Mariné, M; Farre, C; Alsina, M; Vilar, P; Cortijo, M; Salas, A; Fernández-Bañares, F; Rosinach, M; Santaolalla, R; Loras, C; Marquès, T; Cusí, V; Hernández, M I; Carrasco, A; Ribes, J; Viver, J M; Esteve, M
Some limited studies of coeliac disease have shown higher frequency of coeliac disease in infancy and adolescence than in adulthood. This finding has remained unnoticed and not adequately demonstrated. To assess whether there are age and gender differences in coeliac disease prevalence. A total of 4230 subjects were included consecutively (1 to ≥80 years old) reproducing the reference population by age and gender. Sample size was calculated assuming a population-based coeliac disease prevalence of 1:250. After an interim analysis, the paediatric sample was expanded (2010 children) due to high prevalence in this group. Anti-transglutaminase and antiendomysial antibodies were determined and duodenal biopsy was performed if positive. Log-linear models were fitted to coeliac disease prevalence by age allowing calculation of percentage change of prevalence. Differences between groups were compared using Chi-squared test. Twenty-one subjects had coeliac disease (male/female 1:2.5). Coeliac disease prevalence in the total population was 1:204. Coeliac disease prevalence was higher in children (1:71) than in adults (1:357) (P = 0.00005). A significant decrease of prevalence in older generations was observed [change of prevalence by age of -5% (95% CI: -7.58 to -2.42%)]. In the paediatric expanded group (1-14 years), a decrease of coeliac disease prevalence was also observed [prevalence change: -17% (95% CI: -25.02 to -6.10)]. The prevalence of coeliac disease in childhood was five times higher than in adults. Whether this difference is due to environmental factors influencing infancy, or latency of coeliac disease in adulthood, remains to be demonstrated in prospective longitudinal studies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Nybo, Mads; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Felding, Peter
The aim of the study was to investigate whether the well-known high anemia prevalence in pregnant women from the eastern Mediterranean and Asian regions decreased when the women immigrated to a low-frequency region (Denmark). During 70 months, 1,741 pregnant immigrant women referred from primary...... status parameters were examined in the two groups. The prevalence of anemia was higher in the immigrant group (20.0%) compared to the Danish women (4.9%) (P ... indicated iron deficiency. Conclusively, the pregnant immigrant women had significantly higher prevalence of anemia compared to pregnant women of Danish origin. It indicates the need for an alternative routine screening procedure for this population group, which should also include nutritional counselling....
Jolly, Stacey; Vittinghoff, Eric; Chattopadhyay, Arpita; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten
Blacks have higher rates of cardiovascular disease than whites. The age at which these differential rates emerge has not been fully examined. We examined cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality among black and white adults across the adult age spectrum and explored potential mediators of these differential disease prevalence rates. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 1999-2006. We estimated age-adjusted and age-specific prevalence ratios (PR) for cardiovascular disease (heart failure, stroke, or myocardial infarction) for blacks versus whites in adults aged 35 years and older and examined potential explanatory factors. From the National Compressed Mortality File 5-year aggregate file of 1999-2003, we determined age-specific cardiovascular disease mortality rates. In young adulthood, cardiovascular disease prevalence was higher in blacks than whites (35-44 years PR 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-3.4). The black-white PR decreased with each decade of advancing age (P for trend=.04), leading to a narrowing of the racial gap at older ages (65-74 years PR 1.2; 95% CI, 0.8-1.6; > or =75 years PR 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7-1.4). Clinical and socioeconomic factors mediated some, but not all, of the excess cardiovascular disease prevalence among young to middle-aged blacks. Over a quarter (28%) of all cardiovascular disease deaths among blacks occurred in those aged <65 years, compared with 13% among whites. Reducing black/white disparities in cardiovascular disease will require a focus on young and middle-aged blacks.
Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Majernikova, Maria; Jarcuska, Peter; Pella, Daniel; Marekova, Maria; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Halanova, Monika
Objectives: Ethnic differences in the prevalence of various chronic diseases, including end-stage renal disease, have been previously reported. Surprisingly, data focusing on the lower grade of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore differences in the
Schaetz, Florian; Arias Abad, Camilo
, there are the higher holonomies associated with flat superconnections as studied by Igusa , Block–Smith  and Arias Abad–Schätz . We first explain how by truncating the latter construction one obtains examples of the former. Then we prove that the two-dimensional holonomies provided by the two approaches...
Maria C Gonçalves
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD, using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD in women with episodic and chronic migraine (M and CM, as well as in asymptomatic women. METHOD: Sample consisted of 61 women, being 38 with M and 23 with CM, identified from a headache outpatient center; we also investigated 30 women without headaches for at least 3 months (women without headache group - WHG. Assessment of TMD was conducted by a physical therapist who was blind to the headache status. RESULTS: The prevalence of TMD, assessed through the RDC, was 33.3% in the WHG, 86.8% in the M group and 91.3% of the CM group. Differences were significant when comparing M and CM groups with WHG (p0.05 as well as higher risk for TMD [odds ratio (OR=3.15, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.73-5.71 and OR=3.97, 95%CI 1.76-8.94]. CONCLUSION: Women with migraine are more likely to have muscular and articular TMD, suggesting that both disorders might be clinically associated, which demonstrate the importance of physical therapy assessment in the multidisciplinary team.
This paper compares and contrasts higher education in Canada and Greece. An overview of the systems in place is followed by an analysis centred on the triad of funding, access and quality. Similarities and differences are highlighted, and the current challenges and issues faced by both nations will be examined, especially in terms of world…
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and sexual behavioural dynamics of HIV infection in students of institutions of higher education (IHEs as a guide to the design of a tailor-made HIV intervention programmes. Methods: A total of 9 709 sexually matured students from five IHEs in Southeast Nigeria aged 1 9-24 years were recruited to obtain representative data from the institutionalised student population. HIV status was confirmed using enzyme based immuno-assay technique. Demographic and behavioural information were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Association of HIV infection with behavioural risk factors was done using multiple logistics regression model. Results: IHEs in Southeast Nigeria have a higher HIV prevalence of 3.69% against the national projected rate of 201 2. The age-specific prevalence among male students (2.91 % is nonsignificantly (P>0.1 lower than that of females (4.31 %. Female students had higher rate of infection, multiple sexual partner, transactional and forced sex, unusual genital discharge and low condom use when compared with their male counterparts. These risk factors were associated with increased HIV seropositivity. HIV prevalence and sexual risky behaviour were high among students of IHEs when compared with previous estimates of their non-institutionalised age brackets. Unprotected sexual activity have a 4.2 times higher chances of infecting the partner with HIV. Conclusions: The data showed a higher prevalence of HIV infection in students of IHEs in comparison with non-institutionalised persons of the same age bracket. Specifically, it could be inferred that appropriate HIV intervention measures was absent with higher incidence of the infection and risky behaviour found in female students. Therefore, a prioritised tailor-made policy for HIV control for students of IHEs should be considered.
Sherwin E. Balbuena
Full Text Available Academic dishonesty in educational institutions is a cause for concern at present. In this paper, the prevalence and severity of various types of dishonest academic behaviors were determined based on the experiences and perceptions of college students. Self-reports on reasons for engaging in a type of cheating or plagiarism were also collected and analyzed to identify certain themes. Findings suggest that cheating on exams and homework is still prevalent, students view these dishonest behaviors as ordinary school acts, and their actions are a product of several factors – teacher’s and student’s incompetence, unfavorable environment, and lenient imposition of school policy. Certain ethical dilemmas were deduced from the results of the study, such as the varying perceptions on the morality of unfair academic manners and the relative importance of deceit over success.
Almdal, Thomas; Scharling, Henrik; Jensen, Jan Skov
, non-fasting blood glucose and triglycerides. Significantly more men (242, 5.4%) than women (152, 2.5%) developed type 2 DM. The odds ratio (OR) for developing diabetes with a BMI above 30 kg/m(2) compared to a BMI of 20-25 kg/m(2) was 8.1 in women and 6.3 in men; for a non-fasting plasma glucose of 8.......4-11.0 mmol/l compared to a plasma glucose of 5.5-6.4, the ORs were 7.8 in women and 4.7 in men. The OR for developing diabetes in persons with a non-fasting triglyceride level above 2.0 mmol/l compared to 1.0-2.0 mmol/l was 1.8 in both sexes; women with non -fasting triglycerides below 1.0 mmol/l had...... or non-fasting plasma glucose >11.1 mmol/l) were excluded. Some 6154 women and 4733 men were studied and followed up in 1981-1983 or in 1991-1994. The significance of risk factors was examined by multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Initially, a higher proportion of men than women had high...
Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Pedersen, Anders Gorm
, and on the probability of disease transmission. We note that in addition to humans, the variance phenomenon described here is likely to play a role for sexually transmitted diseases in other species also. We also show, again by examining published, empirical data, that the female to male prevalence ratio increases...... of sexually transmitted diseases: compared to the situation where the genders have identical sex partner distributions, men will reach a lower equilibrium value, while women will stay at the same level (meaning that female prevalence becomes higher than male). We carefully analyse model behaviour and derive...... with the overall prevalence of a sexually transmitted disease (i.e., the more widespread the disease, the more women are affected). We suggest that this pattern may be caused by the effect described above in highly prevalent sexually transmitted diseases, while its impact in low-prevalence epidemics is surpassed...
Uranchimeg Julia Agvaantseren; Park Sae Hoon
The purpose of this paper is to introduce the transition of Korean higher education reform and to study of Korean and Mongolian experience and achievement in contemporary higher education. And also paper provides a description of the higher education in Mongolia in an effort to identify important financial issues and concern while comparing with Korean high education experience and tries to attract attention of policy makers for better alternative...
Laugesen, Miriam J; Glied, Sherry A
Higher health care prices in the United States are a key reason that the nation's health spending is so much higher than that of other countries. Our study compared physicians' fees paid by public and private payers for primary care office visits and hip replacements in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We also compared physicians' incomes net of practice expenses, differences in financing the cost of medical education, and the relative contribution of payments per physician and of physician supply in the countries' national spending on physician services. Public and private payers paid somewhat higher fees to US primary care physicians for office visits (27 percent more for public, 70 percent more for private) and much higher fees to orthopedic physicians for hip replacements (70 percent more for public, 120 percent more for private) than public and private payers paid these physicians' counterparts in other countries. US primary care and orthopedic physicians also earned higher incomes ($186,582 and $442,450, respectively) than their foreign counterparts. We conclude that the higher fees, rather than factors such as higher practice costs, volume of services, or tuition expenses, were the main drivers of higher US spending, particularly in orthopedics.
Alice L. Anderson
Full Text Available Mapping of Historic US Hookworm prevalence data from the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission (early 1900s using current GIS (Geographic Information System software (county shape files illustrates the extremely high prevalence of hookworm disease (Uncariasis in the Southeastern US at the time. Some counties in 7 states recorded 50% to 100% of the population with positive screens for hookworm in a monumental surveillance and treatment campaign. Narrative descriptions mentioned higher prevalence in “sand districts” vs. “clay districts”. In order to validate this description for historic data, further GIS databases (STATSGO were used to classify and quantify the % acreage in Eastern North Carolina falling into moderately- to well-drained soil types. These were then mapped and compared with the historic prevalence data. Most severely infested counties had at least 50% moderately to well-drained soil. Further analysis on soil data for other states with “coastal plains” could provide more background information on Environmental conditions for hookworm prevalence and distribution in US history. “Since history has no properly scientific value, its only purpose is educative. And if historians neglect to educate the public, if they fail to interest it intelligently in the past, then all their historical learning is valueless except in so far as it educates themselves”. Trevelyan, (1922.
Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population.
Almdal, T.; Scharling, H.; Jensen, J.S.
Background: This study investigates risk factors and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) in both sexes of a northern European population. Methods: A total of 14,223 randomly selected men and women were studied from 1976 to 1978. Patients with diabetes (self-reported type 2 DM......, non-fasting blood glucose and triglycerides. Significantly more men (242, 5.4%) than women (152, 2.5%) developed type 2 DM. The odds ratio (OR) for developing diabetes with a BMI above 30 kg/m(2) compared to a BMI of 20-25 kg/m(2) was 8.1 in women and 6.3 in men; for a non-fasting plasma glucose of 8.......4-11.0 mmol/l compared to a plasma glucose of 5.5-6.4, the ORs were 7.8 in women and 4.7 in men. The OR for developing diabetes in persons with a non-fasting triglyceride level above 2.0 mmol/l compared to 1.0-2.0 mmol/l was 1.8 in both sexes; women with non -fasting triglycerides below 1.0 mmol/l had...
Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel
(1) To estimate the prevalence and behavioral patterns of Khat chewing and (2) to investigate factors that influenced the pattern of Khat use among undergraduate students in different higher education institutions in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study using a pretested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used to collect data. SPSS version 17 software program was used for data analysis. The overall current Khat chewing prevalence among higher education students was found to be 23.1%, significantly higher among males at 38.5% than among females at 2.1% (P higher compared with females at 3.7% (P higher education students in Jazan region. A multilevel, value based, comprehensive, and strategic long-term intervention plan is needed. The comprehensive plan may include social interventions geared by creating recreations alternatives and opportunities for youth and a critical review for current authorities' interventions and services.
Kurniasih, Nuning; Hasyim, C.; Wulandari, A.; Setiawan, M. I.; Ahmar, A. S.
The quality of the higher education is the result of a continuous process. There are many indicators that can be used to assess the quality of a higher education. The existence of different indicators makes the different result of university rankings. This research aims to find variables that can connect ranking indicators that are used by Indonesian Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education with indicators that are used by international rankings by taking two kind of ranking systems i.e. Webometrics and 4icu. This research uses qualitative research method with comparative case studies approach. The result of the research shows that to bridge the indicators that are used by Indonesian Ministry or Research, Technology, and Higher Education with web-based ranking system like Webometrics and 4icu so that the Indonesian higher education institutions need to open access towards either scientific or non-scientific that are publicly used into web-based environment. One of the strategies that can be used to improve the openness and access towards scientific work of a university is by involving in open science and collaboration.
Rokholm, Benjamin; Silventoinen, Karri; Ängquist, Lars
populations. Several recent studies suggest that the genetic effects on adiposity may be stronger when combined with presumed risk factors for obesity. We tested the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight and a higher BMI mean is associated with a larger genetic variation in BMI....
Yamamoto, Ayae; Johnstone, Erica B; Bloom, Michael S; Huddleston, Heather G; Fujimoto, Victor Y
The purpose of the study was to determine whether diagnosis of endometriosis or endometriosis with endometrioma influences in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in an ethnically diverse population. Women undergoing a first IVF cycle (n = 717) between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009, at a university-affiliated infertility clinic, were retrospectively assessed for an endometriosis diagnosis. Differences in prevalence of endometriosis by ethnicity were determined, as well as differences in IVF success by ethnicity, with a focus on country of origin for Asian women. A multivariate model was generated to assess the relative contributions of country of origin and endometriosis to chance of clinical pregnancy with IVF. Endometriosis was diagnosed in 9.5% of participants; 3.5% also received a diagnosis of endometrioma. Endometriosis prevalence in Asian women was significantly greater than in Caucasians (15.7 vs. 5.8%, p Women of Filipino (p women, although there was no difference in endometrioma presence by race/ethnicity. Oocyte quantity, embryo quality, and fertilization rates did not relate to endometriosis. Clinical pregnancy rates were significantly lower for Asian women, specifically in Indian (p women, compared to Caucasian women, even after controlling for endometriosis status. The prevalence of endometriosis appears to be higher in Filipino, Indian, Japanese, and Korean women presenting for IVF treatment than for Caucasian women; however, the discrepancy in IVF outcomes was conditionally independent of the presence of endometriosis. Future research should focus on improving pregnancy outcomes for Asian populations whether or not they are affected by endometriosis, specifically in the form of longitudinal studies where exposures can be captured prior to endometriosis diagnoses and infertility treatment.
Heikkilä, Kauko; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Saari-Kemppainen, Aulikki; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J; Haukka, Jari; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Iivanainen, Matti
Pregnancy- and birth-related factors may have an effect on handedness. Compared with singletons, twins have a lower birth weight, shorter gestational age, and are at higher risk for birth complications. We tested whether the prevalence of left-handedness is higher among twins than singletons, and if so, whether that difference is fully explained by pregnancy and birth-related differences between twins and singletons. We analyzed Finnish population-based datasets; included were 8,786 twins and 5,892 singletons with information on birth weight (n = 12,381), Apgar scores (n = 11,129), and gestational age (n = 11,811). Two twin cohorts were involved: FinnTwin12 included twins born during 1983-1987, and FinnTwin16 included twins born during 1974-1979. We had two comparison groups of singletons: 4,101 individuals born during 1986-1988 and enrolled in the Helsinki Ultrasound Trial, and 1,791 individuals who were partners of FinnTwin16 twins. We used logistic regression models with writing hand as the outcome for comparison and evaluating effects of covariates. Left-handedness was more common in twins (9.67%) than in singletons (8.27%; p = .004). However, Apgar scores were associated with handedness, and after controlling for covariates, we found no difference in the prevalence of left-handedness between twins and singletons. Increased left-handedness among twins, often reported by others, was evident in our data, but only among our older twin cohorts, and that association disappeared after removing effects of perinatal covariates.
Milman, Nils; Byg, Keld-Erik; Andersen, Leif P
To assess the sero-prevalence of IgG antibodies to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in Greenlanders and compare with the sero-prevalence in Caucasian Danes.......To assess the sero-prevalence of IgG antibodies to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in Greenlanders and compare with the sero-prevalence in Caucasian Danes....
Aguileta, Gabriela; Badouin, Helene; Hood, Michael E; Møller, Anders P; Le Prieur, Stephanie; Snirc, Alodie; Siguenza, Sophie; Mousseau, Timothy A; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Cuomo, Christina A; Giraud, Tatiana
Nuclear disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima provide examples of effects of acute ionizing radiation on mutations that can affect the fitness and distribution of species. Here, we investigated the prevalence of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, a pollinator-transmitted fungal pathogen of plants causing anther-smut disease in Chernobyl, its viability, fertility and karyotype variation, and the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations in its genome. We collected diseased flowers of Silene latifolia from locations ranging by more than two orders of magnitude in background radiation, from 0.05 to 21.03 μGy/h. Disease prevalence decreased significantly with increasing radiation level, possibly due to lower pollinator abundance and altered pollinator behaviour. Viability and fertility, measured as the budding rate of haploid sporidia following meiosis from the diploid teliospores, did not vary with increasing radiation levels and neither did karyotype overall structure and level of chromosomal size heterozygosity. We sequenced the genomes of twelve samples from Chernobyl and of four samples collected from uncontaminated areas and analysed alignments of 6068 predicted genes, corresponding to 1.04 × 10(7) base pairs. We found no dose-dependent differences in substitution rates (neither dN, dS, nor dN/dS). Thus, we found no significant evidence of increased deleterious mutation rates at higher levels of background radiation in this plant pathogen. We even found lower levels of nonsynonymous substitution rates in contaminated areas compared to control regions, suggesting that purifying selection was stronger in contaminated than uncontaminated areas. We briefly discuss the possibilities for a mechanistic basis of radio resistance in this nonmelanized fungus. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Srinivasa; Chaithanya C; Ravindra
Anxiety disorders are very common in secondary school children with little epidemiological data from countries like India. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders in higher secondary school students using Screen for Ch ild Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) questionnaire. Methodology: The study was conducted in July 2014 and 100 students belonging to class 11 and class 12 of a higher secondary school at Tiptur were includ...
de Courten, Barbora; de Courten, Maximilian; Hanson, Robert L
Gypsies (or Roma) recently experienced a transition from a traditional to a Westernized lifestyle. Although mortality in this population is 4-fold higher compared with non-Gypsies, very limited information is available on their morbidity especially with regard to non-communicable diseases. Our ai...... was to determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in Gypsies and non-Gypsies living in the same region of southern Slovakia....
A. Z. Khan and G. Muhammad1
Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the quarter-wise comparative prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes and crossbred cows. Milk samples collected from 50 dairy buffaloes and 50 crossbred cows were tested for subclinical mastitis by Surf Field Mastitis Test. In addition, all milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of pathogens. In buffaloes, overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 27%, clinical mastitis 4% and blind quarters 10%. In crossbred cows, subclinical mastitis was observed in 36%, clinical mastitis in 5.5% and blind quarters in 8% quarters. Prevalence was higher (32% in hindquarters of crossbred cows than those of buffaloes (29%. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest (45% frequency, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23%, E. coli (18% and Bacillus spp. (14% in buffaloes. In case of crossbred cows, Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , E. coli and Bacillus spp. were isolated from 48, 30, 13 and 8% milk samples respectively.
Satu J Siiskonen
Full Text Available Satu J Siiskonen1, Nancy S Breekveldt-Postma1, Gábor Vincze2, Zeba M Khan3, Joëlle A Erkens1, Ron MC Herings11PHARMO Institute for Drug Outcomes Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 3Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USAObjective: To compare persistence with valsartan and enalapril in daily practice.Methods: The PHARMO Record Linkage System includes various data registries including drug dispensing and hospitalizations for ≥2 million subjects in the Netherlands. Patients newly treated with valsartan or enalapril in the period of 1999–2002 were selected. Persistence was calculated by summing up the number of days of continuous treatment. Patients who remained on therapy with valsartan or enalapril for 12 or 24 months were defined as persistent at 1 or 2 years, respectively.Results: 3364 patients received valsartan and 9103 patients received enalapril. About 62% of patients treated with valsartan and 55% of patients treated with enalapril remained on therapy at 12 months after the initial dispensing, while 48% of patients treated with valsartan and 43% of patients treated with enalapril were persistent at 24 months. Patients treated with valsartan were about 20% more likely to stay on treatment than patients treated with enalapril (1 year RRadj: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.16–1.32; 2 years RRadj: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.11–1.23.Conclusions: Real-life persistence is higher with valsartan than with enalapril. The results of this and other studies on persistence in daily practice should be taken into account when deciding upon drug treatment for hypertension.Keywords: persistence, antihypertensive, valsartan, enalapril, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-2-receptor blockers
Cicinelli, Ettore; Trojano, Giuseppe; Mastromauro, Marcella; Vimercati, Antonella; Marinaccio, Marco; Mitola, Paola Carmela; Resta, Leonardo; de Ziegler, Dominique
To evaluate the association between endometriosis end chronic endometritis (CE) diagnosed by hysteroscopy, conventional histology, and immunohistochemistry. Case-control study. University hospital. Women with and without endometriosis who have undergone hysterectomy. Retrospective evaluation of 78 women who have undergone hysterectomy and were affected by endometriosis and 78 women without endometriosis. CE diagnosed based on conventional histology and immunohistochemistry with anti-syndecan-1 antibodies to identify CD138 cells. The prevalence of CE was statistically significantly higher in the women with endometriosis as compared with the women who did not have endometriosis (33 of 78, 42.3% vs. 12 of 78, 15.4% according to hysteroscopy; and 30 of 78, 38.5% vs. 11 of 78, 14.1% according to histology). The women were divided into two groups, 115 patients without CE and 41 patients with CE. With univariate analysis, parity was associated with a lower risk for CE, and endometriosis was associated with a statistically significantly elevated risk of CE. Using multivariate analysis, parity continued to be associated with a lower incidence of CE, whereas endometriosis was associated with a 2.7 fold higher risk. The diagnosis of CE is more frequent in women with endometriosis. Although no etiologic relationships between CE and endometriosis can be established, this study suggests that CE should be considered and if necessary ruled out in women with endometriosis, particularly if they have abnormal uterine bleeding. Identification and appropriate treatment of CE may avoid unnecessary surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper analyses the efficiency of higher education in equalizing the feasible wages obtained for men and women in the labour market. To do that, It is estimated two stochastic frontiers. The first one measures the effect of higher education inside the group of men and women for six European countries. The results indicate that in Denmark,…
Volkwein, James Fredericks; Parmley, Kelli
This study examined job satisfaction among administrators in public and private higher education. Data on nearly 1,200 administrators, ranging from directors to presidents, was obtained through surveys of 120 public and private universities. It was found that both public and private higher education administrators were most satisfied with the…
Jan 16, 2018 ... Keywords: Goats, Strongyle ova, Faecal Culture Techniques, Prevalence,. The Nigerian goat ... km located in the North eastern corner of Nigeria ... teaching and research farm, Maiduguri metropolitan ... West African Dwarf. 5.
Keywords: dairy cattle, feeding, season, mastitis, prevalence, parasites, milk .... Fecal samples for parasitological examination were collected from the rectum ... 1 considered negative, while those with CMT scores above of 1 were considered.
At present there is an unprecedented demand for and a great diversification in higher education, as well as an increased awareness of its vital importance for socio-cultural and economic development. The complexity of the right to education is especially at issue while discussing the right to higher education, which on a national level is non-compulsory, even though the number of people who have acquired higher education during the second half of the twentieth century has tripled. Therefore t...
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of five alternative measures of service quality in the high education sector--service quality (SERVQUAL), importance-weighted SERVQUAL, service performance (SERVPERF), importance-weighted SERVPERF, and higher education performance (HEdPERF). Design/methodology/approach: Data were…
Krishnan, Eswar; Bennett, Mihoko; Chen, Linjun
This work aims to study the associations, if any, of hyperuricemia, gout, and menopause status in the US population. Using multiyear data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we performed unmatched comparisons and one to three age-matched comparisons of women aged 20 to 70 years with and without hyperuricemia (serum urate ≥6 mg/dL). Analyses were performed using survey-weighted multiple logistic regression and conditional logistic regression, respectively. Overall, there were 1,477 women with hyperuricemia. Age and serum urate were significantly correlated. In unmatched analyses (n = 9,573 controls), postmenopausal women were older, were heavier, and had higher prevalence of renal impairment, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. In multivariable regression, after accounting for age, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate, and diuretic use, menopause was associated with hyperuricemia (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05-1.76; P = 0.002). In corresponding multivariable regression using age-matched data (n = 4,431 controls), the odds ratio for menopause was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.83-1.06). Current use of hormone therapy was not associated with prevalent hyperuricemia in both unmatched and matched analyses. Age is a better statistical explanation for the higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women than menopause status.
Rashad Mohammed Alsanosy
Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To estimate the prevalence and behavioral patterns of Khat chewing and (2 to investigate factors that influenced the pattern of Khat use among undergraduate students in different higher education institutions in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study using a pretested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used to collect data. SPSS version 17 software program was used for data analysis. Results. The overall current Khat chewing prevalence among higher education students was found to be 23.1%, significantly higher among males at 38.5% than among females at 2.1% . Lifetime Khat chewer students were 24.8% for males at 40.5%, significantly higher compared with females at 3.7% . Univariate analysis revealed that the gender of student, smoking status of student, a friend’s smoking, and Khat chewing were associated with a significant high risk of Khat chewing ( for all. Conclusions. The use of Khat trend is increasing among higher education students in Jazan region. A multilevel, value based, comprehensive, and strategic long-term intervention plan is needed. The comprehensive plan may include social interventions geared by creating recreations alternatives and opportunities for youth and a critical review for current authorities’ interventions and services.
Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Ranjan-Dash, Shishir; Mukhopadhyay, Alok; Guha-Sapir, Debarati
Background: Child undernutrition and flooding are highly prevalent public health issues in Asia, yet epidemiological studies investigating this association are lacking. Methods: To investigate to what extent floods exacerbate poor nutritional status in children and identify most vulnerable groups, we conducted a population-based survey of children aged 6–59 months inhabiting flooded and non-flooded communities of the Jagatsinghpur district, Odisha (India), one year after large floods in 2008. Anthropometric measurements on 879 children and child, parental and household level variables were collected through face-to-face interviews in September 2009. The association between flooding and the prevalence of wasting, stunting and underweight was examined using weighted multivariate logistic regression for children inhabiting communities exposed solely to floods in 2008 and those communities repeatedly flooded (2006 and 2008) controlling for parental education and other relevant variables. We examined the influence of age on this association. Propensity score matching was conducted to test the robustness of our findings. Results: The prevalence of wasting among children flooded in 2006 and 2008 was 51.6%, 41.4% in those flooded only in 2008, and 21.2% in children inhabiting non-flooded communities. Adjusting by confounders, the increased prevalence relative to non-flooded children in the exposed groups were 2.30 (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR); 95% CI: 1.86, 2.85) and 1.94 (95% CI: 1.43, 2.63), respectively. Among repeatedly flooded communities, cases of severe wasting in children were 3.37 times more prevalent than for children inhabiting in those non-flooded (95% CI: 2.34, 4.86) and nearly twice more prevalent relative to those flooded only once. Those children younger than one year during previous floods in 2006 showed the largest difference in prevalence of wasting compared to their non-flooded counterparts (aPR: 4.01; 95% CI: 1.51, 10.63). Results were robust to
Discusses how in this issue's special section, three leading scholars in the comparative study of education explore research questions and methods from three social science frameworks: postmodernism, feminism, and political economy/political sociology. Describes the articles and asserts that these analyses address significant gaps in the existing…
Aydin, Y; Atis, A; Tutuman, T; Goker, N
We aimed to find a prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in order to define the 100 genotypes and subset of 14 oncogenic genotypes in pregnant Turkish women and to compare these with non-pregnant women. Cervical thin-prep specimens were obtained from 164 women in the first trimester pregnancy and 153 non pregnant women. 29.2% of pregnant versus 19.6% of non-pregnant Turkish women had at least one of the 100 types of HPV infection--a statistically significant difference. The rate of 14 high-risk HPV genotype infections was significantly higher in pregnant (14.6) compared to non-pregnant Turkish women (9.6%). Pregnant Turkish women are at higher risk for all HPV infections including high-risk cervical cancer genotypes.
De Boni, Raquel; Pechansky, Flavio; Silva, Pedro Luis do Nascimento; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Bastos, Francisco Inacio
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of driving after drinking (DUI) and its associated factors in low and high alcohol outlet density areas (LAOD and HAOD) in Porto Alegre, Brazil. A probability 3-stage sampling survey was conducted, and 683 drivers who were leaving alcohol outlets (AOs) and had been drinking were interviewed, breathalyzed and saliva was collected for drug screening. Prevalences were assessed using domain estimation and DUI predictors were assessed using logistic models. results: It was estimated that 151,573 drivers drank at the AO, and intention to DUI was more prevalent in LAOD (59.3 versus 46.1% in HAOD, P = 0.003). On the other hand, HAOD had higher proportions of interviewees with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of >0.06% (46.6 versus 30.7%, P = 0.002) as well as a more frequent use of cocaine (9.3 versus 2.4%, P = 0.086). In the logistic models, drinking in a LAOD stratum was found to be associated with DUI (OR 1.72 (1.17-2.5)) and the two AO density areas presented different factors independently associated with DUI: THC use was significantly associated with the outcome in the HAOD stratum (OR 17.7 (5.1-61.8)), whereas an AUDIT score of >20 was positively associated with DUI in LAOD (OR 23.75 (1.5-364.0)). High prevalences of driving under the influence of alcohol were evident in both the high and the low outlet density areas, although with different characteristics. Thorough enforcement of the legislation by random breath testing and sobriety checkpoints should be combined with AO licensing in order to reduce high levels of DUI and traffic accidents.
Chou, Meng-Hsuan; Ravinet, Pauline
The introduction of regional political initiatives in the higher education sector symbolizes one of the many aspects of the changing global higher education landscape. Remarkably, these processes have generally escaped comparative scrutiny by scholars researching higher education policy cooperation or regional integration. In this article, we…
Full Text Available Sleep accounts for a third of one’s lifetime, partial or complete deprivation of sleep could elicit sever disorders of body function. Previous studies have reported the higher prevalence of sleep disorders in glaucoma patients, but the definite mechanism for this phenomenon is unknown. On the other hand, it is well known by us that the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs serve additional ocular functions, called non-image-forming (NIF functions, in the regulation of circadian rhythm, melatonin secretion, sleep, mood and others. Specifically, ipRGCs can directly or indirectly innervate the central areas such as suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, downstream pineal gland (the origin of melatonin, sleep and wake-inducing centers and mood regulation areas, making NIF functions of ipRGCs relate to sleep. The more interesting thing is that previous research showed glaucoma not only affected visual functions such as the degeneration of classical retinal ganglion cells (RGCs, but also affected ipRGCs. Therefore, we hypothesize that higher prevalence of sleep disorders in glaucoma patients maybe result from the underlying glaucomatous injuries of ipRGCs leading to the abnormalities of diverse NIF functions corresponding to sleep.
Gerritsen, Adrie A J; Bakker, Christian; Verhey, Frans R J; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Melis, René J F; Koopmans, Raymond T C M
.2%) were higher compared with those of patients with LO-AD (4.5%). The cluster analysis revealed a distinctive group of patients with YO-AD with either no comorbidity or with a disease of the nervous system. Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases and diseases of the circulatory system were present in 34% of the patients with YO-AD. Comorbidity is less common in YO-AD than in LO-AD. However, general practitioners should be aware that approximately one-third of the patients with YO-AD suffer from or have endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases and/or diseases of the circulatory system. Treatment should therefore not only focus on dementia but also on comorbidity. This attention may slow the functional decline in AD. These exploratory analyses suggested a higher prevalence of nervous system diseases in YO-AD compared with LO-AD. However, the finding did not reach statistical significance and in combination with the exploratory nature of the analyses justifies further investigation. If verified, this finding may help to decrease the time to diagnosis of AD and, subsequently, support in young patients with a neurological disease. Further investigation is needed to gain more insight into the association between comorbidity and AD in younger people. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Discussion: According to this study, the prevalence of autism among epileptic children is higher than non epileptic ones. As the age of the onset of seizure is lower the prevalence of autism will be higher. Also, the prevalence of autism among epileptic children will be higher as abnormal findings of imaging and known etiologies of seizureincrease. Loss of significant correlations among prevalence of autism and some variables of seizure can be due to few numbers of autistic cases, which were diagnosed in this study comparing with previous studies.
Radtke, M A; Schäfer, I; Glaeske, G; Jacobi, A; Augustin, M
Most data suggesting an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have come from specialized populations at either low or high risk of CVD. Atopic dermatitis (AD) has been associated with a number of modifiable risk factors, particularly obesity. There has been a recent controversy on the suggestion that associations with comorbidities in psoriasis may be due to overreporting or biased by disease severity and therefore not necessarily representative of the general psoriasis population. To evaluate the prevalence of AD and psoriasis and to compare the prevalence rates of comorbidities based on a large sample of health insurance data. Data were collected from a database of non-selected individuals from a German statutory health insurance organization that covers all geographic regions. Individuals identified by International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes applied to all outpatient and inpatient visits in the year 2009. Comorbidities were evaluated by ICD-10 diagnoses. The database consisted of 1 642 852 members of a German statutory health insurance. Of 1 349 671 data sets analyzed, 37 456 patients ≥18 years were diagnosed with psoriasis (prevalence 2.78%), and 48 140 patients ≥18 years of age were diagnosed with AD, equivalent to a prevalence of 3.67%. Patients with psoriasis showed increased rates of comorbidities in all age groups. Comorbidities related to the metabolic syndrome including arterial hypertension [prevalence ratio (PR), 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.90-1.98], hyperlipidaemia (PR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.73-1.81), obesity (PR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.69-1.79) and diabetes mellitus (PR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.83-1.94) were significantly more common among patients with psoriasis compared to AD. Diseases forming part of the metabolic syndrome showed significant lower prevalence rates in patients with AD than in patients with psoriasis. Within the limitations of secondary healthcare data, our study disproves the suggestion that
Full Text Available Intestinal parasites cause one of the most important health problems through their effects in causing undernourishment morbidity and incapacitation due to their behavior particularly in children compared to adults. This study was intended to state the prevalence of intestinal parasites between the slum dwellers of different areas in south Chennai. Among the total of 256 samples collected between the ages of 0–50 yrs, 194 samples were positive. Standard laboratory techniques for parasitological diagnosis were carried out for each sample. Entamoeba coli (23%, Cyclospora sp. (22.2%, Entamoeba histolytica (21.8%, Giardia intestinalis (14.4%, Ascaris lumbricoides (6.2%, Trichuris trichiura (1.1%, and Hymenolepis nana (2.7% were found in the dwellers of low socioeconomic areas. The data on the prevalence of parasites with respect to sex and age showed that the females harbored more numbers of parasites when compared to males. Further, with respect to age, children and teenagers had surplus parasites compared to old age groups. The percentage of educational status showed a reduction in the number of parasites in the higher education dwellers. These parasites could be prevented by possible grouping of better ecological design and hygiene. Conclusively, the examination of personal hygiene as well as routine medical examination and treatment is strongly recommended in the low socio-economic areas.
Arruda, Claúdia; Artico, Gabriela; Freitas, Roseli; Filho, Antônio; Migliari, Dante
Predisposing factors in chronic hyperplastic candidosis (CHC) have been poorly recognized. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of Candida spp. in areas of the oral mucosa showing greater prevalent rate of CHC, such as the retrocomissural area, the lateral borders of the tongue, and the hard-palate mucosa in four groups of individuals presenting predisposing factors as follows: Smoking habits (group I); patients with low salivary flow rate (SFR) (hyposalivation - group II); patients with loss of vertical dimension of occlusion (LVDO -group III); and control subjects (group IV). A total of 44 individuals (age 4090 years, mean: 55.8 years) were divided into four groups: Group I (11 smokers); group II (10 hyposalivation patients); group III (10 LVDO patients); and group IV (control, 13 healthy subjects). All individuals were tested for Candida-pseudohyphae form by direct examination and for Candida spp. culture growth in samples obtained from the retrocomissural, tongue's lateral border, and hard-soft palatal mucosa. Direct examination showed a statistically significant prevalence rate for pseudohyphae (p < 0.05) on the retrocomissural and on tongue's lateral borders of individuals with LVDO. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) culture growth for Candida spp. was found on the retrocomissural areas of those with hyposalivation and with LVDO, and on the palate mucosa and on the tongue's lateral borders in the smokers and in the individuals with LVDO when compared with those of the control group. While direct examination is effective for detecting pseudohyphae, LVDO and tobacco smoking seem to be factors of relevance to the development of CHC. Since CHC has been linked to a high rate of malignant transformation, this study analyzes some clinical (and exogenous) factors that may contribute to the development of CHC and addresses some preventive measures to reduce its incidence.
Mako, Robsan Sayo
Master in International Social Welfare and Health Policy Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major public health problem with the burden of the disease distributed unevenly. The prevalence of the disease is higher among South Asian immigrants in comparison to the prevalence among the population of the host countries. Studies from Norway, UK and beyond indicate that there is ethnic inequality in the prevalence of T2DM. In order to find out the reason for this high prevalence of T2DM, this ...
Frugis, Sandra; Czeczko, Nicolau Gregori; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Parada, Artur Adolfo; Poletti, Paula Bechara; Secchi, Thiago Festa; Degiovani, Matheus; Rampanazzo-Neto, Alécio; D Agostino, Mariza D
Helicobacter pylori has been extensively studied since 1982 it is estimated that 50% of the world population is affected. The literature lacks studies that show the change of its prevalence in the same population over time. To compare the prevalence of H. pylori in 10 years interval in a population that was submitted to upper endoscopy in the same endoscopy service. Observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study comparing the prevalence of H. pylori in two samples with 10 years apart (2004 and 2014) who underwent endoscopy with biopsy and urease. Patients were studied in three consecutive months of 2004, compared to three consecutive months of 2014. The total number of patients was 2536, and 1406 in 2004 and 1130 in 2014. There were positive for H. pylori in 17 % of the sample as a whole. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence from 19.3% in 2004 to 14.1% in 2014 (pmundial esteja afetada. A literatura carece de estudos que mostrem a mudança de sua prevalência em uma mesma população ao longo do tempo. Comparar a prevalência do H.pylori no intervalo de 10 anos em população que realizou endoscopia digestiva alta no mesmo serviço de endoscopia. Estudo observacional, retrospectivo e transversal, comparando a prevalência de H. pylori em duas amostras com intervalo de 10 anos (2004 e 2014) que realizaram endoscopia digestiva alta com biópsias e teste da urease para a pesquisa de H. pylori. Foram estudados pacientes em três meses consecutivos de 2004, comparados aos de três meses consecutivos de 2014. O número total de pacientes avaliados foi 2536, sendo 1406 em 2004 e 1130 em 2014. Constatou-se resultado positivo para H.pylori em 17% da amostra como um todo. Houve queda significativa da prevalência de H.pylori de 19,3% em 2004 para 14,1% em 2014 (p<0.005). Houve redução de 5,2% da prevalência de H. pylori comparando-se dois períodos de três meses consecutivos com intervalo de 10 anos em duas amostras populacionais equivalentes.
Sthela Maria Murad-Regadas
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the prevalence of polyps in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer, in comparison to asymptomatic individuals with indication for screening. Methods: A prospective study in a group of patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I: no family history of colorectal cancer, and Group II: with a family history in first-degree relatives. Demographic characteristics, findings on colonoscopy, presence, location and histological type of polyps were evaluated, comparing the two groups. Results: 214 patients were evaluated: 162 in Group I and 52 in Group II. The distribution of patients with polyps was similar in relation to gender: polyps were evidenced in Group I in 33 (20% female patients vs. 10 (6% male patients (p = 1.00; in Group II, the presence of polyps was evidenced in 9 (17% female patients vs. 2 (4% male patients (p = 1.00. Polypoid lesions were found in 54 patients (25%, with 43 (26% in Group I and 11 (21% in Group II. The prevalence of adenomas was similar in both groups (Group I = 18/37% vs. Group II = 10/50% (p = 0.83. Conclusion: In this preliminary study, no correlation was found between prevalence of polyps and a family history of colorectal cancer. Resumo: Objetivos: Avaliar a prevalência de pólipos em pacientes com história familiar de câncer colorretal comparando com indivíduos assintomáticos com indicação para rastreamento. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo realizado em um grupo de indivíduos submetidos à colonoscopia entre 2012 e 2014. Os pacientes foram distribuídos em dois grupos: Grupo I: sem história familiar de câncer colorretal e Grupo II: com história familiar em parentes de primeiro grau. Avaliaram-se características demográficas, achados na colonoscopia, presença, localização e tipo histológico dos pólipos, comparando os dois grupos. Resultados: Foram avaliados 214 pacientes, 162 incluídas no grupo I e 52
Full Text Available Introduction: Children watch television during most of their free time. They are exposed to advertisers’ messages and are vulnerable to sophisticated advertisements of foods often detrimental to oral and general health. Objectives: To evaluate the influence of television advertisements on children, the relationship with oral health and to analyze the content of those advertisements. Methodology: A questionnaire-based study was performed among 600 schoolchildren of Mangalore, Karnataka, followed by oral examination. Based on the survey, favorite and non-favorite channels and viewing times were analyzed. Advertisements on children's favorite and non-favorite channels were then viewed, analyzed, and compared. Results: Higher caries prevalence was found among children who watched television and asked for more food and soft drinks. Cariogenic food advertisements were popular on children's favorite channels. Conclusion: Television advertisements may strongly influence children's food preferences and eating habits, resulting in higher caries prevalence. Advertisements regarding healthy food, oral hygiene maintenance, prevention of diseases such as caries should be given priority for the benefit of the health of children.
Ghimire, Neeta; Rao, Arathi
Children watch television during most of their free time. They are exposed to advertisers' messages and are vulnerable to sophisticated advertisements of foods often detrimental to oral and general health. To evaluate the influence of television advertisements on children, the relationship with oral health and to analyze the content of those advertisements. A questionnaire-based study was performed among 600 schoolchildren of Mangalore, Karnataka, followed by oral examination. Based on the survey, favorite and non-favorite channels and viewing times were analyzed. Advertisements on children's favorite and non-favorite channels were then viewed, analyzed, and compared. Higher caries prevalence was found among children who watched television and asked for more food and soft drinks. Cariogenic food advertisements were popular on children's favorite channels. Television advertisements may strongly influence children's food preferences and eating habits, resulting in higher caries prevalence. Advertisements regarding healthy food, oral hygiene maintenance, prevention of diseases such as caries should be given priority for the benefit of the health of children.
Boukli Hacène, L; Khelil, M-A; Chabane Sari, D; Meguenni, K; Meziane Tani, A
In Algeria, few studies have been conducted to determine the prevalence of genetic and environmental risk factors of cardiovascular diseases as a function of residence. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors according to sex and age in urban and rural communities in the Wilaya of Tlemcen (Algeria). A population survey was conducted on a representative sample of 864 individuals aged 20years and over, among inhabitants in urban and rural communes in the Wilaya of Tlemcen. Each subject answered the questionnaire on cardiovascular risk factors, underwent a physical examination and had a blood sample drawn. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was 6.6%, it was found to be higher in urban areas (8.4%) than in rural areas (4.6%). The prevalence of low HDL cholesterol levels was higher in urban (28.8%) than rural (23.9%) areas. The prevalence of family history of cardiovascular disease did not differ between the two sexes and between urban (15.7%) and rural (14.0%) areas. The prevalence of hypertension was higher in urban (28.0%) than in rural (16.8%) areas, and was highest among women aged 65 years or older in urban areas (67.3%) and in rural areas (66.6%). The prevalence of diabetes was higher among women living in urban areas (21.4%) compared with rural areas (15.4%). Obesity was much more frequent among women than among men in urban areas (24.7% in women and 9.5% in men) and in rural areas (28.3% in women and 8.3% in men). The prevalence of smoking was 45.8% for men and with no significant variations between urban areas and rural areas. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors according to sex and age in the two communes are high in two communes in the Wilaya of Tlemcen. However, the prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes were higher in women in urban than in rural areas. This finding focuses attention on the need for measures to reduce the prevalence of these cardiovascular
Maria de Lourdes Campos
Full Text Available Introduction: Burnout Syndrome, in the twenty-first century, appears among the most common mental disorder among teachers resulting from the interaction between individual aspects and the working environment, interpreted as a response to chronic job stress. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of burnout syndrome and quality of life of higher education teachers in the city of Cajazeiras, Paraíba, Brazil. Method: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study performed with 174 teachers from institutions of higher education. Results: The burnout syndrome was observed in only 3.4% of teachers. However, the recorded data require a closer look at the health of the teachers investigated, since a considerable part of them are in the score limit for disease development. Regarding the quality of life of teachers who presented the manifestations of the syndrome, the physical and psychological domains were shown to be the worst for most subjects. Conclusion: There are teachers in higher education, executing their profession, affected by burnout syndrome, suggesting a relationship between this psychosocial phenomenon and the labor context, permeating the three dimensions proposed by Maslach and Leiter: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and the lack of personal fulfillment. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3823/2512
Almeida, Luiz Maurício Costa; Diniz, Michelle dos Santos; Diniz, Lorena dos Santos; Machado-Pinto, Jackson; Silva, Francisco Chagas Lima
BACKGROUND Sepsis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. The prevalence of this condition has increased significantly in different parts of the world. Patients admitted to dermatology wards often have severe loss of skin barrier and use systemic corticosteroids, which favor the development of sepsis. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the prevalence of sepsis among patients admitted to a dermatology ward compared to that among patients admitted to an internal medicine ward. METHODS It is a cross-sectional, observational, comparative study that was conducted at Hospital Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte. Data were collected from all patients admitted to four hospital beds at the dermatology and internal medicine wards between July 2008 and July 2009. Medical records were analyzed for the occurrence of sepsis, dermatologic diagnoses, comorbidities, types of pathogens and most commonly used antibiotics. RESULTS We analyzed 185 medical records. The prevalence of sepsis was 7.6% among patients admitted to the dermatology ward and 2.2% (p = 0.10) among those admitted to the internal medicine ward. Patients with comorbidities, diabetes mellitus and cancer did not show a higher incidence of sepsis. The main agent found was Staphylococcus aureus, and the most commonly used antibiotics were ciprofloxacin and oxacillin. There was a significant association between sepsis and the use of systemic corticosteroids (p <0.001). CONCLUSION It becomes clear that epidemiological studies on sepsis should be performed more extensively and accurately in Brazil so that efforts to prevent and treat this serious disease can be made more effectively. PMID:24173179
Golder, Su; Norman, Gill; Loke, Yoon K
Aim The aim of this review was to summarize the prevalence, frequency and comparative value of information on the adverse events of healthcare interventions from user comments and videos in social media. Methods A systematic review of assessments of the prevalence or type of information on adverse events in social media was undertaken. Sixteen databases and two internet search engines were searched in addition to handsearching, reference checking and contacting experts. The results were sifted independently by two researchers. Data extraction and quality assessment were carried out by one researcher and checked by a second. The quality assessment tool was devised in-house and a narrative synthesis of the results followed. Results From 3064 records, 51 studies met the inclusion criteria. The studies assessed over 174 social media sites with discussion forums (71%) being the most popular. The overall prevalence of adverse events reports in social media varied from 0.2% to 8% of posts. Twenty-nine studies compared the results from searching social media with using other data sources to identify adverse events. There was general agreement that a higher frequency of adverse events was found in social media and that this was particularly true for ‘symptom’ related and ‘mild’ adverse events. Those adverse events that were under-represented in social media were laboratory-based and serious adverse events. Conclusions Reports of adverse events are identifiable within social media. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in the frequency and type of events reported, and the reliability or validity of the data has not been thoroughly evaluated. PMID:26271492
Guerra, M.; Prina, A.M.; Ferri, C.P.; Acosta, D.; Gallardo, S.; Huang, Y.; Jacob, K.S.; Jimenez-Velazquez, I.Z.; Llibre Rodriguez, J.J.; Liu, Z.; Salas, A.; Sosa, A.L.; Williams, J.D.; Uwakwe, R.; Prince, M.
