protein intake is associated with an increased body weight and total death risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Saiz, Carmen; Bulló, Mònica

    2016-04-01

    High dietary protein diets are widely used to manage overweight and obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus about their long-term efficacy and safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term high-protein consumption on body weight changes and death outcomes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. A secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial was conducted. Dietary protein was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for protein intake in relation to the risk of body weight and waist circumference changes, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular death, cancer death and total death. Higher total protein intake, expressed as percentage of energy, was significantly associated with a greater risk of weight gain when protein replaced carbohydrates (HR: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.05, 3.46) but not when replaced fat (HR: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.94, 3.03). However, no association was found between protein intake and waist circumference. Contrary, higher total protein intake was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in both carbohydrate and fat substitution models (HR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.08, 2.35; and HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.43, respectively). A higher consumption of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal outcomes when protein substituted carbohydrates or fat. Higher dietary protein intake is associated with long-term increased risk of body weight gain and overall death in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between protein intake and dynapenia in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, M E; Barbat-Artigas, S; Dupontgand, S; Fex, A; Karelis, A D; Aubertin-Leheudre, M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between protein intake and dynapenia. A cross-sectional/observational study. Department of Kinanthropology at the University of Quebec at Montreal. Seventy-two non-frail postmenopausal women aged between 50 to 75 years were recruited. Body weight (BW), lean body mass (LBM; %) and skeletal muscle mass (bio-electrical impedancemetry analysis), maximum voluntary handgrip strength (using hand dynamometer), aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and dietary intake were measured. Women were divided according to dynapenia criteria. The strongest correlation between muscle strength and protein intake was observed when we express the amount of protein in g/d/BW. No differences for age, BMI, status of menopause, fat mass and VO2peak were observed between non-dynapenic, type I dynapenic and type II dynapenic women, independently of the criteria used. We observed significant differences in protein intake (g/d/BW) between non-dynapenic and type II dynapenic (p<0.01) as well as between type I dynapenic and type II dynapenic (p<0.01) when dynapenia was expressed in kg/BW and in kg/LBM, respectively. It should be noted that no differences in LBM between the three groups were observed when dynapenia was expressed in kg/BW and kg/LBM. Protein intake for all groups respected the RDA of 0.8 to 1.2 g/d/BW (non-dynapenic: 1.44/1.38; type I dynapenic: 1.30/1.33; type II dynapenic: 1.05/1.08 g/d/BW). Protein intake seems to play a role in the development of dynapenia particularly at the level of type II dynapenia. Therefore, an increase in the recommended daily allowance for protein intake may be warranted.

  12. Protein-enriched familiar foods and drinks improve protein intake of hospitalized older patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, Janne; Vasse, Emmelyne; Janssen, Nancy; Janse, André; de Roos, Nicole M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2017-05-18

    Adequate protein intake is important in preventing and treating undernutrition. Hospitalized older patients are recommended to consume 1.2-1.5 g of protein per kg body weight per day (g/kg/d) but most of them fail to do so. Therefore, we investigated whether a range of newly developed protein-enriched familiar foods and drinks were effective in increasing protein intake of hospitalized older patients. This randomized controlled trial involved 147 patients of ≥65 years (mean age: 78.5 ± 7.4 years). The control group (n = 80) received the standard energy and protein rich hospital menu. The intervention group (n = 67) received the same menu with various protein-enriched intervention products replacing regular products or added to the menu. Macronutrient intake on the fourth day of hospitalization, based on food ordering data, was compared between the two groups by using Independent T-tests and Mann Whitney U-tests. In the intervention group 30% of total protein was provided by the intervention products. The intervention group consumed 105.7 ± 34.2 g protein compared to 88.2 ± 24.4 g in the control group (p intervention group than in the control group reached a protein intake of 1.2 g/kg/d (79.1% vs 47.5%). Protein intake was significantly higher in the intervention group at breakfast, during the morning between breakfast and lunch, and at dinner. This study shows that providing protein-enriched familiar foods and drinks, as replacement of regular products or as additions to the hospital menu, better enables hospitalized older patients to reach protein intake recommendations. This trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02213393. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. High dietary protein intake, reducing or eliciting insulin resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, A.; Schwarz, J.; Tome, D.; Kok, F.J.; Mensink, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary proteins have an insulinotropic effect and thus promote insulin secretion, which indeed leads to enhanced glucose clearance from the blood. In the long term, however, a high dietary protein intake is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, branched-chain amino acids

  14. Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein deposition in pigs fed three protein levels. E.H. Kemm,* F.K. Siebrits, M.N. Ras and H.A. Badenhorst. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene 1675, Republic of South Africa. A group of 82 genetically lean and 90 obese Landrace pigs was ...

  15. Foods and Beverages Associated with Higher Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Kevin C.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with higher caloric intakes, the amount SSBs contribute to higher intakes has not been addressed. Purpose To estimate the amount SSB contribute to higher caloric intakes and determine how the diets of SSB consumers and nonconsumers differ. Methods The WWEI America (What We Eat in America), NHANES 2003–2010 surveys were combined into a sample of 13,421 children; analyses were conducted in December 2012. To determine the contribution of SSB to higher caloric intakes, total non-SSB, food, and non-SSB beverage intakes of SSB consumers and nonconsumers were compared using linear regression models controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors. Analyses also compared intakes between nonconsumers and SSB consumers with different amounts of SSB consumption. Results For children aged 2–5 years and 6–11 years, non-SSB intakes did not differ between nonconsumers and SSB consumers at any level of SSB consumption, indicating that SSBs were primarily responsible for the higher caloric intakes among SSB consumers. A similar finding was observed among children aged 12–18 years; however, both food and SSB contribute to higher caloric intakes of adolescents consuming ≥500 kcal of SSBs. Among those aged 12–18 years, higher intakes of foods (e.g., pizza, burgers, fried potatoes, and savory snacks) and lower intakes of non-SSB beverages (e.g., fluid milk and fruit juice) were associated with increased SSB intake. Conclusions Sugar-sweetened beverages are primarily responsible for the higher caloric intakes of SSB consumers, and SSB consumption is associated with intake of a select number of food and beverage groups, some of which are often unhealthy (e.g., pizza and grain-based desserts). PMID:23498100

  16. Effects of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Til, A J; Naumann, E; Cox-Claessens, I J H M; Kremer, S; Boelsma, E; de van der Schueren, M A E

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. A single blind randomised controlled trial. Rehabilitation centre. Older adults (≥ 55 years) admitted to a rehabilitation centre after hospital discharge (n=34). Participants received a high protein diet (protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt; n=17) or a regular diet (regular bread and regular drinking yoghurt; n=17) for three consecutive weeks. Total protein intake and protein intake per meal, measured twice weekly over a three weeks period (six measurements per participant). Compared with controls, patients who received the protein enriched products had a significantly higher protein intake (115.3 g/d vs 72.5 g/d, Pconsumption of protein enriched products improves protein distribution over the day.

  17. Dietary protein intake and quality in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads V; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    programming. Finally, infants with catch-up growth or specific genotypes might be particularly vulnerable to high-protein intake. SUMMARY: Recent studies confirm the associations between high-protein intake during the first 2 years and later obesity. Furthermore, knowledge of the mechanisms involved......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS...... seems to have an effect on obesity. Specific amino acids, such as leucine, have also been implicated in increasing later obesity risk maybe via specific actions on insulin-like growth factor I. Furthermore, additional underlying mechanisms including epigenetics have been linked to long-term obesogenic...

  18. Variation in Protein Intake Induces Variation in Spider Silk Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamires, Sean J.; Wu, Chun-Lin; Tso, I-Min

    2012-01-01

    Background It is energetically expensive to synthesize certain amino acids. The proteins (spidroins) of spider major ampullate (MA) silk, MaSp1 and MaSp2, differ in amino acid composition. Glutamine and proline are prevalent in MaSp2 and are expensive to synthesize. Since most orb web spiders express high proline silk they might preferentially attain the amino acids needed for silk from food and shift toward expressing more MaSp1 in their MA silk when starved. Methodology/Principal Findings We fed three spiders; Argiope aetherea, Cyrtophora moluccensis and Leucauge blanda, high protein, low protein or no protein solutions. A. aetherea and L. blanda MA silks are high in proline, while C. moluccesnsis MA silks are low in proline. After 10 days of feeding we determined the amino acid compositions and mechanical properties of each species' MA silk and compared them between species and treatments with pre-treatment samples, accounting for ancestry. We found that the proline and glutamine of A. aetherea and L. blanda silks were affected by protein intake; significantly decreasing under the low and no protein intake treatments. Glutmaine composition in C. moluccensis silk was likewise affected by protein intake. However, the composition of proline in their MA silk was not significantly affected by protein intake. Conclusions Our results suggest that protein limitation induces a shift toward different silk proteins with lower glutamine and/or proline content. Contradictions to the MaSp model lie in the findings that C. moluccensis MA silks did not experience a significant reduction in proline and A. aetherea did not experience a significant reduction in serine on low/no protein. The mechanical properties of the silks could not be explained by a MaSp1 expressional shift. Factors other than MaSp expression, such as the expression of spidroin-like orthologues, may impact on silk amino acid composition and spinning and glandular processes may impact mechanics. PMID:22363691

  19. Positive effect of protein-supplemented hospital food on protein intake in patients at nutritional risk: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, T; Beck, A M; Holst, M; Rosenbom, E; Rasmussen, H H; Nielsen, M A; Thomsen, T

    2014-04-01

    New evidence indicates that increased dietary protein ingestion promotes health and recovery from illness, and also maintains functionality in older adults. The present study aimed to investigate whether a novel food service concept with protein-supplementation would increase protein and energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk. A single-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted. Eighty-four participants at nutritional risk, recruited from the departments of Oncology, Orthopaedics and Urology, were included. The intervention group (IG) received the protein-supplemented food service concept. The control group (CG) received the standard hospital menu. Primary outcome comprised the number of patients achieving ≥75% of energy and protein requirements. Secondary outcomes comprised mean energy and protein intake, body weight, handgrip strength and length of hospital stay. In IG, 76% versus 70% CG patients reached ≥75% of their energy requirements (P = 0.57); 66% IG versus 30% CG patients reached ≥75% of their protein requirements (P = 0.001). The risk ratio for achieving ≥75% of protein requirements: 2.2 (95% confidence interval = 1.3-3.7); number needed to treat = 3 (95% confidence interval = 2-6). IG had a higher mean intake of energy and protein when adjusted for body weight (CG: 82 kJ kg(-1) versus IG: 103 kJ kg(-1) , P = 0.013; CG: 0.7 g protein kg(-1) versus 0.9 g protein kg(-1) , P = 0.003). Body weight, handgrip strength and length of hospital stay did not differ between groups. The novel food service concept had a significant positive impact on overall protein intake and on weight-adjusted energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. The intake of total protein, natural protein and protein substitute and growth of height and head circumference in Dutch infants with phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, M.; van Rijn, M. [=Margreet; Verkerk, P. H.; Bosch, A. M.; Mulder, M. F.; de Klerk, J. B. C.; de Koning, T. J.; Rubio-Gozalbo, E.; de Vries, M.; Sauer, P. J. J.; van Spronsen, F. J.

    2005-01-01

    In a previous study, Dutch children with phenylketonuria (PKU) were found to be slightly shorter than their healthy counterparts. In the literature, it has been hypothesized that a higher protein intake is necessary to optimize growth in PKU patients. The study aimed to investigate whether protein

  1. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A.; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. Objective To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Design Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). Results In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (− 2 to 2). Conclusions Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered. PMID:27014577

  2. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-03-01

    Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (- 2 to 2). Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered.

  3. Protein Enrichment of Familiar Foods as an Innovative Strategy to Increase Protein Intake in Institutionalized Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, J; de Roos, N M; de Groot, L C P G M

    2017-01-01

    To increase the protein intake of older adults, protein enrichment of familiar foods and drinks might be an effective and attractive alternative for oral nutritional supplements (ONS). We performed a pilot study to test whether these products could help institutionalized elderly to reach a protein intake of 1.2 gram per kg body weight per day (g/kg/d). Intervention study with one treatment group (no control group). Dietary assessment was done before and at the end of a 10-day intervention. Two care facilities in Gelderland, the Netherlands: a residential care home and a rehabilitation center. 22 elderly subjects (13 women, 9 men; mean age 83.0±9.4 years). We used a variety of newly developed protein enriched regular foods and drinks, including bread, soups, fruit juices, and instant mashed potatoes. Dietary intake was assessed on two consecutive days before and at the end of the intervention, using food records filled out by research assistants. Energy and macronutrient intake was calculated using the 2013 Dutch food composition database. Changes in protein intake were evaluated using paired t-tests. Protein intake increased by 11.8 g/d (P=0.003); from 0.96 to 1.14 g/kg/d (P=0.002). This increase is comparable to protein provided by one standard portion of ONS. The intake of energy and other macronutrients did not change significantly. At the end of the intervention more elderly reached a protein intake level of 1.2 g/kg/d than before (9 vs 4). Protein intake significantly increased during breakfast (+3.7 g) and during the evening (+2.2 g). Including familiar protein enriched foods and drinks in the menu helped to meet protein recommendations in institutionalized elderly.

  4. Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Fung, Teresa T; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Longo, Valter D; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-10-01

    Defining what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet remains an open question and a high priority in nutrition research. Although the amount of protein may have specific effects, from a broader dietary perspective, the choice of protein sources will inevitably influence other components of diet and may be a critical determinant for the health outcome. To examine the associations of animal and plant protein intake with the risk for mortality. This prospective cohort study of US health care professionals included 131 342 participants from the Nurses' Health Study (1980 to end of follow-up on June 1, 2012) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986 to end of follow-up on January 31, 2012). Animal and plant protein intake was assessed by regularly updated validated food frequency questionnaires. Data were analyzed from June 20, 2014, to January 18, 2016. Hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Of the 131 342 participants, 85 013 were women (64.7%) and 46 329 were men (35.3%) (mean [SD] age, 49 [9] years). The median protein intake, as assessed by percentage of energy, was 14% for animal protein (5th-95th percentile, 9%-22%) and 4% for plant protein (5th-95th percentile, 2%-6%). After adjusting for major lifestyle and dietary risk factors, animal protein intake was not associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.02 per 10% energy increment; 95% CI, 0.98-1.05; P for trend = .33) but was associated with higher cardiovascular mortality (HR, 1.08 per 10% energy increment; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16; P for trend = .04). Plant protein was associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR, 0.90 per 3% energy increment; 95% CI, 0.86-0.95; P for trend animal protein of various origins with plant protein was associated with lower mortality. In particular, the HRs for all-cause mortality were 0.66 (95% CI, 0.59-0.75) when 3% of energy from plant protein was substituted for an equivalent amount of protein from processed red meat, 0.88 (95% CI

  5. High Dietary Protein Intake and Protein-Related Acid Load on Bone Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jay J

    2017-12-01

    Consumption of high-protein diets is increasingly popular due to the benefits of protein on preserving lean mass and controlling appetite and satiety. The paper is to review recent clinical research assessing dietary protein on calcium metabolism and bone health. Epidemiological studies show that long-term, high-protein intake is positively associated with bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fracture incidence. Short-term interventional studies demonstrate that a high-protein diet does not negatively affect calcium homeostasis. Existing evidence supports that the negative effects of the acid load of protein on urinary calcium excretion are offset by the beneficial skeletal effects of high-protein intake. Future research should focus on the role and the degree of contribution of other dietary and physiological factors, such as intake of fruits and vegetables, in reducing the acid load and further enhancing the anabolic effects of protein on the musculoskeletal system.

  6. Estimation of daily protein intake based on spot urine urea nitrogen concentration in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Hiroko; Kanda, Eiichiro; Sato, Asako; Sakamoto, Kaori; Kanno, Yoshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Determination of daily protein intake in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires precision. Inaccuracies in recording dietary intake occur, and estimation from total urea excretion presents hurdles owing to the difficulty of collecting whole urine for 24 h. Spot urine has been used for measuring daily sodium intake and urinary protein excretion. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether urea nitrogen (UN) concentration in spot urine can be used to predict daily protein intake instead of the 24-h urine collection in 193 Japanese CKD patients (Stages G1-G5). After patient randomization into 2 datasets for the development and validation of models, bootstrapping was used to develop protein intake estimation models. The parameters for the candidate multivariate regression models were male gender, age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum albumin level, spot urinary UN and creatinine level, and spot urinary UN/creatinine levels. The final model contained BMI and spot urinary UN level. The final model was selected because of the higher correlation between the predicted and measured protein intakes r = 0.558 (95 % confidence interval 0.400, 0.683), and the smaller distribution of the difference between the measured and predicted protein intakes than those of the other models. The results suggest that UN concentration in spot urine may be used to estimate daily protein intake and that a prediction formula would be useful for nutritional control in CKD patients.

  7. Protein Consumption and the Elderly: What Is the Optimal Level of Intake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie I. Baum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining independence, quality of life, and health is crucial for elderly adults. One of the major threats to living independently is the loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that progressively occurs with aging, known as sarcopenia. Several studies have identified protein (especially the essential amino acids as a key nutrient for muscle health in elderly adults. Elderly adults are less responsive to the anabolic stimulus of low doses of amino acid intake compared to younger individuals. However, this lack of responsiveness in elderly adults can be overcome with higher levels of protein (or essential amino acid consumption. The requirement for a larger dose of protein to generate responses in elderly adults similar to the responses in younger adults provides the support for a beneficial effect of increased protein in older populations. The purpose of this review is to present the current evidence related to dietary protein intake and muscle health in elderly adults.

  8. Health effects of an increased protein intake on kidney function and colorectal cancer risk factors, including the role of animal and plant protein sources – the PREVIEW project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Grith

    intake, including the role of animal and plant protein in pre-diabetic, overweight or obese individuals on health outcomes: markers of kidney function and putative risk factors for colorectal cancer as well as insulin sensitivity and kidney function in healthy individuals. The thesis is based on PREVIEW......, especially plant protein, on insulin sensitivity and kidney function. In paper II, the aim of the study was to assess the effect after one year of a higher protein intake on kidney function, measured by in creatinine clearance. This was investigated in pre-diabetic older adults based on a sub-group of 310...... pre-diabetic individuals included in the PREVIEW RCT. We found that a higher protein intake was associated with a significant increase in urea to creatinine ratio and serum urea after one year. There were no associations between increased protein intake and creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular...

  9. Traditional food consumption is associated with higher nutrient intakes in Inuit children attending childcare centres in Nunavik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Gagné

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe traditional food (TF consumption and to evaluate its impact on nutrient intakes of preschool Inuit children from Nunavik. Design. A cross-sectional study. Methods. Dietary intakes of children were assessed with a single 24-hour recall (n=217. TF consumption at home and at the childcare centres was compared. Differences in children's nutrient intakes when consuming or not consuming at least 1 TF item were examined using ANCOVA. Results. A total of 245 children attending childcare centres in 10 communities of Nunavik were recruited between 2006 and 2010. The children's mean age was 25.0±9.6 months (11–54 months. Thirty-six percent of children had consumed at least 1 TF item on the day of the recall. TF contributed to 2.6% of total energy intake. Caribou and Arctic char were the most reported TF species. Land animals and fish/shellfish were the main contributors to energy intake from TF (38 and 33%, respectively. In spite of a low TF intake, children who consumed TF had significantly (p<0.05 higher intakes of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, selenium, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin B12, and lower intakes of energy and carbohydrate compared with non-consumers. There was no significant difference in any of the socio-economic variables between children who consumed TF and those who did not. Conclusion. Although TF was not eaten much, it contributed significantly to the nutrient intakes of children. Consumption of TF should be encouraged as it provides many nutritional, economic, and sociocultural benefits.

  10. Protein-enriched 'regular products' and their effect on protein intake in acute hospitalized older adults; a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelten, S.; Dekker, I.M.; Ronday, E.M.; Thijs, A.; Boelsma, E.; Peppelenbos, H.W.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background & aims: Especially in older adults, maintaining muscle mass is essential to perform activities of daily living. This requires a sufficient protein intake. However, protein intake in hospitalized older adults is often insufficient. Thus far different nutrition intervention strategies have

  11. Associations of Dietary Protein and Energy Intakes With Protein-Energy Wasting Syndrome in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Wei, Guo; Chen, Xiaorui; Boucher, Robert; Kiani, Rabia; Raj, Dominic; Chonchol, Michel; Greene, Tom; Murtaugh, Maureen A

    2017-09-01

    The associations of dietary protein and/or energy intakes with protein or energy wasting in patients on maintenance hemodialysis are controversial. We examined these in the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study. In 1487 participants in the HEMO Study, baseline dietary protein intake (grams per kilogram per day) and dietary energy intake (kilocalories per kilograms per day) were related to the presence of the protein-energy wasting (PEW) syndrome at month 12 (defined as the presence of at least 1 criteria in 2 of the 3 categories of low serum chemistry, low body mass, and low muscle mass) in logistic regression models. In additional separate models, protein intake estimated from equilibrated normalized protein catabolic rate (enPCR) was also related to the PEW syndrome. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of baseline dietary protein intake was paradoxically associated with increased risk of the PEW syndrome at month 12 (odds ratio [OR]: 4.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.79-6.05). This relationship was completely attenuated (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 0.88-2.06) with adjustment for baseline body weight, which suggested mathematical coupling. Results were similar for dietary energy intake. Compared with the lowest quartile of baseline enPCR, the highest quartile was not associated with the PEW syndrome at 12 months (OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.54-1.12). These data do not support the use of dietary protein intake or dietary energy intake criteria in the definition of the PEW syndrome in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

  12. Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes N. Pedersen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case–control, and intervention studies of a general healthy population in settings similar to the Nordic countries with protein intake from food-based sources were included. Out of a total of 301 abstracts, 152 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After careful scrutiny, 23 papers were quality graded as A (highest, n=1, B (n=18, or C (n=4. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement (EAR of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW/day based on nitrogen balance (N-balance studies and the subsequent recommended dietary allowance (RDA of 0.83 g good-quality protein/kg BW/day representing the minimum dietary protein needs of virtually all healthy elderly persons. Regarding the optimal level of protein related to functional outcomes like maintenance of bone mass, muscle mass, and strength, as well as for morbidity and mortality, the evidence is ranging from suggestive to inconclusive. Results from particularly prospective cohort studies suggest a safe intake of up to at least 1.2–1.5 g protein/kg BW/day or approximately 15–20 E%. Overall, many of the included prospective cohort studies were difficult to fully evaluate since results mainly were obtained by food frequency questionnaires that were flawed by underreported intakes, although some studies were ‘calibrated’ to correct for under- or over-reporting. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the EAR based on N-balance studies and suggestive to inconclusive regarding an optimal protein intake higher than

  13. Protein intake from 0 to 18 years of age and its relation to health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta Hörnell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present systematic literature review is a part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The aim was to assess the health effects of different levels of protein intake in infancy and childhood in a Nordic setting. The initial literature search resulted in 435 abstracts, and 219 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 37 quality-assessed papers (4A, 30B, and 3C. A complementary search found four additional papers (all graded B. The evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-inconclusive. Higher protein intake in infancy and early childhood is convincingly associated with increased growth and higher body mass index in childhood. The first 2 years of life is likely most sensitive to high protein intake. Protein intake between 15 E% and 20 E% in early childhood has been associated with an increased risk of being overweight later in life, but the exact level of protein intake above which there is an increased risk for being overweight later in life is yet to be established. Increased intake of animal protein in childhood is probably related to earlier puberty. There was limited-suggestive evidence that intake of animal protein, especially from dairy, has a stronger association with growth than vegetable protein. The evidence was limited-suggestive for a positive association between total protein intake and bone mineral content and/or other bone variables in childhood and adolescence. Regarding other outcomes, there were too few published studies to enable any conclusions. In conclusion, the intake of protein among children in the Nordic countries is high and may contribute to increased risk of later obesity. The upper level of a healthy intake is yet to be firmly established. In the meantime, we suggest a mean intake of 15 E% as an upper limit of recommended intake at 12 months, as a higher intake may contribute to increased risk for later obesity.

  14. The nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of MOW clients and the need for further targeted strategies to enhance intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Karen; Charlton, Karen E; Manning, Fiona; McMahon, Anne T; Galea, Sarah; Evans, Kaitlyn

    2015-12-01

    There is a paucity of literature about the nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of Meals on Wheels (MOW) clients. The current study aimed to determine the nutritional status and the adequacy of energy and protein intakes of MOW clients. Forty-two clients were recruited from two MOW services in the Illawarra region of Australia for assessment of their nutritional status, using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA(®)). Estimated energy and protein intakes for a MOW day were compared to a non-MOW day and average daily energy and protein intakes were assessed against estimated daily requirements. A single dietitian performed all assessments and home based interviews to explore the client's perception of the service. Mean daily energy intake (7593 (±2012) kJ) was not significantly different to estimated requirements (7720 (±975) kJ) (P = 0.480), while mean daily protein intake was higher (78.7 (±23.4) g) than calculated requirements (68.4 (±10.8) g; P = 0.009). However 16 clients were identified as at risk of malnutrition and 2 were malnourished; consuming 2072 kJ (P = 0.000) less energy and 20.4 g less protein (P = 0.004) per day compared to well-nourished clients. MOW clients are at risk of being poorly nourished and meals delivered by the service provide an important contribution to overall intakes. These findings support the need for regular nutrition screening and dietary monitoring in this high risk group, to identify those for whom additional strategies may be indicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Association between Total Protein and Vegetable Protein Intake and Low Muscle Mass among the Community-Dwelling Elderly Population in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Yi Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, highly linked with fall, frailty, and disease burden, is an emerging problem in aging society. Higher protein intake has been suggested to maintain nitrogen balance. Our objective was to investigate whether pre-sarcopenia status was associated with lower protein intake. A total of 327 community-dwelling elderly people were recruited for a cross-sectional study. We adopted the multivariate nutrient density model to identify associations between low muscle mass and dietary protein intake. The general linear regression models were applied to estimate skeletal muscle mass index across the quartiles of total protein and vegetable protein density. Participants with diets in the lowest quartile of total protein density (<13.2% were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (odds ratio (OR 3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.37–6.72 than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥17.2%. Similarly, participants with diets in the lowest quartile of vegetable protein density (<5.8% were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.14–4.83 than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥9.4%. Furthermore, the estimated skeletal muscle mass index increased significantly across the quartiles of total protein density (p = 0.023 and vegetable protein density (p = 0.025. Increasing daily intakes of total protein and vegetable protein densities appears to confer protection against pre-sarcopenia status.

  16. Protein Intake and Distribution in Relation to Physical Functioning and Quality of Life in Community-Dwelling Elderly People: Acknowledging the Role of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique S. M. ten Haaf

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing total protein intake and a spread protein intake distribution are potential strategies to attenuate sarcopenia related loss of physical function and quality of life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether protein intake and protein intake distribution are associated with muscle strength, physical function and quality of life in community-dwelling elderly people with a wide range of physical activity. Dietary and physical activity data were obtained from two studies (N = 140, age 81 ± 6, 64% male, with the following outcome measures: physical functioning (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, comprising balance, gait speed and chair rise tests, handgrip strength and quality of life (EQ-5D-5L. Protein intake distribution was calculated for each participant as a coefficient of variance (CV = SD of grams of protein intake per main meal divided by the average total amount of proteins (grams of the main meals. Based on the CV, participants were divided into tertiles and classified as spread, intermediate or pulse. The average total protein intake was 1.08 ± 0.29 g/kg/day. Total protein intake was not associated with outcome measures using multivariate regression analyses. Individuals with a spread protein diet during the main meals (CV < 0.43 had higher gait speed compared to those with an intermediate diet (CV 0.43–0.62 (β = −0.42, p = 0.035, whereas a spread and pulse protein diet were not associated with SPPB total score, chair rise, grip strength and Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY. The interaction of higher physical activity and higher total protein intake was significantly associated with higher quality of life (β = 0.71, p = 0.049. While this interaction was not associated with SPPB or grip strength, the association with quality of life emphasizes the need for a higher total protein intake together with an active lifestyle in the elderly.

  17. Short-term protein intake and stimulation of protein synthesis in stunted children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geukers, Vincent G. M.; Oudshoorn, Johanna H.; Taminiau, Jan A. J. M.; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Schilte, Piet; Ruiter, An F. C.; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Endert, Erik; Jonkers-Schuitema, Cora F.; Heymans, Hugo S. S.; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Stunted children with cystic fibrosis (CF) have less net protein anabolism than do children without CF, and the result is retarded growth in the CF patients. It is not known whether protein intake above that recommended by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation would further stimulate whole-body

  18. Protein enrichment of familiar foods as an innovative strategy to increase protein intake in institutionalized elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, J.; Roos, de N.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective
    To increase the protein intake of older adults, protein enrichment of familiar foods and drinks might be an effective and attractive alternative for oral nutritional supplements (ONS). We performed a pilot study to test whether these products could help institutionalized elderly to

  19. Positive effect of protein-supplemented hospital food on protein intake in patients at nutritional risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, T; Beck, A M; Holst, M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New evidence indicates that increased dietary protein ingestion promotes health and recovery from illness, and also maintains functionality in older adults. The present study aimed to investigate whether a novel food service concept with protein-supplementation would increase protein...... and energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk. METHODS: A single-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted. Eighty-four participants at nutritional risk, recruited from the departments of Oncology, Orthopaedics and Urology, were included. The intervention group (IG) received...... of hospital stay did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The novel food service concept had a significant positive impact on overall protein intake and on weight-adjusted energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk....

  20. Beyond protein intake: bushmeat as source of micronutrients in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia M. Sarti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild meat is critical for the food security and income of millions of people, especially for poor rural households. Its role as a primary source of macronutrients worldwide has been recognized, but there have been few attempts to evaluate the contribution of bushmeat consumption to micronutrient intake. This is so particularly in the context of nutritional transitions induced by modernization and globalization. Here, we calculated the role of bushmeat as a source of micronutrients in the diets of urban and peri-urban inhabitants within the Tres Fronteras (Peru, Brazil, Colombia region in the Amazon. We gathered food intake data from 35 households using 3-day 24-h food recalls combined with food weighing. Additionally, we interviewed 105 households on food consumption frequency. Our results indicate that 14.3% of the households consumed bushmeat, which represented approximately 32% of their caloric intake, 72% of consumed protein, and 77% of iron. Typically, households consuming bushmeat presented higher a nutritional status, i.e., lower intake of carbohydrates (âˆ'10% and higher intake of proteins (+46%, iron (+151%, and zinc (+23%, than households not consuming bushmeat. Most of the sampled households did not achieve standard nutritional requirements for calories (94%, fiber, vitamin C, or iron (97% per adult per day. None of the households achieved the recommended daily intake for calcium. Households consuming bushmeat consumed statistically significantly higher levels of iron, zinc, and vitamin C than households that did not eat bushmeat. The latter consumed an excess of 31% calories from processed foods per adult per day, and lower amounts of iron (âˆ'60% and zinc (âˆ'19%. We argue that households not consuming bushmeat are at greater risk of anemia in the short run and other chronic health problems in the long run.

  1. Dietary protein intake in sarcopenic obese older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscariello E

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Espedita Muscariello,1 Gilda Nasti,1 Mario Siervo,2 Martina Di Maro,1 Dominga Lapi,1 Gianni D’Addio,3 Antonio Colantuoni1 1Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Human Nutrition Research Centre, Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 3IRCCS Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, Telese, Italy Objective: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in a population of obese older women and to assess the effect of a diet moderately rich in proteins on lean mass in sarcopenic obese older women.  Materials and methods: A total of 1,030 females, >65 years old, body mass index >30 kg/m2, were investigated about their nutritional status. Muscle mass (MM was estimated according to the Janssen equation (MM =0.401× height2/resistance measured at 50 kHz +3.825× sex -0.071× age +5.102. Sarcopenia was defined according to the MM index, MM/height2 (kg/m2, as two standard deviations lower than the obesity-derived cutoff score (7.3 kg/m2. A food-frequency questionnaire was used to measure participants’ usual food intake during the previous 3 months. Moreover, a group of sarcopenic obese older women (n=104 was divided in two subgroups: the first (normal protein intake [NPI], n=50 administered with a hypocaloric diet (0.8 g/kg desirable body weight/day of proteins, and the second treated with a hypocaloric diet containing 1.2 g/kg desirable body weight/day of proteins (high protein intake [HPI], n=54, for 3 months. Dietary ingestion was estimated according to a daily food diary, self-administered, and three reports of nonconsecutive 24-hour recall every month during the follow-up.  Results: The 104 women were classified as sarcopenic. After dieting, significant reductions in body mass index were detected (NPI 30.7±1.3 vs 32.0±2.3 kg/m2, HPI 30.26±0.90 vs 31.05±2.90 kg/m2; P<0.01 vs baseline. The MM index presented significant variations in the NPI as well as in the

  2. Dietary Protein Intake and Distribution Patterns of Well-Trained Dutch Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Jenna B; Trommelen, Jorn; Wardenaar, Floris C; Brinkmans, Naomi Y J; Versteegen, Joline J; Jonvik, Kristin L; Kapp, Christoph; de Vries, Jeanne; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-04-01

    Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific proteincontaining food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day are relevant for optimizing protein intake in athletes. In the present study, we examined the daily intake and distribution of various proteincontaining food sources in a large cohort of strength, endurance and team-sport athletes. Well-trained male (n=327) and female (n=226) athletes completed multiple web-based 24-hr dietary recalls over a 2-4 wk period. Total energy intake, the contribution of animal- and plant-based proteins to daily protein intake, and protein intake at six eating moments were determined. Daily protein intake averaged 108±33 and 90±24 g in men and women, respectively, which corresponded to relative intakes of 1.5±0.4 and 1.4±0.4 g/kg. Dietary protein intake was correlated with total energy intake in strength (r=0.71, p sport (r=0.77, p protein intake was 57% and 43%, respectively. The distribution of protein intake was 19% (19±8 g) at breakfast, 24% (25±13 g) at lunch and 38% (38±15 g) at dinner. Protein intake was below the recommended 20 g for 58% of athletes at breakfast, 36% at lunch and 8% at dinner. In summary, this survey of athletes revealed they habitually consume > 1.2 g protein/kg/d, but the distribution throughout the day may be suboptimal to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to training.

  3. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy El Hayek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N. Materials and methods. Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296. Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin. Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.. Results. Children divided by speed of sound (SoS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA quartiles were not different for age (years, sex (M/F, calcium (mg/d and vitamin D intake (µg/d and plasma 25(OHD concentration (nmol/L. However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions. Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required.

  4. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Zhu

    Full Text Available Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish or non-meat proteins (casein or soy for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota.

  5. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Shi, Xuebin; Zhao, Fan; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish) or non-meat proteins (casein or soy) for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota.

  6. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Shi, Xuebin; Zhao, Fan; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish) or non-meat proteins (casein or soy) for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota. PMID:27042829

  7. Dietary Protein Intake in a Multi-ethnic Asian Population of Healthy Participants and Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon Wee; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Yang, Adonsia Y T; Lin, Tingxuan; Li, Jialiang; Lee, Evan J C

    2015-04-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend different levels of dietary protein intake in predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It is unknown how effectively these recommendations perform in a multi-ethnic Asian population, with varied cultural beliefs and diets. We assess the profi le of protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population, comparing healthy participants and CKD patients. We analysed the 24-hour urine collections of the Asian Kidney Disease Study (AKDS) and the Singapore Kidney Function Study (SKFS) to estimate total protein intake (TPI; g/day). We calculated ideal body weight (IDW; kg): 22.99 × height2 (m). Standard statistical tests were applied where appropriate, and linear regression was used to assess associations of continuous variables with protein intake. There were 232 CKD patients and 103 healthy participants with 35.5% diabetics. The mean TPI in healthy participants was 58.89 ± 18.42 and the mean TPI in CKD patients was 53.64 ± 19.39. By US National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guidelines, 29/232 (12.5%) of CKD patients with measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) patients had TPI-IDW >0.75g/kg/ day. By American Dietetic Association (ADA) guidelines, 34.7% (44/127) of CKD patients with GFR patients with GFR protein intake of between 0.3 to 0.5 g/kg/day. A total of 21.9% (25/114) of diabetic CKD patients had protein intake between 0.8 to 0.9 g/kg/day. On average, the protein intake of most CKD patients exceeds the recommendations of guidelines. Diabetic CKD patients should aim to have higher protein intakes.

  8. Effect of animal and vegetable protein intake on oxalate excretion in idiopathic calcium stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangella, M; Bianco, O; Martini, C; Petrarulo, M; Vitale, C; Linari, F

    1989-04-01

    Oxalate excretion was measured in healthy subjects and idiopathic calcium stone-formers on dietary regimens which differed in the type and amount of protein allowed; 24-h urine collections were obtained from 41 practising vegetarians and 40 normal persons on a free, mixed, "mediterranean" diet. Twenty idiopathic calcium stone-formers were also studied while on two low calcium, low oxalate diets which differed in that animal protein was high in one and restricted in the other. Vegetarians had higher urinary oxalate levels than controls and although the calcium levels were markedly lower, urinary saturation with calcium/oxalate was significantly higher. This mild hypercalciuria was interpreted as being secondary to both a higher intake and increased fractional intestinal absorption of oxalate. Changing calcium stone-formers from a high to a low animal protein intake produced a significant decrease in calcium excretion but there was no variation in urinary oxalate. As a result, the decrease in calcium oxalate saturation was only marginal and not significant. It was concluded that dietary animal protein has a minimal effect on oxalate excretion. Mild hyperoxaluria of idiopathic calcium stone disease is likely to be intestinal in origin. Calcium stone-formers should be advised to avoid an excess of animal protein but the risks of a vegetable-rich diet should also be borne in mind.

  9. An Even Distribution of Protein Intake Daily Promotes Protein Adequacy but Does Not Influence Nutritional Status in Institutionalized Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieland, Michael; Beelen, Janne; Laan, Anna C M; Poon, Shirley; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Seeman, Ego; Wang, Xiaofang; Iuliano, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Although it has been established that sufficient protein is required to maintain good nutritional status and support healthy aging, it is not clear if the pattern of protein consumption may also influence nutritional status, especially in institutionalized elderly who are at risk of malnutrition. Therefore, we aim to determine the association between protein intake distribution and nutritional status in institutionalized elderly people. Cross-sectional study among 481 institutionalized older adults. Dietary data from 481 ambulant elderly people (68.8% female, mean age 87.5 ± 6.3 years) residing in 52 aged-care facilities in Victoria, Australia, were assessed over 2 days using plate waste analysis. Nutritional status was determined using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment tool and serum (n = 208) analyzed for albumin, hemoglobin, and IGF-1. Protein intake distribution was classified as: spread (even distribution across 3 meals, n = 65), pulse (most protein consumed in one meal, n = 72) or intermediate (n = 344). Regression analysis was used to investigate associations. Mean protein intakes were higher in the spread (60.5 ± 2.0 g/d) than intermediate group (56.0 ± 0.8 g/d, P = .037), and tended to be higher than those in the pulse group (55.9 ± 1.9 g/d, P = .097). Residents with an even distribution of protein intake achieved a higher level of the recommended daily intake for protein (96.2 ± 30.0%) than the intermediate (86.3 ± 26.2%, P = .008) and pulse (87.4 ± 30.5%, P = .06) groups, and also achieved a greater level of their estimated energy requirements (intermediate; P = .039, pulse; P = .001). Nutritional status (Mini-Nutritional Assessment score) did not differ between groups (pulse; 20.5 ± 4.5, intermediate; 21.0 ± 2.5, spread; 20.5 ± 3.5), nor did any other indices of nutritional status. Meeting protein requirements is required before protein distribution may influence nutritional status in institutionalized

  10. Systemic Glucose Level Changes with a Carbohydrate-Restricted and Higher Protein Diet Combined with Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Rodney G.; Lanning, Beth A.; Doyle, Eva I.; Slonaker, Becky; Johnston, Holly M.; Scanes, Georgene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to compare the effects of macronutrient intake on systemic glucose levels in previously sedentary participants who followed 1 of 4 diets that were either higher protein or high carbohydrate, while initiating an exercise program. Participants and Methods: The authors randomly assigned 94 sedentary…

  11. Dietary protein intake and distribution patterns of well-trained Dutch athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillen, Jenna B.; Trommelen, Jorn; Wardenaar, Floris C.; Brinkmans, Naomi Y.J.; Versteegen, Joline J.; Jonvik, Kristin L.; Kapp, Christoph; Vries, de Jeanne; Borne, van den Joost J.G.C.; Gibala, Martin J.; Loon, van Luc J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific proteincontaining food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day

  12. Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000-...

  13. Underreporting of energy, protein and potassium intake in relation to body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerstrass, D W; Ocké, M C; Bueno De Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, P.H.; Seidell, J C

    BACKGROUND: Differential underreporting of dietary intake by subgroups of body mass index (BMI) will confound associations between dietary intake and BMI-related diseases. We estimated the magnitude of BMI-related underreporting for energy, protein, and potassium intake for the Dutch cohorts of the

  14. Higher Energy Intake Variability as Predisposition to Obesity: Novel Approach Using Interquartile Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forejt, Martin; Brázdová, Zuzana Derflerová; Novák, Jan; Zlámal, Filip; Forbelská, Marie; Bienert, Petr; Mořkovská, Petra; Zavřelová, Miroslava; Pohořalá, Aneta; Jurášková, Miluše; Salah, Nabil; Bienertová-Vašků, Julie

    2017-12-01

    It is known that total energy intake and its distribution during the day influences human anthropometric characteristics. However, possible association between variability in total energy intake and obesity has thus far remained unexamined. This study was designed to establish the influence of energy intake variability of each daily meal on the anthropometric characteristics of obesity. A total of 521 individuals of Czech Caucasian origin aged 16–73 years (390 women and 131 men) were included in the study, 7-day food records were completed by all study subjects and selected anthropometric characteristics were measured. The interquartile range (IQR) of energy intake was assessed individually for each meal of the day (as a marker of energy intake variability) and subsequently correlated with body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (%BF), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (cW). Four distinct models were created using multiple logistic regression analysis and backward stepwise logistic regression. The most precise results, based on the area under the curve (AUC), were observed in case of the %BF model (AUC=0.895) and cW model (AUC=0.839). According to the %BF model, age (p<0.001) and IQR-lunch (p<0.05) seem to play an important prediction role for obesity. Likewise, according to the cW model, age (p<0.001), IQR-breakfast (p<0.05) and IQR-dinner (p <0.05) predispose patients to the development of obesity. The results of our study show that higher variability in the energy intake of key daily meals may increase the likelihood of obesity development. Based on the obtained results, it is necessary to emphasize the regularity in meals intake for maintaining proper body composition. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  15. Protein scaffolds and higher-order complexes in synthetic biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hamer, A.; Rosier, B.J.H.M.; Brunsveld, L.; de Greef, T.F.A.; Ryadnov, M.; Brunsveld, L.; Suga, H.

    2017-01-01

    Interactions between proteins control molecular functions such as signalling or metabolic activity. Assembly of proteins via scaffold proteins or in higher-order complexes is a key regulatory mechanism. Understanding and functionally applying this concept requires the construction, study, and

  16. Calcium, vitamin D, casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Boucher, Barbara J; Kongstad, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    , smoking, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, number of teeth, daily brushing, regular visits to the dentist and chronic illness, irrespective of vitamin D intake levels. Intake of vitamin D alone was not associated severe with periodontitis. CONCLUSIONS: Intakes of Ca, casein and whey protein were......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g....../d), whey proteins (9.6 g/d) and vitamin D (5.8 μg/d) were classified as within v. above the 50th percentile. Ca intake was classified as within v. below age-specific recommendations. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥2 inter-proximal sites with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm (not on the same...

  17. Heat shock proteins of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, J.L.; Lin, C.Y.; Chen, Y.M.

    1981-01-01

    The pattern of protein synthesis changes rapidly and dramatically when the growth temperture of soybean seedling tissue is increased from 28 0 C (normal) to about 40 0 C (heat shock). The synthesis of normal proteins is greatly decreased and a new set of proteins, heat shock proteins, is induced. The heat shock proteins of soybean consist of 10 new bands on one-dimensional NaDodSO 4 gels; a more complex pattern is observed on two-dimensional gels. when the tissue is returned to 28 0 C after 4 hr at 40 0 C, there is progressive decline in the synthesis of heat shock proteins and reappearance of a normal pattern of synthesis by 3 or 4 hr. In vitro translation of poly(A) + RNAs isolated from tissued grown at 28 and 40 0 C shows that the heat shock proteins are translated from a ndw set of mRNAs induced at 40 0 C; furthermore, the abundant class mRNAs for many of the normal proteins persist even though they are translated weakly (or not at all) in vivo at 40 or 42.5 0 C. The heat shock response in soybean appears similar to the much-studied heat shock phenomenon in Drosophila

  18. Dietary protein intake in community-dwelling, frail, and institutionalized elderly people: scope for improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J.; Loon, van L.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Adequate dietary protein intake is required to postpone and treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Insight into dietary protein intake in this heterogeneous population segment is needed to locate dietary inadequacies and to identify target populations and feeding strategies for dietary interventions.

  19. Is protein-energy intake adequate during dialysis treatment in hemodialysis patients ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudeke (G I. Struijk-Wielinga

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Protein and energy intake of hemodialysis patients is lower than their daily needs. On non dialysis days intake is even lower than on dialysis days. The meals consumed during dialysis treatment contain enough energy but not enough protein to meet requirements.

  20. Antagonistic targeting of the histamine H3 receptor decreases caloric intake in higher mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmlöf, Kjell; Hastrup, Sven; Wulff, Birgitte Schellerup; Hansen, Barbara C; Peschke, Bernd; Jeppesen, Claus Bekker; Hohlweg, Rolf; Rimvall, Karin

    2007-04-15

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a selective histamine H(3) receptor antagonist, NNC 38-1202, on caloric intake in pigs and in rhesus monkeys. The compound was given intragastrically (5 or 15 mg/kg), to normal pigs (n=7) and subcutaneously (1 or 0.1mg/kg) to obese rhesus monkeys (n=9). The energy intake recorded following administration of vehicle to the same animals served as control for the effect of the compound. In addition, rhesus monkey and pig histamine H(3) receptors were cloned from hypothalamic tissues and expressed in mammalian cell lines. The in vitro antagonist potencies of NNC 38-1202 at the H(3) receptors were determined using a functional GTPgammaS binding assay. Porcine and human H(3) receptors were found to have 93.3% identity at the amino acid level and the close homology between the monkey and human H(3) receptors (98.4% identity) was confirmed. The antagonist potencies of NNC 38-1202 at the porcine, monkey and human histamine H(3) receptors were high as evidenced by K(i)-values being clearly below 20 nM, whereas the K(i)-value on the rat H(3) receptor was significantly higher (56+/-6.0 nM). NNC 38-1202, given to pigs in a dose of 15 mg/kg, produced a significant (p<0.05) reduction (55%) of calorie intake compared with vehicle alone, (132.6+/-10.0 kcal/kgday versus 59.7+/-10.2 kcal/kgday). In rhesus monkeys administration of 0.1 and 1mg/kg decreased (p<0.05) average calorie intakes by 40 and 75%, respectively. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that antagonistic targeting of the histamine H(3) receptor decreases caloric intake in higher mammalian species.

  1. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Crichton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA. We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS, conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972, and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX (n = 1331 were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

  2. Association of energy and protein intakes with length of stay, readmission and mortality in hospitalised patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingadottir, Arora R; Beck, Anne M; Baldwin, Christine; Weekes, C Elizabeth; Geirsdottir, Olof G; Ramel, Alfons; Gislason, Thorarinn; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg

    2018-03-01

    Low energy and protein intakes have been associated with an increased risk of malnutrition in outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to assess the energy and protein intakes of hospitalised COPD patients according to nutritional risk status and requirements, and the relative contribution from meals, snacks, drinks and oral nutritional supplements (ONS), and to examine whether either energy or protein intake predicts outcomes. Subjects were COPD patients (n 99) admitted to Landspitali University Hospital in 1 year (March 2015-March 2016). Patients were screened for nutritional risk using a validated screening tool, and energy and protein intake for 3 d, 1-5 d after admission to the hospital, was estimated using a validated plate diagram sheet. The percentage of patients reaching energy and protein intake ≥75 % of requirements was on average 59 and 37 %, respectively. Malnourished patients consumed less at mealtimes and more from ONS than lower-risk patients, resulting in no difference in total energy and protein intakes between groups. No clear associations between energy or protein intake and outcomes were found, although the association between energy intake, as percentage of requirement, and mortality at 12 months of follow-up was of borderline significance (OR 0·12; 95 % CI 0·01, 1·15; P=0·066). Energy and protein intakes during hospitalisation in the study population failed to meet requirements. Further studies are needed on how to increase energy and protein intakes during hospitalisation and after discharge and to assess whether higher intake in relation to requirement of hospitalised COPD patients results in better outcomes.

  3. The influence of dietary crude protein intake on bone and mineral metabolism in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Brand

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased dietary protein consumption is thought to cause calciuresis, a negative calcium balance and increased bone loss that may result in skeletal deformities and fracture. To explore this hypothesis, 40 approximately 100-day-old meat-type Merino ram lambs were fed, for 6 months, diets with an increasing crude protein (CP content (114, 142, 171 and 190 g/kg DM but approximately on an iso-nutrient basis with regard to metabolisable energy, calcium and phosphorus. Increased protein consumption modestly (NS enhanced calciuresis and resulted in significant (P < 0.01 limb skewness. This could not, however, be ascribed to osteopaenic bones, and compared with animals consuming lower protein rations, the bone mineral density (BMD and vertebral trabecular bone volume of animals fed high protein diets were significantly increased: theBMDof thoracic vertebrae was positively related to the CP intake (r=0.62; P < 0.001. In animals consuming higher protein diets, skeletal radiology and quantitative bone histology revealed no evidence of increased bone turnover as would be expected in animals that are in negative calcium balance. No relationship existed between limb skewness and the growth rate of lambs. However, the ratio of Ca:P in the forelimb (r = -0.98, vertebrae (r = -0.72 and rib (r = -0.42 was found to be inversely correlated with increased protein intake and resulted from an increase in the phosphorus content of bone, while the amount of bone calcium was unaffected. We conclude that qualitative micro-architectural abnormalities, and not mere bone loss, may underlie the skeletal deformities induced by increased protein consumption in sheep.

  4. DIETARY PROTEIN INTAKE IS INDEPENDENTLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE URINARY EXCRETION OF PHOSPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Dobronravov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Decrease of urinary phosphate (P excretion and P retention triggers activation of phosphotonins and subsequent development of secondary hyperparathyroidism in progressing of chronic kidney disease (CKD. The main source of P is dietary protein. No large studies are presented to-date to evaluate the relationship between dietary protein intake and parameters of P metabolism in CKD patients. This was a goal of the cross-sectional cohort study .11315 CKD patients were entered (males 43%. Median (10th-90th percentile of age and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR were 46 (24-69 and 64 (24-104. The analyzed data were: age, gender, body mass index (BMI serum albumin, creatinine, calcium and phosphate; 24-h urine creatinine, phosphate (P,proteinuria (DP. Estimated parameters includes: eGFR, fractional P excretion (FEP, 24-h P excretion (24-h UP, and P clearance (CP. Dietary protein intake (DPI was based on 24-h urinary urea excretion. No significant differences in serum phosphate were found in groups with various DPI. FEP, 24-h UP and CP were significantly higher in higher DPI range. DPI was positively associated with 24-h UP (β=0,287, p<0.000001 in multivariate model adjusted for age, gender, DP, eGFR, serum P, FEP, BMI, and Ca. Thus, DPI is considered to be the independent factor influencing urinary P excretion and hence contributing to progression of mineral and bone disease in renal dysfunction.

  5. Effect of exercise and protein intake on energy expenditure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenys, M; Recasens, M A; Martí-Henneberg, C; Salas-Salvadó, J

    1993-12-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of physical exercise and protein intake on Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) and Postprandial Energy Expenditure (PEE), 16 healthy, normal-weight, 15 year-old, adolescent males at the same stage of pubertal development were studied. They were assigned to two dietary groups receiving the same energy intake (1.3 x by measured RMR) and different proportions of macronutrients (13% protein, 39% fat, 48% CHO in Group A; 30% protein, 32% fat, 38% CHO in Group B). An increase in postprandial energy expenditure, relative to basal, was observed in all individuals. The postprandial energy expenditure was higher in group B than in group A. Postprandial Post-exercise Thermogenesis (expressed as Kcal/3 h) was significantly higher in group B than group A (p hyperproteic diet followed by moderately-intensive exercise induces increases in EE and decreases in RQ in the postprandial post-exercise period and is accompanied by increase in the RMR the following day.

  6. Effect of dietary protein and GABA on food intake, growth and tissue amino acids in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tews, J K; Rogers, Q R; Morris, J G; Harper, A E

    1984-02-01

    GABA at 5%, but not 3%, of a low protein diet depressed food intake and growth of kittens. Adaptation to high protein prevented these effects. When cats adapted to low or high protein were fed a meal containing GABA, plasma GABA concentration after 2 hr was 8-fold higher in the low than in the high protein group; clearance was almost complete within 6 hr. Concentrations of proline, branched-chain, other large neutral and basic (especially ornithine) amino acids increased more when cats were fed a high rather than a low protein meal; glycine decreased. At 6 hr, concentrations had consistently returned to initial levels only in the low protein group. Feeding the high protein diet ad lib increased tissue concentrations of threonine, proline and the branched-chain amino acids. Hepatic or renal GABA-aminotransferase activity was not altered in kittens fed the high protein diet. Kidney activity was 10-fold that of liver, which may contribute to the better tolerance of GABA by cats than by rats.

  7. Pattern of Energy and Protein Intake among Stunted Children Aged 3–5 Years in Jatinangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Laurus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A child’s optimal growth can be indicated by many factors, among them is body height, therefore stunting is one of the evidences of undergrowth. Nutrition, on the other hand, is one of variables affecting growth. This study aimed to examine the nutrition intake, in the form of energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat in stunted children aged 3–5 years in Jatinangor. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in September to October 2014 using the random sampling method. Dietary data from 70 stunted children aged 3–5 years in pre–school and kindegarten located in 9 urban areas in Jatinangor were collected through 3x24 Recall and Food Frequency Questionaire and analyzed. Results: Mean energy intake was 1113.6 kcal and mean carbohydrate intake was 137.4 grams. Mean protein intake was 38.4 gram and mean fat intake was 38.2 gram. Types of food highly consumed as the source of carbohydrate were white rice and biscuit, and as the source of protein were meatball, sausage, and egg. Highest consumed vegetables, fruits and snack were water spinach, cabbage, watermelon, banana, and milk respectively. Conclusions: Mean energy intake, mean carbohydrate intake, and mean fat intake are all below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA 2013 with individual value of mean energy intake is below RDA 2013 for all subjects. Mean protein intake is slightly above RDA 2013.

  8. Associations of dietary protein intake on subsequent decline in muscle mass and physical functions over four years in ambulant older Chinese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R; Leung, J; Woo, J; Kwok, T

    2014-01-01

    To examine the association of dietary protein intake with 4-year change in physical performance measures and muscle mass in Chinese community-dwelling older people aged 65 and older in Hong Kong. Prospective cohort study design. Hong Kong, People's of Republic of China. There were 2,726 (1411 male, 1315 female) community-dwelling older people aged 65 and older. Baseline total, animal and vegetable protein intakes were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Relative protein intake expressed as g/kg body weight was calculated and divided into quartiles for data analysis. Baseline and 4-year physical performance measures (normal and narrow 6-meters walking speed and step length in a 6-meters walk) were measured and 4-year change in appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) from baseline was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Univariate analysis identified age and sex as significant factors associated with change in physical performance measures or ASM, thus adjustments for these factors were made for subsequent analysis of covariance. Median relative total protein intake was 1.3 g/kg body weight in men and 1.1 g/kg body weight in women. After adjustment for age and sex, relative total protein intake and animal protein intake were not associated with change in physical performance measures and ASM. In contrast, participants in the highest quartile (>0.72 g/kg body weight) of relative vegetable protein intake lost significantly less ASM over 4-year than those in the lowest quartile of relative vegetable protein intake (physical performance measures. Higher protein intake from vegetable source was associated with reduced muscle loss in Chinese community-dwelling older people in Hong Kong whereas no association between total and animal protein intake and subsequent decline in muscle mass or physical performance measures was observed in this sample.