Background Current estimates of the prevalence of depression in later life mostly arise from studies carried out in Europe, North America and Asia. In this study we aimed to measure the prevalence of depression using a standardised method in a number of low and middle income countries (LMIC). Methods A one-phase cross-sectional survey involving over 17,000 participants aged 65 years and over living in urban and rural catchment areas in 13 sites from 9 countries (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru, China, India and Nigeria). Depression was assessed and compared using ICD-10 and EURO-D criteria. Results Depression prevalence varied across sites according to diagnostic criteria. The lowest prevalence was observed for ICD-10 depressive episode (0.3 to 13.8%). When using the EURO-D depression scale, the prevalence was higher and ranged from 1.0% to 38.6%. The crude prevalence was particularly high in the Dominican Republic and in rural India. ICD-10 depression was also associated with increased age and being female. Limitations Generalisability of findings outside of catchment areas is difficult to assess. Conclusions Late life depression is burdensome, and common in LMIC. However its prevalence varies from culture to culture; its diagnosis poses a significant challenge and requires proper recognition of its expression. PMID:26544620
Guerra, M; Prina, A M; Ferri, C P; Acosta, D; Gallardo, S; Huang, Y; Jacob, K S; Jimenez-Velazquez, I Z; Llibre Rodriguez, J J; Liu, Z; Salas, A; Sosa, A L; Williams, J D; Uwakwe, R; Prince, M
Current estimates of the prevalence of depression in later life mostly arise from studies carried out in Europe, North America and Asia. In this study we aimed to measure the prevalence of depression using a standardised method in a number of low and middle income countries (LMIC). A one-phase cross-sectional survey involving over 17,000 participants aged 65 years and over living in urban and rural catchment areas in 13 sites from 9 countries (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru, China, India and Nigeria). Depression was assessed and compared using ICD-10 and EURO-D criteria. Depression prevalence varied across sites according to diagnostic criteria. The lowest prevalence was observed for ICD-10 depressive episode (0.3 to 13.8%). When using the EURO-D depression scale, the prevalence was higher and ranged from 1.0% to 38.6%. The crude prevalence was particularly high in the Dominican Republic and in rural India. ICD-10 depression was also associated with increased age and being female. Generalisability of findings outside of catchment areas is difficult to assess. Late life depression is burdensome, and common in LMIC. However its prevalence varies from culture to culture; its diagnosis poses a significant challenge and requires proper recognition of its expression. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sônia Sampaio Lôpo
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:HTLV-1 infection increases susceptibility to other infections. Few studies have addressed the co-infection between HPV and HTLV-1 and the immune response involved in this interaction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cervical HPV infection in HTLV-1-infected women and to establish the risk factors involved in this co-infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Salvador, Brazil, between September 2005 and December 2008, involving 50 HTLV-1-infected women from the HTLV Reference Center and 40 uninfected patients from gynecological clinic, both at the Bahiana School of Medicine. HPV infection was assessed using hybrid capture. HTLV-1 proviral load was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: The mean age of HTLV-1-infected women (38 ± 10 years was similar to that of the control group (36 ± 13 years. The prevalence of HPV infection was 44% in the HTLV-1-infected group and 22.5% in uninfected women (p = 0.03. HTLV-1-infected women had lower mean age at onset of sexual life (17 ± 3 years versus 19 ± 3 years; p = 0.03 and greater number of lifetime partners compared with the control group (4 ± 3 versus 2 ± 1; p < 0.01. In the group of HTLV-1-infected patients, there was neither difference in HTLV-1 proviral load between HPV-infected women and the uninfected. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HPV infection was higher in HTLV-1-infected women. Further studies should be performed to evaluate the progression of this co-infection.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological migrants has a special background compared with other types of migrant. However, the mental health status of ecological migrants who were expected to benefit from a massive “ecological migration project” initiated by the Chinese government is unknown. This study aims to explore the influence of environmental change on individuals’ mental health and to improve current understanding of the mechanisms that mental disorders occurred. Methods The data were extracted from a cross-sectional study. Anxiety disorders, mood disorders and substance use disorders were assessed using the Chinese version WHO-CIDI. The prevalence of mental disorders was stratified by migration status into ecological migrant, local resident and original resident groups. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate the risk of prevalence among these three groups. Results After controlling for gender, ethnicity, age, marriage, and education, the migrants had lower risk of mental disorders than original residents [OR = 0.70 (95 % CI: 0.57–0.86], p < 0.001, but had a higher risk of mental disorders than local residents [OR = 1.29 (95 % CI: 1.06–1.55], p = 0.007. Conclusion The ecological migration project may be beneficial to people’s mental health by improving their living environment and social economy.
Falavigna, Asdrubal; Teles, Alisson Roberto; Mazzocchin, Thaís; de Braga, Gustavo Lisbôa; Kleber, Fabrício Diniz; Barreto, Felipe; Santin, Juliana Tosetto; Barazzetti, Daniel; Lazzaretti, Lucas; Steiner, Bruna; Beckenkamp, Natália Laste
Some studies have demonstrated that physiotherapists have a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP). The association between physiotherapy students, who are potentially exposed to the same LBP occupational risks as graduates, and LBP has never been demonstrated. The objective of the study is to evaluate the association between undergraduate physiotherapy study and LBP. The study design includes a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire-based study was carried out with physiotherapy and medical students. LBP was measured as lifetime, 1-year and point prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to find the factors associated with LBP. Bivariate analyses were also performed to assess differences between LBP characteristics in the two courses. 77.9% of the students had LBP at some point in their lives, 66.8% in the last year and 14.4% of them reported they were suffering from LBP at the moment of answering the questionnaire. Physiotherapy students reported a higher prevalence of LBP when compared with the medical students in all measures. In the logistic regression model, physiotherapy students (A-OR 2.51; 95% CI 1.35-4.67; p = 0.003), and being exposed to the undergraduate study for more than four semesters (A-OR 2.55; 95% CI 1.43-4.55; p = 0.001) were independently associated with LBP. There were no differences between the courses concerning pain intensity and disability. As it was a cross-sectional study, we were not able to observe accurately if there is an increasing incidence of LBP during the course. Also, we did not intend to identify which activities in the course were associated with the development of LBP. This study clearly demonstrated an association between undergraduate physiotherapy study and LBP. The length of course exposure is also associated with LBP.
Beatriz N. Biccas
macroscopic erosion on the esophageal mucosa. Hiatal hernia was considered when the gastroesophageal junction was positioned 2 cm or more above the diaphragm. Patients with Barrett's esophagus or esophageal peptic stenosis were excluded. The population was categorized according to body mass index as normal weight (body mass index between 20 and 24.9; over-weight (between 25 and 29.9, and obese (greater than 30. The diagnosis as well as the intensity of abnormal gastroesophageal reflux were obtained through the analysis of the results of pH monitoring in patients with and without erosive esophagitis and in the various categories of body mass index. RESULTS: Among the 362 patients there were 148 (41% with erosive esophagitis and 214 (59% without erosive esophagitis, while the pH monitoring was abnormal in 100% and 57%, respectively. Among the 148 individuals with erosive esophagitis (61% male, median age 50 years, 41 (28% had normal weight, 82 (55% had over-weight and 25 (17% were obese. There were 88 (60% patients with hiatal hernia, which was present in 29 (71% of patients with normal weight, 45 (55% of patients with over-weight and 14 (56% of obese individuals. In 121 patients without erosive esophagitis who had abnormal pH monitoring, diagnosed as non erosive reflux disease (38% male, median age 50 years, 51 (42% patients had normal weight, 55 (46% had over-weight and 15 (12% were obese. Hiatal hernia was detected in 52 out of 121 (43% patients and in 21 (41% out of 51 individuals with normal weight, 24 (44% of over-weight and 7 (47% of obese. In the group of 93 patients without erosive esophagitis and normal pH monitoring (29% male, median age 43 years, 26 (28% had hiatal hernia and there were 43 (46% individuals with normal weight, 38 (41% with over-weight and 12 (13% were obese. The number of patients with obesity and over-weight was significantly higher in the group with erosive esophagitis compared to the ones without erosive esophagitis. The prevalence of hiatal
Stojković Branislava B.
Full Text Available Introduction. The data on the health-condition of the first permanent molars among children in our region is scarce. Therefore, the need for more thorough analysis of the state of health of these teeth in the children from our region imposes itself, along with the need to determine the most critical period in which a significant increase in caries prevalence of these teeth takes place. Aim. The aim of the research was to perform a comparative analysis of the prevalence, average rate and structure of decay, missed and filled first permanent molars in the children of the younger school age in relation to those of the older school age. Material and methods. The research included 1.119 examinees, aged from 7 to 14 years. Examinees were divided into two groups according to their age: examinees of the younger school age and older school age. Dental check-up of the students was performed by means of a dental probe and mirror and the health condition of the examined teeth was registered by means of Klein-Palmer's DMF system. Results. The research determined high values of the examined parameters of the first permanent molars caries prevalence which increases with the age of the examinees. In the examinees of the age of 8, 9, and 10, statistically more significant values of the examined teeth caries prevalence parameters were registered, in relation to the examinees of seven years of age. In the examinees of the older school age, statistically significantly higher values were registered only for TCI and ACI and only in the examinees aged 14 in relation to the examinees aged 11. With the age, the percent of decay is decreases, while the percent of filled and extracted first permanent molars increases. Conclusion. Results show that the period between 7 and 10 years of age is the most critical and the most important period for the implementation of preventive-prophylactic measures aimed to preserve the health of the first permanent molars.
Patzer, Thilo; Petersdorf, Sabine; Krauspe, Ruediger; Verde, Pablo Emilio; Henrich, Birgit; Hufeland, Martin
We hypothesized that the prevalence of Propionibacterium acnes in patients undergoing primary shoulder arthroscopy is equal in the glenohumeral space compared with the subacromial space. Patients aged 18 years or older with shoulder arthroscopies were included. The exclusion criteria were prior shoulder operations, complete rotator cuff tears, systemic inflammatory diseases, tumors, shoulder injections within 6 months of surgery, and antibiotic therapy within 14 days preoperatively. After standardized skin disinfection with Kodan Tinktur Forte Gefärbt, a skin swab was taken at the posterior portal. Arthroscopy was performed without cannulas, prospectively randomized to start either in the glenohumeral space or in the subacromial space, with direct harvesting of a soft-tissue biopsy specimen. Sample cultivation was conducted according to standardized criteria for bone and joint aspirate samples and incubated for 14 days. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight spectrometry was used for specimen identification in positive culture results. The study prospectively included 115 consecutive patients with normal C-reactive protein levels prior to surgery (54.8% men; mean age, 47.2 ± 14.6 years). P acnes was detected on the skin after disinfection in 36.5% of patients, in the glenohumeral space in 18.9%, and in the subacromial space in 3.5% (P = .016). The prevalence of P acnes is significantly higher in the glenohumeral space compared with the subacromial space in primary shoulder arthroscopies. The results do not confirm the contamination theory but also cannot clarify whether P acnes is a commensal or enters the joint hematologically or even lymphatically or via an unknown pathway. Despite standardized surgical skin disinfection, P acnes can be detected in skin swab samples in more than one-third of patients. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chadha, Shelly K; Gulati, Kriti; Garg, Suneela; Agarwal, Arun K
The study aimed to determine the prevalence and profile of otitis media in different parts of a city, i.e. non-slum urban areas, urban slums and rural areas. A door to door survey was conducted in identified areas of Delhi. A total of 3000 children (0-15 years) were randomly selected and examined for presence of otitis media. These children were equally distributed in the three areas under consideration. Data was analyzed to establish the prevalence of different types of otitis media. Chi-square test was then applied to compare disease prevalence among the three areas. 7.1% of the study population was identified with otitis media, which includes CSOM (4.26%), OME (2.5%) and ASOM (0.4%). In the non-slum urban parts of the city, 4.6% children had otitis media. This was significantly lower compared to 7% children in rural parts of Delhi and 9.9% in urban slums of the city. The prevalence of CSOM was considerably higher in slum areas (7.2%) as compared with rural (3%) and non-slum urban areas (2.6%). Ear infections are significantly more common in urban slums as compared to non-slum city areas and rural parts of Delhi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
van der Wal, Junus M; Bodewes, Adee J; Agyemang, Charles O; Kunst, Anton E
Several studies in The Netherlands revealed ethnic disparities in hypertension prevalence, but none have focused on the Moluccan-Dutch, a migrant group from Indonesia that settled in The Netherlands in 1951. The Moluccan-Dutch are considered to be fairly well integrated in Dutch society. The aim of this study was to compare hypertension prevalence among the Moluccan-Dutch to the native Dutch and to explore the contribution of known risk factors. A health interview survey was conducted from August 2012 till March 2013 among nineteen Moluccan neighborhoods, resulting in the inclusion of 708 participants. The primary outcome variable was self-reported prevalence of hypertension. Explanatory variables were BMI, exercise, smoking, alcohol intake and mental health status. Data on the control group was extracted from the Dutch National Health Survey 2011, using a similar questionnaire. Differences in risk factor exposure were explored using Chi-square tests and the contribution of risk factors, separately and combined, was explored using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Moluccan-Dutch showed higher odds for reporting hypertension when compared to native Dutch, after adjusting for age and level of education (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.13-1.69) and additional risk factors (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.19-1.88). A higher prevalence of hypertension was found in both Moluccan-Dutch men (26.4% vs. 16.7%; p Dutch men showed higher prevalence of hypertension. The Moluccan-Dutch may be at increased risk for reporting hypertension. These results suggest that long-term stay over several generations does not necessarily result in similar levels of hypertension prevalence as the host population.
Farrer, Thomas J; Frost, R Brock; Hedges, Dawson W
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is widespread. Several risk factors are associated with IPV perpetuation, including alcohol use and educational level. The aggression and violence associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) suggest that brain trauma may also be a risk factor for IPV. To examine the association between TBI and IPV, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed published studies reporting the prevalence of TBI in IPV perpetrators. The authors compared the frequency of TBI among IPV perpetuators to estimates of TBI in the general population using a single-sample test of proportions. Six studies containing a total of 222 subjects met inclusion criteria. Fifty-three percent (119) of the IPV perpetuators had a history of TBI, a prevalence significantly higher (p < .0001) than estimates of TBI in the general population. The prevalence of TBI among perpetuators of IPV appears significantly higher than the prevalence of TBI in the general population. To the extent that this association is causal, TBI may be a risk factor for interpersonal violence, although comparatively few source studies, lack of standardized information about TBI severity, and the inability to investigate potential confounding variables necessarily limit this conclusion.
Hillegers, Manon H. J.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Nolen, Willem A.; Drexhage, Hemmo A.
Background: Studies are inconsistent as to whether patients with bipolar disorder are more frequently affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Aim: To study the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in offspring of bipolar patients. Method: In 1998 140 children (age 12-21 years) of bipolar parents were
van Wijk, Xander M R; Vittinghoff, Eric; Wu, Alan H B; Lynch, Kara L; Riley, Elise D
Cocaine is a well-known risk factor for acute cardiac events, but the effects in users outside of acute events are less clear. We investigated a possible association between cocaine use and the concentration of a novel biomarker for cardiac stress and heart failure, ST2. A case-control study was conducted to compare ST2 concentrations by the presence of cocaine in patients presenting for care, but not cardiac care, at an urban safety net hospital. In samples taken from 100 cocaine-positive and 100 cocaine-negative patients, the presence of cocaine was associated with ST2 concentrations>35ng/mL. Serum concentrations of benzoylecgonine, a major cocaine metabolite, were significantly correlated with ST2 concentrations. Cocaine use is associated with subclinical cardiac stress and damage outside of acute cardiac events. This information could add to better stratification of cocaine users with elevated ST2 concentrations who may be at higher risk for developing heart failure and other cardiac complications. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Murad-Regadas, Sthela Maria; Bezerra, Carla Camila Rocha; Peixoto, Ana Ligia Rocha; Regadas, Francisco Sérgio Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras; Siebra, José Airton Gonçalves; da Silva Fernandes, Graziela Olivia; Vasconcelos, Rafael Aragão
ABSTRACTObjectives:To assess the prevalence of polyps in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer, in comparison to asymptomatic individuals with indication for screening.Methods:A prospective study in a group of patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I: no family history of colorectal cancer, and Group II: with a family history in ﬁrst-degree relatives. Demographic characteristics, ﬁndings on colonoscopy...
Aguileta , Gabriela ,; Badouin , Helene; Hood , Michael E; Møller , Anders Pape; LE PRIEUR , STEPHANIE; Snirc , Alodie; Siguenza , Sophie; MOUSSEAU , TIMOTHY A.; Shykoff , Jacqui ,; Cuomo , Christina A.; Giraud , Tatiana
International audience; Nuclear disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima provide examples of effects of acute ionizing radiation on mutations that can affect the fitness and distribution of species. Here, we investigated the prevalence of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, a pollinator-transmitted fungal pathogen of plants causing anther-smut disease in Chernobyl, its viability, fertility and karyotype variation, and the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations in its genome. We collected diseased fl...
Osipian, Ararat L.
Corruption in higher education is a newly emerging topic in the field of education research. There is a phenomenal growth in the number of media reports on corruption in higher education over the last decade. However, the rigorous systematic research on education corruption is virtually nonexistent. This paper considers corruption in higher…
Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel
Objectives. (1) To estimate the prevalence and behavioral patterns of Khat chewing and (2) to investigate factors that influenced the pattern of Khat use among undergraduate students in different higher education institutions in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study using a pretested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used to collect data. SPSS version 17 software program was used for data analysis. Results. The overall current Kha...
Osipian, Ararat L.
This study analyses the issue of comparative corruption in the national higher education sectors in the United States of America (USA) and the Russian Federation (RF). Corruption in higher education, as well as the way it is addressed in legislation and court cases and reflected in the media, appears to be consistent with the trajectory and pace…
Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data.MethodsUsing data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM], 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM, and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM, we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg.ResultsThe prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively compared with non-DM adults (26.2%. Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001 and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020 rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%, compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001 and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004. Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%, compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001 and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001.ConclusionHigher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.
Full Text Available Abstract In rare cases (1-8% diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD suffer from diabetic nephropathy (dNP due to pancreatic diabetes mellitus (PDM. Aim of this study was to investigate differences in the outcome of patients with PDM and those with type 2 diabetes. In a retrospective study we evaluated 96 diabetic patients, who started hemodialysis (HD in our dialysis centre (1997-2005. In 12 patients PMD was diagnosed, and 84 patients had type 2 diabetes. In both groups we compared vascular risk factors and prevalence of vascular diseases at the start of dialysis. We also evaluated incidence of malnutrition, and 5-year survival in both patient groups. The vascular risk factors were similar in both patient groups, also the prevalence of vascular diseases at the initiation of HD was similar in both groups. In the patients with PDM the mean BMI (kg/m2 was lower (22 + 3 versus 25 + 3, and also their serum albumin was lower (2.7 + 0.3 versus 3.4 + 0.3 g/dl, p Conclusions in HD-treated patients with type 2 diabetes or PDM the prevalence of vascular diseases was not significantly different. The lower survival of PDM patients can be related to poor nutrition status.
Maria C Gonçalves
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD, using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD in women with episodic and chronic migraine (M and CM, as well as in asymptomatic women. METHOD: Sample consisted of 61 women, being 38 with M and 23 with CM, identified from a headache outpatient center; we also investigated 30 women without headaches for at least 3 months (women without headache group - WHG. Assessment of TMD was conducted by a physical therapist who was blind to the headache status. RESULTS: The prevalence of TMD, assessed through the RDC, was 33.3% in the WHG, 86.8% in the M group and 91.3% of the CM group. Differences were significant when comparing M and CM groups with WHG (p0.05 as well as higher risk for TMD [odds ratio (OR=3.15, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.73-5.71 and OR=3.97, 95%CI 1.76-8.94]. CONCLUSION: Women with migraine are more likely to have muscular and articular TMD, suggesting that both disorders might be clinically associated, which demonstrate the importance of physical therapy assessment in the multidisciplinary team.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a presença de disfunção temporomandibular (DTM usando o Critério Diagnóstico em pesquisa para disfunção temporomandibular (RDC/TMD em mulheres com migrânea episódica e migrânea crônica (M e MC, bem como em mulheres sem nenhuma cefaleia. MÉTODO: A amostra foi composta por 61 mulheres, 38 com M e 23 com MC, selecionadas em um centro terciário de saúde; também foram avaliadas 30 mulheres sem nenhuma cefaleia nos últimos três meses (grupo de mulheres sem cefaleia - MSC. A avaliação da DTM foi realizada por um fisioterapeuta que não tinha conhecimento do diagnóstico das pacientes. RESULTADOS: Por meio do RDC/TMD, a frequência de DTM foi de 33.3% no grupo MSC, 86.8% no grupo M e 91.3% no grupo MC. A diferença foi significativa entre os grupos com migrânea e o grupo MSC (p0,05, bem como maior fator de
Maria C Gonçalves
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD, using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD in women with episodic and chronic migraine (M and CM, as well as in asymptomatic women. METHOD: Sample consisted of 61 women, being 38 with M and 23 with CM, identified from a headache outpatient center; we also investigated 30 women without headaches for at least 3 months (women without headache group - WHG. Assessment of TMD was conducted by a physical therapist who was blind to the headache status. RESULTS: The prevalence of TMD, assessed through the RDC, was 33.3% in the WHG, 86.8% in the M group and 91.3% of the CM group. Differences were significant when comparing M and CM groups with WHG (p0.05 as well as higher risk for TMD [odds ratio (OR=3.15, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.73-5.71 and OR=3.97, 95%CI 1.76-8.94]. CONCLUSION: Women with migraine are more likely to have muscular and articular TMD, suggesting that both disorders might be clinically associated, which demonstrate the importance of physical therapy assessment in the multidisciplinary team.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a presença de disfunção temporomandibular (DTM usando o Critério Diagnóstico em pesquisa para disfunção temporomandibular (RDC/TMD em mulheres com migrânea episódica e migrânea crônica (M e MC, bem como em mulheres sem nenhuma cefaleia. MÉTODO: A amostra foi composta por 61 mulheres, 38 com M e 23 com MC, selecionadas em um centro terciário de saúde; também foram avaliadas 30 mulheres sem nenhuma cefaleia nos últimos três meses (grupo de mulheres sem cefaleia - MSC. A avaliação da DTM foi realizada por um fisioterapeuta que não tinha conhecimento do diagnóstico das pacientes. RESULTADOS: Por meio do RDC/TMD, a frequência de DTM foi de 33.3% no grupo MSC, 86.8% no grupo M e 91.3% no grupo MC. A diferença foi significativa entre os grupos com migrânea e o grupo MSC (p0,05, bem como maior fator de
Full Text Available The article deals with the progress made to develop external and internal quality assurance systems in Polish and Ukrainian higher education in the European Higher Education Area background. The focus of the paper is on the extent to which quality assurance systems in these countries are following the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area. Furthermore, internal and external quality assur-ance in the European context is presented in the article. The authors of the article also conducted a comparative analysis of quality assurance systems in Polish and Ukrainian higher education.
Kok, Laura M; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Huisstede, Bionka M A
CANS (complaints of arm, neck, and/or shoulder not caused by a systemic disease or acute trauma) are a recognized problem in specific occupational groups such as musicians. This study aimed to compare the prevalence, characteristics, and consequences of CANS between music academy students and a control group of peer-age medical students. A cross-sectional study among music academy students and medical students. Data were collected using a web-based questionnaire on musculoskeletal conditions of the upper extremity in the two cohorts. Students of three music academies (n=345) and one medical university (n=2,870) received the questionnaire, of which 25% (n=87) and 18% (n=503) responded, respectively. The 12-month prevalence of CANS was nearly twice as high among music academy students as the control group (80.7% vs 41.5%, pMusic academy students reported 2.6 times the point prevalence as medical students (47.0% vs 18.2%, pmusic students, compared to 10.3% of the medical students (pMusic academy students presented more complaints per anatomic localization and a higher number of involved anatomic localizations. Music students rated the influence of CANS on daily functioning as more severe (5.0 vs 3.1, pmusic academy students (46.3%) visited a healthcare professional compared to medical students (29.8%, p=0.013). The prevalence of CANS is high in music academy students compared to medical students. This emphasizes the necessity of effective (preventive) interventions in these high-demanding professionals.
Mayer, Igor; Warmelink, Harald; Bekebrede, Geertje
The authors define the requirements and a conceptual model for comparative evaluation research of simulation games and serious games (SGs) in a learning context. A first operationalisation of the model was used to comparatively evaluate a suite of 14 SGs on varying topics played between 2004 and 2009 in 13 institutes of higher education in the…
Verger, A.; Hermo, J.P.
The article analyses two processes of higher education regionalisation, MERCOSUR‐Educativo in Latin America and the Bologna Process in Europe, from a comparative perspective. The comparative analysis is centered on the content and the governance of both processes and, specifically, on the reasons of
Kok Laura M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research comparing the frequency of musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and non-musicians is scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and non-musicians. Methods A cross-sectional study in 3215 students from three music academies (n = 345 and one medical school (n = 2870 in The Netherlands was performed, using an electronic questionnaire. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, use of music instruments and the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints in six body regions. Questions were related to musculoskeletal complaints over the last twelve months and at the time of the questionnaire. Chi-square, t-tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for comparison between the two groups. The association between musculoskeletal complaints and possible predictors was analyzed using a logistic and Poisson regression. Results Eighty-seven music academy students and 503 medical students returned the questionnaire, of which respectively eighty-three and 494 were included in the study. Seventy-four music academy students (89.2% reported one or more musculoskeletal complaints during the last twelve months, compared to 384 (77.9% medical students (p = 0.019. Moreover 52 music academy students (62.7% and 211 medical students (42.7% reported current musculoskeletal complaints (p = 0.001. The Odds ratio (OR for the development of musculoskeletal complaints during the last twelve months in music academy students versus medical students is 2.33 (95% CI 1.61–3.05, p = 0.022. The OR at the time of the questionnaire is 2.25 (95% CI 1.77–2.73, p = 0.001. The total number of complaints have been modeled by employing a Poisson regression; the results show that non-musicians have on average less complaints than musicians (p = 0.01. The adjusted means are 2.90 (95% CI 2.18–3.63 and 1.83 (95% CI 1.63–2.04 respectively for
Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.
Busija, Lucy; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Osborne, Richard H
To compare the prevalence of arthritis among population groups based on demographic, socioeconomic, and body mass index (BMI) characteristics; to investigate the combined influence of these factors on arthritis; and to assess the relationship between self-reported health and psychological distress and arthritis. Data from the Victorian Population Health Survey (n = 7,500) were used in the study. Psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress scale, and self-reported health was assessed by a single item. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the combined influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors and BMI on arthritis. Overall, 23% of Victorian adults (20% men and 26% women) reported having arthritis. The presence of arthritis was associated with high psychological distress (odds ratio [OR] 1.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.1-1.4) and poor self-reported health (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.7-2.1). Increased prevalence of arthritis was found in older age groups, lower education and income groups, and in people who were overweight or obese. Women had higher risk of arthritis, even after adjustment for age, residence, education, occupation, income, and BMI. Age and BMI independently predicted arthritis for men and women. For men, higher risk of arthritis was also associated with lower income. Arthritis is a highly prevalent condition associated with poor health and high psychological distress. Prevalence of arthritis is disproportionately high among women and individuals from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. As the prevalence of arthritis is predicted to increase, careful consideration of causal factors, and setting priorities for resource allocation for the treatment and prevention of arthritis are required.
Background and aims: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased foetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that babies of diabetic mothers are more likely to be large for gestational age (LGA). This retrospective study aimed to assess whether the converse may also be true, that there may also a higher rate of small for gestational age (SGA) amongst babies of mothers with GDM.\\r\
Full Text Available Despite high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and cervical cancer in Indian women, no study has been done in tribal populations whose socio-sexual lifestyle is different. Therefore, HPV screening has been carried out in pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adult tribal girls using self-collected urine samples.20-35 ml self-collected midstream urine samples were obtained from a total of 2278 healthy tribal girls (9-25 years comprising pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adults from three Indian states: Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. β-globin positive 2034 samples were employed for HPV detection and genotyping.The overall prevalence of HPV infection in tribal girls was 12.9% (262/2034. More than 65% (172/262 of them were infected with HR-HPV types of which HPV16 was the most predominant type (54%. Young adult girls aged 18-25 years showed a significantly higher prevalence of HPV infection (19.2%; OR = 3.36; 95% CI 2.97-6.34, P<0.001 as compared to that in adolescent (11.4%; OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.20-2.76, P<0.01 or pre-adolescent girls (6.6%.This is a first study showing significantly a very high prevalence of HPV infection in adolescent and young adult tribal girls possibly due to different socio-sexual behavior, indicating a serious health concern for Indian tribal women.
Sansone, Valerio; Bonora, Cristina; Boria, Paola; Meroni, Roberto
Shoulder disorders in the occupational environment have been widely studied, but the quality of research and methodology applied vary. Little has been done to ascertain whether shoulder pain in female repetitive workers is due to any verifiable pathology, or to compare findings with the general population. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported shoulder pain in a group of female supermarket cashiers and in the general female population using a standardized questionnaire. Shoulder pain prevalence was then compared to imaging findings in order to assess specific and non-specific pain prevalence. 196 cashiers and 302 controls filled in a standardized shoulder questionnaire and underwent an imaging examination of a shoulder. The prevalence of shoulder pain was significantly higher in the group of cashiers (46.4%) than in the general population (25.5%) (OR = 1.821; 95% CI: 1.426-2.325). Specific pain prevalence was higher among the controls (19.5%) than among the cashiers (13.2%). The more frequent reports of shoulder pain in the supermarket cashiers are not correlated with a higher prevalence of imaging abnormalities. The causes of these more frequent complaints should be probably sought in the psycho-social and occupational environment.
Maja Šereh Bahar
Conclusions: The prevalence of voice disorders among outpatients’ physicians in Slovenia is high and is comparable to the incidence of voice problems in Slovenian teachers. URI is the most common cause of these voice problems. GERD, allergies and an age over 40 years were stated as the risk factors for voice disorders. In order to reduce the extent of voice problems, lessons on vocal hygiene, and additional information about diseases causing voice disorders should be included in their postgraduate education.
Results: Offspring whose mothers had any AR symptoms during early pregnancy showed a significantly higher adjusted odds ratio for the onset of AR in offspring than those whose mothers had no symptoms during pregnancy (adjusted Odds Ratio: 6.26, p=0.036. However, the symptoms of AR during late pregnancy showed no effects on the odds ratio. In contrast, the presence or absence of AR symptoms during early or late pregnancy showed no association with the prevalence of food allergy, atopic dermatitis or asthma in offspring. Conclusions: Our results suggest the presence of possible epigenetic mechanisms regulating the onset of AR in humans presumably through increased organ-specific hypersensitivity.
Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Valdez-Santiagob, Rosario; Barroso-Quiab, Abigail; Híjar, Martha; Rojas, Rosalba; Del Río-Zolezzi, Aurora
To analyze the evolution of the prevalence in intimate partner violence during the years 2003 and 2006 in Mexico, identifying factors associated with its severity, comparing our results with findings from 2003. Data from the Encuesta Nacional de Violencia contra las Mujeres (ENVIM 2006) was used; it has urban-rural national representation of female users of Mexican public health services. A total of 22,318 women above 14 years of age were interviewed. A multinomial logistic regression model was adjusted. The dependent variable was the Index of Intimate Partner Abuse. Intimate partner abuse increased 17% in comparison to the year 2003. Women's personal history of childhood abuse (ORA= 5.12, 95% CI4.15-6.30) and rape (ORA = 3.5, 95% CI = 2.66-4.62) were the most important women's factors that were found associated with severe violence. Male partner's daily alcohol consumption increased eleven fold the possibility of severe violence; higher disagreement with traditional female gender roles and higher education of both partners were protective factors. Factors associated with violence and their severities were consistent with findings reported in 2003. Intimate partner violence is a highly prevalent social problem which requires comprehensive strategies supporting empowerment of women through higher education, early detection and care of those battered, as well as structured interventions to prevent violence in future generations.
Hinney, Barbara; Gottwald, Michaela; Moser, Jasmine; Reicher, Bianca; Schäfer, Bhavapriya Jasmin; Schaper, Roland; Joachim, Anja; Künzel, Frank
Several endoparasites of dogs cannot only be detrimental to their primary host but might also represent a threat to human health because of their zoonotic potential. Due to their high dog population densities, metropolitan areas can be highly endemic for such parasites. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of endoparasites in dogs in the Austrian capital of Vienna by examining a representative number of canine faecal samples and to compare the prevalences with two neighbouring peri-urban and rural regions. In addition we analysed whether the density of dog populations and cleanliness of dog zones correlated with parasite occurrence. We collected 1001 anonymous faecal samples from 55 dog zones from all 23 districts of the federal state of Vienna, as well as 480 faecal samples from the Mödling district and Wolkersdorf with a peri-urban and rural character, respectively. Faeces were examined by flotation and by Baermann technique. Additionally we evaluated 292 Viennese, 102 peri-urban and 50 rural samples for Giardia and Cryptosporidium by GiardiaFASTest ® and CryptoFASTest ® . Samples from "clean" dog zones were compared to samples from "dirty" zones. The infection rate of Toxocara was surprisingly low, ranging from 0.6% to 1.9%. Trichuris was the most frequent helminth (1.8-7.5%) and Giardia the most frequent protozoan (4.0-10.8%). Ancylostomatidae, Crenosoma, Capillaria, Taeniidae, Cystoisospora and Sarcocystis were found in 1.8-2.2%, 0-0.9%, 0-0.9%, 0-0.6%, 0.3-3.1% and 0-0.6% of the samples, respectively. Samples from "dirty" dog zones in Vienna showed a significantly higher rate of parasites overall (p=0.003) and of Trichuris (p=0.048) compared to samples from "clean" dog zones. There were no statistically significant differences in densely vs. less densely populated areas of Vienna. Samples from the rural region of Wolkersdorf had significantly higher overall parasite, Trichuris and Cystoisospora prevalences than the peri-urban Mödling district and Vienna (p
de Boise, Sam
Whilst the impact of gender inequalities has been studied in relation to music education, especially in the UK, relatively little has been written about their impact on higher music education (HME). This article compares data on HME programs and courses, in the UK and Sweden, from 2010 to 2014. It looks at similarities and differences in the…
Offers a historical overview of a series of reforms of higher education in the former Yugoslavia republic, stressing the cultural importance of "obrazovanje" (formal education/training) and "odgoj" (moral education/personal development) in Croatia. Describes the development of "visa skola," comparable to U.S.…
Musamali, Kennedy; Martin, Barbara N.
Examined within this paper are effective leadership practices across two cultures. Specifically, this study examined the relationship between cultural competency and effective leadership practices in higher education institutions. A quantitative design was used to investigate and compare effective practices of educational leaders in two distinct…
The article is a critical sociological analysis of current transnational practices on creating comparable measurements of dropout and completion in higher education and the consequences for the conditions of scientific knowledge production on the topic. The analysis revolves around questions of epistemological, methodological and symbolic types…
Frolich, Nicoline; Kalpazidou Schmidt, Evanthia; Rosa, Maria J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how funding systems influence higher education institutions and their strategies and core tasks. Design/methodology/approach: Taking the results of a comparative study between Denmark, Norway and Portugal as a point of departure, the paper identifies and analyses the main features of these state…
Ilieva-Trichkova, Petya; Boyadjieva, Pepka
This paper aims at studying the dynamics of inequalities in access to higher education (HE) both in a historical and a comparative perspective. It uses Bulgaria as a case study and places it among five other countries such as Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. The adopted approach differentiates between equity in HE and inequalities…
P S Rakesh
Full Text Available Introduction: The association between secondhand smoke and health outcomes, such as frequent respiratory infections, ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, asthma, and stroke, has long been established. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoking exposure among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district, Kerala, Southern India. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was administered to all students from four randomly selected higher secondary schools in Ernakulam district. Descriptive statistics was done using frequencies and percentages. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done for factors associated with household exposure to tobacco smoke generating odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results: A total of 629 students participated in the study. The prevalence of ever smokers was 11.9% and of current smokers was 5.2%. Among the study participants, 23.2% were exposed to secondhand smoking from a family member and 18.8% from friends. Lower educational status of father was associated with the household exposure to secondhand smoke (adjusted OR 4.51 [95% CI 1.66–12.22]. More than half of the study participants (56.3% reported that they were exposed to cigarette smoke in past 1 week in a public place and 10.2% in closed public places. Nearly one-third of the students reported that they have seen somebody smoking inside school campus in the past 30 days. Conclusion: Exposure to secondhand smoke at home, schools, and public places was higher among the late adolescent higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district. The findings underscore the urgent need for increased efforts to implement the strategies to reduce secondhand smoke exposure among adolescents.
Rakesh, P S; Lalu, Jishnu Satheesh; Leelamoni, K
The association between secondhand smoke and health outcomes, such as frequent respiratory infections, ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, asthma, and stroke, has long been established. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoking exposure among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district, Kerala, Southern India. A structured questionnaire was administered to all students from four randomly selected higher secondary schools in Ernakulam district. Descriptive statistics was done using frequencies and percentages. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done for factors associated with household exposure to tobacco smoke generating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 629 students participated in the study. The prevalence of ever smokers was 11.9% and of current smokers was 5.2%. Among the study participants, 23.2% were exposed to secondhand smoking from a family member and 18.8% from friends. Lower educational status of father was associated with the household exposure to secondhand smoke (adjusted OR 4.51 [95% CI 1.66-12.22]). More than half of the study participants (56.3%) reported that they were exposed to cigarette smoke in past 1 week in a public place and 10.2% in closed public places. Nearly one-third of the students reported that they have seen somebody smoking inside school campus in the past 30 days. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home, schools, and public places was higher among the late adolescent higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district. The findings underscore the urgent need for increased efforts to implement the strategies to reduce secondhand smoke exposure among adolescents.
Chakrabarti, Sayan K.
In this work we study the Dirac quasinormal modes of higher dimensional charged black holes. Higher dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem type black holes as well as charged black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theories are studied for fermionic perturbations using WKB method. A comparative study of the quasinormal modes in the two different theories of gravity has been performed. The behavior of the frequencies with the variation of black hole parameters as well as with the variation of space-time dimensions is studied. We also study the large multipole number limit of the black hole potential in order to look for an analytic expression for the frequencies. (orig.)
Tayama, Jun; Li, Jue; Munakata, Masanori
We investigated the relationship between number of weekly working hours and the prevalence of diabetes in the urban Chinese population. Data regarding anthropometric measurements, fasting blood glucose level and number of hours worked per week were collected from 2228 workers in Shanghai, China (Mage = 44 years; 64% men). Participants were divided into three groups according to the number of hours worked per week (worked ≥55 h per week compared with those who worked working long hours could be a risk factor for diabetes in Chinese male workers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Amezcua, Carlos A; Szabo, Christina M
In this work, we applied nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to rapidly assess higher order structure (HOS) comparability in protein samples. Using a variation of the NMR fingerprinting approach described by Panjwani et al. [2010. J Pharm Sci 99(8):3334-3342], three nonglycosylated proteins spanning a molecular weight range of 6.5-67 kDa were analyzed. A simple statistical method termed easy comparability of HOS by NMR (ECHOS-NMR) was developed. In this method, HOS similarity between two samples is measured via the correlation coefficient derived from linear regression analysis of binned NMR spectra. Applications of this method include HOS comparability assessment during new product development, manufacturing process changes, supplier changes, next-generation products, and the development of biosimilars to name just a few. We foresee ECHOS-NMR becoming a routine technique applied to comparability exercises used to complement data from other analytical techniques. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Steppan, Martin; Kraus, Ludwig; Piontek, Daniela; Siciliano, Valeria
Prevalence estimation of cannabis use is usually based on self-report data. Although there is evidence on the reliability of this data source, its cross-cultural validity is still a major concern. External objective criteria are needed for this purpose. In this study, cannabis-related search engine query data are used as an external criterion. Data on cannabis use were taken from the 2007 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). Provincial data came from three Italian nation-wide studies using the same methodology (2006-2008; ESPAD-Italia). Information on cannabis-related search engine query data was based on Google search volume indices (GSI). (1) Reliability analysis was conducted for GSI. (2) Latent measurement models of "true" cannabis prevalence were tested using perceived availability, web-based cannabis searches and self-reported prevalence as indicators. (3) Structure models were set up to test the influences of response tendencies and geographical position (latitude, longitude). In order to test the stability of the models, analyses were conducted on country level (Europe, US) and on provincial level in Italy. Cannabis-related GSI were found to be highly reliable and constant over time. The overall measurement model was highly significant in both data sets. On country level, no significant effects of response bias indicators and geographical position on perceived availability, web-based cannabis searches and self-reported prevalence were found. On provincial level, latitude had a significant positive effect on availability indicating that perceived availability of cannabis in northern Italy was higher than expected from the other indicators. Although GSI showed weaker associations with cannabis use than perceived availability, the findings underline the external validity and usefulness of search engine query data as external criteria. The findings suggest an acceptable relative comparability of national (provincial) prevalence
Gandhi, Kunal K; Williams, Jill M; Menza, Matthew; Galazyn, Magdalena; Benowitz, Neal L.
Previous studies of high dietary caffeine intake in individuals with schizophrenia have not demonstrated biological evidence of higher intake or controlled smoking behavior. This study aimed to examine differences in serum caffeine levels in 104 smokers with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SCZ/SA) and compare them to 63 smokers without any mental illness (CON). Since we were interested in measuring caffeine levels, we excluded all non caffeine users from the study. Blood draws were st...
Chimah, Carol Uzoamaka; Adogu, Prosper Obunikem Uche; Odeyemi, Kofoworola; Ilika, Amobi Linus
Intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs across the world, in various cultures, and affects people across societies irrespective of economic status or gender. Most data on IPV before World Health Organization multicountry study (WHOMCS) usually came from sources other than the military. Result of this study will contribute to the existing body of knowledge and may serve as a baseline for future studies in military populations. This study compares the prevalence of the different types of IPV against women in military and civilian communities in Abuja, Nigeria. Using a multistage sampling technique, 260 women who had intimate male partners were selected from military and civilian communities of Abuja. Collected data on personal characteristics and different types of IPV experienced were analyzed to demonstrate comparison of the association between the different forms of IPV and the respondents' sociodemographic and partner characteristics in the two study populations using percentages and χ-square statistics, and P-value was assumed to be significant at ≤0.05. The prevalence of the four major types of IPV was higher among the military respondents than among civilians: controlling behavior, 37.1% versus 29.1%; emotional/psychological abuse, 42.4% versus 13.4%; physical abuse, 19.7% versus 5.9%, and sexual abuse, 9.2% versus 8.8%. Significantly more respondents from the military population (59 [45.4%]) compared to civilians (21 [19.4%]) were prevented by their partners from seeing their friends (P=0.000). The situation is reversed with regard to permission to seek health care for self, with civilians reporting a significantly higher prevalence (35 [32.4%]) than did military respondents (20 [15.4%]) (P=0.002). The military respondents were clearly at a higher risk of experiencing all the variants of emotional violence than the civilians (P=0.00). The commonest form of physical violence against women was "being slapped or having something thrown at them, that could hurt
Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio
The purpose of this study is to review studies published in English between 1 January 2000 and 16 June 2014, in peer-reviewed journals, that have assessed the prevalence of depression, comparing medical students and non-medical students with a single evaluation method. The databases PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Scopus were searched for eligible articles. Searches used combinations of the Medical Subject Headings medical student and depression. Titles and abstracts were reviewed to determine eligibility before full-text articles were retrieved, which were then also reviewed. Twelve studies met eligibility criteria. Non-medical groups surveyed included dentistry, business, humanities, nursing, pharmacy, and architecture students. One study found statistically significant results suggesting that medical students had a higher prevalence of depression than groups of non-medical students; five studies found statistically significant results indicating that the prevalence of depression in medical students was less than that in groups of non-medical students; four studies found no statistically significant difference, and two studies did not report on the statistical significance of their findings. One study was longitudinal, and 11 studies were cross-sectional. While there are limitations to these comparisons, in the main, the reviewed literature suggests that medical students have similar or lower rates of depression compared to certain groups of non-medical students. A lack of longitudinal studies meant that potential common underlying causes could not be discerned, highlighting the need for further research in this area. The high rates of depression among medical students indicate the continuing need for interventions to reduce depression.
D'Silva, Linda J; Staecker, Hinrich; Lin, James; Sykes, Kevin J; Phadnis, Milind A; McMahon, Tamara M; Connolly, Dan; Sabus, Carla H; Whitney, Susan L; Kluding, Patricia M
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) has been linked to comorbidities like diabetes and hypertension. However, the relationship between type 2 diabetes (DM) and BPPV is unclear. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the relationship between DM and BPPV in the presence of known contributors like age, gender and hypertension. A retrospective review of the records of 3933 individuals was categorized by the specific vestibular diagnosis and for the presence of type 2 DM and hypertension. As the prevalence of BPPV was higher in people with type 2 DM compared to those without DM, multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify variables predictive of BPPV. The relationship between type 2 DM, hypertension and BPPV was analyzed using mediation analysis. BPPV was seen in 46% of individuals with type 2 DM, compared to 37% of individuals without DM (pdiabetes affects the vestibular system. Individuals with complaints of dizziness, with comorbidities including hypertension and diabetes, may benefit from a screening for BPPV.
Murphy, Sharon E; Sipe, Christopher J; Choi, Kwangsoo; Raddatz, Leah M; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Donny, Eric C; Hatsukami, Dorothy K
Background: Tobacco exposure is often quantified by serum or saliva concentrations of the primary nicotine metabolite, cotinine. However, average cotinine concentrations are higher in African Americans (AA) compared with Whites with similar smoking levels. Cotinine is metabolized by UGT2B10 and CYP2A6, and low UGT2B10 activity is common in AA, due to the prevalence of a UGT2B10 splice variant. Methods: UGT2B10 activity was phenotyped in 1,446 smokers (34% AA) by measuring the percentage of cotinine excreted as a glucuronide. Urinary total nicotine equivalents (TNE), the sum of nicotine and 6 metabolites, were determined to quantify smoking dose, and cotinine and 3'-hydroxycotinine were quantified in saliva (study 1) or serum (study 2). Results: Ninety-seven smokers (78% AA) were null for UGT2B10 activity, and the saliva and serum cotinine levels, after adjustment for TNE and cigarettes per day (CPD), were 68% and 48% higher in these smokers compared with nonnull smokers ( P smokers, but with additional adjustment for UGT2B10 activity, there were no significant differences in saliva and serum cotinine concentrations between these two groups. Conclusions: UGT2B10 activity significantly influences plasma cotinine levels, and higher cotinine concentrations in AA versus White smokers (after adjustment for smoking dose) result from lower levels of UGT2B10-catalyzed cotinine glucuronidation by AA. Impact: UGT2B10 activity or genotype should be considered when using cotinine as a tobacco exposure biomarker, particularly in populations such as AA with high frequencies of UGT2B10 nonfunctional variants. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1093-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
Silva-Fletcher, Ayona; May, Stephen A
A recurrent theme arising in the higher education sector is the suitability and effectiveness of generic versus discipline-specific training of university teachers, who are often recruited based on their disciplinary specialties to become teachers in higher education. We compared two groups of participants who had undergone training using a generic post-graduate certificate in higher education (PGCertGeneric) versus a discipline-specific course in veterinary education (PGCertVetEd). The study was conducted using a survey that allowed comparison of participants who completed PGCertGeneric (n=21) with PGCertVetEd (n=22). Results indicated that participants from both PGCertGeneric and PGCertVetEd considered teaching to be satisfying and important to their careers, valued the teaching observation component of the course, and identified similar training needs. However, the participants of the PGCertVetEd felt that the course made them better teachers, valued the relevance of the components taught, understood course design better, were encouraged to do further courses/reading in teaching and learning, changed their teaching as a result of the course, and were less stressed about teaching as compared to the PGCertGeneric participants (p<.05). It is likely that the PGCertVetEd, which was designed and developed by veterinarians with a wider understanding of the veterinary sector, helped the participants perceive the training course as suited to their needs.
Full Text Available This comparative case study addresses a timely issue engaging researchers involved in the internationalisation of Nordic Higher Education, in the context of Sweden and Finland. The study examines a hypothetical imaginary in the transition between university international policy statements and their understandings from the position of a globalised episteme. The investigation forms a tag-project as part of a funded large international research project examining ethical internationalism in times of global crises, involving a partnership between more than twenty higher education institutions in excess of ten countries across five continents. The data was collected using a mixed-methods design, whilst being controlled across the matched data collection period in 2013-2014. Data consisted of policy texts, surveys and interviews. The current research inquiry reports on a within and across comparative analyses of certain policy texts and follow-up interviews with university management. The results yield logical support for a global higher education imaginary driving internationalisation in ways which reveal paradoxical associations between the imagined and the real worlds of international scholar-practitioners.
Sharma, Kirti; Kathait, Atul; Jain, Asha; Kujur, Karmila; Raghuwanshi, Shirish; Bharti, Alok Chandra; Saklani, Asha Chandola; Das, Bhudev Chandra
Background Despite high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer in Indian women, no study has been done in tribal populations whose socio-sexual lifestyle is different. Therefore, HPV screening has been carried out in pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adult tribal girls using self-collected urine samples. Methods 20–35 ml self-collected midstream urine samples were obtained from a total of 2278 healthy tribal girls (9–25 years) comprising pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adults from three Indian states: Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. β-globin positive 2034 samples were employed for HPV detection and genotyping. Results The overall prevalence of HPV infection in tribal girls was 12.9% (262/2034). More than 65% (172/262) of them were infected with HR-HPV types of which HPV16 was the most predominant type (54%). Young adult girls aged 18–25 years showed a significantly higher prevalence of HPV infection (19.2%; OR = 3.36; 95% CI 2.97–6.34, P<0.001) as compared to that in adolescent (11.4%; OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.20–2.76, P<0.01) or pre-adolescent girls (6.6%). Conclusion This is a first study showing significantly a very high prevalence of HPV infection in adolescent and young adult tribal girls possibly due to different socio-sexual behavior, indicating a serious health concern for Indian tribal women. PMID:25954813
Harley, James A; Wells, J Elisabeth; Frampton, Christopher M A; Joyce, Peter R
Personality traits are potential endophenotypes for genetic studies of psychiatric disorders. One personality theory which demonstrates strong heritability is Cloninger's psychobiological model measured using the temperament and character inventory (TCI). 277 individuals who completed the TCI questionnaire as part of the South Island Bipolar Study were also interviewed to assess for lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. Four groups were compared, bipolar disorder (BP), type 1 and 2, MDD (major depressive disorder), and nonaffected relatives of a proband with BP. With correction for mood state, total harm avoidance (HA) was higher than unaffected in both MDD and BP groups, but the mood disorder groups did not differ from each other. However, BP1 individuals had higher self-transcendence (ST) than those with MDD and unaffected relatives. HA may reflect a trait marker of mood disorders whereas high ST may be specific to BP. As ST is heritable, genes that affect ST may be of relevance for vulnerability to BP.
Full Text Available Carol Uzoamaka Chimah,1 Prosper Obunikem Uche Adogu,2 Kofoworola Odeyemi,3 Amobi Linus Ilika4 1Medical Department, Ministry of Defence Headquarters, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Medicine and PHC, Nnamdi Azikiwe University/Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Health, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV occurs across the world, in various cultures, and affects people across societies irrespective of economic status or gender. Most data on IPV before World Health Organization multicountry study (WHOMCS usually came from sources other than the military. Result of this study will contribute to the existing body of knowledge and may serve as a baseline for future studies in military populations. This study compares the prevalence of the different types of IPV against women in military and civilian communities in Abuja, Nigeria.Methods: Using a multistage sampling technique, 260 women who had intimate male partners were selected from military and civilian communities of Abuja. Collected data on personal characteristics and different types of IPV experienced were analyzed to demonstrate comparison of the association between the different forms of IPV and the respondents’ sociodemographic and partner characteristics in the two study populations using percentages and Χ-square statistics, and P-value was assumed to be significant at ≤0.05.Results: The prevalence of the four major types of IPV was higher among the military respondents than among civilians: controlling behavior, 37.1% versus 29.1%; emotional/psychological abuse, 42.4% versus 13.4%; physical abuse, 19.7% versus 5.9%, and sexual abuse, 9.2% versus 8.8%. Significantly more respondents from the military population (59 [45.4%] compared to civilians (21 [19.4%] were prevented by their partners from seeing their friends (P=0.000. The situation is reversed with regard to permission to seek
Corbani, Irene E; Rucci, Paola; Iapichino, Elena; Quartieri Bollani, Marta; Cauli, Gilla; Ceruti, Mara R; Gala, Costanzo; Bassi, Mariano
Although several studies have analyzed the risk factors of antenatal and post-partum depression, evidence on the prevalence and the risk profile for antenatal depressive symptoms (ADS) between native-born and different groups of non-native born women living in the same country is scant. The aim of this article is to compare the prevalence and the risk profile for ADS across geographical areas in women recruited from two large hospitals of North-western Italy. The presence of ADS was defined as an Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale (EPDS) score ≥12 or a Beck Depression Inventory, Short Form (BDI-SF) score ≥9 or the presence of suicidal ideation/behavior. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of ADS were calculated using logistic regression models. The prevalence of ADS was 12.4% among Italian women and ranged from 11.4% in other European to 44.7% in North-African women. Crude ORs of ADS were OR = 3.3 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-8.8) for Asian, 3.3 (95% CI, 1.9-5.6) for South-American and 5.7 (95% CI, 3.4-9.6) for North-African women. Marital problems, at-risk pregnancy, past psychiatric history, pharmacological treatment, psychological treatment, financial problems, change in residence and number of children were significantly associated with ADS in multivariate analyses, regardless of women's origin. After adjusting for these variables, the OR of ADS remained significant for South-American and North-African women. Our results demonstrate that the risk of ADS varies across geographical areas of origin and is highest among North-African women. The risk factors identified should be assessed in routine obstetric care to inform decisions about interventions to prevent post-partum depression and its consequences on the mothers and the newborns.