  9. Effects of previous protein intake on rectal temperature, blood glucose, plasma thyroid hormone and minerals by laying hens during a forced molt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, G.A.; Moraes, V.M.B.; Cherici, I; Furlan, R.L.; Macari, M.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of forced molting on blood glucose, rectal temperature, plasma T4, T3 and minerals were studied in hens previously fed rations with different protein contents (14, 17 and 20% crude protein). Blood samples were obtained from brachial veins for blood glucose, T4 and T3 were measured by radioimmunoassay, and plasma minerals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood glucose and rectal temperature were reduced during fasting regardless of previous protein intake. Pre molting T4 plasma level was higher in laying hens fed higher protein ration, but feed deprivation reduced T 4 and T 3 concentrations irrespective of protein intake, except T 4 level for 14% crude protein fed birds that increased during fasting. The data obtained in this experiment suggest that previous protein intake does not interfere with the metabolic changes during forced molt. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  10. Effects of previous protein intake on rectal temperature, blood glucose, plasma thyroid hormone and minerals by laying hens during a forced molt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, G A; Moraes, V M.B.; Cherici, I; Furlan, R L; Macari, M [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    1991-12-01

    The effects of forced molting on blood glucose, rectal temperature, plasma T4, T3 and minerals were studied in hens previously fed rations with different protein contents (14, 17 and 20% crude protein). Blood samples were obtained from brachial veins for blood glucose, T4 and T3 were measured by radioimmunoassay, and plasma minerals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood glucose and rectal temperature were reduced during fasting regardless of previous protein intake. Pre molting T4 plasma level was higher in laying hens fed higher protein ration, but feed deprivation reduced T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} concentrations irrespective of protein intake, except T{sub 4} level for 14% crude protein fed birds that increased during fasting. The data obtained in this experiment suggest that previous protein intake does not interfere with the metabolic changes during forced molt. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs.

  11. Is controlling phosphorus by decreasing dietary protein intake beneficial or harmful in persons with chronic kidney disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinaberger, Christian S; Greenland, Sander; Kopple, Joel D; Van Wyck, David; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2008-12-01

    Dietary restrictions to control serum phosphorus, which are routinely recommended to persons with chronic kidney disease, are usually associated with a reduction in protein intake. This may lead to protein-energy wasting and poor survival. We aimed to ascertain whether a decline in serum phosphorus and a concomitant decline in protein intake are associated with an increase in the risk of death. In a 3-y study (7/2001-6/2004) of 30 075 prevalent maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, we examined changes in serum phosphorus and in normalized protein nitrogen appearance (nPNA), a surrogate of dietary protein intake, during the first 6 mo and the subsequent mortality. Four groups of MHD patients were defined on the basis of the direction of the changes in serum phosphorus and nPNA. Baseline phosphorus had a J-shaped association with mortality, whereas higher baseline nPNA was linearly associated with greater survival. Compared with MHD patients whose serum phosphorus and nPNA both rose over 6 mo, those whose serum phosphorus decreased but whose nPNA increased had greater survival, with a case mix-adjusted death risk ratio of 0.90 (95% confidence limits: 0.86, 0.95; P protein intake may outweigh the benefit of controlled phosphorus and may lead to greater mortality. Additional studies including randomized controlled trials should examine whether nondietary control of phosphorus or restriction of nonprotein sources of phosphorus is safer and more effective.

  12. Ultra-processed foods, protein leverage and energy intake in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Steele, Euridice; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Monteiro, Carlos A

    2018-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that human macronutrient regulation minimizes variation in absolute protein intake and consequently energy intake varies passively with dietary protein density ('protein leverage'). According to the 'protein leverage hypothesis' (PLH), protein leverage interacts with a reduction in dietary protein density to drive energy overconsumption and obesity. Worldwide increase in consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) has been hypothesized to be an important determinant of dietary protein dilution, and consequently an ecological driving force of energy overconsumption and the obesity pandemic. The present study examined the relationships between dietary contribution of UPF, dietary proportional protein content and the absolute intakes of protein and energy. National representative cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. Participants (n 9042) aged ≥2 years with at least one day of 24 h dietary recall data. We found a strong inverse relationship between consumption of UPF and dietary protein density, with mean protein content dropping from 18·2 to 13·3 % between the lowest and highest quintiles of dietary contribution of UPF. Consistent with the PLH, increase in the dietary contribution of UPF (previously shown to be inversely associated with protein density) was also associated with a rise in total energy intake, while absolute protein intake remained relatively constant. The protein-diluting effect of UPF might be one mechanism accounting for their association with excess energy intake. Reducing UPF contribution in the US diet may be an effective way to increase its dietary protein concentration and prevent excessive energy intake.

  13. The association of protein intake (amount and type) with ovarian antral follicle counts among infertile women: results from the EARTH prospective study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souter, I; Chiu, Y-H; Batsis, M; Afeiche, M C; Williams, P L; Hauser, R; Chavarro, J E

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the association between protein intake (amount and type) and antral follicle count (AFC). Prospective cohort. Academic fertility centre. Two hundred and sixty-five women undergoing fertility treatments at an academic fertility centre and participating in an ongoing study on environment and reproductive health. We measured AFC in ultrasonographic evaluation among women undergoing infertility treatments. Women completed a previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used Poisson regression to evaluate the relation between protein intake and AFC while adjusting for age, body mass index, race, smoking status, and total energy intake. Antral follicle count. Among 265 women (mean age: 35.0 ± 3.9 years, 85% Caucasian), total protein intake (% energy) was unrelated to AFC. When protein from different food sources was considered separately, we found a negative association between dairy protein intake and AFC. The mean AFC was 14.4% (3.9-23.7%) lower for women in the highest quintile of dairy protein intake than for women in the bottom quintile after adjusting for potential confounders (P-trend = 0.04). This association was stronger among women who had never smoked (P-trend = 0.002) but was not observed among previous smokers (P-trend = 0.36). There were no associations between protein intake from either non-dairy animal or vegetable sources and AFC. Higher dairy protein intake (≥5.24% of energy) was associated with lower antral follicle counts among women presenting for infertility treatment. These findings should be further investigated in prospective studies also designed to clarify the biology underlying the observed associations. Higher dairy protein intake was associated with lower antral follicle counts in an infertile population. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes N. Pedersen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were included. Out of a total of 5,718 abstracts, 412 full papers were identified as potentially relevant, and after careful scrutiny, 64 papers were quality graded as A (highest, B, or C. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW/day based on nitrogen balance studies, suggestive for a relationship between increased all-cause mortality risk and long-term low-carbohydrate–high-protein (LCHP diets; but inconclusive for a relationship between all-cause mortality risk and protein intake per se; suggestive for an inverse relationship between cardiovascular mortality and vegetable protein intake; inconclusive for relationships between cancer mortality and cancer diseases, respectively, and protein intake; inconclusive for a relationship between cardiovascular diseases and total protein intake; suggestive for an inverse relationship between blood pressure (BP and vegetable protein; probable to convincing for an inverse relationship between soya protein intake and LDL cholesterol; inconclusive for a relationship between protein intake and bone health, energy intake, BW control, body composition, renal function, and risk of kidney stones, respectively; suggestive for a relationship between increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D and long-term LCHP-high-fat diets; inconclusive for impact of physical training on protein requirement; and suggestive for effect of physical training on whole-body protein retention. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the estimated

  15. A 5-year cohort study of the effects of high protein intake on lean mass and BMC in elderly postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xingqiong; Zhu, Kun; Devine, Amanda; Kerr, Deborah A; Binns, Colin W; Prince, Richard L

    2009-11-01

    Long-term effects of high dietary protein intake on muscle and bone structure in the elderly are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between baseline protein intake and lean mass and BMC 5 yr later in a cohort of elderly postmenopausal women. A total of 862 community-dwelling women 75 +/- 3 yr of age provided baseline data including nutrient intake assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. At 5 yr, upper arm muscle area (UAMA) and body composition using DXA were measured. Baseline protein intake was 81 +/- 28 g/d (1.2 +/- 0.4 g/kg/d), contributing 19 +/- 3% of total energy intake. There were positive correlations between baseline protein intake and whole body and appendicular bone-free lean mass and BMC (r = 0.14-0.18, p 87 g/d) had 5.4-6.0% higher whole body and appendicular lean mass and UAMA and 5.3-6.0% higher whole body and appendicular BMC. These effects remained after adjusting for potential confounders. However, the effect on BMC disappeared after further adjustment for lean mass. This study shows that high protein intake is associated with long-term beneficial effects on muscle mass and size and bone mass in elderly women. The protein effect on bone may be partly mediated by its effects on muscle.

  16. High Protein Intake Improves Insulin Sensitivity but Exacerbates Bone Resorption in Immobility (WISE Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Martina; Smith, Scott M.; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Zwart, Sara R.; Baecker, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Inactivity, like bed rest (BR), causes insulin resistance (IR) and bone loss even in healthy subjects. High protein intake seems to mitigate this IR but might exacerbate bone loss. We hypothesized that high protein intake (animal:vegetable protein ratio: 60:40), isocaloric, compared to the control group plus high potassium intake would prevent IR without affecting bone turnover. After a 20-day ambulatory adaptation to controlled confinement and diet, 16 women participated in a 60-day, 6 deg head-down-tilt BR and were assigned randomly to one of the two groups. Control subjects (CON, n=8) received 1g/kg body mass/d dietary protein. Nutrition subjects (NUT, n=8) received 1.45g/kg body mass/d dietary protein plus 7.2g branched chain amino acids per day during BR. All subjects received 1670 kcal/d. Bed rest decreased glucose disposal by 35% (pprotein intake prevented insulin resistance, but exacerbated bed rest induced increase in bone resorption markers C-telopeptide (> 30%) and Ntelopeptide (>20%) (both: pprotein intake. We conclude from these results that high protein intake might positively affect glucose tolerance, but might also foster bone loss. Further long-duration studies are mandatory before high protein intake for diabetic patients, who have an increased fracture risk, might be recommended.

  17. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-10-21

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.

  18. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0 or 7.0 (Bev-7.0 or gels as acid (Gel-Acid or heated (Gel-Heated. In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05, and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0 vs. CON (all, p < 0.05. Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.

  19. Increased protein intake and meal frequency reduces abdominal fat during energy balance and energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Paul J; Ormsbee, Michael J; Gentile, Christopher L; Nindl, Bradley C; Brestoff, Jonathan R; Ruby, Maxwell

    2013-07-01

    Unrefined, complex carbohydrates and lean protein diets are used to combat obesity, although it's unknown whether more frequent meals may improve this response. The effects of consuming traditional (~15%) versus higher (~35%) protein intakes as three or six meals/day on abdominal fat, postprandial thermogenesis (TEM), and cardiometabolic biomarkers in overweight individuals during 28 days of energy balance (BAL) and deficit (NEG), respectively were compared. Overweight individuals (n = 30) were randomized into three groups: two high-protein groups (35% of energy) consumed as three (HP3) or six (HP6) meals/day and one group consumed three meals/day of a traditional intake (TD3). Following a 5-day baseline control (CON), subjects consumed their respective diets throughout a 56-day intervention consisting of two, 28 day phases: a BAL followed by a NEG phase (75% of energy needs). Total body fat (BF) and abdominal BF (ABF), body weight (BW), TEM, and fasting biomarkers were assessed at the end of CON, BAL, and NEG phases. BW remained stable throughout CON and BAL in all groups, whereas BF (P meals/day in overweight individuals during both BAL and NEG. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  20. Patterns of Protein Food Intake Are Associated with Nutrient Adequacy in the General French Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavelle, Erwan de; Huneau, Jean-François; Mariotti, François

    2018-02-17

    Protein food intake appears to partially structure dietary patterns, as most current emergent diets (e.g., vegetarian and flexitarian) can be described according to their levels of specific protein sources. However, few data are available on dietary protein patterns in the general population and their association with nutrient adequacy. Based on protein food intake data concerning 1678 adults from a representative French national dietary survey, and non-negative-matrix factorization followed by cluster analysis, we were able to identify distinctive dietary protein patterns and compare their nutrient adequacy (using PANDiet probabilistic scoring). The findings revealed eight patterns that clearly discriminate protein intakes and were characterized by the intakes of one or more specific protein foods: 'Processed meat', 'Poultry', 'Pork', 'Traditional', 'Milk', 'Take-away', 'Beef' and 'Fish'. 'Fish eaters' and 'Milk drinkers' had the highest overall nutrient adequacy, whereas that of 'Pork' and 'Take-away eaters' was the lowest. Nutrient adequacy could often be accounted for by the characteristics of the food contributing to protein intake: 'Meat eaters' had high probability of adequacy for iron and zinc, for example. We concluded that protein patterns constitute strong elements in the background structure of the dietary intake and are associated with the nutrient profile that they convey.

  1. Dietary Protein in Older Adults: Adequate Daily Intake but Potential for Improved Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle K. Cardon-Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Daily distribution of dietary protein may be important in protecting against sarcopenia, specifically in terms of per meal amounts relative to a proposed threshold for maximal response. The aims of this study were to determine total and per meal protein intake in older adults, as well as identifying associations with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Three-day food diaries recorded protein intake in 38 participants. Protein distribution, coefficient of variation (CV, and per meal amounts were calculated. Accelerometry was used to collect physical activity data as well as volume and patterns of sedentary time. Average intake was 1.14 g·kg−1·day−1. Distribution was uneven (CV = 0.67, and 79% of participants reported <0.4 g·kg−1 protein content in at least 2/3 daily meals. Protein intake was significantly correlated with step count (r = 0.439, p = 0.007 and negatively correlated with sedentary time (r = −0.456, p = 0.005 and Gini index G, which describes the pattern of accumulation of sedentary time (r = −0.421, p = 0.011. Total daily protein intake was sufficient; however, distribution did not align with the current literature; increasing protein intake may help to facilitate optimization of distribution. Associations between protein and other risk factors for sarcopenia may also inform protective strategies.

  2. Protein-enriched ‘regular products’ and their effect on protein intake in acute hospitalized older adults; a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelten, S.; Dekker, I.; Ronday, E.M.; Thijs, A.; Boelsma, E.; Peppelenbos, H.W.; Schueren, M.A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background & aims Especially in older adults, maintaining muscle mass is essential to perform activities of daily living. This requires a sufficient protein intake. However, protein intake in hospitalized older adults is often insufficient. Thus far different nutrition intervention strategies

  3. Longer guts and higher food quality increase energy intake in migratory swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gils, Jan A; Beekman, Jan H; Coehoorn, Pieter; Corporaal, Els; Dekkers, Ten; Klaassen, Marcel; van Kraaij, Rik; de Leeuw, Rinze; de Vries, Peter P

    2008-11-01

    1. Within the broad field of optimal foraging, it is increasingly acknowledged that animals often face digestive constraints rather than constraints on rates of food collection. This therefore calls for a formalization of how animals could optimize food absorption rates. 2. Here we generate predictions from a simple graphical optimal digestion model for foragers that aim to maximize their (true) metabolizable food intake over total time (i.e. including nonforaging bouts) under a digestive constraint. 3. The model predicts that such foragers should maintain a constant food retention time, even if gut length or food quality changes. For phenotypically flexible foragers, which are able to change the size of their digestive machinery, this means that an increase in gut length should go hand in hand with an increase in gross intake rate. It also means that better quality food should be digested more efficiently. 4. These latter two predictions are tested in a large avian long-distance migrant, the Bewick's swan (Cygnus columbianus bewickii), feeding on grasslands in its Dutch wintering quarters. 5. Throughout winter, free-ranging Bewick's swans, growing a longer gut and experiencing improved food quality, increased their gross intake rate (i.e. bite rate) and showed a higher digestive efficiency. These responses were in accordance with the model and suggest maintenance of a constant food retention time. 6. These changes doubled the birds' absorption rate. Had only food quality changed (and not gut length), then absorption rate would have increased by only 67%; absorption rate would have increased by only 17% had only gut length changed (and not food quality). 7. The prediction that gross intake rate should go up with gut length parallels the mechanism included in some proximate models of foraging that feeding motivation scales inversely to gut fullness. We plea for a tighter integration between ultimate and proximate foraging models.

  4. Associations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate intakes with insomnia symptoms among middle-aged Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eizaburo; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Uemura, Mayu; Murata, Chiyoe; Otsuka, Rei; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Leo; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable factor that may affect sleep, but the associations of macronutrient intakes with insomnia are inconsistent. We investigated the associations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate intakes with insomnia symptoms. In this cross-sectional analysis of 4435 non-shift workers, macronutrient intakes were assessed by the brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire, which requires the recall of usual intakes of 58 foods during the preceding month. Presence of insomnia symptoms, including difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), and poor quality of sleep (PQS) were self-reported. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs adjusted for demographic, psychological, and behavioral factors, as well as medical histories. Low protein intake (vs ≥16% of total energy) was associated with DIS (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.99-1.56) and PQS (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.48), while high protein intake (≥19% vs Low carbohydrate intake (vs ≥50% of total energy) was associated with DMS (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.97-1.45). Protein and carbohydrate intakes in the daily diet were associated with insomnia symptoms. The causality of these associations remains to be explained.

  5. Dietary Intake of Protein from Different Sources and Weight Regain, Changes in Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors after Weight Loss: The DIOGenes Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen A. van Baak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period while following an energy-restricted diet. 489 overweight or obese participants of the DIOGenes trial from eight European countries were included. They successfully lost >8% of body weight and subsequently completed a six month weight maintenance period, in which they consumed an ad libitum diet varying in protein content and glycemic index. Dietary intake was estimated from three-day food diaries. A higher plant protein intake with a proportional decrease in animal protein intake did not affect body weight maintenance or cardiometabolic risk factors. A higher plant protein intake from non-cereal products instead of cereal products was associated with benefits for body weight maintenance and blood pressure. Substituting meat protein for protein from other animal sources increased insulin and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. This analysis suggests that not only the amount of dietary proteins, but also the source may be important for weight and cardiometabolic risk management. However, randomized trials are needed to test the causality of these associations.

  6. Maternal protein intake in pregnancy and offspring metabolic health at age 9-16 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Hansen, Susanne; Grunnet, Louise Groth

    2017-01-01

    in free-living populations remains limited. Objective: We examined the association of protein intake in pregnancy with offspring metabolic health at age 9-16 y in a longitudinal cohort that oversampled pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design: Six hundred eight women with an index...... provide little support for an association of maternal protein intake in pregnancy with measures of offspring metabolic health. Further studies in larger cohorts are needed to determine whether low maternal protein intake in pregnancy may improve glucose homeostasis in GDM-exposed and male offspring....... pregnancy affected by gestational diabetes mellitus and 626 controls enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were used for the analysis. Protein (total, animal, vegetable) intake was assessed by using a foodfrequency questionnaire in gestational week 25. The offspring underwent a clinical examination...

  7. Growth Patterns in the Irish Pyridoxine Nonresponsive Homocystinuria Population and the Influence of Metabolic Control and Protein Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Orla; Coughlan, Aoife; Grant, Tim; McNulty, Jenny; Clark, Anne; Deverell, Deirdre; Mayne, Philip; Hughes, Joanne; Monavari, Ahmad; Knerr, Ina; Crushell, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    A low methionine diet is the mainstay of treatment for pyridoxine nonresponsive homocystinuria (HCU). There are various guidelines for recommended protein intakes for HCU and clinical practice varies. Poor growth has been associated with low cystine levels. This retrospective review of 48 Irish pyridoxine nonresponsive HCU patients assessed weight, height, body mass index (BMI), protein intake, and metabolic control up to 18 years at nine set time points. Patients diagnosed through newborn screening (NBS) were compared to late diagnosed (LD) patients. At 18 years the LD group ( n = 12, mean age at diagnosis 5.09 years) were heavier (estimated effect +4.97 Kg, P = 0.0058) and taller (estimated effect +7.97 cm P = 0.0204) than the NBS group ( n = 36). There was no difference in growth rate between the groups after 10 years of age. The HCU population were heavier and taller than the general population by one standard deviation with no difference in BMI. There was no association between intermittently low cystine levels and height. Three protein intake guidelines were compared; there was no difference in adult height between those who met the lowest of the guidelines (Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International) and those with a higher protein intake.

  8. Growth Patterns in the Irish Pyridoxine Nonresponsive Homocystinuria Population and the Influence of Metabolic Control and Protein Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Purcell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A low methionine diet is the mainstay of treatment for pyridoxine nonresponsive homocystinuria (HCU. There are various guidelines for recommended protein intakes for HCU and clinical practice varies. Poor growth has been associated with low cystine levels. This retrospective review of 48 Irish pyridoxine nonresponsive HCU patients assessed weight, height, body mass index (BMI, protein intake, and metabolic control up to 18 years at nine set time points. Patients diagnosed through newborn screening (NBS were compared to late diagnosed (LD patients. At 18 years the LD group (n=12, mean age at diagnosis 5.09 years were heavier (estimated effect +4.97 Kg, P=0.0058 and taller (estimated effect +7.97 cm P=0.0204 than the NBS group (n=36. There was no difference in growth rate between the groups after 10 years of age. The HCU population were heavier and taller than the general population by one standard deviation with no difference in BMI. There was no association between intermittently low cystine levels and height. Three protein intake guidelines were compared; there was no difference in adult height between those who met the lowest of the guidelines (Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International and those with a higher protein intake.

  9. The most effective factors to offset sarcopenia and obesity in the older Korean: Physical activity, vitamin D, and protein intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chorong; Jeon, Byeong Hwan; Reid Storm, Shaun Nicholas; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the types and levels of physical activity in conjunction with protein intake and vitamin D on sarcopenia and obesity status in an elderly population. Study participants (N = 4452) were ages ≥60 y and included 1929 men and 2523 women who completed a body composition analysis with a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and provided health and dietary data. Higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass/weight was observed in the non-obese group, although obese participants had greater weights. The non-obese sarcopenia subgroup showed health problems related to insulin resistance and metabolic-related factors compared with the nonsarcopenic group. The total metabolic equivalent was significantly different in both obese categories, regardless of sarcopenic status. The prevalence of obesity, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity relatively increased with a diet deficient of protein intake and vitamin D. These data suggest that sarcopenia had a significant association with metabolic-related factors; physical activity, especially vigorous activity; and protein intake and vitamin D levels in a non-obese elderly population. Therefore, maintaining healthy body weight by means of resistance exercise and enhanced protein intake and vitamin D may help offset sarcopenia in this age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in a population of elderly Japanese men with relatively low dietary calcium intake: Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Iki, M; Fujita, Y; Tamaki, J; Kouda, K; Yura, A; Moon, J-S; Winzenrieth, R; Iwaki, H; Ishizuka, R; Amano, N; Tomioka, K; Okamoto, N; Kurumatani, N

    2015-05-01

    The effects of milk intake on bone health are not clear in elderly Asian men with low dietary calcium intake. This study showed that greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. The consumption of milk or dairy products is widely recommended for maintaining bone health regardless of gender or age. However, little evidence exists on the beneficial effects of milk intake on bone health in elderly Japanese men characterized with relatively low dietary calcium intake. Here we examined whether or not greater milk intake was associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and stronger bone microarchitecture in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. Interviews were conducted to obtain information on medical history and lifestyle, including the amount of habitual milk intake, nutrient intake calculations based on a 1-week food diary, and measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), trabecular bone score (TBS) using DXA images at LS, and biochemical markers of bone turnover in sera. Participants with a history of diseases or medications that affect bone metabolism, or with missing data, were excluded from the analysis. The median intake of milk in the 1479 participants (mean age, 73.0 ± 5.1 years) was one glass of milk per day. Bone turnover markers showed a decreasing trend (p turnover, higher aBMD, and higher TBS in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men.

  11. Controversies surrounding high-protein diet intake: satiating effect and kidney and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Protein status elicits compensatory changes in food intake and food preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen-Roose, S.; Mars, M.; Siebelink, E.; Finlayson, G.; Tome, D.; Graaf, de C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protein is an indispensable component within the human diet. It is unclear, however, whether behavioral strategies exist to avoid shortages. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of a low protein status compared with a high protein status on food intake and food

  13. Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmarck, B.; Andersen, J.L.; Olsen, S.

    2001-01-01

    1. Age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength can partly be counteracted by resistance training, causing a net synthesis of muscular proteins. Protein synthesis is influenced synergistically by postexercise amino acid supplementation, but the importance of the timing of protein intake...

  14. Balancing of protein and lipid intake by a mammalian carnivore, the mink, Mustela vison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayntz, David; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Sørensen, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Many herbivores and omnivores can balance their intake of macronutrients when faced with nutritionally variable environments. Carnivores, however, are widely believed to optimize their rates of prey capture and energy intake rather than balancing nutrients. We tested nutrient balancing in captive...... target) of the two macronutrients. When given only one food of fixed nutrient composition, mink balanced macronutrient intake relative to the intake target, without showing the excessive energy intake on diets with a low percentage of protein and energy deficit on diets with a high percentage of protein...... previously reported for herbivores and omnivores, including humans. This demonstration of nutrient balancing in a carnivorous mammal indicates that the capacity for nutrient balancing is a more general phenomenon across trophic levels than was hitherto believed to be the case...

  15. Protein and amino acid intakes in a rural area of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Julia E; Nieves, Jeri W; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W; Howe, Geoffrey R; Ahsan, Habibul

    2010-06-01

    Few studies have described protein and amino acid intakes in rural Bangladesh, a country with considerable undernutrition. The purpose of this population-based study was to assess and describe protein and amino acid intakes in Araihazar, Bangladesh. The study participants were 11,170 adult men and women who participated in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), which had a 98% participation rate. Dietary exposures were assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire that had been designed and validated for the HEALS study population. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 19.7 among all participants, and 34.9% of women and 44.4% of men had a BMI below 18.5. The average caloric intake was 2142 and 2394 kcal/day among women and men, respectively, and the mean protein intake was 67.5 and 78.2 g/day. The largest sources of protein were from rice and fish. Greater protein intake was related to younger age and several socioeconomic measures, including more years of education, land and television ownership, and employment in business, farming, or as a laborer (for men) or as a homemaker (for women). This study found a high prevalence of underweight among study participants. Nonetheless, most participants had adequate protein intake according to Food and Agriculture Organization standards for body weight.

  16. Higher dietary lycopene intake is associated with longer cardiac event-free survival in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Martha; Moser, Debra; Song, Eun Kyeung; Heo, Seongkum; Payne-Emerson, Heather; Dunbar, Sandra B; Pressler, Susan; Lennie, Terry

    2013-08-01

    The antioxidant lycopene may be beneficial for patients with heart failure (HF). Processed tomato products are a major source of lycopene, although they are also high in sodium. Increased sodium intake may counter the positive antioxidant effect of lycopene. This was a prospective study of 212 patients with HF. Dietary intake of lycopene and sodium was obtained from weighted 4-day food diaries. Patients were grouped by the median split of lycopene of 2471 µg/day and stratified by daily sodium levels above and below 3 g/day. Patients were followed for 1 year to collect survival and hospitalization data. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to compare cardiac event-free survival between lycopene groups within each stratum of sodium intake. Higher lycopene intake was associated with longer cardiac event-free survival compared with lower lycopene intake (p = 0.003). The worst cardiac event-free survival was observed in the low lycopene intake group regardless of sodium intake (> 3 g/day HR = 3.01; p = 0.027 and ≤ 3 g/day HR= 3.34; p = 0.023). These findings suggest that increased lycopene intake has the potential to improve cardiac event-free survival in patients with HF independent of sodium intake.

  17. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, Kevin B

    2015-07-09

    In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group's National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during 2011-2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group's Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week); n = 2584, Average Can Users (3-5 canned items/week); n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week); n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients-potassium, calcium and fiber-when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  18. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET® database during 2011–2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group’s Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week; n = 2584, Average Can Users (3–5 canned items/week; n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week; n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients—potassium, calcium and fiber—when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  19. Diets higher in animal and plant protein are associated with lower adiposity and do not impair kidney function in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Lieberman, Harris R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2016-09-01

    Higher-protein diets are associated with decreased adiposity and greater HDL cholesterol than lower protein diets. Whether these benefits can be attributed to a specific protein source (i.e., nondairy animal, dairy, or plant) is unknown, and concerns remain regarding the impact of higher-protein diets on kidney function. The objective of this study was to evaluate trends of protein source on markers of cardiometabolic disease risk and kidney function in US adults. Total, nondairy animal, dairy, and plant protein intake were estimated with the use of 24-h recall data from NHANES 2007-2010 (n = 11,111; ≥19 y). Associations between source-specific protein intake and health outcomes were determined with the use of models that adjusted for sex, race and ethnicity, age, physical activity, poverty-to-income ratio, individual intake (grams per kilogram) for each of the other 2 protein sources, body mass index (BMI) (except for weight-related variables), and macronutrient (carbohydrate, fiber, and total and saturated fat) intake. Mean ± SE total protein intake was 82.3 ± 0.8 g/d (animal: 37.4 ± 0.5 g/d; plant: 24.7 ± 0.3 g/d; and dairy: 13.4 ± 0.3 g/d). Both BMI and waist circumference were inversely associated [regression coefficient (95% CI)] with animal [-0.199 (-0.265, -0.134), P protein intake. Blood urea nitrogen concentrations increased across deciles for animal [0.313 (0.248, 0.379), P protein intake. Glomerular filtration rate and blood creatinine were not associated with intake of any protein source. Diets higher in plant and animal protein, independent of other dietary factors, are associated with cardiometabolic benefits, particularly improved central adiposity, with no apparent impairment of kidney function. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Role of Dietary Protein and Thiamine Intakes on Cognitive Function in Healthy Older People: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freda Koh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of nutritional interventions to prevent and maintain cognitive functioning in older adults has been gaining interest due to global population ageing. A systematic literature review was conducted to obtain and appraise relevant studies on the effects of dietary protein or thiamine on cognitive function in healthy older adults. Studies that reported on the use of nutritional supplementations and/or populations with significant cognitive impairment were excluded. Seventeen eligible studies were included. Evidence supporting an association between higher protein and/or thiamine intakes and better cognitive function is weak. There was no evidence to support the role of specific protein food sources, such as types of meat, on cognitive function. Some cross-sectional and case-control studies reported better cognition in those with higher dietary thiamine intakes, but the data remains inconclusive. Adequate protein and thiamine intake is more likely associated with achieving a good overall nutritional status which affects cognitive function rather than single nutrients. A lack of experimental studies in this area prevents the translation of these dietary messages for optimal cognitive functioning and delaying the decline in cognition with advancing age.

  1. Eleven reasons to control the protein intake of patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouque, Denis; Aparicio, Michel

    2007-07-01

    For many years patients with chronic kidney disease have been advised to control the protein content of their diet. This advice has been given on the basis of a number of reported metabolic effects of lowering protein intake, such as lowering serum urea nitrogen levels, improving phosphocalcic metabolism and insulin resistance and, more recently, ameliorating proteinuria (independent of antiproteinuric medications). The effects on the progression of kidney disease, although spectacular in experimental studies, have been less convincing in humans. It is possible that flawed design of clinical trials is responsible for this discrepancy. In this Review, we comment on experimental findings that indicate that limiting protein intake protects the kidney and ameliorates uremic symptoms, outline how the body adapts to a reduction in protein intake, and describe the metabolic benefits to the patient. We then review the evidence from randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses that pertains to the effects of low-protein diets in adults with chronic kidney disease.

  2. Association between dietary protein intake and grip strength among adults aged 51 years and over: What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Suruchi; Goldman, Joseph D; Sahyoun, Nadine R; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2018-01-01

    Distributing daily protein intake evenly across meals (∼25-30g/meal) has been suggested to improve muscle mass. The aim of this research is to examine the association between grip strength, total protein intake and its distribution across day's meals in older adults. Nationally representative dietary intake data of adults aged 51 years and older (n = 4,123) who participated in What We Eat in America, NHANES 2011-2014 were analyzed. Protein intake per day and per eating occasion (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack) were determined. Combined grip strength was calculated and expressed in kilograms. Grip strength of individuals consuming ≥25g protein at 1 eating occasion was compared with those consuming same level of protein at 2 and 3 or more eating occasions. Grip strength of individuals in quartile 1 of daily protein intake was compared to those in the other quartiles. All associations were examined without and with adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, physical activity, health status, and smoking status. The comparison involving eating occasions and protein intake quartiles were further adjusted for daily protein intake and energy intake, respectively. Only 33% of men and 19% of women had protein intake of ≥25g at 2 or more eating occasions. These individuals also had higher grip strength and daily protein intake. Grip strength was positively associated with consumption of ≥25g protein at 2 eating occasions as compared to consumption of same level of protein at 1 eating occasion (peating occasions was not associated with grip strength. However, higher daily protein intake was positively associated with grip strength in women.

  3. Hay intake improves performance and rumen development of calves fed higher quantities of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2011-07-01

    Research to date has suggested that access to forage before weaning can limit rumen development in calves, but no research has yet addressed the role of forage for calves fed higher quantities of milk. This study compared performance and rumen development of calves provided high volumes (equivalent to approximately 20% of calf birth weight) of milk with and without access to hay. At d 3 of age, individually housed calves were randomly assigned to treatment (either ad libitum access to chopped grass hay or no forage; n=15 calves per treatment, 10 heifers, and 5 bulls). All calves were provided ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the study. All calves were offered 8L of milk/d from a nipple bottle from d 3 to 35, 4 L/d from d 36 to 53, and 2L/d until weaning at d 56. Solid feed intake and growth parameters were monitored from d 3 to 70. At d 70, males from both treatments were slaughtered to measure rumen development parameters. Overall dry matter (DM) intake from solid feed did not differ between treatments before wk 5. However, during wk 6 to 10, calves fed forage consumed more total DM (starter plus hay) than did calves fed no forage. Hip and wither height, heart girth, and body barrel at d 3, 56, and 70 did not differ between treatments. Reticulorumen weight was heavier in calves fed hay versus those fed only starter (12.77±1.29 vs. 7.99±0.69 kg with digesta; 1.89±0.05 vs.1.60±0.09 kg without digesta). Body weight without digesta was similar in calves fed forage or no forage. Mean rumen pH was higher in calves fed hay compared with those fed no forage (5.49±0.08 vs. 5.06±0.04). In conclusion, provision of chopped hay to calves fed high volumes of milk can promote solid feed DM intake and rumen development without affecting BW gain. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Protein-enriched familiar foods and drinks improve protein intake of hospitalized older patients: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, J.; Vasse, Emmelyne; Janssen, N.; Janse, A.; Roos, de N.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background & aims Adequate protein intake is important in preventing and treating undernutrition. Hospitalized older patients are recommended to consume 1.2–1.5 g of protein per kg body weight per day (g/kg/d) but most of them fail to do so. Therefore, we investigated whether a range of newly

  5. Protein-enriched familiar foods and drinks improve protein intake of hospitalized older patients: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, J.; Vasse, Emmelyne; Janssen, N.; Janse, A.; Roos, de N.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims Adequate protein intake is important in preventing and treating undernutrition. Hospitalized older patients are recommended to consume 1.2–1.5 g of protein per kg body weight per day (g/kg/d) but most of them fail to do so. Therefore, we investigated whether a range of newly

  6. Early Programming by Protein Intake: The Effect of Protein on Adiposity Development and the Growth and Functionality of Vital Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Luque

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the role of protein intake on metabolic programming early in life. The observations that breastfeeding in infancy reduces the risk of being overweight and obese later in life and the differences in the protein content between formula milk and human milk have generated the early protein hypothesis. The present review focuses on a mechanistic approach to programmed adiposity and the growth and development of other organs by protein intake in infancy, which may be mediated by branched-chain amino acids, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 via the mammalian target of rapamycin. Observational studies and clinical trials have shown that lowering the protein content in infant and follow-on formulas may reduce the risk of becoming obese later in life. The recent body of evidence is currently being translated into new policies. Therefore, the evolution of European regulatory laws and recommendations by expert panels on the protein content of infant and follow-on formulas are also reviewed. Research gaps, such as the critical window for programming adiposity by protein intake, testing formulas with modified amino acids, and the long-term consequences of differences in protein intake on organ functionality among well-nourished infants, have been identified.

  7. Effect of Protein Intake on Lean Body Mass in Functionally Limited Older Men: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Shalender; Apovian, Caroline M; Travison, Thomas G; Pencina, Karol; Moore, Lynn L; Huang, Grace; Campbell, Wayne W; Li, Zhuoying; Howland, Andrew S; Chen, Ruo; Knapp, Philip E; Singer, Martha R; Shah, Mitali; Secinaro, Kristina; Eder, Richard V; Hally, Kathleen; Schram, Haley; Bearup, Richelle; Beleva, Yusnie M; McCarthy, Ashley C; Woodbury, Erin; McKinnon, Jennifer; Fleck, Geeta; Storer, Thomas W; Basaria, Shehzad

    2018-04-01

    assigned to 0.8 vs 1.3 g/kg/d of protein regardless of whether they received testosterone or placebo. Fat mass decreased in participants given higher protein but did not change in those given the RDA: between-group differences were significant (difference, -1.12 kg; 95% CI, -2.04 to -0.21; P = .02). Protein intake exceeding the RDA did not increase LBM, muscle performance, physical function, or well-being measures or augment anabolic response to testosterone in older men with physical function limitations whose usual protein intakes were within the RDA. The RDA for protein is sufficient to maintain LBM, and protein intake exceeding the RDA does not promote LBM accretion or augment anabolic response to testosterone. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01275365.

  8. Association between dietary protein intake and grip strength among adults aged 51 years and over: What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suruchi Mishra

    Full Text Available Distributing daily protein intake evenly across meals (∼25-30g/meal has been suggested to improve muscle mass. The aim of this research is to examine the association between grip strength, total protein intake and its distribution across day's meals in older adults.Nationally representative dietary intake data of adults aged 51 years and older (n = 4,123 who participated in What We Eat in America, NHANES 2011-2014 were analyzed. Protein intake per day and per eating occasion (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack were determined. Combined grip strength was calculated and expressed in kilograms. Grip strength of individuals consuming ≥25g protein at 1 eating occasion was compared with those consuming same level of protein at 2 and 3 or more eating occasions. Grip strength of individuals in quartile 1 of daily protein intake was compared to those in the other quartiles. All associations were examined without and with adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, physical activity, health status, and smoking status. The comparison involving eating occasions and protein intake quartiles were further adjusted for daily protein intake and energy intake, respectively.Only 33% of men and 19% of women had protein intake of ≥25g at 2 or more eating occasions. These individuals also had higher grip strength and daily protein intake. Grip strength was positively associated with consumption of ≥25g protein at 2 eating occasions as compared to consumption of same level of protein at 1 eating occasion (p<0.05 in unadjusted model, but not when adjusted. Grip strength was positively associated with daily protein intake among women in quartiles 3 and 4 (p<0.05 of protein intake in both unadjusted and adjusted models compared to lowest protein intake. Among men, grip strength was associated with daily protein intake in quartiles 3 and 4 (p<0.05 in the unadjusted model, but not when adjusted.In a nationally representative sample of older adults, consuming ≥25g

  9. High-protein intake enhances the positive impact of physical activity on BMC in prepubertal boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalley, Thierry; Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Ferrari, Serge; Rizzoli, René

    2008-01-01

    In 232 healthy prepubertal boys, increased physical activity was associated with greater BMC at both axial and appendicular sites under high-protein intake. Physical activity is an important lifestyle determinant of bone mineral mass acquisition. Its impact during childhood can be modulated by nutrition, particularly by protein and calcium intakes. We analyzed the relationship between physical activity levels and protein compared with calcium intake on BMC. In 232 healthy prepubertal boys (age: 7.4 +/- 0.4 [SD] yr; standing height: 125.7 +/- 5.9 cm; body weight: 25.3 +/- 4.6 kg), physical activity and protein and calcium intakes were recorded. BMC was measured by DXA at the radial metaphysis, radial diaphysis, total radius, femoral neck, total hip, femoral diaphysis, and L(2)-L(4) vertebrae. In univariate analysis, the correlation coefficients r with BMC of the various skeletal sites were as follows: physical activity, from 0.26 (p = 0.0001) to 0.40 (p = 0.0001); protein intake, from 0.18 (p = 0.005) to 0.27 (p = 0.0001); calcium intake, from 0.09 (p = 0.181) to 0.17 (p = 0.007). By multiple regression analysis, the beta-adjusted values remained correlated with BMC, ranging as follows: physical activity, from 0.219 (p = 0.0007) to 0.340 (p BMC Z-score (+0.6, p = 0.0005). In contrast with protein intake (mean = 1.5 g/kg body weight/d) below the median, increased physical activity from 167 to 312 kcal/d was not associated with a significantly greater mean BMC Z-score (+0.2, p = 0.371). The interaction between physical activity and protein intake was close to statistical significance for mean BMC Z-score (p = 0.055) and significant for femoral neck BMC (p = 0.012). In keeping with the results derived from multiple regression analysis, the increased physical activity on mean BMC Z-score was not influenced by difference in calcium intake above (mean = 945 mg/d) and below (mean = 555 mg/d) the median. In healthy prepubertal boys, the impact in increased physical activity

  10. Protein Intake and Distribution in Relation to Physical Functioning and Quality of Life in Community-Dwelling Elderly People: Acknowledging the Role of Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaf, ten Dominique; Dongen, van E.J.I.; Nuijten, M.; Eijsvogels, Thijs; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Hopman, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Increasing total protein intake and a spread protein intake distribution are potential strategies to attenuate sarcopenia related loss of physical function and quality of life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether protein intake and protein intake distribution are

  11. Intakes of whey protein hydrolysate and whole whey proteins are discriminated by LC-MS metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan; Rasmussen, Jakob Ewald; Ritz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    of four different whey protein fractions and establishes new hypotheses for the observed effects. Obese, non-diabetic subjects were included in the randomized, blinded, cross-over meal study. Subjects ingested a high-fat meal containing whey isolate (WI), whey concentrate hydrolysate (WH), α...... of the meals. Highly elevated plasma levels of a number of cyclic dipeptides and other AA metabolites were found following intake of the WH meal and these metabolites are primary candidates to explain the superior insulinotropic effect of WH. The manufacturing process of WH caused oxidization of methionine...... to methionine sulfoxide which in turn caused in vivo generation of N-phenylacetyl-methionine and N-phenylacetyl-methionine sulfoxide. These two compounds have not previously been described in biological systems....

  12. Protein Intake and Mobility Limitation in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: the Health ABC Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houston, Denise K.; Tooze, Janet A.; Garcia, Katelyn; Visser, Marjolein; Rubin, Susan; Harris, Tamara B.; Newman, Anne B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    OBJECTIVES: The current Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein is based on short-term nitrogen balance studies in young adults and may underestimate the amount needed to optimally preserve physical function in older adults. We examined the association between protein intake and the onset of

  13. Evaluation of protein intake and physical activity associated with sarcopenia in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Gabriela Peña-Ordóñez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the association between protein intake and physical activity with sarcopenia of the elderly. Older people are a vulnerable group and are easily reflected in their nutritional status, most do not cover their nutritional requirements and are physically inactive. A protein intake <1.2 g/kg/day and a low level of physical activity (<3.5 MET are factors associated with sarcopenia. Material and Methods: Observational, analytical, prospective, case-control study. Sampling was done for convenience in patients over 60 years of service outpatient Medical Center Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Toluca, Mexico. Questionnaires were used to determine protein intake and physical activity, and diagnostic tests for Sarcopenia (percentage of muscle mass, strength and speed Manual operation. 115 subjects were enrolled but 110 (55 cases and 55 controls were included. Results: The odds ratio (OR of the variables was obtained, finding that for every gram of total protein intake of 3% reduces the risk of sarcopenia and per unit of percent fat increases the risk by 20%. No statistically significant difference was found in physical activity, there is homogeneity between cases and controls regarding MET consumed. Conclusions: Protein intake is a protective factor against sarcopenia and excessive accumulation of fat is a risk factor for this disorder. It is important to further investigate the relationship between the two in older adults.

  14. High consumption foods and their influence on energy and protein intake in institutionalized older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mila, R; Abellana, R; Padro, L; Basulto, J; Farran, A

    2012-02-01

    The elderly, and especially those attending nursing homes, are at great risk from certain nutritional deficiencies. The aim of this study was to determine which food groups present the highest rates of consumption among the institutionalized elderly and study the energy density of each food group and the number of calories and amount of protein in the total diet of each resident. This was a multicentre observational study of a sample of the institutionalized population over the age of 65. The sample of patients was drawn from four Spanish nursing homes (Santa Coloma Gramanet, Barcelona, Madrid and Bilbao). Our final sample comprised a total of 62 individuals, of whom 22 were men and 40 women, aged between 68 and 96 years. Dietary data were collected using the double weight method for each main meal (breakfast, lunch, afternoon snack and dinner), including food type, the quantity of food served and the amount of plate waste for each of the main meals served during 21 days. The characteristics of the study population were compared by Student's t-test and χ2 test. The results are expressed in terms of their median values and the interquartile range. To analyse the overall differences between sites, gender and food groups we used Kruskall-Wallis test combined with the Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The food group that was served most was milk products (376.25 g/day). A large amount of potatoes were also served (109.64 g/day) as were sweets and pastries (62.14 g/day). The daily serving of fruit (138.34 g/day) and vegetables (239.47 g/day) was equivalent to no more than that of a daily ration in each case. Milk was the food group with the highest consumption (311 g/day). Most of the energy was provided by groups with a higher energy density like as fats and sauces, sweets and pastries and bread. The mean protein consumption was 82,6 g/day (Table 5) and no significant differences were recorded in this consumption between men and

  15. Plant Protein Intake Is Associated with Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Serum Bicarbonate in Patients with CKD: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialla, Julia J.; Appel, Lawrence J; Wolf, Myles; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Sozio, Stephen M.; Miller, Edgar R.; Bazzano, Lydia A.; Cuevas, Magdalena; Glenn, Melanie J.; Lustigova, Eva; Kallem, Radhakrishna R.; Porter, Anna C.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Weir, Matthew R.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein from plant, as opposed to animal, sources may be preferred in chronic kidney disease (CKD), due to lower bioavailability of phosphate and lower nonvolatile acid load. Study Design Observational cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 2938 participants with chronic kidney disease and information on dietary intake at the baseline visit in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Predictors Percentage of total protein from plant sources (% plant protein) was determined by scoring individual food items from the National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Outcomes Metabolic parameters, including serum phosphate, bicarbonate (HCO3), potassium, and albumin, plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hemoglobin. Measurements We modeled the association between % plant protein and metabolic parameters using linear regression. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, diabetes, body mass index, eGFR, income, smoking, total energy intake, total protein intake, 24 hour urinary sodium, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and use of diuretics. Results Higher % plant protein was associated with lower FGF23 (p=0.05) and higher HCO3 (p=0.01), but not with serum phosphate or PTH (p=0.9 and 0.5, respectively). Higher % plant protein was not associated with higher serum potassium (p=0.2), lower serum albumin (p=0.2) or lower hemoglobin (p=0.3). The associations of % plant protein with FGF23 and HCO3 did not differ by diabetes status, sex, race, CKD stage (2/3 vs. 4/5) or total protein intake (≤ 0.8 g/kg/d vs. >0.8 g/kg/d) (p-interaction > 0.10 for each). Limitations Cross-sectional study; Determination of % plant protein using the DHQ has not been validated. Conclusions Consumption of a higher percentage of protein from plant sources may lower FGF23 and raise HCO3 in patients with CKD. PMID:22480598

  16. Effect of feed intake level and dietary protein content on the body temperature of pigs housed under thermo neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A; Ibarra, N; Chávez, M; Gómez, T; Suárez, A; Valle, J A; Camacho, R L; Cervantes, M

    2018-04-01

    Feed intake and diet composition appear to affect the body temperature of pigs. Two trials were conducted to analyse the effect of feed intake level and dietary protein content on the intestinal temperature (IT) of pigs housed under thermo neutral conditions. Ten pigs (64.1 ± 1.3 kg initial body weight) fitted with an ileal cannula were used. A thermometer set to register the IT at 5-min intervals was implanted into the ileum through the cannula. In both trials, the ambient temperature ranged from 19.1 to 21.6°C and the pigs were fed at 07:00 and 19:00 hr (same amount each time). In trial 1, the pigs were fed daily 1.2 or 1.8 kg of a wheat-soybean meal diet. The IT followed a similar pattern along a 24-hr period regardless the feed intake level. The IT rapidly increased up to 0.61 and 0.74°C after the morning meal and up to 0.53 and 0.47°C after the evening meal in pigs fed 1.2 and 1.8 kg/d respectively. The postprandial IT was higher in pigs fed 1.8 kg after each meal (p level. The postprandial IT did not differ between pigs fed the low protein or the high protein (p > .10). The IT rapidly increased up to 0.66 and 0.62°C after the morning meal in pigs fed the high- and low-protein diet (p  .10). In conclusion, the feed intake level affected the IT of pigs housed under TN conditions, but the dietary protein content had no effect. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Normal protein intake is required for body weight loss and weight maintenance, and elevated protein intake for additional preservation of resting energy expenditure and fat free mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Martens, Eveline A P; Hochstenbach-Waelen, Ananda; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-05-01

    Energy-restricted high-protein diets (HPDs) have shown favorable results for body weight (BW) management, yet studies differ in their outcomes depending on the dietary protein content. Our objective was to determine the effects of dietary protein content on BW loss-related variables during a 6-mo energy restriction with the use of diets containing protein at the level of requirement [normal-protein diet (NPD), 0.8 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)] and above (HPD, 1.2 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)). In overweight and obese participants (24 men and 48 women), BW, body composition, and metabolic responses were assessed before and after subsequent energy intakes of 100, 33, and 67% of the original individual daily energy requirements. Protein intake was consistent in the NPD (0.8 ± 0.3 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)) and HPD (1.2 ± 0.3 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)) groups throughout the study (P body fat mass similarly decreased in the NPD and HPD groups (P initial sparing effect of FFM and lowering of DBP.

  18. Casein protein results in higher prandial and exercise induced whole body protein anabolism than whey protein in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Rutten, Erica P A; De Castro, Carmen L N; Wouters, Emiel F M; Schols, Annemie M W J; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2012-09-01

    Exercise is known to improve physical functioning and health status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Recently, disturbances in protein turnover and amino acid kinetics have been observed after exercise in COPD. The objective was to investigate which dairy protein is able to positively influence the protein metabolic response to exercise in COPD. 8 COPD patients and 8 healthy subjects performed a cycle test on two days while ingesting casein or whey protein. Whole body protein breakdown (WbPB), synthesis (WbPS), splanchnic amino acid extraction (SPE), and NetWbPS (=WbPS-WbPB) were measured using stable isotope methodology during 20 min of exercise (at 50% peak work load of COPD group). The controls performed a second exercise test at the same relative workload. Exercise was followed by 1 h of recovery. In the healthy group, WbPS, SPE, and NetPS were higher during casein than during whey feeding (Pexercise, independent of exercise intensity (Pexercise during casein and whey feeding in COPD (Pexercise were higher in COPD (Pexercise, lower NetPS values were found independent of protein type in both groups. Casein resulted in more protein anabolism than whey protein which was maintained during and following exercise in COPD. Optimizing protein intake might be of importance for muscle maintenance during daily physical activities in COPD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Higher dietary magnesium intake and higher magnesium status are associated with lower prevalence of coronary heart disease in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gant, C.M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Binnenmars, S.H.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Navis, G.; Laverman, G.D.

    2018-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), the handling of magnesium is disturbed. Magnesium deficiency may be associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated the associations between (1) dietary magnesium intake; (2) 24 h urinary magnesium excretion; and (3) plasma magnesium

  20. Protein supplements after weight loss do not improve weight maintenance compared with recommended dietary protein intake despite beneficial effects on appetite sensation and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølbæk, Louise; Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Søndertoft, Nadja Buus

    2017-01-01

    Background: High-protein diets increase weight loss (WL) during energy restriction; therefore, it has been suggested that additional protein intake may improve weight maintenance (WM) after WL.Objective: We investigated the effect of protein supplements from either whey with or without calcium...... were performed to investigate diet-induced-thermogenesis (DIT) and appetite sensation. Compliance was tested by 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion.Results: A total of 151 participants completed the WM period. The control and 3 protein supplements did not result in different mean ± SD weight regains (whey.......58 ± 1.4 kg; and control: 1.74 ± 1.4 kg; P = 0.50) during WM. Changes in blood pressure and blood biochemistry were not different between groups. Compared with the control, protein supplementation resulted in higher DIT (∼30 kJ/2.5 h) and resting energy expenditure (243 kJ/d) and an anorexigenic appetite...

  1. The association between serum C-reactive protein and macronutrients and antioxidants intake in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooshki, A; Samadipour, E; Akbarzadeh, R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the high levels of inflammation in hemodialysis patients and the effects of diet on systemic inflammation, such as the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, few studies have evaluated the relationship of macronutrients and antioxidants intake with serum C-reactive protein (CRP). Therefore, this study assessed the relationship between serum high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) with macronutrients and antioxidants intake and serum albumin. Methods: This cross-sectional study used census sampling to select 75 hemodialysis patients (35 men and 40 women) who attended the hemodialysis department of Vaseie Hospital of Sabzevar, Iran. After obtaining the written consent, all the patients were interviewed and dietary data was collected by using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire including 160 food items. Diet analysis was performed with Nutritionist IV. Before being connected to the dialysis machine, 5 cc fasting blood samples were obtained from all participants and serum hs-CRP and albumin levels were measured. All the statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS -for Windows, version 16.0. Results: The patients' mean body mass index was 20.09 ± 3.27 kg/ m2. The participants' intake of antioxidants and all macronutrients, except for carbohydrates and proteins, was less than the standard levels. Moreover, the hs-CRP had significant inverse relationships with serum albumin (P=0.0001) and vitamin E and C intakes but was not significant. Also, a significant relationship was observed between hs-CRP levels and the intake of energy (P=0.002) and protein (P=0.0001). Conclusion: Our findings indicated hs-CRP levels of hemodialysis patients to have significant inverse relationships with serum albumin and vitamin E and C intakes but was not significant. Also, a significant relationship was observed between hs-CRP levels and the intake of energy and protein.

  2. Pronounced energy restriction with elevated protein intake results in no change in proteolysis and reductions in skeletal muscle protein synthesis that are mitigated by resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Amy J; McGlory, Chris; Damas, Felipe; Mazara, Nicole; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2018-01-01

    Preservation of lean body mass (LBM) may be important during dietary energy restriction (ER) and requires equal rates of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB). Currently, the relative contribution of MPS and MPB to the loss of LBM during ER in humans is unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of dietary protein intake and resistance exercise on MPS and MPB during a controlled short-term energy deficit. Adult men (body mass index, 28.6 ± 0.6 kg/m 2 ; age 22 ± 1 yr) underwent 10 d of 40%-reduced energy intake while performing unilateral resistance exercise and consuming lower protein (1.2 g/kg/d, n = 12) or higher protein (2.4 g/kg/d, n = 12). Pre- and postintervention testing included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, primed constant infusion of ring -[ 13 C 6 ]phenylalanine, and 15 [N]phenylalanine to measure acute postabsorptive MPS and MPB; D 2 O to measure integrated MPS; and gene and protein expression. There was a decrease in acute MPS after ER (higher protein, 0.059 ± 0.006 to 0.051 ± 0.009%/h; lower protein, 0.061 ± 0.005 to 0.045 ± 0.006%/h; P resistance exercise (higher protein, 0.067 ± 0.01%/h; lower protein, 0.061 ± 0.006%/h), and integrated MPS followed a similar pattern. There was no change in MPB (energy balance, 0.080 ± 0.01%/hr; ER rested legs, 0.078 ± 0.008%/hr; ER exercised legs, 0.079 ± 0.006%/hr). We conclude that a reduction in MPS is the main mechanism that underpins LBM loss early in ER in adult men.-Hector, A. J., McGlory, C., Damas, F., Mazara, N., Baker, S. K., Phillips, S. M. Pronounced energy restriction with elevated protein intake results in no change in proteolysis and reductions in skeletal muscle protein synthesis that are mitigated by resistance exercise. © FASEB.