Abrahams, Ian; Homer, Matt; Sharpe, Rachael; Zhou, Mengyuan
Background:Despite the large body of literature regarding student misconceptions, there has been relatively little cross-cultural research to directly compare the prevalence of common scientific misconceptions amongst students from different cultural backgrounds. Whilst previous research does suggest the international nature of many misconceptions, there is little evidence as to whether the prevalence of such common misconceptions varies from culture to culture. Purpose:To undertake a preliminary examination of the prevalence and reasons for some previously studied scientific misconceptions amongst English and Chinese undergraduate students so as to ascertain whether there is any evidence of cultural difference. Such a finding could help to identify teaching approaches in either country that are more effective in reducing the prevalence of common student misconceptions. Sample:The study involved a convenience sample of 40 undergraduate students - 20 English and 20 Chinese drawn equally from two universities in the North of England - whose formal science education ended at ages 16 and 15 respectively. Design and methods:The study employed semi-structured interview schedule containing eight questions. Results:Whilst similar misconceptions existed amongst both English and Chinese undergraduates, their prevalence was significantly higher amongst the English students (Overall mean score for scientifically correct answers amongst Chinese students was 27.7% higher, p Differences in the prevalence of misconceptions amongst English and Chinese undergraduates appear to arise from differences in the way in which specific areas of physics are taught in both countries. It might be possible to reduce the prevalence of misconceptions in both countries if a better understanding could be developed of how, and why, undergraduates use certain erroneous analogies, and why some teaching approaches seem more effective in reducing the prevalence of misconceptions than others.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperandrogenism (HA has been linked with several components of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Few studies in Asian women have evaluated the important risk factors for and prevalence of MetS according to PCOS subtype. In this study, we investigated differences in metabolic parameters and the prevalence of MetS in two major phenotypic subgroups of PCOS in Korea. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship between HA-associated parameters and MetS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted from May 2010 to December 2011 in Korea. A total of 837 females with PCOS, aged 15-40, were recruited from Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology at 13 hospitals. Of those, 700 subjects with either polycystic ovaries (PCO+HA+oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (O or PCO+O were eligible for this study. MetS was diagnosed according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III guidelines and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. RESULTS: MetS was more prevalent in the PCO+HA+O group (19.7% than in the PCO+O (11.9% group. There were statistically significant trends for an increased risk of MetS in the PCO+HA+O group compared to the PCO+O group. After adjustment for age, the odds ratio of MetS was 2.192 in non-obese subjects with PCO+HA+O compared to those with PCO+O, whereas the risk of MetS was not different in obese patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high free androgen index and low sex hormone-binding globulin were significantly associated with MetS in non-obese women with PCOS, with odds ratios of 4.234 (95% CI, 1.893-9.474 and 4.612 (95% CI, 1.978-10.750, respectively. However, no associations were detected between MetS and SHBG and FAI in obese PCOS subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that HA and its associated parameters (FAI and SHBG are significantly associated with MetS in non-obese PCOS subjects, whereas this association
Gisslen, K; Gyulai, C; Soderman, K; Alfredson, H
Background: Jumper's knee is a common and troublesome condition among senior volleyball players, but its prevalence among elite junior players compared to matched non-sports active controls is not known.
Podestà, Marina; Bruschettini, Matteo; Cossu, Claudia; Sabatini, Federica; Dagnino, Monica; Romantsik, Olga; Spaggiari, Grazia Maria; Ramenghi, Luca Antonio; Frassoni, Francesco
Cord blood contains high number of hematopoietic cells that after birth disappear. In this paper we have studied the functional properties of the umbilical cord blood progenitor cells collected from term and preterm neonates to establish whether quantitative and/or qualitative differences exist between the two groups. Our results indicate that the percentage of total CD34+ cells was significantly higher in preterm infants compared to full term: 0.61% (range 0.15-4.8) vs 0.3% (0.032-2.23) p = 0.0001 and in neonates <32 weeks of gestational age (GA) compared to those ≥32 wks GA: 0.95% (range 0.18-4.8) and 0.36% (0.15-3.2) respectively p = 0.0025. The majority of CD34+ cells co-expressed CD71 antigen (p<0.05 preterm vs term) and grew in vitro large BFU-E, mostly in the second generation. The subpopulations CD34+CD38- and CD34+CD45- resulted more represented in preterm samples compared to term, conversely, Side Population (SP) did not show any difference between the two group. The absolute number of preterm colonies (CFCs/10microL) resulted higher compared to term (p = 0.004) and these progenitors were able to grow until the third generation maintaining an higher proportion of CD34+ cells (p = 0.0017). The number of colony also inversely correlated with the gestational age (Pearson r = -0.3001 p<0.0168). We found no differences in the isolation and expansion capacity of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs) from cord blood of term and preterm neonates: both groups grew in vitro large number of endothelial cells until the third generation and showed a transitional phenotype between mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitors (CD73, CD31, CD34 and CD144)The presence, in the cord blood of preterm babies, of high number of immature hematopoietic progenitors and endothelial/mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative potential makes this tissue an important source of cells for developing new cells therapies.
Full Text Available Cord blood contains high number of hematopoietic cells that after birth disappear. In this paper we have studied the functional properties of the umbilical cord blood progenitor cells collected from term and preterm neonates to establish whether quantitative and/or qualitative differences exist between the two groups.Our results indicate that the percentage of total CD34+ cells was significantly higher in preterm infants compared to full term: 0.61% (range 0.15-4.8 vs 0.3% (0.032-2.23 p = 0.0001 and in neonates <32 weeks of gestational age (GA compared to those ≥32 wks GA: 0.95% (range 0.18-4.8 and 0.36% (0.15-3.2 respectively p = 0.0025. The majority of CD34+ cells co-expressed CD71 antigen (p<0.05 preterm vs term and grew in vitro large BFU-E, mostly in the second generation. The subpopulations CD34+CD38- and CD34+CD45- resulted more represented in preterm samples compared to term, conversely, Side Population (SP did not show any difference between the two group. The absolute number of preterm colonies (CFCs/10microL resulted higher compared to term (p = 0.004 and these progenitors were able to grow until the third generation maintaining an higher proportion of CD34+ cells (p = 0.0017. The number of colony also inversely correlated with the gestational age (Pearson r = -0.3001 p<0.0168.We found no differences in the isolation and expansion capacity of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs from cord blood of term and preterm neonates: both groups grew in vitro large number of endothelial cells until the third generation and showed a transitional phenotype between mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitors (CD73, CD31, CD34 and CD144The presence, in the cord blood of preterm babies, of high number of immature hematopoietic progenitors and endothelial/mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative potential makes this tissue an important source of cells for developing new cells therapies.
Full Text Available Antipredator responses may appear unsuccessful when animals are exposed to approaching vehicles, often resulting in mortality. Recent studies have addressed whether certain biological traits are associated with variation in collision risk with cars, but not with higher speed-vehicles like aircraft. Our goal was to establish the association between different species traits (i.e., body mass, eye size, brain size, wing loading, wing aspect ratio and the frequency of bird collisions with aircraft (hereafter, bird strikes using a comparative approach controlling for the effects of shared ancestry. We proposed directional predictions as to how each of the species traits would affect the frequency of bird strikes. Considering 39 bird species with all traits represented, the model containing wing loading had the best fit to account for the variance in bird strikes across species. In another model with 54 species exploring the fit to different polynomial models but considering only wing loading, we found that wing loading was negatively and linearly associated with the frequency of bird strikes. Counterintuitively, species with lower wing loading (hence, greater maneuverability had a higher frequency of bird strikes. We discuss potential non-mutually exclusive explanations (e.g., high wing loading species fly faster, thus gaining some extra time to avoid the aircraft flight path; high wing loading species are hazed more intensively at airports, which could lower collisions, etc.. Ultimately, our findings uncovered that species with low wing loading get struck at a higher rate at airports, which reduces the safety risk for humans because these species tend not to cause damaging strikes, but the ecological consequences of their potentially higher local mortality are unknown.
Eriksen, Nina Bonne; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Ringholm, Lene
We assessed the association between congenital malformations and maternal hyperglycemia in pregnant women with pregestational (type 1 or type 2) diabetes and investigated if the rate of congenital malformations was similar in women with near-normal glycemic control compared to the background population. We also assessed the association between congenital malformations and maternal hyperglycemia in pregnant women with pregestational diabetes with special focus on women with near-normal HbA1c in early pregnancy. This is a literature review based on an electronic literature search of the databases PubMed, Cochrane, Embase and Web of Science conducted in July 2017 using the search terms diabetes, pregnancy, HbA1c or glycemic control and congenital anomaly or congenital anomaly. We included original papers in English published after 1997 with data on congenital malformations and HbA1c in at least 250 women with pregestational diabetes. Nine papers with in total 6225 women with type 1 diabetes and 2334 women with type 2 diabetes were included. The prevalence of congenital malformations was 6.4% in women with type 1 diabetes and 4.3% in women with type 2 diabetes and for the combined group of women with pregestational diabetes, the relative risk compared to the background population was 3.2. In women with HbA1c congenital malformations was 4.3 and 3.7%, respectively, with a relative risk of 2.2 and 1.9, respectively. In pregnant women with pregestational diabetes the prevalence of congenital abnormalities was threefold higher in women with pregestational diabetes compared to the background population. However, HbA1c below 53 mmol/mol (7.0%) in early pregnancy was also associated with a two times increased risk of congenital malformations compared to the background population.
Jose António Moreira
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to report evidence obtained in a survey based on the Community of Inquiry (CoI framework (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 1991; 2000 carried out in different groups. The study comprised 510 higher education students enrolled in blended online courses offered through Moodle platform during one semester. It considered students from different private and public Portuguese polytechnic schools and universities. Moreira & Almeida (2011 have suggested that CoI framework is a valid, reliable, and efficient measure of its dimensions within the Portuguese population. Although similarities in aspects of social presence were discovered among polytechnic and universities students, the two groups showed some differences. In particular, it was observed that the polytechnic students appear to be a more robust community when compared to university students.
Moore, Z; Johansen, E; Etten, M van; Strapp, H; Solbakken, T; Smith, B Eskerud; Faulstich, J
This study explored whether the risk assessment method, structured versus clinical judgment, influences pressure ulcer (PU) prevalence or prevention strategies. A cross section survey design was employed with use of a pre-designed data collection instrument. Following ethical approval and consent, data was gathered from two acute care settings, one in Norway (clinical judgment) and one in Ireland (structured risk assessment using the Maelor Score). Data were obtained from 180 patients, 59 in Norway and 121 in Ireland. Of the patients 48% were male and 49% were female, gender was not recorded for 3%. The most common age bracket was 70-99 years of age, 46% of the study population. PU prevalence was 54% in the Norwegian site with the majority of PUs (69%) being category 1, and 12% in the Irish site with the majority (50%) being category 2. Only 8% of patients in the Norwegian site were risk assessed on admission compared with 85% in the Irish site. No dynamic mattresses and four pressure redistribution cushions were in use in the Norwegian site, whereas, in the Irish site, 27 dynamic mattresses and 11 pressure redistribution cushions were used, the majority (44%) for high-risk individuals. Of those at risk of PU development, 15% in the Norwegian site and 56% in the Irish site had a documented repositioning care plan when in bed, and 0% in the Norwegian site and 13% in the Irish site for when seated on a chair. There were inconsistencies in approach to PU risk assessment and prevention across the two clinical settings. However, prevalence rates differed, mainly relating to category 1 PU damage. Even though formal risk assessment is well established in the Irish site, this is not necessarily followed up with appropriated PU prevention. Thus, the method of risk assessment does not seem to influence subsequent care planning, questioning the role of formal risk assessment; however, despite this, risk assessment does put a focus on an important clinical problem. In the
Al-Moraissi, Essam Ahmed; Perez, Daniel; Ellis, Edward
The aim of this study was to identify, through meta-analysis, whether patients who require orthognathic surgery have a higher prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) than controls, both before treatment and after. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted based on PRISMA guidelines, to address the study purposes. A search of major databases through PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL was performed to locate all pertinent articles published from inception to June 2016. Inclusion criteria were controlled clinical studies, either prospective or retrospective, and case-control studies comparing preoperative and postoperative signs and symptoms of TMDs in patients who undergo orthognathic surgery to those of a healthy volunteer population with no dentofacial deformities. The predictor variables were patients with dentofacial deformities who underwent orthognathic surgery and patients with no dentofacial deformities and with good maxillomandibular relations and normal occlusion. The outcomes variables were the weighted, prevalence rate (proportion) in signs and symptoms of TMDs in patients with dentofacial deformities and risk ratio (RR) of signs and symptoms of TMDs before and after orthognathic surgery, compared to the control group. A total of 542 patients enrolled in 6 studies were included in this analysis. The overall pooled weighted rate or prevalence of TMDs for orthognathic surgery patients preoperatively was 32.5% (95% CI = 26.7%-38.9%). There was a significant difference between the 2 groups with respect to TMDs before surgery, but no significant difference in TMDs after surgery. The RR for patients who had dentofacial deformities before orthognathic surgery compared with a control group was 1.634 (95% CI = 1.216-2.194; P = 0.001). The RR for patients after orthognathic surgery compared with a control group was 1.262 (0.718; 95% CI = 0.805-1.979; P = 0.311). The results of this study show that patients who are going to have a
Nascimento, Camila; Suemoto, Claudia K.; Rodriguez, Roberta D.; Di Lorenzo Alho, Ana Tereza; Leite, Renata P.; Farfel, Jose Marcelo; Pasqualucci, Carlos Alberto; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Grinberg, Lea T.
Transactive response DNA binding-protein 43 (TDP-43) proteinopathy is the major hallmark of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It is also present in a subset of Alzheimer’s disease cases. Recently, few reports showed TDP-43 changes in cognitively normal elderly. In Caucasians, TDP-43 proteinopathy independently correlate with cognitive decline. However, it is challenging to establish direct links between cognitive and/or neuropsychiatric symptoms and protein inclusions in neurodegenerative diseases because individual cognitive reserves modify the threshold for clinical disease expression. Cognitive reserve is influenced by demographic, environmental and genetic factors. We investigated the relationships between demographic, clinical, and neuropathological variables and TDP-43 proteinopathy in a large multiethnic sample of cognitively normal elderly. TDP-43 proteinopathy were identified in 10.5%, independently associated with older age (p = 0.03) and Asian ethnicity (p = 0.002). Asians showed a higher prevalence of TDP-43 proteinopathy than Caucasians, even after adjustment for sex, age, Braak stage, and schooling (odds ratio = 3.50, confidence interval 1.41–8.69, p = 0.007). These findings suggested Asians older adults may be protected from the clinical manifestation of brain TDP-43 proteinopathy. Future studies are needed to identify possible race-related protective factors against clinical expression of TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:26260327
Media Zainul Bahri
Full Text Available This article focuses on how the study of Comparative Religion conducted in Indonesian Islamic higher institutions, i.e. on both UIN Yogyakarta and Jakartasince the beginning of the New Order (1960s to Reform era (2014. The focus of the study was on models/approaches and main issues. In general, for more than half a century, the comparative study of religion is not been done for academic purposes an sich. Just within the new last decade that theoretical studies of Comparative Religion began developed. Another important thing that the study of Comparative Religion in Indonesia, although mostly referring to the methodological sources of the West and the Middle East, but ithas always been associated with religious and cultural context of Indonesia.Therefore, the study on both UIN Yogyakarta and Jakarta always deliver courseson religions that live in Indonesia alongside with Indonesian contemporary issues. In the reform era, though still using Comparative Religion’s term, butit looks religious studies such as used in the West. Thus, its “form” or “clothes”is Comparative Religion but it is religious studies. Artikel ini fokus pada bagaimana studi Perbandingan Agama yang dilakukan di lembaga-lembaga pendidikan tinggi Islam Indonesia, yaitu pada UIN Yogyakarta dan Jakarta sejak awal Orde Baru (1960 Reformasi era (2014. Fokus penelitian adalah pada model/pendekatan dan isu-isu utama. Secara umum, selama lebih dari setengah abad, studi perbandingan agama tidak dilakukan untuk tujuan akademik an sich. Hanya dalam dekade terakhir studi teoritis Perbandingan Agama mulai dikembangkan. Hal lain yang penting bahwa studi Perbandingan Agama di Indonesia, meskipun sebagian besar mengacu padasumber-sumber metodologi Barat dan Timur Tengah, tetapi selalu dikaitkan dengan konteks agama dan budaya Indonesia. Oleh karena itu, penelitian pada kedua UIN Yogyakarta dan Jakarta selalu memberikan kursus tentang agamayang hidup di Indonesia bersama dengan isu
Hameed, Umer; Umer, Saima
of higher education and it also highlight the different pathway that leads to the different type of man power in this domain. Presented research will focus on the study of different modules of textile & Apparel Design Higher Education in Pakistan & UK. Its relation and comparison will be an important area of study. Research work document the Educational modules, its implementation and impact on industry. Afterwards this data was used for comparative study between higher education systems in Textile & Fashion Design
Glei, Dana A; Goldman, Noreen; Ryff, Carol D; Weinstein, Maxine
We evaluate the variability in estimates of self-reported physical limitations by age across four nationally representative surveys in the US. We consider its implications for determining whether, as previous literature suggests, the US estimates reveal limitations at an earlier age than in three countries with similar life expectancy: England, Taiwan, and Costa Rica. Based on cross-sectional data from seven population-based surveys, we use local mean smoothing to plot self-reported limitations by age for each of four physical tasks for each survey, stratified by sex. We find substantial variation in the estimates in the US across four nationally-representative surveys. For example, one US survey suggests that American women experience a walking limitation 15 years earlier than their Costa Rican counterparts, while another US survey implies that Americans have a 4-year advantage. Differences in mode of survey may account for higher prevalence of limitations in the one survey that used a self-administered mail-in questionnaire than in the other surveys that used in-person or telephone interviews. Yet, even among US surveys that used the same mode, there is still so much variability in estimates that we cannot conclude whether Americans have better or worse function than their counterparts in the other countries. Seemingly minor differences in question wording and response categories may account for the remaining inconsistency. If minor differences in question wording can result in such extensive variation in the estimates within a given population, then lack of comparability is likely to be an even greater problem when examining results across countries that do not share the same language or culture. Despite the potential utility of self-reported physical function within a survey sample, our findings imply that absolute estimates of population-level prevalence of self-reported physical limitations are unlikely to be strictly comparable across countries-or even
Orr, Dominic; Hovdhaugen, Elisabeth
Widening access to higher education is clearly part of the European policy agenda. Higher education ministers in the Bologna countries, as well as the European Commission, have all expressed a wish to make higher education more representative of national populations. This policy objective has been echoed at national level. One approach to widening…
Kirchner, Johannes; Lorenz, Vivian-Wilma [Allgemeines Krankenhaus Hagen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hagen (Germany); Kirchner, Esther Maria [Staedtisches Klinikum Wedau, Clinic for Medicine, Duisburg (Germany); Goltz, Jan Peter; Kickuth, Ralph [University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Department of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany)
To evaluate the frequency of enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers (more than 10 pack years) compared with non- smokers. In a prospective study the CT findings of 88 consecutive patients (44 heavy smokers, 44 non- smokers) were analysed. Exclusion criteria were history of thoracic malignancy, sarcoidosis, occupational dust exposure or clinical evidence of pneumonia. Prevalence, size and site of enlarged lymph nodes were assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and correlated with the cigarette consumption and the CT- findings of bronchitis and emphysema. Twenty-three of the 44 heavy smokers (52%) showed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Non- smokers showed enlarged lymph nodes in 9% (4/44). The most common site of enlarged lymph nodes was the regional station 7 according to the ATS mapping (subcarinal). The difference between the frequency of enlarged lymph nodes in heavy smokers and non- smokers was significant (chi- square 19.3, p < 0.0001). Airway wall thickening and emphysema were often associated with an increased number of enlarged nodes. The present study demonstrates that enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes may occur in a rather high percentage of heavy smokers, especially in those with a MDCT finding of severe bronchitis. (orig.)
Kirchner, Johannes; Lorenz, Vivian-Wilma; Kirchner, Esther Maria; Goltz, Jan Peter; Kickuth, Ralph
To evaluate the frequency of enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers (more than 10 pack years) compared with non- smokers. In a prospective study the CT findings of 88 consecutive patients (44 heavy smokers, 44 non- smokers) were analysed. Exclusion criteria were history of thoracic malignancy, sarcoidosis, occupational dust exposure or clinical evidence of pneumonia. Prevalence, size and site of enlarged lymph nodes were assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and correlated with the cigarette consumption and the CT- findings of bronchitis and emphysema. Twenty-three of the 44 heavy smokers (52%) showed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Non- smokers showed enlarged lymph nodes in 9% (4/44). The most common site of enlarged lymph nodes was the regional station 7 according to the ATS mapping (subcarinal). The difference between the frequency of enlarged lymph nodes in heavy smokers and non- smokers was significant (chi- square 19.3, p < 0.0001). Airway wall thickening and emphysema were often associated with an increased number of enlarged nodes. The present study demonstrates that enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes may occur in a rather high percentage of heavy smokers, especially in those with a MDCT finding of severe bronchitis. (orig.)
Higher education is undergoing a process of globalization and new realities of a globalized higher education world are emerging. Globalization also has a profound impact on higher education research. Global and transnational topics are theoretically and empirically elaborated and seem on the rise, whereas the international comparative outlook…
Feng, Qiush; Son, Joonmo; Zeng, Yi
Successful ageing is often defined as a later life with less disease and disease-related disability, high level of cognitive and physical functions, and an active life style. Few studies have compared successful ageing across different societies in a non-Western social context. This study aims to compare prevalence and correlates of successful ageing between China and South Korea. The data come from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA). A total of 19,346 community-dwelling elders over 65 years were included, 15,191 from China and 4,155 from Korea. A multidimensional construct of successful ageing was used, with the criteria of no major comorbidity, being free of disability, good mental health, engaging in social or productive activity, and satisfaction on life. Correlates of successful ageing included demographics (gender, age, and rural/urban residence), socioeconomic features (financial status, education, and spouse accompany), and health behaviours (smoking, alcohol-drinking, and exercising). The results showed that 18.6 % of the older adults in China was successful agers, which was less than 25.2 % in Korea. When gender and age were adjusted, older adults were 51 % less likely to be successful agers in China than Korea ( p Korea. However, before the socioeconomic variables are under control, rural residence was negatively related to successful ageing in China, whereas this is not the case in Korea. And the gender gap of successful ageing was mostly explained by socioeconomic features and health behaviours in Korea, but not in China. In both countries, good financial condition was highly associated with successful ageing. The study suggests that advancement of public health system could better control progression of non-communicable diseases among old people and thus promote successful ageing.
Miller, R; Nakavuma, J L; Ssajjakambwe, P; Vudriko, P; Musisi, N; Kaneene, J B
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the presence of brucellosis in cattle, goats and humans in farms from south-western Uganda and identify risk factors associated with brucellosis in these three host groups. Data and serum samples were collected from 768 cattle, 315 goats and 236 humans, with 635 samples of bovine milk, from 70 farms in two different study areas in south-western Uganda. Sera from livestock were tested with the Rose Bengal Plate test, using B. abortus and B. melitensis antigens, and human sera were tested with a commercial IgG/IgM lateral flow assay. Milk samples were tested using the OIE-approved milk ring test. Screening tests for brucellosis were positive in 14% of cattle serum, 29% of bovine milk, 17% of goat serum and 11% of human serum samples. There were significant differences in the test prevalence of brucellosis by study site, with levels higher in the study area near Lake Mburo National Park than in the study area near Queen Elizabeth National Park. Multivariable regression models identified risk factors associated with increasing test positivity at the individual and farm levels for cattle, goats and humans. Positive associations were seen between increasing seropositivity of brucellosis in goats, cattle and humans. Results of multivariable analyses suggest that improvements in farm biosecurity and hygiene may reduce the risk of brucellosis on the farm and suggest a role for ticks in bovine brucellosis. Although cattle are the focus of brucellosis control in Uganda, the significant associations between seropositivity in humans and seropositivity in goats suggest that brucellosis in goats may be an important contributor to the epidemiology of the disease on the farm. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Haug, Egil; Falch, Jan A
Background Persons of Pakistani origin living in Oslo have a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism but similar bone mineral density compared with ethnic Norwegians. Our objective was to investigate whether Pakistani immigrants living in Oslo have an altered vitamin D metabolism by means of compensatory higher serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (s-1,25(OH)2D) compared with ethnic Norwegians; and whether serum levels of ionized calcium (s-Ca2+) differ between Pakistanis and Norwegians. Methods In a cross-sectional, population-based study venous serum samples were drawn from 94 Pakistani men and 67 Pakistani women aged 30–60 years, and 290 Norwegian men and 270 Norwegian women aged 45–60 years; in total 721 subjects. Results Pakistanis had lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with Norwegians (p Oslo with low vitamin D status and secondary hyperparathyroidism have lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with ethnic Norwegians. However, the Pakistanis have higher s-Ca2+. The cause of the higher s-Ca2+ in Pakistanis in spite of their higher iPTH remains unclear. PMID:17945003
Cheah, Y C; Kadir, A B; Jeyarajah, S
This is a cross sectional community study in Johor Bahru District. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall prevalence of emotional and behavioural deviance among the school children in three different geographical areas, and to identify their correlates. This paper presents the findings of phase one of a two-stage procedure involving a total of 589 children aged 10-12 years. Using the cut-off point validated locally, the prevalence of deviance on the parental scale was 40% in the rural school, 30.2% in the agricultural resettlement (Felda) school and 32.3% in the urban school. On the teachers' assessment, the prevalence of deviance was 40.8% in the rural school, 10.8% in the Felda School and 8.9% in the urban school. There was significantly higher prevalence of deviance in the rural school on the teachers' scale. In the rural school, significantly higher prevalence of deviance was found among boys.
Chao, Roger Y., Jr.
The Author argues that historical regional developments in Europe and East Asia greatly influence the formation of an East Asian Higher Education Area. As such, this article compares European and East Asian regionalization and higher education regionalization processes to show this path dependency in East Asian regionalization of higher education…
Daniels, Jessica R.
Numerous studies have identified a positive correlation between employee engagement and overall organizational performance. However, research on employee engagement specifically within higher education is limited, and even less attention has been focused on engagement within the context of Christian higher education. An exploratory comparative…
Fernandes Nogueira, Jaana Flavia
Historically, higher education has played an important role in the development of societies. Indeed, this has been the case in both Argentina and Brazil. The overall goal of this dissertation is to examine the historical development and the current situation of higher education in Argentina and Brazil. In relation to history, it discusses the…
Kelly, Peter; Kotthoff, Hans-Georg
To illustrate similarities and differences in lower secondary level mathematics teaching with higher achievers and thereby explore privileging processes, we contrast a teaching episode in Baden-Württemberg, Germany with one in South West England. These have been selected from a larger study as typical within each region for higher achieving…
Gundy, Chad M; Fayers, Peter M; Grønvold, Mogens
To investigate the statistical fit of alternative higher order models for summarizing the health-related quality of life profile generated by the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire.......To investigate the statistical fit of alternative higher order models for summarizing the health-related quality of life profile generated by the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire....
This study analyses the policies for financing higher education in six Arab countries: Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, and Tunisia. It assesses the adequacy of spending on higher education, the efficiency with which resources are utilized, and the equity implications of resource allocations. Based on six detailed case studies, this…
Tytherleigh, M. Y.; Webb, C.; Cooper, C. L.; Ricketts, C.
The higher education sector in the UK continues to experience significant change. This includes restructuring, use of short-term contracts, external scrutiny and accountability, and major reductions in funding. In line with this, reports of stress at work in higher education institutions have also increased. The study reported here was carried out…
Full Text Available Bacterial infection is a frequent complication in patients with chronic liver disease, mainly during the advanced stages. There is evidence that the main factors that contribute to a predisposition to infection in cirrhotic patients are related to hepatic failure with consequent immunodeficiency. Invasive procedures (diagnostic or therapeutic can predispose to bacterial infections, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB is considered a potentially important risk factor. A group of cirrhotic patients (child B and C Pugh groups were evaluated retrospectively by chart reviews regarding the prevalence of bacterial infection during hospitalization to determine whether UGB was a risk factor. An infection was considered present if a specific organ system was identified or if fever (>38ºC persisted for more than 24 hours with associated leukocytosis. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was based on classical criteria. Eighty-nine patients were evaluated. Fourty-six patients presented with UGB, and 43 patients had no UGB (control. There were infections recorded in 25/46 (54% patients with UGB, and 15/43 (35% in those without UGB (p=0.065. The ratio of the number of infections/admitted patients, was significantly larger in the group with UGB (0.78 ± 0.89 vs. 0.39 ± 0.62; p=0.028 since patients had more than one infection. In the UGB group compared to non UGB group, ascites was more frequent (67% vs. 42%; p=0.027; they were more likely to have undergone endoscopic procedures (p<0.001 and the mean ± SD for platelets count was smaller (96,114 ± 57,563 vs. 145,674 ± 104,083; p=0.007. The results show that UGB is an important contribution to bacterial infection among Child B and C cirrhotic patients.
Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Yu-Zheng; Li, Rui; Lan, Li; Li, Chun-Long; Huang, Min; Shi, Dan; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao
Elevation of plasma sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs) is generally associated with higher body mass index (BMI) and unfavorable lipid profiles. It is not known how dietary SAAs relate to these associations in humans. A convenient tool named internet-based dietary questionnaire for Chinese (IDQC) was used to estimate dietary SAAs intake. A total of 936 participants were randomly recruited and asked to complete the IDQC. Furthermore, 90 subjects were randomly selected to perform a subgroup study. The associations between dietary SAAs and prevalence of obesity, lipid profiles, and status of insulin resistance (IR), inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed. Dietary total SAAs and cysteine of overweight/obese participants were significantly higher. Dietary total SAAs and cysteine were positively associated with BMI and waist circumference. Higher dietary total SAAs were associated with higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. Higher dietary total SAAs and cysteine also associated with higher serum triglyceride (total cholesterol), low density lipoprotein, fasting blood glucose, 2 h-postprandial glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of IR. In the subgroup study, positive associations between dietary SAAs and inflammation biomarkers were also observed. Dietary SAAs are associated with higher prevalence of overweight/obesity, unfavorable lipid profiles and status of IR, and inflammation. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kruger, Daniel J; Clark, Jillian; Vanas, Sarah
Modern adverse birth outcomes may partially result from mechanisms evolved to evaluate environmental conditions and regulate maternal investment trade-offs. Male scarcity in a population is associated with a cluster of characteristics related to higher mating effort and lower paternal investment. We predicted that modern populations with male scarcity would have shorter gestational times and lower birth weights on average. We compared US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention county-aggregated year 2000 birth records with US Decennial Census data. We combined these data in a path model with the degree of male scarcity and known socio-economic predictors of birth outcomes as exogenous predictors of prematurity and low birth weight, with single mother households as a proportion of families with children as a mediator (N = 450). Male scarcity was directly associated with higher rates of low birth weight. Male scarcity made significant indirect predictions of rates of prematurity and low birth weight, as mediated by the proportion of families headed by single mothers. Aggregate socio-economic status also indirectly predicted birth outcomes, as mediated by the proportion of families headed by single mothers, whereas the proportion African American retained both direct and indirect predictions of adverse birth outcomes. Male scarcity influences life history tradeoffs, with consequences for important social and public health issues such as adverse birth outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
James A. Harley
With correction for mood state, total harm avoidance (HA was higher than unaffected in both MDD and BP groups, but the mood disorder groups did not differ from each other. However, BP1 individuals had higher self-transcendence (ST than those with MDD and unaffected relatives. HA may reflect a trait marker of mood disorders whereas high ST may be specific to BP. As ST is heritable, genes that affect ST may be of relevance for vulnerability to BP.
Gant, C.M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Binnenmars, S.H.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Navis, G.; Laverman, G.D.
In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), the handling of magnesium is disturbed. Magnesium deficiency may be associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated the associations between (1) dietary magnesium intake; (2) 24 h urinary magnesium excretion; and (3) plasma magnesium
Duarte, Paulo O.; Raposo, Mario B.; Alves, Helena B.
This study explores the factors that influence students' satisfaction with higher education services and assess how they change after graduation, when students enter the labour market. To achieve the objectives, a survey was performed on two occasions, 2002 and 2008. Data on satisfaction were collected from current and former students in order to…
Estébanez, Raquel Pérez
In the way of continuous improvement in teaching methods this paper explores the effects of Cooperative Learning (CL) against Traditional Learning (TL) in academic performance of students in higher education in two groups of the first course of Computer Science Degree at the university. The empirical study was conducted through an analysis of…
Smith, Erika E.
More than a decade after Prensky's influential articulation of digital natives and immigrants, disagreement exists around these characterizations of students and the impact of such notions within higher education. Perceptions of today's undergraduate learners as tech-savvy "digital natives" (Prensky, 2001a), who both want and need the…
Shrivastava, Meenal; Shrivastava, Sanjiv
Education is one of the major linchpins of economic, social and political development of any nation. Recent evidence suggests that higher education can produce both public and private benefits. Thus, the role of the state in making education policy, and funding education is indeed critical, and cannot be left to be determined by market forces…
Moreira, José António; Ferreira, António Gomes; Almeida, Ana Cristina
The purpose of this study was to report evidence obtained in a survey based on the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 1991; 2000) carried out in different groups. The study comprised 510 higher education students enrolled in blended online courses offered through Moodle platform during one semester. It…
Hoekstra, Monique; Haagsma, C.; Neef, C; Proost, Johannes H; Knuif, A.; van der Laar, M.
Objective. To determine the bioavailability of higher oral doses of methotrexate (MTX) in adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. A pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in 15 patients with RA taking a stable dose of MTX (greater than or equal to25 mg weekly). Separated by 2 weeks,
This article is a tribute to the life work of Maurice Kogan. Very little of higher education's landscape in the United Kingdom has remained unchanged over the past four decades and this article sets out to analyze the way the perception of the role of universities in society has changed in the
Olde Nordkamp, Louise R. A.; van Dijk, Nynke; Ganzeboom, Karin S.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Luitse, Jan S. K.; Dekker, Lukas R. C.; Shen, Win-Kuang; Wieling, Wouter
Objective: We assessed the prevalence and distribution of the different causes of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) in the emergency department (ED) and chest pain unit (CPU) and estimated the proportion of persons with syncope in the general population who seek medical attention from either
Lapidot-Lefler, Noam; Dolev-Cohen, Michal
Recent technological developments have added cyberspace as part of adolescents' social milieu. Bullying, which is prevalent in adolescents' social environment, also takes place in cyberspace, although it is believed to have a more potent and harmful effect. A study of cyberbullying and FtF bullying could elucidate critical implications for…
Samuelson, Frank; Abbey, Craig
Schatzkin et al. and other authors demonstrated that the ratios of some conditional statistics such as the true positive fraction are equal to the ratios of unconditional statistics, such as disease detection rates, and therefore we can calculate these ratios between two screening tests on the same population even if negative test patients are not followed with a reference procedure and the true and false negative rates are unknown. We demonstrate that this same property applies to an expected utility metric. We also demonstrate that while simple estimates of relative specificities and relative areas under ROC curves (AUC) do depend on the unknown negative rates, we can write these ratios in terms of disease prevalence, and the dependence of these ratios on a posited prevalence is often weak particularly if that prevalence is small or the performance of the two screening tests is similar. Therefore we can estimate relative specificity or AUC with little loss of accuracy, if we use an approximate value of disease prevalence.
Mazidi, Mohsen; Speakman, John R
Background: The obesity epidemic in the United States has been mirrored by an increase in calories consumed outside of the home and by expansions in the numbers of, and portion sizes at, both fast-food restaurants (FFRs) and full-service restaurants (FSRs), leading some to blame the epidemic on the restaurant industry. If this were indeed true, one would predict that greater per capita densities of FFRs and FSRs would lead to greater obesity prevalence. Objective: We evaluated the population-level association between both FSRs and FFRs and the prevalence of obesity and calculated the proportion of calories consumed in these establishments. Design: In this ecological cross-sectional study, we used county-level data (aggregate-level data) for obesity prevalence across the mainland United States in 2012 and matched these data to county-level per capita densities of FFRs and FSRs in the same year. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the relation between the prevalence of obesity and the densities of FFRs and FSRs after adjustment for confounding factors. Results: Contrary to expectations, obesity prevalence was highly significantly negatively related to the densities of both FFRs and FSRs (combined-effect R 2 = 0.195). This was principally because greater numbers of both FFRs and FSRs were located in areas in which individuals were on average wealthier and more educated. When we normalized for these factors (and additional socioeconomic variables), the associations between restaurant densities and obesity effectively disappeared (pooled R 2 = 0.008). Our calculations showed that the percentage of total calories consumed in FFRs and FSRs is a mean of only 15.9% of the total intake (maximum: 22.6%). Conclusions: Variations in the densities of FFRs and FSRs are not linked to the prevalence of obesity in the United States, and food consumed in these establishments is responsible for <20% of total energy intake. This finding has implications for policy
Miller, Joseph M; Harvey, Erin M; Schwiegerling, Jim
To determine whether higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in children from a highly astigmatic population differ from population norms and whether HOAs are associated with astigmatism and reduced best-corrected visual acuity. Subjects were 218 Tohono O'odham Native American children 5-9 years of age. Noncycloplegic HOA measurements were obtained with a handheld Shack-Hartmann sensor (SHS). Signed (z06s to z14s) and unsigned (z06u to z14u) wavefront aberration Zernike coefficients Z(3,-3) to Z(4,4) were rescaled for a 4 mm diameter pupil and compared to adult population norms. Cycloplegic refraction and best-corrected logMAR letter visual acuity (BCVA) were also measured. Regression analyses assessed the contribution of astigmatism (J0) and HOAs to BCVA. The mean root-mean-square (RMS) HOA of 0.191 ± 0.072 μm was significantly greater than population norms (0.100 ± 0.044 μm). All unsigned HOA coefficients (z06u to z14u) and all signed coefficients except z09s, z10s, and z11s were significantly larger than population norms. Decreased BCVA was associated with astigmatism (J0) and spherical aberration (z12u) but not RMS coma, with the effect of J0 about 4 times as great as z12u. Tohono O'odham children show elevated HOAs compared to population norms. Astigmatism and unsigned spherical aberration are associated with decreased acuity, but the effects of spherical aberration are minimal and not clinically significant. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kristensen, Ditte Bech; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Larsen, Steen
This study investigated fiber-type-specific muscle ceramide content in obese subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. Two substudies, one which compared type 2 diabetes patients to both lean- and obese BMI-matched subjects and the other study which compared lean body-matched post-obese, obese......, and control subjects, were performed. A fasting blood sample was obtained and plasma insulin and glucose determined. A muscle biopsy was obtained from deltoideus and vastus lateralis, and fiber-type ceramide content was determined by fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Insulin sensitivity estimated by Quicki...... index was higher in lean compared to type 2 diabetes patients and obese controls. Also in control and post-obese subjects, a higher insulin sensitivity was observed compared to obese subjects. Ceramide content was consistently higher in type I than in type II muscle fibers and higher in deltoideus than...
Jizzo R Bosdriesz
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Smoking among migrants is known to differ from the host population, but migrants' smoking is rarely ever compared to the prevalence of smoking in their country of origin. The goal of this study is to compare the smoking prevalence among migrants to that of both the US-born population and the countries of origin. Further analyses assess the influence of sex, age at time of entry to the US and education level. METHODS: Data of 248,726 US-born and migrants from 14 countries were obtained from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS from 2006-2007. Data on 108,653 respondents from the corresponding countries of origin were taken from the World Health Survey (WHS from 2002-2005. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking among migrants (men: 14.2%, women: 4.1% was lower than both the US-born group (men: 21.4%, women: 18.1% and countries of origin (men: 39.4%, women: 11.0%. The gender gap among migrants was smaller than in the countries of origin. Age at time of entry to the US was not related to smoking prevalence for migrants. The risk of smoking for high-educated migrants was closer to their US counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The smoking prevalence among migrants is consistently lower than both the country of origin levels and the US level. The theory of segmented assimilation is supported by some results of this study, but not all. Other mechanisms that might influence the smoking prevalence among migrants are the 'healthy migrant effect' or the stage of the smoking epidemic at the time of migration.
Ziaaddini, Hassan; Kheradmand, Ali; Vahabi, Mostafa
Background: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking and some of the related factors among schizophrenic and other hospitalized psychiatric patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 120 patients hospitalized in Shahid Beheshti hospital in Kerman in 2005. Patients were equally devided in two groups of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Sampling was based on statistical census and data were collected using a questionnaire including 27 questions o...
Amos, Patricia Mawusi; Acquah, Sakina; Antwi, Theresa; Adzifome, Nixon Saba
The study sought to compare factors influencing male and female lecturers' job satisfaction. Cross-sectional survey designs employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted for the study. Simple random sampling was used to select 163 lecturers from the four oldest public universities in Ghana. Celep's (2000) Organisational…
McClure, Beverlee J.
This study addresses concerns regarding compensation disparities between New Mexico institutions and their peers. A recommended adjustment schedule with fiscal requirements is included, but not specific recommendations for faculty at individual institutions. The average salaries for New Mexico institutions were compared with regional peers to…
Pizarro Milian, Roger; Davidson, Cliff
Existing research on marketing within PSE tends to focus on homogeneous groups of high-status organisations. This study ameliorates this gap in the literature, conducting a comparative analysis of promotional materials produced by public universities and community colleges in Ontario, Canada. We find that these two groups draw on unique strategies…
Dussaillant, Catalina; Echeverría, Guadalupe; Villarroel, Luis; Marin, Pedro Paulo; Rigotti, Attilio
metabolic syndrome (MS) is a clustering of risk factors known to promote cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Environmental factors, such as unhealthy diet, play a major role in the development of this condition. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of MS and its association with food intake quality among Chilean adults. we analyzed data of 2 561 adults (≥ 18 years-old) included in the last National Health Survey (NHS 2009-2010) who had appropriate information to diagnose MS based on ATP III-NCEP guidelines. Consumption frequency of fish, whole grains, dairy, fruits and vegetables was also analyzed and associated with MS prevalence. Using a healthy diet score (HDS), we described the overall diet quality and further correlated it with MS prevalence. we found that lower whole grain intake was associated with greater MS prevalence (OR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.088-2.919; p = 0.022). HDS showed better diet quality among women and in subjects with increasing age and higher educational level. A HDS Chilean adult population exhibits a high prevalence of MS linked to a poor diet quality. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: For the purpose of flight safety military aircrew must be healthy. P-wave dispersion (PWD is the p-wave length difference in an electrocardiographic (ECG examination and represents the risk of developing atrial fibrillation. In the study we aimed at investigating PWD in healthy military aircrew who reported for periodical examinations. Material and Methods: Seventy-five asymptomatic military aircrew were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent physical, radiologic and biochemical examinations, and a 12-lead electrocardiography. P-wave dispersions were calculated. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 36.15±8.97 years and the mean p-wave duration was 100.8±12 ms in the whole group. Forty-seven subjects were non-pilot aircrew, and 28 were pilots. Thirteen study subjects were serving in jets, 49 in helicopters, and 13 were transport aircraft pilots. Thirty-six of the helicopter and 11 of the transport aircraft aircrew were non-pilot aircrew. P-wave dispersion was the lowest in the transport aircraft aircrew, and the highest in jet pilots. P-wave dispersions were similar in the pilots and non-pilot aircrew. Twenty-three study subjects were overweight, 19 had thyroiditis, 26 had hepatosteatosis, 4 had hyperbilirubinemia, 2 had hypertension, and 5 had hyperlipidemia. The PWD was significantly associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Serum uric acid levels were associated with p-wave durations. Serum TSH levels were the most important predictor of PWD. Conclusions: When TSH levels were associated with PWD, uric acid levels were associated with p-wave duration in the military aircrew. The jet pilots had higher PWDs. These findings reveal that military jet pilots may have a higher risk of developing atrial fibrillation, and PWD should be recorded during periodical examinations.
R. Ayhan YILMAZ
Full Text Available Dr. Ugur DEMIRAYAnadolu University andEditor-in-Chief of TOJDEEskisehir, TURKEYEducation is now a global product with institutions worldwide competing for students and finding ever more creative ways to satisfy student needs and preferences. With the continuing rise in the preference for flexible distance learning, educational institutions are finding that when students and faculty have significantly different cultural backgrounds and learning styles that the expectations of the learning experience can be unfulfilled. In Australia, international students have made education Australia’s third largest service export, earning $5.8 billion. This means that student populations have moved from being homogenous and captive to domestic constraints and expectations, to being multi-cultural, dispersed and subject to a plethora of constraints and expectations. Today in Turkey, education is the responsibility of government however, in recent years, the private sector has entered the market providing educational services at all levels. In particular, after the 1990s, private higher education institutions (HEIs with a commercial focus have mushroomed. In 2007, there are 25 private universities in Turkey with more than 2.000.000 students enrolled in these universities. Of these students, more than 1.000.000 are registered in distance education faculties. With such large student numbers competition between private universities for students has intensified particularly over the last 15 years. As a consequence the need to develop strategies for attracting students has become more important. Marketing strategies in Turkey have tended to concentrate on three distinct categories: strategies between governmental HEIs, private HEIs and distance education HEIs. The contribution of technologies to education processes has been immense with students and faculty each learning to adapt to an environment of continuous change and opportunities. This paper seeks to explore
Vanwormer, Elizabeth; Conrad, Patricia A; Miller, Melissa A; Melli, Ann C; Carpenter, Tim E; Mazet, Jonna A K
Environmental transmission of Toxoplasma gondii, a global zoonotic parasite, adversely impacts human and animal health. Toxoplasma is a significant cause of mortality in threatened Southern sea otters, which serve as sentinels for disease threats to people and animals in coastal environments. As wild and domestic felids are the only recognized hosts capable of shedding Toxoplasma oocysts into the environment, otter infection suggests land-to-sea pathogen transmission. To assess relative contributions to terrestrial parasite loading, we evaluated infection and shedding among managed and unmanaged feral domestic cats, mountain lions, and bobcats in coastal California, USA. Infection prevalence differed among sympatric felids, with a significantly lower prevalence for managed feral cats (17%) than mountain lions, bobcats, or unmanaged feral cats subsisting on wild prey (73-81%). A geographic hotspot of infection in felids was identified near Monterey Bay, bordering a high-risk site for otter infection. Increased odds of oocyst shedding were detected in bobcats and unmanaged feral cats. Due to their large populations, pet and feral domestic cats likely contribute more oocysts to lands bordering the sea otter range than native wild felids. Continued coastal development may influence felid numbers and distribution, increase terrestrial pathogens in freshwater runoff, and alter disease dynamics at the human-animal-environment interface.
Full Text Available There are documented advantages to using carbon nanotubes (CNTs in composites for various property enhancements. However, to date, only limited studies have been conducted on using of longer CNTs over 1 mm in length. This study used long multiwalled carbon nanotubes (LMWCNTs and their longer extended networks to test multiple properties in thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, mechanical strength, and modulus and then compared these properties to those of shorter multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SMWCNTs. For carbon fiber-reinforced composites, the longer graphite paths from LMWCNTs in the matrix were expected to improve all properties. The longer networks were expected to allow for more undisturbed phonon transportation to improve thermal conductivity. This in turn relates to improved electrical conductivity and better mechanical properties. However, results have shown that the LMWCNTs do not improve or decrease thermal conductivity, whereas the shorter MWCNTs provide mixed results. LMWCNTs did show improvements in electrical, mechanical, and physical properties, but compared to shorter MWCNTs, the results in other certain properties varied. This perplexing outcome resides in the functioning of the networks made by both the LMWCNTs and shorter MWCNTs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although female sex workers (FSWs are a well-known high-risk group for Human Papillomavirus (HPV infections, few tailored intervention programmes for HPV have been established worldwide. The lack of reliable data on the prevalence of HPV and related cervical lesions hampers the establishment of evidence-based intervention programmes. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of high-risk Human Papillomavirus (hrHPV infections and abnormal pap smears in FSWs compared to a control group in Antwerp, Belgium. Methods HPV genotyping and cytology data were analysed from routine Pap smear tests that were collected from both FSWs and the general population (1334 samples for each group between June 2006 and June 2010. Within the laboratory database, all FSWs were matched 1:1 for age and testing date to determine the ORs of hrHPV genotypes, DNA and cytology outcome. Results The prevalence of hrHPV DNA in FSWs was 41.7 % compared to 19.8 % in the age-matched controls with an overall OR of 2.8 (95 % CI: 2.3–3.4. Significant differences were observed in all age groups, and the most significant differences were observed in the cohort under 21 years of age (prevalence of 64.4 % in FSWs versus 14.8 % in controls; OR 10.3 (95 % CI: 5.0–21.2. Significantly more cervical lesions were observed in FSWs, particularly in the 17- to 21-year old age group (OR for LSIL or HSIL: 10.3 (95 % CI: 3.2–33.8. In both groups, HPV 16 was the most prevalent at 12.1 and 6.6 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. HPV 18 was the 8th and 7th most frequent genotype at 5.0 and 2.5 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. Conclusions FSWs have a significantly higher prevalence of hrHPV and more abnormal Pap smears than does the general population in Antwerp, Belgium. The hrHPV prevalence in FSWs is similar to that reported in the literature. The need for tailored intervention programmes should be investigated further.