  3. Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Samuel; Mitchell, Nigel; Tipton, Kevin D

    2010-02-01

    To examine the influence of dietary protein on lean body mass loss and performance during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss in athletes. In a parallel design, 20 young healthy resistance-trained athletes were examined for energy expenditure for 1 wk and fed a mixed diet (15% protein, 100% energy) in the second week followed by a hypoenergetic diet (60% of the habitual energy intake), containing either 15% (approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1)) protein (control group, n = 10; CP) or 35% (approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1)) protein (high-protein group, n = 10; HP) for 2 wk. Subjects continued their habitual training throughout the study. Total, lean body, and fat mass, performance (squat jump, maximal isometric leg extension, one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press, muscle endurance bench press, and 30-s Wingate test) and fasting blood samples (glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycerol, urea, cortisol, free testosterone, free Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone), and psychologic measures were examined at the end of each of the 4 wk. Total (-3.0 +/- 0.4 and -1.5 +/- 0.3 kg for the CP and HP, respectively, P = 0.036) and lean body mass loss (-1.6 +/- 0.3 and -0.3 +/- 0.3 kg, P = 0.006) were significantly larger in the CP compared with those in the HP. Fat loss, performance, and most blood parameters were not influenced by the diet. Urea was higher in HP, and NEFA and urea showed a group x time interaction. Fatigue ratings and "worse than normal" scores on the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes were higher in HP. These results indicate that approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1) or approximately 35% protein was significantly superior to approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1) or approximately 15% energy protein for maintenance of lean body mass in young healthy athletes during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss.

  4. Finding the right balance : An evaluation of the adequacy of energy and protein intake in childhood cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F; Sulkers, Esther; de Bont, Eveline S J M; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Tamminga, Rienk Y J; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Tissing, Wim J E

    Background & aims: Despite a widespread belief that adequate dietary intake is needed to maintain weight during childhood cancer treatment, conclusive data about adequacy of intake are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to assess the adequacy of energy and protein intake in a heterogeneous childhood

  5. Smoking during pregnancy is associated with higher dietary intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and poor diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Mendez, Michelle A; Pessoa, Verónica; Guxens, Mònica; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Kogevinas, Manolis; Sunyer, Jordi

    2010-12-01

    To estimate the dietary intake of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and to characterise factors associated with higher intake during pregnancy. Recent studies suggest that prenatal exposure to PAH is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. Other than tobacco smoke and occupational exposures, diet is the main source of human PAH exposure. Prospective birth cohort study. Dietary exposure to total PAH and BaP was calculated combining food consumption data and estimated PAH concentrations in foods. One-way ANOVA was used to assess differences in intake among non-smokers, passive or active smokers. Linear regression was used to assess factors related to higher intake, and associations between dietary PAH and birth weight. Sabadell, Spain, 2004-2006. Women (n 657) recruited during the first trimester of pregnancy. The mean dietary intake of BaP and total PAH was significantly higher among active (0·199 and 10·207 μg/d, respectively) and passive smokers (0·196 and 9·458 μg/d) than among non-smokers (0·181 and 8·757 μg/d; P value smoke is an additional route of PAH exposure, the added dietary burden in these women is of concern.

  6. Oral nutritional supplementation increases caloric and protein intake in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudville, Neil; Rangan, Anna; Moody, Harry

    2003-03-01

    Malnutrition is highly prevalent in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and is associated with a poor prognosis. Attempts to improve nutritional status with enteral supplements have yielded poor results. We performed a crossover-design trial on 13 PD patients to investigate whether these patients reduce their food intake after drinking oral nutritional supplements. Patients attended three visits in which they were administered a standard oral nutritional supplement either 2 hours or 30 minutes before lunch or a placebo drink 30 minutes before lunch. Lunch was provided as a self-select buffet-style meal, and food intake was measured. Total intake was calculated by adding the nutritional content of the oral supplement. Patients showed poor food intake, with mean values equaling only 18% of the recommended daily intake for calories and 34% for protein. Drinking the supplement 2 hours before lunch resulted in a significant increase compared with the placebo visit in total caloric (430 to 843 kcal; P lunch. These results indicate that oral nutritional supplements administered before a meal may significantly increase caloric and protein intakes of PD patients. Copyright 2003 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

  7. Dietary intake of advanced glycation endproducts is associated with higher levels of advanced glycation endproducts in plasma and urine: The CODAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheijen, Jean L J M; Hanssen, Nordin M J; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M; Van der Kallen, Carla J; Feskens, Edith J M; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2018-06-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are formed by the reaction between reducing sugars and proteins. AGEs in the body have been associated with several age-related diseases. High-heat treated and most processed foods are rich in AGEs. The aim of our study was to investigate whether dietary AGEs, are associated with plasma and urinary AGE levels. In 450 participants of the Cohort on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Maastricht study (CODAM study) we measured plasma and urine concentrations of the AGEs Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), Nε-(1-carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) and Nδ-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1) using UPLC-MS/MS. We also estimated dietary intake of CML, CEL and MG-H1 with the use of a dietary AGE database and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We used linear regression to investigate the association between standardized dietary AGE intake and standardized plasma or urinary AGE levels, after adjustment for age, sex, glucose metabolism status, waist circumference, kidney function, energy- and macro-nutrient intake, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol intake, LDL-cholesterol and markers of oxidative stress. We found that higher intake of dietary CML, CEL and MG-H1 was associated with significantly higher levels of free plasma and urinary CML, CEL and MG-H1 (βCML = 0.253 (95% CI 0.086; 0.415), βCEL = 0.194 (95% CI 0.040; 0.339), βMG-H1 = 0.223 (95% CI 0.069; 0.373) for plasma and βCML = 0.223 (95% CI 0.049; 0.393), βCEL = 0.180 (95% CI 0.019; 0.332), βMG-H1 = 0.196 (95% CI 0.037; 0.349) for urine, respectively). In addition, we observed non-significant associations of dietary AGEs with their corresponding protein bound plasma AGEs. We demonstrate that higher intake of dietary AGEs is associated with higher levels of AGEs in plasma and urine. Our findings may have important implications for those who ingest a diet rich in AGEs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  8. Dietary fiber intake is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and cardiovascular risk, but not protein nutritional status, in adults with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Huang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Ming-Qing; Chen, De-Xiu; Wan, Heng; Wei, Lian-Bo; Xiao, Wei

    Evidence suggests that dietary fiber benefits patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, this conclusion requires further validation. In this study, we examined the effects of dietary fiber on kidney function, inflammation, indoxyl sulfate, nutritional status, and cardiovascular risk in patients with advanced CKD. We performed linear regressions to assess the association between dietary fiber intake and CKD parameters. The aforementioned parameters were compared over an 18-month follow- up period. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to investigate the association between fiber intake and Cardiac vascular disease (CVD). In total, 157 patients were included in this study. Dietary fiber and inflammatory indices were associated (interleukin [IL]-6: β=-0.024, p=0.035). The differential estimated glomerular filtration rate (ΔeGFR) as well as levels of C-reactive protein, IL-6, indoxyl sulfate, and serum cholesterol in the higher fiber intake (>=25 g/day) group were lower than those in the lower fiber intake (patients in the higher protein intake group (pintake may be a protective factor associated with CVD (hazard ratio=0.537 and 0.305- 0.947). The protein nutritional status was not different between the two groups (p>0.05). Our results suggest that increasing fiber intake can retard the decrease in the eGFR; can reduce the levels of proinflammatory factors, indoxyl sulfate, and serum cholesterol; and is negatively associated with cardiovascular risk, but does not disrupt the nutritional status of patients with CKD.

  9. Induction of mutants with higher protein content in soy bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, S.; Tanaka, S.; Nakamura, S.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to examine the effects of ionizing radiation on protein content of soy beans and to estimate the potential value of ionizing radiation in soy bean breeding. In the first experiment seeds of three cultivars were acutely irradiated by gamma ray doses of 8 krad and 16 krad. Seeds of M 3 plants were analysed for protein content by the Biuret method. Selection within each variety was made to isolate plants having about 2% higher protein content than the control populations. In the second experiment growing plants of a soy bean cultivar were irradiated with 2.9 krad and 6.1 krad, from germination to maturation, in a 60 Co gamma field. Seeds on individual lines in M 5 , M 6 and M 7 plants were determined for their protein contents by the Kjeldahl method and the upper 10% of the treated lines were selected for progeny testing. From the results of the analysis of variance for each trait, significant differences were observed between the control variety and selected lines for all the traits. Six out of 19 lines showed significant increases in both 100 seed weight and protein content, and four lines promising. The mean protein content of selected lines increased 0.68% compared with the control variety. Genetic gain expected from selection for high protein content was therefore considered at about 1%; however, the likelihood of a large increase in protein content would greatly increase if large populations derived from irradiated seeds were observed

  10. Inadequacy of Body Weight-Based Recommendations for Individual Protein Intake-Lessons from Body Composition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Prado, Carla M; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-12-31

    Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM), which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1) 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years); (2) 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years) and (3) 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2 years). LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance), body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM) and mean protein requirement were calculated. Variability in protein intake in all cohorts ranged from 0.83 to 1.77 g protein per kg LM per day using (theoretical protein intake of 60 g protein per day). Calculated mean protein requirement was 1.63 g protein per kg LM per day; consequently, 95.3% of healthy subjects, 100% of cirrhotic and 97.4% of cancer patients would present with a low protein intake per kg LM. Weight-adjusted recommendations are inadequate to address the LM specific differences in protein needs of healthy subjects or clinical populations. Absolute protein intake seems to be more relevant compared to the relative proportion of protein, which in turn changes with different energy needs.

  11. Fiber-bound nitrogen in gorilla diets: implications for estimating dietary protein intake of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jessica M; Chapman, Colin A; Pell, Alice N

    2008-07-01

    Protein is essential for living organisms, but digestibility of crude protein is poorly understood and difficult to predict. Nitrogen is used to estimate protein content because nitrogen is a component of the amino acids that comprise protein, but a substantial portion of the nitrogen in plants may be bound to fiber in an indigestible form. To estimate the amount of crude protein that is unavailable in the diets of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, foods routinely eaten were analyzed to determine the amount of nitrogen bound to the acid-detergent fiber residue. The amount of fiber-bound nitrogen varied among plant parts: herbaceous leaves 14.5+/-8.9% (reported as a percentage of crude protein on a dry matter (DM) basis), tree leaves (16.1+/-6.7% DM), pith/herbaceous peel (26.2+/-8.9% DM), fruit (34.7+/-17.8% DM), bark (43.8+/-15.6% DM), and decaying wood (85.2+/-14.6% DM). When crude protein and available protein intake of adult gorillas was estimated over a year, 15.1% of the dietary crude protein was indigestible. These results indicate that the proportion of fiber-bound protein in primate diets should be considered when estimating protein intake, food selection, and food/habitat quality.

  12. Animal Agriculture as Panacea for Increased Protein Intake in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The world's population is expected to increase from 6 billion to more than 7.5 billion by 2020. This burgeoning population may require a doubling of animal protein and a corresponding doubling of feed grains demand. Nigeria is currently the most populous black nation in the world with the threat of nutritional deficiency ...

  13. Association of protein intake with the change of lean mass among elderly women: The Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention - Fracture Prevention Study (OSTPRE-FPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanejad, Masoud; Mursu, Jaakko; Sirola, Joonas; Kröger, Heikki; Rikkonen, Toni; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Erkkilä, Arja T

    2015-01-01

    Low protein intake can lead to declined lean mass (LM) in elderly. We examined the associations of total protein (TP), animal protein (AP) and plant protein (PP) intakes with LM. The association of TP intake with LM change was further evaluated according to weight change status. This cross-sectional and prospective cohort study included 554 women aged 68 (sd 1·9) years from the Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention - Fracture Prevention Study (OSTPRE-FPS). The intervention group (n 270) received daily cholecalciferol (800 IU; 20 μg) and Ca (1000 mg) for 3 years while the control group received neither supplementation nor placebo (n 282). Participants filled out a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and a 3-d food record in 2002 and underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition measurements at baseline and 3 years. Multiple linear regressions evaluated the association between protein intake and LM, adjusting for relevant covariates. At the baseline TP and AP intakes were positively associated with LM and trunk LM, TP was associated also with appendicular LM (aLM). Follow-up results showed that in the total population and the intervention group, higher TP and AP were associated with increased LM and aLM (P ≤ 0·050). No such associations were observed in the control group. PP intake was also associated with aLM change in the total population. Overall, the associations were independent of fat mass. Further, among weight maintainers, TP intake was positively associated with LM, aLM and trunk LM changes (P ≤ 0·020). In conclusion, dietary TP, especially AP, intake may be a modifiable risk factor for sarcopenia by preserving LM in the elderly.

  14. Correlations of dietary energy and protein intakes with renal function impairment in chronic kidney disease patients with or without diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-En Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary energy and protein intake can affect progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD. CKD complicated with diabetes is often associated with a decline in renal function. We investigated the relative importance of dietary energy intake (DEI and dietary protein intake (DPI to renal function indicators in nondiabetic and diabetic CKD patients. A total of 539 Stage 3–5 CKD patients [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation] with or without diabetes were recruited from outpatient clinics of Nephrology and Nutrition in a medical center in Taiwan. Appropriateness of DEI and DPI was used to subcategorize CKD patients into four groups:(1 kidney diet (KD A (KD-A, the most appropriate diet, was characterized by low DPI and adequate DEI; (2 KD-B, low DPI and inadequate DEI; (3 KD-C, excess DPI and adequate DEI; and (4 KD-D, the least appropriate diet, excess DPI and inadequate DEI. Inadequate DEI was defined as a ratio of actual intake/recommended intake less than 90% and adequate DEI as over 90%. Low DPI was defined as less than 110% of recommended intake and excessive when over 110%. Outcome measured was eGFR. In both groups of CKD patients, DEI was significantly lower (p<0.001 and DPI higher (p=0.002 than recommended levels. However, only in the nondiabetic CKD patients were KD-C and KD-D significantly correlated with reduced eGFR compared with KD-A at increments of −5.63 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p = 0.029 and −7.72 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p=0.015. In conclusion, inadequate energy and excessive protein intakes appear to correlate with poorer renal function in nondiabetic CKD patients. Patients with advanced CKD are in need of counseling by dietitians to improve adherence to diets.

  15. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Qiao Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI 0.70–0.99, p = 0.040. Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants’ energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76–228.97, p = 0.017. We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability.

  16. Sources and Amounts of Animal, Dairy, and Plant Protein Intake of US Adults in 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M. Pasiakos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary guidelines suggest consuming a mixed-protein diet, consisting of high-quality animal, dairy, and plant-based foods. However, current data on the distribution and the food sources of protein intake in a free-living, representative sample of US adults are not available. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2007–2010, were used in these analyses (n = 10,977, age ≥ 19 years. Several US Department of Agriculture (USDA databases were used to partition the composition of foods consumed into animal, dairy, or plant components. Mean ± SE animal, dairy, and plant protein intakes were determined and deciles of usual intakes were estimated. The percentages of total protein intake derived from animal, dairy, and plant protein were 46%, 16%, and 30%, respectively; 8% of intake could not be classified. Chicken and beef were the primary food sources of animal protein intake. Cheese, reduced-fat milk, and ice cream/dairy desserts were primary sources of dairy protein intake. Yeast breads, rolls/buns, and nuts/seeds were primary sources of plant protein intake. This study provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to alter the composition of protein foods consumed by the American public.

  17. Impacts of maternal dietary protein intake on fetal survival, growth, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Cassandra M; Bazer, Fuller W; Johnson, Gregory A; Wu, Guoyao

    2018-03-01

    Maternal nutrition during gestation, especially dietary protein intake, is a key determinant in embryonic survival, growth, and development. Low maternal dietary protein intake can cause embryonic losses, intra-uterine growth restriction, and reduced postnatal growth due to a deficiency in specific amino acids that are important for cell metabolism and function. Of note, high maternal dietary protein intake can also result in intra-uterine growth restriction and embryonic death, due to amino acid excesses, as well as the toxicity of ammonia, homocysteine, and H 2 S that are generated from amino acid catabolism. Maternal protein nutrition has a pronounced impact on fetal programming and alters the expression of genes in the fetal genome. As a precursor to the synthesis of molecules (e.g. nitric oxide, polyamines, and creatine) with cell signaling and metabolic functions, L-arginine (Arg) is essential during pregnancy for growth and development of the conceptus. With inadequate maternal dietary protein intake, Arg and other important amino acids are deficient in mother and fetus. Dietary supplementation of Arg during gestation has been effective in improving embryonic survival and development of the conceptus in many species, including humans, pigs, sheep, mice, and rats. Both the balance among amino acids and their quantity are critical for healthy pregnancies and offspring. Impact statement This review aims at: highlighting adverse effects of elevated levels of ammonia in mother or fetus on embryonic/fetal survival, growth, and development; helping nutritionists and practitioners to understand the mechanisms whereby elevated levels of ammonia in mother or fetus results in embryonic/fetal death, growth restriction, and developmental abnormalities; and bringing, into the attention of nutritionists and practitioners, the problems of excess or inadequate dietary intake of protein or amino acids on pregnancy outcomes in animals and humans. The article provides new

  18. Body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly men but elderly women had a higher prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a population of Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chorong; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between sarcopenic obesity (SO) and nutrition status, according to sex in Korean adults who were 60 years or older. Body composition was categorized as SO, sarcopenic nonobesity, nonsarcopenic obesity, and nonsarcopenic nonobesity. Obesity was defined by body mass index. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (Wt) of less than 1 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Subjects included 1433 subjects (658 men and 775 women) who were 60 years or older and who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2010. Sarcopenic obesity was more prevalent in women (31.3%) than in men (19.6%). Individuals with SO had significantly higher fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (male: 3.2 ± 1.4, female: 3.4 ± 2.1), and triglycerides (male: 167.3 ± 90.6 mg/dL, female: 160.7 ± 85.0 mg/dL). High-density lipoprotein was under the normal criteria (50 mg/dL) in women. Intake of nutrients associated with muscle loss (protein, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin C) was significantly different among the male but not the female groups. Although protein intake was normal, calcium and vitamin D intakes were insufficient in all groups. In conclusion, body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly (60 years or older) men but not elderly women. Women had a higher prevalence of SO than did men, suggesting that early nutritional intervention in elderly women may help them address age-associated body composition changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A new approach to feed frequency studies and protein intake regulation in juvenile pirarucu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Bruno O DE; Nascimento, Eduardo C T; Santos, Aline A; Barreto, Kayck A; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Fortes-Silva, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate pirarucu's (Arapaima gigas) ability to trigger a self-feeding system to regulate protein intake between two standard diets that contained 39% and 49% of crude protein. The same system allowed the evaluation of daily feeding and locomotor activity rhythms. Eighteen fish (654.44±26.85g) were distributed into six 250 L tanks (3 fish/tank). Fish had free access to both diets (39% vs. 49% protein) by feeders (2 per tank), adapted to be activated by fish themselves. This system was connected to a computer system. After an adaptation period, fish learned to activate feeders and the mean food intake recorded was 2.14% of their body weight on a daily basis. Fish showed feeding (72.48%) and locomotor (72.49%) activity predominantly during the daytime, and daily variations of choice between diets, but fixed a protein intake feeding target at 44.53%. These results should be considered when discussing feeding behavior, feeding schedules and diet intake regulations.

  20. A new approach to feed frequency studies and protein intake regulation in juvenile pirarucu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO O. DE MATTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate pirarucu's (Arapaima gigas ability to trigger a self-feeding system to regulate protein intake between two standard diets that contained 39% and 49% of crude protein. The same system allowed the evaluation of daily feeding and locomotor activity rhythms. Eighteen fish (654.44±26.85g were distributed into six 250 L tanks (3 fish/tank. Fish had free access to both diets (39% vs. 49% protein by feeders (2 per tank, adapted to be activated by fish themselves. This system was connected to a computer system. After an adaptation period, fish learned to activate feeders and the mean food intake recorded was 2.14% of their body weight on a daily basis. Fish showed feeding (72.48% and locomotor (72.49% activity predominantly during the daytime, and daily variations of choice between diets, but fixed a protein intake feeding target at 44.53%. These results should be considered when discussing feeding behavior, feeding schedules and diet intake regulations.

  1. Influence of Crude Protein Intake on the Duration of Delivery and Litter Size in Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tydlitát

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of different intakes of crude protein during the period from 94 to 100 days of pregnancy to the parturition, lengths of pregnancy and delivery, number and birth weights of piglets and concentrations of progesterone, 17-β estradiol and cortisol on days 100, 110 and 114 of pregnancy in sows. Daily feed intake of the sow represented 2.5 kg of complete mixtures containing 13% (group A, n = 23, 15% (group B, n = 52, 18% (group C, n = 10 and 21% (group D, n = 10 of crude protein. Lengths of pregnancy in experimental groups were not significantly different. The mean durations of delivery synchronously increased with the intake of crude protein; significant difference was found between groups A (4.5 h and D (8.6 h (p p < 0.05. The average birth weights of piglets did not differ between experimental groups. No statistical differences in hormone concentrations were found between experimental groups. High intake of crude protein in sows before parturition prolonged delivery and increased the number of stillborn piglets.

  2. Effects of whey protein and its two major protein components on satiety and food intake in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungchunlam, Sylvia M S; Henare, Sharon J; Ganesh, Siva; Moughan, Paul J

    2017-06-01

    Protein is the most satiating macronutrient and is source dependent, with whey protein thought to be particularly satiating. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be due to the unique mixture of proteins in whey or to the major constituent individual proteins (β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin). The objective of the study was to compare the effects of isoenergetic (~2100kJ, ~500kcal) preload meals enriched (~50g protein) with either whey protein isolate (WP), β-lactoglobulin (BL) isolate or α-lactalbumin (AL) isolate, on food intake at an ad libitum test meal 120min later and subjective ratings of appetite (hunger, desire to eat, prospective food consumption and fullness) using visual analogue scales (VAS). Twenty adult normal-weight women (mean age 24.2±0.8years; mean BMI 22.7±0.4kg/m 2 ) participated in the study which used a single-blind completely randomised block design, where each subject consumed each of the three preload meals. Energy intake at the ad libitum test meal and total energy intakes (preload+test meal) did not differ between the three preload meals (p>0.05). There were no significant differences observed for the VAS scores and net incremental area under the curve (net iAUC) during the 120min following consumption of the three preload meals for subjective ratings of appetite (p>0.05). The findings show that the satiating effect of whey protein was similar to that of BL or AL individually and suggest that the major whey protein components BL and AL do not mediate the satiating effect of whey protein. The present human trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www.anzctr.org.au) as ACTRN12615000344594. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Consumption of grapefruit is associated with higher nutrient intakes and diet quality among adults, and more favorable anthropometrics in women, NHANES 2003–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M. Murphy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary guidance recommends consumption of a nutrient-dense diet containing a variety of fruits. The purpose of this study was to estimate usual nutrient intakes and adequacy of nutrient intakes among adult grapefruit consumers and non-consumers, and to examine associations between grapefruit consumption and select health parameters. Methods: The analysis was conducted with data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2008. Respondents reporting consumption of any amount of grapefruit or 100% grapefruit juice at least once during the 2 days of dietary recall were classified as grapefruit consumers. Results: Among adults aged 19+ years with 2 days of dietary recall (n=12,789, 2.5% of males and 2.7% of females reported consumption of 100% grapefruit juice or fresh, canned, or frozen grapefruit during the recalls. Grapefruit consumers were less likely to have usual intakes of vitamin C (males: 0% vs. 47%; females: 0% vs. 43%; P<0.001 and magnesium (P<0.05 below the estimated average requirement (EAR compared to non-consumers, and they were more likely to meet adequate intake levels for dietary fiber (P<0.05. Potassium and β-carotene intakes were significantly higher among grapefruit consumers (P<0.001. Diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005 was higher in grapefruit consumers (males: 66.2 [95% CI: 61.0–71.5] vs. 55.4 [95% CI: 54.4–56.4]; females: 71.4 [95% CI: 65.1–77.6] vs. 61.2 [95% CI: 59.8–62.6]. Among women, grapefruit consumption was associated with lower body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP, and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (P<0.05, However, risk of being overweight/obese was not associated with grapefruit consumption. Conclusion: Consumption of grapefruit was associated with higher intakes of vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, dietary fiber, and improved diet quality

  4. Higher vitamin D intake during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk of dental caries in young Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keiko; Hitsumoto, Shinichi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Arakawa, Masashi

    2015-08-01

    The intrauterine environment, including maternal nutrition status, may affect the development, formation, and mineralization of children's teeth. We assessed the relationship between self-reported maternal dietary vitamin D intake during pregnancy and the risk of dental caries among young Japanese children. This study is based on a prospective analysis of 1210 Japanese mother-child pairs. Information on maternal intake during pregnancy was collected using a validated diet history questionnaire. Data on oral examination at 36-46 months of age were obtained from the mothers, who transcribed the information from their maternal and child health handbooks to our self-administered questionnaire. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or had been filled. Compared with the lowest quartile of maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4 were 1.06 (0.72-1.56), 0.53 (0.34-0.81), and 0.67 (0.44-1.02), respectively (P for trend = .01). When maternal vitamin D intake was treated as a continuous variable, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.94 (0.89-0.995). Higher maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy may be associated with a lower risk of dental caries in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of non-protein nitrogen and fodder legumes on the intake, digestibility and growth parameters of buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premaratne, S.

    1990-01-01

    Two in vivo digestibility studies and three nylon bag studies were conducted using four rumen fistulated male buffaloes to investigate the role of supplements of tree legumes and non-protein nitrogen on the feed intake, rumen function and growth of buffaloes given a basal diet of rice straw. Straw dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility were increased by urea treatment compared with urea supplementation. Inclusion of legume tree leaves in the diet increased the in vivo DM digestibility of both untreated and treated straw, but the increment was much higher for untreated straw. A supplementation of legumes also increased the in vivo nitrogen (N) digestibility of the diet of buffaloes. A trend towards an increase in straw intake with legume supplementation was also observed. Of the tree fodder legumes tested, Erythrina lithosperma had the highest potential for providing protein. Inclusion of legumes in the diet increased the DM and N degradation rates of feedstuff. In a growth trial of grazing female buffalo calves, the inclusion of fodder legumes increased the weight gain when compared with grazing alone. (author). 6 refs, 5 tabs

  6. Effect of feed intake on heat production and protein and fat deposition in milk-fed veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labussiere, E; Maxin, G; Dubois, S; van Milgen, J; Bertrand, G; Noblet, J

    2009-04-01

    Energy requirements for veal calves have not been updated recently despite the increased age at slaughter and the predominance of the Prim'Holstein breed in Europe. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of four feeding levels (FLs) on protein and fat deposition and heat production in milk-fed calves at three stages of fattening and to determine energy requirements of calves. At each stage, 16 Prim'Holstein male calves (mean body weight (BW): 73.4, 151.6 and 237.4 kg) were fed a milk replacer at 79%, 87%, 95% or 103% of a reference FL. Measurements for one stage were conducted over 4 successive weeks in two open-circuit respiration chambers and consisted of a 6-day nitrogen and energy balance followed by a fasting day for estimating fasting heat production (FHP) of the calves. Heat production (HP) measurements were analyzed using a modeling approach to partition it between HP due to physical activity (AHP), feed intake (thermic effect of feeding (TEF)) and FHP. There was no effect of FL and stage on apparent digestibility coefficients, except for a tendency for increased digestibility coefficient of fat as animals got older. The metabolizable energy (ME)/digestible energy (DE) ratio did not depend on FL but decreased (P intake, respectively. The FHP, expressed per kg BW0.85, increased with increasing FL, suggesting that also ME requirement for maintenance (MEm) may depend on FL. For an average intake of 625 kJ ME/kg BW0.85 per day (95% of the reference FL), FHP was 298 kJ/kg BW0.85 per day. Energy retention as protein and fat increased with increasing FL resulted in higher BW gain. But the rate of increase depended on stage of growth. The slope relating protein deposition to FL was lower in the finishing phase than in the growing phase, while the slope for lipid deposition was greater. Protein and fat contents of BW gain were not affected by FL but increased as animals got older. From these results, the energy requirements of veal calves are

  7. Current protein and amino acid intakes among Japanese people: Analysis of the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate protein and amino acid intakes and distribution among Japanese people in terms of prevention of sarcopenia or frailty. We carried out a cross-sectional study using data from Japan's 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey. From the original dataset, we selected individuals aged ≥30 years, who were not pregnant or lactating, and for whom dietary intake, bodyweight and body height data were available. Protein intake was calculated using exclusive software developed for the survey. Amino acid intake was calculated using the database created by the National Institute for Longevity Sciences. More than 95% of the participants met recommended levels of protein suggested by the Dietary Reference Intake in Japan. However, nearly half of the participants did not meet recommended levels in terms of prevention of sarcopenia. Leucine intake was not sufficient for each sex and age group, probably because of decreased intake of animal protein, especially protein from milk and dairy products. Distribution of protein and leucine in each meal tended toward dinner. The Japanese population might have insufficient quality, quantity and distribution of protein intake required to prevent sarcopenia or frailty. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 723-731. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. Higher usual dietary intake of phytoestrogens is associated with lower aortic stiffness in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouw, van der Y.T.; Pijpe, A.; Lebrun, C.E.I.; Bots, M.L.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Staveren, van W.A.; Lamberts, S.W.J.; Grobbee, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective¿ Phytoestrogens have been postulated to protect against cardiovascular diseases, but few studies have focused on the effect of Western dietary phytoestrogen intake. Methods and Results¿ Four hundred three women with natural menopause either between 1987 and 1989 or between 1969 and 1979

  9. Dietary protein intake in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease and on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukkipati, Ramanath; Noori, Nazanin; Feroze, Usama; Kopple, Joel D

    2010-01-01

    Many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly those with stage 5 CKD, have protein wasting. The degree to which increased morbidity and mortality seen in these patients is due to protein depletion rather than to the often accompanying comorbidity is not clear. High protein diets lead to the accumulation of metabolites of protein that are potentially toxic. The MDRD Study, which investigated the effects of three levels of dietary protein and phosphorus intakes and two blood pressure goals on the progression of CKD, has several limitations. Several meta-analyses have examined the effects of low protein diets (LPD) on the progression of CKD. It is possible that the lower SUN levels or lesser degree of uremic symptoms may have contributed to the positive findings of LPD in the meta-analyses of Fouque and Pedrini et al., when compared with the study of Kasiske et al. A number of published reports indicate that LPD provide adequate protein for almost all clinically stable CKD patients and do not adversely affect body composition. In general, there are no large differences in the protein intake recommended by different expert groups for a given stage of CKD.

  10. Increasing the protein content of meals and its effect on daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Alexandria D; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2011-02-01

    High-protein preloads have been shown to enhance satiety, but little is known about the satiating effects of protein in more typical situations when meals are consumed ad libitum. To investigate the effects of protein in amounts commonly consumed over a day, a crossover study was conducted in 2008. In this experiment, 18 normal-weight women consumed ad libitum lunch and dinner entrées 1 day a week that were covertly varied in protein content (10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, or 30% energy). Entrées were manipulated by substituting animal protein for starchy ingredients and were matched for energy density, fat content, palatability, and appearance. Unmanipulated breakfasts and evening snacks were consumed ad libitum. Participants rated their hunger and fullness before and after meals as well as the taste and appearance of entrées. Data were analyzed using a mixed linear model. Results showed that mean 24-hour protein intake increased significantly across conditions, from 44±2 g/day in the 10% protein condition to 82±6 g/day in the 30% condition. Daily energy intake did not differ significantly across the 10% to 30% protein conditions (means 1,870±93, 1,887±93, 1,848±111, 1,876±100, and 1,807±98 kcal in the 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% energy groups, respectively). There were no significant differences in hunger and fullness ratings across conditions or in taste and appearance ratings of the manipulated entrées. This study showed that varying the protein content of several entrées consumed ad libitum did not differentially influence daily energy intake or affect ratings of satiety. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nitrogen balance study in young Nigerian adult males using four levels of protein intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinmo, T; Mbofung, C M; Egun, G; Osotimehin, B

    1988-11-01

    1. The present study was carried out to estimate precisely, via the nitrogen balance technique, the protein requirement of Nigerians (earlier estimated via the obligatory N method) using graded levels of protein intake. 2. Fifteen medical students of the University of Ibadan who volunteered to participate in the study were given graded levels of protein (0.3, 0.45, 0.6 and 0.75 g/kg body-weight per d) derived from foods similar to those usually consumed by the subjects. 3. Each subject was given each of the dietary protein levels for a period of 10 d. Subjects were divided into two groups and the feeding pattern followed a criss-cross design with one group starting with the highest level of protein intake (0.3 g). Mean energy intake during each of the eleven experimental periods was maintained at 0.2 MJ/kg per d. After an initial 5 d adaptation period in each experimental period, 24 h urine and faecal samples were collected in marked containers for five consecutive days for N determination. 4. Mean N balance during consumption of the four protein levels (0.30, 0.45, 0.6 and 0.75 g/kg) were -11.02 (SD 8.07), -9.90 (SD 6.64), +9.70 (SD 4.15) and +5.13 (SD 4.62) respectively. Using regression analysis, the mean daily N requirement was estimated at 110.25 mg N/kg body-weight (0.69 g protein/kg body-weight). Estimates of allowances for individual variations to cover 97.5% of the population adjusted this value to 0.75 g protein/kg body-weight. Net protein utilization for the diet at maintenance level was estimated at 57.5.

  12. Bumble bees regulate their intake of essential protein and lipid pollen macronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudo, A D; Stabler, D; Patch, H M; Tooker, J F; Grozinger, C M; Wright, G A

    2016-12-15

    Bee population declines are linked to the reduction of nutritional resources due to land-use intensification, yet we know little about the specific nutritional needs of many bee species. Pollen provides bees with their primary source of protein and lipids, but nutritional quality varies widely among host-plant species. Therefore, bees might have adapted to assess resource quality and adjust their foraging behavior to balance nutrition from multiple food sources. We tested the ability of two bumble bee species, Bombus terrestris and Bombus impatiens, to regulate protein and lipid intake. We restricted B. terrestris adults to single synthetic diets varying in protein:lipid ratios (P:L). The bees over-ate protein on low-fat diets and over-ate lipid on high-fat diets to reach their targets of lipid and protein, respectively. The bees survived best on a 10:1 P:L diet; the risk of dying increased as a function of dietary lipid when bees ate diets with lipid contents greater than 5:1 P:L. Hypothesizing that the P:L intake target of adult worker bumble bees was between 25:1 and 5:1, we presented workers from both species with unbalanced but complementary paired diets to determine whether they self-select their diet to reach a specific intake target. Bees consumed similar amounts of proteins and lipids in each treatment and averaged a 14:1 P:L for B. terrestris and 12:1 P:L for B. impatiens These results demonstrate that adult worker bumble bees likely select foods that provide them with a specific ratio of P:L. These P:L intake targets could affect pollen foraging in the field and help explain patterns of host-plant species choice by bumble bees. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Higher Caffeinated Coffee Intake Is Associated with Reduced Malignant Melanoma Risk: A Meta-Analysis Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibin Liu

    Full Text Available Several epidemiological studies have determined the associations between coffee intake level and skin cancer risk; however, the results were not yet conclusive. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the cohort and case-control studies for the association between coffee intake level and malignant melanoma (MM risk.Studies were identified through searching the PubMed and MEDLINE databases (to November, 2015. Study-specific risk estimates were pooled under the random-effects model.Two case-control studies (846 MM patients and 843 controls and five cohort studies (including 844,246 participants and 5,737 MM cases were identified. For caffeinated coffee, the pooled relative risk (RR of MM was 0.81 [95% confidential interval (95% CI = 0.68-0.97; P-value for Q-test = 0.003; I2 = 63.5%] for those with highest versus lowest quantity of intake. In the dose-response analysis, the RR of MM was 0.955 (95% CI = 0.912-0.999 for per 1 cup/day increment of caffeinated coffee consumption and linearity dose-response association was found (P-value for nonlinearity = 0.326. Strikingly, no significant association was found between the decaffeinated coffee intake level and MM risk (pooled RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.81-1.05; P-value for Q-test = 0.967; I2 = 0%; highest versus lowest quantity of intake.This meta-analysis suggested that caffeinated coffee might have chemo-preventive effects against MM but not decaffeinated coffee. However, larger prospective studies and the intervention studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  14. Dietary Intake of High-Protein Foods and Other Major Foods in Meat-Eaters, Poultry-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans in UK Biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs) and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages) in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment (n = 199,944). In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes. PMID:29207491

  15. Dietary Intake of High-Protein Foods and Other Major Foods in Meat-Eaters, Poultry-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans in UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Tong, Tammy Y N; Key, Timothy J

    2017-12-02

    Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs) and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages) in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment ( n = 199,944). In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes.

  16. Dietary Intake of High-Protein Foods and Other Major Foods in Meat-Eaters, Poultry-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans in UK Biobank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E. Bradbury

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment (n = 199,944. In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes.

  17. Protein intakes are associated with reduced length of stay: a comparison between Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) and conventional care after elective colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Sophia E; Hilkewich, Leslee; Gillis, Chelsia; Heine, John A; Fenton, Tanis R

    2017-07-01

    Background: Protein can modulate the surgical stress response and postoperative catabolism. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols are evidence-based care bundles that reduce morbidity. Objective: In this study, we compared protein adequacy as well as energy intakes, gut function, clinical outcomes, and how well nutritional variables predict length of hospital stay (LOS) in patients receiving ERAS protocols and conventional care. Design: We conducted a prospective cohort study in adult elective colorectal resection patients after conventional ( n = 46) and ERAS ( n = 69) care. Data collected included preoperative Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) score, 3-d food records, postoperative nausea, LOS, and complications. Multivariable regression analysis assessed whether low protein intakes and the MST score were predictive of LOS. Results: Total protein intakes were significantly higher in the ERAS group due to the inclusion of oral nutrition supplements (conventional group: 0.33 g · kg -1 · d -1 ; ERAS group: 0.54 g · kg -1 · d -1 ; P Nutrition variables were independent predictors of earlier discharge after potential confounders were controlled for. Each unit increase in preoperative MST score predicted longer LOSs of 2.5 d (95% CI: 1.5, 3.5 d; P nutrition supplements. However, total protein intake remained inadequate to meet recommendations. Consumption of ≥60% protein needs after surgery and MST scores were independent predictors of LOS. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02940665. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Milk protein intake, the metabolic-endocrine response, and growth in infancy: data from a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Piotr; Grote, Veit; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Janas, Roman; Demmelmair, Hans; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Subías, Joaquín Escribano; Scaglioni, Silvia; Verduci, Elvira; Dain, Elena; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Perrin, Emmanuel; Koletzko, Berthold

    2011-12-01

    Protein intake in early infancy has been suggested to be an important risk factor for later obesity, but information on potential mechanisms is very limited. This study examined the influence of protein intake in infancy on serum amino acids, insulin, and the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis and its possible relation to growth in the first 2 y of life. In a multicenter European study, 1138 healthy, formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive cow-milk-based infant and follow-on formulas with lower protein (LP; 1.77 and 2.2 g protein/100 kcal) or higher protein (HP; 2.9 and 4.4 g protein/100 kcal) contents for the first year. Biochemical variables were measured at age 6 mo in 339 infants receiving LP formula and 333 infants receiving HP formula and in 237 breastfed infants. Essential amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids, IGF-I, and urinary C-peptide:creatinine ratio, were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the HP group than in the LP group, whereas IGF-binding protein (IGF-BP) 2 was lower and IGF-BP3 did not differ significantly. The median IGF-I total serum concentration was 48.4 ng/mL (25th, 75th percentile: 27.2, 81.8 ng/mL) in the HP group and 34.7 ng/mL (17.7, 57.5 ng/mL) in the LP group; the urine C-peptide:creatinine ratios were 140.6 ng/mg (80.0, 203.8 ng/mg) and 107.3 ng/mg (65.2, 194.7 ng/mg), respectively. Most essential amino acids, IGF-I, C-peptide, and urea increased significantly in both the LP and HP groups compared with the breastfed group. Total IGF-I was significantly associated with growth until 6 mo but not thereafter. HP intake stimulates the IGF-I axis and insulin release in infancy. IGF-I enhances growth during the first 6 mo of life. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00338689.

  19. Protein-energy supplementation for lambs: feed intake, ingestive behavior, rumen parameters and nutrient digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmila Carolini Gonçalves da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of dietary protein-energy supplementation on feed intake, ingestive behavior, rumen parameters and nutrient digestibility in lambs. Four castrated lambs with 31.9 kg mean body weight and fistulated rumen were tested. distributed into latin square design (4x4, four treatments were tested over four periods of time: no supplementation (control or with supplementation at 8, 16 and 24 g kg-1 body weight. The supplement (soybean meal, soybean hulls, ground corn and minerals was provided with roughage (Tifton Bermudagrass, Cynodon spp., hay, which was offered ad libitum once a day, at 8h00. In treatments receiving 0 (control, 8, 16 and 24 g kg-1 supplementation, dry matter intake was 685.26, 742.86, 842.51 and 1013.33 g day-1, crude protein intake was 80.18, 95.98, 118.64, 150.14 g day-1 and metabolizable energy intake 1.55, 1.91, 2.31 and 2.98 g day-1, respectively. Treatments receiving the highest supplementation levels spent less time with rumination and feeding and rested for longer (P < 0.05. Protein-energy supplementation level did not affect rumen parameters. Average rumen pH was 6.3 and rumen ammonia nitrogen 165 mg dL-1; both were affected by sampling time. Supplementation levels until 24 g kg-1 BW improves feed intake and nutrient digestibility linearly and changes ingestive behavior, lowering rumination time without affecting rumen parameters.

  20. Influence of psychosocial factors on the energy and protein intake of older people on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Lina; Hickson, Mary; Brown, Edwina A

    2013-09-01

    To explore the relationship between nutritional parameters and psychosocial factors in older people on dialysis. A cross-sectional observational study in prevalent older people on hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). A secondary analysis from a quality of life study in older people (Broadening Options for Long-term Dialysis in the Elderly). One-hundred and six patients 65 years of age or older and on dialysis for at least 90 days were purposively recruited (HD patients matched to PD patients by age, sex, dialysis vintage, ethnicity and Index of Deprivation). Half were on HD, the mean age was 72.7 years, 72% were male, 92% were from a White ethnic background, and 26% had diabetes. The patients attended one visit at which they completed nutritional assessments (3-day food diary, subjective global assessment, handgrip strength, and body mass index) and questionnaires: Short Form-12 (SF-12), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Mini Mental State Exam, and social networks. The differences in nutritional parameters between patients on PD and HD were determined by univariate analyses, and the relationships between nutritional intake and demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables were determined by multivariate analyses. There was no difference in the energy and protein intake and nutritional status between older people on HD and PD. For the whole sample, multivariate analyses found that lower energy intake was related to fewer social networks (P = .002) and lower SF-12 Physical Component Scale (PCS) scores (P = .021). A lower protein intake was related to worsening Index of Deprivation scores (P = .028) and an interaction between SF-12 PCS and presence of possible depression (P = .015). Energy and protein intake in older people (regardless of modality) appears to be independently associated with psychosocial variables. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Plant protein intake is associated with fibroblast growth factor 23 and serum bicarbonate levels in patients with chronic kidney disease: the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialla, Julia J; Appel, Lawrence J; Wolf, Myles; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Sozio, Stephen M; Miller, Edgar R; Bazzano, Lydia A; Cuevas, Magdalena; Glenn, Melanie J; Lustigova, Eva; Kallem, Radhakrishna R; Porter, Anna C; Townsend, Raymond R; Weir, Matthew R; Anderson, Cheryl A M

    2012-07-01

    Protein from plant, as opposed to animal, sources may be preferred in chronic kidney disease (CKD) because of the lower bioavailability of phosphate and lower nonvolatile acid load. Observational cross-sectional study. A total of 2,938 participants with CKD and information on their dietary intake at the baseline visit in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Percentage of total protein intake from plant sources (percent plant protein) was determined by scoring individual food items using the National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Metabolic parameters, including serum phosphate, bicarbonate (HCO₃), potassium, and albumin, plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hemoglobin levels. We modeled the association between percent plant protein and metabolic parameters using linear regression. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, diabetes status, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, income, smoking status, total energy intake, total protein intake, 24-hour urinary sodium concentration, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and use of diuretics. Higher percent plant protein was associated with lower FGF-23 (P = .05) and higher HCO₃ (P = .01) levels, but not with serum phosphate or parathyroid hormone concentrations (P = .9 and P = .5, respectively). Higher percent plant protein was not associated with higher serum potassium (P = .2), lower serum albumin (P = .2), or lower hemoglobin (P = .3) levels. The associations of percent plant protein with FGF-23 and HCO₃ levels did not differ by diabetes status, sex, race, CKD stage (2/3 vs. 4/5), or total protein intake (≤0.8 g/kg/day vs. >0.8 g/kg/day; P-interaction >.10 for each). This is a cross-sectional study; determination of percent plant protein using the Diet History Questionnaire has not been validated. Consumption of a higher percentage of protein from plant sources may lower FGF-23 and

  2. High proportions of older people with normal nutritional status have poor protein intake and low diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyväkorpi, S K; Pitkälä, K H; Puranen, T M; Björkman, M P; Kautiainen, H; Strandberg, T E; Soini, H H; Suominen, M H

    2016-01-01

    The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) is a well-validated instrument examining the nutritional status of older people. The aim of this study was to examine how older people's energy and nutrient intakes are associated with the MNA and to determine how sensitive and specific MNA is in identifying those having low energy and protein intakes. This cross-sectional study combined data from five nutritional studies (N=900): both home-dwelling and institutionalized older people without and with disabilities. Their nutritional status was assessed with MNA, and nutrient intakes were retrieved from 1 to 3day food diaries. Nutrient intakes were divided according to MNA status (normal nutritional status, at-risk of malnutrition, malnourished). Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of MNA of various cut-off points were tested with recommended protein and energy intakes. ROC curves was constructed. Energy, protein and most nutrient intakes showed logical linear trends according to MNA classes. However, more than three-fourths of the participants with MNA>23.5 had lower than recommended protein intakes. Sensitivity of MNA ranged from 0.32 to 0.82 for recommended energy (F:1570kcal/d/M:2070kcal/d) and protein intakes (1.0g/kg BW or 1.2g/kgBW) cut-off points, and specificity from 0.75 to 0.25, respectively. AUC values were low (0.52-0.53). MNA status was consistently associated with nutrient intakes and diet quality. However, a high proportion of older people even with normal nutritional status had poor energy and protein intakes. Thus, MNA does not identify all those with poor nutrient intakes who may be at risk of developing malnutrition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Habituation to low or high protein intake does not modulate basal or postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Stefan Hm; Horstman, Astrid Mh; Franssen, Rinske; Kouw, Imre Wk; Wall, Benjamin T; Burd, Nicholas A; de Groot, Lisette Cpgm; van Loon, Luc Jc

    2017-02-01

    Muscle mass maintenance is largely regulated by basal muscle protein synthesis rates and the ability to increase muscle protein synthesis after protein ingestion. To our knowledge, no previous studies have evaluated the impact of habituation to either low protein intake (LOW PRO) or high protein intake (HIGH PRO) on the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response. We assessed the impact of LOW PRO compared with HIGH PRO on basal and postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates after the ingestion of 25 g whey protein. Twenty-four healthy, older men [age: 62 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 25.9 ± 0.4 (mean ± SEM)] participated in a parallel-group randomized trial in which they adapted to either a LOW PRO diet (0.7 g · kg -1 · d -1 ; n = 12) or a HIGH PRO diet (1.5 g · kg -1 · d -1 ; n = 12) for 14 d. On day 15, participants received primed continuous l-[ring- 2 H 5 ]-phenylalanine and l-[1- 13 C]-leucine infusions and ingested 25 g intrinsically l-[1- 13 C]-phenylalanine- and l-[1- 13 C]-leucine-labeled whey protein. Muscle biopsies and blood samples were collected to assess muscle protein synthesis rates as well as dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics. Plasma leucine concentrations and exogenous phenylalanine appearance rates increased after protein ingestion (P 0.05). Plasma exogenous phenylalanine availability over the 5-h postprandial period was greater after LOW PRO than after HIGH PRO (61% ± 1% compared with 56% ± 2%, respectively; P protein synthesis rates increased from 0.031% ± 0.004% compared with 0.039% ± 0.007%/h in the fasted state to 0.062% ± 0.005% compared with 0.057% ± 0.005%/h in the postprandial state after LOW PRO compared with HIGH PRO, respectively (P protein-derived amino acids in the circulation and does not lower basal muscle protein synthesis rates or increase postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates after ingestion of 25 g protein in older men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  4. Animal protein intake, serum insulin-like growth factor I, and growth in healthy 2.5-y-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoppe, Camilla; Udam, Tina Rovenna; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2004-01-01

    Studies from developing countries indicate that intake of animal protein, especially of milk, is associated with greater velocity of linear growth in childhood. Whether the same association exists in industrialized countries, where protein intake is high, is not clear.......Studies from developing countries indicate that intake of animal protein, especially of milk, is associated with greater velocity of linear growth in childhood. Whether the same association exists in industrialized countries, where protein intake is high, is not clear....

  5. [Retrospective analysis of influence of differential protein intake on renal prognosis for progressive chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wendi; Yin, Daoxin; Cui, Wenying; Liu, Wenhu

    2014-01-28

    To explore retrospectively the influence of differential protein intake on renal prognosis for progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 159 chronic kidney disease patients at stages 2, 3 and 4 were enrolled and a questionnaire survey was conducted from January 2009 to July 2012. They were followed monthly and their clinical data collected, including primary disease, blood pressure, body mass index and adverse events. Laboratory tests were performed every 3 months, including biochemical parameters, protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), diet reviews and daily protein intake (DPI). A simplified MDRD formula was employed to evaluate the level of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). According to the level of DPI, they were divided into 3 groups of very low protein diet (VLPD): DPI ≤ 0.6 g · kg(-1) · d(-1), low-protein diet (LPD): DPI >0.6-protein diet (NPD): DPI ≥ 0.8 · g · kg(-1) · d(-1). Among them, 4 cases (2.50%) progressed to uremia stage and received renal replacement therapy, 2(1.25%) experienced rapid decline in renal function, 9(5.66%) were hospitalized from cardio-cerebral diseases and the 2-year kidney survival rate was 97.5%. At the end of study, among 9 patients of PEM, 2 subjects had a serum level of albumin under 32 g/L and another 7 with a BMI 0.05). Within a certain range, differential protein intake may not significantly affect the prognosis of kidney for progressive CKD patients.

  6. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M, 72 female (F; BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2 middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB. LM and fat mass (FM were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %, as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %, with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p  Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident.

  7. Improved Function With Enhanced Protein Intake per Meal: A Pilot Study of Weight Reduction in Frail, Obese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Pieper, Carl F; Orenduff, Melissa C; McDonald, Shelley R; McClure, Luisa B; Zhou, Run; Payne, Martha E; Bales, Connie W

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a significant cause of functional limitations in older adults; yet, concerns that weight reduction could diminish muscle along with fat mass have impeded progress toward an intervention. Meal-based enhancement of protein intake could protect function and/or lean mass but has not been studied during geriatric obesity reduction. In this 6-month randomized controlled trial, 67 obese (body mass index ≥30kg/m(2)) older (≥60 years) adults with a Short Physical Performance Battery score of 4-10 were randomly assigned to a traditional (Control) weight loss regimen or one with higher protein intake (>30g) at each meal (Protein). All participants were prescribed a hypo-caloric diet, and weighed and provided dietary guidance weekly. Physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery) and lean mass (BOD POD), along with secondary measures, were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months. At the 6-month endpoint, there was significant (p < .001) weight loss in both the Control (-7.5±6.2kg) and Protein (-8.7±7.4kg) groups. Both groups also improved function but the increase in the Protein (+2.4±1.7 units; p < .001) was greater than in the Control (+0.9±1.7 units; p < .01) group (p = .02). Obese, functionally limited older adults undergoing a 6-month weight loss intervention with a meal-based enhancement of protein quantity and quality lost similar amounts of weight but had greater functional improvements relative to the Control group. If confirmed, this dietary approach could have important implications for improving the functional status of this vulnerable population (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01715753). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  8. Protein intake does not increase vastus lateralis muscle protein synthesis during cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulston, CJ; Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of protein ingestion on leg protein turnover and vastus lateralis muscle protein synthesis during bicycle exercise and recovery. METHODS: Eight healthy males participated in two experiments in which they ingested either a carbohydrate solution...... sampling, and blood flow measurements. Muscle protein synthesis was calculated from the incorporation of l-[ring-C6]phenylalanine into protein. RESULTS: Consuming protein during exercise increased leg protein synthesis and decreased net leg protein breakdown; however, protein ingestion did not increase...... protein synthesis within the highly active vastus lateralis muscle (0.029%·h(-1), ± 0.004%·h(-1), and 0.030%·h(-1), ± 0.003%·h(-1), in CHO and CHO + P, respectively; P = 0.88). In contrast, consuming protein, during exercise and recovery, increased postexercise vastus lateralis muscle protein synthesis...

  9. Preserved skeletal muscle protein anabolic response to acute exercise and protein intake in well-treated rheumatoid arthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Dideriksen, Kasper; Andersen, Mads Bisgaard

    2015-01-01

    and anabolic signaling response in patients with RA compared to healthy controls. METHODS: Thirteen RA patients (age range 34-84 years; diagnosed for 1-32 years, median 8 years) were individually matched with 13 healthy controls for gender, age, BMI and activity level (CON). Plasma levels of C-reactive protein...... and in combination with physical exercise in patients with well-treated RA to a similar extent as in healthy individuals. This indicates that moderately inflamed RA patients have maintained their muscle anabolic responsiveness to physical activity and protein intake....

  10. Dietary intake and the dynamics of stress, hypertension and obesity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension increased with mean age whiles stress decreased with mean age. Hypertensive subjects recorded a significantly higher BMI and sodium intake whiles high stress individuals recorded a lower animal protein but a higher cereal protein intake (p<.05). Chronic stress was associated with intake of low animal ...

  11. Increased protein-energy intake promotes anabolism in critically ill infants with viral bronchiolitis: a double‑blind randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Betue, Carlijn T; van Waardenburg, Dick A; Deutz, Nicolaas E; van Eijk, Hans M; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Luiking, Yvette C; Zimmermann, Luc J; Joosten, Koen F

    2011-01-01

    Objective The preservation of nutritional status and growth is an important aim in critically ill infants, but difficult to achieve due to the metabolic stress response and inadequate nutritional intake, leading to negative protein balance. This study investigated whether increasing protein and energy intakes can promote anabolism. The primary outcome was whole body protein balance, and the secondary outcome was first pass splanchnic phenylalanine extraction (SPEPhe). Design This was a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Infants (n=18) admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit with respiratory failure due to viral bronchiolitis were randomised to continuous enteral feeding with protein and energy enriched formula (PE-formula) (n=8; 3.1±0.3 g protein/kg/24 h, 119±25 kcal/kg/24 h) or standard formula (S-formula) (n=10; 1.7±0.2 g protein/kg/24 h, 84±15 kcal/kg/24 h; equivalent to recommended intakes for healthy infants <6 months). A combined intravenous-enteral phenylalanine stable isotope protocol was used on day 5 after admission to determine whole body protein metabolism and SPEPhe. Results Protein balance was significantly higher with PE-formula than with S-formula (PE-formula: 0.73±0.5 vs S-formula: 0.02±0.6 g/kg/24 h) resulting from significantly increased protein synthesis (PE-formula: 9.6±4.4, S-formula: 5.2±2.3 g/kg/24 h), despite significantly increased protein breakdown (PE-formula: 8.9±4.3, S-formula: 5.2±2.6 g/kg/24 h). SPEPhe was not statistically different between the two groups (PE-formula: 39.8±18.3%, S-formula: 52.4±13.6%). Conclusions Increasing protein and energy intakes promotes protein anabolism in critically ill infants in the first days after admission. Since this is an important target of nutritional support, increased protein and energy intakes should be preferred above standard intakes in these infants. Dutch Trial Register number: NTR 515. PMID:21673183

  12. RELATIVE DOSING OF PHOSPHATE BINDERS FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF PHOSPHATE AND PROTEIN INTAKE IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Copley, J; Heise, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing haemodialysis have a maximum recommended dietary phosphate (P) intake of 1000 mg/day and a recommended protein intake of 1.2 g/kg/day. Achieving this level of protein intake is associated with the best patient outcomes. However, protein-containing foods also contain P, and elevated serum P is associated with increased all-cause mortality. It is therefore important to manage the levels of serum P while maintaining adequate levels of nutrition. ...