Li, Y. M.; Liu, Kexin; Geng, Rongli
Multipacting (MP) in higher-order-mode (HOM) couplers of the International Linear Collider (ILC) baseline cavity and the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) 12 GeV upgrade cavity is studied by using the ACE3P suites, developed by the Advanced Computations Department at SLAC. For the ILC cavity HOM coupler, the simulation results show that resonant trajectories exist in three zones, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 0.6A-1.6 MV/m, 21A-34 MV/m, 32A-35 MV/m, and > 40MV/m, respectively. For the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade cavity HOM coupler, resonant trajectories exist in one zone, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 6A-13 MV/m. Potential implications of these MP barriers are discussed in the context of future high energy pulsed as well as medium energy continuous wave (CW) accelerators based on superconducting radio frequency cavities. Frequency scaling of MPA's predicted in HOM couplers of the ILC, CBEAF upgrade, SNS and FLASH third harmonic cavity is given and found to be in good agreement with the analytical result based on the parallel plate model
Y. M. Li
Full Text Available Multipacting (MP in higher-order-mode (HOM couplers of the International Linear Collider (ILC baseline cavity and the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade cavity is studied by using the ACE3P suites, developed by the Advanced Computations Department at SLAC. For the ILC cavity HOM coupler, the simulation results show that resonant trajectories exist in three zones, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 0.6–1.6 MV/m, 21–34 MV/m, 32–35 MV/m and >40 MV/m, respectively. For the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade cavity HOM coupler, resonant trajectories exist in one zone, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 6–13 MV/m. Potential implications of these MP barriers are discussed in the context of future high-energy pulsed as well as medium-energy continuous wave accelerators based on superconducting radio frequency cavities. Frequency scaling of MP’s predicted in HOM couplers of the ILC, CEBAF upgrade, Spallation Neutron Source (SNS, and Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH third harmonic cavity is given and found to be in good agreement with the analytical result based on the parallel plate model.
Li, Y. M. [Peking University, Beijing (China); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Liu, Kexin [Peking University, Beijing (China); Geng, Rongli [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)
Multipacting (MP) in higher-order-mode (HOM) couplers of the International Linear Collider (ILC) baseline cavity and the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) 12 GeV upgrade cavity is studied by using the ACE3P suites, developed by the Advanced Computations Department at SLAC. For the ILC cavity HOM coupler, the simulation results show that resonant trajectories exist in three zones, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 0.6-1.6 MV/m, 21-34 MV/m, 32-35 MV/m, and > 40MV/m, respectively. For the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade cavity HOM coupler, resonant trajectories exist in one zone, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 6-13 MV/m. Potential implications of these MP barriers are discussed in the context of future high energy pulsed as well as medium energy continuous wave (CW) accelerators based on superconducting radio frequency cavities. Frequency scaling of MP's predicted in HOM couplers of the ILC, CBEAF upgrade, SNS and FLASH third harmonic cavity is given and found to be in good agreement with the analytical result based on the parallel plate model.
Full Text Available Introduction: The vasti muscles have to work in concert to control knee joint motion during movements like walking, running, or squatting. Coherence analysis between surface electromyography (EMG signals is a common technique to study muscle synchronization during such movements and gain insight into strategies of the central nervous system to optimize neuromuscular performance. However, different assessment methods related to EMG data acquisition, e.g., different electrode configurations or amplifier technologies, have produced inconsistent observations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of different EMG acquisition techniques (monopolar vs. bipolar electrode configuration, potential vs. current amplifier on the magnitude, reliability, and sensitivity of intermuscular coherence between two vasti muscles during stable and unstable squatting exercises.Methods: Surface EMG signals from vastus lateralis (VL and medialis (VM were obtained from eighteen adults while performing series of stable und unstable bipedal squats. The EMG signals were acquired using three different recording techniques: (1 Bipolar with a potential amplifier, (2 monopolar with a potential amplifier, and (3 monopolar electrodes with a current amplifier. VL-VM coherence between the respective raw EMG signals was determined during two trials of stable squatting and one trial of unstable squatting to compare the coherence magnitude, reliability, and sensitivity between EMG recording techniques.Results: VL-VM coherence was about twice as high for monopolar recordings compared to bipolar recordings for all squatting exercises while coherence was similar between monopolar potential and current recordings. Reliability measures were comparable between recording systems while the sensitivity to an increase in intermuscular coherence during unstable vs. stable squatting was lowest for the monopolar potential system.Discussion and Conclusion: The choice of
Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S
Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kugananthan, Sambavi; Lai, Ching Tat; Gridneva, Zoya; Mark, Peter J; Geddes, Donna T; Kakulas, Foteini
Human milk (HM) contains a plethora of metabolic hormones, including leptin, which is thought to participate in the regulation of the appetite of the developing infant. Leptin in HM is derived from a combination of de novo mammary synthesis and transfer from the maternal serum. Moreover, leptin is partially lipophilic and is also present in HM cells. However, leptin has predominately been measured in skim HM, which contains neither fat nor cells. We optimised an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leptin measurement in both whole and skim HM and compared leptin levels between both HM preparations collected from 61 lactating mothers. Whole HM leptin ranged from 0.2 to 1.47 ng/mL, whilst skim HM leptin ranged from 0.19 to 0.9 ng/mL. Whole HM contained, on average, 0.24 ± 0.01 ng/mL more leptin than skim HM ( p < 0.0001, n = 287). No association was found between whole HM leptin and fat content ( p = 0.17, n = 287), supporting a cellular contribution to HM leptin. No difference was found between pre- and post-feed samples (whole HM: p = 0.29, skim HM: p = 0.89). These findings highlight the importance of optimising HM leptin measurement and assaying it in whole HM to accurately examine the amount of leptin received by the infant during breastfeeding.
Full Text Available Human milk (HM contains a plethora of metabolic hormones, including leptin, which is thought to participate in the regulation of the appetite of the developing infant. Leptin in HM is derived from a combination of de novo mammary synthesis and transfer from the maternal serum. Moreover, leptin is partially lipophilic and is also present in HM cells. However, leptin has predominately been measured in skim HM, which contains neither fat nor cells. We optimised an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leptin measurement in both whole and skim HM and compared leptin levels between both HM preparations collected from 61 lactating mothers. Whole HM leptin ranged from 0.2 to 1.47 ng/mL, whilst skim HM leptin ranged from 0.19 to 0.9 ng/mL. Whole HM contained, on average, 0.24 ± 0.01 ng/mL more leptin than skim HM (p < 0.0001, n = 287. No association was found between whole HM leptin and fat content (p = 0.17, n = 287, supporting a cellular contribution to HM leptin. No difference was found between pre- and post-feed samples (whole HM: p = 0.29, skim HM: p = 0.89. These findings highlight the importance of optimising HM leptin measurement and assaying it in whole HM to accurately examine the amount of leptin received by the infant during breastfeeding.
Full Text Available This issue is about our Human Papilloma Virus (HPV DNA test. We have examined two cohorts of patients from south-central Sicily, who were tested for HPV -DNA derived from cervical sampling, respectively in 2003 and 2011. In 2003, the most represented genotypes were: 31, 16. Instead, in 2011 there was a higher prevalence for genotypes: 42, 16. It is remarkable to note that the 35 genotype, noticed in 2003, has never been found in the second most recent group.
O'Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Darling, Aaron E; Eisen, Jonathan A; Wallis, Corrin; Davis, Ian J; Harris, Stephen J
Porphyromonads play an important role in human periodontal disease and recently have been shown to be highly prevalent in canine mouths. Porphyromonas cangingivalis is the most prevalent canine oral bacterial species in both plaque from healthy gingiva and plaque from dogs with early periodontitis. The ability of P. cangingivalis to flourish in the different environmental conditions characterized by these two states suggests a degree of metabolic flexibility. To characterize the genes responsible for this, the genomes of 32 isolates (including 18 newly sequenced and assembled) from 18 Porphyromonad species from dogs, humans, and other mammals were compared. Phylogenetic trees inferred using core genes largely matched previous findings; however, comparative genomic analysis identified several genes and pathways relating to heme synthesis that were present in P. cangingivalis but not in other Porphyromonads. Porphyromonas cangingivalis has a complete protoporphyrin IX synthesis pathway potentially allowing it to synthesize its own heme unlike pathogenic Porphyromonads such as Porphyromonas gingivalis that acquire heme predominantly from blood. Other pathway differences such as the ability to synthesize siroheme and vitamin B12 point to enhanced metabolic flexibility for P. cangingivalis, which may underlie its prevalence in the canine oral cavity. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Kengne Andre P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Available definition criteria for metabolic syndrome (MS have similarities and inconsistencies. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MS in a group of Cameroonians with type 2 diabetes, according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and the National Cholesterol Education Programme Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III criteria, and to assess the concordance between both criteria, and the implications of combining them. Methods We collected clinical and biochemical data for 308 patients with type 2 diabetes (men 157 at the National Obesity Center of the Yaounde Central Hospital, Cameroon. Concordance was assessed with the use of the Kappa statistic. Results Mean age (standard deviation was 55.8 (10.5 years and the median duration of diagnosed diabetes (25th–75th percentiles was 3 years (0.5–5.0, similarly among men and women. The prevalence of MS was 71.7% according to the IDF criteria and 60.4% according to NCEP-ATP III criteria. The prevalence was significantly higher in women than in men independently of the criteria used (both p Conclusions The IDF and NCEP-ATP III criteria do not always diagnose the same group of diabetic individuals with MS and combining them merely increases the yield beyond that provided by the IDF definition alone. This study highlights the importance of having a single unifying definition for MS in our setting.
Full Text Available To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy.A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010. Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral.76.8% (15,517/20,196 of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914 of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found.The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected
Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; González, Andrea; Servan-Mori, Edson; Beynon, Fenella; Juarez-Figueroa, Luis; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Gras, Nathalie; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Volkow, Patricia; Bertozzi, Stefano M
To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy. A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010). Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral. 76.8% (15,517/20,196) of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914) of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women) demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found. The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected will also
Sachdev, M.R.; Ramamirtham, B.; Managanvi, S.S.; Das, M.
The nature of the effects of the low-doses from ionizing radiation has been the subject of considerable interest in the scientific community. The deleterious health effects caused by the relatively high doses of radiation led to the belief that radiation was harmful at all doses. Afterwards, the concept of the threshold dose explained that negative health effects were observed only at certain dose levels. Furthermore, it has been suggested that low doses of ionizing radiation might have beneficial effects on organisms leading to an hermetic effect of these low doses. The specific objectives of the study were to compute the morbidity (prevalence) of cancer among the radiation occupational workers and their families and to compare with suitable controls and to study prevalence of congenital anomalies among the offspring of the employees of the nuclear power plants in India and to determine, if any, their causal relation with radiation exposure
Ding, Yingying; Lin, Haijiang; Liu, Xing; Wong, Frank Y; Sun, Yan V; Marconi, Vincent C; He, Na
We investigated the prevalence and correlates of prefrailty/frailty, determined on the basis of the Fried criteria, in Chinese patients with and those without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV-infected patients were more likely to be frail or prefrail than controls, and this association remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (odds ratio, 3.79). After additional adjustment for neurocognitive impairment and depressive and insomnia symptoms, this association remained significant but attenuated (odds ratio, 2.16). In the HIV-infected group, these 3 variables were independently associated with prefrailty/frailty. These findings suggest that neurocognitive impairment and depressive and/or insomnia symptoms may account for a higher prevalence of prefrailty/frailty in HIV-infected patients but require further longitudinal investigation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
This book compares the emergence and development of autonomous, fully fledged distance teaching universities in the higher education systems of the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Canada, and Israel. It examines the evolution and functional roles of these universities and outlines their commonalties and divergences. Main lessons are synthesized…
This paper is a theoretical examination of three major empirical trends that affect many people: globalisation, increasingly close relations between higher education (HE) and labour markets, and increasing social inequality. Its aim is to identify key theoretical resources and their contribution to the development of a comparative theoretical…
Transparency and comparability of higher education institutions especially in terms of their academic programmes and research activities are important issues for today's working environment. This paper is an overview of a recently completed PhD thesis which outlines examples of selected Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development…
Mekonnen, Daniel; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Fantaw, Surafel; Hunegnaw, Andualem; Mihret, Adane
The overall prevalence of HBV in Ethiopia varies from 4.7-16.8% for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 70-76.38% for at least one marker positive. Patients suffering from type I Diabetes Mellitus (DM) incur high risk of infection with hepatotropic viruses because of frequent hospitalization and blood tests. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted at Woldiya General Hospital using 108 consented study populations from Diabetes and 108 non diabetes control groups during the period November 2010 - January 2011. VISITECT HBsAg rapid test kit and Humastat 80 chemistry analyzer were used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to see the association of HBV with clinical history of participants and Sociodemographic variables. All tests were two-sided with α-level of 0.05 and 80% power. Prevalence of HBsAg was equal between diabetic and non diabetic individuals, 3.7% indicating that there was no difference between the two groups. Only history of invasive procedures and chronic liver disease showed association with HBsAg seropositivity. In this study a positive relation was not indicated between HBV and Diabetes and the prevalence of HBsAg was equal between diabetic and non diabetic individuals.
Jeong, Hyo Eun; Cho, Pyong Kon [Dept. of of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Daegu. Daegu (Korea, Republic of)
As the tertiary industry is being developed, many problems are introduced in an industrial area in Korea. This study aims to investigate the residents' health conditions, such as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonography, comparing the urban with the industrial areas. The subjects were 378 adults in the urban area and 376 adults in the industrial area. Subject variables accounted for were gender, age, drinking habits, smoking habits, physical activities, waist circumferences and BMI. In blood tests, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, HDL, blood pressures, total cholesterol, AST, ALT and GGT were examined. Also, the presence and absence of fatty liver, diagnosed using ultrasonography, was investigated. As a result, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome were 43.7% in the urban area and 51.6% in the industrial area, hence it was significantly higher in the industrial area than in the urban area. Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride and waist circumference in the distribution of the individual components were 47.4, 53.7, and 16.1% in the urban area and 54.5, 61.5, and 22.9% in the industrial area respectively, so it was substantially higher in the industrial area than in the urban area. On the other hand, HDL, diastolic blood pressure, and fatty liver were 25.7, 43.4, and 44.7% in the urban area and 21.3, 19.9, and 36.7% in the industrial area respectively and thus it was much higher in the urban area than in the industrial area. In conclusion, this study shows that there were significant differences between the residents' health condition, comparing the urban area to the industrial area. Therefore, the precaution and aggressive management of metabolic syndrome may be necessary, in accordance with the characteristics of the industrial zone.
Jeong, Hyo Eun; Cho, Pyong Kon
As the tertiary industry is being developed, many problems are introduced in an industrial area in Korea. This study aims to investigate the residents' health conditions, such as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonography, comparing the urban with the industrial areas. The subjects were 378 adults in the urban area and 376 adults in the industrial area. Subject variables accounted for were gender, age, drinking habits, smoking habits, physical activities, waist circumferences and BMI. In blood tests, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, HDL, blood pressures, total cholesterol, AST, ALT and GGT were examined. Also, the presence and absence of fatty liver, diagnosed using ultrasonography, was investigated. As a result, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome were 43.7% in the urban area and 51.6% in the industrial area, hence it was significantly higher in the industrial area than in the urban area. Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride and waist circumference in the distribution of the individual components were 47.4, 53.7, and 16.1% in the urban area and 54.5, 61.5, and 22.9% in the industrial area respectively, so it was substantially higher in the industrial area than in the urban area. On the other hand, HDL, diastolic blood pressure, and fatty liver were 25.7, 43.4, and 44.7% in the urban area and 21.3, 19.9, and 36.7% in the industrial area respectively and thus it was much higher in the urban area than in the industrial area. In conclusion, this study shows that there were significant differences between the residents' health condition, comparing the urban area to the industrial area. Therefore, the precaution and aggressive management of metabolic syndrome may be necessary, in accordance with the characteristics of the industrial zone
Full Text Available The focus in the article is on creativity in the higher education sector in terms of gender perspective. The question posed concerns the relation between women’s and men’s patent activities and R&D expenditures. The paper is based on the data from the European Patent Office, 1999-2013 concerning creative activities performed by women and men in the higher education sector. The paper looks into the dynamics of changes in terms of the number of women and men researchers, R&D personnel and inventors, and combines them with the changes in R&D expenditures in the higher education sector. The analysis is conducted for the two groups of leading EU countries in the light of their patent activities. The objective of this exercise is to present the correlation between R&D expenditures and women and men in the R&D sectors, comparing these two groups of the EU countries.
Badil, Samantha; Elliott, Diane G.; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Clemens, Kathy; Blair, Marilyn; Purcell, Maureen K.
Nucleospora salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian that primarily infects lymphoblast cells and contributes to chronic lymphoblastosis and a leukemia-like condition in a range of salmonid species. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of N. salmonis in out-migrating juvenile hatchery and wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss from the Snake River in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. To achieve this goal, we first addressed the following concerns about current molecular diagnostic tests for N. salmonis: (1) nonspecific amplification patterns by the published nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) test, (2) incomplete validation of the published quantitative PCR (qPCR) test, and (3) whether N. salmonis can be detected reliably from nonlethal samples. Here, we present an optimized nPCR protocol that eliminates nonspecific amplification. During validation of the published qPCR test, our laboratory developed a second qPCR test that targeted a different gene sequence and used different probe chemistry for comparison purposes. We simultaneously evaluated the two different qPCR tests for N. salmonis and found that both assays were highly specific, sensitive, and repeatable. The nPCR and qPCR tests had good overall concordance when DNA samples derived from both apparently healthy and clinically diseased hatchery rainbow trout were tested. Finally, we demonstrated that gill snips were a suitable tissue for nonlethal detection of N. salmonis DNA in juvenile salmonids. Monitoring of juvenile salmonid fish in the Snake River over a 3-year period revealed low prevalence of N. salmonis in hatchery and wild Chinook salmon and wild steelhead but significantly higher prevalence in hatchery-derived steelhead. Routine monitoring of N. salmonis is not performed for all hatchery steelhead populations. At present, the possible contribution of this pathogen to delayed mortality of steelhead has not been determined.
Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David
Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic, infectious disease in cattle. Between 2010 and 2013, a voluntary JD control program was successfully launched in Ontario, Canada, including a Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP) and JD ELISA testing of the entire milking herd. Over the last decade, the organic dairy sector has been growing. However, organic farming regulations and philosophies may influence the risk for JD transmission on Ontario organic dairy farms. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in JD ELISA test positive prevalence, risk factors for JD and recommendations for JD prevention between organic and conventional dairy herds in Ontario. RAMP results (i.e. RAMP scores and recommendations) and ELISA results were available for 2103 dairy herds, including 42 organic herds. If available, additional data on milk production, milk quality, and herd characteristics were gathered. Organic and conventional herds had a similar herd-level JD ELISA test-positive prevalence (26.2% and 27.2%, respectively). Organic herds (4.2%) had a higher within-herd JD ELISA test-positive prevalence compared to conventional herds (2.3%) if they had at least one JD test-positive animal on the farm. Organic farms had lower risk scores for biosecurity (9 points lower), and higher scores in the calving (7 points higher) and the calf-rearing management areas (4 points higher). After accounting for RAMP score, organic farms received fewer recommendations for the calving management area (Odds Ratio=0.41) and more recommendations in the adult cow management area (Odds Ratio=2.70). A zero-inflated negative binomial model was built with purchase of animals and the herd size included in the logistic portion of the model. Herd type (organic or conventional), colostrum and milk feeding practices, average bulk tank somatic cell count, and presence of non-Holstein breeds were included in the negative binomial portion of the model. Organic farms had a higher number of
Fereshtehnejad, S-M; Shafieesabet, M; Shahidi, G A; Delbari, A; Lökk, J
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder that can coexist with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the association between these two movement disorders is quite poorly explored and previous findings are controversial in different aspects. To compare prevalence of RLS in Iranian PD population with a matched control group and to investigate the impact of comorbid RLS on quality of life (QoL), nutritional status, and clinical characteristics in PD population. This study was conducted on 108 individuals with idiopathic PD (IPD) and 424 matched controls. RLS was diagnosed using the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) criteria. Further assessments were performed on clinical characteristics, PD severity scales, psychiatric features, nutritional status, fatigue, and QoL in PD patients with and without RLS. Restless legs syndrome was significantly more common among the patients with IPD (14.8%) compared to the controls (7.5%) [OR = 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1-4.0)]. IPD subjects with RLS had significantly higher anxiety score [10.1 (SD = 5.1) vs 5.9 (SD = 5.0); P = 0.003], worse nutritional status [23.7 (SD = 2.7) vs 25.4 (SD = 3.7); P = 0.008], and poorer QoL [26.9 (SD = 13.1) vs 17.0 (SD = 13.2); P = 0.006]. The number of positive answers to the IRLSSG diagnostic criteria had significant direct correlation with unpredictability of the off periods and the presence of symptomatic orthostasis. Our study demonstrated a higher prevalence of RLS in patients with PD compared to general population. PD patients with RLS suffer from more anxiety, worse nutritional status, and worse QoL. RLS negatively accompanies with psychiatric problems, emotional behaviors, stigma, and cognitive impairment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Travis, Frederick; Parim, Niyazi; Shrivastava, Amrita
This study compared subjective experiences and EEG patterns in 37 subjects when listening to live Vedic recitation and when practicing Transcendental Meditation (TM). Content analysis of experiences when listening to Vedic recitation yielded three higher-order code. Experiences during Vedic recitation were: (1) deeper than during TM practice; (2) experienced as an inner process; and (3) characterized by lively silence. EEG patterns support these higher-order codes. Theta2 and alpha1 frontal, parietal, and frontal-parietal coherence were significantly higher when listening to Vedic recitation, than during TM practice. Theta2 coherence is seen when attending to internal mental processes. Higher theta2 coherence supports subjects' descriptions that the Vedic recitations were "not external sounds but internal vibrations." Alpha1 coherence is reported during pure consciousness experiences during TM practice. Higher alpha1 coherence supports subjects' descriptions that they "experienced a depth of experience, rarely experienced even during deep TM practice." These data support the utility of listening to Vedic recitation to culture deep inner experiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Christian Akem Dimala
Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has greatly reduced the morbidity and mortality of HIV/AIDS patients but has also been associated with increased metabolic complications and cardiovascular diseases. Data on the association between HAART and hypertension (HTN in Africa are scarce.Primarily to compare the prevalence of HTN in HIV/AIDS patients on HAART and HAART-naïve patients in Limbe, Cameroon; and secondarily to assess other socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with HTN in this population.A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Limbe Regional Hospital HIV treatment center between April and June 2013, involving 200 HIV/AIDS patients (100 on first-line HAART regimens for at least 12 months matched by age and sex to 100 HAART-naïve patients. HTN was defined as a systolic blood pressure (BP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg.The prevalence of HTN in patients on HAART was twice (38%; 95% CI: 28.5-48.3 that of the HAART-naïve patients (19%; 95% CI, 11.8-28.1, p = 0.003. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, gender, smoking, family history of HTN, and BMI-defined overweight, HAART was associated with HTN, the adjusted odds ratio of the HAART-treated versus HAART-naïve group was 2.20 (95% CI: 1.07-4.52, p = 0.032. HTN was associated with older age and male gender, in the HAART group and with BMI-defined overweight in the HAART-naïve group.The prevalence of hypertension in HIV/AIDS patients in Limbe stands out to be elevated, higher in patients on HAART compared to those not on treatment. Blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors should be routinely monitored. Other factors such as diet, weight control and physical exercise should also be considered.
Casey, M B; Tremaine, W H
With the advent of detailed oral examination in horses using dental mirrors and rigid endoscopy, secondary dentinal lesions are observed more frequently. More information regarding the association of secondary dentinal defects with apical dental disease would improve the sensitivity of oral examination as a diagnostic aid for pulpitis. To assess prevalence and severity of secondary dentinal defects observed on examination of occlusal surfaces of cheek teeth (CT) from horses showing clinical signs of pulpitis compared to asymptomatic controls. Records from all cases of equine CT exodontia at the University of Bristol over a 4 year period were examined. Case selection criteria included the presence of clinical signs of pulpitis, an intact extracted tooth and availability of a complete history and follow up. Cases where coronal fracture or periodontal pocketing featured were excluded. CT from cadavers with no history of dental disease served as normal controls. Triadan positions and eruption ages of control teeth were matched with those of teeth extracted from cases. CT from selected cases and control teeth were examined occlusally. Secondary dentinal defects were identified and graded. Prevalence of occlusal lesions in CT with pulpitis and controls was compared. From the records of 120 horses where exodontia was performed, 40 cases matched selection criteria. Twenty-three mandibular and 21 maxillary CT were extracted from cases. The controls consisted of 60 mandibular and 60 maxillary CT from 7 cadaver skulls. Secondary dentinal defects were significantly over-represented in CT extracted from cases of pulpitis (P pulpitis in equine CT.
Bassetti, Matteo; Merelli, Maria; Della Siega, Paola; Righi, Elda [Santa Maria della Misericordia University Hospital, Infectious Diseases Division, Udine (Italy); Di Gregorio, Fernando [Santa Maria della Misericordia University Hospital, Microbiology Unit, Udine (Italy); Screm, Maria; Scarparo, Claudio [Santa Maria della Misericordia University Hospital, Radiology Unit, Udine (Italy)
Tuberculous spondylodiscitis can be difficult to diagnose because of its nonspecific symptoms and the similarities with non-tubercular forms of spinal infection. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG PET-CT) is increasingly used for the diagnosis and monitoring of tubercular diseases. Retrospective, case-control study comparing tuberculous spondylodiscitis with biopsy-confirmed pyogenic spondylodiscitis in the period 2010-2012. Ten cases of tuberculous spondylodiscitis and 20 controls were included. Compared to pyogenic, tuberculous spondylodiscitis was more frequent in younger patients (P = 0.01) and was more often associated with thoraco-lumbar tract lesions (P = 0.01) and multiple vertebral involvement (P = 0.01). Significantly higher maximum standardized uptake values (SUV) at FDG-PET were displayed by tuberculous spondylodiscitis compared to controls (12.4 vs. 7.3, P = 0.003). SUV levels above 8 showed the highest value of specificity (0.80). Mean SUV reduction of 48% was detected for tuberculous spondylodiscitis at 1-month follow-up. Higher SUV levels at FDG-PET were detected in tuberculous compared with pyogenic spondylodiscitis. PET-CT use appeared useful in the disease follow-up after treatment initiation. (orig.)
Full Text Available Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly described emerging pathogen transmitted to people by Ixodes species ticks and found in temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. There is limited understanding of large scale entomological risk patterns of B. miyamotoi and of Borreila burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss, the agent of Lyme disease, in western North America. In this study, B. miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, was detected in adult (n=70 and nymphal (n=36 Ixodes pacificus ticks collected from 24 of 48 California counties that were surveyed over a 13 year period. Statewide prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (sl, which includes B. burgdorferi ss, and B. miyamotoi were similar in adult I. pacificus (0.6% and 0.8%, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl was almost 2.5 times higher than B. miyamotoi in nymphal I. pacificus (3.2% versus 1.4%. These results suggest similar risk of exposure to B. burgdorferi sl and B. miyamotoi from adult I. pacificus tick bites in California, but a higher risk of contracting B. burgdorferi sl than B. miyamotoi from nymphal tick bites. While regional risk of exposure to these two spirochetes varies, the highest risk for both species is found in north and central coastal California and the Sierra Nevada foothill region, and the lowest risk is in southern California; nevertheless, tick-bite avoidance measures should be implemented in all regions of California. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate entomologic risk for B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi for both adult and nymphal I. pacificus, an important human biting tick in western North America.
Elliott, Simon; Woolacott, Helen; Braithwaite, Robin
Researchers have studied the involvement of drugs and alcohol in fatal road traffic incidents, but with particular emphasis on the possible impairment of the driver. This paper describes a comparative study of drug and alcohol findings in various victim groups (drivers of cars, vans or lorries, car passengers, motorcyclists, motorcycle passengers, cyclists and pedestrians) between 2000 and 2006. Post-mortem blood and urine specimens submitted were analysed by immunoassay, GC-NPD, GC-FID, GC-MS and HPLC-DAD. The results of 1047 cases indicated 54% of all victims were positive for drugs and/or alcohol, with the highest percentage of positive findings occurring in pedestrians (63%). Males between the ages of 17-24 were most likely to be involved in a road traffic accident, whether being in control of a vehicle (driver) or involved indirectly (car passenger, pedestrian, motorcycle passenger). A wide range of drugs were detected (e.g., drugs of abuse, anti-convulsants, anti-histamines, anti-inflammatories, anti-psychotics, cardiac drugs and over-the-counter products), but alcohol and cannabinoids were the most frequent substances across the victim groups. When detected, alcohol was commonly above the legal driving limit in blood and urine (>63% in those in control and >60% not in control). Overall, the presence of drugs and/or alcohol was of similar frequency in those victims in control (55% of driver, 48% of motorcyclists, 33% of cyclists) and not in control of a vehicle (52% of car passengers, 63% of pedestrians). This degree of frequency strongly implicates the involvement of drugs and alcohol in road traffic incidents and infers an effect on driving ability and individual impairment.
Arbus, C; Hergueta, T; Duburcq, A; Saleh, A; Le Guern, M-E; Robert, P; Camus, V
Adjustment disorder with anxiety (AjD-A) is a common cause of severe anxiety symptoms, but little is known about its prevalence in old age. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of AjD-A in outpatients over the age of 60 who consecutively consulted 34 general practitioners and 22 psychiatrists during a 2-week period. The diagnosis of AjD-A was obtained using the optional module for diagnostic of adjustment disorder of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The study procedure also explored comorbid psychiatric conditions and documented recent past stressful life events, as well as social disability and current pharmacological and non-pharmacological management. Overall, 3651 consecutive subjects were screened (2937 in primary care and 714 in mental health care). The prevalence rate of AjD-A was 3.7% (n=136). Up to 39% (n=53) of AjD-A subjects had a comorbid psychiatric condition, mostly of the anxious type. The most frequently stressful life event reported to be associated with the onset of AjD-A was personal illness or health problem (29%). More than 50% of the AjD-A patients were markedly to extremely disabled by their symptoms. Compared to patients who consulted psychiatrists, patients who were seen by primary care physicians were older, had obtained lower scores at the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, benefited less frequently from non-pharmacological management and received benzodiazepines more frequently. AjD-A appears to be a significantly disabling cause of anxiety symptoms in community dwelling elderly persons, in particular those presenting personal health related problems. Improvement of early diagnosis and non-pharmacological management of AjD-A would contribute to limit risks of benzodiazepine overuse, particularly in primary care settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Flink, Benjamin J; Long, Chandler A; Duwayri, Yazan; Brewster, Luke P; Veeraswamy, Ravi; Gallagher, Katherine; Arya, Shipra
Women undergoing vascular surgery have higher morbidity and mortality. Our study explores gender-based differences in patient-centered outcomes such as readmission, length of stay (LOS), and discharge destination (home vs nonhome facility) in aortic aneurysm surgery. Patients were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database (2011-2013) undergoing abdominal, thoracic, and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (N = 17,763), who were discharged and survived their index hospitalization. The primary outcome was unplanned readmission, and secondary outcomes were discharge to a nonhome facility, LOS, and reasons for unplanned readmission. Univariate, multivariate, and stratified analyses based on gender and discharge destination were used. Overall, 1541 patients (8.7%) experienced an unplanned readmission, with a significantly higher risk in women vs men (10.8% vs 8%; P women compared with men persisted in multivariate analysis after controlling for covariates (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.4). Similarly, the rate of discharge to a nonhome facility was nearly double in women compared with men (20.6% vs 10.7%; P women compared with men occurred in patients who were discharged home (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.02-1.4) but not in those who were discharged to a nonhome facility (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4). Significant differences in LOS were seen in patients who were discharged home. No gender differences were found in reasons for readmission with the three most common reasons being thromboembolic events, wound infections, and pneumonia. Gender disparity exists in the risk of unplanned readmission among aortic aneurysm surgery patients. Women who were discharged home have a higher likelihood of unplanned readmission despite longer LOS than men. These data suggest that further study into the discharge planning processes, social factors, and use of rehabilitation services is needed for women
Wu, Yu-Tuan; Luo, Qing-Qing; Li, Xin; Arshad, Bilal; Xu, Zhou; Ran, Liang; Zhao, Chun-Xia; Wu, He; Shi, Yan-Ling; Chen, Hao-Ran; Li, Hao; Li, Hong-Yuan; Wu, Kai-Nan; Kong, Ling-Quan
Metabolic syndrome has been previously identified as a risk factor for breast cancer and is increasingly a public health concern. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among primary breast cancer and control population. The clinical data of metabolic syndrome and its components in the breast cancer (605 cases) and control population (3212 cases), from Breast Cancer Center and Physical Examination Center of Chongqing, China, from July 2015 to February 2017, were collected for comparative analysis. This study was prospectively registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://www.chictr.org.cn/, number: ChiCTR-OOB-15007543). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in breast cancer (32.6%) was obviously higher than that in control population (18.2%) (pmetabolic syndrome in breast cancer group aged below 60 years (24.9%, pmetabolic syndrome and its components in Chinese breast cancer women, and metabolic syndrome is closely related with breast cancer. Therefore, screening and prevention strategy of metabolic syndrome should be carried out in the management of breast cancer.
Tomita, Tetsu; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Sugawara, Norio; Ogasawara, Kohei; Katagai, Koki; Saito, Hisao; Sawada, Kaori; Takahashi, Ippei; Nakamura, Kazuhiko
We investigated the prevalence of depression in hemodialysis (HD) patients using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression (CES-D) scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Fourth Edition (SCID) and compared the rates with those of community dwelling people in Japan. A total of 99 patients undergoing HD were recruited. Blood sampling was performed no later than 2 weeks prior to assessment. As a reference group for SCID and CES-D evaluation, 404 age- and sex-matched healthy controls who had participated in the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were included in this study. The SCID and the CES-D scale were administered to all participants to diagnose their depression. Participants who met the criteria of a major depressive episode according to the SCID were classified as SCID depression and the participants whose CES-D score was 16 or higher were classified as CES-D depression. Ninety-nine HD patients completed the evaluation and data collection. There were no significant differences in age, sex, or CES-D scores between HD patients and controls. There were 12 cases of SCID depression in HD patients and four cases in controls. There was a significant difference between HD patients and controls in the prevalence of SCID depression. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to demographic or clinical data. There were 19 HD patients and 24 controls who showed CES-D depression. There was no significant difference between HD patients and controls in the prevalence of CES-D depression. There was a significant difference in potassium level between the two groups, but there were no significant differences in any of the other items. There were significantly more HD patients showing SCID depression than controls in the present study. In clinical settings, the SCID might be useful in surveying cases of depression detected by screening tools among HD patients.
Collis, Betty; van der Wende, Marijk
The aim of this study is to investigate which scenarios are emerging with respect to the use of ICT in higher education and how future developments can be predicted and strategic choices can be based on that. It seeks to answer the following questions: What strategic responses do institutions make
Oh, Chorong; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon
In this study, we examined the relationship between sarcopenic obesity (SO) and nutrition status, according to sex in Korean adults who were 60 years or older. Body composition was categorized as SO, sarcopenic nonobesity, nonsarcopenic obesity, and nonsarcopenic nonobesity. Obesity was defined by body mass index. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (Wt) of less than 1 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Subjects included 1433 subjects (658 men and 775 women) who were 60 years or older and who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2010. Sarcopenic obesity was more prevalent in women (31.3%) than in men (19.6%). Individuals with SO had significantly higher fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (male: 3.2 ± 1.4, female: 3.4 ± 2.1), and triglycerides (male: 167.3 ± 90.6 mg/dL, female: 160.7 ± 85.0 mg/dL). High-density lipoprotein was under the normal criteria (50 mg/dL) in women. Intake of nutrients associated with muscle loss (protein, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin C) was significantly different among the male but not the female groups. Although protein intake was normal, calcium and vitamin D intakes were insufficient in all groups. In conclusion, body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly (60 years or older) men but not elderly women. Women had a higher prevalence of SO than did men, suggesting that early nutritional intervention in elderly women may help them address age-associated body composition changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vejbjerg, Pernille; Knudsen, Nils; Perrild, Hans
-2 center dot 66) before iodization. The difference was found in both regions and across age groups. There was a lower prevalence of mild hyperthyroidism and a tendency towards a lower prevalence of overt hyperthyroidism. The prevalence of mild hypothyroidism increased, most pronounced among young women...
Full Text Available Background: Exercise training improves performance and biochemical parameters on average, but wide interindividual variability exists, with individuals classified as responders (R or non-responders (NRs, especially between populations with higher or lower levels of insulin resistance. This study assessed the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and the prevalence of NRs in adult women with higher and lower levels of insulin resistance.Methods: Forty adult women were assigned to a HIIT program, and after training were analyzed in two groups; a group with higher insulin resistance (H-IR, 40 ± 6 years; BMI: 29.5 ± 3.7 kg/m2; n = 20 and a group with lower insulin resistance (L-IR, 35 ± 9 years; 27.8 ± 2.8 kg/m2; n = 20. Anthropometric, cardiovascular, metabolic, and performance variables were measured at baseline and after 10 weeks of training.Results: There were significant training-induced changes [delta percent (Δ%] in fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR scores in the H-IR group (−8.8, −26.5, −32.1%, p < 0.0001, whereas no significant changes were observed in the L-IR. Both groups showed significant pre-post changes in other anthropometric variables [waist circumference (−5.2, p < 0.010, and −3.8%, p = 0.046 and tricipital (−13.3, p < 0.010, and −13.6%, p < 0.0001, supra-iliac (−19.4, p < 0.0001, and −13.6%, p < 0.0001, and abdominal (−18.2, p < 0.0001, and −15.6%, p < 0.010 skinfold measurements]. Systolic blood pressure decreased significantly only in the L-IR group (−3.2%, p < 0.010. Both groups showed significant increases in 1RMLE (+12.9, p < 0.010, and +14.7%, p = 0.045. There were significant differences in the prevalence of NRs between the H-IR and L-IR groups for fasting glucose (25 vs. 95%, p < 0.0001 and fasting insulin (p = 0.025 but not for HOMA-IR (25 vs. 45%, p = 0.185.Conclusion: Independent of the “magnitude” of the
Fernando, Malindu E; Crowther, Robert G; Lazzarini, Peter A; Sangla, Kunwarjit S; Wearing, Scott; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan
Current international guidelines advocate achieving at least a 30 % reduction in maximum plantar pressure to reduce the risk of foot ulcers in people with diabetes. However, whether plantar pressures differ in cases with foot ulcers to controls without ulcers is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess if plantar pressures were higher in patients with active plantar diabetic foot ulcers (cases) compared to patients with diabetes without a foot ulcer history (diabetes controls) and people without diabetes or a foot ulcer history (healthy controls). Twenty-one cases with diabetic foot ulcers, 69 diabetes controls and 56 healthy controls were recruited for this case-control study. Plantar pressures at ten sites on both feet and stance phase duration were measured using a pre-established protocol. Primary outcomes were mean peak plantar pressure, pressure-time integral and stance phase duration. Non-parametric analyses were used with Holm's correction to correct for multiple testing. Binary logistic regression models were used to adjust outcomes for age, sex and body mass index. Median differences with 95 % confidence intervals and Cohen's d values (standardised mean difference) were reported for all significant outcomes. The majority of ulcers were located on the plantar surface of the hallux and toes. When adjusted for age, sex and body mass index, the mean peak plantar pressure and pressure-time integral of toes and the mid-foot were significantly higher in cases compared to diabetes and healthy controls (p diabetic foot ulcers despite having a longer stance phase duration which would be expected to lower plantar pressure. Whether plantar pressure changes can predict ulcer healing should be the focus of future research. These results highlight the importance of offloading feet during active ulceration in addition to before ulceration.
Full Text Available Insect pollinator abundance, in particular that of bees, has been shown to be high where there is a super-abundance of floral resources; for example in association with mass-flowering crops and also in gardens where flowering plants are often densely planted. Since land management affects pollinator numbers, it is also likely to affect the resultant pollination of plants growing in these habitats. We hypothesised that the seed or fruit set of two plant species, typically pollinated by bumblebees and/or honeybees might respond in one of two ways: 1 pollination success could be reduced when growing in a floriferous environment, via competition for pollinators, or 2 pollination success could be enhanced because of increased pollinator abundance in the vicinity.We compared the pollination success of experimental plants of Glechoma hederacea L. and Lotus corniculatus L. growing in gardens and arable farmland. On the farms, the plants were placed either next to a mass-flowering crop (oilseed rape, Brassica napus L. or field beans, Vicia faba L. or next to a cereal crop (wheat, Triticum spp.. Seed set of G. hederacea and fruit set of L. corniculatus were significantly higher in gardens compared to arable farmland. There was no significant difference in pollination success of G. hederacea when grown next to different crops, but for L. corniculatus, fruit set was higher in the plants growing next to oilseed rape when the crop was in flower.The results show that pollination services can limit fruit set of wild plants in arable farmland, but there is some evidence that the presence of a flowering crop can facilitate their pollination (depending on species and season. We have also demonstrated that gardens are not only beneficial to pollinators, but also to the process of pollination.
Marx, Florian M.; Fiebig, Lena; Hauer, Barbara; Brodhun, Bonita; Glaser-Paschke, Gisela; Haas, Walter
Background In Western Europe, migrants constitute an important risk group for tuberculosis, but little is known about successive generations of migrants. We aimed to characterize migration among tuberculosis cases in Berlin and to estimate annual rates of tuberculosis in two subsequent migrant generations. We hypothesized that second generation migrants born in Germany are at higher risk of tuberculosis compared to native (non-migrant) residents. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted. All tuberculosis cases reported to health authorities in Berlin between 11/2010 and 10/2011 were eligible. Interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire including demographic data, migration history of patients and their parents, and language use. Tuberculosis rates were estimated using 2011 census data. Results Of 314 tuberculosis cases reported, 154 (49.0%) participated. Of these, 81 (52.6%) were first-, 14 (9.1%) were second generation migrants, and 59 (38.3%) were native residents. The tuberculosis rate per 100,000 individuals was 28.3 (95CI: 24.0–32.6) in first-, 10.2 (95%CI: 6.1–16.6) in second generation migrants, and 4.6 (95%CI: 3.7–5.6) in native residents. When combining information from the standard notification variables country of birth and citizenship, the sensitivity to detect second generation migration was 28.6%. Conclusions There is a higher rate of tuberculosis among second generation migrants compared to native residents in Berlin. This may be explained by presumably frequent contact and transmission within migrant populations. Second generation migration is insufficiently captured by the surveillance variables country of birth and citizenship. Surveillance systems in Western Europe should allow for quantifying the tuberculosis burden in this important risk group. PMID:26061733
Nielsen, Friedrich; Georgiadou, Ekaterini; Bartsch, Merle; Langenberg, Svenja; Müller, Astrid; de Zwaan, Martina
Previous research shows an association between obesity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study compares pre- and post-bariatric surgery patients using the internationally used Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS™) to screen for ADHD. Matched samples pre- (N = 120) and post-bariatric surgery (N = 128) were compared using self-rating instruments to assess ADHD-relevant symptomatology, depression, eating-related psychopathology, and BMI. Prevalence of probable ADHD did not differ between groups using the CAARS Index Scale T-scores; however, CAARS subscales Inattention/Memory and Self-Concept showed significantly lower scores in post-surgery patients. All CAARS subscales correlated significantly with each other, with depression and eating-related psychopathology. There was no correlation between ADHD and excess BMI loss in post-surgery patients. The findings suggest that a considerable number of patients before and after bariatric surgery screened positive for ADHD. It can be hypothesized that some core ADHD symptoms improve after surgery. Future studies are warranted to investigate the influence of ADHD on long-term surgery outcomes. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Full Text Available Objective: Previous research shows an association between obesity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The present study compares pre- and post-bariatric surgery patients using the internationally used Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS™ to screen for ADHD. Methods: Matched samples pre- (N = 120 and post-bariatric surgery (N = 128 were compared using self-rating instruments to assess ADHD-relevant symptomatology, depression, eating-related psychopathology, and BMI. Results: Prevalence of probable ADHD did not differ between groups using the CAARS Index Scale T-scores; however, CAARS subscales Inattention/Memory and Self-Concept showed significantly lower scores in post-surgery patients. All CAARS subscales correlated significantly with each other, with depression and eating-related psychopathology. There was no correlation between ADHD and excess BMI loss in post-surgery patients. Conclusion: The findings suggest that a considerable number of patients before and after bariatric surgery screened positive for ADHD. It can be hypothesized that some core ADHD symptoms improve after surgery. Future studies are warranted to investigate the influence of ADHD on long-term surgery outcomes.
Martin, Faith; Russell, Steve; Seeley, Janet
Provision of antiretroviral treatment (ART) to people living with HIV (PLWH) has increased globally. Research measuring whether ART restores subjective well-being to "normal" levels is lacking, particularly in resource limited settings. The study objectives are to compare quality of life and depression symptoms for PLWH on ART to a general community population and to explore factors to explain these differences, including socio-economic status and the impact of urban or rural residence. PLWH on ART (n = 263) were recruited from ART delivery sites and participants not on ART (n = 160) were recruited from communities in Wakiso District, Uganda. Participants were interviewed using the translated World Health Organisation Quality of Life brief measure, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist depression section, and questions about socio-economic status, residence as urban or rural and, for PLWH on ART, self-reported adherence and use of HIV counselling. Compared to the community sample and controlling for location of residence, PLWH on ART had significantly higher quality of life (QOL) for physical, psychological and environment domains, but not the social domain. These differences were not due to socio-economic status alone. Depression scores were significantly lower for PLWH on ART. Both comparisons controlled for the effect of location of residence. People on ART self-reported high adherence and the majority had used HIV counselling services. Our findings show better QOL amongst PLWH on ART compared to a general community sample, which cannot be explained solely by differences in socio-economic status nor location of residence. The general community sample results point towards the challenges of life in this setting. Access to health services may underpin this difference and further research should explore this finding, in addition to identification of psychological mechanisms that relate to better QOL. ART provision infrastructure has clear benefits. Further work
Full Text Available Provision of antiretroviral treatment (ART to people living with HIV (PLWH has increased globally. Research measuring whether ART restores subjective well-being to "normal" levels is lacking, particularly in resource limited settings. The study objectives are to compare quality of life and depression symptoms for PLWH on ART to a general community population and to explore factors to explain these differences, including socio-economic status and the impact of urban or rural residence. PLWH on ART (n = 263 were recruited from ART delivery sites and participants not on ART (n = 160 were recruited from communities in Wakiso District, Uganda. Participants were interviewed using the translated World Health Organisation Quality of Life brief measure, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist depression section, and questions about socio-economic status, residence as urban or rural and, for PLWH on ART, self-reported adherence and use of HIV counselling. Compared to the community sample and controlling for location of residence, PLWH on ART had significantly higher quality of life (QOL for physical, psychological and environment domains, but not the social domain. These differences were not due to socio-economic status alone. Depression scores were significantly lower for PLWH on ART. Both comparisons controlled for the effect of location of residence. People on ART self-reported high adherence and the majority had used HIV counselling services. Our findings show better QOL amongst PLWH on ART compared to a general community sample, which cannot be explained solely by differences in socio-economic status nor location of residence. The general community sample results point towards the challenges of life in this setting. Access to health services may underpin this difference and further research should explore this finding, in addition to identification of psychological mechanisms that relate to better QOL. ART provision infrastructure has clear benefits
Full Text Available Objective: Handedness is the most prominent behavioral asymmetry in human. The term of hand preference points to prefer hand or functional asymmetry in manual tasks. The items were considered in this study were: the comparison of handedness between normal and congenitally deaf students the effects of age, sex, and pressure on using right hand for unimanual tasks on handedness the frequency of left-handers among student’s families, the influence of hand preference on English language capabilities, and the point of view of people rather to left-handers have been investigated. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 760 students including 380 normal students and 380 deaf students with congenital severe or profound sensory-neural hearing loss from 12 to 18 years of age by that were selected purposefully, completing Edinburg handedness inventory in Tehran. The students didn’t have any confirmed diseases or neurological disorders, except hearing loss in deaf student. Data were gathered through the completion of the Edinburg Handedness Inventory by the students. The student’s aural records and also the confirmation of the audiologist in the deaf schools were considered in order to determine the kind and degree of hearing loss. Results: The prevalence of left-handedness among normal (9.7% and deaf (10.3% students were near to each other, and there was no significant difference between them (P=0.901, z=-1.24. The prevalence of left-handedness was higher in boys rather than girls, but there was no significant influence of sex and age on results (P>0.05. The family and/or teacher pressure for using right hand was 16.0% in normal students and 5.0% in deaf students, and they didn’t report any strict pressure or severity regard this mater. The frequency of left-handers was higher among family of normal students (22.6% than deaf students (13.2%, and the difference between them was significant statistically (P=0
Schmidt, Christina; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro
We studied meiofauna standing stocks and community structure in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plains in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In general, the Nematoda were dominant (93%) followed by the Copepoda (4%). Nematode abundances ranged from 87% to 96%; those of copepods from 2% to 7%. The most diverse deployment yielded 17 taxa: Acari, Amphipoda, Annelida, Bivalvia, Coelenterata, Copepoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Isopoda, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Priapulida, Tanaidacea, Tantulocarida, and Tardigrada. Nauplii were also present. Generally, the trench slope and the southernmost deployments had the highest abundances (850-1392 individuals/cm2). The results of non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that these deployments were similar to each other in meiofauna community structure. The southernmost deployments were located in a zone of higher particulate organic carbon (POC) flux (g Corg m-2 yr-1), whereas the trench slope should have low POC flux due to depth attenuation. Also, POC and abundance were significantly correlated in the abyssal plains. This correlation may explain the higher abundances at the southernmost deployments. Lateral transport was also assumed to explain high meiofauna abundances on the trench slope. Abundances were generally higher than expected from model results. ANOSIM revealed significant differences between the trench slope and the northern abyssal plains, between the central abyssal plains and the trench slope, between the trench slope and the southern abyssal plains, between the central and the southern abyssal plains, and between the central and northern deployments. The northern and southern abyssal plains did not differ significantly. In addition, a U-test revealed highly significant differences between the trench-slope and abyssal deployments. The taxa inhabited mostly the upper 0-3 cm of the sediment layer (Nematoda 80-90%; Copepoda 88-100%). The trench-slope and abyssal did not differ
Callado, Maria Roseli Monteiro; Lima, José Rubens Costa; Nobre, Christiane Aguiar; Vieira, Walber Pinto
To identify tuberculosis infection in rheumatic patients on infliximab by use of PPD testing prior to immunobiologic therapy. This study comprised 157 patients undergoing infliximab treatment and 734 other patients undergoing laboratory screening for tuberculosis infection originating from several services. The Mantoux technique was used for PPD testing, and an induration of at least 5 mm was considered reactive status. In the infliximab group, 13% of the patients reacted to PPD, while, in the other group, 27% of the patients reacted to PPD (χ² = 13; P = 0.0003). These patients were divided into categories: adults with chronic diseases, PPD reactivity of 22%; and other controls, PPD reactivity of 31%. This shows the heterogeneous response of that population (χ² = 7; P PPD reactivity in the RA subgroup (4%) was also lower as compared with that of the chronic patients group (22%) (OR = 0.16; CI: 0.05-0.49; χ² = 14; P = 0.0002), even when reclassified into four subgroups: rheumatology (OR = 0.19; CI: 0.04-0.72), kidney transplantation (OR = 0.16; CI: 0.05-0.51), infectology (OR = 0.21; CI: 0.05-0.75), and other conditions (OR = 0.13; CI: 0.04-0.44). The low prevalence of PPD reaction in this Brazilian population, mainly in chronic patients, with the worst performance among RA patients, showed that the test has limited value for diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in candidates to infliximab therapy.