  13. Protein and energy intake in advanced chronic kidney disease: how much is too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikizler, T Alp

    2007-01-01

    Uremic wasting is strongly associated with increased risk of death and hospitalization events in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent evidence indicates that patients with advanced chronic kidney disease are prone to uremic wasting due to several factors, which include the dialysis procedure and certain comorbid conditions, especially chronic inflammation and insulin resistance or deficiency. While the catabolic effects of dialysis can be readily avoided with intradialytic nutritional supplementation, there are no established alternative strategies to avoid the catabolic consequences of comorbid conditions other than treatment of their primary etiology. To this end, there is no indication that simply increasing dietary protein and energy intake above the required levels based on level of kidney disease is beneficial in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. However, aside from the potential adverse effects such as uremic toxin production, dietary protein and energy intake in excess of actual needs might be beneficial in maintenance dialysis patients as it may lead to weight gain over time. Clearly, the role of obesity in advanced uremia needs to be examined in detail prior to making any clinically applicable recommendations, both in terms of ''low'' and ''high'' dietary protein and energy intake.

  14. Whey protein consumption after resistance exercise reduces energy intake at a post-exercise meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteyne, Alistair; Martin, Alex; Jackson, Liam; Corrigan, Nick; Stringer, Ellen; Newey, Jack; Rumbold, Penny L S; Stevenson, Emma J; James, Lewis J

    2018-03-01

    Protein consumption after resistance exercise potentiates muscle protein synthesis, but its effects on subsequent appetite in this context are unknown. This study examined appetite and energy intake following consumption of protein- and carbohydrate-containing drinks after resistance exercise. After familiarisation, 15 resistance training males (age 21 ± 1 years, body mass 78.0 ± 11.9 kg, stature 1.78 ± 0.07 m) completed two randomised, double-blind trials, consisting of lower-body resistance exercise, followed by consumption of a whey protein (PRO 23.9 ± 3.6 g protein) or dextrose (CHO 26.5 ± 3.8 g carbohydrate) drink in the 5 min post-exercise. An ad libitum meal was served 60 min later, with subjective appetite measured throughout. Drinks were flavoured and matched for energy content and volume. The PRO drink provided 0.3 g/kg body mass protein. Ad libitum energy intake (PRO 3742 ± 994 kJ; CHO 4172 ± 1132 kJ; P = 0.007) and mean eating rate (PRO 339 ± 102 kJ/min; CHO 405 ± 154 kJ/min; P = 0.009) were lower during PRO. The change in eating rate was associated with the change in energy intake (R = 0.661, P = 0.007). No interaction effects were observed for subjective measures of appetite. The PRO drink was perceived as creamier and thicker, and less pleasant, sweet and refreshing (P consumption after resistance exercise reduces subsequent energy intake, and this might be partially mediated by a reduced eating rate. Whilst this reduced energy intake is unlikely to impair hypertrophy, it may be of value in supporting an energy deficit for weight loss.

  15. Long-Term Intake of a High-Protein Diet Affects Body Phenotype, Metabolism, and Plasma Hormones in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, John P; Luong, Leon; Parsons, William F; Oh, Suwan; Sanford, Daniel; Gabalski, Arielle; Lighton, John Rb; Pisegna, Joseph R; Germano, Patrizia M

    2017-12-01

    Background: High-protein diets (HPDs) recently have been used to obtain body weight and fat mass loss and expand muscle mass. Several studies have documented that HPDs reduce appetite and food intake. Objective: Our goal was to determine the long-term effects of an HPD on body weight, energy intake and expenditure, and metabolic hormones. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice (8 wk old) were fed either an HPD (60% of energy as protein) or a control diet (CD; 20% of energy as protein) for 12 wk. Body composition and food intakes were determined, and plasma hormone concentrations were measured in mice after being fed and after overnight feed deprivation at several time points. Results: HPD mice had significantly lower body weight (in means ± SEMs; 25.73 ± 1.49 compared with 32.5 ± 1.31 g; P = 0.003) and fat mass (9.55% ± 1.24% compared with 15.78% ± 2.07%; P = 0.05) during the first 6 wk compared with CD mice, and higher lean mass throughout the study starting at week 2 (85.45% ± 2.25% compared with 75.29% ± 1.90%; P = 0.0001). Energy intake, total energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient were significantly lower in HPD compared with CD mice as shown by cumulative energy intake and eating rate. Water vapor was significantly higher in HPD mice during both dark and light phases. In HPD mice, concentrations of leptin [feed-deprived: 41.31 ± 11.60 compared with 3041 ± 683 pg/mL ( P = 0.0004); postprandial: 112.5 ± 102.0 compared with 8273 ± 1415 pg/mL ( P < 0.0001)] and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) [feed-deprived: 5.664 ± 1.44 compared with 21.31 ± 1.26 pg/mL ( P = <0.0001); postprandial: 6.54 ± 2.13 compared with 50.62 ± 11.93 pg/mL ( P = 0.0037)] were significantly lower, whereas postprandial glucagon concentrations were higher than in CD-fed mice. Conclusions: In male mice, the 12-wk HPD resulted in short-term body weight and fat mass loss, but throughout the study preserved body lean mass and significantly reduced energy intake and expenditure as well as

  16. Excretion of purine base derivatives after intake of bacterial protein meal in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, A.

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial protein meal has a high content ofprotein but also of RNA and DNA. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four diets containing increasing levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM), from weaning to 80 kg live weight, to evaluate whether the RNA and DNA contents of BPM influenced the retention...... of nitrogen. It was hypothesised that an increased intake of RNA and DNA would lead to an increased urinary excretion of purine base derivatives and increased plasma concentrations. Retention of nitrogen was unaffected by dietary content of BPM (P=0.08) and the urinary excretion of purine base derivatives...

  17. Protein and lipid accretion in body components of growing pigs : effects of body weight and nutrient intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, P.

    1994-01-01

    In pig production, optimization of the conversion of animal feeding-stuffs into body components, especially lean meat, requires knowledge of the response relationships between nutrient intake and animal performance. In this study, the separate effects of protein and energy intake on rate

  18. FORAGING BY THE STOPLIGHT-PARROTFISH SPARISOMA-VIRIDE .2. INTAKE AND ASSIMILATION OF FOOD, PROTEIN AND ENERGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUGGEMANN, JH; BEGEMAN, J; BOSMA, EM; VERBURG, P; BREEMAN, AM

    Daily food intake by the herbivorous parrotfish Sparisoma viride, as well as assimilation efficiencies of algal food, protein and energy, were quantified through a combination of laboratory feeding trials and field observations. The intake of algal ash-free dry wt (AFDW) per bite increases linearly

  19. Intake patterns and dietary associations of soya protein consumption in adults and children in the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudryj, Adriana N; Aukema, Harold M; Yu, Nancy

    2015-01-28

    Soya foods are one of the recommended alternatives to meat in many dietary guidelines. While this is expected to increase the intake of some nutrients, potential concerns regarding others have been raised. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence and the association of soya food consumption with nutrient intakes and dietary patterns of Canadians (age ≥ 2 years). Cross-sectional data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 2.2; n 33,218) were used to classify soya consumers and non-consumers. Soya consumers were further divided into two groups based on their soya protein intake. Sample weights were applied and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between nutrient intakes and soya consumption, with cultural background, sex, age and economic status being included as covariates. On any given day, 3.3% (n 1085) of Canadians consume soya foods, with females, Asian Canadians and adults with post-secondary education being more likely to be soya consumers. As a whole, adolescent and adult respondents who had consumed at least one soya food during their 24 h dietary recall had higher energy intakes, as well as increased intakes of nutrients such as protein, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin B6, naturally occurring folate, thiamin, Ca, P, Mg, PUFA, Fe and K and lowered intakes of saturated fat. These data indicate that soya food consumption is associated with improved diet quality of Canadians. However, future research is necessary to investigate the association between increased energy intake and soya consumption.

  20. Effect of Protein Intake on Strength, Body Composition and Endocrine Changes in Strength/Power Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Jie

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comparison of protein intakes on strength, body composition and hormonal changes were examined in 23 experienced collegiate strength/power athletes participating in a 12-week resistance training program. Subjects were stratified into three groups depending upon their daily consumption of protein; below recommended levels (BL; 1.0 – 1.4 g·kg-1·day-1; n = 8, recommended levels (RL; 1.6 – 1.8 g·kg-1·day-1; n = 7 and above recommended levels (AL; > 2.0 g·kg-1·day-1; n = 8. Subjects were assessed for strength [one-repetition maximum (1-RM bench press and squat] and body composition. Resting blood samples were analyzed for total testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor. No differences were seen in energy intake (3,171 ± 577 kcal between the groups, and the energy intake for all groups were also below the recommended levels for strength/power athletes. No significant changes were seen in body mass, lean body mass or fat mass in any group. Significant improvements in 1-RM bench press and 1-RM squat were seen in all three groups, however no differences between the groups were observed. Subjects in AL experienced a 22% and 42% greater change in Δ 1-RM squat and Δ 1-RM bench press than subjects in RL, however these differences were not significant. No significant changes were seen in any of the resting hormonal concentrations. The results of this study do not provide support for protein intakes greater than recommended levels in collegiate strength/power athletes for body composition improvements, or alterations in resting hormonal concentrations.

  1. PANCREATIC HYPERTROPHY IN RATS CAUSED BY CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum L. PROTEIN INTAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. TAVANO

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The objectives of this work were demonstrate the occurrence of pancreatic hypertrophy in rats, caused by chickpea protein intake, and the possible relation to the presence of trypsin inhibitors in the protein samples. The principal protein fractions of chickpea were isolated, the effect of heating was also tested (121°C/15 min. The heated chickpea diets did not cause significant pancreatic hypertrophy in rats, in relation to the casein control group. Only unheated chickpea flour and albumin diets caused pancreatic weight increases correlating to the presence of trypsin inhibitors in these samples. Apart from the trypsin inhibitor activity the other chickpea protein components appear not to exert any alteration in pancreatic weight.

  2. The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake is a predictor of bone resorption in space flight analogues and in ambulatory subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Hargens, Alan R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone loss is a critical concern for space travelers, and a dietary countermeasure would be of great benefit. Dietary protein and potassium-associated bicarbonate precursors may have opposing effects on the acid-base balance in the body and therefore on bone loss. OBJECTIVE: In 2 studies, we examined the ability of dietary protein and potassium to predict markers of bone metabolism. DESIGN: In the first study, 8 pairs of male identical twins were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, or SED, group) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower-body negative pressure chamber (EX group). In a second study, groups of 4 subjects lived in a closed chamber for 60 or 91 d, and dietary data were collected for two or three 5-d sessions. Urinary calcium, N-telopeptide, and pyridinium cross-links were measured before bed rest; on bed rest days 5-6, 12-13, 19-20, and 26-27; and daily during the chamber studies. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation (P animal protein intake to potassium intake was significantly correlated with N-telopeptide in the SED group during bed rest weeks 3 and 4 (r = 0.77 and 0.80) and during the 91-d chamber study (r = 0.75). The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake was positively correlated with pyridinium cross-links before bed rest in the EX group (r = 0.83), in the EX group during bed rest week 1 (r = 0.84), and in the SED group during bed rest week 2 (r = 0.72) but not during either chamber study. In both studies, these relations were not significant with the ratio of vegetable protein intake to potassium intake. CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake may affect bone in ambulatory and bed-rest subjects. Changing this ratio may help to prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  3. Food intake and weight of lactating rats maintained on different protein-calorie diets, and pup growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.B. Cambraia

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on rats maintained on low-protein-calorie diets during the lactation period show that food intake decreases. This process results in weight loss and a delay in litter development. The purpose of the present study was to determine the alterations in food intake, maternal weight and litter growth during lactation when dams were exposed to diets with different levels of protein and carbohydrate. Female Wistar rats receiving one of 4 different diets, A (N = 14, B (N = 14, C (N = 9 and D (N = 9, were used. Diet A contained 16% protein and 66% carbohydrate; diet B, 6% protein and 77% carbohydrate; diet C, 6% protein and 66% carbohydrate; diet D, 16% protein and 56% carbohydrate. Thus, C and D diets were hypocaloric, while A and B were isocaloric. The intake of a low-protein diet in groups B and C affected the weight of dams and litters during the last two weeks of lactation, while the low-calorie diets limited the growth of D litters at 21 days compared with A litters, but had no effect on the weight of D dams. Group B showed an increase in intake during the first five days of lactation, resulting in a behavioral calorie compensation due to the increase in carbohydrate content, but the intake decreased during the last part of lactation. Food intake regulation predominantly involves the recruitment of a variety of peripheral satiety systems that attempt to decrease the central feeding command system.

  4. High Whey Protein Intake Delayed the Loss of Lean Body Mass in Healthy Old Rats, whereas Protein Type and Polyphenol/Antioxidant Supplementation Had No Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoni, Laurent; Gatineau, Eva; Gatellier, Philippe; Migné, Carole; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Rocher, Emilie; Dardevet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1) increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2) use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism). 3) Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidative stress is also effective to improve muscle anabolism). Such comparisons and combinations were never tested before. Nutritional groups were: casein 12% protein, whey 12% protein, whey 18% protein and each of these groups were supplemented or not with polyphenols/antioxidants. During 6 months, we followed changes of weight, food intake, inflammation (plasma fibrinogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin) and body composition (DXA). After 6 months, we measured muscle mass, in vivo and ex-vivo fed and post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis, ex-vivo muscle proteolysis, and oxidative stress parameters (liver and muscle glutathione, SOD and total antioxidant activities, muscle carbonyls and TBARS). We showed that although micronutrient supplementation reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, the only factor that significantly reduced the loss of lean body mass was the increase in whey protein intake, with no detectable effect on muscle protein synthesis, and a tendency to reduce muscle proteolysis. We conclude that in healthy rats, increasing protein intake is an effective way to delay sarcopenia. PMID:25268515

  5. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Hook

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered.

  6. Optimal dietary calcium intake in HIV treated patients: no femoral osteoporosis but higher cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Laura; Rubinacci, Alessandro; Cocorullo, Deborah; Salpietro, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Vincenzo; Gianotti, Nicola; Bigoloni, Alba; Vinci, Concetta; Mignogna, Giovanna; Sirtori, Marcella; Lazzarin, Adriano; Castagna, Antonella

    2014-04-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study on adult HIV-infected patients, on HAART, without calcium or vitamin D supplementation to evaluate if the cardiovascular risk or the presence of osteoporosis may be predictive factors of an optimal daily calcium intake (DCI>1000 mg/day). Patients underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, measured biochemical parameters and compiled a validated questionnaire for the assessment of DCI. Osteoporosis (OP) was defined according to the WHO classification at either the vertebral spine or femoral neck. Cardiovascular risk was assessed by the 10-year Framingham cardiovascular risk score. 200 HIV-infected patients evaluated: 171 (86%) males with a median age of 48.1 (42.3-53.8) years and 10.6 (4.3-13.6) years of HAART exposure. DCI was 889 (589-1308) mg/day and 79 (40%) patients had an optimal DCI. Framingham risk>20% was found in 13 (6.7%) patients and femoral OP was diagnosed in 12 (6%) pts. By multivariate analysis, optimal DCI was more likely in patients with a Framingham risk>20% [OR = 5.547, 95% CI:1.337, p = 0.025] and less likely in patients with femoral osteoporosis [OR = 0.159, 95% CI: 0.018-0.790, p = 0.047]. We found that an optimal dietary calcium intake was more likely in patients with high cardiovascular risk and no femoral osteoporosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Vitamin K Intake and Plasma Desphospho-Uncarboxylated Matrix Gla-Protein Levels in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, P.Y.; Berg, van den E.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Laverman, G.D.; Schurgers, L.J.; Vermeer, C.; Kema, I.P.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Borst, de M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is essential for activation of ¿-carboxyglutamate (Gla)-proteins including the vascular calcification inhibitor matrix Gla-protein (MGP). Insufficient vitamin K intake leads to production of uncarboxylated, mostly inactive proteins and contributes to an increased cardiovascular risk. In

  8. Feed, energy and protein intakes of horses - A review of Finnish feeding trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Saastamoinen

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feed, energy and protein intakes of horses engaged in different performances by reviewing results and data concerning feed consumption in 17 feeding trials with a total 356 horses, conducted between 1972 and 1992. The dry matter intake was found to average 1.6-1.8% of body weight for working horses and pregnant mares, and 2-3.5% for lactating mares. According to the results most of the exercising horses could be fed with energy and protein amounts currently recommended for moderate work. In Standardbred trotters, the average energy intake corresponded to the current requirements for light work. The individual variation in energy consumption among horses engaged in work of the same intensity was considerable, and seemed to be larger for Finnhorses than for warmblooded horses. The establishment of new nutrient requirements and feeding recommendations separately for trotters and riding horses of these two breeds, i.e. Finnhorses and warmblooded horses, seems justified.

  9. Role of Hypothalamic Melanocortin System in Adaptation of Food Intake to Food Protein Increase in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillot, Bruno; Duraffourd, Céline; Bégeot, Martine; Joly, Aurélie; Luquet, Serge; Houberdon, Isabelle; Naville, Danielle; Vigier, Michèle; Gautier-Stein, Amandine; Magnan, Christophe; Mithieux, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    The hypothalamic melanocortin system—the melanocortin receptor of type 4 (MC4R) and its ligands: α-melanin-stimulating hormone (α-MSH, agonist, inducing hypophagia), and agouti-related protein (AgRP, antagonist, inducing hyperphagia)—is considered to play a central role in the control of food intake. We tested its implication in the mediation of the hunger-curbing effects of protein-enriched diets (PED) in mice. Whereas there was a 20% decrease in food intake in mice fed on the PED, compared to mice fed on an isocaloric starch-enriched diet, there was a paradoxical decrease in expression of the hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin gene, precursor of α-MSH, and increase in expression of the gene encoding AgRP. The hypophagia effect of PED took place in mice with invalidation of either MC4R or POMC, and was even strengthened in mice with ablation of the AgRP-expressing neurons. These data strongly suggest that the hypothalamic melanocortin system does not mediate the hunger-curbing effects induced by changes in the macronutrient composition of food. Rather, the role of this system might be to defend the body against the variations in food intake generated by the nutritional environment. PMID:21544212

  10. Role of hypothalamic melanocortin system in adaptation of food intake to food protein increase in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Pillot

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic melanocortin system--the melanocortin receptor of type 4 (MC4R and its ligands: α-melanin-stimulating hormone (α-MSH, agonist, inducing hypophagia, and agouti-related protein (AgRP, antagonist, inducing hyperphagia--is considered to play a central role in the control of food intake. We tested its implication in the mediation of the hunger-curbing effects of protein-enriched diets (PED in mice. Whereas there was a 20% decrease in food intake in mice fed on the PED, compared to mice fed on an isocaloric starch-enriched diet, there was a paradoxical decrease in expression of the hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin gene, precursor of α-MSH, and increase in expression of the gene encoding AgRP. The hypophagia effect of PED took place in mice with invalidation of either MC4R or POMC, and was even strengthened in mice with ablation of the AgRP-expressing neurons. These data strongly suggest that the hypothalamic melanocortin system does not mediate the hunger-curbing effects induced by changes in the macronutrient composition of food. Rather, the role of this system might be to defend the body against the variations in food intake generated by the nutritional environment.

  11. Association Between Protein Intake and Mortality in Hypertensive Patients Without Chronic Kidney Disease in the OLD-HTA Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courand, Pierre-Yves; Lesiuk, Chloé; Milon, Hugues; Defforges, Alice; Fouque, Denis; Harbaoui, Brahim; Lantelme, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Protein intake may have some benefits on reducing blood pressure and cardiovascular events, but their effects are still debated. The objective of this study was to test the prognostic value of protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea in a cohort of hypertensive patients with preserved renal function. A total of 1128 hypertensive patients were followed according to tertile of protein intake adjusted for ideal body weight: 0.93 g/kg. Baseline characteristics (mean±standard deviation) were age 45.1±13.2 years, systolic/diastolic blood pressure 185±32/107±20 mm Hg, and estimated glomerular filtration rate 82±32 mL/min. After 10 years of follow-up, 289 deaths occurred, 202 of which were of cardiovascular cause. After adjustment for major cardiovascular risk factors, patients in the second and third tertiles of protein intake had a decreased risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.71 [0.56-0.91]) and cardiovascular death (0.72 [0.54-0.96]), but not of stroke death (0.72 [0.41-1.28]) in comparison to patients in the low protein intake tertile. Normal-high protein intake was associated with a better outcome in a subset of the population: younger patients, low salt intake, without aortic atherosclerosis, or previous cardiovascular events (Pinteractionpatients having a protein intake >0.7 g/kg ideal body weight, particularly those at low risk, had lower all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates. Physicians may encourage hyper tensive patients to have normal or high protein diet in addition to low salt consumption, moderate alcohol consumption, and regular physical activity. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Dietary protein and fat intake in relation to risk of colorectal adenoma in Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sun Young; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Jung Eun; Seol, Jueun; Song, Ji Hyun; Chung, Goh Eun; Yim, Jeong Yoon; Lim, Sun Hee; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of red meat and alcohol are known risk factors for colorectal cancer, but associations for dietary fat remain unclear. We investigated the associations of dietary fat, protein, and energy intake with prevalence of colorectal adenoma.We performed a prospective cross-sectional study on asymptomatic persons who underwent a screening colonoscopy at a single center during a routine health check-up from May to December 2011. Dietary data were obtained via a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), assisted by a registered dietician. We also obtained information on alcohol consumption and smoking status, and measured metabolic syndrome markers including abdominal circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We calculated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate the associations using the polytomous logistic regression models. As a secondary analysis, we also conducted a matched analysis, matched by age and sex (557 cases and 557 non-cases).The study sample included 557 cases (406 males and 151 females) with histopathologically confirmed colorectal adenoma, and 1157 controls (650 males and 507 females). The proportion of advanced adenoma was 28.1% of men and 18.5% of female, respectively. Although vegetable protein intake was inversely associated with the prevalence of colorectal adenoma, further adjustment for potential confounding factors attenuated the association, resulting in no significant associations. There were no significant associations between dietary fat intake and colorectal adenoma in energy-adjusted models. For vegetable protein in women, the OR for the comparison of those in the highest tertile with those in the lowest tertile was 0.47 (95% CI 0.25-0.91, P for trend = 0.07) after adjustment for total energy intake. However, after controlling for metabolic syndrome markers, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and family history of

  13. Recognition of higher order patterns in proteins: immunologic kernels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Bremel

    Full Text Available By applying analysis of the principal components of amino acid physical properties we predicted cathepsin cleavage sites, MHC binding affinity, and probability of B-cell epitope binding of peptides in tetanus toxin and in ten diverse additional proteins. Cross-correlation of these metrics, for peptides of all possible amino acid index positions, each evaluated in the context of a ±25 amino acid flanking region, indicated that there is a strongly repetitive pattern of short peptides of approximately thirty amino acids each bounded by cathepsin cleavage sites and each comprising B-cell linear epitopes, MHC-I and MHC-II binding peptides. Such "immunologic kernel" peptides comprise all signals necessary for adaptive immunologic cognition, response and recall. The patterns described indicate a higher order spatial integration that forms a symbolic logic coordinating the adaptive immune system.

  14. The Effects of Different Energy and Protein Ratio to Sheep’s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The objective of this research was to study the effects of different energy and protein ratio towards sheep’s nutrient intake and digestibility. Twenty four male sheep’s, 6 – 7 months old with initial average live weight 13+1.56 kg, coefficient variant11.78% were used in this research. The complete feed ration which consisted of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum, soybean powder, rice bran, dried cassava and molasses was used in this research. Protein content on each component was 10, 12 and 14% and total digestible nutrients (TDN 60 and 65%, respectively. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM intake, DM and OM digestibility were studied in this research. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to analyze the data. Test of Small Difference (P<0.05 was then carried out if significant different occurred. The research results showed that Dry matter and OM ration intake showed significant different among treatments (P<0.05. The highest DM intake was obtained at crude protein (CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 695.54 g while the lowest value was CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 462.11 g. Thus different DM and OM intake were caused by different ration ingredients composition. Dry matter and OM ration digestibility were not show

  15. Effects of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: A single blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Til, A.J.; Naumann, E.; Cox-Claessens, I.J.H.M.; Kremer, S.; Boelsma, E.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults.Design: A single blind randomised controlled trial.Setting: Rehabilitation

  16. Effect of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Til, van A.J.; Naumann, E.; Cox-Claessens, I.J.H.M.; Kremer, S.; Boelsma, E.; Schueren, van der D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. Design A single blind randomised controlled trial. Setting Rehabilitation centre.

  17. Effects of randomized whey-protein loads on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying, and plasma gut-hormone concentrations in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Standfield, Scott; Jones, Karen L; Lange, Kylie; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2017-09-01

    Background: Protein- and energy-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. Information about the effects of protein on energy intake and related gastrointestinal mechanisms and whether these differ between men and women is limited. Objective: We determined the effects of whey protein on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying, and gut hormones in healthy older men and women. Design: Eight older women and 8 older men [mean ± SEM age: 72 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 25 ± 1] were studied on 3 occasions in which they received protein loads of 30 g (120 kcal) or 70 g (280 kcal) or a flavored water control drink (0 kcal). At regular intervals over 180 min, appetite (visual analog scales), gastric emptying (3-dimensional ultrasonography), and blood glucose and plasma gut-hormone concentrations [insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)] were measured, and ad libitum energy intake was quantified from a buffet meal (180-210 min; energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying in the men have been published previously). Results: Energy intake at the buffet meal was ∼80% higher in older men than in older women ( P 0.05). There was no effect of sex on gastric emptying, appetite, gastrointestinal symptoms, glucose, or gut hormones ( P > 0.05). There was a protein load-dependent slowing of gastric emptying, an increase in concentrations of insulin, glucagon, cholecystokinin, GIP, GLP-1, and PYY, and an increase in total energy intake (drink plus meal: 12% increase with 30 g and 32% increase with 70 g; P < 0.001). Energy intake at the buffet meal was inversely related to the stomach volume and area under the curve of hormone concentrations ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: In older men and women, whey-protein drinks load-dependently slow gastric emptying and alter gut hormone secretion compared with a control but have no

  18. Effect of resistance training and protein intake pattern on myofibrillar protein synthesis and proteome kinetics in older men in energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Caoileann H; Shankaran, Mahalakshmi; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Mitchell, Cameron J; Kolar, Nathan M; Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A; Kassis, Amira; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Li, Kelvin; King, Chelsea; Hellerstein, Marc; Phillips, Stuart M

    2018-06-01

    Strategies to enhance the loss of fat while preserving muscle mass during energy restriction are of great importance to prevent sarcopenia in overweight older adults. We show for the first time that the integrated rate of synthesis of numerous individual contractile, cytosolic and mitochondrial skeletal muscle proteins was increased by resistance training (RT) and unaffected by dietary protein intake pattern during energy restriction in free-living, obese older men. We observed a correlation between the synthetic rates of skeletal muscle-derived proteins obtained in serum (creatine kinase M-type, carbonic anhydrase 3) and the synthetic rates of proteins obtained via muscle sampling; and that the synthesis rates of these proteins in serum revealed the stimulatory effects of RT. These results have ramifications for understanding the influence of RT on skeletal muscle and are consistent with the role of RT in maintaining muscle protein synthesis and potentially supporting muscle mass preservation during weight loss. We determined how the pattern of protein intake and resistance training (RT) influenced longer-term (2 weeks) integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) during energy restriction (ER). MyoPS and proteome kinetics were measured during 2 weeks of ER alone and 2 weeks of ER plus RT (ER + RT) in overweight/obese older men. Participants were randomized to consume dietary protein in a balanced (BAL: 25% daily protein per meal × 4 meals) or skewed (SKEW: 7:17:72:4% daily protein per meal) pattern (n = 10 per group). Participants ingested deuterated water during the consecutive 2-week periods, and skeletal muscle biopsies and serum were obtained at the beginning and conclusion of ER and ER + RT. Bulk MyoPS (i.e. synthesis of the myofibrillar protein sub-fraction) and the synthetic rates of numerous individual skeletal muscle proteins were quantified. Bulk MyoPS was not affected by protein distribution during ER or ER + RT (ER: BAL = 1.24

  19. The impact of gender and protein intake on the success of weight maintenance and associated cardiovascular risk benefits, independent of the mode of food provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Holst, Claus; Saris, Wim H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maintenance of weight loss and associated cardiovascular benefits after following energy-restricted diets is still a challenging field, and thorough investigation is needed. The present research aimed to determine the role of protein and gender in relation to two different intervention...... models related to food supply, in a weight maintenance trial. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The DiOGenes trial was a long-term, multicenter, randomized, dietary intervention study, conducted in eight European countries (Clinical Trials.gov, NCT00390637), focusing on assessing the effectiveness of weight...... and macronutrient intake. RESULTS: The weight maintenance intervention based on different macronutrient intake showed, independently of the advice delivery model, in both sexes that higher protein consumption was more effective for weight stability, showing better results in obese women (low protein: 1.65 kg...

  20. Higher energy intake at dinner decreases parasympathetic activity during nighttime sleep in menstruating women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Yuki; Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Tanaka, Izumi; Kanehara, Rieko; Kato, Misao; Hatta, Naoko; Hida, Azumi; Kawano, Yukari

    2018-06-09

    Previous studies have found more frequent increases in dietary intake and nonrestorative nocturnal sleep during the luteal phase than in the follicular phase, but few studies have investigated how increased energy intake at dinner influences sleep by considering the correlation between female hormone and cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. This study examined the effects of energy intake at dinner on ANS activity during nighttime sleep in order to evaluate restorative sleep in healthy women. We also examined whether ANS activity is associated with female hormone dynamics. Twenty-four healthy collegiate women participated in this randomized crossover trial. Each was assigned to receive a High Energy Dinner (HED) or Low Energy Dinner (LED) treatment. Energy ratios of each test meal (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) to total energy intake were 1:1:2 and 1:2:1 for HED and LED treatments, respectively. Each participant wore an ECG recorder before dinner and removed it upon waking the next morning. Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was used to calculate low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and total spectral power (TP). Cardiac sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) nervous system activity were evaluated as LF/HF and HF/TP, respectively. Mean HF/TP for the entire sleeping period was lower with HED treatment compared to LED treatment (41.7 ± 11.4 vs. 45.0 ± 12.13, P = .034). Intergroup comparisons of the initial 3-h sleeping period revealed that LF/HF (0.87 ± 0.82 vs. 0.66 ± 0.82, P = .013) and HF/TP (45.6 ± 13.9 vs. 51.5 ± 11.8, P = .002) were higher and lower, respectively, with HED treatment compared to LED treatment. Progesterone levels were positively correlated with LF/HF with LED treatment, and negatively correlated with HF/TP with both HED and LED treatments. Higher energy intake at dinner increases and decreases SNS and PNS activities, respectively, resulting in nonrestorative nocturnal

  1. Using Aptitude Testing to Diversify Higher Education Intake--An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Daniel; Coates, Hamish; Friedman, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Australian higher education is currently entering a new phase of growth. Within the remit of this expansion is an express commitment to widen participation in higher education among under-represented groups--in particular those from low socioeconomic backgrounds. This paper argues that one key mechanism for achieving this goal should be the…

  2. Dietary Vitamin C, E and β-Carotene Intake Does Not Significantly Affect Plasma or Salivary Antioxidant Indices and Salivary C-Reactive Protein in Older Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Guligowska, Agnieszka; Prymont-Przymińska, Anna; Godala, Małgorzata; Kolmaga, Agnieszka; Nowak, Dariusz; Szatko, Franciszek; Kostka, Tomasz

    2017-07-09

    It is not clear whether habitual dietary intake influences the antioxidant or inflammatory status. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of antioxidative vitamins C, E, and β-carotene obtained from daily food rations on plasma and salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), uric acid and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP). The study involved 80 older subjects (66.9 ± 4.3 years), divided into two groups: group 1 ( n = 43) with lower and group 2 ( n = 37) with higher combined vitamins C, E and β-carotene intake. A 24-h dietary recall was obtained from each individual. TAC was assessed simultaneously with two methods in plasma (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma-FRAP, 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-DPPH) and in saliva (FRAS and DPPHS test). Lower vitamin C intake corresponded to higher FRAS. There were no other correlations between vitamins C, E or β-carotene intake and antioxidant indices. Salivary CRP was not related to any antioxidant indices. FRAS was decreased in group 2 ( p < 0.01) but no other group differences for salivary or for plasma antioxidant parameters and salivary CRP were found. Habitual, not extra supplemented dietary intake does not significantly affect plasma or salivary TAC and salivary CRP.

  3. Association of Animal and Plant Proteins Intake with Hypertension in Iranian Adult Population: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Mehrabani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is evidence regarding the relationship between dietary proteins intake and blood pressure (BP, but they had inconsistent results. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the association between different kinds of protein intake (animal and plant protein and BP. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. We performed a cross-sectional study among 9660 randomly selected Iranian adults aged ≥19-year-old that they were selected from three large Iranian regions in 2007. A simplified validated 48-item-food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake including all kinds of protein. Systolic and diastolic BPs were measured in duplicate by trained personnel using a standard protocol. Multivariable regressions were applied to assess the relationship between protein intake and BP levels and the presence of hypertension (HTN. Results: More frequent consumption of animal, plant, and total protein intake were inversely associated with BP in a crude model (P < 0.001; however, after adjustment for potential confounders this relationship remained only for plant protein (P = 0.04. The risk of HTN occurrence decreased in the highest quintile of total and plant protein consumption by 19% (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81; confidence interval [CI]: [0.65–0.96]; P for trend = 0.004 and 18% (OR = 0.82; [CI: (0.67–0.94]; P for trend = 0.03, respectively. Conclusions: More frequent protein intake, especially plant protein consumption was inversely associated with BP and risk of HTN among Iranian adults.

  4. The Link between Dietary Protein Intake, Skeletal Muscle Function and Health in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie I. Baum

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle mass and function are progressively lost with age, a condition referred to as sarcopenia. By the age of 60, many older adults begin to be affected by muscle loss. There is a link between decreased muscle mass and strength and adverse health outcomes such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Data suggest that increasing dietary protein intake at meals may counterbalance muscle loss in older individuals due to the increased availability of amino acids, which stimulate muscle protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1. Increased muscle protein synthesis can lead to increased muscle mass, strength and function over time. This review aims to address the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA for protein and whether or not this value meets the needs for older adults based upon current scientific evidence. The current RDA for protein is 0.8 g/kg body weight/day. However, literature suggests that consuming protein in amounts greater than the RDA can improve muscle mass, strength and function in older adults.

  5. Usual Choline Intakes Are Associated with Egg and Protein Food Consumption in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C. Wallace

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient with critical roles in several biological processes including neuronal development, cell signaling, nerve impulse transmission, and lipid transport and metabolism. The National Cancer Institute method was used to assess usual intakes of choline from foods according to data for participants enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2014 datasets and pregnant women in the 2005–2014 datasets. Suboptimal intakes of choline are present across many gender and life-stage subpopulations, as well as pregnant women in the U.S. Only 8.03 ± 0.56% of adults and 8.51 ± 2.89% pregnant women meet the AI for choline. Children 2–3 years were the most likely to meet their gender and life-stage specific AI, followed by children 4–8 years. Adults 19+ years who consume eggs were more likely to meet their gender and life-stage AI as compared to non-consumers (57.3 ± 1.45% and 2.43 ± 0.28%. Consumers of eggs had almost double the usual intake of choline as compared to non-consumers (525 ± 5.17 mg/d and 294 ± 1.98; p < 0.0001. Protein food (meat, poultry and seafood consumption also increased usual choline intakes compared to non-consumers (345 ± 2.21 mg/day and 235 ± 8.81; p < 0.0001 to a lesser degree, but did not result in substantial increases in the percent of individuals meeting the AI. No subpopulation exceeded the UL for choline. This research illustrates that it is extremely difficult to achieve the AI for choline without consuming eggs or taking a dietary supplement.

  6. Immediate and residual effects of heat stress and restricted intake on milk protein and casein composition and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, F C; Barber, D G; Houlihan, A V; Poppi, D P

    2015-04-01

    The effects of heat stress on dairy production can be separated into 2 distinct causes: those effects that are mediated by the reduced voluntary feed intake associated with heat stress, and the direct physiological and metabolic effects of heat stress. To distinguish between these, and identify their effect on milk protein and casein concentration, mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 24) were housed in temperature-controlled chambers and either subjected to heat stress [HS; temperature-humidity index (THI) ~78] or kept in a THIheat-stressed cows (TN-R) for 7 d. A control group of cows was kept in a THIheat stress. Heat stress reduced the milk protein concentration, casein number, and casein concentration and increased the urea concentration in milk beyond the effects of restriction of intake. Under HS, the proportion in total casein of αS1-casein increased and the proportion of αS2-casein decreased. Because no effect of HS on milk fat or lactose concentration was found, these effects appeared to be the result of specific downregulation of mammary protein synthesis, and not a general reduction in mammary activity. No residual effects were found of HS or TN-R on milk production or composition after THIHeat-stressed cows had elevated blood concentrations of urea and Ca, compared with TN-R and TN-AL. Cows in TN-R had higher serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations than cows in HS. It was proposed that HS and TN-R cows may mobilize different tissues as endogenous sources of energy. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Balanced intake of protein and carbohydrate maximizes lifetime reproductive success in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in insect gerontological and nutritional research have suggested that the dietary protein:carbohydrate (P:C) balance is a critical determinant of lifespan and reproduction in many insects. However, most studies investigating this important role of dietary P:C balance have been conducted using dipteran and orthopteran species. In this study, we used the mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to test the effects of dietary P:C balance on lifespan and reproduction. Regardless of their reproductive status, both male and female beetles had the shortest lifespan at the protein-biased ratio of P:C 5:1. Mean lifespan was the longest at P:C 1:1 for males and at both P:C 1:1 and 1:5 for females. Mating significantly curtailed the lifespan of both males and females, indicating the survival cost of mating. Age-specific egg laying was significantly higher at P:C 1:1 than at the two imbalanced P:C ratios (1:5 or 5:1) at any given age throughout their lives, resulting in the highest lifetime reproductive success at P:C 1:1. When given a choice, beetles actively regulated their intake of protein and carbohydrate to a slightly carbohydrate-biased ratio (P:C 1:1.54-1:1.64 for males and P:C 1:1.3-1:1.36 for females). The self-selected P:C ratio was significantly higher for females than males, reflecting a higher protein requirement for egg production. Collectively, our results add to a growing body of evidence suggesting the key role played by dietary macronutrient balance in shaping lifespan and reproduction in insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Daily Exposure to an Isolated Soy Protein Supplement on Body Composition, Energy and Macronutrient Intake, Bone Formation Markers, and Lipid Profile in Children in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Wilson; Córdoba, Diana; Durán, Paola; Chacón, Yersson; Rosselli, Diego

    2018-01-16

    A soy protein-based supplement may optimize bone health, support physical growth, and stimulate bone formation. This study aimed to assess the effect of a daily soy protein supplement (SPS) on nutritional status, bone formation markers, lipid profile, and daily energy and macronutrient intake in children. One hundred seven participants (62 girls), ages 2 to 9, started the study and were randomly assigned to lunch fruit juice with (n = 57, intervention group) or without (n = 50, control group) addition of 45 g (230 Kcal) of a commercial SPS during 12 months; 84 children (51 girls, 33 boys) completed the study (45 and 39 intervention and control, respectively). Nutritional assessment included anthropometry and nutrient intakes; initial and final blood samples were taken; insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), osteocalcin, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were analyzed. Statistically significant changes (p < .05) in body mass index and weight for age Z scores were observed between groups while changes in body composition were not. Changes in energy, total protein, and carbohydrate intakes were significantly higher in the intervention group (p < .01). Calorie intake changes were statistically significant between groups (p < .001), and BAP decreased in both groups, with values within normal ranges. Osteocalcin, IGFBP-3, and lipid profile were not different between groups. IGF-I levels and IGF/IGFBP-3 ratio increased significantly in both groups. In conclusion, changes in macronutrient and energy intake and nutritional status in the intervention group compared to control group may ensure harmonious and adequate bone health and development.

  9. Protein intake, nitrogen balance and nutritional status in patients with Parkinson's disease; time for a change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilli Canedo Silva, Maryanne; Carol Fritzen, Natali; de Oliveira, Marlon; Paes da Silva, Michel; Rasmussen Petterle, Ricardo; Teive, Hélio Afonso; de Mesquita Barros Almeida Leite, Christiane; Rabito, Estela Iraci; Madalozzo Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana; Carvalho, Mauricio

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate protein intake, nitrogen balance and nutritional status of clinically stable patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). A cross-sectional study of PD patients Hoehn-Yahr scale stage 1-3 and subjects with no neurologic disease (controls) matched for age and gender. All participants underwent a diet history interview, anthropometric measurements, bioelectrical impedance and food record over three non-consecutive days, including a weekend. A 24-hour urine collection and fasting venous blood sampling were collected from the participants for evaluation of creatinine clearance, creatinine height index and the nitrogen balance. The mean age of PD patients was 58.9 ± 12.8 year compared to 54.7 ± 12.6 year of the controls, P = 0.34. One third of PD group had symptoms of dysphagia and ingested less water and fibers when compared to controls. Calf circumference was small in PD group (35.5 ± 2.8 vs. 38.4 ± 3.5 cm, P = 0.012). Intake of nitrogen was significantly lower and nitrogen balance was negative in PD patients (-1.8 ± 3.9 vs. 1.1 ± 4.2 controls, P = 0.06). The antioxidants folate and vitamin E were consumed in small amounts in both groups, although significantly less in PD patients (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). Daily intakes of protein of approximately 1.1 g/kg by clinically stable PD patients may not be enough to ensure a neutral calorie-nitrogen balance and muscle tissue conservation. Larger studies are necessary to provide a more comprehensive picture of PD patients' metabolic status. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimu...

  11. Identification of biomarkers for intake of protein from meat, dairy products and grains: A controlled dietary intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Brink, E.J.; Boetje, M.; Siebelink, E.; Bijlsma, S.; Engberink, M.F.; Veer, P.V.'.; Tomé, D.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Baak, M.A. van; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present controlled, randomised, multiple cross-over dietary intervention study, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers for dietary protein from dairy products, meat and grain, which could be useful to estimate intake of these protein types in epidemiological studies. After 9 d run-in,

  12. Identification of biomarkers for intake of protein from meat, dairy products and grains : a controlled dietary intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, Wieke; Brink, Elizabeth J.; Boetje, Martine; Siebelink, Els; Bijlsma, Sabina; Engberink, Marielle F.; van 't Veer, Pieter; Tome, Daniel; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Baak, Marleen A.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present controlled, randomised, multiple cross-over dietary intervention study, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers for dietary protein from dairy products, meat and grain, which could be useful to estimate intake of these protein types in epidemiological studies. After 9 d run-in,

  13. A High-Protein Diet Reduces Weight Gain, Decreases Food Intake, Decreases Liver Fat Deposition, and Improves Markers of Muscle Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, William W; Dridi, Sami; Shouse, Stephanie A; Wu, Hexirui; Hawley, Aubree; Lee, Sun-Ok; Gu, Xuan; Baum, Jamie I

    2017-06-08

    A primary factor in controlling and preventing obesity is through dietary manipulation. Diets higher in protein have been shown to improve body composition and metabolic health during weight loss. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a high-protein diet versus a moderate-protein diet on muscle, liver and fat metabolism and glucose regulation using the obese Zucker rat. Twelve-week old, male, Zucker (fa/fa) and lean control (Fa/fa) rats were randomly assigned to either a high-protein (40% energy) or moderate-protein (20% energy) diet for 12 weeks, with a total of four groups: lean 20% protein (L20; n = 8), lean 40% protein (L40; n = 10), obese 20% protein (O20; n = 8), and obese 40% protein (O40; n = 10). At the end of 12 weeks, animals were fasted and euthanized. There was no difference in food intake between L20 and L40. O40 rats gained less weight and had lower food intake ( p diet rats, respectively. O40 had decreased skeletal muscle mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA expression compared to O20 ( p protein kinase (AMPK), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1), protein kinase B (Akt) or p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) phosphorylation. The data suggest that high-protein diets have the potential to reduce weight gain and alter metabolism, possibly through regulation of an mTORC1-dependent pathway in skeletal muscle.

  14. Temporal microbiota changes of high-protein diet intake in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Luo, Zhen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2017-10-01

    Alterations of specific microbes serve as important indicators that link gut health with specific diet intake. Although a six-week high-protein diet (45% protein) upregulates the pro-inflammatory response and oxidative stress in colon of rats, the dynamic alteration of gut microbiota remains unclear. To dissect temporal changes of microbiota, dynamic analyses of fecal microbiota were conducted using a rat model. Adult rats were fed a normal-protein diet or an HPD for 6 weeks, and feces collected at different weeks were used for microbiota and metabolite analysis. The structural alteration of fecal microbiota was observed after 4 weeks, especially for the decreased appearance of bands related to Akkermansia species. HPD increased numbers of Escherichia coli while decreased Akkermansia muciniphila, Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, Ruminococcus bromii, and Roseburia/Eubacterium rectale (P protein diet. HPD also decreased the copies of genes encoding butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase and Prevotella-associated methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase α-subunit (P high-protein diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy, protein, calcium, vitamin D and fibre intakes from meals in residential care establishments in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowson, Caryl A; Sherwin, Alice J; McPhee, Joan G; Wark, John D; Flicker, Leon

    2003-01-01

    Residents from high level (nursing homes) and low-level care facilities (hostel) being served the three common diet texture modifications (full diet, soft-minced diet and pureed diet) were assessed. Individual plate waste was estimated at three meals on one day. Fifty-six males and 156 females, mean age 82.9+/-9.5 (SD) years, of which 139 lived in nursing homes (NH) and 76 in hostels (H) were included. Mean total energy served from meals was 5.3 MJ/day, 5.1 to 5.6 MJ/day, 95% confidence intervals (CI), in NH which was less than in H, 5.9 MJ/day (CI 5.6 to 6.2 MJ/day) (P=0.007). Protein and calcium intakes were lower in NH, 44.5g (CI 41.5 to 47.5g), 359.0mg (CI 333.2 to 384.8mg), versus 50.5g (CI 46.6 to 54.3g), 480.5mg (CI 444.3 to 516.7mg) in H (P=0.017, Phostels, except for protein. Strategies to effectively monitor nutrient intakes and to identify those with eating impairment are required in order to ensure adequate nutrition of residents in nursing homes and hostels.

  16. High Protein Intake Does Not Prevent Low Plasma Levels of Conditionally Essential Amino Acids in Very Preterm Infants Receiving Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Colin; Burgess, Laura

    2017-03-01

    We have shown that increasing protein intake using a standardized, concentrated, added macronutrients parenteral (SCAMP) nutrition regimen improves head growth in very preterm infants (VPIs) compared with a control parenteral nutrition (PN) regimen. VPIs are at risk of conditionally essential amino acid (CEAA) deficiencies because of current neonatal PN amino acid (AA) formulations. We hypothesized that the SCAMP regimen would prevent low plasma levels of CEAAs. To compare the plasma AA profiles at approximately day 9 of life in VPIs receiving SCAMP vs a control PN regimen. VPIs (parenteral and enteral protein, energy, and individual AA intake and the first plasma AA profile. Plasma profiles of the 20 individual protogenic AA levels were measured using ion exchange chromatography. Plasma AA profiles were obtained at median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 9 (8-10) days in both SCAMP (n = 59) and control (n = 67) groups after randomizing 150 VPIs. Median (IQR) plasma levels of individual essential AAs were higher than the reference population mean (RPM) in both groups, especially for threonine. SCAMP infants had higher plasma levels of essential AAs than did the controls. Median (IQR) plasma levels of glutamine, arginine, and cysteine (CEAAs) were lower than the RPM in both groups. Plasma AA levels in PN-dependent VPIs indicate there is an imbalance in essential and CEAA provision in neonatal PN AA formulations that is not improved by increasing protein intake.

  17. Higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea are independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about the relation of modifiable dietary factors to circulating homocysteine concentrations, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. We investigated the hypothesis that intakes of nutrients and foods are associated with serum homocysteine concentration in a group of young Japanese women. This cross-sectional study included 1050 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 22 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum homocysteine concentrations were measured. Adjustment was made for survey year, region, municipality level, current smoking, current alcohol drinking, dietary supplement use, physical activity, body mass index, energy intake, and intakes of other nutrients or foods. After adjustment for nondietary confounding factors, intakes of all B vitamins (folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and riboflavin) were inversely associated with homocysteine concentration. However, only vitamin B-6 remained significant after further adjustment for other B vitamins. Marine-origin n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake showed an inverse association, but this was not independent of intakes of B vitamins. For foods, pulses, fish and shellfish, and vegetables were independently and inversely associated with homocysteine concentration, but these associations disappeared after adjustment for intakes of other foods. Conversely, an inverse association for dairy products and a positive association for green and oolong tea remained even after adjustment for other foods. To conclude, in a group of young Japanese women, higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea were independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Animal Protein intake and the Effect of age on the level of Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the items such as eggs, milk and poultry meat were not consumed in reasonable quantities due to poor economic situation of the family. The results suggested that except for the fathers, other groups such as mothers and children were consuming animal protein below the quantity required by them. JARD Vol.

  19. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  20. Protein intakes and their nutritional sources during the first 2 years of life: secondary data evaluation from the European Childhood Obesity Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damianidi, L; Gruszfeld, D; Verduci, E; Vecchi, F; Xhonneux, A; Langhendries, J-P; Luque, V; Theurich, M A; Zaragoza-Jordana, M; Koletzko, B; Grote, V

    2016-11-01

    High protein intake in infancy affects future obesity risk and other health outcomes. We aim to describe total protein intake and its sources in a birth cohort in five European countries over the first 2 years of life. A total of 746 formula-fed infants were included. Three-day weighed dietary records at 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months of age were used. Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA and Friedman's tests were used to assess possible differences in nutritional intake among countries and over time. Dairy products were the main components of the infants' diets. Cow's milk was rarely introduced before 12 months of age, whereas infants' formula was the main contributor of protein intake. Food choices and protein intake differed among countries (Pnutritional patterns were identified that were characterised by differences in energy, fat, protein and animal protein intake. Finally, food consumption was not always in line with protein intakes, and thus infants from some countries showed high consumption of specific food groups but relatively low protein intakes. During weaning, over-limited substitution of dairy products with other sources (especially meat) resulted in relatively high protein intakes in formula-fed infants. Differences in preferences of specific protein sources from complementary foods existed among European countries. Great opportunities in improving early nutrition were revealed, although cultural and geographical differences should always be considered.

  1. Pre- versus post-exercise protein intake has similar effects on muscular adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan; Wilborn, Colin; Urbina, Stacie L; Hayward, Sara E; Krieger, James

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the anabolic window theory by investigating muscle strength, hypertrophy, and body composition changes in response to an equal dose of protein consumed either immediately pre- versus post-resistance training (RT) in trained men. Subjects were 21 resistance-trained men (>1 year RT experience) recruited from a university population. After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a group that consumed a supplement containing 25 g protein and 1 g carbohydrate immediately prior to exercise (PRE-SUPP) ( n  = 9) or a group that consumed the same supplement immediately post-exercise (POST-SUPP) ( n  = 12). The RT protocol consisted of three weekly sessions performed on non-consecutive days for 10 weeks. A total-body routine was employed with three sets of 8-12 repetitions for each exercise. Results showed that pre- and post-workout protein consumption had similar effects on all measures studied ( p  > 0.05). These findings refute the contention of a narrow post-exercise anabolic window to maximize the muscular response and instead lends support to the theory that the interval for protein intake may be as wide as several hours or perhaps more after a training bout depending on when the pre-workout meal was consumed.

  2. Pre- versus post-exercise protein intake has similar effects on muscular adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Jon Schoenfeld

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the anabolic window theory by investigating muscle strength, hypertrophy, and body composition changes in response to an equal dose of protein consumed either immediately pre- versus post-resistance training (RT in trained men. Subjects were 21 resistance-trained men (>1 year RT experience recruited from a university population. After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a group that consumed a supplement containing 25 g protein and 1 g carbohydrate immediately prior to exercise (PRE-SUPP (n = 9 or a group that consumed the same supplement immediately post-exercise (POST-SUPP (n = 12. The RT protocol consisted of three weekly sessions performed on non-consecutive days for 10 weeks. A total-body routine was employed with three sets of 8–12 repetitions for each exercise. Results showed that pre- and post-workout protein consumption had similar effects on all measures studied (p > 0.05. These findings refute the contention of a narrow post-exercise anabolic window to maximize the muscular response and instead lends support to the theory that the interval for protein intake may be as wide as several hours or perhaps more after a training bout depending on when the pre-workout meal was consumed.

  3. The effects of dietary protein intake on appendicular lean mass and muscle function in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Milan, Amber M; Mitchell, Sarah M

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for protein intake in the adult population is widely promoted as 0.8 g · kg-1 · d-1 Aging may increase protein requirements, particularly to maintain muscle mass.Objective: We investigated whether controlled protein consumption at the current RDA...... or twice the RDA (2RDA) affects skeletal muscle mass and physical function in elderly men.Design: In this parallel-group randomized trial, 29 men aged >70 y [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2): 28.3 ± 4.2] were provided with a complete diet containing either 0.8 (RDA) or 1.6 (2RDA) g protein · kg-1 · d-1...... energy balance (mean ± SD RDA: 209 ± 213 kcal/d; 2RDA 145 ± 214 kcal/d; P= 0.427 for difference between the groups). In comparison with RDA, whole-body lean mass increased in 2RDA (P = 0.001; 1.49 ± 1.30 kg, P

  4. Management of protein-energy wasting in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease: reconciling low protein intake with nutritional therapy1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kopple, Joel D; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2013-01-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW), characterized by a decline in body protein mass and energy reserves, including muscle and fat wasting and visceral protein pool contraction, is an underappreciated condition in early to moderate stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a strong predictor of adverse outcomes. The prevalence of PEW in early to moderate CKD is ≥20–25% and increases as CKD progresses, in part because of activation of proinflammatory cytokines combined with superimposed hypercatabolic states and declines in appetite. This anorexia leads to inadequate protein and energy intake, which may be reinforced by prescribed dietary restrictions and inadequate monitoring of the patient's nutritional status. Worsening uremia also renders CKD patients vulnerable to potentially deleterious effects of uncontrolled diets, including higher phosphorus and potassium burden. Uremic metabolites, some of which are anorexigenic and many of which are products of protein metabolism, can exert harmful effects, ranging from oxidative stress to endothelial dysfunction, nitric oxide disarrays, renal interstitial fibrosis, sarcopenia, and worsening proteinuria and kidney function. Given such complex pathways, nutritional interventions in CKD, when applied in concert with nonnutritional therapeutic approaches, encompass an array of strategies (such as dietary restrictions and supplementations) aimed at optimizing both patients’ biochemical variables and their clinical outcomes. The applicability of many nutritional interventions and their effects on outcomes in patients with CKD with PEW has not been well studied. This article reviews the definitions and pathophysiology of PEW in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD, examines the current indications for various dietary modification strategies in patients with CKD (eg, manufactured protein-based supplements, amino acids and their keto acid or hydroxyacid analogues), discusses the rationale behind their potential use in

  5. Management of protein-energy wasting in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease: reconciling low protein intake with nutritional therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kopple, Joel D; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2013-06-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW), characterized by a decline in body protein mass and energy reserves, including muscle and fat wasting and visceral protein pool contraction, is an underappreciated condition in early to moderate stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a strong predictor of adverse outcomes. The prevalence of PEW in early to moderate CKD is ≥20-25% and increases as CKD progresses, in part because of activation of proinflammatory cytokines combined with superimposed hypercatabolic states and declines in appetite. This anorexia leads to inadequate protein and energy intake, which may be reinforced by prescribed dietary restrictions and inadequate monitoring of the patient's nutritional status. Worsening uremia also renders CKD patients vulnerable to potentially deleterious effects of uncontrolled diets, including higher phosphorus and potassium burden. Uremic metabolites, some of which are anorexigenic and many of which are products of protein metabolism, can exert harmful effects, ranging from oxidative stress to endothelial dysfunction, nitric oxide disarrays, renal interstitial fibrosis, sarcopenia, and worsening proteinuria and kidney function. Given such complex pathways, nutritional interventions in CKD, when applied in concert with nonnutritional therapeutic approaches, encompass an array of strategies (such as dietary restrictions and supplementations) aimed at optimizing both patients' biochemical variables and their clinical outcomes. The applicability of many nutritional interventions and their effects on outcomes in patients with CKD with PEW has not been well studied. This article reviews the definitions and pathophysiology of PEW in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD, examines the current indications for various dietary modification strategies in patients with CKD (eg, manufactured protein-based supplements, amino acids and their keto acid or hydroxyacid analogues), discusses the rationale behind their potential use in patients

  6. Protein from meat or vegetable sources in meals matched for fiber content has similar effects on subjective appetite sensations and energy intake - A randomized acute cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard; Kristensen, Marlene D; Klingenberg, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy......-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations....... intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19...

  7. Vitamin k intake and plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein levels in kidney transplant recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Y Boxma

    Full Text Available Vitamin K is essential for activation of γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla-proteins including the vascular calcification inhibitor matrix Gla-protein (MGP. Insufficient vitamin K intake leads to production of uncarboxylated, mostly inactive proteins and contributes to an increased cardiovascular risk. In kidney transplant recipients, cardiovascular risk is high but vitamin K intake and status have not been defined. We investigated dietary vitamin K intake, vascular vitamin K status and its determinants in kidney transplant recipients. We estimated vitamin K intake in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients (n = 60 with stable renal function (creatinine clearance 61 [42-77] (median [interquartile range] ml/min, who were 75 [35-188] months after transplantation, using three-day food records and food frequency questionnaires. Vascular vitamin K status was assessed by measuring plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP. Total vitamin K intake was below the recommended level in 50% of patients. Lower vitamin K intake was associated with less consumption of green vegetables (33 vs 40 g/d, p = 0.06 and increased dp-ucMGP levels (621 vs 852 pmol/L, p500 pmol/L in 80% of patients. Multivariate regression identified creatinine clearance, coumarin use, body mass index, high sensitivity-CRP and sodium excretion as independent determinants of dp-ucMGP levels. In a considerable part of the kidney transplant population, vitamin K intake is too low for maximal carboxylation of vascular MGP. The high dp-ucMGP levels may result in an increased risk for arterial calcification. Whether increasing vitamin K intake may have health benefits for kidney transplant recipients should be addressed by future studies.

  8. Vitamin k intake and plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein levels in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxma, Paul Y; van den Berg, Else; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Laverman, Gozewijn D; Schurgers, Leon J; Vermeer, Cees; Kema, Ido P; Muskiet, Frits A; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L; de Borst, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is essential for activation of γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla)-proteins including the vascular calcification inhibitor matrix Gla-protein (MGP). Insufficient vitamin K intake leads to production of uncarboxylated, mostly inactive proteins and contributes to an increased cardiovascular risk. In kidney transplant recipients, cardiovascular risk is high but vitamin K intake and status have not been defined. We investigated dietary vitamin K intake, vascular vitamin K status and its determinants in kidney transplant recipients. We estimated vitamin K intake in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients (n = 60) with stable renal function (creatinine clearance 61 [42-77] (median [interquartile range]) ml/min), who were 75 [35-188] months after transplantation, using three-day food records and food frequency questionnaires. Vascular vitamin K status was assessed by measuring plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP). Total vitamin K intake was below the recommended level in 50% of patients. Lower vitamin K intake was associated with less consumption of green vegetables (33 vs 40 g/d, p = 0.06) and increased dp-ucMGP levels (621 vs 852 pmol/L, p500 pmol/L) in 80% of patients. Multivariate regression identified creatinine clearance, coumarin use, body mass index, high sensitivity-CRP and sodium excretion as independent determinants of dp-ucMGP levels. In a considerable part of the kidney transplant population, vitamin K intake is too low for maximal carboxylation of vascular MGP. The high dp-ucMGP levels may result in an increased risk for arterial calcification. Whether increasing vitamin K intake may have health benefits for kidney transplant recipients should be addressed by future studies.

  9. Fosrenol for Enhancing Dietary Protein Intake in Hypoalbuminemic Dialysis Patients (FrEDI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Koontz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein-energy wasting (PEW, reflected by serum albumin 5.5 mg/dL is also common and is associated with high death risk. The traditional dietary approach to control hyperphosphatemia by limiting protein foods may cause or worsen PEW. We hypothesized that provision of a high protein diet including during HD treatment results in favorable outcomes if a potent phosphorus binder such as lanthanum carbonate (Fosrenol™ can control phosphorus simultaneously and conducted a pilot/feasibility randomized controlled trial in 110 hypoalbuminemic (<4.0 mg/dL MHD patients in several dialysis clinics. After a washout period and upon 1:1 randomization, we provided the INTERVENTION group with 8 weeks of high protein meals as prepared meal boxes (50 g protein, 850 Cal, phosphorus to protein ratio <10 mg/gm during each HD treatment, along with 0.5 to 1.5 g Fosrenol (titrated as needed plus dietary counseling to maintain a high dietary protein intake at home. The CONTROL group received meal boxes containing low calorie (<50 Cal and almost no protein (<1 g, such as salads during each HD treatment and continued non-Fosrenol binders. We examined combined change in serum albumin with remaining in target phosphorus range of 3.5-<5.5 mg/dL over the 8 weeks of intervention. Among the 51 intervention and 55 control subjects who qualified for the intention-to-treat analyses, the combined rise in albumin ≥0.2 g/dL while maintaining phosphorus in 3.5-<5.5 mg/dL range was achieved in 25.5% and 9.8%, respectively (χ² p-value 0.036. No serious adverse events were reported, and patients reported satisfaction with high protein meals during HD. Hence, provision of high protein meals combined with Fosrenol™ during HD is safe and may improve albumin while controlling serum phosphorus. ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT0111694

  10. Can fortified foods and snacks increase the energy and protein intake of hospitalised older patients? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, S R; Wilcox, C R; Ibrahim, K; Roberts, H C

    2018-01-10

    Undernutrition affects over 44% of hospitalised older people, who often dislike oral nutritional supplements (ONS). This review summarises the evidence for an alternative strategy, using energy and protein dense meals (via fortification) or snacks (supplementation) to increase the dietary energy and protein intake of older inpatients. A search was conducted through PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews (May 1996 to May 2016) that used fortification or supplementation to increase the energy or protein intake of patients (mean age ≥60 years) in hospitals or rehabilitation centres. Ten articles (546 patients, mean age 60-83 years) were identified. Compared with usual nutritional care, six studies using either energy or protein based fortification and supplementation significantly increased intake of energy (250-450 kcal day -1 ) or protein (12-16 g day -1 ). Two studies enriched menus with both energy and protein, and significantly increased both energy (698 kcal day -1 and 21 kJ kg -1 ) and protein (16 g and 0.2 g kg -1 ) intake compared to usual care. ONS was similar to supplementation in one study but superior to fortification in another. Four studies reported good acceptability of enriched products and two studies that found they were cost-effective. Compared with usual nutritional care, energy- and protein-based fortification and supplementation could be employed as an effective, well-tolerated and cost-effective intervention to improve dietary intake amongst older inpatients. This strategy may be particularly useful for patients with cognitive impairment who struggle with ONS, and clinical trials are required to compare these approaches and establish their impact on functional outcomes. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Native whey induces higher and faster leucinemia than other whey protein supplements and milk: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance exercise and protein intake are both strong stimuli for muscle protein synthesis. The potential for a protein to acutely increase muscle protein synthesis seems partly dependent on absorption kinetics and the amino acid composition. The aim of this double-blinded randomized cross-over stu...

  12. Effects of rumen-undegradable protein on intake, performance, and mammary gland development in prepubertal and pubertal dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A L; Detmann, E; Dijkstra, J; Pedroso, A M; Silva, L H P; Machado, A F; Sousa, F C; Dos Santos, G B; Marcondes, M I

    2018-04-04

    , indicating higher contents of fat rather than protein in the mammary glands of PRE heifers. Serum progesterone and IGF-I concentration was affected only by PS, and PRE heifers had greater values of progesterone and IGF-I concentrations than PUB heifers. Serum insulin concentration was unaffected by PS but tended to be higher at 51% of RUP. In conclusion, an RUP level of 51% increases body weight, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and N retention in heifers regardless of the PS. In addition, PRE heifers have a lower sorting ability and reduced intake, total-tract digestibility, and N retention. They also have higher amounts of fat in their mammary glands, even at moderate growth rates. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Long term weight maintenance after advice to consume low carbohydrate, higher protein diets--a systematic review and meta analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, P M; Condo, D; Keogh, J B

    2014-03-01

    Meta analysis of short term trials indicates that a higher protein, lower carbohydrate weight loss diet enhances fat mass loss and limits lean mass loss compared with a normal protein weight loss diet. Whether this benefit persists long term is not clear. We selected weight loss studies in adults with at least a 12 month follow up in which a higher percentage protein/lower carbohydrate diet was either planned or would be expected for either weight loss or weight maintenance. Studies were selected regardless of the success of the advice but difference in absolute and percentage protein intake at 12 months was used as a moderator in the analysis. Data was analysed using Comprehensive Meta analysis V2 using a random effects analysis. As many as 32 studies with 3492 individuals were analysed with data on fat and lean mass, glucose and insulin from 18 to 22 studies and lipids from 28 studies. A recommendation to consume a lower carbohydrate, higher protein diet in mostly short term intensive interventions with long term follow up was associated with better weight and fat loss but the effect size was small-standardised means of 0.14 and 0.22, p = 0.008 and p fat mass (0.9 vs. 0.3 kg). Fasting triglyceride and insulin were also lower with high protein diets with effect sizes of 0.17 and 0.22, p = 0.003 and p = 0.042 respectively. Other lipids and glucose were not different. The short term benefit of higher protein diets appears to persist to a small degree long term. Benefits are greater with better compliance to the diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Interplay of atherogenic factors, protein intake and betatrophin levels in obese-metabolic syndrome patients treated with hypocaloric diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crujeiras, A B; Zulet, M A; Abete, I; Amil, M; Carreira, M C; Martínez, J A; Casanueva, F F

    2016-03-01

    The understanding of the potential role of betatrophin in human metabolic disorders is a current challenge. The present research evaluated circulating betatrophin levels in obese patients with metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) features under energy-restricted weight-loss programs and in normal weight in order to establish the putative interplay between the levels of this hormone, diet and metabolic risk factors linked to obesity and associated comorbidities. One hundred forty-three participants were enrolled in the study (95 obese-MetSyn; age 49.5±9.4 years; body mass index (BMI) 35.7±4.5 kg m(-2) and 48 normal weight; age 35.71±8.8 years; BMI 22.9±2.2 kg m(-2)). A nutritional therapy consisting in two hypocaloric strategies (control diet based on the AHA recommendations and the RESMENA (MEtabolic Syndrome REduction in Navarra) diet, a novel dietary program with changes in the macronutrient distribution) was only prescribed to obese-MetSyn participants who were randomly allocated to the dietary strategies. Dietary records, anthropometrical and biochemical variables as well as betatrophin levels were analyzed before (pre-intervention, week 0), at 8 weeks (post-intervention, week 8) and after 4 additional months of self-control period (follow-up, week 24). Betatrophin levels were higher in obese-MetSyn patients than normal-weight subjects (1.24±0.43 vs 0.97±0.69 ng ml(-1), respectively, P=0.012), and levels were positively associated with body composition, metabolic parameters, leptin and irisin in all participants at baseline. Notably, low pre-intervention (week 0) betatrophin levels in obese patients were significantly associated with higher dietary-induced changes in atherogenic risk factors after 8 weeks. Moreover, protein intake, especially proteins from animal sources, was an independent determinant of betatrophin levels after dietary treatment (B=-0.27; P=0.012). Betatrophin is elevated in obese patients with MetSyn features and is associated with

  15. Association of Protein Intake with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content among Elderly Women: The OSTPRE Fracture Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanejad, M; Sirola, J; Mursu, J; Kröger, H; Tuppurainen, M; Erkkilä, A T

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that high protein intakes are associated with lower bone mineral content (BMC). Previous studies yield conflicting results and thus far no studies have undertaken the interaction of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity with protein intakes in relation to BMC and bone mineral density (BMD). To evaluate the associations of dietary total protein (TP), animal protein (AP) and plant protein (PP) intakes with BMC and BMD and their changes. We tested also the interactions of protein intake with, obesity (BMI ≤30 vs. >30 kg/m2) and physical activity level (passive vs. active). Design/ Setting: Prospective cohort study (Osteoporosis Risk-Factor and Fracture-Prevention Study). Participants/measures: At the baseline, 554 women aged 65-72 years filled out a 3-day food record and a questionnaire covering data on lifestyle, physical activity, diseases, and medications. Intervention group received calcium 1000 mg/d and cholecalciferol 800 IU for 3 years. Control group received neither supplementation nor placebo. Bone density was measured at baseline and year 3, using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between protein intake and BMD and BMC. In cross-sectional analyses energy-adjusted TP (P≤0·029) and AP (P≤0·045) but not PP (g/d) were negatively associated with femoral neck (FN) BMD and BMC. Women with TP≥1·2 g/kg/body weight (BW) (Ptrend≤0·009) had lower FN, lumbar spine (LS) and total BMD and BMC. In follow-up analysis, TP (g/kg/BW) was inversely associated with LS BMD and LS BMC. The detrimental associations were stronger in women with BMI30 kg/m2 and physical activity.

  16. Effects of High vs. Low Protein Intake on Body Composition and Maximal Strength in Aspiring Female Physique Athletes Engaging in an 8-Week Resistance Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bill I; Aguilar, Danielle; Conlin, Laurin; Vargas, Andres; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Corson, Amey; Gai, Chris; Best, Shiva; Galvan, Elfego; Couvillion, Kaylee

    2018-02-06

    Aspiring female physique athletes are often encouraged to ingest relatively high levels of dietary protein in conjunction with their resistance-training programs. However, there is little to no research investigating higher vs. lower protein intakes in this population. This study examined the influence of a high vs. low protein diet in conjunction with an 8-week resistance training program in this population. Seventeen females (21.2±2.1 years; 165.1±5.1 cm; 61±6.1 kg) were randomly assigned to a high protein diet (HP: 2.5g/kg/day; n=8) or a low protein diet (LP: 0.9g/kg/day, n=9) and were assessed for body composition and maximal strength prior to and after the 8-week protein intake and exercise intervention. Fat-free mass (FFM) increased significantly more in the HP group as compared to the LP group (p=0.009), going from 47.1 ± 4.5kg to 49.2 ± 5.4kg (+2.1kg) and from 48.1 ± 2.7kg to 48.7 ± 2 (+0.6kg) in the HP and LP groups, respectively. Fat mass significantly decreased over time in the HP group (14.1 ± 3.6kg to 13.0 ± 3.3kg; p<0.01) but no change was observed in the LP group (13.2 ± 3.7kg to 12.5 ± 3.0kg). While maximal strength significantly increased in both groups, there were no differences in strength improvements between the two groups. In aspiring female physique athletes, a higher protein diet is superior to a lower protein diet in terms of increasing FFM in conjunction with a resistance training program.

  17. Correlations of dietary energy and protein intakes with renal function impairment in chronic kidney disease patients with or without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-En; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun; Hung, Chi-Chih; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Liu, Shao-Chun; Wu, Tsai-Jiin; Huang, Meng-Chuan

    2017-05-01

    Dietary energy and protein intake can affect progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD complicated with diabetes is often associated with a decline in renal function. We investigated the relative importance of dietary energy intake (DEI) and dietary protein intake (DPI) to renal function indicators in nondiabetic and diabetic CKD patients. A total of 539 Stage 3-5 CKD patients [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)Disease equation] with or without diabetes were recruited from outpatient clinics of Nephrology and Nutrition in a medical center in Taiwan. Appropriateness of DEI and DPI was used to subcategorize CKD patients into four groups:(1) kidney diet (KD) A (KD-A), the most appropriate diet, was characterized by low DPI and adequate DEI; (2) KD-B, low DPI and inadequate DEI; (3) KD-C, excess DPI and adequate DEI; and (4) KD-D, the least appropriate diet, excess DPI and inadequate DEI. Inadequate DEI was defined as a ratio of actual intake/recommended intake less than 90% and adequate DEI as over 90%. Low DPI was defined as less than 110% of recommended intake and excessive when over 110%. Outcome measured was eGFR. In both groups of CKD patients, DEI was significantly lower (ppatients were KD-C and KD-D significantly correlated with reduced eGFR compared with KD-A at increments of -5.63 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (p = 0.029) and -7.72 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (p=0.015). In conclusion, inadequate energy and excessive protein intakes appear to correlate with poorer renal function in nondiabetic CKD patients. Patients with advanced CKD are in need of counseling by dietitians to improve adherence to diets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  18. Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Herder, Christian; Roßbach, Sarah; Roden, Michael; Wudy, Stefan A; Nöthlings, Ute; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2017-06-10

    This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO) during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records) during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, estimated morning and evening GI, GL, low-GI-CHO (GI adolescence were not associated with any of the adult risk markers. A higher evening GI during adolescence was related to an increased HSI in young adulthood ( p = 0.003). A higher consumption of higher-GI-CHO in the evening was associated with lower insulin sensitivity ( p = 0.046) and an increased HSI ( p = 0.006), while a higher evening intake of low-GI-CHO was related to a lower HSI ( p = 0.009). Evening intakes were not related to FLI or the pro-inflammatory-score (all p > 0.1). Conclusion: Avoidance of large amounts of carbohydrates from higher-GI sources in the evening should be considered in preventive strategies to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  19. Effects of Protein Supplementation During the Dry Season on Feed Intake and the Performance of Borgou Cows in Benin Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkoiret, I.T.; Akouedegni, G.C.; Toukourou, Y.; Bosma, R.H.; Mensah, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dry season protein supplementation of Borgou cows on feed intake, milk production, body weight and calves growth performance. Animals (24 cows) were all given a basal diet of straw bush ad libitum. Cows of 1st group (8 cows in each group) were

  20. RELATIVE DOSING OF PHOSPHATE BINDERS FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF PHOSPHATE AND PROTEIN INTAKE IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Brian Copley

    2012-06-01

    The availability of binding capacity data for P binders, presents physicians with the possibility of tailoring doses of binder to a patient’s diet, facilitating sufficient intake of dietary protein while maintaining a neutral P balance. Use of high-capacity binders, such as lanthanum carbonate, would minimize the tablet burden faced by patients and this may also encourage adherence.

  1. The influence of nutritional supplement drinks on providing adequate calorie and protein intake in older adults with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, V; Methven, L; Gosney, M

    2013-09-01

    Investigate the impact of the provision of ONS on protein and energy intake from food and ability to meet protein and calorie requirements in people with dementia. After consent by proxy was obtained, participants took part in a cross over study comparing oral intake on an intervention day to an adjacent control day. The study occurred in Nursing homes and hospitalised settings. Older adults with dementia over the age of 65 were recruited. 26 participants (aged 83.9+/-8.4years, MMSE 13.08+/-8.13) took part. Intervention (if any): On the intervention day nutritional supplement drinks were provided three times. Each drink provided 283.3+/-41.8 Kcal of energy and 13.8+/-4.7g of protein. Supplements were removed approximately 1 hour before meals were served and weighed waste (g) was obtained. Intake of food consumed was determined on intervention and control days using the quartile method (none, quarter, half, three quarters, all) for each meal component. More people achieved their energy and protein requirements with the supplement drink intervention with no sufficient impact on habitual food consumption. Findings from these 26 participants with dementia indicate that supplement drinks may be beneficial in reducing the prevalence of malnutrition within the group as more people meet their nutritional requirements. As the provision of supplement drinks is also demonstrated to have an additive effect to consumption of habitual foods these can be used alongside other measures to also improve oral intake.

  2. Effects of rumen-undegradable protein on intake, performance, and mammary gland development in prepubertal and pubertal dairy heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.L.; Detmann, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Pedroso, A.M.; Silva, L.H.P.; Machado, A.F.; Sousa, F.C.; Santos, dos G.B.; Marcondes, M.I.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different amounts of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on intake, N balance, performance, mammary gland development, carcass traits, and hormonal status of Holstein heifers at different physiological stages (PS). Sixteen prepubertal (PRE)

  3. Higher dietary intake of vitamin D may influence total cholesterol and carbohydrate profile independent of body composition in men with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Christopher; Gorgey, Ashraf; Moore, Pamela; Wong, Nathan; Adler, Robert A; Gater, David

    2018-07-01

    A case-control design. To determine the effects of dietary vitamin D intake on insulin sensitivity (Si), glucose effectiveness (Sg), and lipid profile in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). 20 male, paraplegic (T3-L1) with chronic (> one year) motor complete SCI (AIS A or B) were recruited. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for dietary vitamin D (calciferol), and participants were assigned to one of two groups, a high vitamin D intake group and a low vitamin D intake group based on the mid-point of vitamin D frequency distribution. Individuals in both groups were matched based on age, weight, time since injury and level of injury. Sg, Si and lipid profiles were measured of the two groups. The high vitamin D group had an average intake of 5.33 ± 4.14 mcg compared to low vitamin D group, 0.74 ± 0.24 mcg. None of the 20 participants met the recommended guidelines for daily vitamin D intake. The higher vitamin D group had a significantly lower (P = 0.035) total cholesterol (148.00 ± 14.12 mg/dl) than the lower vitamin D group (171.80 ± 36.22 mg/dl). Vitamin D adjusted to total dietary intake was positively correlated to improvement in Si and Sg (PD intake. However, a higher dietary intake of vitamin D may influence total cholesterol and carbohydrate profile as demonstrated by a significant decrease in total cholesterol and improvement in glucose homeostasis independent of body composition changes after SCI.

  4. Presence of Lactobacillus reuteri in saliva coincide with higher salivary IgA in young adults after intake of probiotic lozenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braathen, G; Ingildsen, V; Twetman, S; Ericson, D; Jørgensen, M R

    2017-02-07

    The aim of this study was to compare the concentration of salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the selected interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 in young individuals with presence and non-presence of Lactobacillus reuteri in saliva after a three-week intervention with probiotic lozenges. The study group consisted of 47 healthy individuals aged 18-32 years with no clinical signs of oral inflammation. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial participants ingested two lozenges per day containing two strains of the probiotic bacterium L. reuteri or placebo lozenges. The intervention and wash-out periods were three weeks. Stimulated and unstimulated whole saliva was collected at baseline and immediately after termination of the intervention periods. The samples were analysed for total protein, salivary IgA and selected cytokines. In this extended analysis, data were collected by analysing baseline and follow-up saliva samples related to ingestion of the probiotic lozenges for the presence of L. reuteri through DNA-extraction, PCR-amplification and gel-electrophoresis. At baseline, 27% of the individuals displayed presence of L. reuteri and 42% were positive immediately after the three-week probiotic intervention. Individuals with presence of L. reuteri in saliva had significantly higher (Preuteri in saliva coincided with higher concentrations of salivary IgA and %IgA/protein in stimulated whole saliva after the three-week daily intake of probiotic lozenges. Our findings suggest that monitoring the presence of probiotic candidates in the oral environment is important to interpret and understand their possible immune-modulating role in maintaining oral health.

  5. Dynamics of body protein deposition and changes in body composition after sudden changes in amino acid intake: I. Barrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramírez, H R; Jeaurond, E A; de Lange, C F M

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the extent and dynamics of whole body protein deposition and changes in chemical and physical body composition after a period of AA intake restriction in growing barrows with medium lean tissue growth potentials. Forty Yorkshire barrows (initial BW 14.4 +/- 1.6 kg) were scale-fed at 75% of estimated voluntary daily DE intake up to 35 kg of BW and assigned to 1 of 2 diets: AA adequate (AA+; 20% above requirements; NRC, 1998) and AA deficient (AA-; 40% below requirements; restriction phase). Thereafter (re-alimentation phase), pigs from both dietary AA levels were scale-fed or fed ad libitum diets that were not limiting in AA. Body weight gain and body composition, based on serial slaughter, were monitored during the 34-d re-alimentation phase. During the restriction phase AA intake restriction reduced BW gains (556 vs. 410 g/d; P alimentation phase (P > 0.10). Throughout the re-alimentation phase, there were no interactive effects of time, feeding level, and previous AA intake level on growth performance, body protein, and body lipid content (P > 0.10). During the re-alimentation phase, body protein deposition, derived from the linear regression analysis of body protein content vs. time, was not affected by feeding level and previous AA intake level (P > 0.10; 156 g/d for AA- vs. 157 g/d for AA+). Based on BW and body protein content, it can be concluded that no compensatory body protein deposition occurred in barrows, with medium lean tissue growth potential after AA intake restriction between 15 and 35 kg of BW. It is suggested that the upper limit to body protein deposition was the main factor that limited the extent of compensatory body protein deposition in this population of pigs. The concept of an upper limit to body protein deposition may be used to explain why compensatory growth is observed in some studies and not in others.

  6. Increased protein-energy intake promotes anabolism in critically ill infants with viral bronchiolitis: a double-blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Betue, C.T.; van Waardenburg, D.A.; Deutz, N.E.; van Eijk, H.M.; van Goudoever, J.B.; Luiking, Y.C.; Zimmermann, L.J.; Joosten, K.F.

    2011-01-01

    The preservation of nutritional status and growth is an important aim in critically ill infants, but difficult to achieve due to the metabolic stress response and inadequate nutritional intake, leading to negative protein balance. This study investigated whether increasing protein and energy intakes

  7. BMI was found to be a consistent determinant related to misreporting of energy, protein and potassium intake using self-report and duplicate portion methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trijsburg, Laura; Geelen, Anouk; Hollman, Peter Ch; Hulshof, Paul Jm; Feskens, Edith Jm; Van't Veer, Pieter; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; de Vries, Jeanne Hm

    2017-03-01

    As misreporting, mostly under-reporting, of dietary intake is a generally known problem in nutritional research, we aimed to analyse the association between selected determinants and the extent of misreporting by the duplicate portion method (DP), 24 h recall (24hR) and FFQ by linear regression analysis using the biomarker values as unbiased estimates. For each individual, two DP, two 24hR, two FFQ and two 24 h urinary biomarkers were collected within 1·5 years. Also, for sixty-nine individuals one or two doubly labelled water measurements were obtained. The associations of basic determinants (BMI, gender, age and level of education) with misreporting of energy, protein and K intake of the DP, 24hR and FFQ were evaluated using linear regression analysis. Additionally, associations between other determinants, such as physical activity and smoking habits, and misreporting were investigated. The Netherlands. One hundred and ninety-seven individuals aged 20-70 years. Higher BMI was associated with under-reporting of dietary intake assessed by the different dietary assessment methods for energy, protein and K, except for K by DP. Men tended to under-report protein by the DP, FFQ and 24hR, and persons of older age under-reported K but only by the 24hR and FFQ. When adjusted for the basic determinants, the other determinants did not show a consistent association with misreporting of energy or nutrients and by the different dietary assessment methods. As BMI was the only consistent determinant of misreporting, we conclude that BMI should always be taken into account when assessing and correcting dietary intake.

  8. Usefulness of dietary enrichment on energy and protein intake in elderly patients at risk of malnutrition discharged to home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabal, Joan; Hervas, Sonia; Forga, Maria; Leyes, Pere; Farran-Codina, Andreu

    2014-02-01

    Malnutrition is a cause for concern among many admitted elderly patients, being common at hospital admission and discharge. The objective of this study was to assess if diet enrichment with small servings of energy and protein dense foods, improves energy and nutrient intake in elderly patients at risk of malnutrition discharged to home. This was a retrospective case series study in elderly patients at risk of malnutrition treated with diet enrichment. There was a data review of dietary and health records of elderly patients discharged to home. Forty-one patients, mean age of 83 ± 5 years, met the inclusion criteria; 13 patients had been lost after 4 weeks of treatment and a total of 24 patients after 12 weeks. Records contained food intake data assessed at baseline, and after 4 and 12 weeks of treatment. Mini Nutritional Assessment, anthropometric measurements, routine biochemical parameters and the Barthel Index were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Compared to baseline, patients significantly improved their energy and protein intake after 4 weeks of treatment, fulfilling the mean nutritional requirements. The improvement in energy and protein intake was still manifest at week 12. After 12 weeks of dietary enrichment, a significant weight gain was observed (4.1%, p = 0.011), as well. No significant changes were detected in functional status. Using small servings of energy and protein dense foods to enrich meals seems a feasible nutritional treatment to increase energy and protein intake and meet nutritional goals among elderly patients discharged to home. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutritional Status and Daytime Pattern of Protein Intake on Match, Post-Match, Rest and Training Days in Senior Professional and Youth Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettonviel A, E O; Brinkmans N, Y J; Russcher, Kris; Wardenaar, Floris C; Witard, Oliver C

    2016-06-01

    The nutritional status of elite soccer players across match, postmatch, training and rest days has not been defined. Recent evidence suggests the pattern of dietary protein intake impacts the daytime turnover of muscle proteins and, as such, influences muscle recovery. We assessed the nutritional status and daytime pattern of protein intake in senior professional and elite youth soccer players and compared findings against published recommendations. Fourteen senior professional (SP) and 15 youth elite (YP) soccer players from the Dutch premier division completed nutritional assessments using a 24-hr web-based recall method. Recall days consisted of a match, postmatch, rest, and training day. Daily energy intake over the 4-day period was similar between SP (2988 ± 583 kcal/day) and YP (2938 ± 465 kcal/day; p = .800). Carbohydrate intake over the combined 4-day period was lower in SP (4.7 ± 0.7 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) vs. YP (6.0 ± 1.5 g·kg-1 BM·day-1, p = .006) and SP failed to meet recommended carbohydrate intakes on match and training days. Conversely, recommended protein intakes were met for SP (1.9 ± 0.3 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) and YP (1.7 ± 0.4 g·kg-1 BM·day-1), with no differences between groups (p = .286). Accordingly, both groups met or exceeded recommended daily protein intakes on individual match, postmatch, rest and training days. A similar "balanced" daytime pattern of protein intake was observed in SP and YP. To conclude, SP increased protein intake on match and training days to a greater extent than YP, however at the expense of carbohydrate intake. The daytime distribution of protein intake for YP and SP aligned with current recommendations of a balanced protein meal pattern.

  10. Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Diederichs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI or glycemic load (GL of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, estimated morning and evening GI, GL, low-GI-CHO (GI < 55 and higher-GI-CHO (GI ≥ 55 were related to insulin sensitivity (N = 252, hepatic steatosis index (HSI, fatty liver index (FLI (both N = 253, and a pro-inflammatory-score (N = 249. Results: Morning intakes during adolescence were not associated with any of the adult risk markers. A higher evening GI during adolescence was related to an increased HSI in young adulthood (p = 0.003. A higher consumption of higher-GI-CHO in the evening was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (p = 0.046 and an increased HSI (p = 0.006, while a higher evening intake of low-GI-CHO was related to a lower HSI (p = 0.009. Evening intakes were not related to FLI or the pro-inflammatory-score (all p > 0.1. Conclusion: Avoidance of large amounts of carbohydrates from higher-GI sources in the evening should be considered in preventive strategies to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  11. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses.Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF, percent trunk fat (%TF, percent android fat (%AF, percent gynoid fat (%GF and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all. Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001. Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes.Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are significantly associated with favorable body

  12. Treatment of metabolic syndrome by combination of physical activity and diet needs an optimal protein intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutheil, Frédéric; Lac, Gérard; Courteix, Daniel; Doré, Eric; Chapier, Robert; Roszyk, Laurence; Sapin, Vincent; Lesourd, Bruno

    2012-09-17

    The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein intake has been set at 1.0-1.3 g/kg/day for senior. To date, no consensus exists on the lower threshold intake (LTI = RDA/1.3) for the protein intake (PI) needed in senior patients ongoing both combined caloric restriction and physical activity treatment for metabolic syndrome. Considering that age, caloric restriction and exercise are three increasing factors of protein need, this study was dedicated to determine the minimal PI in this situation, through the determination of albuminemia that is the blood marker of protein homeostasis. Twenty eight subjects (19 M, 9 F, 61.8 ± 6.5 years, BMI 33.4 ± 4.1 kg/m²) with metabolic syndrome completed a three-week residential programme (Day 0 to Day 21) controlled for nutrition (energy balance of -500 kcal/day) and physical activity (3.5 hours/day). Patients were randomly assigned in two groups: Normal-PI (NPI: 1.0 g/kg/day) and High-PI (HPI: 1.2 g/kg/day). Then, patients returned home and were followed for six months. Albuminemia was measured at D0, D21, D90 and D180. At baseline, PI was spontaneously 1.0 g/kg/day for both groups. Albuminemia was 40.6 g/l for NPI and 40.8 g/l for HPI. A marginal protein under-nutrition appeared in NPI with a decreased albuminemia at D90 below 35 g/l (34.3 versus 41.5 g/l for HPI, p treatment based on restricted diet and exercise in senior people with metabolic syndrome, the lower threshold intake for protein must be set at 1.2 g/kg/day to maintain blood protein homeostasis.

  13. Increasing protein intake modulates lipid metabolism in healthy young men and women consuming a high-fat hypercaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, Annemarie; Schwarz, Jessica; Blokker, Britt A; Siebelink, Els; Kok, Frans J; Afman, Lydia A; Tomé, Daniel; Mensink, Marco

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing protein intake, at the expense of carbohydrates, on intrahepatic lipids (IHLs), circulating triglycerides (TGs), and body composition in healthy humans consuming a high-fat, hypercaloric diet. A crossover randomized trial with a parallel control group was performed. After a 2-wk run-in period, participants were assigned to either the control diet [n = 10; 27.8 energy percent (en%) fat, 16.9 en% protein, 55.3 en% carbohydrates] for 4 wk or a high-fat, hypercaloric diet (n = 17; >2 MJ/d) crossover trial with 2 periods of 2 wk, with either high-protein (HP) (37.7 en% fat, 25.7 en% protein, 36.6 en% carbohydrates) or normal-protein (NP) (39.4 en% fat, 15.4 en% protein, 45.2 en% carbohydrates) content. Measurements were performed after 2 wk of run-in (baseline), 2 wk of intervention (period 1), and 4 wk of intervention (period 2). A trend toward lower IHL and plasma TG concentrations during the HP condition compared with the NP condition was observed (IHL: 0.35 ± 0.04% vs. 0.51 ± 0.08%, P = 0.08; TG: 0.65 ± 0.03 vs. 0.77 ± 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.07, for HP and NP, respectively). Fat mass was significantly lower (10.6 ± 1.72 vs. 10.9 ± 1.73 kg; P = 0.02) with the HP diet than with the NP diet, whereas fat-free mass was higher (55.7 ± 2.79 vs. 55.2 ± 2.80 kg; P = 0.003). This study indicated that an HP, high-fat, hypercaloric diet affects lipid metabolism. It tends to lower the IHL and circulating TG concentrations and significantly lowers fat mass and increases fat-free mass compared with an NP, high-fat, hypercaloric diet. This trail was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01354626. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. A High-Protein Diet Reduces Weight Gain, Decreases Food Intake, Decreases Liver Fat Deposition, and Improves Markers of Muscle Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. French

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A primary factor in controlling and preventing obesity is through dietary manipulation. Diets higher in protein have been shown to improve body composition and metabolic health during weight loss. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a high-protein diet versus a moderate-protein diet on muscle, liver and fat metabolism and glucose regulation using the obese Zucker rat. Twelve-week old, male, Zucker (fa/fa and lean control (Fa/fa rats were randomly assigned to either a high-protein (40% energy or moderate-protein (20% energy diet for 12 weeks, with a total of four groups: lean 20% protein (L20; n = 8, lean 40% protein (L40; n = 10, obese 20% protein (O20; n = 8, and obese 40% protein (O40; n = 10. At the end of 12 weeks, animals were fasted and euthanized. There was no difference in food intake between L20 and L40. O40 rats gained less weight and had lower food intake (p < 0.05 compared to O20. O40 rats had lower liver weight (p < 0.05 compared to O20. However, O40 rats had higher orexin (p < 0.05 levels compared to L20, L40 and O20. Rats in the L40 and O40 groups had less liver and muscle lipid deposition compared to L20 and L40 diet rats, respectively. O40 had decreased skeletal muscle mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ mRNA expression compared to O20 (p < 0.05, with no difference in 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1, protein kinase B (Akt or p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K phosphorylation. The data suggest that high-protein diets have the potential to reduce weight gain and alter metabolism, possibly through regulation of an mTORC1-dependent pathway in skeletal muscle.

  15. New stable isotope method to measure protein digestibility and response to pancreatic enzyme intake in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, M P K J; Com, G; Anderson, P J; Deutz, N E P

    2014-12-01

    Adequate protein intake and digestion are necessary to prevent muscle wasting in cystic fibrosis (CF). Accurate and easy-to-use methodology to quantify protein maldigestion is lacking in CF. To measure protein digestibility and the response to pancreatic enzyme intake in CF by using a new stable isotope methodology. In 19 CF and 8 healthy subjects, protein digestibility was quantified during continuous (sip) feeding for 6 h by adding (15)N-labeled spirulina protein and L-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine (PHE) to the nutrition and measuring plasma ratio [(15)N]PHE to [(2)H5]PHE. Pancreatic enzymes were ingested after 2 h in CF and the response in protein digestibility was assessed. To exclude difference in mucosal function, postabsorptive whole-body citrulline (CIT) production rate was measured by L-[5-(13)C-5,5-(2)H2]-CIT pulse and blood samples were taken to analyze tracer-tracee ratios. Protein digestibility was severely reduced in the CF group (47% of healthy subjects; P digestibility in CF until 90% of values obtained by healthy subjects. Maximal digestibility was reached at 100 min and maintained for 80 min. Stratification into CF children (n = 10) and adults showed comparable values for protein digestibility and similar kinetic responses to pancreatic enzyme intake. Whole-body citrulline production was elevated in CF indicating preserved mucosal function. Protein digestibility is severely compromised in patients with CF as measured by this novel and easy-to-use stable isotope approach. Pancreatic enzymes are able to normalize protein digestibility in CF, albeit with a severe delay. Registration ClinicalTrials.gov = NCT01494909. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Carbohydrate Source and Cottonseed Meal Level in the Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg. Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05. Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p0.05. Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw.

  17. Implementation of Nutrition Support Guidelines May Affect Energy and Protein Intake in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Ursula G; Lucas, Laura A; Mackey, Guisela; Silva, Jaime C; Lusk, Jennifer; Orellana, Renan; Shekerdemian, Lara S; Coss-Bu, Jorge A

    2016-05-01

    Critically ill children are at risk of developing malnutrition, and undernutrition is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The study evaluated changes in the energy and protein intake before and after implementation of nutrition support (NS) guidelines for a pediatric critical care unit (PICU). This retrospective study documented energy and protein intake for the first 8 days of PICU stay. Basal metabolic rate and protein needs were estimated by Schofield and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Guidelines, respectively. Three hundred thirty-five children from August to December 2012 (pre-implementation) and 185 from October to December 2013 (post-implementation). Implementation of NS Guidelines. Changes in actual energy and protein intake in the post- compared with the pre-Implementation period. Unpaired t tests, Pearson's χ(2) (unadjusted analysis) were used. Logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for protein and energy intake, adjusted for age, sex, and Pediatric Risk of Mortality score. After the implementation of guidelines, significant improvements were seen during days 5 through 8 in energy intake among children 2 years of age and older, and in protein intake in both age groups (Pprotein deficit/kg/day, as follows: younger than 2-year-olds, -1.5±0.7 g/kg/day vs -1.3±0.8 g/kg/day, P=0.02; 2-year-olds or older, -1.0±0.6 g/kg/day vs -0.7±0.8 g/kg/day, P=0.01; and for the energy deficit/kg/d in 2-year-olds and older, -17.2±13.6 kcal/kg/day vs -13.3±18.1 kcal/kg/day, unpaired t test, P=0.07, in the pre- vs post-implementation period, respectively. The implementation of NS guidelines was associated with improvements in total energy in 2-year-olds and older and protein in younger than 2 and 2 years and older children by days 5 through 8, and protein deficits were significantly lower in the post- vs the pre-implementation period. The implementation of NS guidelines may have had a

  18. Presence of Lactobacillus reuteri in saliva coincide with higher salivary IgA in young adults after intake of probiotic lozenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braathen, G; Ingildsen, V; Twetman, S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the concentration of salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the selected interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 in young individuals with presence and non-presence of Lactobacillus reuteri in saliva after a three-week intervention with probiotic lozenges. The...... to interpret and understand their possible immune-modulating role in maintaining oral health........ The study group consisted of 47 healthy individuals aged 18-32 years with no clinical signs of oral inflammation. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial participants ingested two lozenges per day containing two strains of the probiotic bacterium L. reuteri or placebo lozenges......, detectable levels of L. reuteri in saliva coincided with higher concentrations of salivary IgA and %IgA/protein in stimulated whole saliva after the three-week daily intake of probiotic lozenges. Our findings suggest that monitoring the presence of probiotic candidates in the oral environment is important...

  19. Faster eating rates are associated with higher energy intakes during an ad libitum meal, higher BMI and greater adiposity among 4·5-year-old children: results from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R; Sadananthan, Suresh A; Velan, S Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya-Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary F F; Forde, Ciarán G

    2017-04-01

    Faster eating rates are associated with increased energy intake, but little is known about the relationship between children's eating rate, food intake and adiposity. We examined whether children who eat faster consume more energy and whether this is associated with higher weight status and adiposity. We hypothesised that eating rate mediates the relationship between child weight and ad libitum energy intake. Children (n 386) from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4·5 years to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating-behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min). BMI and anthropometric indices of adiposity were measured. A subset of children underwent MRI scanning (n 153) to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity. Children above/below the median eating rate were categorised as slower and faster eaters, and compared across body composition measures. There was a strong positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake (r 0·61, P<0·001) and a positive linear relationship between eating rate and children's BMI status. Faster eaters consumed 75 % more energy content than slower eating children (Δ548 kJ (Δ131 kcal); 95 % CI 107·6, 154·4, P<0·001), and had higher whole-body (P<0·05) and subcutaneous abdominal adiposity (Δ118·3 cc; 95 % CI 24·0, 212·7, P=0·014). Mediation analysis showed that eating rate mediates the link between child weight and energy intake during a meal (b 13·59; 95 % CI 7·48, 21·83). Children who ate faster had higher energy intake, and this was associated with increased BMI z-score and adiposity.

  20. Higher intake of fruits, vegetables or their fiber reduces the risk of type?2 diabetes: A meta?analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping?Yu; Fang, Jun?Chao; Gao, Zong?Hua; Zhang, Can; Xie, Shu?Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction Some previous studies reported no significant association of consuming fruit or vegetables, or fruit and vegetables combined, with type 2 diabetes. Others reported that only a greater intake of green leafy vegetables reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes. To further investigate the relationship between them, we carried out a meta‐analysis to estimate the independent effects of the intake of fruit, vegetables and fiber on the risk of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Meth...

  1. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  2. Intake of total, animal and plant proteins, and their food sources in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkjaer, J; Olsen, A; Bjerregaard, L J; Deharveng, G; Tjønneland, A; Welch, A A; Crowe, F L; Wirfält, E; Hellstrom, V; Niravong, M; Touvier, M; Linseisen, J; Steffen, A; Ocké, M C; Peeters, P H M; Chirlaque, M D; Larrañaga, N; Ferrari, P; Contiero, P; Frasca, G; Engeset, D; Lund, E; Misirli, G; Kosti, M; Riboli, E; Slimani, N; Bingham, S

    2009-11-01

    To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes (g/day) of total, animal and plant proteins were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age, and weighted by season and day of recall. Mean total and animal protein intakes were highest in the Spanish centres among men, and in the Spanish and French centres among women; the lowest mean intakes were observed in the UK health-conscious group, in Greek men and women, and in women in Potsdam. Intake of plant protein was highest among the UK health-conscious group, followed by some of the Italian centres and Murcia, whereas Sweden and Potsdam had the lowest intake. Cereals contributed to the highest proportion of plant protein in all centres. The combined intake of legumes, vegetables and fruit contributed to a greater proportion of plant protein in the southern than in the northern centres. Total meat intake (with some heterogeneity across subtypes of meat) was, with few exceptions, the most important contributor to animal protein in all centres, followed by dairy and fish products. This study shows that intake of protein, especially of animal origin, differs across the 10 European countries, and also shows some differences in food sources of protein across Europe.

  3. Association of habitual high-fat intake and desire for protein and sweet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatano, Hiroshi; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Zhou, Bei; Adachi, Chisaki; Kawakami, Yuka; Katayama, Takafumi; Masuda, Masashi; Takeda, Eiji; Taketani, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Reducing dietary calorie density (CD) is useful in body weight management. This study investigates the association between dietary habits and preferences for different CDs. We conducted a randomized crossover study of 232 healthy subjects who consumed packed lunch boxes containing a control, high-meat and low-rice, low-vegetable, medium-fat and low-vegetable, high-fat, and high-fat and low-vegetable meals over six sessions. The subjective levels of sensory properties were assessed over time using a visual analog scale and the area under the curve. Subjects were assessed for dietary habits using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) and were divided into two groups based on a daily fat energy ratio ≥ 25% (high fat [HF], n=116) and kcal low-CD meals, a high-protein meal provided greater fullness and satisfaction and lower prospective consumption in the HF group than in the normal group. Therefore, our study demonstrates that postprandial appetite sensation is associated with dietary habits of fat intake. J. Med. Invest. 63: 241-247, August, 2016.

  4. Protein intake at 9 mo of age is associated with body size but not with body fat in 10-y-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoppe, C.; Mølgaard, C.; Thomsen, B. L.

    2004-01-01

    During the complementary feeding period, infants shift from a daily protein intake (PI) of approximately 1 g/kg body wt to an intake 3-4 times as high. A high PI probably has both endocrine and physiologic effects and may increase the risk of obesity.......During the complementary feeding period, infants shift from a daily protein intake (PI) of approximately 1 g/kg body wt to an intake 3-4 times as high. A high PI probably has both endocrine and physiologic effects and may increase the risk of obesity....

  5. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was cotton seed meal levels in the concentrate; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg. Bulls received urea-lime treated rice straw ad libitum and were supplemented with 10 g of concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source and level of cotton seed meal did not have significant effects on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, microbial protein synthesis or feed intake. Animals which received CC showed significantly higher BUN concentration, ruminal propionic acid and butyric acid proportions, while dry matter, organic matter digestibility, populations of total viable bacteria and proteolytic bacteria were lower than those in the CR3:1 treatment. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids was higher in HCM than LCM treatments, while the concentration of butyric acid was higher in LCM than HCM treatments. The population of proteolytic bacteria with the LCM treatments was higher than the HCM treatments; however other bacteria groups were similar among the different levels of cotton seed meal. Bulls which received LCM had higher protein digestibility than those receiving HCM. Therefore, using high levels of cassava chip and cotton seed meal might positively impact on energy and nitrogen balance for the microbial population in the rumen of the young dairy bull.

  6. Measures of postprandial wellness after single intake of two protein-carbohydrate meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Brink, E.J.; Stafleu, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    The general feeling of wellness after food consumption may play an important role in regulating food intake. This exploratory study aimed at identifying and evaluating measures of such postprandial wellness, tentatively defined as subjective appreciation of life after food intake. The study had a

  7. Protein from Meat or Vegetable Sources in Meals Matched for Fiber Content has Similar Effects on Subjective Appetite Sensations and Energy Intake-A Randomized Acute Cross-Over Meal Test Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lone V; Kristensen, Marlene D; Klingenberg, Lars; Ritz, Christian; Belza, Anita; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2018-01-16

    Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19% of energy from protein), based on fava beans/split peas (28.5 g fiber), pork/veal or eggs supplemented with pea fiber to control for fiber content (28.5 g fiber), or eggs without supplementation of fiber (6.0 g fiber). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour until the ad libitum meal three hours later. There were no differences in ad libitum energy intake across test meals ( p > 0.05). Further, no differences were found across meals for hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, or composite appetite score (all p > 0.05). Iso-caloric, macronutrient-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations.

  8. Higher protein diets consumed ad libitum improve cardiovascular risk markers in children of overweight parents from eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Papadaki, Angeliki; Jensen, Signe M; Ritz, Christian; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Hlavaty, Petr; Saris, Wim H M; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Andersen, Malene R; Stender, Steen; Larsen, Thomas M; Astrup, Arne; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2013-06-01

    Dietary strategies to improve early cardiovascular markers in overweight children are needed. We investigated the effect of dietary protein and glycemic index (GI) on cardiovascular markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) scores in 5- to 18-y-old children of overweight/obese parents from 8 European centers. Families were randomized to 1 of 5 diets consumed ad libitum: high protein (HP) or low protein (LP) combined with high GI (HGI) or low GI (LGI), or a control diet. At 6 centers, families received dietary instruction (instruction centers); at 2 centers, free foods were also provided (supermarket centers). Diet, anthropometry, blood pressure, and serum cardiovascular markers (lipid profile, glucose regulation, and inflammation) were measured in 253 children at baseline, 1 mo, and/or 6 mo. Protein intake was higher in the HP groups (19.9 ± 1.3% energy) than in the LP groups at 6 mo (16.8 ± 1.2% energy) (P = 0.001). The GI was 4.0 points lower (95% CI: 2.1, 6.1) in the LGI compared with the HGI groups (P pressure (P children, particularly in those undergoing most intensive intervention.

  9. Higher freshwater fish and sea fish intake is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk among Chinese population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Fang, Yu-Jing; Chen, Yu-Ming; Lu, Min-Shan; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Yan, Bo; Zhong, Xiao; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-08-12

    The association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk remains controversial. This study aimed to examine the association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population in a large case control study. During July 2010 to November 2014, 1189 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 1189 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariate logistical regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) after adjusting for various confounders. A strong inverse association was found between freshwater fish intake and colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile intake showed a risk reduction of 53% (OR 0.47, 95% CI = 0.36-0.60, Ptrend colorectal cancer risk. These results indicate that higher consumption of freshwater fish, sea fish and fresh fish is associated with a lower risk of colorectal caner.

  10. Yogurt consumption is associated with higher nutrient intake, diet quality and favourable metabolic profile in children: a cross-sectional analysis using data from years 1-4 of the National diet and Nutrition Survey, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, D A; Givens, D I; Lovegrove, J A

    2018-01-12

    Yogurt consumption has been associated with higher nutrient intakes, better diet quality and improved metabolic profiles in adults. Few studies have investigated these associations in children. This study investigated the association of yogurt consumption with nutrient intakes, diet quality and metabolic profile in British children. Data from  1687 children aged 4-10 and 11-18 years of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) years 1-4 were analysed. Yogurt consumption was determined using a 4-day diet diary. Diet quality was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, pulse pressure, plasma glucose, HbA1c, C-reactive protein, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, high-and low-density cholesterol from NDNS were used. The highest tertile of yogurt consumption (T3) was associated with higher nutrient intakes, particularly for calcium (children 4-10 years: P consumption was associated with significantly lower pulse pressure in children aged 4-10 years and lower HbA1c concentration, being shorter and having a larger hip circumference in children aged 11-18 years, compared with non-yogurt consumers. This study suggests that British children who are yogurt consumers (> 60 g/day) have higher overall diet quality, nutrient intakes and adequacy, lower pulse pressure (children aged 4-10 years) and HbA1c concentrations (children aged 11-18 years), were shorter and had a smaller hip circumference (children aged 11-18 years).

  11. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record. PMID:25120281

  12. The effects of degradable and undegradable intake protein on the performance of lactating first-calf heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L P; Paterson, J A; Ansotegui, R P; Cecava, M; Schmutz, W

    2001-08-01

    Two 60-d experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing degradable (DIP) and(or) undegradable (UIP) intake protein on the performance of lactating first-calf heifers. Diets were formulated to meet the requirements for either DIP, metabolizable protein (MP), or both when diets contained low-quality grass hay and an efficiency of microbial protein synthesis estimate of 10%. In Exp. 1, 32 individually fed first-calf heifers (avg 395 kg) were allotted to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (main effects of DIP, MP, and DIP x MP interaction) 1 d after calving. Cows consumed a basal diet of chopped crested wheat grass hay (4.3% CP, 67% DIP) ad libitum. Supplemental DIP and UIP were supplied by varying the ratios of soybean meal (75% DIP) and a heat-treated, protected soybean meal (70% UIP). Cow weight gain was better (P calf weight gain was not increased by supplementing the cow with DIP. Supplemental UIP did not (P > 0.40) improve cow or calf weight gain. Blood urea N levels were higher (P milk production estimates were similar among treatments, as were digestibilities of OM and ADF. Nitrogen digestibility was greater when supplemental DIP was fed, but providing additional UIP did not (P = 0.15) change N digestibilities. Experiment 2 evaluated similar supplements using the same experimental design to determine changes in cow and calf weight gain, body condition score, and pregnancy rate. Seventy-two first-calf heifers (avg 441 kg) were allotted to supplement treatments 1 d after calving and were fed grass hay (5% CP, 53% DIP, 10% microbial efficiency) for ad libitum consumption for 60 d. Supplements were individually fed three times/week. Varying the ratios of soybean meal, heat-treated soybean meal, and corn gluten meal provided additional DIP and UIP. Unlike in Exp. 1, supplemental UIP improved (P calf gains. Data suggest that the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis for this forage-based diet was probably less than 10%.

  13. Improved Function With Enhanced Protein Intake per Meal: A Pilot Study of Weight Reduction in Frail, Obese Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Pieper, Carl F.; Orenduff, Melissa C.; McDonald, Shelley R.; McClure, Luisa B.; Zhou, Run; Payne, Martha E.; Bales, Connie W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a significant cause of functional limitations in older adults; yet, concerns that weight reduction could diminish muscle along with fat mass have impeded progress toward an intervention. Meal-based enhancement of protein intake could protect function and/or lean mass but has not been studied during geriatric obesity reduction. Methods: In this 6-month randomized controlled trial, 67 obese (body mass index ?30kg/m2) older (?60 years) adults with a Short Physical Performa...

  14. Modification effects of physical activity and protein intake on heritability of body size and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Lallukka, Tea

    2009-01-01

    with the Mx statistical package (Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA). RESULTS: High physical activity was associated with lower mean values, and a high proportion of protein in the diet was associated with higher mean BMI, waist......BACKGROUND: The development of obesity is still a poorly understood process that is dependent on both genetic and environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine how physical activity and the proportion of energy as protein in the diet modify the genetic variation of body mass index....... The participants reported the frequency and intensity of their leisure time physical activity. Waist circumference and BMI were measured. Percentage body fat was assessed in Denmark by using a bioelectrical impedance method. The data were analyzed by using gene-environment interaction models for twin data...