Rezvan, H; Rees, R; Ali, SA
Background Leishmaniasis is a worldwide disease prevalent in tropical and sub tropical countries. Many attempts have been made and different strategies have been approached to develop a potent vaccine against Leishmania. DNA immunisation is a method, which is shown to be effective in Leishmania vaccination. Leishmania Soluble Antigen (SLA) has also recently been used Leishmania vaccination. Methods The immunity generated by SLA and L. mexicana gp63 cDNA was compared in groups of 6 mice, which were statistically analysed by student t- test with the P-value of 0.05. SLA was administered by two different methods; intramuscular injection and injection of dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with SLA. L. mexicana gp63 cDNA was administered by the gene gun. Results Immunisation of BALB/c mice with L. mexicana gp63 resulted in high levels of Th1-type immune response and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) activity, which were accompanied with protection induced by the immunisation against L. mexicana infection. In contrast, administration of SLA, produced a mixed Th1/Th2-type immune responses as well as a high level of CTL activity but did not protect mice from the infection. Conclusion The results indicate higher protection by DNA immunisation using L. mexicana gp63 cDNA compared to SLA, which is accompanied by a high level of Th1 immune response. However, the CTL activity does not necessarily correlate with the protection induced by the vaccine. Also, gene gun immunisation is a potential approach in Leishmania vaccination. These findings would be helpful in opening new windows in Leishmania vaccine research. PMID:22347315
Liang, S.X.; Yin, L.X.; Ma, M.Z.; Jing, R.; Yu, P.F.; Zhang, Y.F.; Wang, B.A.; Liu, R.P.
Zirconium (Zr)-based bulk metallic glass possesses the highest potential as a structural material among metallic glasses. Although Zr-based bulk metallic glass exhibits extremely high strength, its potential application has been restricted by a number of issues, such as fragility, small size, difficult fabrication into different shapes and poisonous beryllium content, among others. In this paper, a Zr-based crystal alloy with comparable strength and higher plasticity than Zr-based bulk metallic glass is presented. The proposed Zr-based alloy has a tensile strength greater than 1600 MPa. That value is comparable to the 1500 MPa to 2000 MPa strength of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). The ductility in terms of elongation reached 6.2%; at the same time, the 1400 MPa tensile strength was retained. This phenomenon is not possible for Zr-based BMGs. XRD results show that the proposed ultrahigh-strength Zr-based crystal alloy has two-phase structures: an hcp-structured α phase and a bcc-structured β phase. The forged specimen exhibits a typical basket-weave microstructure, which is characterised by the interlaced plate α phase separated from the β phase matrix. Fine, short bar-shaped α phases precipitated along the original β grain boundary together with ultrafine dot-shaped α phases that presented inside the original β grain when the ageing temperature was between 500 °C and 525 °C. As the ageing temperature increased, the dot-shaped α phase grew into plate shapes, decreasing the material's strength and increasing its plasticity. The ultrafine dot-shaped and short bar-shaped α phases in the original β phase matrix are the main strengthening mechanisms of the ultrahigh-strength Zr-based crystal alloy.
Signal, T Leigh; Paine, Sarah-Jane; Sweeney, Bronwyn; Priston, Monique; Muller, Diane; Smith, Alexander; Lee, Kathryn A; Huthwaite, Mark; Reid, Papaarangi; Gander, Philippa
To compare the prevalence of self-reported abnormal sleep duration and excessive daytime sleepiness in pregnancy among Māori (indigenous New Zealanders) and non-Māori women versus the general population, and to examine the influence of socio-demographic factors. Self-reported total sleep time (TST) in 24-hrs, Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores and socio-demographic information were obtained from nullipara and multipara women aged 20-46 yrs at 35-37 weeks pregnant (358 Māori and 717 non-Māori), and women in the general population (381 Māori and 577 non-Māori). After controlling for ethnicity, age, socio-economic status, and employment status, pregnant women average 30 min less TST than women in the general population. The distribution of TST was also greater in pregnant women, who were 3 times more likely to be short sleepers (≤6 h) and 1.9 times more likely to be long sleepers (>9 h). In addition, pregnant women were 1.8 times more likely to report excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Pregnant women >30 years of age experienced greater age-related declines in TST. Identifying as Māori, being unemployed, and working at night increased the likelihood of reporting abnormal sleep duration across all women population in this study. EDS also more likely occurred among Māori women and women who worked at night. Pregnancy increases the prevalence of abnormal sleep duration and EDS, which are also higher among Māori than non-Māori women and those who do night work. Health professionals responsible for the care of pregnant women need to be well-educated about the importance of sleep and discuss sleep issues with the women they care for. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Neubauer, Deane E., Ed.
The nature of higher education is by no means fixed: it has evolved over time; different models of higher education co-exist alongside each other at present; and, worldwide, there are demands for higher education to change to better help support economic growth and to better fit changing social and economic circumstances. This book examines, from…
Jakoby, Patrick; Schmidt, Elke; Ruminot, Iván; Gutiérrez, Robin; Barros, L Felipe; Deitmer, Joachim W
Glucose is the most important energy substrate for the brain, and its cellular distribution is a subject of great current interest. We have employed fluorescent glucose probes, the 2-deoxy-D-glucose derivates 6- and 2-([N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose) (2-NBDG), to measure transport and metabolism of glucose in acute slices of mouse hippocampus and cerebellum. In the hippocampus, 6-NBDG, which is not metabolized and hence indicates glucose transport, was taken up faster in astrocyte-rich layers (Stratum radiatum [S.r.], Stratum oriens [S.o.]) than in pyramidal cells. Metabolizable 2-NBDG showed larger signals in S.r. and S.o. than in Stratum pyramidale, suggesting faster glucose utilization rate in the astrocyte versus the neuronal compartment. Similarly, we found higher uptake and temperature-sensitive metabolism of 2-NBDG in Bergmann glia when compared with adjacent Purkinje neurons of cerebellar slices. A comparison between 6-NBDG transport and glucose transport in cultured cells using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer nanosensor showed that relative to glucose, 6-NBDG is transported better by neurons than by astrocytes. These results indicate that the preferential transport and metabolism of glucose by glial cells versus neurons proposed for the hippocampus and cerebellum by ourselves (in vitro) and for the barrel cortex by Chuquet et al. (in vivo) is more pronounced than anticipated.
Pais, Raluca; Rusu, Elena; Zilisteanu, Diana; Circiumaru, Alexandra; Micu, Laurentiu; Voiculescu, Mihai; Poynard, Thierry; Ratziu, Vlad
The association of NAFLD with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) has been extensively studied but little is known about its coexistence with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). To investigate the prevalence and determinants of steatosis and insulin resistance (IR) in CHB and its consequences on liver injury compared with CHC and NAFLD. Patients with CHB (N=110), CHC (N=111) and NAFLD (N=136) were evaluated by biomarkers of steatosis (SteatoTest>0.38 as a surrogate for steatosis >5%), IR (HOMA-IR>2.7 as a surrogate for IR) and fibrosis (FibroTest>0.48 as a surrogate for significant fibrosis, ≥F2). HOMA-IR gradually increased in CHB, CHC and NAFLD: 2.3±1.8; 3±2.6 and 3.8±2.7 (p5% was 21% (CHB), 43% (CHC) and 82% (NAFLD), (p<0.001). The prevalence of fibrosis≥F2 was 10% (CHB), 42% (CHC) and 21% (NAFLD), p<0.001. In CHB, IR was related to host and not viral factors. CHB patients with steatosis had higher BMI (29±5.7kg/m(2) vs. 24±4kg/m(2), p<0.001), waist circumference (96±14cm vs. 84±11cm, p=0.001) and HOMA-IR (3.9±2.6 vs. 1.8±1.2, p<0.001) than those without steatosis. HOMA-IR independently predicted steatosis in CHB (OR=1.9, 95% CI, 1.09-3.27, p<0.05) and CHC (OR=1.38; 95% CI, 1.07-1.78, p<0.02). In CHB, metabolic risk factors and HOMA-IR were not associated with significant fibrosis. HOMA-IR was an independent predictor of fibrosis in CHC. Steatosis may co-exist in CHB patients but with a lower prevalence than in CHC and NAFLD. In CHB steatosis is related to host and not viral factors, and is not associated with the severity of fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Charles B Holmes
Full Text Available The World Health Organization now recommends initiating all pregnant women on life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART, yet there is limited information about the characteristics and program outcomes of pregnant women already on ART in Africa. Our hypothesis was that pregnant women comprised an increasing proportion of those starting ART, and that sub-groups of these women were at higher risk for program attrition.We used the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS- East Africa (IeDEA-EA to conduct a retrospective cohort study including HIV care and treatment programs in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. The cohort consecutively included HIV-infected individuals 13 years or older starting ART 2004-2014. We examined trends over time in the proportion pregnant, their characteristics and program attrition rates compared to others initiating and already receiving ART. 156,474 HIV-infected individuals (67.0% women started ART. The proportion of individuals starting ART who were pregnant women rose from 5.3% in 2004 to 12.2% in 2014. Mean CD4 cell counts at ART initiation, weighted for annual program size, increased from 2004 to 2014, led by non-pregnant women (annual increase 20 cells/mm3 and men (17 cells/mm3 annually, with lower rates of change in pregnant women (10 cells/mm3 per year (p<0.0001. There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of program attrition at 6 months among pregnant women starting ART and non-pregnant women. However, healthy pregnant women starting ART (WHO stage 1/2 had a higher rate of attrition rate (9.6%, compared with healthy non-pregnant women (6.5%; in contrast among women with WHO stage 3/4 disease, pregnant women had lower attrition (8.4% than non-pregnant women (14.4%. Among women who initiated ART when healthy and remained in care for six months, subsequent six-month attrition was slightly higher among pregnant women at ART start (3.5% compared to those who were not pregnant (2.4%, (absolute
Holmes, Charles B; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Elul, Batya; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Ssali, John; Kambugu, Andrew; Musick, Beverly S; Cohen, Craig; Williams, Carolyn; Diero, Lameck; Padian, Nancy; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara K
The World Health Organization now recommends initiating all pregnant women on life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART), yet there is limited information about the characteristics and program outcomes of pregnant women already on ART in Africa. Our hypothesis was that pregnant women comprised an increasing proportion of those starting ART, and that sub-groups of these women were at higher risk for program attrition. We used the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS- East Africa (IeDEA-EA) to conduct a retrospective cohort study including HIV care and treatment programs in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. The cohort consecutively included HIV-infected individuals 13 years or older starting ART 2004-2014. We examined trends over time in the proportion pregnant, their characteristics and program attrition rates compared to others initiating and already receiving ART. 156,474 HIV-infected individuals (67.0% women) started ART. The proportion of individuals starting ART who were pregnant women rose from 5.3% in 2004 to 12.2% in 2014. Mean CD4 cell counts at ART initiation, weighted for annual program size, increased from 2004 to 2014, led by non-pregnant women (annual increase 20 cells/mm3) and men (17 cells/mm3 annually), with lower rates of change in pregnant women (10 cells/mm3 per year) (p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of program attrition at 6 months among pregnant women starting ART and non-pregnant women. However, healthy pregnant women starting ART (WHO stage 1/2) had a higher rate of attrition rate (9.6%), compared with healthy non-pregnant women (6.5%); in contrast among women with WHO stage 3/4 disease, pregnant women had lower attrition (8.4%) than non-pregnant women (14.4%). Among women who initiated ART when healthy and remained in care for six months, subsequent six-month attrition was slightly higher among pregnant women at ART start (3.5%) compared to those who were not pregnant (2.4%), (absolute
Fernández-Pascual, E; Jiménez-Alfaro, B; Bueno, Á
Seed germination traits in alpine grasslands are poorly understood, despite the sensitivity of these communities to climate change. We hypothesise that germination traits predict species occurrence along the alpine-subalpine elevation gradient. Phylogenetic comparative analyses were performed using fresh seeds of 22 species from alpine and subalpine grasslands (1600-2400 m) of the Cantabrian Mountains, Spain (43° N, 5° W). Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterise germinability, optimum germination temperature and effect of cold and warm stratification on dormancy breaking. Variability in these traits was reduced by phylogenetic principal component analysis (phyl.PCA). Phylogenetic generalised least squares regression (PGLS) was used to fit a model in which species average elevation was predicted from their position on the PCA axes. Most subalpine species germinated in snow-like conditions, whereas most alpine species needed accumulation of warm temperatures. Phylogenetic signal was low. PCA1 ordered species according to overall germinability, whilst PCA2 ordered them according to preference for warm or cold germination. PCA2 significantly predicted species occurrence in the alpine-subalpine gradient, as higher elevation species tended to have warmer germination preferences. Our results show that germination traits in high-mountain grasslands are closely linked to the alpine-subalpine gradient. Alpine species, especially those from stripped and wind-edge communities, prefer warmer germination niches, suggesting that summer emergence prevents frost damage during seedling establishment. In contrast, alpine snowfield and subalpine grassland plants have cold germination niches, indicating that winter emergence may occur under snow to avoid drought stress. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.
Baimas-George, Maria; Fleischer, Brian; Slakey, Douglas; Kandil, Emad; Korndorffer, James R; DuCoin, Christopher
It is believed that spending additional years gaining expertise in surgical subspecialization leads to higher lifetime revenue. Literature shows that more surgeons are pursuing fellowship training and dedicated research years; however, there are no data looking at the aggregate economic impact when training time is accounted for. It is hypothesized that there will be a discrepancy in lifetime income when delay to practice is considered. Data were collected from the Medical Group Management Association's 2015 report of average annual salaries. Fixed time of practice was set at 30 years, and total adjusted revenue was calculated based on variable years spent in research and fellowship. All total revenue outcomes were compared to general surgery and calculated in US dollars. The financial data on general surgeons and 9 surgical specialties (vascular, pediatric, plastic, breast, surgical oncology, cardiothoracic, thoracic primary, transplant, and trauma) were examined. With fellowship and no research, breast and surgical oncology made significantly less than general surgery (-$1,561,441, -$1,704,958), with a difference in opportunity cost equivalent to approximately 4 years of work. Pediatric and cardiothoracic surgeons made significantly more than general surgeons, with an increase of opportunity cost equivalent to $5,301,985 and $3,718,632, respectively. With 1 research year, trauma surgeons ended up netting less than a general surgeon by $325,665. With 2 research years, plastic and transplant surgeons had total lifetime revenues approximately equivalent to that of a general surgeon. Significant disparities exist in lifetime total revenue between surgical subspecialties and in comparison, to general surgery. Although most specialists do gross more than general surgeons, breast and surgical oncologists end up netting significantly less over their lifetime as well as trauma surgeons if they do 1 year of research. Thus, the economic advantage of completing additional
Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Ukonu, Nwakaego; Obisesan, Olawunmi; Aboagye, Jonathan Kumi; Agyemang, Charles; Reilly, Carolyn M; Dunbar, Sandra B; Okosun, Ike S
Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia are high among United States ethnic minorities, and the immigrant population continues to burgeon. Hypothesizing that acculturation (length of residence) would be associated with a higher prevalence of CMR factors, the authors analyzed data on 54, 984 US immigrants in the 2010-2014 National Health Interview Surveys. The main predictor was length of residence. The outcomes were hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. The authors used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between length of US residence and these CMR factors.The mean (SE) age of the patients was 43 (0.12) years and half were women. Participants residing in the United States for ≥10 years were more likely to have health insurance than those with income ratio, age, and sex, immigrants residing in the United States for ≥10 years were more likely to be overweight/obese (odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% CI, 1.10-1.29), diabetic (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.17-1.73), and hypertensive (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.32) than those residing in the United States for <10 years. In an ethnically diverse sample of US immigrants, acculturation was associated with CMR factors. Culturally tailored public health strategies should be developed in US immigrant populations to reduce CMR. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Tripti Singh, MD
Conclusions. Patients with MN have higher incidence of acute rejection after kidney transplant but have similar 10-year allograft survival in comparison to the other glomerular diseases like IgAN, FSGS, and LN.
Rudling, E. H.; Schlamowitz, Sarah; Pipper, Christian Bressen
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the prevalence and amplitudes of the electrocardiographic J wave in the Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen compared to 10 other dog breeds. ANIMALS: Electrocardiograms from 206 healthy dogs representing 11 dog breeds were included in the study. Besides Petit Basset Griffon...
Abrahams, Ian; Homer, Matt; Sharpe, Rachael; Zhou, Mengyuan
Background: Despite the large body of literature regarding student misconceptions, there has been relatively little cross-cultural research to directly compare the prevalence of common scientific misconceptions amongst students from different cultural backgrounds. Whilst previous research does suggest the international nature of many…
Yanagida, Takuya; Gradinger, Petra; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Solomontos-Kountouri, Olga; Trip, Simona; Bora, Carmen
Many large-scale cross-national studies rely on a single-item measurement when comparing prevalence rates of traditional bullying, traditional victimization, cyberbullying, and cyber-victimization between countries. However, the reliability and validity of single-item measurement approaches are highly problematic and might be biased. Data from…
Mirkuzie Alemnesh H
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of reliable data, antenatal HIV surveillance has been used to monitor the HIV epidemic since the late 1980s. Currently, routine data from Prevention of Mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT programmes are increasingly available. Evaluating whether the PMTCT programme reports provide comparable HIV prevalence estimates with the antenatal surveillance reports is important. In this study, we compared HIV prevalence estimates from routine PMTCT programme and antenatal surveillance in Addis Ababa with the aim to come up with evidence based recommendation. Methods Summary data were collected from PMTCT programmes and antenatal surveillance reports within the catchment of Addis Ababa. The PMTCT programme data were obtained from routine monthly reports from 2004 to 2009 and from published antenatal HIV surveillance reports from 2003 to 2009. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results In Addis Ababa, PMTCT sites had increased from six in 2004 to 54 in 2009. The site expansion was accompanied by an increased number of women testing. There were marked increases in the rate of HIV testing following the introduction of routine opt-out HIV testing approach. Paralleling these increases, the HIV prevalence showed a steady decline from 10.0% in 2004 to 4.5% in 2009. There were five antenatal surveillance sites from 2003 to 2007 in Addis Ababa and they increased to seven by 2009. Four rounds of surveillance data from five sites showed a declining trend in HIV prevalence over the years. The overall antenatal surveillance data also showed that the HIV prevalence among antenatal attendees had declined from 12.4% in 2003 to 5.5% in 2009. The HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme were 6.2% and 4.5% and from antenatal surveillance 6.1 and 5.5% in 2008 and 2009 respectively. Conclusions There were consistent HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme and from antenatal surveillance reports. Both data sources
Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Imamura, Fumi; Chiba, Yasuhiko; Takeshima, Tadashi
The present study examined the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents aged 15-17 years. Results showed that delinquent adolescents, particularly girls, more frequently reported histories of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse than non-delinquent adolescents.
Al-Husseini, Sawasn; Elbeltagi, Ibrahim
This paper reports on an examination of the impact of knowledge sharing on product and process innovation. In it we try to identify the similarities and differences between these impacts in public and private Higher Education (HE) Institutions in Iraq. A mixed methods approach was conducted using 486 valid responses to test the causal…
The central purpose of China's modern higher education has been to combine Chinese and Western elements at all levels including institutional arrangements, research methodologies, educational ideals and cultural spirit, a combination that brings together aspects of Chinese and Western philosophical heritages. This, however, has not been achieved. There is an urgent need for critical examination of the long-term consequences of grafting American academic practices onto a Chinese base. This article examines the tensions in the interactions in higher education between the traditional Chinese and the imposed Western modes of thinking. Borrowing a definition of the structure of culture, this paper reveals the various extents to which layers of Chinese higher education have achieved any degree of success. It finds that with a strong catch-up mentality, China's contemporary higher education policies are responsive to Western influences. These are however only applied as panic-stricken and expedient band-aid remedies, rather than as strategies based on systematic understanding of cultural contexts. Accordingly, Chinese universities are uncritical towards the European-American model and its variants. This article warns that without an infusion of traditional education values, universities in China risk losing touch with their cultural contexts in their quest for world-class status.
Agasisti, Tommaso; Johnes, Geraint
We employ Data Envelopment Analysis to compute the technical efficiency of Italian and English higher education institutions. Our results show that, in relation to the country-specific frontier, institutions in both countries are typically very efficient. However, institutions in England are more efficient than those in Italy when we compare…
Hoekstra, Monique; Hoekstra, M.; Haagsma, Cees; Neef, Cees; Proost, Johannes; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Knuif, Antonius
OBJECTIVE: To determine the bioavailability of higher oral doses of methotrexate (MTX) in adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: A pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in 15 patients with RA taking a stable dose of MTX (> or = 25 mg weekly). Separated by 2 weeks, a pharmacokinetic
Agaku, Israel Terungwa; Odani, Satomi; Homa, David; Armour, Brian; Glover-Kudon, Rebecca
Two components of social norms-descriptive (estimated prevalence) and injunctive (perceived acceptability)-can influence youth tobacco use. To investigate electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette) and cigarette descriptive norms and measure the associations between overestimation of e-cigarette and cigarette prevalence and tobacco-related attitudes and behaviours. Cross-sectional. School-based, using paper-and-pencil questionnaires. US 6th-12th graders participating in the 2015 (n=17 711) and 2016 (n=20 675) National Youth Tobacco Survey. Students estimated the percent of their grade-mates who they thought used e-cigarettes and cigarettes; the discordance between perceived versus grade-specific actual prevalence was used to categorise students as overestimating (1) neither product, (2) e-cigarettes only, (3) cigarettes only or (4) both products. Product-specific outcomes were curiosity and susceptibility (never users), as well as ever and current use (all students). Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Statistical significance was at P<0.05. Data were weighted to be nationally representative. More students overestimated cigarette (74.0%) than e-cigarette prevalence (61.0%; P<0.05). However, the associations between e-cigarette-only overestimation and e-cigarette curiosity (adjusted OR (AOR)=3.29), susceptibility (AOR=2.59), ever use (AOR=5.86) and current use (AOR=8.15) were each significantly larger than the corresponding associations between cigarette-only overestimation and cigarette curiosity (AOR=1.50), susceptibility (AOR=1.54), ever use (AOR=2.04) and current use (AOR=2.52). Despite significant declines in actual e-cigarette use prevalence within each high school grade level during 2015-2016, perceived prevalence increased (11th and 12th grades) or remained unchanged (9th and 10th grades). Four of five US students overestimated peer e-cigarette or cigarette use. Counter-tobacco mass media messages can help denormalise tobacco
Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and has a role on high blood pressure, diabetes type II, etc., This review assesses the prevalence of Iranian children obesity and overweight for different age categories and compares the three standard definitions of obesity. Materials and Methods: To retrieve desirable studies concerning childhood anthropometric data from different area of Iran, the MEDLINE, Scopus, and different local databases such as Scientific Information database were used. The studies reported the prevalence of obesity or overweight of children < 6, 6–12, and 12–20 years old, despite differences between definitions of childhood obesity, were included in the study. We combined the reported prevalence of the overweight and obesity with regard to age and gender, and also by the different standard references which are the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO definition, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF references. The analysis was carried out using STATA software. Results: Our review covered 75 articles reported the prevalence of overweight or obesity among children and adolescents for different age groups in Iran. Our meta-regression analysis showed that the prevalence of obesity and overweight did not vary significantly in gender and age categories, but different definitions provide different prevalence of overweight and obesity. Conclusion: The effective factors on obesity and overweight included administration policy and organizational, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and social factors. CDC and WHO references intended in monitoring children's growth and the IOTF cutoffs would rather provide a common set of definitions that researchers and policymakers could use for descriptive and comparative purposes.
Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine
BACKGROUND: Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of moderate butter intake...... their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. RESULTS: Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 40.......4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P
Full Text Available The 2010 McDonald criteria were developed to allow a more rapid diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS by only one MRI of the brain. Although cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is not a mandatory part of the latest criteria, the evidence of an intrathecal humoral immunoreaction in the form of oligoclonal bands (OCB is crucial in the diagnostic workup. To date, the impact of the 2010 McDonald criteria on the prevalence of OCB has not been investigated. We retrospectively evaluated data of 325 patients with a clinical relapse suggestive of demyelination that were treated in a German university hospital between 2010 and 2015. One hundred thirty-six patients (42% were diagnosed with MS and 189 patients with CIS when the criteria of 2010 were applied. The criteria of 2005 allowed only 70 patients (22% to be designated as MS. In contrast, the prevalence of OCB was marginal affected in MS patients with 96% for the criteria of 2010 and 98.5% for the criteria of 2005. In conclusion, OCB are prevalent in most MS patients and reflect the chronic inflammatory nature of the disease. We recommend CSF examination to exclude alternative diagnoses and reevaluation of the diagnosis MS in patients with negative OCB.
van der Wal, Junus M.; Bodewes, Adee J.; Agyemang, Charles O.; Kunst, Anton E.
Several studies in The Netherlands revealed ethnic disparities in hypertension prevalence, but none have focused on the Moluccan-Dutch, a migrant group from Indonesia that settled in The Netherlands in 1951. The Moluccan-Dutch are considered to be fairly well integrated in Dutch society. The aim of
Isaac D Otchere
Conclusion: This work emphasizes on the possibility that the mpt64-based rapid diagnostic kit would not be effective in MAF endemic settings. More mutations in ESAT-6 secretory system of MAF compared to MTB sensu stricto can affect efficacy of ESAT-6-based vaccines in the future.
Balaji, Seshadri; Daga, Ankana; Bradley, David J; Etheridge, Susan P; Law, Ian H; Batra, Anjan S; Sanatani, Shubayan; Singh, Anoop K; Gajewski, Kelly K; Tsao, Sabrina; Singh, Harinder R; Tisma-Dupanovic, Svjetlana; Tateno, Shigeru; Takamuro, Motoki; Nakajima, Hiromichi; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Shah, Maully
The study objective was to determine whether the extracardiac conduit Fontan confers an arrhythmia advantage over the intracardiac lateral tunnel Fontan. This multicenter study of 1271 patients compared bradyarrhythmia (defined as need for pacing) and tachyarrhythmia (defined as needing antiarrhythmic therapy) between 602 patients undergoing the intracardiac Fontan and 669 patients undergoing the extracardiac Fontan. The median age at the time of the Fontan procedure was 2.1 years (interquartile range, 1.6-3.2 years) for the intracardiac group and 3.0 years (interquartile range, 2.4-3.9) for the extracardiac group (P 30 days) bradyarrhythmia occurred in 105 patients (18%) in the intracardiac group and 63 patients (9%) in the extracardiac group (P 30 days) tachyarrhythmia occurred in 58 patients (10%) in the intracardiac group and 23 patients (3%) in the extracardiac group (P factoring time since surgery, more patients in the extracardiac group had early bradycardia (odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.6), with no difference in early tachycardia, late bradycardia, or late tachycardia. Overall arrhythmia burden is similar between the 2 groups, but the extracardiac Fontan group had a higher incidence of early bradyarrhythmias. There was no difference in the incidence of late tachyarrhythmias over time between the 2 operations. Therefore, the type of Fontan performed should be based on factors other than an anticipated reduction in arrhythmia burden from the extracardiac conduit. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota
Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain.
Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota
Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain. PMID:27763547
Cornely, P; Bromet, E
The Behavior Screening Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to determine whether 2 1/2-3 1/2 yr old children living near the TMI nuclear reactor were more disturbed than children living near another nuclear plant or near a fossil-fuel facility in Pennsylvania when assessed 2 1/2 yr later. The prevalence of behavior problems was 11%. Differences among the sites in overall rates and individual symptoms were small. Perceptions of environmental stress among the TMI sample of mothers were unrelated to BSQ scores, whereas in the comparison sites, where unemployment was rising, economic concerns were meaningfully related to the BSQ.
Borlée, Floor; Yzermans, C Joris; Krop, Esmeralda; Aalders, Bernadette; Rooijackers, Jos; Zock, Jan-Paul; van Dijk, Christel E; Maassen, Catharina B M; Schellevis, François; Heederik, Dick; Smit, Lidwien A M
COPD-diagnosis is confirmed by post-bronchodilator (BD) spirometry. However, epidemiological studies often rely on pre-BD spirometry, self-reports, or medical records. This population-based study aims to determine COPD-prevalence based on four different operational definitions and their level of agreement, and to compare associations between COPD-definitions and risk factors. COPD-prevalence in 1,793 adults from the general Dutch population (aged 18-70 years) was assessed based on self-reported data, Electronic Medical Records (EMR), and post-BD spirometry: using the FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal (LLN) and GOLD fixed cut-off (FEV1/FVC spirometry as a reference, sensitivity was calculated for self-reported and EMR-based COPD. Associations between COPD and known risk factors were assessed with logistic regression. Data were collected as part of the cross-sectional VGO study (Livestock Farming and Neighboring Residents' Health Study). The highest prevalence was found based on spirometry (GOLD: 10.9%, LLN: 5.9%), followed by self-report (4.6%) and EMR (2.9%). Self-reported or EMR-based COPD identified less than 30% of all COPD-cases based on spirometry. The direction of association between known risk factors and COPD was similar across the four definitions, however, magnitude and significance varied. Especially indicators of allergy were more strongly associated with self-reported COPD compared to the other definitions. COPD-prevalence varied depending on the used definition. A substantial number of subjects with spirometry-based COPD cannot be identified with questionnaires or medical records which can cause underestimation of COPD-prevalence. The influence of the different COPD-definitions on associations with known risk factors was limited.
Wirnitzer, Katharina; Seyfart, Tom; Leitzmann, Claus; Keller, Markus; Wirnitzer, Gerold; Lechleitner, Christoph; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat
BACKGROUND: Beneficial and detrimental effects of various vegetarian and vegan diets on the health status are well known. Considering the growing background numbers of vegetarians and vegans, the number of vegetarian and vegan runners is likely to rise, too. Therefore, the Nutrition and Running High Mileage (NURMI) Study was designed as a comparative study to investigate the prevalence of omnivores, vegetarians, and vegans in running events and to detect potential differences in running perfo...
Kovacs, Francisco M; Seco, Jesús; Royuela, Ana; Barriga, Andrés; Zamora, Javier
Cross-sectional study. To determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, spinal pain among wheelchair users. Four Spanish hospitals specialized in providing care for wheelchair users. Persons who had used a wheelchair for a median (IRQ) of 10 (5;19) years, 27% of them due to reasons other than spinal cord injury, were recruited consecutively (n = 750). Data on 43 demographic, psychosocial, ergonomic, and clinical variables were collected, and analyzed. Main outcome measures were: point prevalence of neck (NP), thoracic (TP), low back pain (LBP), and pain at any spinal level (PASL); and factors associated with them. Point prevalence was 56% for NP, 54% for TP, 45% for LBP, and 76% for PSAL. PASL was associated with a lower quality of life (OR (95% CI) 0.91 (0.86; 0.97)). Multivariable regression models showed that the main factors associated with significant pain (≥1.5 VAS points) were: (a) For NP: cervical spinal injury and wheelchair seat cushion thickness, (b) For TP: thoracic spinal injury and sagittal index, (c) For LBP: thoracic or lumbar spinal injury, with some sensitivity remaining, (d) For PASL: being female, living alone, and using a non-power wheelchair. Discrimination (AUC) of these models ranged between 0.638 and 0.818. p-values in the Hosmer-Lemeshow test ranged between 0.420 and 0.701. Prevalence of spinal pain among wheelchair users is high. It is associated with a lower quality of life. Future studies should assess whether using a power wheelchair affects PASL, and if the thickness of seat cushion affects NP. Spanish Back Pain Research Network.
Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Dhingra, Nikhil; Gittler, Julia; Shemer, Avner; Cardinale, Irma; de Guzman Strong, Cristina; Krueger, James G; Guttman-Yassky, Emma
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is classified as extrinsic and intrinsic, representing approximately 80% and 20% of patients with the disease, respectively. Although sharing a similar clinical phenotype, only extrinsic AD is characterized by high serum IgE levels. Because most patients with AD exhibit high IgE levels, an "allergic"/IgE-mediated disease pathogenesis was hypothesized. However, current models associate AD with T-cell activation, particularly TH2/TH22 polarization, and epidermal barrier defects. We sought to define whether both variants share a common pathogenesis. We stratified 51 patients with severe AD into extrinsic AD (n = 42) and intrinsic AD (n = 9) groups (with similar mean disease activity/SCORAD scores) and analyzed the molecular and cellular skin pathology of lesional and nonlesional intrinsic AD and extrinsic AD by using gene expression (real-time PCR) and immunohistochemistry. A significant correlation between IgE levels and SCORAD scores (r = 0.76, P extrinsic AD. Marked infiltrates of T cells and dendritic cells and corresponding epidermal alterations (keratin 16, Mki67, and S100A7/A8/A9) defined lesional skin of patients with both variants. However, higher activation of all inflammatory axes (including TH2) was detected in patients with intrinsic AD, particularly TH17 and TH22 cytokines. Positive correlations between TH17-related molecules and SCORAD scores were only found in patients with intrinsic AD, whereas only patients with extrinsic AD showed positive correlations between SCORAD scores and TH2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-5) levels and negative correlations with differentiation products (loricrin and periplakin). Although differences in TH17 and TH22 activation exist between patients with intrinsic AD and those with extrinsic AD, we identified common disease-defining features of T-cell activation, production of polarized cytokines, and keratinocyte responses to immune products. Our data indicate that a TH2 bias is not the sole cause of high Ig
Full Text Available Background: The aims and objective of the study was to find out the prevalence of neurological soft signs (NSS amongst the three groups of psychiatric disorder which were brief psychotic disorder, schizophreniform psychosis, and schizophrenia. Material and methods: The study was conducted over a period of seven months starting from 1st of May, 2010 to 30th November, 2010. NSS were assessed by the Heidelberg Manual. Results: We found that all the patients from each of the three groups have shown at least one or more neurological abnormalities. The present study found a significant association between types of NSS namely in group of motor coordination, motor sequencing, and sensory integration, and the different category of disorders under study whereas the severity of neurological impairment was not found to be significantly associated within the three groups. Conclusion: We hope that in future larger studies observing for long period of time will shed definite lights in the present study findings.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper provides an initial evaluation of data gathered by running versions of a five-week online programme called ‘e-Reflections’. This includes comparisons with a course specifically for academics from (or working in the Gulf and the wider Middle East Region. ‘e-Reflections’ is an online programme developed at University of Leicester for current or potential online tutors. It is based on Professor Gilly Salmon’s five-stage networked learning model and builds on a history of e-learning initiatives at the University. Salmon’s work provided a framework that not only emphasises the pedagogy of e-learning but provides a means of deeper engagements with e-learning – both in terms of interaction with participation and integration into the blend of courses. In comparing data from such courses run at the University (including colleagues across the UK and the Middle East cohort, cultural differences were anticipated. The findings suggest, however, that factors such as comfort and familiarity with the medium were more influential than culture. Whatever the context of those participating, the main finding was that collaborative online reflection is a powerful tool to encourage deeper learning.
Moor, Molly A; Fraga, Miguel A; Garfein, Richard S; Harbertson, Judith; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Rashidi, Hooman H; Elder, John P; Brodine, Stephanie K
Anemia is a public health problem in Mexico. This study sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of anemia among women and children residing in a rural farming region of Baja California, Mexico. An existing partnership between universities, non-governmental organizations, and an underserved Mexican community was utilized to perform cross-sectional data collection in 2004-2005 (Wave 1) and in 2011-2012 (Wave 2) among women (15-49 years) and their children (6-59 months). All participants completed a survey and underwent anemia testing. Blood smears were obtained to identify etiology. Nutrition education interventions and clinical health evaluations were offered between waves. Participants included 201 women and 99 children in Wave 1, and 146 women and 77 children in Wave 2. Prevalence of anemia significantly decreased from 42.3 to 23.3 % between Waves 1 and 2 in women (p children 24-59 months (p = 0.066), and from 71.4 to 45.8 % in children 6-23 months (p = 0.061). Among women in Wave 1, consumption of iron absorption enhancing foods (green vegetables and fruits high in vitamin C) was protective against anemia (p = 0.043). Women in Wave 2 who ate ≥4 servings of green, leafy vegetables per week were less likely to be anemic (p = 0.034). Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed microcytic, hypochromic red blood cells in 90 % of anemic children and 68.8 % of anemic women, consistent with iron deficiency anemia.
Wu, Li-Tzy; Parrott, Andy C.; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Mannelli, Paolo; Blazer, Dan G.
Aim In light of the resurgence in MDMA use and its association with polysubstance use, we investigated the 12-month prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) among adult MDMA users to determine whether they are at risk of other drug-related problems that would call for targeted interventions. Methods Data were drawn from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Past-year adult drug users were grouped into three mutually exclusive categories: 1) recent MDMA users, who had used the drug within the past year; 2) former MDMA users, who had a history of using this drug but had not done so within the past year; and 3) other drug users, who had never used MDMA. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate the association between respondents’ SUDs and MDMA use while adjusting for their socioeconomic status, mental health, age of first use, and history of polydrug use. Results Approximately 14% of adults reported drug use in the past year, and 24% of those past-year drug users reported a history of MDMA use. Recent MDMA users exhibited the highest prevalence of disorders related to alcohol (41%), marijuana (30%), cocaine (10%), pain reliever/opioid (8%), and tranquilizer (3%) use. Adjusted logistic regression analyses revealed that, relative to other drug users, those who had recently used MDMA were twice as likely to meet criteria for marijuana and pain reliever/opioid use disorders. They were also about twice as likely as former MDMA users to meet criteria for marijuana, cocaine, and tranquilizer use disorders. Conclusions Seven out of ten recent MDMA users report experiencing an SUD in the past year. Adults who have recently used MDMA should be screened for possible SUDs to ensure early detection and treatment. PMID:19361931
Seyed Ali Sadjadi
Full Text Available Seyed Ali Sadjadi1, James I McMillan1, Navin Jaipaul1, Patricia Blakely1, Su Su Hline21Section of Nephrology (111N, Jerry L Pettis Memorial Veterans Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 2Divison of Nephrology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, USABackground and objectives: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB are increasingly used in a variety of settings including heart failure, renal failure, arterial hypertension, and diabetic nephropathy. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hyperkalemia with ACEI and ARB use, in a population of the United States veterans.Design, settings, material, and measurements: Retrospective observational cohort study of 1163 patients on ACEIs and 1168 patients on ARBs in a single Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Electronic medical records were reviewed over a 12-month period with data collected on various demographic, laboratory, comorbidity, and medication related variables. Results: Hyperkalemia (>5 mEq/L was observed in 20.4% of patients on ACEIs and 31.0% on ARBs. Severe hyperkalemia (6 mEq/L or higher, was observed in 0.8% of ACEI and 2.8% of ARB users. In univariate logistic regression analyses, diabetes mellitus; serum glucose, total carbon dioxide content, creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR were significantly associated with hyperkalemia. ARB use, when compared to ACEI, was associated with a 42% increase in odds of hyperkalemia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.42; p = 0.001 in a model including adjustment for GFR and a 56% increase in odds of hyperkalemia (OR = 1.56; p < 0.001 in a model including adjustment for serum creatinine.Conclusions: Hyperkalemia, associated with the use of ACEIs and ARBs, is usually mild and severe hyperkalemia is rare. Hyperkalemia is more common with ARBs than ACEIs. ARB use, when compared to ACEI use, may significantly and independently be associated with increased odds of
Charchuk, Rhianna; Paul, Makelele Katsuva Jean; Claude, Kasereka Masumbuko; Houston, Stan; Hawkes, Michael T
In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), violent conflict has caused the displacement of millions of people into camps where they are exposed to poor living conditions and high rates of infectious diseases. Malaria, in particular, is a major cause of mortality in children under five; however, the burden of disease in displacement camps has not previously been described. Two cross-sectional surveys were performed. First, prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum antigenemia was measured in a random sample of 200 children living in a displacement camp and 200 children from a nearby village (control group). Second, the proportion of febrile illness attributable to malaria was measured in a study of 100 children from the displacement camp and 100 children from the control village presenting to the same health clinic with fever. All participants were tested for P. falciparum with a rapid diagnostic test and additional demographic data, clinical characteristics, and malaria risk factors were determined using a parental questionnaire. In the community survey, children living in the displacement camp had a higher prevalence of P. falciparum infection (17 %) than controls (7.5 %) (OR 2.6; 95 % CI 1.3-4.1; P = 0.0095). In the clinic-based survey, the proportion of febrile illness attributable to malaria was higher among children from the displacement camp (78 %) than controls (39 %) (OR 5.5; 95 % CI 3.0-10.3; P displacement camp than control village in both surveys. Statistically significant differences in household wealth, maternal education, and exposure to community violence were also found. Population displacement due to violent conflict appears to be a risk factor for malaria, a major cause of child mortality. Children living in displacement camps are a relatively understudied population, but have a high burden of malaria, despite control programmes focused on bed net distribution.
COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de
Mhimbira, F; Hiza, H; Mbuba, E; Hella, J; Kamwela, L; Sasamalo, M; Ticlla, M; Said, K; Mhalu, G; Chiryamkubi, M; Schindler, C; Reither, K; Gagneux, S; Fenner, L
To describe the prevalence of respiratory pathogens in tuberculosis (TB) patients and in their household contact controls, and to determine the clinical significance of respiratory pathogens in TB patients. We studied 489 smear-positive adult TB patients and 305 household contact controls without TB with nasopharyngeal swab samples within an ongoing prospective cohort study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between 2013 and 2015. We used multiplex real-time PCR to detect 16 respiratory viruses and seven bacterial pathogens from nasopharyngeal swabs. The median age of the study participants was 33 years; 61% (484/794) were men, and 21% (168/794) were HIV-positive. TB patients had a higher prevalence of HIV (28.6%; 140/489) than controls (9.2%; 28/305). Overall prevalence of respiratory viral pathogens was 20.4% (160/794; 95%CI 17.7-23.3%) and of bacterial pathogens 38.2% (303/794; 95%CI 34.9-41.6%). TB patients and controls did not differ in the prevalence of respiratory viruses (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.00, 95%CI 0.71-1.44), but respiratory bacteria were less frequently detected in TB patients (OR 0.70, 95%CI 0.53-0.94). TB patients with both respiratory viruses and respiratory bacteria were likely to have more severe disease (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.6, 95%CI 1.1-2.4; p 0.011). TB patients with respiratory viruses tended to have more frequent lung cavitations (aOR 1.6, 95%CI 0.93-2.7; p 0.089). Respiratory viruses are common for both TB patients and household controls. TB patients may present with more severe TB disease, particularly when they are co-infected with both bacteria and viruses. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aims. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their related factors in Japan. The results were analyzed to identify the relationship between high scores on the CES-D, sociodemographic status, and employment-related variables. Methods. Employees in Akita prefecture completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D during a survey period between November and December 2010. The cutoff point for the CES-D scores was 16 or above (high scorers. Results. Data from 1,476 employees indicated that 44.2% had high scores on the CES-D. Sociodemographic and occupation-related factors associated with a high risk of depression were being female, young age, fewer hours of sleep on weekdays, and working over 8 hours per day, whereas drinking alcohol one to two days per week, albeit only in men, was significantly associated with a low risk of depression. The present results were consistent with the results of a previous survey completed in 2007; however, the present results regarding job categories and smoking behavior were not significantly associated with depression and thus were inconsistent with the 2007 survey data. Conclusions. These results can be useful as benchmark values for the CES-D and might help predict depressive disorders.
Wirnitzer, Katharina; Seyfart, Tom; Leitzmann, Claus; Keller, Markus; Wirnitzer, Gerold; Lechleitner, Christoph; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat
Beneficial and detrimental effects of various vegetarian and vegan diets on the health status are well known. Considering the growing background numbers of vegetarians and vegans, the number of vegetarian and vegan runners is likely to rise, too. Therefore, the Nutrition and Running High Mileage (NURMI) Study was designed as a comparative study to investigate the prevalence of omnivores, vegetarians, and vegans in running events and to detect potential differences in running performance comparing these three subgroups. The NURMI Study will be conducted in three steps following a cross-sectional design. Step 1 will determine epidemiological aspects of endurance runners (any distance) using a short standardized questionnaire. Step 2 will investigate dietary habits and running history from eligible participants (capable of running a half-marathon at least) using an extended standardized questionnaire. Step 3 will collect data after a running event on finishing time and final ranking as well as a post-race rating of perceived exertion, mood status, nutrient and fluid intake during the race. Our study will provide a major contribution to overcome the lack of data on the prevalence and running performance of vegetarian and vegan runners in endurance running events. We estimate the prevalence of vegetarians and vegans participating in a running event to be less compared to the respective proportion of vegetarians and vegans to the general population. Furthermore we will validate the subject's self-assessment of their respective diet. This comparative study may identify possible effects of dietary behavior on running performance und may detect possible differences between the respective subgroups: omnivorous, vegetarian and vegan runners. Trial registration Current controlled trials, ISRCTN73074080.
Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of microcytosis in donors and Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA and Beta-Thalassemia trait (BTT in microcytic and non-microcytic donors has not been studied in India. The present study aims at finding the same. Materials and Methods: Initially 925 donor samples were evaluated on cell-counter. Of these, 50 were found to be microcytic. These were subjected to Ferritin and HbA2 determination. Subsequently, an additional 51, age-and-sex matched non-microcytic donor samples were selected to serve as controls. These were subjected to the same tests. Results: The prevalence of microcytosis was 5.4% (50/925. Among the microcytic donors, 52% were IDA, 36% BTT, 8% both, and 4% none. In case of non-microcytic donors 29.4% were IDA, 3.9% BTT, and 66.7% none. Conclusions: The study revealed a high prevalence of IDA and BTT in blood donors and a higher probability of finding these in the microcytic samples. This prompted authors to suggest an algorithm for screening of blood donors for IDA and BTT. The algorithm recommends doing an hemogram on all donor samples, routinely. Ferritin could be done only in microcytic samples. At levels lower than15 ng/ml, it is diagnosed as IDA, and therefore, HPLC is performed only for non-IDA samples with Ferritin levels higher than 15 ng/ml. By employing this algorithm, a substantial number of IDA and BTT could be diagnosed while keeping the number of Ferritin tests small and the number of HPLC tests even smaller and thus making it cost efficient.
Comparing the prevalence rates of social phobia in a community according to ICD-10 and DSM-III-R Comparando estimativas de prevalência da fobia social na comunidade empregando-se a CID-10 e a DSM-III-R
Fábio Lopes Rocha
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This population-based study aimed to compare the prevalence rates of social phobia using DSM-III-R and CID-10, based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, in a Brazilian community. METHODS: This survey was carried out in a representative sample of 1,041 residents from Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brazil (attrition rate = 14.7%. The Brazilian version of the CIDI was used. One-month, one-year and lifetime social phobia prevalence rates were estimated, employing the DSM-III-R and ICD-10 classifications, using the CIDI computer program. RESULTS: One-month, one-year, and life prevalence rates of social phobia, based on the DSM-III-R (7.9, 9.0 and 11.7% respectively were higher than those based on the ICD-10 (4.7, 5.2 and 6.7% respectively; p OBJETIVO: Este estudo populacional visa comparar estimativas de prevalência de fobia social empregando-se a CID-10 e a DSM-III-R em uma comunidade brasileira. MÉTODOS: O levantamento foi realizado em uma amostra representativa de 1.041 residentes de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil (perda = 14,7%. Foi utilizada a versão brasileira da Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. As prevalências de 1 mês, 1 ano e vida foram estimadas empregando-se as classificações CID-10 e DSM-III-R, utilizando-se o programa de computador da CIDI. RESULTADOS: As prevalências de 1 mês, 1 ano e vida da fobia social, baseadas na DSM-III-R (7,9, 9,0 e 11,7% respectivamente foram mais elevadas que aquelas baseadas na CID-10 (4,7, 5,2 e 6,7%, respectivamente; p < 0,01 para todos. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados reforçam a hipótese de que as taxas de prevalência de fobia social são mais elevadas quando baseadas na DSM-III-R em comparação com a CID-10.
van den Boom, Wijnand; Davidovich, Udi; Heuker, José; Lambers, Femke; Prins, Maria; Sandfort, Theo; Stolte, Ineke G.
Group sex has been suggested as a potential high-risk setting for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM). We investigated whether group sex is associated with lower condom use during anal sex and higher proportions of STIs compared with dyadic sex
We may examine the relationship between higher education and economic growth by comparing the Republic of Korea to the Republic of India. How do political educational decisions impact economic growth? Although both countries began with relatively underdeveloped economies at the time of their independence in the late 1940s, these two countries took…
Regazzi, John J.
This study compares the overall spending trends and patterns of growth of Academic Libraries with Public Libraries, K-12 schools, higher education institutions, and hospitals in the period of 1998 to 2008. Academic Libraries, while showing a growth of 13% over inflation for the period, far underperformed the growth of the other public institutions…
This article argues that strong interrelations between methodological and theoretical advances exist. Progress in, especially comparative, methods may have important impacts on theory evaluation. By using the example of the "Varieties of Capitalism" approach and an international comparison of higher education systems, it can be shown…
Marcos, Séverine; Sarfati, Julie; Leroy, Chrystel
CONTEXT: Mutations in CHD7, a gene previously implicated in CHARGE (coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retardation of growth and/or development, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies) syndrome, have been reported in patients presenting with Kallmann syndrome (KS) or congenital hypogonadotropic...... hypogonadism (CHH). Most mutations causing CHARGE syndrome result in premature stop codons and occur de novo, but the proportion of truncating vs nontruncating mutations in KS and CHH patients is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the nature, prevalence, mode of transmission......, and clinical spectrum of CHD7 mutations in a large series of patients. DESIGN: We studied 209 KS and 94 CHH patients. These patients had not been diagnosed with CHARGE syndrome according to the current criteria. We searched for mutations in 16 KS and CHH genes including CHD7. RESULTS: We found presumably...