  15. Severe negative energy balance during 21 d at high altitude decreases fat-free mass regardless of dietary protein intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; Young, Andrew J; Karl, J Philip; Kenefick, Robert W; Margolis, Lee M; Cole, Renee E; Carbone, John W; Lieberman, Harris R; Kim, Il-Young; Ferrando, Arny A; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2018-02-01

    In this 2-phase randomized controlled study, we examined whether consuming a higher-protein (HP) diet would attenuate fat-free mass (FFM) loss during energy deficit (ED) at high altitude (HA) in 17 healthy males (mean ± sd: 23 ± 6 yr; 82 ± 14 kg). During phase 1 at sea level (SL, 55 m), participants consumed a eucaloric diet providing standard protein (SP; 1.0 g protein/kg,) for 21 d. During phase 2, participants resided at HA (4300 m) for 22 d and were randomly assigned to either an SP or HP (2.0 g protein/kg) diet designed to elicit a 40% ED. Body composition, substrate oxidation, and postabsorptive whole-body protein kinetics were measured. Participants were weight stable during SL and lost 7.9 ± 1.9 kg ( P Berryman, C. E., Young, A. J., Karl, J. P., Kenefick, R. W., Margolis, L. M., Cole, R. E., Carbone, J. W., Lieberman, H. R., Kim, I.-Y., Ferrando, A. A., Pasiakos, S. M. Severe negative energy balance during 21 d at high altitude decreases fat-free mass regardless of dietary protein intake: a randomized controlled trial.

  16. High protein and cholesterol intakes associated with emergence of glucose intolerance in a low-risk Canadian Inuit population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefidbakht, Saghar; Johnson-Down, Louise; Young, T Kue; Egeland, Grace M

    2016-07-01

    The rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus among Inuit is 12·2 % in individuals over 50 years of age, similar to the Canadian prevalence. Given marked dietary transitions in the Arctic, we evaluated the dietary and other correlates of not previously diagnosed glucose intolerance, defined as type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Cross-sectional analyses were limited to adults with a completed 2 h oral glucose tolerance test and without pre-existing diabetes. Anthropometric assessments, health and medication usage questionnaires and a 24 h dietary recall were administered. Canadian International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey (2007-2008). Inuit adults (n 777). Glucose intolerance was associated with older age and adiposity. Percentage of energy from protein above the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range of 35 %, compared with intake within the range, was associated with increased odds of glucose intolerance (OR=1·98; 95 % CI 1·09, 3·61) in multivariable analyses. Further, cholesterol intake in the highest three quartiles combined (median exposures of 207, 416 and 778 mg/d, respectively) compared with the lowest quartile (median intake of 81 mg/d) was associated with glucose intolerance (OR=2·15; 95 % CI 1·23, 3·78) in multivariable analyses. Past-day traditional food consumption was borderline protective of glucose intolerance (P=0·054) and high fibre intake was not significantly protective (P=0·08). The results contribute to the existing literature on high protein and cholesterol intakes as they may relate to diabetes risk.

  17. Effects of Substitution, and Adding of Carbohydrate and Fat to Whey-Protein on Energy Intake, Appetite, Gastric Emptying, Glucose, Insulin, Ghrelin, CCK and GLP-1 in Healthy Older Men—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Giezenaar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. We reported previously that the suppression of energy intake by whey protein is less in older than younger adults. The aim was to determine the effects of substitution, and adding of carbohydrate and fat to whey protein, on ad libitum energy intake from a buffet meal (180–210 min, gastric emptying (3D-ultrasonography, plasma gut hormone concentrations (0–180 min and appetite (visual analogue scales, in healthy older men. In a randomized, double-blind order, 13 older men (75 ± 2 years ingested drinks (~450 mL containing: (i 70 g whey protein (280 kcal; ‘P280’; (ii 14 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (280 kcal; ‘M280’; (iii 70 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (504 kcal; ‘M504’; or (iv control (~2 kcal. The caloric drinks, compared to a control, did not suppress appetite or energy intake; there was an increase in total energy intake (drink + meal, p < 0.05, which was increased most by the M504-drink. P280- and M504-drink ingestion were associated with slower a gastric-emptying time (n = 9, lower ghrelin, and higher cholecystokinin (CCK and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 than M280 (p < 0.05. Glucose and insulin were increased most by the mixed-macronutrient drinks (p < 0.05. In conclusion, energy intake was not suppressed, compared to a control, and particularly whey protein, affected gastric emptying and gut hormone responses.

  18. Increased Snacking and Eating Occasions Are Associated with Higher Energy Intake among Mexican Children Aged 2-13 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Afeiche, Myriam C; Eldridge, Alison L; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the dietary behaviors of Mexican children with regard to frequency, amount, and quality of foods consumed at eating occasions and their impact on total daily energy intake. The objectives were to 1) describe foods consumed across eating occasions and 2) examine whether the number or type of total eating occasions was associated with increased total daily energy intake and differed between 2- to 5-y-old and 6- to 13-y-old Mexican children. A nationally representative sample of 5031 children from the 2012 ENSANUT (Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición) was used to examine the percentage of meals and snacks consumed, mean energy intake from meals and snacks, and the top food groups contributing to meals and snacks. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between meals, snacks, and total eating occasions with daily energy intake for 2- to 5-y-old and 6- to 13-y-old children. Eating patterns were similar across age groups (per capita mean intake of 3 meals and 1.4-1.6 snacks/d). Each additional snack was associated with greater increases in mean daily energy for older children (+191-289 kcal/d; P < 0.01) relative to younger children (+102-130 kcal/d; P < 0.01). Likewise, each additional eating occasion was associated with greater increases in mean daily energy for older children (+323 kcal/d; P < 0.01) relative to younger children (+166-261 kcal/d; P < 0.01). In both younger and older children, snacking was prevalent (75% and 68%, respectively). Top food contributors to snacks included fruit, salty snacks, candy, sweetened breads, and cookies. Among older children, whole milk as a snack was partially replaced with soda and sweetened fruit drinks. Snacks represent an area for potential improvement in the diets of Mexican children, especially among those aged 6 to 13 y, for whom each additional snack or eating occasion was linked to even greater increases in total daily energy intake. © 2015 American Society for

  19. Changes in Lean Mass and Serum Myostatin with Habitual Protein Intake and High-Velocity Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, A; Gray, M; Henson, A C; Fort, I L

    2017-01-01

    Examine the associations between dietary protein intake, lean mass (LM), and serum myostatin (Mstn) levels among community-dwelling older adults participating in a 20-week high-velocity resistance training (HVRT) program. This longitudinal study consisted of 33 community-dwelling, older adults (mean age 77.0 years, SD = 6.4); all of which obtained physician clearance prior to study participation. Twenty-five females and eight males were randomized to a control (CON) or HVRT group. Anthropometric measures were obtained via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral venous blood draw used for serum myostatin analysis. Exercise was performed twice per week for 20 consecutive weeks. Food intake estimation with a diet history questionnaire (DHQ) was used for protein intake comparison to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). All measures were recorded both prior to and following study participation. Altogether, protein was consumed in amounts more generous (1.01 ± 0.47 g·kg-1·d-1) than that of the RDA (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1). As a result of significant LM differences among men and women (p myostatin was greater among females (6681.8 ± 3155.0 pg·mL-1) than males (5560.0 ± 2946.1 pg·mL-1); however, these values were not significantly different (p = 0.39). Combined, protein consumption and serum myostatin did not significantly influence LM among males (p = 0.09) or females (p = 0.71). Irrespective of training group, significant changes were not exhibited in dietary intake patterns, LM, or serum myostatin. Contrary to the proposed hypothesis, results suggest protein consumption and circulating serum myostatin levels did not significantly influence LM among older adults. Although HVRT positively impacts LM, neither exercise group displayed significant changes in LM. Therefore, further research is needed examining dietary intake, exercise modality, and myostatin downregulation as non-pharmacological approaches to combating sarcopenia.

  20. The effects of protein intake on albuminuria in different estimated glomerular filtration rate: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Tan, Rong-Shao; Zhou, Dao-Yuan; Xiao, Xiao; Ran, Jian-Min; Qin, Dan-Ping; Zhong, Xiao-Shi; Hu, Jian-Guang; Liu, Yun; Zheng, Yuan-Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious condition associated with early mortality, decreased quality of life, and increased health-care expenditures. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected from 1999 to 2012 were used. Subjects were divided into 4 estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) categories: stage 1: eGFR≥90mL/min/1.73m 2 , stage 2: eGFR 60-89, stage 3: eGFR 30-59, and stage 4/5: eGFRprotein intake and albuminuria were determined. A total of 45,259 subjects were included. Despite decreasing protein intake, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of albuminuria with decreasing levels of eGFR. Multivariable analysis showed that albuminuria was associated with daily protein intake in patients ≥65years old with stage 1 disease, and that diabetes was associated with albuminuria in patients ≥65years old with stage 2 and 3 diseases. Overall, albuminuria in patients with stage 1 disease was associated with hours of sitting per day and blood glucose level. Albuminuria was associated with daily protein intake in patients of 45-64years old with stage 1 CKD disease, and was associated with hours of sitting per day and blood glucose level. These data further support the importance of lifestyle changes in the management of CKD, especially in patients with early-stage disease. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Consumption of low-fat dairy products and energy and protein intake in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Pintor-de la Maza, Begoña; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Villar-Taibo, Rocío; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D

    2015-01-01

    Current nutritional guidelines encourage the reduction of fat intake from animal sources like dairy products. The aim was to determine whether the consumption of low-fat dairy is related to poorer dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. This cross-sectional included patients with solid or hematological malignancies at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional status was studied using Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometry, and grip strength. Dietary intake was evaluated with a 24-h recall and dairy consumption with a structured questionnaire. Seventy-four patients were recruited; 71.6% males of 64.8 yr, most with gastrointestinal malignancies. Only 37.8% consumed whole milk, and 61.4% consumed whole yogurt. Reasons for consumption of low-fat dairies were healthy diet (58.0%), hypercholesterolemia (20.0%), and digestive intolerance (10.0%). There were similar rates of malnutrition according the type of dairy (whole 60.9% vs. low-fat 66.7%, P = 0.640). Low-fat dairies were related to a reduction in energy (whole 1980.1 kcal vs. low-fat 1480.9, P = 0.007) and protein intake (whole 86.0 g vs. low-fat 63.0 g, P = 0.030).

  2. The addition of a protein-rich breakfast and its effects on acute appetite control and food intake in 'breakfast-skipping' adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, H J; Racki, E M

    2010-07-01

    Breakfast skipping (BS) is closely associated with overeating (in the evening), weight gain and obesity. It is unclear whether the addition of breakfast, with emphasis on dietary protein, leads to better appetite and energy intake regulation in adolescents. The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of addition of a normal-protein (PN) breakfast vs protein-rich (PR) breakfast on appetite and food intake in 'breakfast-skipping' adolescents. A total of 13 adolescents (age 14.3+/-0.3 years; body mass index percentile 79+/-4 percentile; skipped breakfast 5+/-1 x per week) randomly completed 3 testing days that included a PN (18+/-1 g protein), PR (48+/-2 g protein) or BS. Breakfast was 24% of estimated daily energy needs. Appetite, satiety and hormonal responses were collected over 5 h followed by an ad libitum lunch and 24-h food intake assessments. Perceived appetite was not different following PN vs BS; PR led to greater reductions vs BS (PLunch energy intake was not different following PN vs BS; PR led to fewer kcal consumed vs BS (PDaily food intake was not different among treatments. Breakfast led to increased satiety through increased fullness and PYY concentrations in 'breakfast skipping' adolescents. A breakfast rich in dietary protein provides additional benefits through reductions in appetite and energy intake. These findings suggest that the addition of a protein-rich breakfast might be an effective strategy to improve appetite control in young people.

  3. Sweet Taste Receptor TAS1R2 Polymorphism (Val191Val Is Associated with a Higher Carbohydrate Intake and Hypertriglyceridemia among the Population of West Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ramos-Lopez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some high-carbohydrate diets may lead to obesity and multiple metabolic disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia (HTG. This lipid abnormality is considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The sweet taste receptor TAS1R2 polymorphism (Ile191Val has been reported to be associated with carbohydrate intake. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the TAS1R2 gene polymorphism with carbohydrate intake and HTG among the population of West Mexico. In a cross-sectional study, 441 unrelated subjects were analyzed for TAS1R2 genotypes (Ile/Ile, Ile/Val and Val/Val by an allelic discrimination assay. Biochemical tests and a three-day food record were assessed. The Val/Val genotype carriers had a higher intake of total carbohydrates, fiber and servings of cereals and vegetables than the other genotype carriers. The Val/Val genotype conferred a higher risk for HTG than the Ile/Val and Ile/Ile genotypes (OR = 3.26, 95%CI 1.35–7.86, p = 0.006 and OR = 2.61, 95%CI 1.12–6.07, p = 0.02, respectively. Furthermore, the Val/Val genotype was associated with approximately 30% higher triglycerides compared with Ile/Val and Ile/Ile genotypes (β = 44.09, 95%CI 9.94–78.25, p = 0.01 and β = 45.7, 95%CI 10.85–80.54, p = 0.01, respectively. In conclusion, the Val/Val genotype of TAS1R2 was associated with a higher carbohydrate intake and HTG.

  4. Higher accumulation of F1-V fusion recombinant protein in plants after induction of protein body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Topal, Emel; Martin, Federico; Cardineau, Guy A

    2010-01-01

    Improving foreign protein accumulation is crucial for enhancing the commercial success of plant-based production systems since product yields have a major influence on process economics. Cereal grain evolved to store large amounts of proteins in tightly organized aggregates. In maize, gamma-Zein is the major storage protein synthesized by the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and stored in specialized organelles called protein bodies (PB). Zera (gamma-Zein ER-accumulating domain) is the N-terminal proline-rich domain of gamma-zein that is sufficient to induce the assembly of PB formation. Fusion of the Zera domain to proteins of interest results in assembly of dense PB-like, ER-derived organelles, containing high concentration of recombinant protein. Our main goal was to increase recombinant protein accumulation in plants in order to enhance the efficiency of orally-delivered plant-made vaccines. It is well known that oral vaccination requires substantially higher doses than parental formulations. As a part of a project to develop a plant-made plague vaccine, we expressed our model antigen, the Yersinia pestis F1-V antigen fusion protein, with and without a fused Zera domain. We demonstrated that Zera-F1-V protein accumulation was at least 3x higher than F1-V alone when expressed in three different host plant systems: Ncotiana benthamiana, Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Nicotiana tabacum NT1 cells. We confirmed the feasibility of using Zera technology to induce protein body formation in non-seed tissues. Zera expression and accumulation did not affect plant development and growth. These results confirmed the potential exploitation of Zera technology to substantially increase the accumulation of value-added proteins in plants.

  5. Daily Distribution of Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat Intake in Elite Youth Academy Soccer Players Over a 7-Day Training Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Robert J; Drust, Barry; O'Boyle, Andy; Morgans, Ryland; Abayomi, Julie; Davies, Ian G; Morton, James P; Mahon, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    While traditional approaches to dietary analysis in athletes have focused on total daily energy and macronutrient intake, it is now thought that daily distribution of these parameters can also influence training adaptations. Using 7-day food diaries, we quantified the total daily macronutrient intake and distribution in elite youth soccer players from the English Premier League in U18 (n = 13), U15/16 (n = 25) and U13/14 squads (n = 21). Total energy (43.1 ± 10.3, 32.6 ± 7.9, 28.1 ± 6.8 kcal·kg -1 ·day -1 ), CHO (6 ± 1.2, 4.7 ± 1.4, 3.2 ± 1.3 g·kg - 1 ·day -1 ) and fat (1.3 ± 0.5, 0.9 ± 0.3, 0.9 ± 0.3 g·kg- 1 ·day -1 ) intake exhibited hierarchical differences (p U15/16 > U18. In addition, CHO intake in U18s was lower (p lunch (~0.5 g·kg -1 ) > breakfast (~0.3 g·kg -1 ). We conclude elite youth soccer players do not meet current CHO guidelines. Although daily protein targets are achieved, we report a skewed daily distribution in all ages such that dinner > lunch > breakfast. Our data suggest that dietary advice for elite youth players should focus on both total daily macronutrient intake and optimal daily distribution patterns.

  6. The impact of post-resistance exercise protein consumption on subsequent appetite and daily energy intake of sarcopenic older men: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais, Mathieu; Du Bois-Dit-Bonclaude, Morgane; Amamou, Taha; Riesco, Eléonor; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2017-12-19

    Because of its satiating effect, it has been widely purported that a high-protein beverage may reduce subsequent appetite and food intake in healthy aged individuals, therefore annihilating any supplemental effect. The goal of the study was to examine the impact of a post-exercise protein supplement from dairy products in the hours following resistance exercise on subsequent energy intake, sensation of hunger, appetite and satiety in sarcopenic older men. A randomized double-blind crossover study with three experimental conditions was performed. Nine sarcopenic older (64 ± 3 years) men participated in three experimental conditions: post-exercise protein supplementation made from (1) cow's milk (13 g of proteins); (2) rice milk (isocaloric protein-free beverage) and (3) water (control). Subsequent energy intake was measured with a test buffet and a food record over the rest of the day. Assessment of appetite, satiety and hunger were obtained by visual analogue scales at various times before and after the buffet. Appetite, feeling of hunger and satiety and subsequent energy intake were not significantly different between the three experimental conditions. However, when participants were supplemented with cow's milk, total fat intake during the day of the intervention was significantly lower than with other supplements (p ≤ 0.05). Post-exercise consumption of protein supplements made from dairy products appear not to compromise daily nutritional behavior and does not confer the anticipated negative impact on nutritional intake in sarcopenic older men.

  7. Decreased calorie and protein intake is a risk factor for infection and prolonged length of stay in surgical patients: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Cristina Silva de ASSIS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The aim was to assess whether postoperative calorie and protein intakes increase the risk of infection and prolonged length of stay in a tertiary care university hospital in Southern Brazil. Methods This is a prospective cohort study approved by the hospital's Research Ethics Committee. The sample consisted of adult patients undergoing elective surgery. The exclusion criteria included patients who could not undergo nutritional assessment and those with a planned hospital stay of fewer than 72 hours. Nutritional status was assessed on admission and every seven days thereafter until hospital discharge or death. Demographic and clinical data, as well as information regarding independent and outcome variables, were collected from the patient's records. Food intake assessment was conducted by researchers six times a week. Calorie and protein intakes were considered adequate if equal to or greater than 75% of the prescribed amount, and length of stay was considered prolonged when above the average for specialty and type of surgery. Data was analyzed using Poisson regression. Results Of the 519 study patients, 16.2% had adequate nutritional therapy. Most of these patients were men with ischemic heart disease and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. After adjusting for confounders, inadequate nutritional therapy increased risk of infection by 121.0% (RR=2.21; 95%CI=1.01-4.86 and risk of prolonged length of stay by 89.0% (RR=1.89; 95%CI=1.01-3.53. Conclusion Most patients did not have adequate nutritional therapy. Those with inadequate nutritional therapy had a higher risk of infection and longer length of stay.

  8. Appetite Suppression and Altered Food Preferences Coincide with Changes in Appetite-Mediating Hormones During Energy Deficit at High Altitude, But Are Not Affected by Protein Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Cole, Renee E; Berryman, Claire E; Finlayson, Graham; Radcliffe, Patrick N; Kominsky, Matthew T; Murphy, Nancy E; Carbone, John W; Rood, Jennifer C; Young, Andrew J; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2018-02-12

    Karl, J. Philip, Renee E. Cole, Claire E. Berryman, Graham Finlayson, Patrick N. Radcliffe, Matthew T. Kominsky, Nancy E. Murphy, John W. Carbone, Jennifer C. Rood, Andrew J. Young, and Stefan M. Pasiakos. Appetite Suppression and Altered Food Preferences Coincide with Changes in Appetite-Mediating Hormones During Energy Deficit at High Altitude, But Are Not Affected by Protein Intake. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018.-Anorexia and unintentional body weight loss are common during high altitude (HA) sojourn, but underlying mechanisms are not fully characterized, and the impact of dietary macronutrient composition on appetite regulation at HA is unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of a hypocaloric higher protein diet on perceived appetite and food preferences during HA sojourn and to examine longitudinal changes in perceived appetite, appetite mediating hormones, and food preferences during acclimatization and weight loss at HA. Following a 21-day level (SL) period, 17 unacclimatized males ascended to and resided at HA (4300 m) for 22 days. At HA, participants were randomized to consume measured standard-protein (1.0 g protein/kg/d) or higher protein (2.0 g/kg/d) hypocaloric diets (45% carbohydrate, 30% energy restriction) and engaged in prescribed physical activity to induce an estimated 40% energy deficit. Appetite, food preferences, and appetite-mediating hormones were measured at SL and at the beginning and end of HA. Diet composition had no effect on any outcome. Relative to SL, appetite was lower during acute HA (days 0 and 1), but not different after acclimatization and weight loss (HA day 18), and food preferences indicated an increased preference for sweet- and low-protein foods during acute HA, but for high-fat foods after acclimatization and weight loss. Insulin, leptin, and cholecystokinin concentrations were elevated during acute HA, but not after acclimatization and weight loss, whereas acylated ghrelin concentrations were

  9. Higher intake of fruits, vegetables or their fiber reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping-Yu; Fang, Jun-Chao; Gao, Zong-Hua; Zhang, Can; Xie, Shu-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Some previous studies reported no significant association of consuming fruit or vegetables, or fruit and vegetables combined, with type 2 diabetes. Others reported that only a greater intake of green leafy vegetables reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes. To further investigate the relationship between them, we carried out a meta-analysis to estimate the independent effects of the intake of fruit, vegetables and fiber on the risk of type 2 diabetes. Searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE for reports of prospective cohort studies published from 1 January 1966 to 21 July 2014 were carried out, checking reference lists, hand-searching journals and contacting experts. The primary analysis included a total of 23 (11 + 12) articles. The pooled maximum-adjusted relative risk of type 2 diabetes for the highest intake vs the lowest intake were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-0.96) for total fruits, 0.75 (95% CI 0.66-0.84) for blueberries, 0.87 (95% CI 0.81-0.93) for green leafy vegetables, 0.72 (95% CI 0.57-0.90) for yellow vegetables, 0.82 (95% CI 0.67-0.99) for cruciferous vegetables and 0.93 (95% CI 0.88-0.99) for fruit fiber in these high-quality studies in which scores were seven or greater, and 0.87 (95% CI 0.80-0.94) for vegetable fiber in studies with a follow-up period of 10 years or more. A higher intake of fruit, especially berries, and green leafy vegetables, yellow vegetables, cruciferous vegetables or their fiber is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes.

  10. Higher fish intake is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in Chinese men and women: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fan; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Wu, Bao-Hua; He, Ming-Guang; Xie, Hai-Li; Ouyang, Wei-Fu; Tu, Su-Lan; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Fish is rich in nutrients that are favorable to bone health, but limited data are available regarding the relationship between fish intake and hip fractures. Our study examined the association between habitual fish intake and risk of hip fractures. A case-control study was performed between June 2009 and June 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Five hundred and eighty-one hip fracture incident cases, aged 55 to 80 years (mean: 71 years), were enrolled from four hospitals. 1∶1 matched controls by gender and age (±3 years) were also recruited from communities and hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were used to obtain habitual dietary intake and information on various covariates. Univariate conditional logistic regression analyses showed significantly dose-dependent inverse correlations between the risk of hip fractures and the intake of fresh-water fish, sea fish, mollusca, shellfish, and total fish in all of the subjects (p-trend: water fish (p = 0.553). The ORs (95%CI) of hip fractures for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.80 (0.48-1.31) for fresh-water fish, 0.31 (0.18-0.52) for sea fish, 0.55 (0.34-0.88) for mollusca and shellfish, and 0.47 (0.28-0.79) for total fish, respectively. Stratified and interaction analyses showed that the association was more significant in males than in females (p-interaction = 0.052). Higher intake of seafood is independently associated with lower risk of hip fractures in elderly Chinese. Increasing consumption of sea fish may benefit the prevention of hip fractures in this population.

  11. Higher fish intake is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in Chinese men and women: a matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fish is rich in nutrients that are favorable to bone health, but limited data are available regarding the relationship between fish intake and hip fractures. Our study examined the association between habitual fish intake and risk of hip fractures. METHODS: A case-control study was performed between June 2009 and June 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Five hundred and eighty-one hip fracture incident cases, aged 55 to 80 years (mean: 71 years, were enrolled from four hospitals. 1∶1 matched controls by gender and age (±3 years were also recruited from communities and hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were used to obtain habitual dietary intake and information on various covariates. RESULTS: Univariate conditional logistic regression analyses showed significantly dose-dependent inverse correlations between the risk of hip fractures and the intake of fresh-water fish, sea fish, mollusca, shellfish, and total fish in all of the subjects (p-trend: <0.001-0.016. After adjusting for covariates, the associations were slightly attenuated but remained significant for all (p-trend: <0.001-0.017 except for fresh-water fish (p = 0.553. The ORs (95%CI of hip fractures for the highest (vs. lowest quartile were 0.80 (0.48-1.31 for fresh-water fish, 0.31 (0.18-0.52 for sea fish, 0.55 (0.34-0.88 for mollusca and shellfish, and 0.47 (0.28-0.79 for total fish, respectively. Stratified and interaction analyses showed that the association was more significant in males than in females (p-interaction = 0.052. CONCLUSION: Higher intake of seafood is independently associated with lower risk of hip fractures in elderly Chinese. Increasing consumption of sea fish may benefit the prevention of hip fractures in this population.

  12. High-Protein Intake during Weight Loss Therapy Eliminates the Weight-Loss-Induced Improvement in Insulin Action in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon I. Smith; Jun Yoshino; Shannon C. Kelly; Dominic N. Reeds; Adewole Okunade; Bruce W. Patterson; Samuel Klein; Bettina Mittendorfer

    2016-01-01

    High-protein (HP) intake during weight loss (WL) therapy is often recommended because it reduces the loss of lean tissue mass. However, HP intake could have adverse effects on metabolic function, because protein ingestion reduces postprandial insulin sensitivity. In this study, we compared the effects of ∼10% WL with a hypocaloric diet containing 0.8 g protein/kg/day and a hypocaloric diet containing 1.2 g protein/kg/day on muscle insulin action in postmenopausal women with obesity. We found ...

  13. The effect of colostrum intake on blood plasma proteome profile in newborn lambs: low abundance proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; de Almeida, André Martinho; Ventosa, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum intake by newborn lambs plays a fundamental role in the perinatal period, ensuring lamb survival. In this study, blood plasma samples from two groups of newborn lambs (Colostrum group and Delayed Colostrum group) at 2 and 14 h after birth were treated to reduce the content of high abund...

  14. Protein requirement of young adult Nigerian females on habitual Nigerian diet at the usual level of energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egun, G N; Atinmo, T

    1993-09-01

    A short-term N balance study was conducted in twelve healthy female adults aged 21-32 years to determine their protein requirement. Four dietary protein levels (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 g protein/kg per d) were used. Energy intake of the subjects was kept constant at 0.18 MJ/kg per d. All subjects maintained their normal activity throughout the study period. N excretion was determined from the measurements of N in a total collection of urine, faeces, sweat and menstrual fluid for each dietary period. N balance during the four protein levels were -15.15 (SD 5.95), -5.53 (SD 6.71), +6.15 (SD 4.76) and +12.05 (SD 8.63) mg N/kg per d for 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 g protein/kg per d respectively. The calculated average N requirements from regression analysis was 76.0 (SD 3.37) mg N/kg per d (0.48 g protein/kg per d). The estimate of allowance for individual variation to cover the 97.5% population was 95 mg N/kg per d (0.6 g protein/kg per d). The net protein utilization (NPU) of the diet was 0.55. When compared with a similar study with men, there was a significant difference in the protein requirement between sexes. Thus, the unjustifiable sex difference in the protein allowance recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (1985) Expert Consultation group must be reviewed.

  15. Daily Intake of Protein from Cod Residual Material Lowers Serum Concentrations of Nonesterified Fatty Acids in Overweight Healthy Adults: A Randomized Double-Blind Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iselin Vildmyren

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved process technologies have allowed fishing vessels to utilize residuals from cod fillet production (head, backbone, skin, cuttings, and entrails and convert this to high-quality protein powders for human consumption. In this double-blind pilot study, 42 healthy overweight or obese adults were randomized to three experimental groups consuming tablets corresponding to 6 g/day of proteins from cod residuals as presscake meal (Cod-PC, presscake and stickwater meal (Cod-PCW, or placebo tablets (control for eight weeks. The primary outcome of this study was changes in metabolites related to glucose regulation in overweight or obese healthy adults after intake of proteins from cod residuals. Cod-PC supplementation decreased postprandial serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA concentration and increased gene expressions of diglyceride acyltransferase 1 and 2 in subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with controls. Fasting insulin increased while fasting NEFA and 120-min postprandial glucose decreased within the Cod-PC group, but these changes did not differ from the other groups. In conclusion, supplementation with Cod-PC beneficially affected postprandial serum NEFA concentration compared with the other groups in overweight or obese adults. Supplementation with Cod-PCW, which contains a higher fraction of water-soluble protein compared to Cod-PC, did not affect serum markers of glucose regulation.

  16. Effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function and markers of health in older untrained adults: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorup, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Melcher, Pia Sandfeld; Alstrøm, Joachim Meno; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function, and adaptations important for health in untrained older adults was examined. Forty-eight untrained older (72±6 (±standard deviation, SD) years men and women were divided into either a team sport group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17). The team sport training was performed as ~20 min of small-sided ball games twice a week over 12 weeks. After the intervention period, leg muscle mass was 0.6 kg higher (P = 0.047) in TS-HP, with no effect in TS-LP. In TS-HP, number of sit-to-stand repetitions increased (1.2±0.6, P = 0.054), time to perform 2.45 m up-and-go was lower (0.7±0.3 s, P = 0.03) and number of arm curl repetitions increased (3.5±1.2, P = 0.01), whereas in TS-LP only number of repetitions in sit-to-stand was higher (1.6±0.6, P = 0.01). In TS-LP, reductions were observed in total and abdominal fat mass (1.2±0.5 and 0.4±0.2 kg, P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively), heart rate at rest (9±3 bpm, P = 0.002) and plasma C-reactive protein (1.8±0.8 mmol/L, P = 0.03), with no effects in TS-HP. Thus, team sport training improves functional capacity of untrained older adults and increases leg muscle mass only when ingesting proteins after training. Furthermore, team sport training followed by intake of drink with low protein content does lower fat mass, heart rate at rest and level of systemic inflammation. clinicaltrials.gov NCT03120143.

  17. Effects of dietary protein intake on responses of young sheep to infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houtert, M F; Barger, I A; Steel, J W; Windon, R G; Emery, D L

    1995-01-01

    The effects of protein supplementation and infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis on production responses and immune function in young sheep and on nematode population dynamics were assessed. Eighty-four 3-month-old Merino wether sheep were housed in individual pens and fed ad libitum chopped oaten hay containing 0.5% urea, together with 50 g day-1 lucerne meal. Fish meal (FM) was given as a source of protected protein at 0, 50 or 100 g day-1 (FM0, FM50, FM100; from Days --28 to 140). From Days 1 to 140, 0 or 1000 T. colubriformis infective larvae were given on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. Infected sheep were slaughtered after 35, 70, 105, or 140 days of infection. Live-weight gain was reduced significantly by infection with T. colubriformis in sheep given FM0, but not in sheep given FM50 or FM100. Greasy wool production and fibre diameter were increased by FM, whereas the effects of infection with T. colubriformis on wool measurements depended on the level of FM given. Worm egg concentrations in faeces were significantly lower for sheep given FM100 than for those given FM0 or FM50 during the last 28 days of infection. Similarly, the apparent rate of worm expulsion was considerably higher in sheep given FM than in those not given FM. The rate of expulsion of T. colubriformis correlated with levels of circulating eosinophils as well as with the concentration of intestinal sheep mast cell proteases. Levels of parasite-specific and non-specific circulating antibodies were either unaffected or reduced as a result of supplementation with FM, although lymphocyte stimulation in vitro in response to T. colubriformis third stage larval antigen was enhanced significantly in infected animals given FM100. It was concluded that supplementary feeding with FM substantially reduced the production losses attributable to infection with T. colubriformis and was associated with enhanced expulsion of the parasite burden.

  18. Urinary Excretion of Sodium, Nitrogen, and Sugar Amounts Are Valid Biomarkers of Dietary Sodium, Protein, and High Sugar Intake in Nonobese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lori B; Liu, Sarah V; Halliday, Tanya M; Neilson, Andrew P; Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M

    2017-12-01

    Background: Objective indicators of dietary intake (e.g., biomarkers) are needed to overcome the limitations of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods in adolescents. To our knowledge, no controlled feeding studies to date have evaluated the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, or sugar excretion as dietary biomarkers in adolescents. Objective: This investigation aimed to evaluate the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, and total sugars (TS) excretion as biomarkers for sodium, protein, and added sugars (AS) intake in nonobese adolescents. Methods: In a crossover controlled feeding study design, 33 adolescents [12-18 y of age, 47 ± 25th percentile (mean ± SD) of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) for age] consumed 5% AS [low added sugars (LAS)] and 25% AS [high added sugars (HAS)] isocaloric, macronutrient-matched (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 15% protein) diets for 7 d each, in a randomly assigned order, with a 4-wk washout period between diets. On the final 2 d of each diet period, 24-h urine samples were collected. Thirty-two adolescents completed all measurements (97% retention). Results: Urinary sodium was not different from the expected 90% recovery (mean ± SD: 88% ± 18%, P = 0.50). Urinary nitrogen was correlated with protein intake ( r = 0.69, P sodium appears to be a valid biomarker for sodium intake in nonobese adolescents. Urinary nitrogen is associated with protein intake, but nitrogen excretion rates were less than previously reported for adults, possibly owing to adolescent growth rates. TS excretion reflects AS at 25% AS intake and was responsive to the change in AS intake. Thus, urinary biomarkers are promising objective indicators of dietary intake in adolescents, although larger-scale feeding trials are needed to confirm these findings. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02455388. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Effect of Plants Containing Secondary Compounds with Palm Oil on Feed Intake, Digestibility, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Microbial Population in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Anantasook

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rain tree pod meal with palm oil supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and microbial populations in dairy cows. Four, multiparous early-lactation Holstein-Friesian crossbred (75% lactating dairy cows with an initial body weight (BW of 405±40 kg and 36±8 DIM were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were un-supplementation (control, supplementation with rain tree pod meal (RPM at 60 g/kg, supplementation with palm oil (PO at 20 g/kg, and supplementation with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO, of total dry matter intake. The cows were offered concentrates, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effects on feed intake and ruminal pH and BUN at any times of sampling (p>0.05. However, RPM supplementation resulted in lower crude protein digestibility, NH3-N concentration and number of proteolytic bacteria. It resulted in greater allantoin absorption and microbial crude protein (p<0.05. In addition, dairy cows showed a higher efficiency of microbial N supply (EMNS in both RPM and RPO treatments. Moreover, NDF digestibility and cellulolytic bacteria numbers were highest in RPO supplementation (p<0.05 while, supplementation with RPM and/or PO decreased the protozoa population in dairy cows. Based on this study, supplementation with RPM and/or PO in diets could improve fiber digestibility, microbial protein synthesis in terms of quantity and efficiency and microbial populations in dairy cows.

  20. Higher skeletal muscle protein synthesis and lower breakdown after chemotherapy in cachectic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, S E; Knowles, A L; Tilignac, T; Debiton, E; Madelmont, J C; Attaix, D

    2001-07-01

    The influence of cancer cachexia and chemotherapy and subsequent recovery of skeletal muscle protein mass and turnover was investigated in mice. Cancer cachexia was induced using colon 26 adenocarcinoma, which is characteristic of the human condition, and can be cured with 100% efficacy using an experimental nitrosourea, cystemustine (C(6)H(12)CIN(3)O(4)S). Reduced food intake was not a factor in these studies. Three days after cachexia began, healthy and tumor-bearing mice were given a single intraperitoneal injection of cystemustine (20 mg/kg). Skeletal muscle mass in tumor-bearing mice was 41% lower (P synthesis (-38%; P synthesis (~-54 to -69%; P synthesis (+46 to +73%; P synthesis and degradation.

  1. Higher Dairy Food Intake Is Associated With Higher Spine Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) Bone Measures in the Framingham Study for Men But Not Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, van Laura H.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Hannan, Marian T.; Sahni, Shivani

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies found that dairy foods were associated with higher areal bone mineral density (BMD). However, data on bone geometry or compartment-specific bone density is lacking. In this cross-sectional study, the association of milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, milk+yogurt, and milk+yogurt+cheese

  2. Protein Intake and Muscle Health in Old Age: From Biological Plausibility to Clinical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Landi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The provision of sufficient amounts of dietary proteins is central to muscle health as it ensures the supply of essential amino acids and stimulates protein synthesis. Older persons, in particular, are at high risk of insufficient protein ingestion. Furthermore, the current recommended dietary allowance for protein (0.8 g/kg/day might be inadequate for maintaining muscle health in older adults, probably as a consequence of “anabolic resistance” in aged muscle. Older individuals therefore need to ingest a greater quantity of protein to maintain muscle function. The quality of protein ingested is also essential to promoting muscle health. Given the role of leucine as the master dietary regulator of muscle protein turnover, the ingestion of protein sources enriched with this essential amino acid, or its metabolite β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, is thought to offer the greatest benefit in terms of preservation of muscle mass and function in old age.

  3. Association between intake of dietary protein and 3-year-change in body growth among normal and overweight 6-year-old boys and girls (CoSCIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Heitmann, Berit L; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Growth hormone (GH) affects linear growth and body composition, by increasing the secretion of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), muscle protein synthesis and lipolysis. The intake of protein (PROT) as well as the specific amino acids arginine (ARG) and lysine (LYS) stimulates GH/IG...

  4. Protein intake during training sessions has no effect on performance and recovery during a strenuous training camp for elite cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Bibby, Bo Martin; Sollie, Ove; Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Madsen, Klavs

    2016-01-01

    Training camps for top-class endurance athletes place high physiological demands on the body. Focus on optimizing recovery between training sessions is necessary to minimize the risk of injuries and improve adaptations to the training stimuli. Carbohydrate supplementation during sessions is generally accepted as being beneficial to aid performance and recovery, whereas the effect of protein supplementation and timing is less well understood. We studied the effects of protein ingestion during training sessions on performance and recovery of elite cyclists during a strenuous training camp. In a randomized, double-blinded study, 18 elite cyclists consumed either a whey protein hydrolysate-carbohydrate beverage (PRO-CHO, 14 g protein/h and 69 g CHO/h) or an isocaloric carbohydrate beverage (CHO, 84 g/h) during each training session for six days (25-29 h cycling in total). Diet and training were standardized and supervised. The diet was energy balanced and contained 1.7 g protein/kg/day. A 10-s peak power test and a 5-min all-out performance test were conducted before and after the first training session and repeated at day 6 of the camp. Blood and saliva samples were collected in the morning after overnight fasting during the week and analyzed for biochemical markers of muscle damage, stress, and immune function. In both groups, 5-min all-out performance was reduced after the first training session and at day 6 compared to before the first training session, with no difference between groups. Peak power in the sprint test did not change significantly between tests or between groups. In addition, changes in markers for muscle damage, stress, and immune function were not significantly influenced by treatment. Intake of protein combined with carbohydrate during cycling at a training camp for top cyclists did not result in marked performance benefits compared to intake of carbohydrates when a recovery drink containing adequate protein and carbohydrate was ingested

  5. Efficacy of using a combination of rendered protein products as an undegradable intake protein supplement for lactating, winter-calving, beef cows fed bromegrass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinias, A M; Lardy, G P; Leupp, J L; Encinias, H B; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-two (36 in each of two consecutive years) lactating, British-crossbred cows (609 +/- 19 kg) were used to evaluate effects of feeding a feather meal-blood meal combination on performance by beef cows fed grass hay. Bromegrass hay (9.6% CP, DM basis) was offered ad libitum and intake was measured daily in individual Calan electronic headgates. Acclimation to Calan gates began approximately 20 d after parturition, and treatments were initiated 21 d later. Cows were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (DM basis) for 60 d: 1) nonsupplemented control (CON), 2) energy control (ENG; 790 g/d; 100% beet pulp), 3) degradable intake protein (DIP; 870 g/d; 22% beet pulp and 78% sunflower meal), or 4) undegradable intake protein (UIP; 800 g/d; 62.5% sunflower meal, 30% hydrolyzed feather meal, and 7.5% blood meal). Net energy concentrations of supplements were formulated to provide similar NE(m) intakes (1.36 Mcal/d). The DIP and UIP supplements were calculated to supply similar amounts of DIP (168 g/d) and to supply 64 and 224 g/d of UIP, respectively. Forage DMI (kg/d) decreased in supplemented vs. nonsupplemented (P = 0.03) and DIP vs. UIP (P = 0.001); however, when expressed as a percentage of BW, forage DMI was not different (P = 0.23). Supplemented cows tended (P = 0.17) to lose less BW than CON. Body condition change was not affected (P = 0.60) by postpartum supplementation. No differences were noted in milk production (P = 0.29) or in calf gain during the supplementation period (P = 0.74). Circulating insulin concentrations were not affected by treatment (P = 0.42). In addition, supplementation did not affect circulating concentrations of NEFA (P = 0.18) or plasma urea nitrogen (P = 0.38). Results of the current study indicate that supplementation had little effect on BW, BCS, milk production, or calf BW when a moderate-quality forage (9.6% CP) was fed to postpartum, winter-calving cows in optimal body condition (BCS > 5). Supplemental UIP did not enhance

  6. An integrated effect of protein intake at breakfast and morning exposure to sunlight on the circadian typology in Japanese infants aged 2-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Miyo; Takeuchi, Hitomi; Taniwaki, Nozomi; Noji, Teruki; Harada, Tetsuo

    2009-09-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) intake at breakfast promotes morning-typed circadian typology and higher sleep quality in Japanese children aged 0-6 yrs (Harada et al., 2007). This effect may be accelerated by morning exposure to sunlight, which has not yet been tested. This study aimed to investigate such an effect in Japanese children. In May, 2006, an integrated questionnaire was administered to 0-6-year-old children attending one of 12 kindergartens. 906 parents answered the questionnaire for their children and themselves (response rate: 67.4%). The integrated questionnaire included the revised version for children of the Morningness-Eveningness (M-E) Questionnaire and questions on sleep, nutritional balance, mental health, and sunlight exposure. Analysis was made on data from 744 children aged 2-6 (385 girls, 359 boys) whose average M-E score was 20.6+/-3.46. Children who had breakfast at regular times tended to be more morning-typed and were less frequently angry (p=0.001) and depressed (p=0.007). Children who had nutritionally well-balanced breakfasts tended to be more morning-typed (pbreakfast might be a strong zeitgeber for circadian oscillators of children, and the morning-type driving effect of protein intake could be accelerated by morning exposure to sunlight.

  7. Exoproteome analysis reveals higher abundance of proteins linked to alkaline stress in persistent Listeria monocytogenes strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychli, Kathrin; Grunert, Tom; Ciolacu, Luminita; Zaiser, Andreas; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Wagner, Martin

    2016-02-02

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, responsible for listeriosis a rare but severe infection disease, can survive in the food processing environment for month or even years. So-called persistent L. monocytogenes strains greatly increase the risk of (re)contamination of food products, and are therefore a great challenge for food safety. However, our understanding of the mechanism underlying persistence is still fragmented. In this study we compared the exoproteome of three persistent strains with the reference strain EGDe under mild stress conditions using 2D differential gel electrophoresis. Principal component analysis including all differentially abundant protein spots showed that the exoproteome of strain EGDe (sequence type (ST) 35) is distinct from that of the persistent strain R479a (ST8) and the two closely related ST121 strains 4423 and 6179. Phylogenetic analyses based on multilocus ST genes showed similar grouping of the strains. Comparing the exoproteome of strain EGDe and the three persistent strains resulted in identification of 22 differentially expressed protein spots corresponding to 16 proteins. Six proteins were significantly increased in the persistent L. monocytogenes exoproteomes, among them proteins involved in alkaline stress response (e.g. the membrane anchored lipoprotein Lmo2637 and the NADPH dehydrogenase NamA). In parallel the persistent strains showed increased survival under alkaline stress, which is often provided during cleaning and disinfection in the food processing environments. In addition, gene expression of the proteins linked to stress response (Lmo2637, NamA, Fhs and QoxA) was higher in the persistent strain not only at 37 °C but also at 10 °C. Invasion efficiency of EGDe was higher in intestinal epithelial Caco2 and macrophage-like THP1 cells compared to the persistent strains. Concurrently we found higher expression of proteins involved in virulence in EGDe e.g. the actin-assembly-inducing protein ActA and the

  8. Improved protein structure reconstruction using secondary structures, contacts at higher distance thresholds, and non-contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Badri; Cheng, Jianlin

    2017-08-29

    Residue-residue contacts are key features for accurate de novo protein structure prediction. For the optimal utilization of these predicted contacts in folding proteins accurately, it is important to study the challenges of reconstructing protein structures using true contacts. Because contact-guided protein modeling approach is valuable for predicting the folds of proteins that do not have structural templates, it is necessary for reconstruction studies to focus on hard-to-predict protein structures. Using a data set consisting of 496 structural domains released in recent CASP experiments and a dataset of 150 representative protein structures, in this work, we discuss three techniques to improve the reconstruction accuracy using true contacts - adding secondary structures, increasing contact distance thresholds, and adding non-contacts. We find that reconstruction using secondary structures and contacts can deliver accuracy higher than using full contact maps. Similarly, we demonstrate that non-contacts can improve reconstruction accuracy not only when the used non-contacts are true but also when they are predicted. On the dataset consisting of 150 proteins, we find that by simply using low ranked predicted contacts as non-contacts and adding them as additional restraints, can increase the reconstruction accuracy by 5% when the reconstructed models are evaluated using TM-score. Our findings suggest that secondary structures are invaluable companions of contacts for accurate reconstruction. Confirming some earlier findings, we also find that larger distance thresholds are useful for folding many protein structures which cannot be folded using the standard definition of contacts. Our findings also suggest that for more accurate reconstruction using predicted contacts it is useful to predict contacts at higher distance thresholds (beyond 8 Å) and predict non-contacts.

  9. An Even Distribution of Protein Intake Daily Promotes Protein Adequacy but Does Not Influence Nutritional Status in Institutionalized Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, Michael; Beelen, Janne; Laan, Anna C.M.; Poon, Shirley; Groot, de Lisette C.P.G.M.; Seeman, Ego; Wang, Xiaofang; Iuliano, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Although it has been established that sufficient protein is required to maintain good nutritional status and support healthy aging, it is not clear if the pattern of protein consumption may also influence nutritional status, especially in institutionalized elderly who are at risk of

  10. Effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function and markers of health in older untrained adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Brahe, Lena Kirchner

    2017-01-01

    The effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function, and adaptations important for health in untrained older adults was examined. Forty-eight untrained older (72±6 (±standard deviation, SD) years men and women were divided into either a team sport...... group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17). The team sport training...... was performed as ~20 min of small-sided ball games twice a week over 12 weeks. After the intervention period, leg muscle mass was 0.6 kg higher (P = 0.047) in TS-HP, with no effect in TS-LP. In TS-HP, number of sit-to-stand repetitions increased (1.2±0.6, P = 0.054), time to perform 2.45 m up-and-go was lower...

  11. Body dissatisfaction and the wish for different silhouette is associated with higher adiposity and fat intake in female ballet dancers than male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Camila Lacerda; De Oliveira, Erick Prado; De Sousa, Maysa Vieira; Pimentel, Gustavo D

    2016-01-01

    It is known that behavioral disorders and altered food intake are linked to ballet dancers. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the body composition, dietetic profile, self-perceived body image and social desirability in professional ballet dancers. This study was conducted from April to October 2010 in athletes screened for nutritional evaluation. Anthropometric, dietary, social desirability and self-perceived body image evaluation were performed to attend the aim of study. We found that ballet dancers are highly trained and eutrophic, although female dancers had higher adiposity and fat intake than male dancers. In addition, it was observed low consumption of calcium, dietary fiber, potassium, magnesium and vitamin A. Moreover, 30% of male ballet dancers have a strong desire for social acceptance. When the body image was evaluated by Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), was reported that 40% of the ballet female dancers have of moderate to severe alteration in body image and 20% of male dancers had slight alteration. Furthermore, the Drawings and Silhouettes Scale showed that 80% of male dancers wish to have a smaller or larger silhouette than the current self-perceived and 60% of the female dancers would like to have a silhouette lower than the self-perceive as current. Collectively, our results shown that most of the dancers were eutrophic, but female athletes have higher adiposity and present strong desire for a different shape of current. Furthermore, was found increased fat intake in female group; however, deficiencies in consumption of dietary fiber, calcium, potassium, magnesium and vitamin A were found in both gender.

  12. Low dietary protein is associated with an increase in food intake and a decrease in the in vitro release of radiolabeled glutamate and GABA from the lateral hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, B D; Du, F; Higginbotham, D A

    2003-12-01

    Moderately low-protein diets lead to a rapid increase in food intake and body fat. The increase in feeding is associated with a decrease in the concentration of serum urea nitrogen, suggesting that the low-protein-induced increase in food intake may be related to the decreased metabolism of nitrogen from amino acids. We hypothesized that low dietary protein would be associated with a decrease in the synaptic release of two nitrogen-containing neurotransmitters, GABA and glutamate, whose nitrogen can be derived from amino acids. In this study, we examined the effects of a low-protein diet (10% casein) in Sprague-Dawley rats on the in vitro release of 3H-GABA and 14C-glutamate from the lateral and medial hypothalamus. The low-protein diet increased food intake by about 25% after one day. After four days, the in vitro release of radiolabeled GABA and glutamate was assessed. The calcium-dependent, potassium-stimulated release of radiolabeled GABA and glutamate from the lateral hypothalamus was decreased in rats fed the low-protein diet. The magnitude of neurotransmitter release from the lateral hypothalamus inversely correlated with food intake. No dietary differences in the release of neurotransmitters from the medial hypothalamus were observed. These results support the contention that alterations in nitrogen metabolism are associated with low-protein-induced feeding.

  13. Influence of Non-fibrous Carbohydrate and Degradable Intake protein and Ruminal Fermentation ,Nutrien Digestion and performance of Local Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efka AR

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current study was to evaluate the impact dietary non-fibrous carbohydrate ( NFC and ruminally degradable intake protein (DIP concentration have on ruminal fermentation , nutrient digestion and performance of local sheep. The animal had a mean of  liveweight 19.80 ±1.55 kg. four diets ,arranged in a 2x2 factorial ,were formulated to contain either 40 or 50 % NFC and 50 or 60 % of dietary crude protein as DIP .dietary DM contained 25 % Indonesian field grass and 75 % concentrate. Solvent –extracted or formaldehyd  2 % -treated soybean meal were used to alter DIP and corn or soybean hulls to alter NFC level. Percentage of  energy and NDF digestion was similar ( p<0,01 as DIP level decreased in the diets. The soybean hulls was fermentable and total VFA concentration in the rumen increased ( p<0.01, but N-NH3 concentration was decreased ( p<0.01 as DIP level decreased in the diets. Daily live weight gain ( 146.29±25.84 g and body composition ( fat, water , protein and mineral was similar ( p<0.05 among diets. The preponderance ruminal fermentation ,nutrient digestion and performance of local sheeps did not be improved by sincronization of energy and nitrogen release but may more likely be limited by either energy or nitrogen alone. (Animal Production 3(2: 53-61 (2001 Key Word : Carbohydrate, protein, rumen fermentation, nutrients digestion and performance

  14. Higher caloric intake in hospitalized adolescents with anorexia nervosa is associated with reduced length of stay and no increased rate of refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Neville H; Keane-Miller, Casey; Sainani, Kristin L; Kapphahn, Cynthia J

    2013-11-01

    To determine the effect of higher caloric intake on weight gain, length of stay (LOS), and incidence of hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypokalemia in adolescents hospitalized with anorexia nervosa. Electronic medical records of all subjects 10-21 years of age with anorexia nervosa, first admitted to a tertiary children's hospital from Jan 2007 to Dec 2011, were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic factors, anthropometric measures, incidence of hypophosphatemia (≤3.0 mg/dL), hypomagnesemia (≤1.7 mg/dL), and hypokalemia (≤3.5 mEq/L), and daily change in percent median body mass index (BMI) (%mBMI) from baseline were recorded. Subjects started on higher-calorie diets (≥1,400 kcal/d) were compared with those started on lower-calorie diets (Refeeding hypophosphatemia depends on the degree of malnutrition but not prescribed caloric intake, within the range studied. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Si Hassen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes.

  16. Postexercise nutrient intake enhances leg protein balance in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Esmarck, Birgitte; Suetta, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of nutrient administration after a session of resistance exercise on muscle protein kinetics in six healthy, early postmenopausal women, in a crossover design of random and double-blinded administration of protein and carbohydrate (PC) or placebo (NON). METH...

  17. Association between sex inequality in animal protein intake and economic development in the Papua New Guinea highlands: The carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of scalp hair and fingernail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezaki, Masahiro; Naito, Yuichi I; Tsutaya, Takumi; Baba, Jun; Tadokoro, Kiyoshi; Odani, Shingo; Morita, Ayako; Natsuhara, Kazumi; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Vengiau, Gwendalyn; Siba, Peter M; Yoneda, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    People in the Papua New Guinea Highlands consume sweet potatoes as their dietary staple; consumption of animal protein is limited. In such societies with marginal protein intake, the intra-household allocation of animal protein in terms of sex or age is of importance. The objective of this study was to investigate how the allocation pattern of protein-rich foods by sex and age is associated with economic development in the Papua New Guinea Highlands. The carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of fingernails, collected in 1995 in two areas (Tari and Port Moresby [the national capital where Tari migrants resided]), and of scalp hair, collected in 2007, 2012, and 2013 in three areas of different degree of economic development (Levani, Tari, and Goroka) were analyzed. Analysis of fingernail samples showed that δ(15)N was lower in rural communities than in the urban migrant community, while a sex difference in δ(15)N (higher in males than in females) was found in the former but not in the latter community. Age was not associated with either δ(15)N or δ(13)C values. The analysis of scalp hair samples showed that δ(15)N values were lowest in Levani, the least developed area. Furthermore, there were statistically significant sex differences in δ(15)N values in Levani but not in Tari and Goroka. Age was not associated with either δ(15)N or δ(13)C values. The sex inequality in animal protein consumption seems to have decreased as the communities in the Papua New Guinea Highlands have experienced economic development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Maternal protein intake in pregnancy and offspring metabolic health at age 9-16 y: results from a Danish cohort of gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancies and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Hansen, Susanne; Grunnet, Louise Groth

    2017-01-01

    % +/- 3% of energy) in GDM-exposed women and 90 +/- 14 g/d (16% +/- 2% of energy) in control women. There were overall no associations between maternal protein intake and offspring fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). We found that maternal total protein intake.......04) and a tendency toward lower HOMA-IR (ratio of geometric means: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.02; P = 0.07), but there was no evidence of associations with body composition. Male offspring seemed to derive a similar benefit from a maternal low protein intake as did GDM-exposed offspring.Conclusions: Overall, our results...

  19. Impact of fried foods on macronutrient intake, with special reference to fat and protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry, CJ K.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment of protein is known to reduce protein quality and the destruction of certain amino acids. Fish and chips still remain a popular food source in Britain. Little work has been done on the changes in protein quality during fish frying. The paper will present results obtained from the assessment of protein quality using net protein utilisation (NPU in fried and steamed fish. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were given stock diet {RM1 expanded, SDS Ltd., Witham, Essex for 7 days at 30 days of age, groups of four were offered one of four diets that differed only in the type of fish and processing used. Diets contained 200g of fish protein, 550g carbohydrate (400g sucrose and 150g corn-meal, 50g mineral and vitamin mix and 200g fat/kg diet. The different fish species used were Cod and Plaice and the processing used was either steaming or frying. Although a fall in NPU was noted in fried fish compared to the steamed fish these changes in NPU could be reduced if the fish was covered with batter prior to frying.