Tann, Cally J; Nkurunziza, Peter; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Oweka, James; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Were, Jackson; Nyombi, Natasha; Hughes, Peter; Willey, Barbara A; Elliott, Alison M; Robertson, Nicola J; Klein, Nigel; Harris, Kathryn A
In neonatal encephalopathy (NE), infectious co-morbidity is difficult to diagnose accurately, but may increase the vulnerability of the developing brain to hypoxia-ischemia. We developed a novel panel of species-specific real-time PCR assays to identify bloodstream pathogens amongst newborns with and without NE in Uganda. Multiplex real-time PCR assays for important neonatal bloodstream pathogens (gram positive and gram negative bacteria, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus(HSV) and P. falciparum) were performed on whole blood taken from 202 encephalopathic and 101 control infants. Automated blood culture (BACTEC) was performed for all cases and unwell controls. Prevalence of pathogenic bacterial species amongst infants with NE was 3.6%, 6.9% and 8.9%, with culture, PCR and both tests in combination, respectively. More encephalopathic infants than controls had pathogenic bacterial species detected (8.9%vs2.0%, p = 0.028) using culture and PCR in combination. PCR detected bacteremia in 11 culture negative encephalopathic infants (3 Group B Streptococcus, 1 Group A Streptococcus, 1 Staphylococcus aureus and 6 Enterobacteriacae). Coagulase negative staphylococcus, frequently detected by PCR amongst case and control infants, was considered a contaminant. Prevalence of CMV, HSV and malaria amongst cases was low (1.5%, 0.5% and 0.5%, respectively). This real-time PCR panel detected more bacteremia than culture alone and provides a novel tool for detection of neonatal bloodstream pathogens that may be applied across a range of clinical situations and settings. Significantly more encephalopathic infants than controls had pathogenic bacterial species detected suggesting that infection may be an important risk factor for NE in this setting.
Cally J Tann
Full Text Available In neonatal encephalopathy (NE, infectious co-morbidity is difficult to diagnose accurately, but may increase the vulnerability of the developing brain to hypoxia-ischemia. We developed a novel panel of species-specific real-time PCR assays to identify bloodstream pathogens amongst newborns with and without NE in Uganda.Multiplex real-time PCR assays for important neonatal bloodstream pathogens (gram positive and gram negative bacteria, cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpes simplex virus(HSV and P. falciparum were performed on whole blood taken from 202 encephalopathic and 101 control infants. Automated blood culture (BACTEC was performed for all cases and unwell controls.Prevalence of pathogenic bacterial species amongst infants with NE was 3.6%, 6.9% and 8.9%, with culture, PCR and both tests in combination, respectively. More encephalopathic infants than controls had pathogenic bacterial species detected (8.9%vs2.0%, p = 0.028 using culture and PCR in combination. PCR detected bacteremia in 11 culture negative encephalopathic infants (3 Group B Streptococcus, 1 Group A Streptococcus, 1 Staphylococcus aureus and 6 Enterobacteriacae. Coagulase negative staphylococcus, frequently detected by PCR amongst case and control infants, was considered a contaminant. Prevalence of CMV, HSV and malaria amongst cases was low (1.5%, 0.5% and 0.5%, respectively.This real-time PCR panel detected more bacteremia than culture alone and provides a novel tool for detection of neonatal bloodstream pathogens that may be applied across a range of clinical situations and settings. Significantly more encephalopathic infants than controls had pathogenic bacterial species detected suggesting that infection may be an important risk factor for NE in this setting.
Korzec, A.; Bär, M.; Koeter, M. W.; de Kieviet, W.
In several European countries, drivers under influence (DUI), suspected of an alcohol use disorder (AUD, 'alcoholism') are referred for diagnostic examination. The accuracy of diagnostic procedures used in diagnosing AUD in the DUI population is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare three
Goyal, Nikita; Singh, Simarpreet; Mathur, Anmol; Makkar, Diljot Kaur; Aggarwal, Vikram Pal; Sharma, Anshika; Kaur, Puneet
Adolescents are mostly injured during sport activities, traffic accidents and some forms of violence which may lead to traumatic injuries. Traumatic injuries not only pose a health risk worldwide but are also regarded among serious social problems. Poor oral health has been related to poor social relationships that affect the ability to learn and grow which may lead to reduced self-esteem. This study was conducted to compare self-esteem of adolescents with and without anterior Traumatic Dental Injury (TDI). A population based comparative study was conducted among 10 to 17 years old adolescents from November 2014 to January 2016. The study sample comprised of 424 controls and 212 cases with 2:1 control-to-case ratio that were selected by four examiners along with a gold standard examiner. TDI was recorded using Ellis classification and self-esteem was recorded using Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). For comparing self-esteem of cases and controls according to RSES questions, t-test is used. Odds ratio (OR) was utilized to assess and compare the self-esteem according to high and low esteem in cases and controls. Ellis Class I, Ellis Class II and Ellis Class III fractures were observed in 53.3%, 33.49% and 13.20% of cases, respectively. The maxillary arch was the most affected (72.48%) and on the hierarchy of causes, this study found that on most occasions dental injuries were caused by sports (40.09%). The total mean score of RSES in cases (23.16) and in controls (24.43) was also statistically significant (pself-esteem of adolescents in a positive direction and help them in becoming socially competent adults.
Marijke van Haeften-van Dijk, A; Hattink, Bart J J; Meiland, Franka J M; Bakker, Ton J E M; Dröes, Rose-Marie
To investigate whether community-based (CO) day care with carer support according to the proven effective Meeting Centres Support Programme model is associated with higher satisfaction of people with dementia (PwD) and their informal caregivers (CG) and with a higher job satisfaction among care staff compared to traditional nursing home-based (NH) day care. Data were collected in 11 NH day care centres and 11 CO day care centres. User satisfaction of PwD and CG was evaluated in the 11 NH day care centres (n PwD = 41, n CG = 39) and 11 CO day care centres (n PwD = 28, n CG = 36) with a survey after six months of participation. Job satisfaction was measured only in the six NH day care centres that recently transformed to CO day care, with two standard questionnaires before (n STAFF = 35), and six months after the transition (n STAFF = 35). PwD were more positive about the communication and listening skills of staff and the atmosphere and activities at the CO day care centre. Also, CG valued the communication with, and expertise of, staff in CO day care higher, and were more satisfied with the received emotional, social and practical support. After the transition, satisfaction of staff with the work pace increased, but satisfaction with learning opportunities decreased. PwD and CG were more satisfied about the communication with the staff and the received support in CO day care than in NH day care. Overall job satisfaction was not higher, except satisfaction about work pace.
Madsen, Anders G; Dalsgaard, Søren
Background: Studies have shown that adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk of alcohol and substance abuse in adulthood. An unequivocal reason for this association has not yet been identified but it has been shown that pharmacological treatment...... is likely to reduce this risk. Aims: To test whether adolescents with ADHD in pharmacological treatment have a higher prevalence of smoking and use of alcohol and drugs than a matched control group from the general population. The study will also analyse associations between smoking, alcohol and drug use...... and comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Methods: The sample in this case-control study comprised 219 adolescents aged 13-18 years, including a case group of 117 adolescents with ADHD and a control group of 102 adolescents without ADHD. Participating subjects completed a questionnaire about their use of cigarettes...
Prevalence of Comorbidities and Risk Factors for Comorbidities in Patients with Spondyloarthritis in Latin America: A Comparative Study with the General Population and Data from the ASAS-COMOSPA Study
Bautista-Molano, Wilson; Landewé, Robert; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Maldonado-Cocco, José; Moltó, Anna; van den Bosch, Filip; Valle-Oñate, Rafael; Dougados, Maxime; van der Heijde, Désirée
Increased risk of comorbidities has been reported in spondyloarthritis (SpA). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk of developing comorbidities in patients with SpA in 3 Latin American (LA) countries, and to compare that prevalence with the general population. Data
Mirante, Clara; Clemente, Isabel; Zambu, Graciette; Alexandre, Catarina; Ganga, Teresa; Mayer, Carlos; Brito, Miguel
Helminth intestinal parasitoses are responsible for high levels of child mortality and morbidity. Hence, the capacity to diagnose these parasitoses and consequently ensure due treatment represents a factor of great importance. The main objective of this study involves comparing two methods of concentration, parasitrap and Kato-Katz, for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitoses in faecal samples. Sample processing made recourse to two different concentration methods: the commercial parasitrap® method and the Kato-Katz method. We correspondingly collected a total of 610 stool samples from pre-school and school age children. The results demonstrate the incidence of helminth parasites in 32.8% or 32.3% of the sample collected depending on whether the concentration method applied was either the parasitrap method or the Kato-Katz method. We detected a relatively high percentage of samples testing positive for two or more species of helminth parasites. We would highlight that in searching for larvae the Kato-Katz method does not prove as appropriate as the parasitrap method. Both techniques prove easily applicable even in field working conditions and returning mutually agreeing results. This study concludes in favour of the need for deworming programs and greater public awareness among the rural populations of Angola.
Full Text Available The possible role of viruses in breast cancer etiology remains an unresolved question. We hypothesized that if some viruses are involved, it may be in a subgroup of breast cancers only. Epidemiological arguments drove our interest in breast cancer subgroups that are more frequent in Africa, namely inflammatory breast cancer (IBC and triple-negative breast cancer. We tested whether viral prevalence was significantly higher in these subgroups.One hundred fifty-five paraffin-embedded malignant breast tumors were randomly selected at the pathology laboratory of the University Hospital of Annaba (Algeria to include one third of IBC and two thirds of non-IBC. They were tested for the presence of DNA from 61 viral agents (46 human papillomaviruses, 10 polyomaviruses, and 5 herpesviruses using type-specific multiplex genotyping assays, which combine multiplex PCR and bead-based Luminex technology.Viral DNA was found in 22 (17.9% of 123 tumors. The most prevalent viruses were EBV1 and HPV16. IBC tumors carried significantly more viruses (any type than non-IBC tumors (30% vs. 13%, p<0.04. Similarly, triple-negative tumors displayed higher virus-positivity than non-triple-negative tumors (44% vs. 14%, p<0.009.Our results suggest an association between the presence of viral DNA and aggressive breast cancer phenotypes (IBC, triple-negative. While preliminary, they underline the importance of focusing on subgroups when studying viral etiology in breast cancer. Further studies on viruses in breast cancer should be conducted in much larger samples to confirm these initial findings.
Eriksen, Nina Bonne; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.
Aims/hypothesis: We assessed the association between congenital malformations and maternal hyperglycemia in pregnant women with pregestational (type 1 or type 2) diabetes and investigated if the rate of congenital malformations was similar in women with near-normal glycemic control compared to th...
Armstrong, Gregory; Pirkis, Jane; Arabena, Kerry; Currier, Dianne; Spittal, Matthew J; Jorm, Anthony F
We compare the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia, and examine the extent to which any disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males varies across age groups. We used data from the baseline wave of The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men), a large-scale cohort study of Australian males aged 10-55 years residing in urban and regional areas. Indigenous identification was determined through participants self-reporting as Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander or both. The survey collected data on suicidal thoughts in the preceding 2 weeks and lifetime suicide attempts. A total of 432 participants (2.7%) identified as Indigenous and 15,425 as non-Indigenous (97.3%). Indigenous males were twice as likely as non-Indigenous males to report recent suicidal thoughts (17.6% vs 9.4%; odds ratio = 2.1, p age groups, but a significant gap emerged among men aged 30-39 years and was largest among men aged 40-55 years. Similarly, the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts did not differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in the 14- to 17-years age group, but a disparity emerged in the 18- to 24-years age group and was even larger among males aged 25 years and older. Our paper presents unique data on suicidal thoughts and attempts among a broad age range of Indigenous and non-Indigenous males. The disparity in the prevalence of suicidal thoughts increased across age groups, which is in contrast to the large disparity between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous suicide rates in younger age groups.
Ramesh Kumar, S G; Aswath Narayanan, M B; Jayanthi, D
Immune mechanism shares a common pathway both for systemic autoimmune diseases and periodontal diseases. Scientific exploration of literature revealed limited studies on the association between systemic autoimmune diseases and periodontal diseases in India. The aim of the study is to find whether the presence of systemic autoimmune diseases in an individual is a risk factor for the development of periodontal disease. This was a hospital-based case-control study. A sample of 253 patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, attending the Rheumatology Department of Government General Hospital, Chennai-3, and 262 patients without systemic autoimmune diseases, attending the outpatient department of the Tamil Nadu Government Dental College and Hospital, Chennai-3, constituted the case and control groups, respectively. Age, gender, and oral hygiene status matching was done. Oral hygiene status was assessed using oral hygiene index (OHI) and periodontal status was assessed using community periodontal index (CPI) and loss of attachment (LOA) index. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 15 (SPSS Inc, 2006, Chicago). Results showed 99.2% and 73.9% prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis, respectively, in the case group as compared to 85.5% and 14.9%, respectively, in the control group. There is no linear relationship between OHI scores and prevalence of periodontitis (CPI and LOA scores) in the case group. Patients suffering from systemic autoimmune diseases showed more prevalence of periodontal diseases irrespective of oral hygiene scores. It is postulated that the presence of systemic autoimmune diseases may pose a risk for the development of periodontal diseases.
Identification of Streptococcus agalactiae by fluorescent in situ hybridization compared to culturing and the determination of prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae colonization among pregnant women in Bushehr, Iran.
Tajbakhsh, Saeed; Norouzi Esfahani, Marjan; Emaneini, Mohammad; Motamed, Niloofar; Rahmani, Elham; Gharibi, Somayyeh
Pregnant women colonized by Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci [GBS]) may transfer this microorganism to their newborns. S. agalactiae is an important cause of pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis in newborns. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is considered as a method of identification in the field of diagnostic microbiology. In this paper, we have designed a study to compare the DNA FISH after 7 h Lim broth enrichment and culturing for the identification of S. agalactiae and to determine the prevalence of vaginal colonization by S. agalactiae among pregnant women in Bushehr, Iran. Vaginal swab specimens were obtained from 285 pregnant women at 35 weeks or more than 35 weeks of gestation. The specimens were inoculated into Lim broth. In order to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of GBS DNA FISH after 7 h Lim broth enrichment, the specimens were tested using both FISH and conventional culture methods. In addition, the prevalence of GBS colonization was determined. Based on the results of this study, both the sensitivity and specificity of FISH were 100%. S. agalactiae was detected by both culture and FISH in 27 of the 285 pregnant women. Thus, the prevalence of GBS colonization was 9.5%. Since short-term (7 h) Lim broth enrichment followed by FISH using oligonucleotide probes showed a high sensitivity and specificity, this protocol is therefore a highly accurate and relatively rapid method for the detection of S. agalactiae. Our analysis suggests that the use of DNA FISH to screen for S. agalactiae colonization in pregnant women may be considered in the absence of GBS culture availability.
Pinzer, T C; Tietz, E; Waldmann, E; Schink, M; Neurath, M F; Zopf, Y
Histamine intolerance is thought to trigger manifold clinical symptoms after ingesting histamine-rich food due to reduced activity of diamine oxidase (DAO). No study has hitherto systematically assessed daily fluctuations of histamine levels and DAO activities in symptomatic patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of histamine intolerance, to therefore establish day profiles of histamine levels and DAO activities, and to compare the results between patients with suspected histamine intolerance, food allergy and healthy controls. We determined day profiles of histamine plasma levels and DAO serum activities in 33 patients with suspected histamine intolerance, in 21 patients with proven food allergy and in 10 healthy control patients. Clinical symptoms, food intolerances and further clinical and laboratory chemical parameters were evaluated. Twenty-four percent (8 of 33) suspected histamine-intolerant patients showed elevated histamine levels during the day. That might be caused by constantly and significantly reduced DAO activities in these patients compared to food-allergic and control patients. The remaining 25 patients presented normal histamine levels and DAO activities, but an increased prevalence of multiple food intolerances compared to the other subgroup of suspected histamine-intolerants. There was no correlation between subjective complaints and serological histamine parameters in patients with suspected histamine intolerance. We determined by daily profiling that decreased DAO activities correlated with elevated histamine levels in a subgroup of suspected histamine-intolerants. This finding discriminates these patients from food intolerant individuals with similar clinical symptoms and strongly suggests the presence of histamine intolerance. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Serratrice, Christine; Bensalah, Nesma; Penaranda, Guillaume; Bardin, Nathalie; Belmatoug, Nadia; Masseau, Agathe; Rose, Christian; Lidove, Olivier; Camou, Fabrice; Maillot, François; Leguy, Vanessa; Magy-Bertrand, Nadine; Marie, Isabelle; Cherin, Patrick; Bengherbia, Monia; Carballo, Sebastian; Boucraut, José; Serratrice, Jacques; Berger, Marc; Verrot, Denis
Type 1 Gaucher disease may be related to the presence of autoantibodies. Their clinical significance is questioned. Primary endpoint was to compare the prevalence of autoantibodies in type 1 Gaucher disease patients with healthy subjects, seeking correlations with autoimmune characteristics. Secondary endpoints were to determine whether patients with autoantibodies reported autoimmunity-related symptoms and if genotype, splenectomy or treatment influenced autoantibodies presence. Type 1 Gaucher disease patients and healthy volunteers were included in this national multicenter exploratory study. Autoantibodies presence was compared in both groups and assessed regarding to genotype, splenectomy, Gaucher disease treatment and autoimmunity-related symptoms. Twenty healthy subjects and 40 type 1 Gaucher disease patients were included. Of the studied group: 15 patients undergone splenectomy, 37 were treated either with enzyme replacement therapy (34) or with substrate reduction therapy (3), 25 were homozygous/heterozygous for the N370S mutation. In type 1 Gaucher disease group (studied group), 52% had positive autoantibodies versus 26% in control group. Antiphospholipid antibodies were more frequent in the studied group (30% vs. 5%), but without correlation to thrombosis, osteonecrosis or bone infarcts. In the studied group, antinuclear antibodies were more frequent (25% vs. 16%). None of the patients with autoantibodies had clinical manifestations of autoimmune diseases. Autoantibodies were not correlated with treatment, genotype, or splenectomy, except for anticardiolipid, more frequent in splenectomized patients. In type 1 Gaucher disease, autoantibodies were more frequent compared to a healthy population. However, they were not associated with an increased prevalence of clinical active autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y; Milan, Stephanie
There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents' academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49 % Latino, 23 % White, 22 % Black, and 6 % other; 51 % female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in 5 years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education.
Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y.; Milan, Stephanie
There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents’ academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49% Latino, 23% White, 22% Black, and 6% other; 51% female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in five years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education. PMID:23111844
Chung, Tammy; Cornelius, Jack; Clark, Duncan; Martin, Christopher
Proposed International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition (ICD-11), criteria for substance use disorder (SUD) radically simplify the algorithm used to diagnose substance dependence. Major differences in case identification across DSM and ICD impact determinations of treatment need and conceptualizations of substance dependence. This study compared the draft algorithm for ICD-11 SUD against DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ICD-10, for alcohol and cannabis. Adolescents (n = 339, ages 14 to 18) admitted to intensive outpatient addictions treatment completed, as part of a research study, a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM SUDs adapted for use with adolescents and which has been used to assess DSM and ICD SUD diagnoses. Analyses examined prevalence across classification systems, diagnostic concordance, and sources of diagnostic disagreement. Prevalence of any past-year proposed ICD-11 alcohol or cannabis use disorder was significantly lower compared to DSM-IV and DSM-5 (ps DSM-5, and ICD-10 (ps DSM-5 SUD diagnoses showed only moderate concordance. For both alcohol and cannabis, youth typically met criteria for an ICD-11 dependence diagnosis by reporting tolerance and much time spent using or recovering from the substance, rather than symptoms indicating impaired control over use. The proposed ICD-11 dependence algorithm appears to "overdiagnose" dependence on alcohol and cannabis relative to DSM-IV and ICD-10 dependence, and DSM-5 moderate/severe use disorder, generating potential "false-positive" cases of dependence. Among youth who met criteria for proposed ICD-11 dependence, few reported impaired control over substance use, highlighting ongoing issues in the conceptualization and diagnosis of SUD. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Full Text Available Inhaled, long-acting beta-2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABA have well-established roles in asthma and/or COPD treatment. Drug utilisation patterns for LABA have been described, but few studies have directly compared LABA use in different countries. We aimed to compare the prevalence of LABA-containing prescriptions in five European countries using a standardised methodology.A common study protocol was applied to seven European healthcare record databases (Denmark, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands (2, and the UK (2 to calculate crude and age- and sex-standardised annual period prevalence rates (PPRs of LABA-containing prescriptions from 2002-2009. Annual PPRs were stratified by sex, age, and indication (asthma, COPD, asthma and COPD.From 2002-2009, age- and sex-standardised PPRs of patients with LABA-containing medications increased in all databases (58.2%-185.1%. Highest PPRs were found in men ≥ 80 years old and women 70-79 years old. Regarding the three indications, the highest age- and sex-standardised PPRs in all databases were found in patients with "asthma and COPD" but with large inter-country variation. In those with asthma or COPD, lower PPRs and smaller inter-country variations were found. For all three indications, PPRs for LABA-containing prescriptions increased with age.Using a standardised protocol that allowed direct inter-country comparisons, we found highest rates of LABA-containing prescriptions in elderly patients and distinct differences in the increased utilisation of LABA-containing prescriptions within the study period throughout the five European countries.
Montagu, Dominic; Sudhinaraset, May; Lwin, Thandar; Onozaki, Ikushi; Win, Zaw; Aung, Tin
Since 2004, the Sun Quality Health (SQH) franchise network has provided TB care in Myanmar through a network of established private medical clinics. This study compares the wealth distribution of the TB patients to non-TB patients to determine if TB is most common among the poor, and compares the wealth of all TB patients to SQH TB patients to assess whether the franchise achieves its goal of serving the poor. The study uses data from two sources: 1) Myanmar's first nationally representative TB prevalence study conducted in 2009, and 2) client exit interviews from TB patients from SQH clinics. In total, 1,114 TB-positive individuals were included in the study, including 739 from the national sample and 375 from the SQH sample. TB patients at SQH clinics were poorer than TB-positive individuals in the overall population, though not at a statistically significant level (p > 0.05). After stratification we found that in urban areas, TB patients at SQH clinics were more likely to be in the poorest quartile compared to general TB positive population (16.8% vs. 8.6%, respectively; p 0.05). Franchised clinics in Myanmar are reaching poor populations of TB patients in urban areas; more efforts are needed in order to reach the most vulnerable in rural areas.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Since 2004, the Sun Quality Health (SQH franchise network has provided TB care in Myanmar through a network of established private medical clinics. This study compares the wealth distribution of the TB patients to non-TB patients to determine if TB is most common among the poor, and compares the wealth of all TB patients to SQH TB patients to assess whether the franchise achieves its goal of serving the poor. Methods The study uses data from two sources: 1 Myanmar’s first nationally representative TB prevalence study conducted in 2009, and 2 client exit interviews from TB patients from SQH clinics. In total, 1,114 TB-positive individuals were included in the study, including 739 from the national sample and 375 from the SQH sample. Results TB patients at SQH clinics were poorer than TB-positive individuals in the overall population, though not at a statistically significant level (p > 0.05. After stratification we found that in urban areas, TB patients at SQH clinics were more likely to be in the poorest quartile compared to general TB positive population (16.8% vs. 8.6%, respectively; p 0.05. Conclusion Franchised clinics in Myanmar are reaching poor populations of TB patients in urban areas; more efforts are needed in order to reach the most vulnerable in rural areas.
Introduction Since 2004, the Sun Quality Health (SQH) franchise network has provided TB care in Myanmar through a network of established private medical clinics. This study compares the wealth distribution of the TB patients to non-TB patients to determine if TB is most common among the poor, and compares the wealth of all TB patients to SQH TB patients to assess whether the franchise achieves its goal of serving the poor. Methods The study uses data from two sources: 1) Myanmar’s first nationally representative TB prevalence study conducted in 2009, and 2) client exit interviews from TB patients from SQH clinics. In total, 1,114 TB-positive individuals were included in the study, including 739 from the national sample and 375 from the SQH sample. Results TB patients at SQH clinics were poorer than TB-positive individuals in the overall population, though not at a statistically significant level (p > 0.05). After stratification we found that in urban areas, TB patients at SQH clinics were more likely to be in the poorest quartile compared to general TB positive population (16.8% vs. 8.6%, respectively; p 0.05). Conclusion Franchised clinics in Myanmar are reaching poor populations of TB patients in urban areas; more efforts are needed in order to reach the most vulnerable in rural areas. PMID:23305063
Georgakis, Marios K; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Papathoma, Paraskevi; Tragiannidis, Athanasios; Ryzhov, Anton; Zivkovic-Perisic, Snezana; Eser, Sultan; Taraszkiewicz, Łukasz; Sekerija, Mario; Žagar, Tina; Antunes, Luis; Zborovskaya, Anna; Bastos, Joana; Florea, Margareta; Coza, Daniela; Demetriou, Anna; Agius, Domenic; Strahinja, Rajko M; Sfakianos, Georgios; Nikas, Ioannis; Kosmidis, Sofia; Razis, Evangelia; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Kantzanou, Maria; Dessypris, Nick; Petridou, Eleni Th
To present incidence of central nervous system (CNS) tumours among adolescents and young adults (AYAs; 15-39 years) derived from registries of Southern and Eastern Europe (SEE) in comparison to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER), US and explore changes due to etiological parameters or registration improvement via evaluating time trends. Diagnoses of 11,438 incident malignant CNS tumours in AYAs (1990-2014) were retrieved from 14 collaborating SEE cancer registries and 13,573 from the publicly available SEER database (1990-2012). Age-adjusted incidence rates (AIRs) were calculated; Poisson and joinpoint regression analyses were performed for temporal trends. The overall AIR of malignant CNS tumours among AYAs was higher in SEE (28.1/million) compared to SEER (24.7/million). Astrocytomas comprised almost half of the cases in both regions, albeit the higher proportion of unspecified cases in SEE registries (30% versus 2.5% in SEER). Similar were the age and gender distributions across SEE and SEER with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3 and an overall increase of incidence by age. Increasing temporal trends in incidence were documented in four SEE registries (Greater Poland, Portugal North, Turkey-Izmir and Ukraine) versus an annual decrease in Croatia (-2.5%) and a rather stable rate in SEER (-0.3%). This first report on descriptive epidemiology of AYAs malignant CNS tumours in the SEE area shows higher incidence rates as compared to the United States of America and variable temporal trends that may be linked to registration improvements. Hence, it emphasises the need for optimisation of cancer registration processes, as to enable the in-depth evaluation of the observed patterns by disease subtype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Frisch, Nora K; Nathan, Romil; Ahmed, Yasin K; Shidham, Vinod B
The era of Open Access (OA) publication, a platform which serves to better disseminate scientific knowledge, is upon us, as more OA journals are in existence than ever before. The idea that peer-reviewed OA publication leads to higher rates of citation has been put forth and shown to be true in several publications. This is a significant benefit to authors and is in addition to another relatively less obvious but highly critical component of the OA charter, i.e. retention of the copyright by the authors in the public domain. In this study, we analyzed the citation rates of OA and traditional non-OA publications specifically for authors in the field of cytopathology. We compared the citation patterns for authors who had published in both OA and traditional non-OA peer-reviewed, scientific, cytopathology journals. Citations in an OA publication (CytoJournal) were analyzed comparatively with traditional non-OA cytopathology journals (Acta Cytologica, Cancer Cytopathology, Cytopathology, and Diagnostic Cytopathology) using the data from web of science citation analysis site (based on which the impact factors (IF) are calculated). After comparing citations per publication, as well as a time adjusted citation quotient (which takes into account the time since publication), we also analyzed the statistics after excluding the data for meeting abstracts. Total 28 authors published 314 publications as articles and meeting abstracts (25 authors after excluding the abstracts). The rate of citation and time adjusted citation quotient were higher for OA in the group where abstracts were included (P citation than the publications in the traditional non-OA journals in the field of cytopathology over a 5 year period (2007-2011). However, this increase was statistically insignificant if the meeting abstracts were excluded from the analysis. Overall, the rates of citation for OA and non-OA were slightly higher to comparable.
Nora K Frisch
Full Text Available Background: The era of Open Access (OA publication, a platform which serves to better disseminate scientific knowledge, is upon us, as more OA journals are in existence than ever before. The idea that peer-reviewed OA publication leads to higher rates of citation has been put forth and shown to be true in several publications. This is a significant benefit to authors and is in addition to another relatively less obvious but highly critical component of the OA charter, i.e. retention of the copyright by the authors in the public domain. In this study, we analyzed the citation rates of OA and traditional non-OA publications specifically for authors in the field of cytopathology. Design: We compared the citation patterns for authors who had published in both OA and traditional non-OA peer-reviewed, scientific, cytopathology journals. Citations in an OA publication (CytoJournal were analyzed comparatively with traditional non-OA cytopathology journals (Acta Cytologica, Cancer Cytopathology, Cytopathology, and Diagnostic Cytopathology using the data from web of science citation analysis site (based on which the impact factors (IF are calculated. After comparing citations per publication, as well as a time adjusted citation quotient (which takes into account the time since publication, we also analyzed the statistics after excluding the data for meeting abstracts. Results: Total 28 authors published 314 publications as articles and meeting abstracts (25 authors after excluding the abstracts. The rate of citation and time adjusted citation quotient were higher for OA in the group where abstracts were included (P < 0.05 for both. The rates were also slightly higher for OA than non-OA when the meeting abstracts were excluded, but the difference was statistically insignificant (P = 0.57 and P = 0.45. Conclusion : We observed that for the same author, the publications in the OA journal attained a higher rate of citation than the publications in the
Gamal M. H. Rakha
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of common digestive problems compared to other health problems among dogs that were admitted to the teaching veterinary hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Egypt during 1 year period from January to December 2013. Also, study the effect of age, sex, breeds, and season on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 3864 dogs included 1488 apparently healthy (included 816 males and 672 females and 2376 diseased dogs (included 1542 males and 834 females were registered for age, sex, breed, and the main complaint from their owners. A complete history and detailed clinical examination of each case were applied to the aids of radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic examination tools. Fecal examination was applied for each admitted case. Rapid tests for parvovirus and canine distemper virus detection were also performed. Results: A five digestive problems were commonly recorded including vomiting, diarrhea, concurrent vomiting with diarrhea, anorexia, and constipation with a prevalence (% of 13.6, 19.1, 10.1, 13.1, and 0.5 respectively while that of dermatological, respiratory, urinary, neurological, cardiovascular, auditory, and ocular problems was 27.9, 10.5, 3.3, 0.84, 0.4, 0.25, and 0.17 (% respectively. This prevalence was obtained on the basis of the diseased cases. Age and breed had a significant effect on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs (p0.05 on the distribution of such problems. Conclusion: Digestive problems were the highest recorded problems among dogs, and this was the first records for such problems among dogs in Egypt. Age, gender, and breeds had a significant effect on the distribution of the digestive problems in dogs while season had a non-significant effect on the distribution of such problems. The present data enable veterinarians in Egypt to ascertain their needs for diagnostic tools
Briggs, Adam D M; Mytton, Oliver T; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter
To model the overall and income specific effect of a 20% tax on sugar sweetened drinks on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the UK. Econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. United Kingdom. Adults aged 16 and over. A 20% tax on sugar sweetened drinks. The primary outcomes were the overall and income specific changes in the number and percentage of overweight (body mass index ≥ 25) and obese (≥ 30) adults in the UK following the implementation of the tax. Secondary outcomes were the effect by age group (16-29, 30-49, and ≥ 50 years) and by UK constituent country. The revenue generated from the tax and the income specific changes in weekly expenditure on drinks were also estimated. A 20% tax on sugar sweetened drinks was estimated to reduce the number of obese adults in the UK by 1.3% (95% credible interval 0.8% to 1.7%) or 180,000 (110,000 to 247,000) people and the number who are overweight by 0.9% (0.6% to 1.1%) or 285,000 (201,000 to 364,000) people. The predicted reductions in prevalence of obesity for income thirds 1 (lowest income), 2, and 3 (highest income) were 1.3% (0.3% to 2.0%), 0.9% (0.1% to 1.6%), and 2.1% (1.3% to 2.9%). The effect on obesity declined with age. Predicted annual revenue was £276m (£272m to £279m), with estimated increases in total expenditure on drinks for income thirds 1, 2, and 3 of 2.1% (1.4% to 3.0%), 1.7% (1.2% to 2.2%), and 0.8% (0.4% to 1.2%). A 20% tax on sugar sweetened drinks would lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity in the UK of 1.3% (around 180,000 people). The greatest effects may occur in young people, with no significant differences between income groups. Both effects warrant further exploration. Taxation of sugar sweetened drinks is a promising population measure to target population obesity, particularly among younger adults.
Higher success rate with transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery.
Shigematsu, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Hironobu; Takatani, Tsunenori; Iwata, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Masato; Okuda, Akinori; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yuu; Tanaka, Yasuhito
During spine surgery, the spinal cord is electrophysiologically monitored via transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) to prevent injury. Transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potential involves the use of either constant-current or constant-voltage stimulation; however, there are few comparative data available regarding their ability to adequately elicit compound motor action potentials. We hypothesized that the success rates of TES-MEP recordings would be similar between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations in patients undergoing spine surgery. The objective of this study was to compare the success rates of TES-MEP recordings between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulation. This is a prospective, within-subject study. Data from 100 patients undergoing spinal surgery at the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar level were analyzed. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from each muscle were examined. Transcranial electrical stimulation with constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations at the C3 and C4 electrode positions (international "10-20" system) was applied to each patient. Compound muscle action potentials were bilaterally recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), deltoid (Del), abductor hallucis (AH), tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius (GC), and quadriceps (Quad) muscles. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from the right Del, right APB, bilateral Quad, right TA, right GC, and bilateral AH muscles were significantly higher using constant-voltage stimulation than those using constant-current stimulation. The overall success rates with constant-voltage and constant-current stimulations were 86.3% and 68.8%, respectively (risk ratio 1.25 [95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.31]). The success rates of TES-MEP recordings were higher using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Copyright © 2017
Zgambo, Maggie; Kalembo, Fatch Welcome; Wang, Honghong; He, Guoping; Chen, Sanmei
Multicultural comparative studies have recently increased scientific knowledge base regarding the mental health of diverse populations. This cross-cultural study was cross-sectionally designed to assess differences in the prevalence and predictors of clinically significant depressive symptoms between Chinese and Malawian children. A total of 478 children (237 Chinese and 241 Malawians) were randomly recruited in the study. The participants completed a Children Depression Inventory in the dimensions of Negative Mood, Interpersonal Problems, Ineffectiveness, Anhedonia, and Negative Self- Esteem. They further provided demographic and family structure information. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression. The prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms was 16% and 12.4% for Chinese and Malawian study participants, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that fighting among siblings (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.1, 95% CI, 3.5-5.9), fighting among children and parents (aOR = 7.7, 95% CI, 4.6-9.8) and living with father only (aOR = 4.1, 95% CI, 3.4-6.7) were significant predictors of clinically significant depressive symptoms among Chinese study participants. On the other hand, clinically significant depressive symptoms were predicted by employment status of a mom only among Malawian study participants (aOR = 3.0, 95% CI, 2.3-5.9). We conclude that diverse cultures affect children's mental health differently and this cluster of children has a noticeable amount of depressive symptoms that in the least requires further diagnosis and preventive measures.
Comparative efficacy of enrofloxacin to that of tulathromycin for the control of bovine respiratory disease and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Mannheimia haemolytica in calves at high risk of developing bovine respiratory disease.
Crosby, S; Credille, B; Giguère, S; Berghaus, R
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in North American beef cattle. Mannheimia haemolytica is the bacterial pathogen most often isolated from cattle with BRD, and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in this organism has increased in recent years. Antimicrobials are commonly used to prevent BRD in cattle at high risk of developing BRD; however, recent work would suggest that this practice might be one factor contributing to the increased prevalence of AMR in M. haemolytica. We hypothesized that the administration of the short-acting fluoroquinolone, enrofloxacin, would be just as effective as the long-acting triamilide, tulathromycin, in preventing BRD but would be less likely to select for AMR M. haemolytica in stocker calves at high risk of developing BRD. Three hundred forty-one stocker calves were enrolled in the study with 172 calves in 4 pens being randomly assigned to treatment with enrofloxacin and 169 calves in 4 pens randomly assigned to treatment with tulathromycin. Calves within each treatment group were allocated to one of 4 replicate pens based on the week of enrollment. Of calves receiving enrofloxacin, 33.7% required treatment for BRD at least once within 45 d after arrival, compared with 18.3% of calves receiving tulathromycin (P = 0.040). The percentages of calves that required more than one treatment for BRD within 45 d after arrival did not differ statistically for those receiving enrofloxacin compared with those receiving tulathromycin (10.5% and 4.7%, respectively; P = 0.107) Likewise, the percentages of calves that died during the 45-d follow-up period did not differ for those receiving enrofloxacin compared with those receiving tulathromycin (12.2% and 10.1%, respectively; P = 0.592). Mannheimia haemolytica was cultured from 11% of calves sampled at arrival and from 50% of calves sampled at revaccination 14 to 17 d later. There was a significanst effect of sampling time on the
Rajesh Kumar, B.; Saravanan, S.; Rana, D.; Nagendran, A.
Highlights: • Four higher-alcohols namely, iso-butanol, n-pentanol, n-hexanol and n-octanol, were used. • Iso-butanol/diesel blend presented longest ignition delay, highest peak pressures and peak heat release rates. • NOx emissions were high for n-pentanol/diesel and n-hexanol/diesel blends at high load conditions. • Smoke opacity is highest for n-octanol/diesel blend and lowest for iso-butanol/diesel blend. • HC emissions are high for iso-butanol/diesel and n-pentanol/diesel blends. - Abstract: Higher alcohols are attractive next generation biofuels that can be extracted from sugary, starchy and ligno-cellulosic biomass feedstocks using sustainable pathways. Their viability for use in diesel engines has greatly improved ever since extended bio-synthetic pathways have achieved substantial yields of these alcohols using engineered micro-organisms. This study sets out to compare and analyze the effects of some higher alcohol/diesel blends on combustion and emission characteristics of a direct-injection diesel engine. Four test fuels containing 30% by vol. of iso-butanol, n-pentanol, n-hexanol and n-octanol (designated as ISB30, PEN30, HEX30 and OCT30 respectively) in ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) were used. Results indicated that ISB30 experienced longest ignition delay and produced highest peaks of pressure and heat release rates (HRR) compared to other higher-alcohol blends. The ignition delay, peak pressure and peak HRR are found to be in the order of (from highest to lowest): ISB30 > PEN30 > HEX30 > OCT30 > ULSD. The combustion duration (CD) for all test fuels is in the sequence (from shortest to longest): ISB30 OCT30 > HEX30 > PEN30 > ISB30. HC emissions are high for ISB30 and PEN30 while it decreased favorably for HEX30 and OCT30. It was of the order (from highest to lowest): ISB30 > PEN30 > ULSD > HEX30 > OCT30. CO emissions of the blends followed the trend of smoke emissions and remained lower than ULSD with the following order (from highest to
Mielke, S. P.; Kiang, N. Y.; Blankenship, R. E.; Gunner, M. R.; Mauzerall, D.
The cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina uses chlorophyll d to carry out oxygenic photosynthesis in environments depleted in visible and enhanced in lower-energy, far-red light. However, the extent to which low photon energies limit the efficiency of oxygenic photochemistry in A. marina is not known. Here, we report the first direct measurements of the energy-storage efficiency of the photosynthetic light reactions in A. marina whole cells,and find it is comparable to or higher than that in typical, chlorophyll a-utilizing oxygenic species. This finding indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis is not fundamentally limited at the photon energies employed by A. marina, and therefore is potentially viable in even longer-wavelength light environments.
Full Text Available Daniel A Godefrooij, Mustapha El Kandoussi, Nienke Soeters, Robert PL Wisse Utrecht Cornea Research Group, Department of Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of transepithelial crosslinking (trans-CXL versus epithelium-off crosslinking (epi-off CXL for progressive keratoconus with respect to the development of higher order aberrations (HOAs and their effects on visual acuity.Materials and methods: A total of 61 patients were randomized and examined preoperatively and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively in an academic referral center. Total corneal HOAs were compared between the two treatment groups using mixed linear modeling. Types of HOAs (coma, trefoil, and spherical aberration that differed between groups were entered in a multivariable analysis to test their effect on uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA.Results: The epi-off CXL group had more flattening in maximal keratometry compared to the trans-CXL group (P=0.02. UDVA did not differ significantly between the groups (P=0.59; however, CDVA was significantly more improved in the trans-CXL group (P=0.02. Horizontal trefoil improved more in the epi-off group compared to the trans-CXL group (P=0.04, whereas the other HOAs were virtually unchanged in both groups. Differences in changes in HOAs between the two groups had no effect on either UCVA (P=0.76 or CDVA (P=0.96.Conclusion: Although HOAs are clinically relevant determinants of vision quality in keratoconus patients, the change in total HOAs post treatment did not differ between the trans-CXL and epi-off CXL groups. Only horizontal trefoil differed significantly post treatment between the trans-CXL and epi-off CXL groups. However, this difference did not independently affect either UDVA or CDVA. Trans-CXL provides no benefit over epi-off CXL regarding visual relevant HOAs. Keywords
Wang, Jing; Wang, Huatao; Zhang, Wenying; Yang, Xinyi; Wen, Guangwu; Wang, Yijie; Zhou, Weiwei
Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are widely applied in many high strength, light weight applications, but their thermal conductivity is lower compared to that of other metals, which limits their further applications. In this paper, we demonstrated experimentally that rGO-Ti-rGO heterogeneous substrates with higher thermal conductivity, up to ∼38.8% higher than Ti, could be fabricated by electrochemical depositing rGO on their surface. The rGO layers are grown on the surface of Ti substrates, with appearance of bedclothes on the beds. The thickness of rGO layers is around 300-500 nm and around 600-1000 nm when deposited for 5 cycles and 10 cycles, respectively. According to the cooling experiment results, as-prepared Ti + rGO substrates can present excellent thermal conduction performance, and reduce the chip temperature close to 3.2 °C-13.1 °C lower than Ti alloy substrates with the heat flow density of 0.4-3.6 W cm -2 . Finally, the approach to electro-chemically deposit hundreds of nanometer rGO layers on the surface of Ti substrates can improve their thermal conductivity and heat transfer performance, which may have further application in the increasing thermal conduction of other metal-alloys, ceramics and polymers.
Nikooyeh, Bahareh; Neyestani, Tirang R
Bread, as the staple food of Iranians, with average per capita consumption of 300 g d -1 , could potentially be a good vehicle for many fortificants, including iron. In this study, iron bioavailability from flat breads (three fortified and one whole wheat unfortified) was investigated using in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion and absorption in a caco-2 cell model. Despite having a lower ferritin/protein ratio in comparison with fortified breads, whole wheat bread showed higher iron bioavailability than the other three types of bread. Assuming iron bioavailability from the ferrous sulfate supplement used as standard was about 10%, the estimated bioavailability of iron from the test breads was calculated as 5.0-8.0%. Whole wheat bread (∼8%), as compared with the fortified breads (∼5-6.5%), had higher iron bioavailability. Iron from unfortified whole wheat bread is more bioavailable than from three types of iron-fortified breads. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Social determinants and lifestyle risk factors only partially explain the higher prevalence of food insecurity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Australian state of Victoria: a cross-sectional study
Background The prevalence of food insecurity is substantially higher among Australians of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent. The purpose of this study is to explain the relationship between food insecurity and Aboriginal and Torres Islander status in the state of Victoria. Methods Data were obtained from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey; a cross-sectional landline computer-assisted telephone interview survey of 34,168 randomly selected Victorians aged 18 years and older; including 339 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. We categorised a respondent as food insecure, if in the previous 12 months, they reported having run out of food and not being able to afford to buy more. We used multivariable logistic regression to adjust for age, sex, socioeconomic status (household income), lifestyle risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity), social support (ability to get help from family, friends or neighbours), household composition (lone parent status, household with a child, and household size), and geographic location (rurality). Results Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (20.3%) were more likely than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts (5.4%) to have experienced food insecurity; odds ratio (OR) = 4.5 (95% CI; 2.7-7.4). Controlling for age, SES, smoking, obesity and inability to get help from family or friends reduced the odds ratio by 38%; ORadjusted = 2.8 (1.6-5.0). Conclusions Social determinants and lifestyle risk factors only partially explained the higher prevalence of food insecurity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Victoria. Further research is needed to explain the disparity in food insecurity between the two populations in order to inform and guide corrective action. PMID:24924598
Bichler, J; Benseler, S M; Krumrey-Langkammerer, M; Haas, J-P; Hügle, B
Chronic anterior uveitis is a serious complication of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA); disease flares are highly associated with loss of vision. Leflunomide (LEF) is used successfully for JIA joint disease but its effectiveness in uveitis has not been determined. The aim of this study was to determine whether LEF improves flare rates of uveitis in JIA patients compared to preceding methotrexate (MTX) therapy. A single-centre retrospective study of consecutive children with JIA and chronic anterior uveitis was performed. All children initially received MTX and were then switched to LEF. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, dose and duration of MTX and LEF therapy, concomitant medications and rate of anterior uveitis flares, as determined by an expert ophthalmologist, were obtained. Flare rates were compared using a generalized linear mixed model with a negative binomial distribution. A total of 15 children were included (80% females, all antinuclear antibody positive). The median duration of MTX therapy was 51 (range 26-167) months; LEF was given for a median of 12 (range 4-47) months. Anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF-α) co-medication was given to four children while on MTX. By contrast, LEF was combined with anti-TNF-α treatment in six children. On MTX, JIA patients showed a uveitis flare rate of 0.0247 flares/month, while LEF treatment was associated with a significantly higher flare rate of 0.0607 flares/month (p = 0.008). Children with JIA had significantly more uveitis flares on LEF compared to MTX despite receiving anti-TNF-α co-medication more frequently. Therefore, LEF may need to be considered less effective in controlling chronic anterior uveitis.
Full Text Available Background. Trachoma is the most common infectious cause of blindness worldwide. Once an epidemic in most parts of the world, it has largely now disappeared from developed countries. However, it continues to be endemic in many developing countries like Ethiopia. Even if several studies were conducted in different parts of Ethiopia, most of them did not show the independent predictors for rural and urban children separately. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of active trachoma in urban and rural children. Methods. Community based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Dera woreda. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 671 children of one up to nine years of age. Data were collected by face to face interview and observation using a structured and pretested questionnaire. Binary Logistic Regression Model was fitted to consider adding independent predictors of outcome. Results. Out of 671 children, 20 (9.3% of urban and 85 (18.6% of rural children were positive for active trachoma. Having discharge on eye (AOR = 6.9, 95% CI: 1.79–27.89, presence of liquid waste around the main house (AOR = 5.6, 95% CI: 1.94–16.18, and living in households without latrine (AOR = 4.39, 95% CI: 1.39–13.89 were significantly associated with active trachoma of urban children. Rural children who had discharge on their eye (AOR = 5.86, 95% CI: 2.78–12.33, those who had unclean face (AOR = 4.68, 95% CI: 2.24–9.81, and those living in households with feces around their main houses (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.04–3.62 were significantly associated with active trachoma. Conclusion. The result showed that the prevalence of active trachoma in urban areas of the district was below WHO threshold of 10% to determine trachoma as public health problem. However, in rural areas of the district it is far from elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. Thus, in order to improve awareness of the community
Mayes, Susan; Ferris, April-Rose; Smith, Peter; Garnham, Andrew; Cook, Jill
Ballet exposes the hip joint to repetitive loading in extreme ranges of movement and may predispose a dancer to pain and osteoarthritis (OA). The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of cartilage defects in professional ballet dancers and athletes and to determine the relationship of clinical signs and symptoms. Forty-nine male and female, current and retired professional ballet dancers and 49 age- and sex-matched non-dancing athletes completed hip pain questionnaires, including the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS), and underwent hip range of movement (ROM) testing and 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging to score cartilage defects (no defect, grade 1: focal partial defect and grade 2: diffuse or full thickness defect). Thirty (61 %) dancers and 27 (55 %) athletes had cartilage defects (p = 0.54). The frequency of grade 1 and 2 cartilage defects did not differ between dancers and athletes (p = 0.83). The frequency of cartilage defects was similar in male and female dancers (p = 0.34), and male and female athletes (p = 0.24). Cartilage defects were not related to history of hip pain (p = 0.34), HAGOS pain (p = 0.14), sports/rec (p = 0.15) scores or hip internal rotation ≤20° (p > 0.01). Cartilage defects were related to age in male dancers (p = 0.002). Ballet dancers do not appear to be at a greater risk of cartilage injury compared to non-dancing athletes. Male dancers develop cartilage defects at an earlier age than athletes and female dancers. Cartilage defects were not related to clinical signs and symptoms; thus, prospective studies are required to determine which cartilage defects progress to symptomatic hip OA.
Percoll gradient-centrifuged capacitated mouse sperm have increased fertilizing ability and higher contents of sulfogalactosylglycerolipid and docosahexaenoic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine compared to washed capacitated mouse sperm.
Furimsky, Anna; Vuong, Ngoc; Xu, Hongbin; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Xu, Min; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Bou Khalil, Maroun; Kates, Morris; Tanphaichitr, Nongnuj
Although Percoll gradient centrifugation has been used routinely to prepare motile human sperm, its use in preparing motile mouse sperm has been limited. Here, we showed that Percoll gradient-centrifuged (PGC) capacitated mouse sperm had markedly higher fertilizing ability (sperm-zona pellucida [ZP] binding and in vitro fertilization) than washed capacitated mouse sperm. We also showed that the lipid profiles of PGC capacitated sperm and washed capacitated sperm differed significantly. The PGC sperm had much lower contents of cholesterol and phospholipids. This resulted in relative enrichment of male germ cell-specific sulfogalactosylglycerolipid (SGG), a ZP-binding ligand, in PGC capacitated sperm, and this would explain, in part, their increased ZP-binding ability compared with that of washed capacitated sperm. Analyses of phospholipid fatty acyl chains revealed that PGC capacitated sperm were enriched in phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species containing highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22: 6n-3) being the predominant HUFA (42% of total hydrocarbon chains of PC). In contrast, the level of PC-HUFAs comprising arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-6), and DHA in washed capacitated sperm was only 27%. Having the highest unsaturation degree among all HUFAs in PC, DHA would enhance membrane fluidity to the uppermost. Therefore, membranes of PGC capacitated sperm would undergo fertilization-related fusion events at higher rates than washed capacitated sperm. These results suggested that PGC mouse sperm should be used in fertilization experiments and that SGG and DHA should be considered to be important biomarkers for sperm fertilizing ability.