  20. Consumption Frequency of Foods Away from Home Linked with Higher Body Mass Index and Lower Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Seguin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Consumption of foods prepared away from home (FAFH has grown steadily since the 1970s. We examined the relationship between FAFH and body mass index (BMI and fruit and vegetable (FV consumption. Methods. Frequency of FAFH, daily FV intake, height and weight, and sociodemographic data were collected using a telephone survey in 2008-2009. Participants included a representative sample of 2,001 adult men and women (mean age 54±15 years residing in King County, WA, with an analytical sample of 1,570. Frequency of FAFH was categorized as 0-1, 2–4, or 5+ times per week. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. We examined the relationship between FAFH with FV consumption and BMI using multivariate models. Results. Higher frequency of FAFH was associated with higher BMI, after adjusting for age, income, education, race, smoking, marital status, and physical activity (women: p=0.001; men: p=0.003. There was a negative association between frequency of FAFH and FV consumption. FAFH frequency was significantly (p<0.001 higher among males than females (43.1% versus 54.0% eating out 0-1 meal per week, resp.. Females reported eating significantly (p<0.001 more FV than males. Conclusion. Among adults, higher frequency of FAFH was related to higher BMI and less FV consumption.

  1. Consumption Frequency of Foods Away from Home Linked with Higher Body Mass Index and Lower Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Aggarwal, Anju; Vermeylen, Francoise; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Consumption of foods prepared away from home (FAFH) has grown steadily since the 1970s. We examined the relationship between FAFH and body mass index (BMI) and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. Methods. Frequency of FAFH, daily FV intake, height and weight, and sociodemographic data were collected using a telephone survey in 2008-2009. Participants included a representative sample of 2,001 adult men and women (mean age 54 ± 15 years) residing in King County, WA, with an analytical sample of 1,570. Frequency of FAFH was categorized as 0-1, 2–4, or 5+ times per week. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. We examined the relationship between FAFH with FV consumption and BMI using multivariate models. Results. Higher frequency of FAFH was associated with higher BMI, after adjusting for age, income, education, race, smoking, marital status, and physical activity (women: p = 0.001; men: p = 0.003). There was a negative association between frequency of FAFH and FV consumption. FAFH frequency was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among males than females (43.1% versus 54.0% eating out 0-1 meal per week, resp.). Females reported eating significantly (p < 0.001) more FV than males. Conclusion. Among adults, higher frequency of FAFH was related to higher BMI and less FV consumption. PMID:26925111

  2. Protein supplements after weight loss do not improve weight maintenance compared with recommended dietary protein intake despite beneficial effects on appetite sensation and energy expenditure: a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjølbæk, Louise; Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Søndertoft, Nadja Buus; Rasmussen, Carrie Klestrup; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Serena, Anja; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2017-08-01

    Background : High-protein diets increase weight loss (WL) during energy restriction; therefore, it has been suggested that additional protein intake may improve weight maintenance (WM) after WL. Objective: We investigated the effect of protein supplements from either whey with or without calcium or soy on WM success after WL compared with that of a control. Design: In a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial, 220 participants aged 18-60 y with body mass index (in kg/m 2 ) from 27.6 to 40.4 were included. The study was initiated with an 8-wk WL period followed by a 24-wk WM period. During WM, participants consumed the following isocaloric supplements (45-48 g/d): whey and calcium (whey+), whey, soy, or maltodextrin (control). Data were collected at baseline, before WM, and after WM (weeks 0, 8, and 32, respectively) and included body composition, blood biochemistry, and blood pressure. Meal tests were performed to investigate diet-induced-thermogenesis (DIT) and appetite sensation. Compliance was tested by 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion. Results: A total of 151 participants completed the WM period. The control and 3 protein supplements did not result in different mean ± SD weight regains (whey+: 2.19 ± 4.6 kg; whey: 2.01 ± 4.6 kg; soy: 1.76 ± 4.7 kg; and control: 2.23 ± 3.8 kg; P = 0.96), fat mass regains (whey+: 0.46 ± 4.5 kg; whey: 0.11 ± 4.1 kg; soy: 0.15 ± 4.1 kg; and control: 0.54 ± 3.3 kg; P = 0.96), or improvements in lean body mass (whey+: 1.87 ± 1.7 kg; whey: 1.94 ± 1.3 kg; soy: 1.58 ± 1.4 kg; and control: 1.74 ± 1.4 kg; P = 0.50) during WM. Changes in blood pressure and blood biochemistry were not different between groups. Compared with the control, protein supplementation resulted in higher DIT (∼30 kJ/2.5 h) and resting energy expenditure (243 kJ/d) and an anorexigenic appetite-sensation profile. Conclusion: Protein supplementation does not result in improved WM success, or blood biochemistry after WL compared with the effects of

  3. Prolonged calorie restriction downregulates skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling independent of dietary protein intake and associated microRNA expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M Margolis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Short-term (5-10 days calorie restriction (CR downregulates muscle protein synthesis, with consumption of a high protein-based diet attenuating this decline. Benefit of increase protein intake is believed to be due to maintenance of amino acid-mediated anabolic signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1, however, there is limited evidence to support this contention. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of prolonged CR and high protein diets on skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling and expression of associated microRNA (miR. 12-wk old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or calorie restricted (CR; 40% adequate (10%, AIN-93M or high (32% protein milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle protein content was calculated from muscle homogenate protein concentrations expressed relative to fat-free mass to estimate protein content. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to determine mTORC1 signaling and mRNA and miR expression in fasted mixed gastrocnemius. Independent of dietary protein intake, muscle protein content was 38% lower (P < 0.05 in CR compared to AL. Phosphorylation and total Akt, mTOR, rpS6 and p70S6K were lower (P < 0.05 in CR versus AL, and total rpS6 was associated with muscle protein content (r = 0.64, r2 = 0.36. Skeletal muscle miR expression was not altered by either energy or protein intake. This study provides evidence that chronic CR attenuates muscle protein content by downregulating mTORC1 signaling. This response is independent of skeletal muscle miR and dietary protein.

  4. Effect of constant digestible protein intake and varying digestible energy levels on energy and protein utilization in Nile tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haidar, M.N.; Bleeker, S.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Schrama, J.W.

    2018-01-01

    In literature, the variability in the estimated optimal digestible protein to digestible energy ratio (DP/DE) is high. The present study aimed to estimate the optimal DP/DE ratio in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using different criteria (performance, energy and nitrogen balances parameters).

  5. [UNHEALTHY FOOD INTAKE IS LINKED TO HIGHER PREVALENCE OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN CHILEAN ADULT POPULATION: CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN 2009-2010 NATIONAL HEALTH SURVEY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussaillant, Catalina; Echeverría, Guadalupe; Villarroel, Luis; Marin, Pedro Paulo; Rigotti, Attilio

    2015-11-01

    metabolic syndrome (MS) is a clustering of risk factors known to promote cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Environmental factors, such as unhealthy diet, play a major role in the development of this condition. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of MS and its association with food intake quality among Chilean adults. we analyzed data of 2 561 adults (≥ 18 years-old) included in the last National Health Survey (NHS 2009-2010) who had appropriate information to diagnose MS based on ATP III-NCEP guidelines. Consumption frequency of fish, whole grains, dairy, fruits and vegetables was also analyzed and associated with MS prevalence. Using a healthy diet score (HDS), we described the overall diet quality and further correlated it with MS prevalence. we found that lower whole grain intake was associated with greater MS prevalence (OR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.088-2.919; p = 0.022). HDS showed better diet quality among women and in subjects with increasing age and higher educational level. A HDS Chilean adult population exhibits a high prevalence of MS linked to a poor diet quality. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Higher body mass index and lower intake of dairy products predict poor glycaemic control among Type 2 Diabetes patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Ping Soon; Chan, Yoke Mun; Huang, Soo Lee

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to determine factors contributing to glyceamic control in order to provide better understanding of diabetes management among Type 2 Diabetes patients. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic and medical history. As a proxy measure for glycaemic control, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was obtained as secondary data from the medical reports. Perceived self-care barrier on diabetes management, diet knowledge and skills, and diet quality were assessed using pretested instruments. With a response rate of 80.3%, 155 subjects were recruited for the study. Mean HbA1c level of the subjects was 9.02 ± 2.25% with more than 70% not able to achieve acceptable level in accordance to WHO recommendation. Diet quality of the subjects was unsatisfactory especially for vegetables, fruits, fish and legumes as well as from the milk and dairy products group. Higher body mass index (BMI), poorer medication compliance, lower diet knowledge and skill scores and lower intake of milk and dairy products contributed significantly on poor glycaemic control. In conclusion, while perceived self-care barriers and diet quality failed to predict HbA1c, good knowledge and skill ability, together with appropriate BMI and adequate intake of dairy products should be emphasized to optimize glycaemic control among type 2 diabetes patients.

  7. Higher body mass index and lower intake of dairy products predict poor glycaemic control among Type 2 Diabetes patients in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Soon Shu

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was designed to determine factors contributing to glyceamic control in order to provide better understanding of diabetes management among Type 2 Diabetes patients. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic and medical history. As a proxy measure for glycaemic control, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c was obtained as secondary data from the medical reports. Perceived self-care barrier on diabetes management, diet knowledge and skills, and diet quality were assessed using pretested instruments. With a response rate of 80.3%, 155 subjects were recruited for the study. Mean HbA1c level of the subjects was 9.02 ± 2.25% with more than 70% not able to achieve acceptable level in accordance to WHO recommendation. Diet quality of the subjects was unsatisfactory especially for vegetables, fruits, fish and legumes as well as from the milk and dairy products group. Higher body mass index (BMI, poorer medication compliance, lower diet knowledge and skill scores and lower intake of milk and dairy products contributed significantly on poor glycaemic control. In conclusion, while perceived self-care barriers and diet quality failed to predict HbA1c, good knowledge and skill ability, together with appropriate BMI and adequate intake of dairy products should be emphasized to optimize glycaemic control among type 2 diabetes patients.

  8. High-Protein Intake during Weight Loss Therapy Eliminates the Weight-Loss-Induced Improvement in Insulin Action in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon I. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High-protein (HP intake during weight loss (WL therapy is often recommended because it reduces the loss of lean tissue mass. However, HP intake could have adverse effects on metabolic function, because protein ingestion reduces postprandial insulin sensitivity. In this study, we compared the effects of ∼10% WL with a hypocaloric diet containing 0.8 g protein/kg/day and a hypocaloric diet containing 1.2 g protein/kg/day on muscle insulin action in postmenopausal women with obesity. We found that HP intake reduced the WL-induced decline in lean tissue mass by ∼45%. However, HP intake also prevented the WL-induced improvements in muscle insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, as well as the WL-induced adaptations in oxidative stress and cell structural biology pathways. Our data demonstrate that the protein content of a WL diet can have profound effects on metabolic function and underscore the importance of considering dietary macronutrient composition during WL therapy for people with obesity.

  9. Dietary Protein and Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Falls: A Secondary Analysis of Postmenopausal Women from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Sarah C; Kerstetter, Jane E; Cauley, Jane A; Insogna, Karl L; Ensrud, Kristine; Lui, Li-Yung; Allore, Heather G

    2015-01-01

    More than 90% of hip fractures in older Americans result from a fall. Inadequate intake of dietary protein and vitamin D are common in older adults, and diets in low these could contribute to loss of muscle mass and strength or coordination, in turn increasing the risk of falling. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between protein and vitamin D intake with the occurrence of falls in older women in the Study of Osteoporotic Fracture, a prospective cohort of more than 4000 postmenopausal women participating from January 1997 to September 1998. Incident falls were ascertained for one year. Protein and vitamin D intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire; associations with a reported fall were estimated with logistic regression, adjusted for fall-related covariates and energy. Protein and vitamin D were modeled separately because of high correlation (rho = 0.55, P women reported a fall within one year. In separate, unadjusted models dietary protein (per 1 g/kg increase) and vitamin D (per 100 International Unit (IU) increase) significantly increased the odds ratio (OR) of falling (OR 1.35 95% CI 1.15-1.59, OR 1.11 95% CI 1.03-1.19, respectively). Once fall-related covariates were added to each model, dietary protein and vitamin D were noncontributory to falls. While we could find no direct association between vitamin D and protein intake and fall prevention, adequate intake of these two nutrients are critical for musculoskeletal health in older adults.

  10. Feed intake and brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) gene expression in juvenile cobia fed plant-based protein diets with different lysine to arginine ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Van; Jordal, Ann-Elise Olderbakk; Espe, Marit; Buttle, Louise; Lai, Hung Van; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2013-07-01

    Cobia (Rachycentron canadum, Actinopterygii, Perciformes;10.5±0.1g) were fed to satiation with three plant-based protein test diets with different lysine (L) to arginine (A) ratios (LL/A, 0.8; BL/A, 1.1; and HL/A, 1.8), using a commercial diet as control for six weeks. The test diets contained 730 g kg(-1) plant ingredients with 505-529 g protein, 90.2-93.9 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter; control diet contained 550 g protein and 95 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter. Periprandial expression of brain NPY and CCK (npy and cck) was measured twice (weeks 1 and 6). At week one, npy levels were higher in pre-feeding than postfeeding cobia for all diets, except LL/A. At week six, npy levels in pre-feeding were higher than in postfeeding cobia for all diets. cck in pre-feeding cobia did not differ from that in postfeeding for all diets, at either time point. Cobia fed LL/A had lower feed intake (FI) than cobia fed BL/A and control diet, but no clear correlations between dietary L/A ratio and FI, growth and expression of npy and cck were detected. The data suggest that NPY serves as an orexigenic factor, but further studies are necessary to describe links between dietary L/A and regulation of appetite and FI in cobia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between the Frequency of Protein-Rich Food Intakes and Kihon-Checklist Frailty Indices in Older Japanese Adults: The Kyoto-Kameoka Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Miwa; Yamada, Yosuke; Nanri, Hinako; Nozawa, Yoshizu; Itoi, Aya; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Watanabe, Yuya; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Goto, Chiho; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Kimura, Misaka

    2018-01-13

    We aimed to investigate whether frequencies of protein-rich food intake were associated with frailty among older Japanese adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 among 3843 men and 4331 women in a population-based cohort of Kameoka city, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Frailty was assessed by the weighted score based on the 25-item Kihon-Checklist. The frequency of protein-rich food intake was examined as "seafood", "meat", "dairy products", "eggs", and "soy products". The outcome of frailty was analyzed with a multiple logistic regression model using the frequency of protein-rich food intake. When compared to the first quartile, it was observed that there was a significant association between the lower adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for frailty and the frequency of seafood intake in the fourth quartile among men (PR 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42, 0.99) and from the second quartile to the third quartile among women (PR 0.61, 95% CI, 0.43, 0.85; PR 0.64, 95% CI, 0.46, 0.91). The frequency of dairy products intake in the third quartile among women was significantly associated with a lower PR for frailty ( p -value = 0.013). Our findings suggest that the consumption of seafood and dairy products may help older adults in maintaining their independence.

  12. Association between the Frequency of Protein-Rich Food Intakes and Kihon-Checklist Frailty Indices in Older Japanese Adults: The Kyoto-Kameoka Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Yamaguchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether frequencies of protein-rich food intake were associated with frailty among older Japanese adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 among 3843 men and 4331 women in a population-based cohort of Kameoka city, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Frailty was assessed by the weighted score based on the 25-item Kihon-Checklist. The frequency of protein-rich food intake was examined as “seafood”, “meat”, “dairy products”, “eggs”, and “soy products”. The outcome of frailty was analyzed with a multiple logistic regression model using the frequency of protein-rich food intake. When compared to the first quartile, it was observed that there was a significant association between the lower adjusted prevalence ratio (PR for frailty and the frequency of seafood intake in the fourth quartile among men (PR 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.42, 0.99 and from the second quartile to the third quartile among women (PR 0.61, 95% CI, 0.43, 0.85; PR 0.64, 95% CI, 0.46, 0.91. The frequency of dairy products intake in the third quartile among women was significantly associated with a lower PR for frailty (p-value = 0.013. Our findings suggest that the consumption of seafood and dairy products may help older adults in maintaining their independence.

  13. Diet and enteral nutrition in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis: a review focusing on fat, fiber and protein intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatino, Alice; Regolisti, Giuseppe; Gandolfini, Ilaria; Delsante, Marco; Fani, Filippo; Gregorini, Maria Cristina; Fiaccadori, Enrico

    2017-12-01

    The clinical data available on dietary requirements of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not on dialysis are limited and largely inconclusive in terms of the renal, cardiovascular and nutritional outcomes achievable through dietary modifications. Restriction of protein intake during the early stages of CKD may in fact slow its progression, but at the same time this approach may also lead to protein-energy wasting, if energy intake is not adequate and properly monitored. Unfortunately, compliance to dietary recommendations is traditionally low in this patient population. A switch from saturated to mono- and polyunsaturated fats is generally recognized as advantageous for cardiac health; however, the benefits in term of renal function are largely unknown. Similarly, the association between dietary fiber intake and kidney disease is largely unknown. In fact, while there is evidence on the positive health effects of dietary fibers in the general population, nutritional guidelines for CKD lack formal recommendations concerning fiber intake. This paper reviews data and evidence from clinical trials and meta-analyses on renal and cardiovascular outcomes related to modifications in protein, fat and fiber intake. Suggestions for maintaining nutritional status through patient-oriented dietary patterns and enteral supplementation in CKD patients on conservative therapy are also presented.

  14. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, R Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-05

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults.

  15. Metabolism and Whole-Body Fat Oxidation Following Post-Exercise Carbohydrate or Protein Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Pettersson, Stefan; Edin, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    : Protein supplementation immediately post-exercise did not affect the doubling in whole body fat oxidation seen during a subsequent exercise trial 2 hours later. Neither did it affect resting fat oxidation during the post-exercise period despite increased insulin levels and attenuated ketosis. Carbohydrate...

  16. Contraction mode and whey protein intake affect the synthesis rate of intramuscular connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Klejs Rahbek, Stine; Farup, Jean

    2016-01-01

    either WPH or maltodextrin [carbohydrate (CHO)] immediately after completion of unilateral shortening and lengthening knee extensions. Ring-13C6-phenylalanine was infused, and muscle biopsies were obtained. IMCT protein FSR was measured at 1–5, as well as 1–3 and 3–5 hours after contractions and nutrient...

  17. Increasing intake of soybean protein or casein, but not cod meal, reduces nephrocalcinosis in female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Beynen, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Female weanling rats were fed diets with soybean protein, casein or cod meal at 171, 342 or 513 mmol nitrogen/100 g for 3 wk. The diets were isonitrogenous and balanced for fat, cholesterol, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Cod meal feeding at 171 and 342 mmol nitrogen/100 g diet produced lower

  18. Intake of Mung Bean Protein Isolate Reduces Plasma Triglyceride Level in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko Tachibana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Mung bean is well known as a starch source, but the physiological effects of mung bean protein have received little attention. In this study, we isolated mung bean protein from de-starched mung bean solutions, and investigated its influence on lipid metabolism. Objective: The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of the lipid metabolism by consumption of mung bean protein isolate (MPIMethods: Diets containing either mung bean protein isolate (MPI or casein were fed to normal rats for 28 days.Results: Both groups ate the same amount of food, but the plasma triglyceride level, relative liver weight and liver lipid contents (cholesterol and triglyceride pool in the MPI group were significantly lower than in the casein group. In the MPI group, the expression of sterol regulatory-element binding factor 1 (SREBF1 mRNA in the liver was significantly different when compared with the casein group. The significantly lower levels of insulin and free fatty acids in the MPI-fed rats may be due to the regulation of genes related to lipid metabolism in the liver.Conclusions: These results suggest that MPI may improve the plasma lipid profile by normalizing insulin sensitivity.Keywords: mung bean, Vigna radiata L., 8S globulin, triglyceride, β-conglycinin, 7S globulin, insulin sensitivity, SREBF1

  19. Correlation Between Protein Intake and Nitrogen Balance of Surgical Patients in Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Installation, Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Wiryana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A cell injury from surgical stress in a trauma or a non-trauma case will induce a hyper metabolic response in which the protein degradation increases, the somatic protein synthesis decreases and the amino acid catabolism increases. Thus, the pyper metabolic response contributes to nitrogen loss in urine. This response, without an adequate nutrition, will lead an iatrogenic malnutrition and deterioration. A balance nitrogen formula through urinary urea nitrogen is one of many nutrition evaluation methods. This method aids in evaluating the daily nutrition status and it can be the baseline data for daily intake. Objective: To find a correlation between the protein intake and the nitrogen balance of the surgical patients in anesthesiology and intensive care installation, Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar, Bali. Methods: Fifty-one surgical patients with trauma and non-trauma cases were observed for their protein intake for 2-3 days continuously. Moreover, they were evaluated for their nitrogen balance based on the urinary urea nitrogen per 24 hours for 2-3 days. For statistical analysis, we utilized Shapiro-Francia, Shapiro-Wilk, Spearman Frank correlation, two-sample t test, and multivariate regression analysis in Strata SE 12.1. Results: The correlation between the protein intake and the nitrogen balance on the first day was ra=0.50 (p<0.05, on the second day ra=0.70 (p<0,05, and on the third day ra=0.740 (p<0,05. Conclusions: There is a correlation between the protein intake and the nitrogen balance of surgical patients in Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Installation Sanglah General Hospital Denpasar. 

  20. Pre- versus post-exercise protein intake has similar effects on muscular adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan; Wilborn, Colin; Urbina, Stacie L.; Hayward, Sara E.; Krieger, James

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the anabolic window theory by investigating muscle strength, hypertrophy, and body composition changes in response to an equal dose of protein consumed either immediately pre- versus post-resistance training (RT) in trained men. Subjects were 21 resistance-trained men (>1 year RT experience) recruited from a university population. After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a group that consumed a supplement ...

  1. Intake of total, animal and plant proteins, and their food sources in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halkjaer, J.; Olsen, A.; Bjerregaard, L. J.; Deharveng, G.; Tjonneland, A.; Welch, A. A.; Crowe, F. L.; Wirfalt, E.; Hellstrom, V.; Niravong, M.; Touvier, M.; Linseisen, J.; Steffen, A.; Ocke, M. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Chirlaque, M. D.; Larranaga, N.; Ferrari, P.; Contiero, P.; Frasca, G.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Misirli, G.; Kosti, M.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.; Bingham, S.

    Objective: To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a

  2. Long-term intake of a high-protein diet increases liver triacylglycerol deposition pathways and hepatic signs of injury in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz-Rúa, Rubén; Keijer, Jaap; Palou, Andreu; Schothorst, van Evert M.; Oliver, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Intake of high-protein (HP) diets has increased over the last years, mainly due to their popularity for body weight control. Liver is the main organ handling ingested macronutrients and it is associated with the beginning of different pathologies. We aimed to deepen our knowledge on molecular

  3. Isocaloric intake of diets differing in macronutrient content (high protein or high fat) in adult rats indicate adverse effects as analysed by hepatic transcriptomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz Rua, Ruben; Schothorst, van Evert; Keijer, Jaap; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu

    2017-01-01

    Intake of high-protein (HP) diets has increased over the last years, mainly due to their popularity for body weight control. Liver is the main organ handling ingested macronutrients and it is associated with the beginning of different pathologies. We aimed to deepen our knowledge on molecular

  4. Intake of tryptophan-enriched whey protein acutely enhances recall of positive loaded words in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieben, Cindy K; Blokland, Arjan; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Jansen, Willemijn; Han, Gang; Hupperts, Raymond M

    2018-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has physiological and/or immunological characteristics that diminish serotonin metabolism, a neurotransmitter associated with affective and cognitive functions. The aim was examine the acute and dose-dependent effects of a dietary tryptophan (TRP) enrichment on affective and cognitive functions in MS patients. We hypothesized that increased dietary availability of the amino acid TRP enhances serotonin concentrations and improves neuropsychological functions. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, MS patients with (n = 15) and without (n = 17) depressed mood ingested a whey protein mixture with 4 different amounts of TRP. Mood states, total plasma TRP and plasma TRP/ΣLNAA ratio were measured during each test session and cognitive tasks were conducted three hours after dietary intake. A fast, transient and dose-dependent increase of total plasma TRP and TRP/ΣLNAA ratio was found. Ratings of negative mood decreased over time, independent of the TRP dose. Relative to whey-only, immediate word recall and delayed recognition improved after ingestion of the lowest added TRP dose and was mainly due to better recollection for positive loaded words. Executive functions were not affected by a difference in TRP availability. A moderate addition of TRP to whey protein enhances memory processes without improving the mood state in MS. ccmo-registration number is NL32316.096.10. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between Low Dietary Protein Intake and Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Single-Center Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aki Kiuchi; Yasushi Ohashi; Reibin Tai; Toshiyuki Aoki; Sonoo Mizuiri; Toyoko Ogura; Atsushi Aikawa; Ken Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in 2005–2009 and were systematically followed until January 2015. Of these patients, 20 (15.9%) had moderate or severe nutrition-related risk of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) < 92; these patients were ...

  6. A Common Allele in FGF21 Associated with Sugar Intake Is Associated with Body Shape, Lower Total Body-Fat Percentage, and Higher Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Frayling

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a hormone that has insulin-sensitizing properties. Some trials of FGF21 analogs show weight loss and lipid-lowering effects. Recent studies have shown that a common allele in the FGF21 gene alters the balance of macronutrients consumed, but there was little evidence of an effect on metabolic traits. We studied a common FGF21 allele (A:rs838133 in 451,099 people from the UK Biobank study, aiming to use the human allele to inform potential adverse and beneficial effects of targeting FGF21. We replicated the association between the A allele and higher percentage carbohydrate intake. We then showed that this allele is more strongly associated with higher blood pressure and waist-hip ratio, despite an association with lower total body-fat percentage, than it is with BMI or type 2 diabetes. These human phenotypes of variation in the FGF21 gene will inform research into FGF21’s mechanisms and therapeutic potential. : Drugs targeting the hormone FGF21 may have beneficial health effects. Variations in human DNA in the FGF21 gene provide an indication of what those effects may be. Here, we show that variation in the FGF21 gene is associated with higher blood pressure and altered body shape, despite lower total body-fat percentage. Keywords: FGF21, BMI, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, body fat, allele, genetic variant, UK Biobank

  7. Snacks containing whey protein and polydextrose induce a sustained reduction in daily energy intake over 2 wk under free-living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astbury, Nerys M; Taylor, Moira A; French, Stephen J; Macdonald, Ian A

    2014-05-01

    The manipulation of the composition of foods consumed as between-meal snacks may aid daily energy restriction. We compared the effects of the consumption of 2 energy-matched snack bars on appetite, energy intake (EI), and metabolic and endocrine responses. In addition, we investigated whether the acute effects of the consumption of snacks were maintained under free-living conditions and whether the habitual daily consumption of the snack over 14 d influenced these effects. Ten lean men [mean ± SD age: 30.7 ± 9.7 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 23.2 ± 2.8] consumed a whey protein and polydextrose (PPX) snack bar or an isoenergetic control snack bar as a midmorning, between-meal snack for 14 consecutive days in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. The two 14-d intervention phases were separated by a 14-d washout period. On the first (day 1) and last (day 15) days of each intervention phase, appetite, food intake, and blood metabolite and endocrine responses were assessed under laboratory conditions. Free-living EI was recorded on days 4, 8, and 12 of interventions. Total daily EI was significantly lower when the PPX snack was consumed during experimental days (10,149 ± 831 compared with 11,931 ± 896 kJ; P snack was consumed during the free-living part of the intervention (7904 ± 610 compared with 9041 ± 928 kJ; P snack was associated with lower glucose and ghrelin and higher glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine responses. The manipulation of the composition of foods consumed as snacks is an effective way to limit subsequent EI. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01927926.

  8. The role of serum and urinary urea in the evaluation of enteral protein intake in adequate and small-for-gestational-age very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Darcie

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Very low birth weight (VLBW infants have special nutritional needs. There is a current tendency to individualize their protein needs. The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of serum and urinary urea as indicators for protein intake in adequate-for-gestational-age (AGA and small-for-gestational-age (SGA VLBW infants. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the nursery attached to the Maternity Ward of the "Prof. Pedro de Alcântara" Children's Institute, Hospital das Clínicas, Department of Pediatrics, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Seventy-two VLBW infants (mean protein intake = 3.7 mg/kg/day were enrolled in a prospective cohort study in two groups: AGA (n = 34 and SGA (n = 38. Blood samples, six-hour urine (6hUr collections and urine sample tests (STUr were obtained for urea and creatinine assays at three and five weeks of life. Statistical analysis: Student's t test, Pearson correlation and linear regression (p < 0.05. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups for serum urea, 6hUr and STUr, or between two assessments within each group. Serum urea correlated with 6hUr in both AGA and SGA, and to STUr in SGA; 6hUr correlated with STUr in both AGA and SGA. There was no correlation between protein intake and serum or urine urea. CONCLUSIONS: Serum and urinary urea did not reflect protein intake when mean intakes of 3.7 g/kg/day were used. Sample tests of urinary urea can be as reliable as urea from urine collected over longer periods.

  9. Assessment of higher order structure comparability in therapeutic proteins using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezcua, Carlos A; Szabo, Christina M

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we applied nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to rapidly assess higher order structure (HOS) comparability in protein samples. Using a variation of the NMR fingerprinting approach described by Panjwani et al. [2010. J Pharm Sci 99(8):3334-3342], three nonglycosylated proteins spanning a molecular weight range of 6.5-67 kDa were analyzed. A simple statistical method termed easy comparability of HOS by NMR (ECHOS-NMR) was developed. In this method, HOS similarity between two samples is measured via the correlation coefficient derived from linear regression analysis of binned NMR spectra. Applications of this method include HOS comparability assessment during new product development, manufacturing process changes, supplier changes, next-generation products, and the development of biosimilars to name just a few. We foresee ECHOS-NMR becoming a routine technique applied to comparability exercises used to complement data from other analytical techniques. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Intake of total protein, plant protein and animal protein in relation to blood pressure : a meta-analysis of observational and intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S. M. A. J.; Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M. F.; Brink, E. J.; van Baak, M. A.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Geleijnse, J. M.

    There is growing evidence from epidemiological studies that dietary protein may beneficially influence blood pressure (BP), but findings are inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of 29 observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary protein and types of protein in

  11. Intake of total protein, plant protein and animal protein in relation to blood pressure: a meta-analysis of observatinoal and intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.; Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.; Bakker, S.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence from epidemiological studies that dietary protein may beneficially influence blood pressure (BP), but findings are inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of 29 observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary protein and types of protein in

  12. Breakfasts Higher in Protein Increase Postprandial Energy Expenditure, Increase Fat Oxidation, and Reduce Hunger in Overweight Children from 8 to 12 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Jamie I; Gray, Michelle; Binns, Ashley

    2015-10-01

    Currently 1 in every 3 children aged 2-19 y is overweight or obese. Breakfast is a key component of a healthy diet and has the potential to affect children's health. The objective of this study was to determine whether consumption of a protein-based breakfast (PRO) increases postprandial energy metabolism and substrate oxidation, reduces hunger, and reduces food intake at lunch compared with a carbohydrate-based breakfast (CHO) in normal weight (NW) vs. overweight/obese (OW) children. A randomized, crossover-design study was conducted in NW (n = 16; 33 ± 1 kg) and OW (n = 13; 46 ± 2 kg) children (10 ± 1 y). Participants were served either a PRO [344 kcal, 21% protein (18 g), 52% carbohydrate, and 27% fat] or CHO [327 kcal, 4% protein (3 g), 67% carbohydrate, and 29% fat]. Energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation, appetite, and blood glucose were measured over a 4 h period. Four hour postprandial participants were provided with access to a lunch buffet and food intake was recorded. After breakfast, OW children in the PRO group had higher (P fat oxidation over the 4 h period than did the NW children in the CHO and PRO groups. There was no difference in postprandial EE or carbohydrate oxidation between the CHO and PRO groups over the 4 h period; however, fat oxidation was 16% higher (P children. A PRO increases postprandial EE and fat oxidation, reduces hunger, and increases satiety when compared with a carbohydrate-based breakfast. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Higher freshwater fish and sea fish intake is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk among Chinese population: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ming; Fang, Yu-Jing; Chen, Yu-Ming; Lu, Min-Shan; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Yan, Bo; Zhong, Xiao; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-01-01

    The association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk remains controversial. This study aimed to examine the association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population in a large case control study. During July 2010 to November 2014, 1189 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 1189 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariate log...

  14. Association between macronutrient intake and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boeun; Jin, Youri; Kim, Seung Hyun; Park, Yongsoon

    2018-04-24

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, and the nutritional state of ALS patients is associated with survival. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether macronutrient intake at early stage of the disease was positively associated with survival and duration from symptom onset to death, tracheostomy, or non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in ALS. ALS patients diagnosed according to EI Escorial criteria were recruited from 2011 to 2016 and followed up until 2017, when they reached the endpoint of death, tracheostomy, or NIV use. Dietary intake was estimated based on a 24-hour recall conducted less than 2 years from symptom onset, and the survival time was defined as the duration from symptom onset to the endpoint. ALS patients were categorized as short-term group (n=79) and long-term group (n=69) according to the mean survival time (33.03±14.01 months). Short-term survival was negatively associated with fat, protein, and meat intake, and positively associated with carbohydrate intake after adjustment for confounders. In addition, the survival time was positively associated with fat, protein, and meat intake but was not associated with carbohydrate intake. The present study suggested that higher intake of fat and protein, particularly from meat at early stage of the disease, could prolong the survival of ALS patients. However, further clinical trials are necessary to confirm the beneficial effects of higher fat and protein intake on mortality in ALS patients.

  15. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Capra, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older...... corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results....

  16. A study on the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention: Verification of mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ill-Gwang

    2016-05-18

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention of university students majoring in physical education and verify the mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention. To achieve the purpose of this study, 700 university students majoring in physical education from 10 universities in Korea were selected from October 2013 to December 2013 as the target of this study through the cluster random sampling and data of 228 university students who had experience in the intake of protein supplements among them was analyzed. The composite reliability of each factor was in between 0.869 and 0.958, and the convergent validity and discriminant validity were verified. SPSS 18.0 and Amos 22.0 were utilized as data processing methods and the verification of significance on the medication effects and indirect effects of word-of-mouth intention was carried out using the frequency analysis, correlation analysis, CFA, SEM, and Amos bootstrapping. The result is as follows. The protein supplements intake satisfaction level had a positive effect on the word-of-mouth intention and the word-of-mouth intention had a positive effect on the repurchase intention. Also, it was shown that the word-of-mouth intention played a full mediation role between the intake satisfaction level and the repurchase intention.

  17. Association between Low Dietary Protein Intake and Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Single-Center Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Aki; Ohashi, Yasushi; Tai, Reibin; Aoki, Toshiyuki; Mizuiri, Sonoo; Ogura, Toyoko; Aikawa, Atsushi; Sakai, Ken

    2016-10-23

    Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in 2005-2009 and were systematically followed until January 2015. Of these patients, 20 (15.9%) had moderate or severe nutrition-related risk of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) patients were more likely to be older, have a greater proteinuria, and have lower body mass index and serum albumin concentration. Dietary protein intake was significantly lower in older patients ( r = -0.33, p protein to nitrogen calorie ratio was independently associated with GNRI. Reduced GNRI was significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 4.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.61-15.42, p = 0.012) and cardiovascular events (HR = 9.37; 95% CI = 2.49-37.34, p = 0.006), but not with adverse renal outcomes. Restricting protein intake may be harmful to patients with any nutrition-related risk, suggesting that improvement of nutritional status should be a high priority.

  18. Association between Low Dietary Protein Intake and Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Single-Center Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Kiuchi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in 2005–2009 and were systematically followed until January 2015. Of these patients, 20 (15.9% had moderate or severe nutrition-related risk of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI < 92; these patients were more likely to be older, have a greater proteinuria, and have lower body mass index and serum albumin concentration. Dietary protein intake was significantly lower in older patients (r = −0.33, p < 0.001 and those with lower glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.47, p < 0.001. The non-protein to nitrogen calorie ratio was independently associated with GNRI. Reduced GNRI was significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio (HR = 4.94; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.61–15.42, p = 0.012 and cardiovascular events (HR = 9.37; 95% CI = 2.49–37.34, p = 0.006, but not with adverse renal outcomes. Restricting protein intake may be harmful to patients with any nutrition-related risk, suggesting that improvement of nutritional status should be a high priority.

  19. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake.

  20. Higher intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with a decreased risk of a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination: Results from the Ausimmune Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Samuel; Lithander, Fiona; van der Mei, Ingrid; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Lucas, Robyn

    2016-06-01

    There is contradictory evidence for a role of dietary fat in risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). To examine the association between usual fat intake (total, saturated, monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA), omega-3 and omega-6) and risk of a first clinical diagnosis of CNS demyelination (FCD). Multi-centre incident case-control study in four regions of Australia during 2003-2006. Cases were aged 18-59 years and had a FCD; controls were matched to a case on age, sex and location. Dietary data were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. In 267 cases and 517 controls with dietary data, higher intake (per g/day) of omega-3 PUFA (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=0.61 (95% CI 0.40-0.93)), and particularly that derived from fish (AOR=0.54 (95% CI 0.31-0.93)) rather than from plants (AOR=0.75 (95% CI 0.39-1.43)) was associated with a decreased risk of FCD. Total fat intake and intake of other types of fat were not associated with FCD risk. There was a significant decrease in FCD risk with higher intake of omega-3 PUFA, particularly that originating from fish. There was no evidence to indicate that the intake of other types of dietary fat or fat quantity in the previous 12 months was associated with an altered risk of FCD. © The Author(s), 2015.

  1. Dietary protein intake and coronary heart disease in a large community based cohort: results from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Haring

    Full Text Available Prospective data examining the relationship between dietary protein intake and incident coronary heart disease (CHD are inconclusive. Most evidence is derived from homogenous populations such as health professionals. Large community-based analyses in more diverse samples are lacking.We studied the association of protein type and major dietary protein sources and risk for incident CHD in 12,066 middle-aged adults (aged 45-64 at baseline, 1987-1989 from four U.S. communities enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study who were free of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease at baseline. Dietary protein intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years of follow-up by food frequency questionnaire. Our primary outcome was adjudicated coronary heart disease events or deaths with following up through December 31, 2010. Cox proportional hazard models with multivariable adjustment were used for statistical analyses.During a median follow-up of 22 years, there were 1,147 CHD events. In multivariable analyses total, animal and vegetable protein were not associated with an increased risk for CHD before or after adjustment. In food group analyses of major dietary protein sources, protein intake from red and processed meat, dairy products, fish, nuts, eggs, and legumes were not significantly associated with CHD risk. The hazard ratios [with 95% confidence intervals] for risk of CHD across quintiles of protein from poultry were 1.00 [ref], 0.83 [0.70-0.99], 0.93 [0.75-1.15], 0.88 [0.73-1.06], 0.79 [0.64-0.98], P for trend  = 0.16. Replacement analyses evaluating the association of substituting one source of dietary protein for another or of decreasing protein intake at the expense of carbohydrates or total fats did not show any statistically significant association with CHD risk.Based on a large community cohort we found no overall relationship between protein type and major dietary protein sources and risk for CHD.

  2. Higher Intake of Fruit, but Not Vegetables or Fiber, at Baseline Is Associated with Lower Risk of Becoming Overweight or Obese in Middle-Aged and Older Women of Normal BMI at Baseline123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Wang, Lu; Lee, I-Min; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Sesso, Howard D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fruit, vegetable, and dietary fiber intake have been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, little is known about their role in obesity prevention. Objective: Our goal was to investigate whether intake of fruits, vegetables, and dietary fiber is associated with weight change and the risk of becoming overweight and obese. Methods: We studied 18,146 women aged ≥45 y from the Women’s Health Study free of CVD and cancer with an initial body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to Fruit, vegetable, and dietary fiber intakes were assessed at baseline through a 131-item food-frequency questionnaire, along with obesity-related risk factors. Women self-reported body weight on annual questionnaires. Results: During a mean follow-up of 15.9 y, 8125 women became overweight or obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2). Intakes of total fruits and vegetables, fruits, and dietary fiber were not associated with the longitudinal changes in body weight, whereas higher vegetable intake was associated with greater weight gain (P-trend: 0.02). In multivariable analyses, controlling for total energy intake and physical activity along with other lifestyle, clinical, and dietary factors, women in the highest vs. lowest quintile of fruit intake had an HR of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.94; P-trend: 0.01) of becoming overweight or obese. No association was observed for vegetable or dietary fiber intake. The association between fruit intake and risk of becoming overweight or obese was modified by baseline BMI (P-interaction: fruit, but not vegetables or fiber, by middle-aged and older women with a normal BMI at baseline is associated with lower risk of becoming overweight or obese. PMID:25934663

  3. Higher Intake of Fruit, but Not Vegetables or Fiber, at Baseline Is Associated with Lower Risk of Becoming Overweight or Obese in Middle-Aged and Older Women of Normal BMI at Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Wang, Lu; Lee, I-Min; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Sesso, Howard D

    2015-05-01

    Fruit, vegetable, and dietary fiber intake have been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, little is known about their role in obesity prevention. Our goal was to investigate whether intake of fruits, vegetables, and dietary fiber is associated with weight change and the risk of becoming overweight and obese. We studied 18,146 women aged ≥45 y from the Women's Health Study free of CVD and cancer with an initial body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to Fruit, vegetable, and dietary fiber intakes were assessed at baseline through a 131-item food-frequency questionnaire, along with obesity-related risk factors. Women self-reported body weight on annual questionnaires. During a mean follow-up of 15.9 y, 8125 women became overweight or obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m²). Intakes of total fruits and vegetables, fruits, and dietary fiber were not associated with the longitudinal changes in body weight, whereas higher vegetable intake was associated with greater weight gain (P-trend: 0.02). In multivariable analyses, controlling for total energy intake and physical activity along with other lifestyle, clinical, and dietary factors, women in the highest vs. lowest quintile of fruit intake had an HR of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.94; P-trend: 0.01) of becoming overweight or obese. No association was observed for vegetable or dietary fiber intake. The association between fruit intake and risk of becoming overweight or obese was modified by baseline BMI (P-interaction: fruit, but not vegetables or fiber, by middle-aged and older women with a normal BMI at baseline is associated with lower risk of becoming overweight or obese. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Higher intake of carotenoid is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer in Chinese adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min-Shan; Fang, Yu-Jing; Chen, Yu-Ming; Luo, Wei-Ping; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Zhong, Xiao; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-06-01

    The associations between specific carotenoid intake and colorectal cancer risk remain inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the association between specific dietary carotenoid intake with colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults. From July 2010 to October 2013, 845 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 845 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariate logistical regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of colorectal cancer risk after adjusting for various confounders. A strong inverse association was found between β-cryptoxanthin intake and colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile intake showed a risk reduction of 77% (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.17-0.33, P trend colorectal cancer risk. These findings were consistent across cancer site, sources of controls, and smoking status. The inverse associations between dietary α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene intake and colorectal cancer risk were found in both males and females, while inverse associations between β-carotene intake and colorectal cancer risk were only observed in males. Consumption of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. No significant association was found between lutein/zeaxanthin intake and colorectal cancer risk.

  5. Ways to be different: Foraging adaptations that facilitate higher intake rates in a northerly wintering shorebird compared with a low-latitude conspecific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; van Gils, Jan A.; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    At what phenotypic level do closely related subspecies that live in different environments differ with respect to food detection, ingestion and processing? This question motivated an experimental study on rock sandpipers (Calidris ptilocnemis). The species' nonbreeding range spans 20 deg of latitude, the extremes of which are inhabited by two subspecies: C. p. ptilocnemis that winters primarily in upper Cook Inlet, Alaska (61°N) and C. p. tschuktschorum that overlaps slightly with C. p. ptilocnemis but whose range extends much farther south (∼40°N). In view of the strongly contrasting energetic demands of their distinct nonbreeding distributions, we conducted experiments to assess the behavioral, physiological and sensory aspects of foraging and we used the bivalve Macoma balthica for all trials. C. p. ptilocnemis consumed a wider range of prey sizes, had higher maximum rates of energy intake, processed shell waste at higher maximum rates and handled prey more quickly. Notably, however, the two subspecies did not differ in their abilities to find buried prey. The subspecies were similar in size and had equally sized gizzards, but the more northern ptilocnemis individuals were 10–14% heavier than their same-sex tschuktschorum counterparts. The higher body mass in ptilocnemis probably resulted from hypertrophy of digestive organs (e.g. intestine, liver) related to digestion and nutrient assimilation. Given the previously established equality of the metabolic capacities of the two subspecies, we propose that the high-latitude nonbreeding range of ptilocnemis rock sandpipers is primarily facilitated by digestive (i.e. physiological) aspects of their foraging ecology rather than behavioral or sensory aspects.

  6. Energy and protein intake and nutritional status in non-surgically treated patients with small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enig, B.; Winther, E.; Hessov, I.; Aarhus Univ.

    1986-01-01

    The spontaneous food intake and nutritional status was assessed in 23 patients with small cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung before and two times during a treatment period of 6 weeks. Radiation therapy was given for 2 weeks followed by a course of chemotherapy and another 2 weeks of radiation therapy. The energy intake decreased during the treatment from 146 to 130 per cent of basal metabolic rate (p>0.10). The protein intake remained unchanged (mean 0.9 g/kg body weight).There were insignificant and small losses of weight, body fat, free body mass and arm muscle circumference, and no changes were seen in serum albumin and serum transferrin. However, 6 patients suffered a weight loss of 5 per cent or more. No correlation existed between the nutritional parameters measured before treatment and the changes during treatment. Patients who suffered a loss of body weight could therefore not be singled out before the treatment. (orig.)

  7. Effects of the dietary ratio of ruminal degraded to undegraded protein and feed intake on intestinal flows of endogenous nitrogen and amino acids in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanshe; Chen, Liang; Tan, Zhiliang; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Wang, Min; Kang, Jinhe; Yan, Qiongxian

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the dietary ratio of ruminal degraded protein (RDP) to ruminal undegraded protein (RUP) and the dry matter intake (DMI) on the intestinal flows of endogenous nitrogen (N) and amino acids (AA) in goats. The experiment was designed as a 4×4 Latin square using four ruminally, duodenally and ileally cannulated goats. The treatments were arranged in a 2×2 factorial design; two ratios of RDP to RUP (65:35 and 45:55, RDP1 and RDP2, respectively) and two levels at 95% and 75% of voluntary feed intake (DMI1 and DMI2, respectively) were fed to the goats. There were no significant differences in the N intake, duodenal flow of total N, undegraded feed N, microbial N, endogenous N or ileal flow of endogenous N, but the duodenal and ileal flow of endogenous N numerically decreased by approximately 22% and 9%, respectively, when the feed intake changed from DMI1 (0.63 kg/d) to DMI2 (0.50 kg/d). The dietary ratio of RDP to RUP had significant effects (pRUP ratio and DMI decreased, and the flow of endogenous AA at the ileum also decreased when the DMI decreased but increased with decreasing RDP to RUP ratios.

  8. Skeletal effect of casein and whey protein intake during catch-up growth in young male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarwi, Majdi; Gabet, Yankel; Dolkart, Oleg; Brosh, Tamar; Shamir, Raanan; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the type of protein ingested influences the efficiency of catch-up (CU) growth and bone quality in fast-growing male rats. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were either fed ad libitum (controls) or subjected to 36 d of 40 % food restriction followed by 24 or 40 d of re-feeding with either standard rat chow or iso-energetic, iso-protein diets containing milk proteins - casein or whey. In terms of body weight, CU growth was incomplete in all study groups. Despite their similar food consumption, casein-re-fed rats had a significantly higher body weight and longer humerus than whey-re-fed rats in the long term. The height of the epiphyseal growth plate (EGP) in both casein and whey groups was greater than that of rats re-fed normal chow. Microcomputed tomography yielded significant differences in bone microstructure between the casein and whey groups, with the casein-re-fed animals having greater cortical thickness in both the short and long term in addition to a higher trabecular bone fraction in the short term, although this difference disappeared in the long term. Mechanical testing confirmed the greater bone strength in rats re-fed casein. Bone quality during CU growth significantly depends on the type of protein ingested. The higher EGP in the casein- and whey-re-fed rats suggests a better growth potential with milk-based diets. These results suggest that whey may lead to slower bone growth with reduced weight gain and, as such, may serve to circumvent long-term complications of CU growth.

  9. FINDIET 2007 Survey: energy and nutrient intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietinen, Pirjo; Paturi, Merja; Reinivuo, Heli; Tapanainen, Heli; Valsta, Liisa M

    2010-06-01

    The National FINDIET surveys are carried out every 5 years to monitor dietary habits and nutrient intake of the adult Finnish population. The latest survey was carried out in 2007. Cross-sectional population-based study. Dietary assessment was carried out using 48 h recall interviews. A picture book of food portions was used to estimate portion sizes and the national Food Composition Database Fineli(R) to calculate nutrient intakes. A representative sample taken in five regions in Finland. A total of 730 men and 846 women aged 24-64 years. The percentage contribution of fat to the total energy intake was 33 % in men and 31 % in women. The respective percentages for SFA in men and women were 13 % and 12 %, respectively, and 0.4 % for trans fatty acids in both genders. The average intakes of folate, vitamin D and fibre fell below the recommended levels, whereas the average salt intake was somewhat higher than the recommendations. Women's diet was higher in protein, dietary fibre and sucrose compared to that of men. According to the FINDIET 2007 Survey, the dietary habits of the adult Finnish population have headed in a positive direction overall. However, although the quality of the fats consumed has continued to improve, and the intake of salt has decreased, they still do not meet the recommended levels of intake. Similarly, the average intakes of folate and vitamin D continue to fall below the recommendations. There is also a need to increase fibre intake and to cut down the intake of sucrose.

  10. Targeted deletion of C1q/TNF-related protein 9 increases food intake, decreases insulin sensitivity, and promotes hepatic steatosis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Zhikui; Lei, Xia; Petersen, Pia S.; Aja, Susan; Wong, G. William

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic overexpression of CTRP9, a secreted hormone downregulated in obesity, confers striking protection against diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the physiological relevance of this adiponectin-related plasma protein remains undefined. Here, we used gene targeting to establish the metabolic function of CTRP9 in a physiological context. Mice lacking CTRP9 were obese and gained significantly more body weight when fed standard laboratory chow. Increased food intake, due in ...

  11. Higher Fish Intake Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Hip Fractures in Chinese Men and Women: A Matched Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Fan; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Wu, Bao-Hua; He, Ming-Guang; Xie, Hai-Li; Ouyang, Wei-Fu; Tu, Su-lan; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Fish is rich in nutrients that are favorable to bone health, but limited data are available regarding the relationship between fish intake and hip fractures. Our study examined the association between habitual fish intake and risk of hip fractures. METHODS: A case-control study was performed between June 2009 and June 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Five hundred and eighty-one hip fracture incident cases, aged 55 to 80 years (mean: 71 years), were enrolled from four hospitals. ...

  12. Higher Branched-Chain Amino Acid Intake Is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Being Overweight or Obese in Middle-Aged East Asian and Western Adults12

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Li‐Qiang; Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah; Daviglus, Martha L.; Van Horn, Linda; Stamler, Jeremiah; He, Ka

    2010-01-01

    Beneficial effects on body weight of supplementation with BCAA, including leucine, isoleucine, and valine, have been observed in animal and human studies. However, population-based studies on dietary BCAA intake and body weight are lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary BCAA intake and risk of overweight status/obesity among multi-ethnic populations. The International Study of Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure is a cross-sectional epidemiolo...

  13. Assessment of muscle mass and its association with protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population: relevance in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon Wee; Toh, Qi Chun; Chan, Xue Wei; Xu, Hui; Li, Jia Liang; Lee, Evan Jc

    2014-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend objective nutritional assessments in managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients but were developed while referencing to a North-American population. Specific recommendations for assessing muscle mass were suggested (mid-arm circumference, MAC; corrected mid-arm muscle area, cAMA; mid-arm muscle circumference, MAMC). This study aimed to assess correlation and association of these assessments with dietary protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population of healthy and CKD patients. We analyzed 24-hour urine collections of selected participants to estimate total protein intake (TPI; g/day). Ideal body weight (IDW; kg) was calculated and muscle assessments conducted. Analyses involved correlation and linear regression, taking significance at ppatients and 103 healthy participants comprising of 51.0% male, 38.5% Chinese, 29.6% Malay, 23.6% Indian, and 8.4% others. The mean TPI was 58.9 ± 18.4 g/day in healthy participants and 53.6 ± 19.4 g/day in CKD patients. When normalized to ideal body weight, TPI-IDW (g/kg/day) was similar in healthy and CKD participants. Overall, TPI was associated with MAC (r=0.372, ppatients. Total protein intake was associated with muscle assessments in all participants. TPI normalized to IDW should only be used in CKD patients.

  14. Assessment of dietary intake in Spanish university students of health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Rodríguez, María; Pocovi, Gabriela; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Rueda-Medina, Blanca

    2018-05-01

    Nutritional intake during early ages has been associated to disease onset later in life. This study aimed to assess dietary intake in Spanish university students of health sciences as compared to national recommended dietary intakes (DRIs). A cross-sectional study was conducted including 585 university students of health sciences aged 18-25 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a 72-h diet recall. A control group was selected from Spanish National Dietary Intake Survey (ENIDE) data. Intake of energy, protein, fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol was significantly lower (p<0.001) in university students compared to controls, while fiber intake showed the opposite trend (p<0.001). Total fat and carbohydrate intake was consistent with recommendations, but protein intake was lower than recommended. Intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) was markedly higher than nutrition goals, while intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) was lower. Both students and the reference control group did not reach the optimal dietary intake of iodine and vitamins D and E, while sodium intake was excessive in both groups. Dietary habits of university students were mainly characterized by low intakes of energy, protein, fats, fatty acids, and cholesterol, and high intake of fiber as compared to the general population. Intake of iodine and vitamins D and E was low, while sodium intake was excessive in both university students and the general population. Dietary interventions should be considered to prevent nutritional deficiencies and to ensure a balanced diet. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Supplementing an energy adequate, higher protein diet with protein does not enhance fat-free mass restoration after short-term severe negative energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, C E; Sepowitz, J J; McClung, H L; Lieberman, H R; Farina, E K; McClung, J P; Ferrando, A A; Pasiakos, S M

    2017-06-01

    Negative energy balance during military operations can be severe and result in significant reductions in fat-free mass (FFM). Consuming supplemental high-quality protein following such military operations may accelerate restoration of FFM. Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and whole body protein turnover (single-pool [ 15 N]alanine method) were determined before (PRE) and after 7 days (POST) of severe negative energy balance during military training in 63 male US Marines (means ± SD, 25 ± 3 yr, 84 ± 9 kg). After POST measures were collected, volunteers were randomized to receive higher protein (HIGH: 1,103 kcal/day, 133 g protein/day), moderate protein (MOD: 974 kcal/day, 84 g protein/day), or carbohydrate-based low protein control (CON: 1,042 kcal/day, 7 g protein/day) supplements, in addition to a self-selected, ad libitum diet, for the 27-day intervention (REFED). Measurements were repeated POST-REFED. POST total body mass (TBM; -5.8 ± 1.0 kg, -7.0%), FFM (-3.1 ± 1.6 kg, -4.7%), and net protein balance (-1.7 ± 1.1 g protein·kg -1 ·day -1 ) were lower and proteolysis (1.1 ± 1.9 g protein·kg -1 ·day -1 ) was higher compared with PRE ( P energy (4,498 ± 725 kcal/day). All volunteers, independent of group assignment, achieved positive net protein balance (0.4 ± 1.0 g protein·kg -1 ·day -1 ) and gained TBM (5.9 ± 1.7 kg, 7.8%) and FFM (3.6 ± 1.8 kg, 5.7%) POST-REFED compared with POST ( P energy-adequate, higher protein diets with additional protein may not be necessary to restore FFM after short-term severe negative energy balance. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This article demonstrates 1 ) the majority of physiological decrements incurred during military training (e.g., total and fat-free mass loss), with the exception of net protein balance, resolve and return to pretraining values after 27 days and 2 ) protein supplementation, in addition to an ad libitum, higher protein (~2.0 g·kg -1 ·day -1 ), energy adequate diet, is not necessary to

  16. Effects of combination of whey protein intake and rehabilitation on muscle strength and daily movements in patients with hip fracture in the early postoperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsu, Masaya; Ichinose, Daisuke; Hirooka, Taku; Mitsutomi, Kazuhiko; Morimoto, Yoshitaka; Sarukawa, Junichiro; Nishikino, Shoichi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Kaoru

    2016-08-01

    Elderly patients can be at risk of protein catabolism and malnutrition in the early postoperative period. Whey protein includes most essential amino acids and stimulates the synthesis of muscle protein. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training in combination with whey protein intake in the early postoperative period. We randomized patients to a whey protein group or a control group. The former group received 32.2 g of whey protein pre- and post-rehabilitation in the early postoperative period for two weeks. Outcomes were knee extension strength on either side by Biodex 4.0, and the ability of transfer, walking, toilet use and stair use by the Barthel Index (BI). We performed initial and final assessments in the second and tenth rehabilitation sessions. A total of 38 patients were recruited: 20 in the whey protein group and 18 in the control group. Participants in the whey protein group showed significantly greater improvement in knee extension strength in the operated limb compared with the control group (F = 6.11, P = 0.02). The non-operated limb also showed a similar tendency (F = 3.51, P = 0.07). The abilities of transfer, walking and toilet use showed greater improvements in the whey protein group than in the control group by BI (P patients with hip fracture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Targeted deletion of C1q/TNF-related protein 9 increases food intake, decreases insulin sensitivity, and promotes hepatic steatosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhikui; Lei, Xia; Petersen, Pia S; Aja, Susan; Wong, G William

    2014-04-01

    Transgenic overexpression of CTRP9, a secreted hormone downregulated in obesity, confers striking protection against diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the physiological relevance of this adiponectin-related plasma protein remains undefined. Here, we used gene targeting to establish the metabolic function of CTRP9 in a physiological context. Mice lacking CTRP9 were obese and gained significantly more body weight when fed standard laboratory chow. Increased food intake, due in part to upregulated expression of hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides, contributed to greater adiposity in CTRP9 knockout mice. Although the frequency of food intake remained unchanged, CTRP9 knockout mice increased caloric intake by increasing meal size and decreasing satiety ratios. The absence of CTRP9 also resulted in peripheral tissue insulin resistance, leading to increased fasting insulin levels, impaired hepatic insulin signaling, and reduced insulin tolerance. Increased expression of lipogenic genes, combined with enhanced caloric intake, contributed to hepatic steatosis in CTRP9 knockout mice. Loss of CTRP9 also resulted in reduced skeletal muscle AMPK activation and mitochondrial content. Together, these results provide the genetic evidence for a physiological role of CTRP9 in controlling energy balance via central and peripheral mechanisms.

  18. Lack of effect of high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meal intake on stress-related mood and eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmens Sofie G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of meals with different macronutrients, especially high in carbohydrates, may influence stress-related eating behavior. We aimed to investigate whether consumption of high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meals influences stress-related mood, food reward, i.e. 'liking' and 'wanting', and post-meal energy intake. Methods Participants (n = 38, 19m/19f, age = 25 ± 9 y, BMI = 25.0 ± 3.3 kg/m2 came to the university four times, fasted, once for a stress session receiving a high-protein meal, once for a rest session receiving a high-protein meal, once for a stress session receiving a high-carbohydrate meal and once for a rest session receiving a high-carbohydrate meal (randomized cross-over design. The high-protein and high-carbohydrate test meals (energy percentage protein/carbohydrate/fat 65/5/30 vs. 6/64/30 matched for energy density (4 kJ/g and daily energy requirements (30%. Stress was induced using an ego-threatening test. Pre- and post-meal 'liking' and 'wanting' (for bread, filling, drinks, dessert, snacks, stationery (non-food alternative as control was measured by means of a computer test. Following the post-meal 'wanting' measurement, participants received and consumed their wanted food items (post-meal energy intake. Appetite profile (visual analogue scales, mood state (Profile Of Mood State and State Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires, and post-meal energy intake were measured. Results Participants showed increased feelings of depression and anxiety during stress (P Conclusions Consumption of a high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meal appears to have limited impact on stress-related eating behavior. Only participants with high disinhibition showed decreased subsequent 'wanting' and energy intake during rest; this effect disappeared under stress. Acute stress overruled effects of consumption of high-protein foods. Trial registration The study was registered in the Dutch Trial Register (NTR1904. The

  19. Dietary calcium intake and higher body mass index in Mexican adults aged 20 to 59 years old: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Efraín Flores-Aldana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although energy balance is the main factor that regulates body weight, recent studies suggest that calcium metabolism can modify the energy balance and help regulate body weight. Objective. To evaluate the association between the calcium intake in the diet and high body mass index in Mexican adults in the 20-59 age group. Material and methods. A cross-sectional secondary analytical study was conducted based on the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutritional Survey (ENSANUT 2006. Food intake questionnaires applied to 16,494 adults were analyzed. After removing biologically implausible values or incomplete information, we arrived at a final sample of 15,662 adults grouped according to their body mass index. Linear regression was used to assess association between daily dietary calcium intake and body mass index. Results. There was an inverse association between dietary calcium consumption and a high body mass index. The mean calcium intake in subjects with normal body mass index was 903.9 mg/day versus 832.0 mg/day in obese subjects (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. The study corroborates existing evidence of an inverse association between the dietary calcium intake and a high body mass index.

  20. Increased Protein Consumption during the Day from an Energy-Restricted Diet Augments Satiety but Does Not Reduce Daily Fat or Carbohydrate Intake on a Free-Living Test Day in Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwin, Jess A; Maki, Kevin C; Leidy, Heather J

    2017-12-01

    Background: Higher-protein (HP) energy-restriction diets improve weight management to a greater extent than normal-protein (NP) versions. Potential mechanisms of action with regard to assessment of eating behaviors across the day have not been widely examined during energy restriction. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to test whether the consumption of an HP energy-restriction diet reduces carbohydrate and fat intakes through improvements in daily appetite, satiety, and food cravings compared with NP versions and to test whether protein type within the NP diets alters protein-related satiety. Methods: Seventeen overweight women [mean ± SEM age: 36 ± 1 y; body mass index (kg/m 2 ): 28.4 ± 0.1] completed a randomized, controlled-feeding crossover study. Participants were provided with the following ∼1250-kcal/d energy-restricted (-750-kcal/d deficit) diets, each for 6 d: HP [124 g protein/d; 60% from beef and 40% from plant sources (HP-BEEF)] or NP (48 g protein/d) that was protein-type matched (NP-BEEF) or unmatched [100% from plant-based sources (NP-PLANT)]. On day 6 of each diet period, participants completed a 12-h testing day containing repetitive appetite, satiety, and food-craving questionnaires. On day 7, the participants were asked to consume their protein requirement within each respective diet but were provided with a surplus of carbohydrate- and fat-rich foods to consume, ad libitum, at each eating occasion across the day. All outcomes reported were primary study outcomes. Results: The HP-BEEF diet reduced daily hunger by 16%, desire to eat by 15%, prospective food consumption by 14%, and fast-food cravings by 15% but increased daily fullness by 25% compared with the NP-BEEF and NP-PLANT diets (all P protein throughout the day did not reduce the energy consumed ad libitum from the fat- and carbohydrate-rich foods (HP-BEEF: 2000 ± 180 kcal/d; NP-BEEF: 2120 ± 190 kcal/d; NP-PLANT: 2070 ± 180 kcal/d). None of the outcomes differed

  1. Contrasts in livelihoods and protein intake between commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunters in two villages on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, María Grande; Carpinetti, Bruno; Duarte, Jesús; Fa, John E

    2013-06-01

    Across West and Central Africa, wildlife provides a source of food and income. We investigated the relation between bushmeat hunting and household wealth and protein consumption in 2 rural communities in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. One village was dedicated to commercial hunting, the other trapped game primarily for food. We tested whether commercial-hunter households were nutritionally advantaged over subsistence-hunter households due to their higher income from the bushmeat trade and greater access to wild-animal protein. We conducted bushmeat-offtake surveys in both villages (captures by hunters and carcasses arriving to each village). Mammals (including threatened primates: black colobus [Colobus satanas], Preussi's guenon [Allochrocebus preussi], and russet-eared guenon [Cercopithecus erythrotis]), birds, and reptiles were hunted. The blue duiker (Philantomba monticola), giant pouched rat (Cricetomys emini), and brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) contributed almost all the animal biomass hunted, consumed, or sold in both villages. Monkeys and Ogilbyi's duikers (Cephalophus ogilbyi) were hunted only by commercial hunters. Commercial hunters generated a mean of US$2000/year from bushmeat sales. Households with commercial hunters were on average wealthier, generated more income, spent more money on nonessential goods, and bought more products they did not grow. By contrast, households with subsistence hunters spent less on market items, spent more on essential products, and grew more of their own food. Despite these differences, average consumption of vegetable protein and domestic meat and bushmeat protein did not differ between villages. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the socioeconomic and nutritional context of commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunting to correctly interpret ways of reducing their effects on threatened species and to enable the sustainable offtake of more productive taxa. © 2013 Society for Conservation

  2. Phototropism and Protein Phosphorylation in Higher Plants: Unilateral Blue Light Irradiation Generates a Directional Gradient of Protein Phosphorylation Across the Oat Coleoptile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, M.; Zacherl, M.; Rüdiger, W.

    1997-01-01

    Blue light induces the phosphorylation of a 116 kDa oat protein found in plasma membrane preparations from coleoptile tips. We developed a very sensitive in vitro method that allowed us to determine the tissue distribution of protein phosphorylation after applying unilateral and bilateral blue light pulses in vivo. We found that following unilateral in vivo irradiation the degree in phosphorylation of the 116 kDa protein is significantly higher at the irradiated than at the shaded side of the coleoptile tip. This asymmetry can be considered as previously missing criterion that protein phosphorylation represents an early event within the transduction chain for phototropism. (author)

  3. Casein infusion rate influences feed intake differently depending on metabolizable protein balance in dairy cows: A multilevel meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, R; Ouellet, D R; Kebreab, E; Lapierre, H

    2016-04-01

    The effects of casein infusion have been investigated extensively in ruminant species. Its effect on responses in dry matter intake (DMI) has been reviewed and indicated no significant effect. The literature reviewed in the current meta-analysis is more extensive and limited to dairy cows fed ad libitum. A total of 51 studies were included in the meta-analysis and data were fitted to a multilevel model adjusting for the correlated nature of some studies. The effect size was the mean difference calculated by subtracting the means for the control from the casein-infused group. Overall, casein infusion [average of 333 g of dry matter (DM)/d; range: 91 to 1,092 g of DM/d] tended to increase responses in DMI by 0.18 kg/d (n=48 studies; 3 outliers). However, an interaction was observed between the casein infusion rate (IR) and the initial metabolizable protein (MP) balance [i.e., supply minus requirements (NRC, 2001)]. When control cows were in negative MP balance (n=27 studies), responses in DMI averaged 0.28 kg/d at mean MP balance (-264 g/d) and casein IR (336 g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses by 0.14 kg/d (MP balance being constant), compared with cows not infused with casein. In contrast, when control cows were in positive MP balance (n=22 studies; 2 outliers), responses in DMI averaged -0.20 kg/d at mean casein IR (339 g/d), and a 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean further decreased responses by 0.33 kg/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in milk true protein yield at mean casein IR were greater (109 vs. 65 g/d) for cows in negative vs. positive MP balance, respectively, and the influence of the casein IR on responses was significant only for cows in negative MP balance. A 100g/d increment in the casein IR from its mean increased further responses in milk true protein yield by 25 g/d, compared with cows not infused with casein. Responses in blood urea concentration increased in

  4. Intake port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  5. Higher resting-state activity in reward-related brain circuits in obese versus normal-weight females independent of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Zhou, W; Dahlberg, L S; Stark, J; Larsen, A L; Olivo, G; Wiemerslage, L; Larsson, E-M; Sundbom, M; Benedict, C; Schiöth, H B

    2016-11-01

    In response to food cues, obese vs normal-weight individuals show greater activation in brain regions involved in the regulation of food intake under both fasted and sated conditions. Putative effects of obesity on task-independent low-frequency blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signals-that is, resting-state brain activity-in the context of food intake are, however, less well studied. To compare eyes closed, whole-brain low-frequency BOLD signals between severely obese and normal-weight females, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations were measured in the morning following an overnight fast in 17 obese (age: 39±11 years, body mass index (BMI): 42.3±4.8 kg m - 2 ) and 12 normal-weight females (age: 36±12 years, BMI: 22.7±1.8 kg m - 2 ), both before and 30 min after consumption of a standardized meal (~260 kcal). Compared with normal-weight controls, obese females had increased low-frequency activity in clusters located in the putamen, claustrum and insula (Pfood intake. Self-reported hunger dropped and plasma glucose concentrations increased after food intake (Pfood intake under the experimental settings applied in the current study. Future studies involving males and females, as well as utilizing repeated post-prandial resting-state fMRI scans and various types of meals are needed to further investigate how food intake alters resting-state brain activity in obese humans.

  6. Effect of amphetamine on human macronutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Kelly, T H; Fischman, M W

    1995-11-01

    Six male subjects participated in a 15-day residential study examining the effects of amphetamine on macronutrient intake. During the first 11 days, carbohydrate intake was manipulated by providing lunch meals high (155 g) or low (25 g) in carbohydrate. Subjects received oral d-amphetamine (5, 10 mg/70 kg, BID) or placebo. Total daily caloric intake was similar under both lunch conditions (approximately 3400/Kcal), but carbohydrate contributed more energy under the high-carbohydrate condition. Both doses of amphetamine decreased total caloric intake to approximately 2600 Kcal, by decreasing the number of eating bouts, without affecting macronutrient selection. During the last four days subjects received a higher daily dose of amphetamine (30 mg/70 kg in four doses) or placebo, and were allowed to self-select lunch. Although 30 mg amphetamine decreased intake of all macronutrients, the relative contribution of carbohydrate to total caloric intake was increased from 54% to 62%, while the contribution of fat was decreased from 32% to 26% and the contribution of protein was decreased from 14% to 12%. Thus, at a high dose, amphetamine altered the relative contribution of specific macronutrients to total caloric intake.

  7. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Comerford, Kevin B.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during...

  8. Higher resting-state activity in reward-related brain circuits in obese versus normal-weight females independent of food intake

    OpenAIRE

    Hogenkamp, P S; Zhou, W; Dahlberg, L S; Stark, J; Larsen, A L; Olivo, G; Wiemerslage, L; Larsson, E-M; Sundbom, M; Benedict, C; Schi?th, H B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In response to food cues, obese vs normal-weight individuals show greater activation in brain regions involved in the regulation of food intake under both fasted and sated conditions. Putative effects of obesity on task-independent low-frequency blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signals-that is, resting-state brain activity-in the context of food intake are, however, less well studied. OBJECTIVE: To compare eyes closed, whole-brain low-frequency BOLD signals between severely obese...

  9. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with grain-based dried distillers grains with solubles as a protein source on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    corn) appear to be relevant sources of feed and protein for dairy cows. To date, most of the studies investigating DDGS have been performed with corn-based DDGS. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the proportion of gDDGS in the diet on feed intake, milk production, and milk...... of soybean meal, canola cake, and beet pulp. Dry matter intake and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet. Daily milk yield decreased with the H diet compared with the L and M diets. The percentage of fat in milk was higher when cows were fed the H diet compared...... by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet or when milk was stored for 7 d. Linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid cis-9,trans-11 in milk increased with increasing proportion of gDDGS. To conclude, gDDGS can replace soybean meal and canola cake as a protein source in the diet of dairy cows. Up to 13.5% of the diet...

  10. Dietary intake and the dynamics of stress, hypertension and obesity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-01

    Mar 1, 2016 ... with high stress (32.89%) especially in females (57.14%, p=.036). Hypertension increased with mean age whiles stress decreased with mean age. Hypertensive subjects recorded a significantly higher BMI and sodium intake whiles high stress individuals recorded a lower animal protein but a higher cereal ...

  11. Sharply higher rates of iron deficiency in obese Mexican women and children are predicted by obesity-related inflammation rather than by differences in dietary iron intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cepeda-Lopez, A.C.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Boonstra, A.; Aeberli, I.; Gonzalez-Salazar, F.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Villalpando, S.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Obese individuals may be at increased risk of iron deficiency (ID), but it is unclear whether this is due to poor dietary iron intakes or to adiposity-related inflammation. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relations between body mass index (BMI), dietary iron, and

  12. The role of higher protein diets in weight control and obesity-related comorbidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne; Geiker, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the relative dietary content of protein, carbohydrate and the type of carbohydrate (that is, glycemic index (GI)) for weight control under ad libitum conditions has been controversial owing to the lack of large scale studies with high diet adherence. The Diet, Obesity and Genes...... (DioGenes) European multicentre trial examined the importance of a slight increase in dietary protein content, reduction in carbohydrate and the importance of choosing low (LGI) vs high GI (HGI) carbohydrates for weight control in 932 obese families. Only the adults underwent a diet of 800 kcal per day...... for 8 weeks, and after losing ~11kg they were randomized to one of five energy ad libitum diets for 6 months. The diets differed in protein content and GI. The high-protein (HP) diet groups consumed 5.4% points more energy from protein than the normal protein (NP) groups, and the LGI diet groups...

  13. Effects of sodium intake on cardiovascular variables in humans during posture changes and ambulatory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, M.; Gabrielsenm A.; Heer, M.

    2002-01-01

    and controlled laboratory conditions at the end of two consecutive 5-day periods with sodium intakes of 70 (low) and 250 (high) mmol/24 h or vice versa, respectively. Comparing high and low sodium intake, plasma volume and plasma protein concentrations were 9 and 8% higher in the seated and the supine position...

  14. UDP ratios on intake and milk production efficiency in Saanen ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Feed intake was significantly influenced by the RDP: UDP ratio and the LD diet achieved a higher feed intake than the MD and HD diets. The HD diet has a better feed conversion efficiency largely due to a better utilisation of body reserves to complement available protein (Change in body Weight, Table 1). The milk ...

  15. Mental Models of Proteins and Amino Acids Observed in Students in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F Silva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular Biology and Biotechnology are part of the curriculum of basic education and are present in everyday life of students in situations that involve their thinking and  decision  making.  The  explanations  of  some  phenomena  and  processes related  to  these  themes  are  almost  always  in  atomic  and  molecular  level, described and explained with scientific models or through representations. In light of  the  Theory  of  Mental  Models  of  Johnson-Laird  some  people  reason  with images,  using  them  in  their  models,  while  others  find  it  difficult  to  infer  the  three dimensional  structure  from  two-dimensional  figures,  such  as  those  used  in textbooks or projected on screens. In this context it is proposed to raise the mental models and/or representations that students in higher education have on proteins and amino acids. For this purpose, we interviewed thirteen students, four from the course  of  Licenciatura  em  Ciências  Exatas  and  nine  from  Bacharelado  em Ciências Físicas e Biomoleculares (USP. Three basic types of mental models of proteins  have  been  detected:  the  two-dimensional  (15%,  the  three-dimensional (38.5% and a transition between these two types (38.5%. With respect to amino acids, the following types of models were identified: the two-dimensional (38.5%, the three-dimensional (8% and the atomic (23%. These data show the restricted way that situations of teaching and learning on this topic have been conducted in higher  education  and  point  to  the  use  of  teaching  methods  and  educational resources  that  allow  three-dimensional  visualization  of  these  organic  molecules, such as the use of tactile models, for understanding of these concepts.

  16. Daily Distribution of Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat Intake in Elite Youth Academy Soccer Players Over a 7-day Training Period

    OpenAIRE

    Naughton, Robert; Drust, Barry; O’Boyle, Andy; Morgans, Ryland; Abayomi, Julie; Davies, Ian G.; Morton, James P.; Mahon, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    While traditional approaches to dietary analysis in athletes have focused on total daily energy and macronutrient intake, it is now thought that daily distribution of these parameters can also influence training adaptations. Using seven-day food diaries, we quantified the total daily macronutrient intake and distribution in elite youth soccer players from the English Premier League in U18 (n=13), U15/16 (n=25) and U13/14 squads (n=21). Total energy (43.1±10.3, 32.6±7.9, 28.1±6.8 kcal∙kg-1∙day...

  17. Change in proportional protein intake in a 10-week energy-restricted low- or high-fat diet, in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Taylor, Moira A; Ängquist, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in a secondary analysis of a randomised trial the effects of a low-/high-fat diet and reported change from baseline in energy% from protein (prot%), in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Methods: Obese adults (n = 771) were randomised to a 600 kcal...... while not considering prot% change. The high-fat group reduced plasma triglycerides more than the low-fat group, but not compared to those in the low-fat group with >2 units prot% increase (p fat-protein interaction = 0.01). Conclusions: Under energy restriction, participants on a low-fat diet who had...... increased the percentage energy intake from protein showed the greatest reduction in weight and cholesterol, and a triglyceride reduction equally large to that of participants on a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg....

  18. Segmental isotope labeling of proteins for NMR structural study using a protein S tag for higher expression and solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Swapna, G. V. T.; Wu, Kuen-Phon; Afinogenova, Yuliya; Conover, Kenith; Mao, Binchen; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Inouye, Masayori

    2012-01-01

    A common obstacle to NMR studies of proteins is sample preparation. In many cases, proteins targeted for NMR studies are poorly expressed and/or expressed in insoluble forms. Here, we describe a novel approach to overcome these problems. In the protein S tag-intein (PSTI) technology, two tandem 92-residue N-terminal domains of protein S (PrS 2 ) from Myxococcus xanthus is fused at the N-terminal end of a protein to enhance its expression and solubility. Using intein technology, the isotope-labeled PrS 2 -tag is replaced with non-isotope labeled PrS 2 -tag, silencing the NMR signals from PrS 2 -tag in isotope-filtered 1 H-detected NMR experiments. This method was applied to the E. coli ribosome binding factor A (RbfA), which aggregates and precipitates in the absence of a solubilization tag unless the C-terminal 25-residue segment is deleted (RbfAΔ25). Using the PrS 2 -tag, full-length well-behaved RbfA samples could be successfully prepared for NMR studies. PrS 2 (non-labeled)-tagged RbfA (isotope-labeled) was produced with the use of the intein approach. The well-resolved TROSY-HSQC spectrum of full-length PrS 2 -tagged RbfA superimposes with the TROSY-HSQC spectrum of RbfAΔ25, indicating that PrS 2 -tag does not affect the structure of the protein to which it is fused. Using a smaller PrS-tag, consisting of a single N-terminal domain of protein S, triple resonance experiments were performed, and most of the backbone 1 H, 15 N and 13 C resonance assignments for full-length E. coli RbfA were determined. Analysis of these chemical shift data with the Chemical Shift Index and heteronuclear 1 H– 15 N NOE measurements reveal the dynamic nature of the C-terminal segment of the full-length RbfA protein, which could not be inferred using the truncated RbfAΔ25 construct. CS-Rosetta calculations also demonstrate that the core structure of full-length RbfA is similar to that of the RbfAΔ25 construct.

  19. Higher Magnesium Intake Is Associated with Lower Fasting Glucose and Insulin, with No Evidence of Interaction with Select Genetic Loci, in a Meta-Analysis of 15 CHARGE Consortium Studies1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Adela; Ngwa, Julius S.; Renström, Frida; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Ganna, Andrea; Hallmans, Göran; Houston, Denise K.; Jacques, Paul F.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Manichaikul, Ani; North, Kari E.; Ntalla, Ioanna; Sonestedt, Emily; Tanaka, Toshiko; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Djoussé, Luc; Grigoriou, Efi; Johansson, Ingegerd; Lohman, Kurt K.; Pankow, James S.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Riserus, Ulf; Yannakoulia, Mary; Zillikens, M. Carola; Hassanali, Neelam; Liu, Yongmei; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Papoutsakis, Constantina; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Uitterlinden, André G.; Viikari, Jorma; Groves, Christopher J.; Hofman, Albert; Lind, Lars; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mikkilä, Vera; Mukamal, Kenneth; Franco, Oscar H.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dedoussis, George V.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Hu, Frank B.; Ingelsson, Erik; Kähönen, Mika; Kao, W. H. Linda; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Prokopenko, Inga; Rotter, Jerome I.; Siscovick, David S.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Franks, Paul W.; Meigs, James B.; McKeown, Nicola M.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Favorable associations between magnesium intake and glycemic traits, such as fasting glucose and insulin, are observed in observational and clinical studies, but whether genetic variation affects these associations is largely unknown. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with either glycemic traits or magnesium metabolism affect the association between magnesium intake and fasting glucose and insulin. Fifteen studies from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium provided data from up to 52,684 participants of European descent without known diabetes. In fixed-effects meta-analyses, we quantified 1) cross-sectional associations of dietary magnesium intake with fasting glucose (mmol/L) and insulin (ln-pmol/L) and 2) interactions between magnesium intake and SNPs related to fasting glucose (16 SNPs), insulin (2 SNPs), or magnesium (8 SNPs) on fasting glucose and insulin. After adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, BMI, and behavioral risk factors, magnesium (per 50-mg/d increment) was inversely associated with fasting glucose [β = −0.009 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.013, −0.005), P magnesium-related SNP or interaction between any SNP and magnesium reached significance after correction for multiple testing. However, rs2274924 in magnesium transporter-encoding TRPM6 showed a nominal association (uncorrected P = 0.03) with glucose, and rs11558471 in SLC30A8 and rs3740393 near CNNM2 showed a nominal interaction (uncorrected, both P = 0.02) with magnesium on glucose. Consistent with other studies, a higher magnesium intake was associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin. Nominal evidence of TRPM6 influence and magnesium interaction with select loci suggests that further investigation is warranted. PMID:23343670

  20. An approach to breeding for higher protein content in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, H.K.; Singhal, N.C.; Singh, M.P.; Austin, A.

    1975-01-01

    This study deals with the development of a suitable experimental approach for improving the protein content of seeds in bread wheat. It has been found that scoring of protein content on a per seed basis rather than as a percentage of seed weight gives better results. In the first place, the heritability of protein content increases nearly three times when scoring is done on the basis of seed number. Also, protein content scored in this way showed a significant positive correlation with seed size. Correlation between seed size and percentage of protein in the seed is negative. An important implication of these findings is that scoring of protein content on the basis of seed number should help to avoid selection of genotypes showing reduced starch synthesis and, therefore, a lower yield of grains as well as protein on a per acre basis. Also, the observations suggest that selection for larger seed size may be an important means of improving the protein content of wheat. These and other implications are discussed. (author)

  1. Shorter sleep duration is associated with higher energy intake and an increase in BMI z-score in young children predisposed to overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangan, A.; Zheng, M.; Olsen, N. J.

    2018-01-01

    in a group of young obesity-predisposed children, and to assess whether intakes of energy or macronutrients mediate this relationship. Methods: Participants included 368 Danish children aged 2–6 years from the Healthy Start Study, a 1.3 year randomised controlled intervention trial. Sleep habits were...... was 10.7 h (range 8.8–12.5 h). After controlling for potential confounders, a significant inverse association between nighttime sleep duration and ΔBMI z-score (β=−0.090, P=0.046) was observed. This relationship was mediated by energy intake, with all macronutrients contributing to this mediation effect...

  2. Nutrient intake, productive performance and body measurements of dairy heifers fed with different sources of protein - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i3.18749

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Fereirra Ribeiro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of different protein sources (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, peanut meal and sunflower meal on dry matter and nutrient intake, productive performance and body measurements of dairy heifers, Holstein x Zebu, recreated in confinement. The experiment consisted in a randomized complete block design made up by 6 replications and 4 treatments. The mean values of ingestion of ether extract (EEI, kg day-1 were statistically different (p -1 to the diet with sunflower meal (0.82 kg day-1, and considering the final body weight, the diet with soybean meal was superior to the other treatments (p  

  3. Effects of nonstructural carbohydrates and protein sources on intake, apparent total tract digestibility, and ruminal metabolism in vivo and in vitro with high-concentrate beef cattle diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotger, A; Ferret, A; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the effects of synchronizing nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) and protein degradation on intake and rumen microbial fermentation, four ruminally fistulated Holstein heifers (BW = 132.3 +/- 1.61 kg) fed high-concentrate diets were assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments studied in vivo and in vitro with a dual-flow continuous culture system. Two NSC sources (barley and corn) and 2 protein sources [soybean meal (SBM) and sunflower meal (SFM)] differing in their rate and extent of ruminal degradation were combined resulting in a synchronized rapid fermentation diet (barley-SFM), a synchronized slow fermentation diet (corn-SBM), and 2 unsynchronized diets with a rapidly and a slowly fermenting component (barley-SBM, and corn-SFM). In vitro, the fermentation profile was studied at a constant pH of 6.2, and at a variable pH with 12 h at pH 6.4 and 12 h at pH 5.8. Synchronization tended to result in greater true OM digestion (P = 0.072), VFA concentration (P = 0.067), and microbial N flow (P = 0.092) in vitro, but had no effects on in vivo fermentation pattern or on apparent total tract digestibility. The NSC source affected the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in vitro, tending to be greater (P = 0.07) for barley-based diets, and in vivo, the NSC source tended to affect intake. Dry matter and OM intake tended to be greater (P > or = 0.06) for corn- than barley-based diets. Ammonia N concentration was lower in vitro (P = 0.006) and tended to be lower in vivo (P = 0.07) for corn- than barley-based diets. In vitro, pH could be reduced from 6.4 to 5.8 for 12 h/d without any effect on ruminal fermentation or microbial protein synthesis. In summary, ruminal synchronization seemed to have positive effects on in vitro fermentation, but in vivo recycling of endogenous N or intake differences could compensate for these effects.

  4. Effect of urine urea nitrogen and protein intake adjusted by using the estimated urine creatinine excretion rate on the antiproteinuric effect of angiotensin II type I receptor blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Ho Jun; Kim, Dong Ki; Park, Jung Hwan; Shin, Sung Joon; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Bum Soon; Kim, Suhnggwon; Lim, Chun Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of protein intake on proteinuria in chronic kidney disease (CKD), as it is presently not conclusive. This is a subanalysis of data from an open-label, case-controlled, randomized clinical trial on education about low-salt diets (NCT01552954). We estimated the urine excretion rate of parameters in a day, adjusted by using the equation for estimating urine creatinine excretion, and analyzed the effect of urine urea nitrogen (UUN), as well as estimating protein intake on the level of albuminuria in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease. Among 174 participants from whom complete 24-h urine specimens were collected, the estimates from the Tanaka equation resulted in the highest accuracy for the urinary excretion rate of creatinine, sodium, albumin, and UUN. Among 227 participants, the baseline value of estimated urine albumin excretion (eUalb) was positively correlated with the estimated UUN (eUUN) or protein intake according to eUUN (P = 0.012 and P = 0.038, respectively). We were able to calculate the ratios of eUalb and eUUN in 221 participants and grouped them according to the ratio of eUUN during 16-wk trial period. The proportion of patients that achieved a decrement of eUalb ≥25% during 16 wk with an angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (ARB) medication was 80% (24 of 30) in group 1, with eUUN ratio ≤-25%; 82.2% (111 of 135) in group 2, with eUUN ratio between -25% and 25%; and 66.1% (37 and 56) in group 3, with eUUN ratio ≥25% (P = 0.048). The probability of a decrease in albuminuria with ARB treatment was lower in patients with an increase of eUUN or protein intake during the 16 wk of ARB treatment, as observed in multiple logistic regression analysis as well. The estimated urine urea excretion rate showed a positive association with the level of albuminuria in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease. The increase of eUUN excretion ameliorated the antiproteinuric effect of ARB

  5. Fermented dairy products consumption is associated with attenuated cortical bone loss independently of total calcium, protein, and energy intakes in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, E; Durosier-Izart, C; Merminod, F; Chevalley, T; van Rietbergen, B; Ferrari, S L; Rizzoli, R

    2018-05-03

    A longitudinal analysis of bone microstructure in postmenopausal women of the Geneva Retirees Cohort indicates that age-related cortical bone loss is attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in fermented dairy products consumers, not in milk or ripened cheese consumers, independently of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. Fermented dairy products (FDP), including yogurts, provide calcium, phosphorus, and proteins together with prebiotics and probiotics, all being potentially beneficial for bone. In this prospective cohort study, we investigated whether FDP, milk, or ripened cheese consumptions influence age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure. Dietary intakes were assessed at baseline and after 3.0 ± 0.5 years with a food frequency questionnaire in 482 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Geneva Retirees Cohort. Cortical (Ct) and trabecular (Tb) volumetric (v) BMD and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia were assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, in addition to areal (a) BMD and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, at the same time points. At baseline, FDP consumers had lower abdominal fat mass and larger bone size at the radius and tibia. Parathyroid hormone and β-carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen levels were inversely correlated with FDP consumption. In the longitudinal analysis, FDP consumption (mean of the two assessments) was associated with attenuated loss of radius total vBMD and of Ct vBMD, area, and thickness. There was no difference in aBMD and at the tibia. These associations were independent of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. For other dairy products categories, only milk consumption was associated with lower decrease of aBMD and of failure load at the radius. In this prospective cohort of healthy postmenopausal women, age-related Ct bone loss was attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in FDP consumers, not in milk

  6. The Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Method with the Use of l-[1-13C]Leucine Suggests a Higher than Currently Recommended Protein Requirement in Children with Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Abrar; Ueda, Keiko; Cheng, Barbara; Giezen, Alette; Salvarinova, Ramona; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Elango, Rajavel

    2017-02-01

    Phenylketonuria is characterized by mutations in the Phe hydroxylase gene that leads to the accumulation of Phe in plasma and the brain. The standard of care for phenylketonuria is nutritional management with dietary restriction of Phe and the provision of sufficient protein and energy for growth and health maintenance. The protein requirement in children with phenylketonuria is empirically determined based upon phenylketonuria nutritional guidelines that are adjusted individually in response to biochemical markers and growth. We determined dietary protein requirements in children with phenylketonuria with the use of the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique, with l-[1- 13 C]Leu as the indicator amino acid. Four children (2 males; 2 females) aged 9-18 y with phenylketonuria [mild hyperphenylalanemia (mHPA); 6-10 mg/dL (360-600 μmol/L)] were recruited to participate in ≥7 separate test protein intakes (range: 0.2-3.2 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 ) with the IAAO protocol with the use of l-[1- 13 C]Leu followed by the collection of breath and urine samples over 8 h. The diets were isocaloric and provided energy at 1.7 times the resting energy expenditure. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on an egg protein pattern, except Phe and Leu, which were maintained at a constant across intakes. Protein requirement was determined with the use of a 2-phase linear-regression crossover analysis of the rate of l-[1- 13 C]Leu tracer oxidation. The mean protein requirement was determined to be 1.85 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 (R 2 = 0.66; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.33). This result is substantially higher than the 2014 phenylketonuria recommendations (1.14-1.33 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 ; based on 120-140% above the current RDA for age). To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly define a quantitative requirement for protein intake in children with mHPA and indicates that current protein recommendations in children with phenylketonuria may be insufficient. This

  7. Acute effects of pea protein and hull fibre alone and combined on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake in healthy young men--a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Smith, Christopher; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-12-01

    Whether pulse components can be used as value-added ingredients in foods formulated for blood glucose (BG) and food intake (FI) control requires investigation. The objective of this study was to examine of the effects of pea components on FI at an ad libitum meal, as well as appetite and BG responses before and after the meal. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, men (n = 15) randomly consumed (i) pea hull fibre (7 g), (ii) pea protein (10 g), (iii) pea protein (10 g) plus hull fibre (7 g), (iv) yellow peas (406 g), and (v) control. Pea hull fibre and protein were served with tomato sauce and noodles, while yellow peas were served with tomato sauce. Control was noodles and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal (135 min). Appetite and BG were measured pre-pizza (0-135 min) and post-pizza (155-215 min). Protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower pre-pizza BG area under the curve compared with fibre and control. At 30 min, BG was lower after protein plus fibre and yellow peas compared with fibre and control, whereas at 45 and 75 min, protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p pea components as value-added ingredients in foods designed to improve glycemic control.

  8. Osmoregulatory responses to dietary protein and water intake in the granivorous Zonotrichia capensis (Passerine, Emberizidae Respuestas osmorregulatorias a la proteína dietaria y al consumo de agua en el granívoro Zonotrichia capensis (Paseriformes, Emberizidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA ALDEA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the osmoregulatory responses of the granivore Zonotrichia capensis, acclimated to high- and low-protein diets as well as two levels of water intake. We tested whether Z. capensis has the ability to modify the proportion of nitrogenous waste in the excreta when protein intake and water intake varies. After 21 days of acclimation, plasma osmolality was not significantly affected by dietary treatment; however, excreta osmolality was higher in the high-protein group compared to the low-protein group. Nitrogenous wastes in Z. capensis are excreted mainly in the form of uric acid. The proportion of kidney devoted to medullary tissue was 40 % higher in dehydrated birds than in hydrated birds. Excreta osmolality was higher in dehydrated birds, and in all cases higher than plasma concentration by more than 300 mOsm kg"¹. Our data do not support the hypothesis that Z. capensis can switch nitrogen excretion pathways. We hypothesize that the low water content of the seed-base diet, the comparatively low water intake, and the large difference between urine and plasma concentrations may minimize the retrograde flux of urine to the lower intestinal tract, thereby reducing the potential for post-renal urine modificationEstudiamos la respuesta osmorregulatoria del granívoro Zonotrichia capensis, aclimatado a dietas con alta y baja proteína como también a dos niveles de ingestión de agua. Evaluamos si Z. capensis tiene la capacidad de modificar la proporción de los desechos nitrogenados en la excreta cuando la ingestión de proteína y agua varía. Después de 21 días de aclimatación, la osmolalidad del plasma no fue afectada significativamente por el tratamiento dietario. Sin embargo, la osmolalidad de la excreta fue mayor en el grupo alta-proteína comparado con el grupo baja-proteína. Los desechos nitrogenados en Z. capensis son excretados mayoritariamente en forma de ácido úrico. La proporción del riñon ocupado por tejido medular fue

  9. Quantification and rationalization of the higher affinity of sodium over potassium to protein surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrbka, Luboš; Vondrášek, Jiří; Jagoda-Cwiklik, Barbara; Vácha, Robert; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 42 (2006), 15440-15444 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC512; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400400503; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/06/1727; GA ČR(CZ) GD203/05/H001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : ion-protein interaction * molecular dynamics * cell environment * protein function Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 9.643, year: 2006

  10. Effects of protein versus simple sugar intake on weight loss in polycystic ovary syndrome (according to the National Institutes of Health criteria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim-Karakas, Sidika E; Almario, Rogelio U; Cunningham, Wendy

    2009-07-01

    To compare the effects of protein vs. simple sugars on weight loss, body composition, and metabolic and endocrine parameters in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A 2-month, free-living, randomized, single-blinded study. University PCOS clinic. Thirty-three patients with PCOS. To achieve a final energy reduction of 450 kcal/day, first the daily energy intake was reduced by 700 kcal; then a 240-kcal supplement containing either whey protein or simple sugars was added. Changes in weight, fat mass, fasting glucose and insulin, plasma lipoproteins, and sex steroids. Twenty-four subjects (13 in the simple sugars group and 11 in the protein group) completed the study. The protein group lost more weight (-3.3 +/- 0.8 kg vs. -1.1 +/- 0.6 kg) and more fat mass (-3.1 +/- 0.9 kg vs. -0.5 +/- 0.6 kg) and had larger decreases in serum cholesterol (-33.0 +/- 8.4 mg/dL vs. -2.3 +/- 6.8 mg/dL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-4.5 +/- 1.3 mg/dL vs. -0.4 +/- 1.3 mg/dL), and apoprotein B (-20 +/- 5 mg/dL vs. 3 +/- 5 mg/dL). In patients with PCOS, a hypocaloric diet supplemented with protein reduced body weight, fat mass, serum cholesterol, and apoprotein B more than the diet supplemented with simple sugars.

  11. Effect of the Ratio of Non-fibrous Carbohydrates to Neutral Detergent Fiber and Protein Structure on Intake, Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation, and Nitrogen Metabolism in Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Deng, K D; Diao, Q Y

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the ratio of non-fibrous carbohydrates to neutral detergent fibre (NFC/NDF) and undegraded dietary protein (UDP) on rumen fermentation and nitrogen metabolism in lambs. Four Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred lambs, averaging 62.3±1.9 kg of body weight and 10 mo of age, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments of combinations of two levels of NFC/NDF (1.0 and 1.7) and two levels of UDP (35% and 50% of crude protein [CP]). Duodenal nutrient flows were measured with dual markers of Yb and Co, and microbial N (MN) synthesis was estimated using (15)N. High UDP decreased organic matter (OM) intake (p = 0.002) and CP intake (p = 0.005). Ruminal pH (p<0.001), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N; p = 0.008), and total volatile fatty acids (p<0.001) were affected by dietary NFC/NDF. The ruminal concentration of NH3-N was also affected by UDP (p<0.001). The duodenal flow of total MN (p = 0.007) was greater for lambs fed the high NFC/NDF diet. The amount of metabolisable N increased with increasing dietary NFC:NDF (p = 0.02) or UDP (p = 0.04). In conclusion, the diets with high NFC/NDF (1.7) and UDP (50% of CP) improved metabolisable N supply to lambs.

  12. Effect of the Ratio of Non-fibrous Carbohydrates to Neutral Detergent Fiber and Protein Structure on Intake, Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation, and Nitrogen Metabolism in Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of the ratio of non-fibrous carbohydrates to neutral detergent fibre (NFC/NDF and undegraded dietary protein (UDP on rumen fermentation and nitrogen metabolism in lambs. Four Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred lambs, averaging 62.3±1.9 kg of body weight and 10 mo of age, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments of combinations of two levels of NFC/NDF (1.0 and 1.7 and two levels of UDP (35% and 50% of crude protein [CP]. Duodenal nutrient flows were measured with dual markers of Yb and Co, and microbial N (MN synthesis was estimated using 15N. High UDP decreased organic matter (OM intake (p = 0.002 and CP intake (p = 0.005. Ruminal pH (p<0.001, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N; p = 0.008, and total volatile fatty acids (p<0.001 were affected by dietary NFC/NDF. The ruminal concentration of NH3-N was also affected by UDP (p<0.001. The duodenal flow of total MN (p = 0.007 was greater for lambs fed the high NFC/NDF diet. The amount of metabolisable N increased with increasing dietary NFC:NDF (p = 0.02 or UDP (p = 0.04. In conclusion, the diets with high NFC/NDF (1.7 and UDP (50% of CP improved metabolisable N supply to lambs.

  13. Long-term intake of a high protein diet increases liver triacylglycerol deposition pathways and hepatic signs of injury in rats

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Rua, Ruben

    2017-04-19

    Intake of high-protein (HP) diets has increased over the last years, mainly due to their popularity for body weight control. Liver is the main organ handling ingested macronutrients and it is associated with the beginning of different pathologies. We aimed to deepen our knowledge on molecular pathways affected by long-term intake of an HP diet. We performed a transcriptome analysis on liver of rats chronically fed with a casein-rich HP diet and analyzed molecular parameters related to liver injury. Chronic increase in the dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio up-regulated processes related with amino acid uptake/metabolism and lipid synthesis, promoting a molecular environment indicative of hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) deposition. Moreover, changes in expression of genes involved in acid–base maintenance and oxidative stress indicate alterations in the pH balance due to the high acid load of the diet, which has been linked to liver/health damage. Up-regulation of immune-related genes was also observed. In concordance with changes at gene expression level, we observed increased liver TG content and increased serum markers of hepatic injury/inflammation (aspartate transaminase, C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha). Moreover, the HP diet strongly increased hepatic mRNA and protein levels of HSP90, a marker of liver injury. Thus, we show for the first time that long-term consumption of an HP diet, resulting in a high acid load, results in a hepatic transcriptome signature reflecting increased TG deposition and increased signs of health risk (increased inflammation, alterations in the acid–base equilibrium and oxidative stress). Persistence of this altered metabolic status could have unhealthy consequences.

  14. Long-term intake of a high protein diet increases liver triacylglycerol deposition pathways and hepatic signs of injury in rats

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Rua, Ruben; Keijer, Jaap; Palou, Andreu; van Schothorst, Evert M.; Oliver, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Intake of high-protein (HP) diets has increased over the last years, mainly due to their popularity for body weight control. Liver is the main organ handling ingested macronutrients and it is associated with the beginning of different pathologies. We aimed to deepen our knowledge on molecular pathways affected by long-term intake of an HP diet. We performed a transcriptome analysis on liver of rats chronically fed with a casein-rich HP diet and analyzed molecular parameters related to liver injury. Chronic increase in the dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio up-regulated processes related with amino acid uptake/metabolism and lipid synthesis, promoting a molecular environment indicative of hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) deposition. Moreover, changes in expression of genes involved in acid–base maintenance and oxidative stress indicate alterations in the pH balance due to the high acid load of the diet, which has been linked to liver/health damage. Up-regulation of immune-related genes was also observed. In concordance with changes at gene expression level, we observed increased liver TG content and increased serum markers of hepatic injury/inflammation (aspartate transaminase, C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha). Moreover, the HP diet strongly increased hepatic mRNA and protein levels of HSP90, a marker of liver injury. Thus, we show for the first time that long-term consumption of an HP diet, resulting in a high acid load, results in a hepatic transcriptome signature reflecting increased TG deposition and increased signs of health risk (increased inflammation, alterations in the acid–base equilibrium and oxidative stress). Persistence of this altered metabolic status could have unhealthy consequences.

  15. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation alters central leptin signalling, increases food intake, and decreases bone mass in 1 year old rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Rani J; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Pontiggia, Laura; D'mello, Anil P

    2016-04-01

    The effects of perinatal nutrition on offspring physiology have mostly been examined in young adult animals. Aging constitutes a risk factor for the progressive loss of metabolic flexibility and development of disease. Few studies have examined whether the phenotype programmed by perinatal nutrition persists in aging offspring. Persistence of detrimental phenotypes and their accumulative metabolic effects are important for disease causality. This study determined the effects of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation on food consumption, central leptin sensitivity, bone health, and susceptibility to high fat diet-induced adiposity in 1-year-old male offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats received either a control or a protein restricted diet throughout pregnancy and lactation and pups were weaned onto laboratory chow. One-year-old low protein (LP) offspring exhibited hyperphagia. The inability of an intraperitoneal (i.p.) leptin injection to reduce food intake indicated that the hyperphagia was mediated by decreased central leptin sensitivity. Hyperphagia was accompanied by lower body weight suggesting increased energy expenditure in LP offspring. Bone density and bone mineral content that are negatively regulated by leptin acting via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), were decreased in LP offspring. LP offspring did not exhibit increased susceptibility to high fat diet induced metabolic effects or adiposity. The results presented here indicate that the programming effects of perinatal protein restriction are mediated by specific decreases in central leptin signalling to pathways involved in the regulation of food intake along with possible enhancement of different CNS leptin signalling pathways acting via the SNS to regulate bone mass and energy expenditure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Long-term intake of a high-protein diet increases liver triacylglycerol deposition pathways and hepatic signs of injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rúa, Rubén; Keijer, Jaap; Palou, Andreu; van Schothorst, Evert M; Oliver, Paula

    2017-08-01

    Intake of high-protein (HP) diets has increased over the last years, mainly due to their popularity for body weight control. Liver is the main organ handling ingested macronutrients and it is associated with the beginning of different pathologies. We aimed to deepen our knowledge on molecular pathways affected by long-term intake of an HP diet. We performed a transcriptome analysis on liver of rats chronically fed with a casein-rich HP diet and analyzed molecular parameters related to liver injury. Chronic increase in the dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio up-regulated processes related with amino acid uptake/metabolism and lipid synthesis, promoting a molecular environment indicative of hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) deposition. Moreover, changes in expression of genes involved in acid-base maintenance and oxidative stress indicate alterations in the pH balance due to the high acid load of the diet, which has been linked to liver/health damage. Up-regulation of immune-related genes was also observed. In concordance with changes at gene expression level, we observed increased liver TG content and increased serum markers of hepatic injury/inflammation (aspartate transaminase, C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha). Moreover, the HP diet strongly increased hepatic mRNA and protein levels of HSP90, a marker of liver injury. Thus, we show for the first time that long-term consumption of an HP diet, resulting in a high acid load, results in a hepatic transcriptome signature reflecting increased TG deposition and increased signs of health risk (increased inflammation, alterations in the acid-base equilibrium and oxidative stress). Persistence of this altered metabolic status could have unhealthy consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Protein precipitation of diluted samples in SDS-containing buffer with acetone leads to higher protein recovery and reproducibility in comparison with TCA/acetone approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa, Cátia; Anjo, Sandra I; Manadas, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    Proteomic approaches are extremely valuable in many fields of research, where mass spectrometry methods have gained an increasing interest, especially because of the ability to perform quantitative analysis. Nonetheless, sample preparation prior to mass spectrometry analysis is of the utmost importance. In this work, two protein precipitation approaches, widely used for cleaning and concentrating protein samples, were tested and compared in very diluted samples solubilized in a strong buffer (containing SDS). The amount of protein recovered after acetone and TCA/acetone precipitation was assessed, as well as the protein identification and relative quantification by SWATH-MS yields were compared with the results from the same sample without precipitation. From this study, it was possible to conclude that in the case of diluted samples in denaturing buffers, the use of cold acetone as precipitation protocol is more favourable than the use of TCA/acetone in terms of reproducibility in protein recovery and number of identified and quantified proteins. Furthermore, the reproducibility in relative quantification of the proteins is even higher in samples precipitated with acetone compared with the original sample. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Low vitamin K1 intake in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria; D'Alessandro, Claudia; Noale, Marianna; Tripepi, Giovanni; Plebani, Mario; Veronese, Nicola; Iervasi, Giorgio; Giannini, Sandro; Rossini, Maurizio; Tarroni, Giovanni; Lucatello, Sandro; Vianello, Alberto; Santinello, Irene; Bonfante, Luciana; Fabris, Fabrizio; Sella, Stefania; Piccoli, Antonio; Naso, Agostino; Ciurlino, Daniele; Aghi, Andrea; Gallieni, Maurizio; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin K acts as a coenzyme in the γ-carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, including coagulation factors, osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein (MGP), and the growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6) protein. Osteocalcin is a key factor for bone matrix formation. MGP is a local inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. GAS6 activity prevents the apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. Few data on vitamin K intake in chronic kidney disease patients and no data in patients on a Mediterranean diet are available. In the present study, we evaluate the dietary intake of vitamin K1 in a cohort of patients undergoing haemodialysis. In this multi-centre controlled observational study, data were collected from 91 patients aged >18 years on dialysis treatment for at least 12 months and from 85 age-matched control subjects with normal renal function. Participants completed a food journal of seven consecutive days for the estimation of dietary intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients (minerals and vitamins). Compared to controls, dialysis patients had a significant lower total energy intake, along with a lower dietary intake of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, fibres, and of all the examined minerals (Ca, P, Fe, Na, K, Zn, Cu, and Mg). With the exception of vitamin B12, vitamins intake followed a similar pattern, with a lower intake in vitamin A, B1, B2, C, D, E, folates, K1 and PP. These finding were confirmed also when normalized for total energy intake or for body weight. In respect to the adequate intakes recommended in the literature, the prevalence of a deficient vitamin K intake was very high (70-90%) and roughly double than in controls. Multivariate logistic model identified vitamin A and iron intake as predictors of vitamin K deficiency. Haemodialysis patients had a significantly low intake in vitamin K1, which could contribute to increase the risk of bone fractures and vascular calcifications. Since the deficiency of vitamin K intake seems to be remarkable, dietary

  19. Nutrient intake among elderly in southern Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriah, A R; Zainorni, M; Shafawi, S; Mimie Suraya, S; Zarina, N; Wan Zainuddin, W; Zalifah, M

    1996-03-01

    Studies were conducted in selected areas in three states namely Johor (n=117, male=55, female=62), Negeri Sembilan (n=130, male=52, female=78) and Malacca (n=97, male=33, female=64) involving free living elderly (age range from 60 to 93 years old). Respondents were divided into three age cohort groups that is 60 to 69 years, 70 to 79 years and above 80 years old. Assessment of macro and micronutrients were obtained from 24-hour diet recall for three consecutive days. Household measurements were used to estimate the amount of food consumed. Mean energy intake for both sexes were lower than the Malaysian RDA. Mean energy intake were also found to decline with age increment. The percentage of carbohydrate from total calories is higher compared to fat and protein. No respondents were found to consume less than 1/3 RDA for protein. Although no significant difference in nutrient intake was noted among age cohort groups, there was a decline in the intake of protein, fat and carbohydrate. Significantly (p population studied consumed less than 2/3 RDA for vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and calcium. Very low intake of nutrient may lead to many health problems. Overall mean energy intake indicate the respondents consume less than the Malaysian RDA for all three age cohort groups. Total mean energy intake were also found to decline with age increment for both sexes. Due to the low energy intake, higher percentage of elderly were found consuming less than 2/3 RDA for thiamine (65%), riboflavin (63%) and niacin (90%). Other nutrients which were also being consumed less than 2/3 RDA by the respondents are vitamin A (67%) and calcium (65%). The intake of calcium which was found to be extremely low (ranged from 277 to 303 mg) could lead to problems like osteoporosis.

  20. Dietary protein to maximize resistance training: a review and examination of protein spread and change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, John D; Dixon, Brian M

    2012-09-08

    An appreciable volume of human clinical data supports increased dietary protein for greater gains from resistance training, but not all findings are in agreement. We recently proposed "protein spread theory" and "protein change theory" in an effort to explain discrepancies in the response to increased dietary protein in weight management interventions. The present review aimed to extend "protein spread theory" and "protein change theory" to studies examining the effects of protein on resistance training induced muscle and strength gains. Protein spread theory proposed that there must have been a sufficient spread or % difference in g/kg/day protein intake between groups during a protein intervention to see muscle and strength differences. Protein change theory postulated that for the higher protein group, there must be a sufficient change from baseline g/kg/day protein intake to during study g/kg/day protein intake to see muscle and strength benefits. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria. In studies where a higher protein intervention was deemed successful there was, on average, a 66.1% g/kg/day between group intake spread versus a 10.2% g/kg/day spread in studies where a higher protein diet was no more effective than control. The average change in habitual protein intake in studies showing higher protein to be more effective than control was +59.5% compared to +6.5% when additional protein was no more effective than control. The magnitudes of difference between the mean spreads and changes of the present review are similar to our previous review on these theories in a weight management context. Providing sufficient deviation from habitual intake appears to be an important factor in determining the success of additional protein in enhancing muscle and strength gains from resistance training. An increase in dietary protein favorably effects muscle and strength during resistance training.

  1. Higher-order assemblies of BAR domain proteins for shaping membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Shiro

    2016-06-01

    Most cellular organelles contain lipid bilayer membranes. The earliest characterization of cellular organelles was performed by electron microscopy observation of such membranes. However, the precise mechanisms for shaping the membrane in particular subcellular organelles is poorly understood. Classically, the overall cellular shape, i.e. the shape of the plasma membrane, was thought to be governed by the reorganization of cytoskeletal components such as actin and microtubules. The plasma membrane contains various submicron structures such as clathrin-coated pits, caveolae, filopodia and lamellipodia. These subcellular structures are either invaginations or protrusions and are associated with the cytoskeleton. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that there are membrane-binding proteins that cooperates with cytoskeleton in shaping of plasma membrane organelles. Proteins with the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain connect a variety of membrane shapes to actin filaments. The BAR domains themselves bend the membranes by their rigidity and then mold the membranes into tubules through their assembly as spiral polymers, which are thought to be involved in the various submicron structures. Membrane tubulation by polymeric assembly of the BAR domains is supposed to be regulated by binding proteins, binding lipids and the mechanical properties of the m