Beshkar, Pezhman; Hosseini, Ehteramolsadat; Ghasemzadeh, Mehran
Regardless of different sources, methods or devices which are applied for preparation of therapeutic platelets, these products are generally isolated from whole blood by the sedimentation techniques which are based on PRP or buffy coat (BC) separation. As a general fact, platelet preparation and storage are also associated with some deleterious changes that known as platelet storage lesion (PSL). Although these alternations in platelet functional activity are aggravated during storage, whether technical issues within preparation can affect integrin activation and platelet adhesion to fibrinogen were investigated in this study. PRP- and BC-platelet concentrates (PCs) were subjected to flowcytometry analysis to examine the expression of platelet activation marker, P-selectin as well as active confirmation of the GPIIb/IIIa (α IIb β 3 ) on day 0, 1, 3 and 5 post-storage. Platelet adhesion to fibrinogen matrix was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Glucose concentration and LDH activity were also measured by colorimetric methods. The increasing P-selectin expression during storage was in a reverse correlation with PAC-1 binding (r = -0.67; p = .001). PRP-PCs showed the higher level of P-selectin expression than BC-PCs, whereas the levels of PAC-1 binding and platelet adhesion to fibrinogen matrix were significantly lower in PRP-PCs. Higher levels of active confirmation of the GPIIb/IIIa in BC-PCs were also associated with greater concentration of glucose in these products. We demonstrated the superior capacities of integrin activation and adhesion to fibrinogen for BC-PCs compared to those of PRP-PCs. These findings may provide more advantages for BC method of platelet preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Judd, A; Lodwick, R; Noguera-Julian, A; Gibb, D M; Butler, K; Costagliola, D; Sabin, C; van Sighem, A; Ledergerber, B; Torti, C; Mocroft, A; Podzamczer, D; Dorrucci, M; De Wit, S; Obel, N; Dabis, F; Cozzi-Lepri, A; García, F; Brockmeyer, N H; Warszawski, J; Gonzalez-Tome, M I; Mussini, C; Touloumi, G; Zangerle, R; Ghosn, J; Castagna, A; Fätkenheuer, G; Stephan, C; Meyer, L; Campbell, M A; Chene, G; Phillips, A
The aim of the study was to determine the time to, and risk factors for, triple-class virological failure (TCVF) across age groups for children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection and older adolescents and adults with heterosexually acquired HIV infection. We analysed individual patient data from cohorts in the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE). A total of 5972 participants starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 1998, aged 500 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL despite ≥ 4 months of use. TCVF was defined as cumulative failure of two NRTIs, an NNRTI and a bPI. The median number of weeks between diagnosis and the start of ART was higher in participants with perinatal HIV infection compared with participants with heterosexually acquired HIV infection overall [17 (interquartile range (IQR) 4-111) vs. 8 (IQR 2-38) weeks, respectively], and highest in perinatally infected participants aged 10-14 years [49 (IQR 9-267) weeks]. The cumulative proportion with TCVF 5 years after starting ART was 9.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.0-12.3%] in participants with perinatally acquired infection and 4.7% (95% CI 3.9-5.5%) in participants with heterosexually acquired infection, and highest in perinatally infected participants aged 10-14 years when starting ART (27.7%; 95% CI 13.2-42.1%). Across all participants, significant predictors of TCVF were those with perinatal HIV aged 10-14 years, African origin, pre-ART AIDS, NNRTI-based initial regimens, higher pre-ART viral load and lower pre-ART CD4. The results suggest a beneficial effect of starting ART before adolescence, and starting young people on boosted PIs, to maximize treatment response during this transitional stage of development. © 2016 The Authors. HIV Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British HIV Association.
Susan C. Modesitt
Full Text Available Since introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine, there remains low uptake compared to other adolescent vaccines. There is limited information postapproval about parental attitudes and barriers when presenting for routine care. This study evaluates HPV vaccine uptake and assesses demographics and attitudes correlating with vaccination for girls aged 11–12 years. A prospective cohort study was performed utilizing the University of Virginia (UVA Clinical Data Repository (CDR. The CDR was used to identify girls aged 11–12 presenting to any UVA practice for a well-child visit between May 2008 and April 2009. Billing data were searched to determine rates of HPV vaccine uptake. The parents of all identified girls were contacted four to seven months after the visit to complete a telephone questionnaire including insurance information, child’s vaccination status, HPV vaccine attitudes, and demographics. Five hundred and fifty girls were identified, 48.2% of whom received at least one HPV vaccine dose. White race and private insurance were negatively associated with HPV vaccine initiation (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.61–0.85 and RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.72–1.01, respectively. In the follow-up questionnaire, 242 interviews were conducted and included in the final cohort. In the sample, 183 (75.6% parents reported white race, 38 (15.7% black race, and 27 (11.2% reported other race. Overall 85% of parents understood that the HPV vaccine was recommended and 58.9% of parents believed the HPV vaccine was safe. In multivariate logistic regression, patients of black and other minority races were 4.9 and 4.2 times more likely to receive the HPV vaccine compared to their white counterparts. Safety concerns were the strongest barrier to vaccination. To conclude, HPV vaccine uptake was higher among minority girls and girls with public insurance in this cohort.
Paulmann, Maria K; Kunert, Grit; Zimmermann, Matthias R; Theis, Nina; Ludwig, Anatoli; Meichsner, Doreen; Oelmüller, Ralf; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Habekuss, Antje; Ordon, Frank; Furch, Alexandra C U; Will, Torsten
phytohormones abscisic acid and three jasmonates. Salicylic acid levels were generally higher after BYDV infection compared to uninfected plants. Heat stimulation caused an increase in jasmonates. By shedding light on the plant defense mechanisms against BYDV, this study, provides further knowledge for breeding virus tolerant plants.
Pujari, Sanjay N; Smith, Colette; Makane, Abhimanyu; Youle, Mike; Johnson, Margaret; Bele, Vivek; Joshi, Kedar; Dabhade, Digamber; Bhagani, Sanjay
Data on the renal safety of Tenofovir (TDF) in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) is scarce. We compared development of various forms of renal impairment with use of TDF-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) between a cohort from the Institute of Infectious Diseases (IID) Pune, Western India and the Royal Free Hospital (RFH) London, UK. This is a retrospective analysis of change in estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) at 6, 12 and 24 months post TDF initiation using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. In people living with Human Immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) with pre-TDF eGFR > 90 ml/min/1.73 m2 time to development of and factors associated with progression to eGFR 90 ml/min/1.73 m2 PLHIV at IID were more likely to develop an eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (aHR = 7.6 [95% CI 3.4, 17.4] p < 0.0001) and had a faster rate of progression estimated using Kaplan Meier methods. Risk factors included age (per 10 years older: aHR = 2.21 [1.6, 3.0] p < 0.0001) and receiving concomitant ritonavir boosted Protease Inhibitor (PI/r) (aHR = 2.4 [1.2, 4.8] p = 0.01). There is higher frequency of treatment limiting renal impairment events amongst PLHIV receiving TDF in Western India. As TDF scale up progresses, programs need to develop capacity for monitoring and treatment of renal impairment associated with TDF.
The prevalence of ANA antibodies, anticentromere antibodies, and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome compared to patients with dryness symptoms without primary Sjögren’s syndrome confirmation
Full Text Available Objectives : Our study analyses the prevalence of ANA, anti-SS-A, anti-SS-B, and ACA and ACPA antibodies in patients with pSS and with dryness symptoms without pSS confirmation, and the association of ACPA and ACA antibodies with specific clinical symptoms. Materials and methods : 113 patients were divided into two groups: I – with diagnosed pSS (N = 75; and II – with dryness without pSS evidence (N = 38. Diagnostics: indirect immunofluorescence (IF; Hep-2 cell line of antinuclear antibodies (ANA, anti-SS-A anti-SS-B antibodies determined with semi-quantitative method, autoantibody profile (14 antigens, ANA Profil 3 EUROLINE; basic laboratory, ophthalmic examination tests, minor salivary gland biopsy with focus score (FS, joint and lung evaluation, and ESSDAI questionnaire (pSS activity. Results : 88% of group I had ANA antibodies (1 : 320 titre, 5.3% at 1 : 160. Anti-SS-A antibodies were present in 88% of group I, including all ANA 1 : 160. Anti-SS-A antibodies positively correlated with greater and moderate activity of ESSDAI 5 (p = 0.046 and FS. The presence of SS-B antibodies significantly affected disease activity. ACPA present: group I – 13% (associated with higher arthritis incidence; p = 0.003; group II – 8%. ACA antibodies present in 4% of group I, but not in group II. No ACA association with interstitial lung changes (small ACA + group excludes full conclusions. Conclusions : ANA antibodies should also be considered in a titre of less than 1 : 320, but the presence of anti-SS-A antibodies is still the most important immunological marker for pSS. Anti-SS-A antibodies correlate with higher disease activity (ESSDAI ≥ 5 and higher FS. The presence of the anti-SS-B antibody was significantly affected by higher activity of the disease. The incidence of arthritis was higher in patients with ACPA+ pSS compared to ACPA– (p = 0.003. There was no relationship between ACPA and arthritis in patients with dry-type syndrome without
Wasser, Henry, Ed.
Proceedings from a conference on the economics of higher education are presented. Following an introduction by Henry Wasser and opening remarks by Mina Rees, a paper by Gareth Williams is presented. In "The Buffer Under Pressure: An Examination of the British System of Financing Higher Education in Periods of Affluence and Stringency,"…
Msellemu, Daniel; Shemdoe, Aloysia; Makungu, Christina; Mlacha, Yeromini; Kannady, Khadija; Dongus, Stefan; Killeen, Gerry F; Dillip, Angel
Bed nets reduce malaria-related illness and deaths, by forming a protective barrier around people sleeping under them. When impregnated with long-lasting insecticide formulations they also repel or kill mosquitoes attempting to feed upon sleeping humans, and can even suppress entire populations of malaria vectors that feed predominantly upon humans. Nevertheless, an epidemiological study in 2012 demonstrated higher malaria prevalence among bed net users than non-users in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Focus group discussions were conducted with women from four selected wards of Dar es Salaam city, focusing on four major themes relating to bed net use behaviours: (1) reasons for bed net use, (2) reasons for not using bed nets, (3) stimuli or reminders for people to use a bed net (4) perceived reasons for catching malaria while using a bed net. An analytical method by framework grouping of relevant themes was used address key issues of relevance to the study objectives. Codes were reviewed and grouped into categories and themes. All groups said the main reason for bed net use was protection against malaria. Houses with well-screened windows, with doors that shut properly, and that use insecticidal sprays against mosquitoes, were said not to use bed nets, while frequent attacks from malaria was the main stimulus for people to use bed nets. Various reasons were mentioned as potential reasons that compromise bed net efficacy, the most common of which were: (1) bed net sharing by two or more people, especially if one occupant tends to come to bed late at night, and does not tuck in the net 71%; (2) one person shares the bed but does not use the net, moving it away from the side on which s/he sleeps 68%; (3) ineffective usage habits, called ulalavi, in which a sprawling sleeper either touches the net while sleeping up against it or leaves a limb hanging outside of it 68%. Less common reasons mentioned included: (1) Small bed nets which become un-tucked at night (31%); (2
Borlée, F.; Yzermans, C.J.; Krop, E.; Rooijackers, J.; Aalders, B.; Zock, J.P.; Dijk, C.E. van; Maassen, C.B.M.; Schellevis, F.; Heederik, D.; Smit, L.A.M.
Background: COPD-diagnosis is confirmed by post-bronchodilator (BD) spirometry. However, epidemiological studies often rely on pre-BD spirometry, self-reports, or medical records. This population-based study aims to determine COPD-prevalence based on four different operational definitions and their
Validity of estimated prevalence of decreased kidney function and renal replacement therapy from primary care electronic health records compared with national survey and registry data in the United Kingdom.
Iwagami, Masao; Tomlinson, Laurie A; Mansfield, Kathryn E; Casula, Anna; Caskey, Fergus J; Aitken, Grant; Fraser, Simon D S; Roderick, Paul J; Nitsch, Dorothea
Anonymous primary care records are an important resource for observational studies. However, their external validity is unknown in identifying the prevalence of decreased kidney function and renal replacement therapy (RRT). We thus compared the prevalence of decreased kidney function and RRT in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) with a nationally representative survey and national registry. Among all people ≥25 years of age registered in the CPRD for ≥1 year on 31 March 2014, we identified patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) primary care data have good external validity for the prevalence of decreased kidney function and RRT. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.
Rodu, B; Cole, P
To compare smoking prevalence estimates from two nationally representative surveys in the USA. Smoking prevalence estimates derived from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) for the period 1998-2005. Comparisons according to age (18-34 or 35+ years) and according to smoking frequency (every day or some days). In 1998, the prevalence of smoking in both surveys was nearly identical at 24%. From 1999 to 2005, a divergence occurred in smoking prevalence found by the NSDUH and the NHIS. By 2005, NHIS prevalence had declined to 20.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 20.3-21.5], but the NSDUH estimate was 25.4% (95%CI 24.6-26.2), amounting to 9.1 million more smokers. In 1999, prevalence among 18-34 year olds in the NSDUH was only 18% (95%CI 13-22) higher than that in the NHIS, but that difference had doubled by 2005, when smoking prevalence among 18-34 year olds was 36% (95%CI 30-41) higher in the NSDUH than in the NHIS. NSDUH and NHIS prevalence among 35+ year olds were similar in 1999 and 2001, but the difference was 13% (95%CI 9-18) in 2005. Higher smoking prevalence estimates in the NSDUH were largely due to much higher estimates for some-day smoking in that survey, although every-day smoking prevalence among 18-34 year-olds was also higher in the NSDUH than in the NHIS. These results raise doubt about the recent decline in smoking prevalence described by the NHIS. Further investigation of the NSDUH/NHIS discrepancy may lead to better surveys and to a clearer picture of smoking trends in the USA.
Collings, R.; Swanson, V.; Watkins, R.
Peer mentoring is becoming increasingly popular in UK higher education, however, there remains little good quality, theoretically driven and evaluative research. The current study aims to bridge the gap between theory, practice and evaluation by providing a controlled evaluation of a peer mentoring scheme within UK universities. 109 first year…
Feeney, Sharon; Hogan, John; O'Rourke, Brendan K.
The role of higher education systems in the formation and reproduction of governing elites, and their countervailing potential for the creation of a more egalitarian, or meritocratic, society, has been an enduring subject of concern, debate and research. Many of these debates are made all the more difficult by our inability to directly compare…
Many Christian universities in Korea are pursuing the globalization of Christian higher education to promote maximization of institutional competition, improvement of students' English skills, and enhancement of professors' research development through English Medium Instruction (EMI). EMI's flaws in application are not at all uncommon, as many of…
Karimi, Leila; Khodabandelou, Rouhollah; Ehsani, Maryam; Ahmad, Muhammad
Drawing from the Uses and Gratifications Theory, this study examined the Gratification Sought and the Gratification Obtained from using Social Networking Sites among Iranian, Malaysian, British, and South African higher education students. This comparison allowed to drawing conclusions about how social networking sites fulfill users' needs with…
Kallo, Johanna; Semchenko, Anzhelika
This article analyses the localisation of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) "Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education" (2005) at the national and university levels in Finland and Russia. The article engages…
Rahele Alimoradzadeh; Marjan Mokhtare; Shahram Agah
Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with constipation among elderly people. Constipation is a common condition affecting elderly people and may lead to complications such as urinary retention and overflow incontinence. Methods & Materials This case-control study was conducted on 100 consecutive patients, aged 65 years and older (50 with constipation according to ROME III criteria and 50 without constipation) who were referred to the Gastrointestin...
Kelly J Rijs
Full Text Available To examine the association of employment status and characteristics with prevalent and incident memory complaints (MC in 55-64-year-olds.Subjects were participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA. Respondents with baseline data were selected to examine the association of employment status (n = 1525 and employment characteristics (n = 1071 with prevalent MC (i.e., MC at baseline. Respondents without MC at baseline were selected to examine the association of employment (n = 526 and employment characteristics (n = 379; working hours, job prestige, job level, psychological job demands, iso-strain with incident MC (i.e., no MC at baseline and MC at three-year follow-up. Associations were adjusted for relevant covariates (demographics, memory performance, physical health, mental health, personality traits. Logistic regression was applied. Data were weighed according to gender and age of the Dutch population.At baseline 20.5% reported MC. At three-year follow-up, 15.4% had incident MC. No associations were found between employment status and MC. Adjusted analysis revealed that individuals with high occupational cognitive demands were more likely to have prevalent MC.Middle-aged workers are equally as likely to experience MC as non-working age-peers. Among workers, those with cognitively demanding work were more likely to experience MC, independent of memory performance. Memory decline due to ageing may be noticed sooner in 55-64-year-olds performing cognitively demanding work.
Karimi, Leila; Khodabandelou, Rouhollah; Ehsani, Maryam; Ahmad, Muhammad
Drawing from the Uses and Gratifications Theory, this study examined the Gratification Sought and the Gratification Obtained from using Social Networking Sites among Iranian, Malaysian, British, and South African higher education students. This comparison allowed to drawing conclusions about how social networking sites fulfill users’ needs with different cultures. Data were collected through a quantitative study applying online and paper- based questionnaire carried out in 2013, using a repre...
Veasey, C. Jr.
The problem addressed by this study is that the amount of federal funds allocated in higher education for conducting basic research in space, solar, and nuclear sciences appear to be declining relative to government and industry. To test this hypothesis, data were obtained from the National Science Foundation on the amounts of federal funds provided for research and development from fiscal years 1955 to 1985. The NSF data were organized into tables, presented, and analyzed to help determine what changes had occurred in the amounts of federal funds allocated to higher education, government, and industry for basic research in space, solar, and nuclear sciences for fiscal years 1967 to 1985. The study provided six recommendations to augment declining federal funds for basic research. (1) Expand participation in applied research, (2) Develop and expand consortia arrangements with other academic institutions of higher education. (3) Pursue other funding sources such as alumni, private foundations, industry, and state and local government. (4) Develop and expand joint research with national and industrial laboratories. (5) Expand participation in interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research to develop technological solutions to local, regional, and national problems. (6) Develop and expand programs of reciprocal internships, and sabbaticals with industrial and national laboratories
408 heads of cattle to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and assess its public health implications. A comparative ..... (78.6%) of the respondents consume raw and poorly heat ... compromises related to certain stress factors.
Bengtsson, Mariette; Sjöberg, Klas; Candamio, Martina; Lerman, Annie; Ohlsson, Bodil
Previous research has suggested an interaction between personality factors and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as well as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We therefore aimed to elucidate differences in psychological and coping functioning between patients with IBD and IBS, and to assess the relationship of disease activity with these functions. Seventy-four patients with IBD (mean age 43±17 years, range 18-82 years) and 81 patients with IBS (mean age 37±12 years, range 21-66 years) completed the questionnaires; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Toronto Alexithymia, Experiences in Close Relationships, and Sense of Coherence. Disease activity was evaluated either by the Harvey-Bradshaw index, the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index, or the Visual Analogue Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome. The study revealed that patients with IBS had higher degree of anxiety in close relationships than patients with IBD (p=0.003), and lower self-esteem (p=0.001). No other statistical differences between the whole groups IBS and IBD or between subgroups were seen. The fact that patients with IBS seem to have higher levels of anxiety in relationships and lower self-esteem could influence the way the patient deal with the disease and how the communication with health care professionals works out. A higher awareness of the importance of past negative life events should be taken into consideration. Whether the disease or the personal traits are the primary event should be addressed in future research. Copyright © 2012 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; van Gils, Jan A.; Piersma, Theunis
At what phenotypic level do closely related subspecies that live in different environments differ with respect to food detection, ingestion and processing? This question motivated an experimental study on rock sandpipers (Calidris ptilocnemis). The species' nonbreeding range spans 20 deg of latitude, the extremes of which are inhabited by two subspecies: C. p. ptilocnemis that winters primarily in upper Cook Inlet, Alaska (61°N) and C. p. tschuktschorum that overlaps slightly with C. p. ptilocnemis but whose range extends much farther south (∼40°N). In view of the strongly contrasting energetic demands of their distinct nonbreeding distributions, we conducted experiments to assess the behavioral, physiological and sensory aspects of foraging and we used the bivalve Macoma balthica for all trials. C. p. ptilocnemis consumed a wider range of prey sizes, had higher maximum rates of energy intake, processed shell waste at higher maximum rates and handled prey more quickly. Notably, however, the two subspecies did not differ in their abilities to find buried prey. The subspecies were similar in size and had equally sized gizzards, but the more northern ptilocnemis individuals were 10–14% heavier than their same-sex tschuktschorum counterparts. The higher body mass in ptilocnemis probably resulted from hypertrophy of digestive organs (e.g. intestine, liver) related to digestion and nutrient assimilation. Given the previously established equality of the metabolic capacities of the two subspecies, we propose that the high-latitude nonbreeding range of ptilocnemis rock sandpipers is primarily facilitated by digestive (i.e. physiological) aspects of their foraging ecology rather than behavioral or sensory aspects.
Wang, Andrea; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Scorza, Valeria; Lin, Philip; Lappin, Michael R
Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in northern Colorado. Feces from dogs owned by veterinary students or Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff members were submitted with a completed survey form detailing dog park attendance rates, fecal character scores, and other clinical information. Feces were examined microscopically for parasites after sugar centrifugation, for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a commercially available immunofluorescence assay (FA) and the FA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification. The Giardia assemblages were determined using the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) β-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) genes and the Cryptosporidium species were determined using the heat shock protein-70 gene. A total of 129 fecal samples were assayed; 66 were from dog park attending dogs and 63 were from non-dog park-attending dogs. The overall parasite prevalence rate was 7.0% (9 of 129 samples). Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs (p=0.0279), but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or with fecal flotation or FA results. The five Giardia isolates were assemblage C and/or D and the one Cryptosporidium isolate was Ctenocephalides canis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Findings Sera were collected from people with and without HIV infection for the purpose of studying hepatitis B virus (HBV at St. Paul Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 24 January 2007 to 15 February 2007. Among these sera, the first 330 consecutive sera, 165 from each HIV sero-group, were selected and tested for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was assessed against socio-demographic characteristics, HIV and HBV serostatus and HBV-related risk factors. The overall sero-prevalence of latent T. gondii infection among the study subjects was 90.0%. Toxoplasma infection was observed with respective prevalence of 93.3% and 86.7% among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people. Though Toxoplasma infection seems to be influenced by age, gender and HIV serostatus, only HBV serostatus was significantly associated (OR 2.71, CI 1.12 to 6.57 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion The seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection is high and similar by HIV status. Educating people to prevent acquisition of new Toxoplasma infection and minimizing the risk of disease manifestations among HIV-Toxoplasma co-infected individuals is important.
This article focuses on the nature of the writing in 73 articles published in six U.S. and U.K. political science and international relations journals that focus on teaching and learning. A comparative analysis is made of the articles through a review of the characteristics of the authors, the themes researched, the analytical focus, the research…
Mouton, Caroline; Theisen, Daniel; Meyer, Tim; Agostinis, Hélène; Nührenbörger, Christian; Pape, Dietrich; Seil, Romain
Excessive physiological anterior and rotational knee laxity is thought to be a risk factor for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and inferior reconstruction outcomes, but no thresholds have been established to identify patients with increased laxity. (1) To determine if the healthy contralateral knees of ACL-injured patients have greater anterior and rotational knee laxity, leading to different laxity profiles (combination of laxities), compared with healthy control knees and (2) to set a threshold to help discriminate anterior and rotational knee laxity between these groups. Case-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 171 healthy contralateral knees of noncontact ACL-injured patients (ACL-H group) and 104 healthy knees of control participants (CTL group) were tested for anterior and rotational laxity. Laxity scores (measurements corrected for sex and body mass) were used to classify knees as hypolax (score 1). Proportions of patients in each group were compared using χ(2) tests. Receiver operating characteristic curves were computed to discriminate laxity between the groups. Odds ratios were calculated to determine the probability of being in the ACL-H group. The ACL-H group displayed greater laxity scores for anterior displacement and internal rotation in their uninjured knee compared with the CTL group (P knees of patients with noncontact ACL injuries display different laxity values both for internal rotation and anterior displacement compared with healthy control knees. The identification of knee laxity profiles may be of relevance for primary and secondary prevention programs of noncontact ACL injuries. © 2015 The Author(s).
Ganji, Vijay; Kafai, Mohammad R
It is not known whether the improved folate status from mandatory folic acid fortification had any impact on indexes and prevalence of anemias in the United States. We investigated trends in indexes and prevalence of anemia and macrocytosis with a focus on comparison of prefortification data with postfortification data. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and prevalences and likelihood of anemia and macrocytosis were determined for 26,596 adults examined in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1988-2004. From 1988-1994 to 1999-2004, hemoglobin modestly but significantly improved from 15.1 to 15.4 g/dL (approximately 2.0%; P 60 y) men (from 91.6 to 92.4; P = 0.0105) and in women (from 90.7 to 91.4; P = 0.0141). Only in women was the prevalence of anemia significantly lower in 1999-2004 than in 1988-1994 (27.9% reduction; P = 0.0005). The odds of having anemia in the postfortification period relative to the prefortification period was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.75; P hemoglobin and the decreased prevalence of anemia from 1988-1994 to 1999-2004, especially in women, may be attributable to improved folate status, increased vitamin/mineral supplements use, and other unknown causes after the initiation of folic acid fortification. The cause of increased MCV in men, and in older persons of both sexes, warrants further investigation.
Full Text Available 1-Mortazavi S, Gods rohani M, Juyande H. milk and dairy products technology. The University Ferdowsi Mashhad; 1996. p. 266. 2-Azadnia P, Ghasemi M, Abbasi M, Taarof N, Jashni M. Microbial Quality of Traditional Ice Cream Produced by Small-Scale Manufacturers in Khormoj and Its Comparison with the Iranian National Standard. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 2011;10(6:742-4. 3- Ziabari Mirnezami H. What do you know about milk (Milk chemical technology: Tehran University; 1996. 4-Movassagh MH, Movassagh A, Mahmoodi H, Servatkhah F, Sourorbakhsh MR. Microbiological contamination of the traditional chocolate Ice cream sold in the Northwest Region of Iran. Global Veterinaria 2011;6(3:269-71. 5-Karim G, Razavilar V, Akhonndzade A. survey contamination of traditional ice cream to bacteria causing the infection and food poisoning[persian]. Tehran University Faculty of Veterinary 1374;50:71-8. 6-Kanbakan U, Con A, Ayar A. Determination of microbiological contamination sources during ice cream production in Denizli, Turkey. Food Control 2004;15(6:463-70. 7- Fallah AA, Saei-Dehkordi SS, Rahnama M, Tahmasby H, Mahzounieh M. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Listeria species isolated from poultry products marketed in Iran. Food Control 2012;28(2:327-32. 8-Farber J, Peterkin P. Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen. Microbiological reviews 1991;55(3:476. 9-Navratilova P, Schlegelova J, Sustackova A, Napravnikova E, Lukasova J, Klimova E. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in milk, meat and foodstuff of animal origin and the phenotype of antibiotic resistance of isolated strains. Veterinarni Medicina-UZPI 2004;49. 10-Williams SK, Roof S, Boyle EA, Burson D, Thippareddi H, Geornaras I, et al. Molecular ecology of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in small and very small ready-to-eat meat processing plants. J Food Prot 2011;74(1:63-77. 11-Halter E, Neuhaus K, Scherer S. Listeria weihenstephanensis sp. nov
Liu, Qingxi; Zhang, Zijiang; Liu, Yupeng; Cui, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Tongcun; Li, Zhaohui; Ma, Wenjian
Three-dimensional (3D) collagen scaffold models, due to their ability to mimic the tissue and organ structure in vivo, have received increasing interest in drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. In this study, we developed a perfused 3D model and studied cellular response to cytotoxic drugs in comparison with traditional 2D cell cultures as evaluated by cancer drug cisplatin. Cancer cells grown in perfused 3D environments showed increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production compared to the 2D culture. As determined by growth analysis, cells in the 3D culture, after forming a spheroid, were more resistant to the cancer drug cisplatin compared to that of the 2D cell culture. In addition, 3D culturing cells showed elevated level of ROS, indicating a physiological change or the formation of a microenvironment that resembles tumor cells in vivo. These data revealed that cellular response to drugs for cells growing in 3D environments are dramatically different from that of 2D cultured cells. Thus, the perfused 3D collagen scaffold model we report here might be a potentially very useful tool for drug analysis.
Poppe, Leszek; Jordan, John B; Rogers, Gary; Schnier, Paul D
An important aspect in the analytical characterization of protein therapeutics is the comprehensive characterization of higher order structure (HOS). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is arguably the most sensitive method for fingerprinting HOS of a protein in solution. Traditionally, (1)H-(15)N or (1)H-(13)C correlation spectra are used as a "structural fingerprint" of HOS. Here, we demonstrate that protein fingerprint by line shape enhancement (PROFILE), a 1D (1)H NMR spectroscopy fingerprinting approach, is superior to traditional two-dimensional methods using monoclonal antibody samples and a heavily glycosylated protein therapeutic (Epoetin Alfa). PROFILE generates a high resolution structural fingerprint of a therapeutic protein in a fraction of the time required for a 2D NMR experiment. The cross-correlation analysis of PROFILE spectra allows one to distinguish contributions from HOS vs protein heterogeneity, which is difficult to accomplish by 2D NMR. We demonstrate that the major analytical limitation of two-dimensional methods is poor selectivity, which renders these approaches problematic for the purpose of fingerprinting large biological macromolecules.
Judd, A; Lodwick, R; Noguera-Julian, A
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the time to, and risk factors for, triple-class virological failure (TCVF) across age groups for children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection and older adolescents and adults with heterosexually acquired HIV infection. METHODS...... compared with participants with heterosexually acquired HIV infection overall [17 (interquartile range (IQR) 4-111) vs. 8 (IQR 2-38) weeks, respectively], and highest in perinatally infected participants aged 10-14 years [49 (IQR 9-267) weeks]. The cumulative proportion with TCVF 5 years after starting ART......: We analysed individual patient data from cohorts in the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE). A total of 5972 participants starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 1998, aged
Goran, Michael I; Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Ventura, Emily E
The overall aim of this study was to evaluate, from a global and ecological perspective, the relationships between availability of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using published resources, country-level estimates (n =43 countries) were obtained for: total sugar, HFCS and total calorie availability, obesity, two separate prevalence estimates for diabetes, prevalence estimate for impaired glucose tolerance and fasting plasma glucose. Pearson's correlations and partial correlations were conducted in order to explore associations between dietary availability and obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes prevalence was 20% higher in countries with higher availability of HFCS compared to countries with low availability, and these differences were retained or strengthened after adjusting for country-level estimates of body mass index (BMI), population and gross domestic product (adjusted diabetes prevalence=8.0 vs. 6.7%, p=0.03; fasting plasma glucose=5.34 vs. 5.22 mmol/L, p=0.03) despite similarities in obesity and total sugar and calorie availability. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity.
Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension in pregnancy is one of the three factors of maternal mortality. Etiology of the disease is unknown, but the many factors contributing to the identification and control of it can be taken a step to prevent and reduce the symptoms of the disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of preeclampsia (high-blood pressure in different seasons of the year. Methods: The present retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on more than 8,000 pregnant women visiting Assali specialized hospital from 2011 to 2013. Required data was collected through questionnaire checklist. The Chi-square test with multiple comparisons was used to compare the frequencies of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH according to the month of year, and adjustment of multiplicity was conducted using Bonferroni's method. Student's t-test was used to compare the means of PIH prevalence rates. In all analyses, P < 0.05 was taken to indicate statistical significance. Results: In these 8000 woman admitted to labor, overall prevalence of PIH was 3.8 ± 0.6%. The prevalence rate of PIH was highest in the summer (4.5% and lowest frequent in the winter (2.7%, respectively. In July, the prevalence rate was significantly higher than those for any other month (4.7%, and in March, it was lower prevalence than for any month (2.2%, respectively. Using the Chi-square test, a significant difference between the incidence of disease was observed in summer and winter (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of PIH was higher for delivery in summer and early spring and lowest for winter delivery among Khorramabad women based on these results; it seems that changes in temperature and humidity in different seasons can affect preeclampsia, and preeclampsia increases with increasing frequency temperature.
Concurrent chemoradiotherapy was associated with a higher severe late toxicity rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients compared with radiotherapy alone: a meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials
Du, Cheng-run; Ying, Hong-mei; Kong, Fang-fang; Zhai, Rui-ping; Hu, Chao-su
To investigate the incidence and risk of severe late toxicity with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Eligible studies included prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating CCRT versus radiotherapy alone in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and in which data on severe late toxicities were available. Random effects or fixed effect models were applied to obtain the summary incidence, relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Five RCTs with 1102 patients with NPC were included in this analysis. The summary incidence of overall severe late toxicities in patients receiving CCRT was 30.7% (95% CI, 18–47.2%) and the incidence of radiotherapy alone group was 21.7% (95% CI, 13.3–33.4%). The use of concurrent chemotherapy was associated with an increased risk of severe late toxicities, with a RR of 1.349 (95% CI, 1.108–1.643; P = 0.005). As for specific late toxicity, CCRT significantly increased the risk of ear deafness/otitis (RR = 1.567; 95% CI, 1.192–2.052), but other late toxicities were not significantly different. Patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy regimens with 3-week high-dose cisplatin (HC) have a higher risk of ear deafness/otitis (RR = 1.672; 95% CI, 1.174–2.382; P = 0.026). However, there was no significant increase in the RR of severe ear complication with the addition of non-3-week high-dose cisplatin (nonHC) regimens (RR = 1.433; 95% CI, 0.946–2.171; P = 0.095). With the present evidence, the addition of concurrent chemotherapy seems to increase the risk of severe late toxicities in patients with NPC, especially when using HC regimen for the occurrence of severe ototoxicity
Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.
Elías-Boneta, Augusto R; Toro, Milagros J; Garcia, Omar; Torres, Roxana; Palacios, Cristina
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has become a public health problem worldwide. The objectives of the study were: 1) to establish the BMI prevalence in 12-year olds residing in Puerto Rico, and 2) to determine BMI differences by sex, public-private school type, and geographic regions. Data was obtained from an island-wide probabilistic stratified sample of 1,582 twelve-year-olds (53% girls and 47% boys). The BMI was determined using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey procedures. Children were categorized as underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese using the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's age and gender specific growth charts. A logistic regression model was used to estimate BMI category prevalence. Odds ratios were calculated using a multinomial regression. In this study, 18.8% of the children were overweight and 24.3% were obese. A higher prevalence of obesity was observed in boys as compared to girls, 28.2% vs. 20.2%, respectively. The estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity in children from public schools was lower than for those from private schools. After adjusting for type of school and region, boys had a significantly higher risk of being obese (64%) as compared to girls. In public schools, boys had a lower prevalence of being overweight while girls had a higher prevalence compared to children attending private schools. Girls attending private schools had a higher obesity prevalence (27.8%) compared to girls from public schools (19.8%). The prevalence of underweight (2.7%) is slightly lower than in the United States. The prevalence of overweight and obesity of 12-year-olds residing in PR was 18.8% and 24.3%, respectively; higher than in the U.S. (by groups). Boys were at higher risk of obesity than girls. There is an urgent need to implement public health policies/programs to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children in PR.
Full Text Available Clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae are divided into three phylogroups and differ in their virulence factor contents. The aim of this study was to determine an association between phylogroup, virulence factors and mortality following bloodstream infection (BSI caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Isolates from all adult patients with BSI caused by K. pneumoniae admitted to Karolinska University Hospital, Solna between 2007 and 2009 (n = 139 were included in the study. Phylogenetic analysis was performed based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST data. Testing for mucoid phenotype, multiplex PCR determining serotypes K1, K2, K5, K20, K54 and K57, and testing for virulence factors connected to more severe disease in previous studies, was also performed. Data was retrieved from medical records including age, sex, comorbidity, central and urinary catheters, time to adequate treatment, hospital-acquired infection, and mortality, to identify risk factors. The primary end-point was 30- day mortality. The three K. pneumoniae phylogroups were represented: KpI (n = 96, KpII (corresponding to K. quasipneumoniae, n = 9 and KpIII (corresponding to K. variicola, n = 34. Phylogroups were not significantly different in baseline characteristics. Overall, the 30-day mortality was 24/139 (17.3%. Isolates belonging to KpIII were associated with the highest 30-day mortality (10/34 cases, 29.4%, whereas KpI isolates were associated with mortality in 13/96 cases (13.5%. This difference was significant both in univariate statistical analysis (P = 0.037 and in multivariate analysis adjusting for age and comorbidity (OR 3.03 (95% CI: 1.10-8.36. Only three of the isolates causing mortality within 30 days belonged to any of the virulent serotypes (K54, n = 1, had a mucoid phenotype (n = 1 and/or contained virulence genes (wcaG n = 1 and wcaG/allS n = 1. In conclusion, the results indicate higher mortality among patients infected with
Kabir, Muhammad Humaun; Bakhrouf, Amina; Kalin, Mats; Nauclér, Pontus; Brisse, Sylvain; Giske, Christian G.
Clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae are divided into three phylogroups and differ in their virulence factor contents. The aim of this study was to determine an association between phylogroup, virulence factors and mortality following bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Isolates from all adult patients with BSI caused by K. pneumoniae admitted to Karolinska University Hospital, Solna between 2007 and 2009 (n = 139) were included in the study. Phylogenetic analysis was performed based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST) data. Testing for mucoid phenotype, multiplex PCR determining serotypes K1, K2, K5, K20, K54 and K57, and testing for virulence factors connected to more severe disease in previous studies, was also performed. Data was retrieved from medical records including age, sex, comorbidity, central and urinary catheters, time to adequate treatment, hospital-acquired infection, and mortality, to identify risk factors. The primary end-point was 30- day mortality. The three K. pneumoniae phylogroups were represented: KpI (n = 96), KpII (corresponding to K. quasipneumoniae, n = 9) and KpIII (corresponding to K. variicola, n = 34). Phylogroups were not significantly different in baseline characteristics. Overall, the 30-day mortality was 24/139 (17.3%). Isolates belonging to KpIII were associated with the highest 30-day mortality (10/34 cases, 29.4%), whereas KpI isolates were associated with mortality in 13/96 cases (13.5%). This difference was significant both in univariate statistical analysis (P = 0.037) and in multivariate analysis adjusting for age and comorbidity (OR 3.03 (95% CI: 1.10–8.36). Only three of the isolates causing mortality within 30 days belonged to any of the virulent serotypes (K54, n = 1), had a mucoid phenotype (n = 1) and/or contained virulence genes (wcaG n = 1 and wcaG/allS n = 1). In conclusion, the results indicate higher mortality among patients infected with
Tang, E S; Robertson, D I; Whitehead, M; Xu, J; Hall, S F
Incisional hernias are a well described complication of abdominal surgery. Previous studies identified malignancy and diverticular disease as risk factors. We compared incisional hernia rates between colon resection for colorectal cancer (CRC) and diverticular disease (DD). We performed a retrospective, population-based, matched cohort study. Provincial databases were linked through the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. These databases include all patients registered under the universal Ontario Health Insurance Plan. Patients aged 18-105 undergoing open colon resection, without ostomy formation between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2009, were included. We excluded those with previous surgery, hernia, obstruction, and perforation. The primary outcomes were surgery for hernia repair, or diagnosis of hernia in clinic. We identified 4660 cases of DD. These were matched 2:1 by age and gender to 8933 patients with CRC for a total of 13,593. At 5 years, incisional hernias occurred in 8.3% of patients in the CRC cohort, versus 13.1% of those undergoing surgery for DD. After adjusting for important confounders (comorbidity score, wound infection, age, diabetes, prednisone and chemotherapy), hernias were still more likely in patients with DD [HR 1.58, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.43-1.76, P < 0.001]. The only significant covariate was wound infection (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.43-1.87, P < 0.001). Our study found that incisional hernias occur more commonly in patients with DD than CRC.
Estudo comparativo da pressão arterial e da prevalência de hipertensão arterial em duas coortes sucessivas (1975-1976 de estudantes de 16 a 25 anos, Botucatu, SP, Brasil Blood pressure levels and hipertension prevalence in 16 to 25 year-old students in Botucatu, S. Paulo, Brazil. A comparative study of two successive cohorts, 1975-1976
Dináh Borges de Almeida
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar os níveis de pressão arterial e a prevalência de hipertensão arterial em uma população jovem, foram realizados pesquisas em dois anos sucessivos em 1.288 e 736 estudantes de Botucatu, SP (Brasil tendo sido comparados os resultados obtidos. As médias das pressões sistólicas da população estudada e dos dois grupos etários desta população (16 a 20 anos e 21 a 25 anos foram idênticas em ambos os anos, tendo as médias das pressões diastólicas diferido de no máximo 2 mmHg; as médias, tanto sistólicas quanto diastólicas, dos dois sexos e da parcela branca da população estudada quanto à idade e sexo também diferiram de no máximo 2 mmHg. As médias da população estudada e sua parcela branca, em ambos os anos, foram superiores no sexo masculino e no grupo etário de 21 a 25 anos. Na população negra e amarela houve disparidade de resultados entre 1975 e 1976, indicando influência da exiguidade do tamanho dos contigentes negro e amarelo desta população. A prevalência de hipertensão arterial (pressão sistólica igual ou maior que 140 mmHg e diastólica igual ou maior que 90 mmHg foi de 5,04% em 1975 e 6,22% em 1976, tendo sido em ambos os anos maior no sexo masculino do que no feminino e no grupo de 21 a 25 do que no de 16 a 20 anos.To determine the prevalence of hypertension and blood pressure levels in a young population group, two groups, one of 1288 students and another of 736, all from Botucatu, were investigated during two consecutive years, and the results were then compared. The mean values for systolic readings of the whole population, as for the two age groups (16 to 20 and 21 to 25 years old, were identical for both years studied; the diastolic mean values differed by 2 mmHg at most. The mean systolic and diastolic reading for both sexes and among the whites also differed by 2 mmHg at most. The mean values for the whole population and among the white population were higher for males
Dell'Acqua, V; Kobiela, J; Kraja, F; Leonardi, M C; Surgo, A; Zerella, M A; Arculeo, S; Fodor, C; Ricotti, R; Zampino, M G; Ravenda, S; Spinoglio, G; Biffi, R; Bazani, A; Luraschi, R; Vigorito, S; Spychalski, P; Orecchia, R; Glynne-Jones, R; Jereczek-Fossa, B A
Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is considered the preferred option in squamous cell canal cancer (SCAC), delivering high doses to tumor volumes while minimizing dose to surrounding normal tissues. IMRT has steep dose gradients, but the technique is more demanding as deep understanding of target structures is required. To evaluate genital marginal failure in a cohort of patients with non-metastatic SCAC treated either with IMRT or 3DCRT and concurrent chemotherapy, 117 patients with SCAC were evaluated: 64 and 53 patients were treated with IMRT and 3DCRT techniques, respectively. All patients underwent clinical and radiological examination during their follow-up. Tumor response was evaluated with response evaluation criteria in solid tumors v1.1 guideline on regular basis. All patients' data were analyzed, and patients with marginal failure were identified. Concomitant chemotherapy was administered in 97 and 77.4% of patients in the IMRT and 3DCRT groups, respectively. In the IMRT group, the median follow-up was 25 months (range 6-78). Progressive disease was registered in 15.6% of patients; infield recurrence, distant recurrence and both infield recurrence and distant recurrence were identified in 5, 4 and 1 patient, respectively. Two out of 64 patients (3.1%) had marginal failures, localized at vagina/recto-vaginal septum and left perineal region. In the 3DCRT group, the median follow-up was 71.3 months (range 6-194 months). Two out of 53 patients (3.8%) had marginal failures, localized at recto-vaginal septum and perigenital structures. The rate of marginal failures was comparable in IMRT and 3DCRT groups (χ 2 test p = 0.85). In this series, the use of IMRT for the treatment of SCAC did not increase the rate of marginal failures offering improved dose conformity to the target. Dose constraints should be applied with caution-particularly in females with involvement of the vagina or the vaginal septum.
Labhardt, Niklaus Daniel; Cheleboi, Molisana; Faturyiele, Olatunbosun; Motlatsi, Mokete M; Pfeiffer, Karolin; Lejone, Thabo Ismael; Cerutti, Bernard; Muser, Jürgen; Gupta, Ravi Shankar; Lynen, Lutgarde; Hatz, Christoph
Due to its side effects stavudine (D4T) has been replaced by zidovudine (AZT) and tenofovir (TDF) in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In 2014 about 38% of adult first-line regimens contain AZT and 62% TDF . Whereas the unfavourable metabolic outcomes of D4T in comparison to TDF have been described extensively, studies from LMICs comparing metabolic profiles between patients on AZT and TDF are scarce. Given the high number of patients in LMICs still taking AZT, data on their metabolic profile are needed. We present rates of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adult patients taking either AZT- or TDF-containing first-line, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NNRTI)-based regimens. Data derived from a cross-sectional multi-disease screening conducted in ten facilities in two rural districts of Lesotho, Southern Africa . Patients were eligible if aged ≥25 years and on NNRTI-containing first-line ART ≥6 months. The MS definition for Africa of the International Diabetes Federation was applied . Assessed potential predictors for MS were age, time on ART, virologic suppression, body-mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, wealth quintile, NNRTI (nevirapine (NVP) or Efavirenz (EFV)), history of previous D4T exposure and ART-backbone (AZT or TDF). Statistical analyses - stratified for sex - comprised univariate logistic regression for each predictor variable with subsequent construction of a multivariate model including all predictors with an association to MS at a significance levelwomen. In women, aged ≥35 years, AZT-backbone, NVP-base, BMI ≥25kg/m2 and taking ART for ≥4.5 years were associated with MS in univariate analysis. In the multivariate model only AZT (adjusted odds-ratio: 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.6; p=0.001) and BMI ≥25kg/m2 (9.8; 2.8-34.1, pwomen who are on ART for ≥6 months predisposes to the development of metabolic syndrome. Given that, still 38% of first-line regimens in LMIC contain AZT, this finding needs to be verified in other
& Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education
Do Ba, Khang; Do Ba, Khai; Lam, Quoc Dung; Le, Dao Thanh Binh An; Nguyen, Phuong Lien; Nguyen, Phuong Quynh; Pham, Quoc Loc
This paper assesses and compares the prevalence of plagiarism across different student and assignment characteristics at a university in Vietnam, using the similarity index reported by the text-matching software Turnitin as a proxy measure of plagiarism on a sample of 681 student papers. The findings present a level of match higher than reported…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the prevalence of schizophrenia has important implications for both health service planning and risk factor epidemiology. The aims of this review are to systematically identify and collate studies describing the prevalence of schizophrenia, to summarize the findings of these studies, and to explore selected factors that may influence prevalence estimates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Studies with original data related to the prevalence of schizophrenia (published 1965-2002 were identified via searching electronic databases, reviewing citations, and writing to authors. These studies were divided into "core" studies, "migrant" studies, and studies based on "other special groups." Between- and within-study filters were applied in order to identify discrete prevalence estimates. Cumulative plots of prevalence estimates were made and the distributions described when the underlying estimates were sorted according to prevalence type (point, period, lifetime, and lifetime morbid risk. Based on combined prevalence estimates, the influence of selected key variables was examined (sex, urbanicity, migrant status, country economic index, and study quality. A total of 1,721 prevalence estimates from 188 studies were identified. These estimates were drawn from 46 countries, and were based on an estimated 154,140 potentially overlapping prevalent cases. We identified 132 core studies, 15 migrant studies, and 41 studies based on other special groups. The median values per 1,000 persons (10%-90% quantiles for the distributions for point, period, lifetime, and lifetime morbid risk were 4.6 (1.9-10.0, 3.3 (1.3-8.2, 4.0 (1.6-12.1, and 7.2 (3.1-27.1, respectively. Based on combined prevalence estimates, we found no significant difference (a between males and females, or (b between urban, rural, and mixed sites. The prevalence of schizophrenia in migrants was higher compared to native-born individuals: the migrant-to-native-born ratio median (10
Ando, Yoshihito; Shimazaki, Haruo; Shiota, Katsutoshi; Tetsuka, Syuichi; Nakao, Koichi; Shimada, Tatsuhiro; Kurata, Kazumi; Kuroda, Jinichi; Yamashita, Akihiro; Sato, Hayato; Sato, Mamoru; Eto, Shinkichi; Onishi, Yasunori; Tanaka, Keiko; Kato, Satoshi
Increasing numbers of patients with elevated anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody titers presenting exclusively with psychiatric symptoms have been reported. The aim of the present study was to clarify the prevalence of elevated serum anti-NMDA receptor antibody titers in patients with new-onset or acute exacerbations of psychiatric symptoms. In addition, the present study aimed to investigate the association between elevated anti-NMDA receptor titers and psychiatric symptoms. The present collaborative study included 59 inpatients (23 male, 36 female) presenting with new-onset or exacerbations of schizophrenia-like symptoms at involved institutions from June 2012 to March 2014. Patient information was collected using questionnaires. Anti-NMDA receptor antibody titers were measured using NMDAR NR1 and NR2B co-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells as an antigen (cell-based assay). Statistical analyses were performed for each questionnaire item. The mean age of participants was 42.0 ± 13.7 years. Six cases had elevated serum anti-NMDA antibody titers (10.2 %), four cases were first onset, and two cases with disease duration >10 years presented with third and fifth recurrences. No statistically significant difference in vital signs or major symptoms was observed between antibody-positive and antibody-negative groups. However, a trend toward an increased frequency of schizophrenia-like symptoms was observed in the antibody-positive group. Serum anti-NMDA receptor antibody titers may be associated with psychiatric conditions. However, an association with specific psychiatric symptoms was not observed in the present study. Further studies are required to validate the utility of serum anti-NMDA receptor antibody titer measurements at the time of symptom onset.
Bui, Laura; Farrington, David P.; Ueda, Mitsuaki; Hill, Karl G.
Traditionally, Japan has been regarded as a country with low crime. Comparative research has given insights into the extent of similarities and differences in crime between America and Japan. The importance of these studies is the examination of whether Western-established criminological knowledge is applicable to non- Western societies like Japan. Unfortunately, comparative self-report studies involving Japan and investigating youth offending are scarce. The current study investigates risk factors and self-reports of violence from Osaka and Seattle male youths. The findings reveal that Japanese male youths self-report a higher prevalence of violence than Seattle male youths. Risk factors for violence, issues of comparability, and prevalence versus strength of relationships of risk factors are examined. It is concluded that the higher prevalence of violence in Osaka is primarily a function of the higher prevalence of troubled peers and risk taking. The findings call for replication of this type of comparative research. PMID:24013769
Dec 26, 2012 ... increase the frequency of occurrence of hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia is a ... not only in increased frequency of falciparum malaria, but also .... of illness before presentation. Table 3: Prevalence of hypoglycaemia according to time of last meal. Table 4, shows the higher the parasite density the greater.
Hendrickson, Robert M.
This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…
In this regard, the present article aims at achieving three essential objectives. First, we will introduce a common indicator for circular job mobility patterns found in the two surveys. On the basis of this common indicator, we will comparatively analyse the prevalence of different mobility forms and their composition according to key socio-demographic characteristics. In addition, we will use multivariate analyses to illustrate the relevance of job mobility for partnership and family development. Results suggest mobility patterns to be an important individual context factor when explaining processes relevant to partnerships and family. In particular, women who exhibit some degree of job mobility are less often married and rarely have children.
Higher prevalence of sexual transmitted diseases and correlates of genital warts among heterosexual males attending sexually transmitted infection clinics (MSCs) in Jiangmen, China: implication for the up-taking of STD related service.
Huang, Shujie; Tang, Weiming; Zhu, Zhengjun; Lu, Hekun; Tan, Xueling; Zhang, Baoyuan; Best, John; Yang, Ligang; Zheng, Heping; Jiang, Ning; Yin, Yueping; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiangsheng
Increasing burden of STDs is one of China's major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010. The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing. Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone), no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94-15.81), 2.26 (95% CI 1.08-4.74), 1.99 (95% CI 1.00-3.99) and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.04), respectively. Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently.
Higher prevalence of sexual transmitted diseases and correlates of genital warts among heterosexual males attending sexually transmitted infection clinics (MSCs in Jiangmen, China: implication for the up-taking of STD related service.
Full Text Available Increasing burden of STDs is one of China's major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010.The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing.Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone, no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94-15.81, 2.26 (95% CI 1.08-4.74, 1.99 (95% CI 1.00-3.99 and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.04, respectively.Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently.
Lo que Piensan los Estudiantes y Profesores Sobre la Calidad de la Educacion Superior. Estudio Comparativo en 5 Instituciones de Educacion Superior--dos publicas y tres privadas--en Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico (What Students and Faculties Think about the Quality of Higher Education. Comparative Study of 5 Higher Education Institutions--Two Public and Three Private--in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico).
Yanez, Maria Lorena Hernandez
This study, written in Spanish, compared attitudes of students (N=302) and faculty (N=28) at five institutions of higher education (two public and three private) in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. The study explored first, whether respondents believed there are significant quality differences between private and public universities and, second, what…
Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact.
Samantha J Hau
Full Text Available Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage's absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates
Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact
Hau, Samantha J.; Sun, Jisun; Davies, Peter R.; Frana, Timothy S.; Nicholson, Tracy L.
Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC) genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage’s absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates may harbor a
Maternal Supplementation with Small-Quantity Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Compared with Multiple Micronutrients, but Not with Iron and Folic Acid, Reduces the Prevalence of Low Gestational Weight Gain in Semi-Urban Ghana: A Randomized Controlled Trial123
Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G
Background: It is unclear whether maternal supplementation with small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNSs; 118 kcal/d) affects maternal weight. Objective: We compared several secondary anthropometric measures between 3 groups of women in the iLiNS (International Lipid-based Nutrient Supplements)-DYAD trial in Ghana. Methods: Women (n = 1320; gestation) were randomly assigned to receive 60 mg Fe + 400 μg folic acid/d (IFA), 18 vitamins and minerals/d [multiple micronutrients (MMNs)], or 20 g SQ-LNSs with 22 micronutrients/d (LNS) during pregnancy and a placebo (200 mg Ca/d), MMNs, or SQ-LNSs, respectively, for 6 mo postpartum. Weight, midupper arm circumference (MUAC), and triceps skinfold (TSF) thickness at 36 wk of gestation and 6 mo postpartum were analyzed, as were changes from estimated prepregnancy values. We assessed the adequacy of estimated gestational weight gain (GWG) by using Institute of Medicine (IOM) and International Fetal and Newborn Growth Standards for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) guidelines. Results: The estimated prepregnancy prevalence of overweight or obesity was 38.5%. By 36 wk of gestation, women (n = 1015) had a mean ± SD weight gain of 7.4 ± 3.7 kg and changes of −1.0 ± 1.7 cm in MUAC and −2.8 ± 4.1 mm in TSF thickness. The LNS group had a lower prevalence of inadequate GWG on the basis of IOM guidelines (57.4%) than the MMN (67.2%) but not the IFA (63.1%) groups (P = 0.030), whereas the prevalence of adequate (26.9% overall) and excessive (10.4% overall) GWG did not differ by group. The percentages of normal-weight women (in kg/m2: 18.5 < body mass index < 25.0; n = 754) whose GWG was less than the third centile of the INTERGROWTH-21st standards were 23.0%, 28.7%, and 28.5% for the LNS, MMN, and IFA groups, respectively (P = 0.36). At 6 mo postpartum, the prevalence of overweight or obesity was 45.3%, and the risk of becoming overweight or obese did not differ by group. Conclusion: SQ-LNS supplementation is
Maternal Supplementation with Small-Quantity Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Compared with Multiple Micronutrients, but Not with Iron and Folic Acid, Reduces the Prevalence of Low Gestational Weight Gain in Semi-Urban Ghana: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Lartey, Anna; Okronipa, Harriet; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Zeilani, Mamane; Arimond, Mary; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G
Background: It is unclear whether maternal supplementation with small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNSs; 118 kcal/d) affects maternal weight. Objective: We compared several secondary anthropometric measures between 3 groups of women in the iLiNS (International Lipid-based Nutrient Supplements)-DYAD trial in Ghana. Methods: Women ( n = 1320; gestation) were randomly assigned to receive 60 mg Fe + 400 μg folic acid/d (IFA), 18 vitamins and minerals/d [multiple micronutrients (MMNs)], or 20 g SQ-LNSs with 22 micronutrients/d (LNS) during pregnancy and a placebo (200 mg Ca/d), MMNs, or SQ-LNSs, respectively, for 6 mo postpartum. Weight, midupper arm circumference (MUAC), and triceps skinfold (TSF) thickness at 36 wk of gestation and 6 mo postpartum were analyzed, as were changes from estimated prepregnancy values. We assessed the adequacy of estimated gestational weight gain (GWG) by using Institute of Medicine (IOM) and International Fetal and Newborn Growth Standards for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) guidelines. Results: The estimated prepregnancy prevalence of overweight or obesity was 38.5%. By 36 wk of gestation, women ( n = 1015) had a mean ± SD weight gain of 7.4 ± 3.7 kg and changes of -1.0 ± 1.7 cm in MUAC and -2.8 ± 4.1 mm in TSF thickness. The LNS group had a lower prevalence of inadequate GWG on the basis of IOM guidelines (57.4%) than the MMN (67.2%) but not the IFA (63.1%) groups ( P = 0.030), whereas the prevalence of adequate (26.9% overall) and excessive (10.4% overall) GWG did not differ by group. The percentages of normal-weight women (in kg/m 2 : 18.5 < body mass index < 25.0; n = 754) whose GWG was less than the third centile of the INTERGROWTH-21st standards were 23.0%, 28.7%, and 28.5% for the LNS, MMN, and IFA groups, respectively ( P = 0.36). At 6 mo postpartum, the prevalence of overweight or obesity was 45.3%, and the risk of becoming overweight or obese did not differ by group. Conclusion: SQ-LNS supplementation
Comparing the performance of circulating cathodic antigen and Kato-Katz techniques in evaluating Schistosoma mansoni infection in areas with low prevalence in selected counties of Kenya: a cross-sectional study.
Okoyo, Collins; Simiyu, Elses; Njenga, Sammy M; Mwandawiro, Charles
Kato-Katz technique has been the mainstay test in Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis in endemic areas. However, recent studies have documented its poor sensitivity in evaluating Schistosoma mansoni infection especially in areas with lower rates of transmission. It's the primary diagnostic tool in monitoring impact of the Kenya national school based deworming program on infection transmission, but there is need to consider a more sensitive technique as the prevalence reduces. Therefore, this study explored the relationship between results of the stool-based Kato-Katz technique with urine-based point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test in view to inform decision-making by the program in changing from Kato-Katz to POC-CCA test. We used two cross-sectional surveys conducted pre- and post- mass drug administration (MDA) using praziquantel in a representative random sample of children from 18 schools across 11 counties. A total of 1944 children were randomly sampled for the study. Stool and urine samples were tested for S. mansoni infection using Kato-Katz and POC-CCA methods, respectively. S. mansoni prevalence using each technique was calculated and 95% confidence intervals obtained using binomial regression model. Specificity (Sp) and sensitivity (Sn) were determined using 2 × 2 contingency tables and compared using the McNemar's chi-square test. A total of 1899 and 1878 children were surveyed at pre- and post-treatment respectively. S. mansoni infection prevalence was 26.5 and 21.4% during pre- and post-treatment respectively using POC-CCA test, and 4.9 and 1.5% for pre- and post-treatment respectively using Kato-Katz technique. Taking POC-CCA as the gold standard, Kato-Katz was found to have significantly lower sensitivity both at pre- and post-treatment, Sn = 12.5% and Sn = 5.2% respectively, McNemar test χ 2 m = 782.0, p < 0.001. In overall, the results showed a slight/poor agreement between the two methods, kappa index (k
Full Text Available Aims. This paper aims to evaluate characteristics and pregnancy outcomes in women prior classified normal by Carpenter and Coustan criteria (old criteria and now gestational diabetes (GDM by the IADPSG criteria. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 6727 pregnancies is used. Using the old criteria, 222 had GDM (old GDM. Using the IADPSG criteria, 382 had GDM of which 160 had a normal glucose tolerance with the old criteria (new GDM. We compared the new GDM group with the old GDM group and women with normal glucose tolerance with both criteria (NGT group, 6345. Results. New GDM women were younger (31.6 ± 4.7 versus 33.3 ± 7.2 years, than old GDM women. Caesarean section was performed in 30.5% of new GDM, in 32.4% of old GDM (, and in 23.3% of NGT women (. Large for gestational age occurred in 10.8% of new GDM, in 13.8% of old GDM (, and in 9.0% of NGT women (. Shoulder dystocia occurred in 3.9% of new GDM, in 3.2% of old GDM (, and in 1.4% of NGT women (. Conclusion. Using the IADPSG criteria, more women are identified as having GDM, and these women carry an increased risk for adverse gestational outcome compared to women without GDM.
Prevalence of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV in Mardan, Hangu and Kohat District of Pakistan; Comparative Analysis of PPRV Suspected serum samples using Competitive ELISA (cELISA and Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID
Full Text Available Peste des petits Ruminants (PPR is an acute, febrile, highly contagious and economically important viral disease of small ruminants. However PPR is more prevalent in sheep and goat. Competitive ELISA, Virus neutrilization test, and RT-PCR are the available techniques for diagnosis of PPR which give rapid detection where as Agar gel immunodiffusion and Counter immunoelectrophoresis were previously used for PPR detection. In this study two serological techniques were compared for PPR diagnosis. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative sensitivity of both techniques for PPR detection. For this purpose one hundred and sixty PPR suspected serum samples collected from goats and sheep flocks (unvaccinated from three Districts of NWFP including Mardan, Hangu and Kohat were analyzed in National Veterinary Laboratories, Islamabad. Out of these 160 samples, fifty (50 were found positive for PPR antibodies with cELISA (Prevalence = 31.25%. The cELISA positive serum samples however gave negative results when tested with AGID although the control well was always positive. Thus it was concluded that cELISA technique is more sensitive and specific than AGID for PPR antibody detection. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 89-92
Full Text Available The 1691G>A FV variant has been described as a common genetic risk factor in venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to provide a further frequency value for 1691G>A FV in Poland and to collate summary data from Central (Poland, Czech, Slovakia, Eastern (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and South-Eastern (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria European countries. For this purpose in 2007 the 1691G>A FV variant was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism from DNA collected in 2005-2006. We studied 650 subjects: 400 newborns and 250 older individuals (mean age 46.1 y from Poland and compared results with reports from other countries, as well as with the frequency trend of 845G>A HFE across South-Eastern European countries using centroid cities. From our 1691G>A FV study we identified 626 GG homozygotes, 23 GA heterozygotes, and i AA homozygote (n = 650, giving an A allele frequency of 1.9%, and a summed frequency value for Poland of 2.0% (n = 1588; the frequency in Central European countries was 3.9% (n = 4559, mostly due to the high value in the Czech Republic: 5.1% (n = 2819; the South-Eastern European countries had 2.5% (n = 2410. Among the Eastern European countries the 1691G>A FV allele frequency was 1.9% (n=791, between the South-Eastern and Eastern European countries there was no significant difference (p=0.17. We confirm that the 1691G>A FV allele frequency in Poland, as well as other countries compared, is significantly lower than that in Czech.
Dorobantu, Maria; Tautu, Oana-Florentina; Darabont, Roxana; Ghiorghe, Silviu; Badila, Elisabeta; Dana, Minca; Dobreanu, Minodora; Baila, Ilarie; Rutkowski, Marcin; Zdrojewski, Tomasz
Comparing results of representative surveys conducted in different East-European countries could contribute to a better understanding and management of cardiovascular risk factors, offering grounds for the development of health policies addressing the special needs of this high cardiovascular risk region of Europe. The aim of this paper was to describe the methodology on which the comparison between the Romanian survey SEPHAR II and the Polish survey NATPOL 2011 results is based. SEPHAR II, like NATPOL 2011, is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a representative sample of the adult Romanian population (18 to 80 years) and encompasses two visits with the following components: completing the study questionnaire, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and collection of blood and urine samples. From a total of 2223 subjects found at 2860 visited addresses, 2044 subjects gave written consent but only 1975 subjects had eligible data for the analysis, accounting for a response rate of 69.06%. Additionally we excluded 11 subjects who were 80 years of age (NATPOL 2011 included adult subjects up to 79 years). Therefore, the sample size included in the statistical analysis is 1964. It has similar age groups and gender structure as the Romanian population aged 18-79 years from the last census available at the moment of conducting the survey (weight adjustments for epidemiological analyses range from 0.48 to 8.7). Sharing many similarities, the results of SEPHAR II and NATPOL 2011 surveys can be compared by a proper statistical method offering crucial information regarding cardiovascular risk factors in a high-cardiovascular risk European region.
Adler, Grażyna; Clark, Jeremy S C; Loniewska, Beata; Czerska, Ewa; Salkic, Nermin N; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej
The 1691G>A FV variant has been described as a common genetic risk factor in venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to provide a further frequency value for 1691G>A FV in Poland and to collate summary data from Central (Poland, Czech, Slovakia), Eastern (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine) and South-Eastern (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria) European countries. For this purpose in 2007 the 1691G>A FV variant was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism from DNA collected in 2005-2006. We studied 650 subjects: 400 newborns and 250 older individuals (mean age 46.1 y) from Poland and compared results with reports from other countries, as well as with the frequency trend of 845G>A HFE across South-Eastern European countries using centroid cities. From our 1691G>A FV study we identified 626 GG homozygotes, 23 GA heterozygotes, and 1 AA homozygote (n = 650), giving an A allele frequency of 1.9%, and a summed frequency value for Poland of 2.0% (n = 1588); the frequency in Central European countries was 3.9% (n = 4559), mostly due to the high value in the Czech Republic: 5.1% (n = 2819); the South-Eastern European countries had 2.5% (n = 2410). Among the Eastern European countries the 1691G>A FV allele frequency was 1.9% (n=791), between the South-Eastern and Eastern European countries there was no significant difference (p=0.17). We confirm that the 1691G>A FV allele frequency in Poland, as well as other countries compared, is significantly lower than that in Czech.
Chew, Felix S.; Porrino, Jack A.; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Relyea-Chew, Annemarie [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Mulcahy, Michael J. [Central Washington University, Department of Sociology, Ellensburg, WA (United States)
Burnout is a job-related psychological syndrome with three aspects: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and perceived lack of personal accomplishment. Burnout is associated with deleterious effects on both workers and their work. When burnout affects physicians, their well-being, longevity, and care of patients are at risk. Recent studies concerning physician burnout treat specialists such as radiologists as one group. We studied burnout in musculoskeletal (MSK) subspecialist radiologists. An institutional review board exemption was obtained. Society of Skeletal Radiology members received invitations to an anonymous survey that included questions from the Maslach Burnout Inventory trademark (MBI) measuring all three aspects of burnout. The response rate was 36.4% (433/1190). The prevalence of emotional exhaustion was 61.7% (255/413), of depersonalization 53.3% (219/411), and of perceived lack of personal accomplishment 39.6% (161/407). Only 19.5% (79/405) of MSK radiologists reported no burnout, while 80.5% (326/405) reported burnout along one or more dimensions. For all three dimensions, the prevalence was higher and the mean severity was worse for private practice compared with academic practice. The prevalence of burnout was affected more by practice setting than by gender. Burnout prevalence and severity also varied systematically with years since completion of training. Among MSK radiologists, we found a much higher prevalence and greater severity of burnout than has been previously reported for radiologists and other physicians. There were differences in prevalence and severity of burnout among practice settings, genders, and longevity cohorts. (orig.)
Chew, Felix S.; Porrino, Jack A.; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Relyea-Chew, Annemarie; Mulcahy, Michael J.
Burnout is a job-related psychological syndrome with three aspects: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and perceived lack of personal accomplishment. Burnout is associated with deleterious effects on both workers and their work. When burnout affects physicians, their well-being, longevity, and care of patients are at risk. Recent studies concerning physician burnout treat specialists such as radiologists as one group. We studied burnout in musculoskeletal (MSK) subspecialist radiologists. An institutional review board exemption was obtained. Society of Skeletal Radiology members received invitations to an anonymous survey that included questions from the Maslach Burnout Inventory trademark (MBI) measuring all three aspects of burnout. The response rate was 36.4% (433/1190). The prevalence of emotional exhaustion was 61.7% (255/413), of depersonalization 53.3% (219/411), and of perceived lack of personal accomplishment 39.6% (161/407). Only 19.5% (79/405) of MSK radiologists reported no burnout, while 80.5% (326/405) reported burnout along one or more dimensions. For all three dimensions, the prevalence was higher and the mean severity was worse for private practice compared with academic practice. The prevalence of burnout was affected more by practice setting than by gender. Burnout prevalence and severity also varied systematically with years since completion of training. Among MSK radiologists, we found a much higher prevalence and greater severity of burnout than has been previously reported for radiologists and other physicians. There were differences in prevalence and severity of burnout among practice settings, genders, and longevity cohorts. (orig.)
Ye, Rong; Gao, Yan-hui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Yue
To estimate the prevalence ratios, using a log-binomial model with or without continuous covariates. Prevalence ratios for individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation associated with smoking status, estimated by using a log-binomial model were compared with odds ratios estimated by logistic regression model. In the log-binomial modeling, maximum likelihood method was used when there were no continuous covariates and COPY approach was used if the model did not converge, for example due to the existence of continuous covariates. We examined the association between individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation and smoking status in men and women. Prevalence ratio and odds ratio estimation provided similar results for the association in women since smoking was not common. In men however, the odds ratio estimates were markedly larger than the prevalence ratios due to a higher prevalence of outcome. The log-binomial model did not converge when age was included as a continuous covariate and COPY method was used to deal with the situation. All analysis was performed by SAS. Prevalence ratio seemed to better measure the association than odds ratio when prevalence is high. SAS programs were provided to calculate the prevalence ratios with or without continuous covariates in the log-binomial regression analysis.
Jesmin, Subrina; Akter, Shamima; Akashi, Hidechika; Al-Mamun, Abdullah; Rahman, Md Arifur; Islam, Md Majedul; Sohael, Farzana; Okazaki, Osamu; Moroi, Masao; Kawano, Satoru; Mizutani, Taro
The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has important health complications for both mother and child and is increasing all over the world. Although prevalence estimates for GDM are not new in developed and many developing countries, data are lacking for many low-income countries like Bangladesh. To evaluate the prevalence of GDM in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study included 3447 women who consecutively visited the antenatal clinics with an average gestation age of 26 weeks. GDM was defined according to WHO criteria (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] ≥7.0 mmol/L or 2-h ≥7.8 mmol/L) and the new ADA criteria (FPG ≥5.3 mmol/L or 2-h ≥8.6 mmol/L OGTT). We also calculated overt diabetes as FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L. Prevalence of GDM was 9.7% according to the WHO criteria and 12.9% according to the ADA criteria in this study population. Prevalence of overt diabetes was 1.8%. Women with GDM were older, higher educated, had higher household income, higher parity, parental history of diabetes, and more hypertensive, compared with non-GDM women. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of GDM in Bangladesh. These estimates for GDM may help to formulate new policies to prevent and manage diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Campbell, Eugene K; Rakgoasi, Serai Dan; Madi-Segwagwe, Banyana C; Fako, Thabo T
Botswana has the second-highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rate in the world, with one in three adults infected. However, there is significant geographic variation at the district level and HIV prevalence is heterogeneous with the highest prevalence recorded in Selebi-Phikwe and North East. There is a lack of age-and location-adjusted prevalence maps that could be used for targeting HIV educational programs and efficient allocation of resources to higher risk groups. We used a nationally representative household survey to investigate and explain district level inequalities in HIV rates. A Bayesian geoadditive mixed model based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques was applied to map the geographic distribution of HIV prevalence in the 26 districts, accounting simultaneously for individual, household, and area factors using the 2008 Botswana HIV Impact Survey. Overall, HIV prevalence was 17.6%, which was higher among females (20.4%) than males (14.3%). HIV prevalence was higher in cities and towns (20.3%) than in urban villages and rural areas (16.6% and 16.9%, respectively). We also observed an inverse U-shape association between age and prevalence of HIV, which had a different pattern in males and females. HIV prevalence was lowest among those aged 24 years or less and HIV affected over a third of those aged 25-35 years, before reaching a peak among the 36-49-year age group, after which the rate of HIV infection decreased by more than half among those aged 50 years and over. In a multivariate analysis, there was a statistically significant higher likelihood of HIV among females compared with males, and in clerical workers compared with professionals. The district-specific net spatial effects of HIV indicated a significantly higher HIV rate of 66% (posterior odds ratio of 1.66) in the northeast districts (Selebi-Phikwe, Sowa, and Francistown) and a reduced rate of 27% (posterior odds ratio of 0.73) in Kgalagadi North and Kweneng West districts
Chen, Kang Mei; Stephen, Josena K; Ghanem, Tamer; Stachler, Robert; Gardner, Glendon; Jones, Lamont; Schweitzer, Vanessa P; Hall, Francis; Divine, George; Worsham, Maria J
The goal was to determine the prevalence of high-risk HPV16 using saliva in a screening population in Detroit, Michigan. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to detect HPV16 in saliva DNA from 349 screening subjects without head and neck cancer (HNC), 156 with HNC, and 19 controls. Cut points for human papilloma virus (HPV) positivity were >0 and >0.001 copy/cell. Proportions were compared between groups using exact χ(2) or Fisher exact tests (P 0, each group had an overall HPV prevalence of more than 5%, with a higher prevalence of 30.8% in the HNC patient group. At a cut point >0.001, the prevalence was lower: 0% in the control, 1.2% in the screening, and 16.7% in the HNC group. In the latter, for both cut points, HPV prevalence was different across sites (0, women in the screening group had a higher prevalence of HPV than did men (P = .010), and at >0.001, the prevalence was higher for men in the HNC group than for women (P = .035). In the screening group, at >0, only African Americans had a higher prevalence than Caucasian Americans (P = .025). In the screening group, a 6.9% and 1.2% screening rate was noted at cut points >0 and >0.001, respectively. The results provide data to inform public health considerations of the feasibility of saliva as a screening tool in at-risk populations with the long-term goal of prophylactic vaccination against oral HPV.
Treatment patterns in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists: Higher adherence and persistence with dulaglutide compared with once-weekly exenatide and liraglutide.
Alatorre, Carlos; Fernández Landó, Laura; Yu, Maria; Brown, Katelyn; Montejano, Leslie; Juneau, Paul; Mody, Reema; Swindle, Ralph
To compare adherence (proportion of days covered [PDC]), persistence, and treatment patterns among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) newly initiating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs). More specifically, the main objectives were to compare dulaglutide vs exenatide once weekly and dulaglutide vs liraglutide. Patients with T2DM newly initiating dulaglutide, albiglutide, exenatide once weekly, exenatide twice daily and liraglutide between November 2014 and April 2015 were hierarchically selected from Truven Health's MarketScan Research Databases. Propensity score matching was used to account for selection bias. Adherence to and persistence with the index GLP-1RA, and switching and augmentation patterns were assessed during the 6-month post-index period. Mean adherence for the matched cohorts was significantly higher for dulaglutide than for exenatide once weekly (0.72 vs 0.61; P < .0001) and liraglutide (0.71 vs 0.67; P < .0001). The percentage of patients achieving PDC ≥ 0.80 was significantly higher for dulaglutide compared with exenatide once weekly (54.2% vs 37.9%; P < .0001) and liraglutide (53.5% vs 44.3%; P < .0001). The mean (standard deviation) days on treatment for all matched patients was significantly higher for patients in the dulaglutide cohort compared with those in the exenatide once-weekly (148.4 [55.4] vs 123.6 [61.6]; P < .0001) and liraglutide cohorts (146.0 [56.9] vs 137.4 [60.1]; P < .0001). A significantly lower proportion of patients on dulaglutide discontinued treatment compared with those on exenatide once weekly (26.2% vs 48.4%; P < .0001) and those on liraglutide (28.0% vs 35.6%; P < .0001). Dulaglutide initiators had significantly higher adherence, were more persistent, and had lower discontinuation rates compared with initiators of exenatide once weekly or liraglutide during the 6-month follow-up period. © 2017 Eli Lilly and Company. Diabetes, Obesity and
Bushnik, Tracey; Cook, Jocelynn L.; Yuzpe, A. Albert; Tough, Suzanne; Collins, John
BACKGROUND Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in Canada, however, little is known about the overall prevalence of infertility in the population. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of current infertility in Canada according to three definitions of the risk of conception. METHODS Data from the infertility component of the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed for married and common-law couples with a female partner aged 18–44. The three definitions of the risk of conception were derived sequentially starting with birth control use in the previous 12 months, adding reported sexual intercourse in the previous 12 months, then pregnancy intent. Prevalence and odds ratios of current infertility were estimated by selected characteristics. RESULTS Estimates of the prevalence of current infertility ranged from 11.5% (95% CI 10.2, 12.9) to 15.7% (95% CI 14.2, 17.4). Each estimate represented an increase in current infertility prevalence in Canada when compared with previous national estimates. Couples with lower parity (0 or 1 child) had significantly higher odds of experiencing current infertility when the female partner was aged 35–44 years versus 18–34 years. Lower odds of experiencing current infertility were observed for multiparous couples regardless of age group of the female partner, when compared with nulliparous couples. CONCLUSIONS The present study suggests that the prevalence of current infertility has increased since the last time it was measured in Canada, and is associated with the age of the female partner and parity. PMID:22258658
Full Text Available Shawn D Aaron,1 Andrea S Gershon,2 Yuan Gao,1 Jenna Yang,1 GA Whitmore1,3 On behalf of the Canadian Respiratory Research Network 1Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, 2Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, ON, 3Desautels Faculty of Management, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada Purpose: Studies suggest that COPD prevalence may vary between countries. We conducted an ecological study of data from COPD prevalence articles to assess the influence of differences in country-level risk factors on COPD prevalence. Patients and methods: Our study covered English language articles published during 2003–2014. Qualified articles used spirometry to assess COPD prevalence and used representative samples from national or subnational populations. Stepwise binomial regression was used to analyze associations between study- and country-level factors and COPD prevalence. Results: Eighty articles provided 1,583 measures of COPD prevalence for subjects in different sex, age, and smoking categories for 112 districts in 41 countries. Adjusted prevalence rates for COPD were significantly lower for Australia/New Zealand and the Mediterranean and significantly higher for Latin America, compared to North America, Southeast Asia, and Northern Europe. Country-level socioeconomic development variables had an uneven and mixed association with COPD prevalence. High elevation above sea level was shown to be a protective factor for COPD. Study-level variables for the established risk factors of sex, age, and smoking explained 64% of variability in COPD prevalence. Country-level risk factors raised the explanatory power to 72%. Approximately 28% of worldwide variability in COPD prevalence remained unexplained. Conclusion: Our study suggests that COPD prevalence varies across world regions, even after adjustment for established risk factors. Major country-level risk factors contributing to the worldwide epidemic of COPD remain
Barnevik-Olsson, Martina; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth
This work was a follow-up study (birth years 1999-2003) of the prevalence of autism in children of Somali background living in the county of Stockholm, Sweden. In a previous study (birth years 1988-98), the prevalence of autism associated with learning disability was found to be three to four times higher among Somali children compared with other…
Comparative assessment of image quality for coronary CT angiography with iobitridol and two contrast agents with higher iodine concentrations: iopromide and iomeprol. A multicentre randomized double-blind trial
Achenbach, Stephan [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); Paul, Jean-Francois [Centre Chirurgical Marie Lannelongue, Department of Radiology, Le Plessis Robinson (France); Laurent, Francois [University of Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux, U1045, Bordeaux (France); CHU de Bordeaux, Service d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France); Becker, Hans-Christoph [University Hospital Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Rengo, Marco [Sapienza - University of Rome, ICOT Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy); Caudron, Jerome [University Hospital of Rouen, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); Leschka, Sebastian [Saint Gallen Hospital, Department of Radiology, Saint Gallen (Switzerland); Vignaux, Olivier [Cochin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Knobloch, Gesine [La Charite, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Benea, Giorgio [Ospedale del Delta, Ferrara (Italy); Schlosser, Thomas [Elisabeth-Krankenhaus Hospital, Essen (Germany); Andreu, Jordi [Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Cabeza, Beatriz [Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Jacquier, Alexis [La Timone Adult Hospital, Department of Radiology, Marseille (France); Souto, Miguel [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Revel, Didier [Louis Pradel Hospital, Department of Radiology, Lyon (France); Qanadli, Salah Dine [University of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Cademartiri, Filippo [Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Department of Radiology, Monastier di Treviso (Italy); Collaboration: X-ACT Study Group
To demonstrate non-inferiority of iobitridol 350 for coronary CT angiography (CTA) compared to higher iodine content contrast media regarding rate of patients evaluable for the presence of coronary artery stenoses. In this multicentre trial, 452 patients were randomized to receive iobitridol 350, iopromide 370 or iomeprol 400 and underwent coronary CTA using CT systems with 64-detector rows or more. Two core lab readers assessed 18 coronary segments per patient regarding image quality (score 0 = non diagnostic to 4 = excellent quality), vascular attenuation, signal and contrast to noise ratio (SNR, CNR). Patients were considered evaluable if no segment had a score of 0. Per-patient, the rate of fully evaluable CT scans was 92.1, 95.4 and 94.6 % for iobitridol, iopromide and iomeprol, respectively. Non-inferiority of iobitridol over the best comparator was demonstrated with a 95 % CI of the difference of [-8.8 to 2.1], with a pre-specified non-inferiority margin of -10 %. Although average attenuation increased with higher iodine concentrations, average SNR and CNR did not differ between groups. With current CT technology, iobitridol 350 mg iodine/ml is not inferior to contrast media with higher iodine concentrations in terms of image quality for coronary stenosis assessment. (orig.)
Small, calcified and sterile hydatid cysts were found in agglomeration in the liver than other organs, while fertile and viable of medium and large cysts were most frequently observed in the lungs, spleen and abdominal cavity. Among the accessible offals to the definitive host, the lungs were found to be major contaminant ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little work has been done on the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in north India. This paper reports the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in Karnal district of Haryana state, India. Materials and methods Prevalence of type 1 diabetes was assessed by a hospital-based registry and by analysis of data contributed by chemists and other physicians. Results The overall prevalence of type 1 diabetes in Karnal district is 10.20/100,000 population, with a higher prevalence in urban (26.6/100,000 as compared to rural areas (4.27/100,000. Karnal city, with a population of 222017, has a relatively high prevalence of type 1 diabetes (31.9/100,000. The prevalence in men is higher (11.56/100,000 than in women (8.6/100,000. In the 5 to 16 years age group, the prevalence is 22.22/100,000, while in the 0-5 years age group, prevalence is 3.82/100,000. Conclusions This report highlights the urban-rural and male-female gradient in the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in Karnal, north India.
Fábio Chigres Kuschnir
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA. The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9, being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0 when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2 in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7 when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4. It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1, and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7. The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5, and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1; higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2, and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3. It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8, and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9. We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in
Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the
Mahadev D Bhise
Full Text Available In the last few decades, the prevalence of hypertension has been drastically increased in India. The present study estimates the current prevalence of hypertension and its correlates in the state of Maharashtra. The variation in the prevalence of hypertension associated with individual-level characteristics is explained at the community and district level.Data is used from the recent round of District Level Household & Facility Survey (DLHS-4, 2012-13. The DLHS-4 has used the nationally representative sample, collected through multistage stratified sampling procedure. A similar sampling frame, used in NSSO-2007-08, has been followed. The chi-square test is used to show the significance level of the association between the estimated prevalence of hypertension and its correlates. Multilevel regression analysis is carried out to investigate the effects of individual and community level factors on the prevalence of hypertension.The overall prevalence of hypertension is 25% in Maharashtra, and a huge variation in the prevalence of hypertension is found across the districts. Dhule, Gadchiroli (with a low HDI rank, Mumbai and Satara (with higher HDI rank are the districts with the higher (above 30% prevalence of high blood pressure. The prevalence also significantly varies according to different correlates. The prevalence of high blood pressure is higher among elderly population (40%, among males (28%, in the urban areas (27% and in the richest wealth quintile (28%. The prevalence is also higher among cigarette smokers (31%, alcohol consumers (30% and people with obesity (38% as compared to their counterparts. The results of the multilevel analysis show that the older and obese persons are at four-time higher risk of hypertension. Again, age, sex, marital status, place of residence, wealth status, unhealthy habits (i.e. smoking and alcohol consumption and BMI are significantly associated with hypertension. The results of VPC statistics show that 14% of
Treatment of moderate acute malnutrition with ready-to-use supplementary food results in higher overall recovery rates compared with a corn-soya blend in children in southern Ethiopia: an operations research trial.
Karakochuk, Crystal; van den Briel, Tina; Stephens, Derek; Zlotkin, Stanley
Moderate and severe acute malnutrition affects 13% of children malnutrition affects fewer children but is associated with higher rates of mortality and morbidity. Supplementary feeding programs aim to treat moderate acute malnutrition and prevent the deterioration to severe acute malnutrition. The aim was to compare recovery rates of children with moderate acute malnutrition in supplementary feeding programs by using the newly recommended ration of ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) and the more conventional ration of corn-soya blend (CSB) in Ethiopia. A total of 1125 children aged 6-60 mo with moderate acute malnutrition received 16 wk of CSB or RUSF. Children were randomly assigned to receive one or the other food. The daily rations were purposely based on the conventional treatment rations distributed at the time of the study in Ethiopia: 300 g CSB and 32 g vegetable oil in the control group (1413 kcal) and 92 g RUSF in the intervention group (500 kcal). The higher ration size of CSB was provided because of expected food sharing. The HR for children in the CSB group was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.99), which indicated that they had 15% lower recovery (P = 0.039). Recovery rates of children at the end of the 16-wk treatment period trended higher in the RUSF group (73%) than in the CSB group (67%) (P = 0.056). In comparison with CSB, the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition with RUSF resulted in higher recovery rates in children, despite the large ration size and higher energy content of the conventional CSB ration.
El-Mouzan, Mohammed; Foster, Peter J.
There is no published information on the prevalence of malnutrition in Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence data.The prevalence of nutritional indicators in the form of underweight, stunting, and wasting in a national sample of children younger than 5 years of age was calculated using the new WHO standards as reference. Calculations were performed using the corresponding WHO software. The prevalence of moderate and severe underweight, wasting and stunting, was defined as the proportion of children whose weight for age, weight for height, and height for age were below -2 and -3 standard deviation scores, respectively.The number of children younger than 5 years of age was 15 516 and 50.5% were boys. The prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was 6.9% and 1.3%, respectively. The prevalence of moderate and severe wasting was 9.8% and 2.9%, respectively. Finally, the prevalence of moderate and severe stunting was 10.9% and 2.8%, respectively. The prevalence was lower in girls for all indicators. Comparison of the prevalence of nutritional indicators in selected countries demonstrates large disparity with an intermediate position for Saudi Arabia.This report establishes the national prevalence of malnutrition among Saudi children. Compared to data from other countries, these prevalence rates are still higher than other countries with less economic resources, indicating that more efforts are needed to improve the nutritional status of children (Author).
The Infection Rate of Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Replacement Is Higher When Compared to Other Bearing Surfaces as Documented by the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry.
Huang, Phil; Lyons, Matt; O'Sullivan, Michael
Despite the well-documented decline in the use of metal-on-metal (MoM) implants over the last decade, there are still controversies regarding whether all MoM implants are created equally. Complications such as elevated serum metal ion levels, aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) and pseudotumours have all been well documented, but recent studies suggest increased risk of infection with MoM bearing surfaces. Most of these studies however have small patient numbers. The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative incidence of revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary hip arthroplasty at a national and single-surgeon level. Data was collected from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry, which contains over 98% of all arthroplasties performed in Australia since 2001. The cumulative incidence of revision for infection was extracted at a national level and single-surgeon level. Two hundred seventy-six thousand eight hundred seventy-eight subjects were documented in the Australian registry. The 10-year cumulative percent revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary total hip replacement (THR) was 2.5% at a national level, compared to 0.8% for other bearing surfaces. The senior author contributed 1755 subjects with 7-year follow-up and a cumulative percent revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary THR of 36.9%, compared to 2.0% for other bearing surfaces. The cumulative percent of revision of MoM bearing surfaces is higher compared to other bearing surfaces; this is especially pronounced in cumulative percent of revision for infection. There was a higher cumulative percent of revision for infection in MoM bearings surfaces (in particular, large-head MoM) compared to other bearing surfaces at both the national and individual-surgeon level.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish elderly. Methods We identified screening surveys, both published and unpublished, in Spanish populations, which fulfilled specific quality criteria and targeted prevalence of dementia in populations aged 70 years and above. Surveys covering 13 geographically different populations were selected (prevalence period: 1990-2008. Authors of original surveys provided methodological details of their studies through a systematic questionnaire and also raw age-specific data. Prevalence data were compared using direct adjustment and logistic regression. Results The reanalyzed study population (aged 70 year and above was composed of Central and North-Eastern Spanish sub-populations obtained from 9 surveys and totaled 12,232 persons and 1,194 cases of dementia (707 of Alzheimer's disease, 238 of vascular dementia. Results showed high variation in age- and sex-specific prevalence across studies. The reanalyzed prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in women; increased with age, particularly for Alzheimer's disease; and displayed a significant geographical variation among men. Prevalence was lowest in surveys reporting participation below 85%, studies referred to urban-mixed populations and populations diagnosed by psychiatrists. Conclusion Prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Central and North-Eastern Spain is higher in females, increases with age, and displays considerable geographic variation that may be method-related. People suffering from dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Spain may approach 600,000 and 400,000 respectively. However, existing studies may not be completely appropriate to infer prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in Spain until surveys in Southern Spain are conducted.
Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.
Purpose. To examine prevalence of five age-related eye conditions (age-related cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy [DR], and visual impairment) in the United States. Methods. Review of published scientific articles and unpublished research findings. Results. Cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, DR, and visual impairment prevalences are high in four different studies of these conditions, especially in people over 75 years of age. There are disparities among racial/ethnic groups with higher age-specific prevalence of DR, open-angle glaucoma, and visual impairment in Hispanics and blacks compared with whites, higher prevalence of age-related cataract in whites compared with blacks, and higher prevalence of late AMD in whites compared with Hispanics and blacks. The estimates are based on old data and do not reflect recent changes in the distribution of age and race/ethnicity in the United States population. There are no epidemiologic estimates of prevalence for many visually-impairing conditions. Conclusions. Ongoing prevalence surveys designed to provide reliable estimates of visual impairment, AMD, age-related cataract, open-angle glaucoma, and DR are needed. It is important to collect objective data on these and other conditions that affect vision and quality of life in order to plan for health care needs and identify areas for further research. PMID:24335069
Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis
INTRODUCTION: COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study......, to investigate the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities. METHODS: 6236 people participated. All non-asthmatic participants aged 35 years or older with adequate lung...... function data were included for the final prevalence analyses (n = 5,299). COPD staging was done according to the GOLD criteria. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of COPD was 17.4%. The prevalence increased with age and was higher among males. 6.2% had mild COPD, 9.2% had moderate COPD, and 2.0% had severe...
Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Henrik; Hageman, Ida
BACKGROUND: Light severely affects the occurrence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). AIMS: To compare the prevalence of SAD in persons with severe visual impairment and persons with full sight, and in persons with severe visual impairment with or without light perception. METHOD: This cross......-sectional study assessed the Global Seasonality Score (GSS) and the prevalence of SAD among 2781 persons with visual impairment and 4099 persons with full sight using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). RESULTS: Respondents with visual impairment had significantly higher GSS and prevalence...... of SAD compared with full sight controls, Pvisual impairment and SPAQ-defined SAD parameters...
Elective Stoma Reversal Has a Higher Incidence of Postoperative Clostridium Difficile Infection Compared With Elective Colectomy: An Analysis Using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and Targeted Colectomy Databases.
Skancke, Matthew; Vaziri, Khashayar; Umapathi, Bindu; Amdur, Richard; Radomski, Michal; Obias, Vincent
Clostridium difficile infection is caused by the proliferation of a gram-positive anaerobic bacteria after medical or surgical intervention and can result in toxic complications, emergent surgery, and death. This analysis evaluates the incidence of C difficile infection in elective restoration of intestinal continuity compared with elective colon resection. This was a retrospective database review of the 2015 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project and targeted colectomy database. The intervention cohort was defined as the primary Current Procedural Terminology codes for ileostomy/colostomy reversal (44227, 44620, 44625, and 44626) and International Classification of Diseases codes for ileostomy/colostomy status (VV44.2, VV44.3, VV55.2, VV55.3, Z93.2, Z93.3, Z43.3, and Z43.2). A total of 2235 patients underwent elective stoma reversal compared with 10403 patients who underwent elective colon resection. Multivariate regression modeling of the impact of stoma reversal on postoperative C difficile infection risk was used as the study intervention. The incidence of C difficile infection in the 30 days after surgery was measured. The incidence of C difficile infection in the 30-day postoperative period was significantly higher (3.04% vs 1.25%; p difficile infection incidence in the 30-day postoperative period. The study was limited because it was a retrospective database review with observational bias. Patients who undergo elective stoma reversal have a higher incidence of postoperative C difficile infection compared with patients who undergo an elective colectomy. Given the impact of postoperative C difficile infection, a heightened sense of suspicion should be given to symptomatic patients after stoma reversal. See at Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A553.
Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Onyilokwu, Samson Amali; Adamu, Nuhu Bala; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Adamu, Shuaibu Gidado; Mustapha, Fatima Bukar
The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%). Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females (P < 0.05). Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13-24 months (P < 0.05). The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3-6, 10-12, and 7-9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%), amoxicillin (87.6%), vancomycin (86.6%), and chloramphenicol (84.5%). However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis.
Richards, Alan; Larsen, Mogens Joost; Maare, L.
tooth types in children born and reared in an area with drinking water with (regularly monitored, naturally-occurring) fluoride concentrations of 1 ppm and compare with data recorded for a similar group of children examined in the same way and residing in the same area 20 years ago. Methods: Dental...... children, of similar ages, examined in the same area in 1984. Results: The prevalence and severity of fluorosis varied between tooth types so that the later in childhood the teeth are mineralized the higher the prevalence of dental fluorosis. When the data were compared to those collected 20 years...... in the (later formed) premolars and second molars. Conclusions: A significant increase in fluorosis prevalence has occurred over the last 20 years due to increased fluoride exposure of pre-school children. These findings may be explained by increased use of fluoride toothpaste by this age group from...
Schiefer, Marcio; Teixeira, Patricia F Santos; Fontenelle, Cesar; Carminatti, Tiago; Santos, Daniel A; Righi, Lucas D; Conceição, Flavia Lucia
Hypothyroidism and frozen shoulder (FS) have been associated, although this relationship remains uncertain. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with FS. A case-control study was performed to compare FS patients (cases) with patients who visited an orthopedic service for other clinical conditions (controls). FS was diagnosed according to specific criteria based on anamnesis, physical examination, and shoulder radiographs. A specific questionnaire was applied, and measurements of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free tetraiodothyronine were performed in all subjects. We evaluated 401 shoulders from 93 FS patients and 151 controls. The prevalence of hypothyroidism diagnosis was significantly higher in the FS group (27.2% vs. 10.7%; P = .001). There was also a tendency for higher prevalence of bilateral FS among patients with elevated TSH levels (P = .09). Mean serum TSH levels were higher in patients with bilateral FS compared with those with unilateral compromise (3.39 vs. 2.28; P = .05) and were higher in patients with severe FS compared with those with mild and moderate FS together (3.15 vs. 2.21; P = .03). Multivariate analysis showed that FS was independently related to a diagnosis of hypothyroidism (odds ratio, 3.1 [1.5-6.4]; P = .002). There was a trend toward independent association between high serum TSH levels and both severe (odds ratio, 3.5 [0.8-14.9]; P = .09) and bilateral (odds ratio, 11.7 [0.9-144.8]; P = .05) compromise. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in FS patients than in controls. The results suggest that higher serum TSH levels are associated with bilateral and severe cases of FS. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Being a portal of entry to various smoking and smokeless tobacco products, oral cavity is prone to deleterious effects. Present study consist of epidemiological survey to elucidate oral lesions in pan vendors. Aims and objectives: To detect oral lesions in pan vendors and compare it with controls. To detect habit pattern and prevalence of OSMF and other lesions in pan vendors as compared to controls- To identify, recognize and evaluate the possible etiology for OSMF, encompassing various chewing and smoking habits. Materials and methods: Study population consist of 170 pan vendors with age ranging from 15 to 55 years and equal number of sex matched controls selected randomly. Results: Prevalence of oral lesions in pan vendors is statistically significantly higher as compared to controls. The habit of arecanut chewing in various forms was present in all cases. The habit of smoking and smokeless tobacco products was present in all cases. Conclusion: Pan vendors are at higher risk for oral lesions than controls. There is increase in relative risk with increase in duration and frequency of habit.
Prevalence and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine use among people with coronary heart disease or at risk for this in the sixth Tromsø study: a comparative analysis using protection motivation theory.
Kristoffersen, Agnete E; Sirois, Fuschia M; Stub, Trine; Hansen, Anne Helen
Engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviors, such as healthy diet and regular physical activity, are known to reduce the risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD). Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is known to be associated with having a healthy lifestyle. The primary aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of CAM use in CHD patients, and in those without CHD but at risk for developing CHD, using Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as a guiding conceptual framework. Questionnaire data were collected from 12,981 adult participants in the cross-sectional sixth Tromsø Study (2007-8). Eligible for analyses were 11,103 participants who reported whether they had used CAM or not. Of those, 830 participants reported to have or have had CHD (CHD group), 4830 reported to have parents, children or siblings with CHD (no CHD but family risk), while 5443 reported no CHD nor family risk of CHD. We first compared the patterns of CAM use in each group, and then examined the PMT predictors of CAM use. Health vulnerability from the threat appraisal process of PMT was assessed by self-rated health and expectations for future health. Response efficacy from the coping appraisal process of PMT was assessed as preventive health beliefs and health behavior frequency. Use of CAM was most commonly seen in people with no CHD themselves, but family risk of developing CHD (35.8%), compared to people already diagnosed with CHD (30.2%) and people with no CHD nor family risk (32.1%). All four of the PMT factors; self-rated health, expectations for future health, preventive health beliefs, and the health behavior index - were predictors for CAM use in the no CHD but family risk group. These findings suggest that people use CAM in response to a perceived risk of developing CHD, and to prevent disease and to maintain health.
Mundt, Adrian P.; Alvarado, Rubén; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Poblete, Catalina; Villagra, Carolina; Kastner, Sinja; Priebe, Stefan
Objective High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. Method A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. Results Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1) for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0) for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8) for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1) for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2) for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3) for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, pprison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; pprison population than in the general population. Conclusions Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders. PMID:23894415
Osman, Osama O; El-Magzoub, Abdul-Rahman A; Elamin, Sarra
Central vein stenosis (CVS) is a common complication of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion. In this study we evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of CVS among hemodialysis (HD) patients in a single center in Sudan, using Doppler ultrasound as a screening tool. The study included 106 prevalent HD patients. For every patient, we performed Duplex Doppler for the right and left jugular, subclavian and femoral veins. A patient was considered to have hemodynamically significant stenosis if the pre-stenosis to the post-stenosis velocities ratio was ≥ 2.5 or they had complete vein occlusion. Overall, 28.3% of patients had Doppler detected CVS, including 25.5% with hemodynamically significant stenosis and 2.8% with compromised flow. The prevalence of CVS was 68.4% among symptomatic patients compared to 19.5% in asymptomatic patients. The prevalence of CVS among patients with history of 0-1, 2-3 and ≥ 4 central venous catheters was 3.4%, 29.4% and 53.8% respectively (p=0.00). CVS was not more common in patients with history of previous/current jugular or femoral vein catheterization compared to no catheter placement in these veins (28.3% vs 28.6% and 35% vs 26.7% respectively; p >0.1). However, CVS was significantly more common in patients with previous/ current subclavian vein catheterization compared to no catheter placement in this vein (47.8% vs 22.9%, p = 0.02). CVS is highly prevalent among studied HD patients, particularly in the presence of suggestive clinical signs. The number of HD catheter placements and subclavian vein utilization for dialysis access impose a significantly higher risk of CVS.
Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres
There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas.
Address for correspondence: Prof. ... It can lead to other disorders and ... physiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ... among children, adolescents, and women in nonindustrialized ... ADHD in young Qatari population below 18 years of age who ... Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,.
matched control and conducted at the School Health and Primary Healthcare Clinics, Qatar. A total of 630 children with ADHD aged 5-18 and 630 controls aged 5-18 years old. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected, including ...
Feb 7, 2014 ... trum in CRC from developing countries like Saudi Arabia where epidemiological features of the ... Of these 51% and 23% of the tumors are from the left hemicolon and rectum respec- ... Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. .... include: age, date of diagnosis, gender, stage of disease as.
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 3 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
We studied retrospectively tumor samples of 83 Saudi metastatic CRC patients for KRAS mutations in codon 12 and codon 13, to evaluate the relevance of KRAS mutation positive colorectal cancers with metastatic sites. KRAS mutation was observed in 42.2% (35/83) patients with CRC. The most common mutations were in ...
Sanjib Kumar Sharma
Full Text Available Background. This study was carried out to establish the prevalence of cardiovascular risks such as hypertension, obesity, and diabetes in Eastern Nepal. This study also establishes the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS and its relationships to these cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle. Methods. 14,425 subjects aged 20–100 (mean 41.4 ± 15.1 were screened with a physical examination and blood tests. Both the International Diabetic Federation (IDF and National Cholesterol Education Programme’s (NCEP definitions for MS were used and compared. Results. 34% of the participants had hypertension, and 6.3% were diabetic. 28% were overweight, and 32% were obese. 22.5% of the participants had metabolic syndrome based on IDF criteria and 20.7% according to the NCEP definition. Prevalence was higher in the less educated, people working at home, and females. There was no significant correlation between the participants’ lifestyle factors and the prevalence of MS. Conclusion. The high incidence of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity could be the major contributors to MS in Nepal. Education also appears to be related to the prevalence of MS. This study confirms the need to initiate appropriate treatment options for a condition which is highly prevalent in Eastern Nepal.
Work as a librarian involves exposure to potential risk factors for developing upper limb disorders. The prevalence of upper limb symptoms has, however, not previously been assessed in this occupational group. To estimate the 7-day and annual prevalence of self-reported neck and upper limb symptoms in librarians and to examine associations with specific tasks and ergonomic risk factors. A cross-sectional study using components of the standardized Nordic questionnaire. The study population consisted of librarians employed by a large local authority, and data collection was by means of a self-administered questionnaire. from studies on keyboard workers and on the general population were used as comparators. The 7-day prevalence of self-reported neck and upper limb pain in female librarians was 42% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33.7-50.5) and the annual prevalence was 65% (95% CI 56.6-72.8). The prevalence of reported wrist and hand pain increased with increased working involving a wide thumb-index span (P librarians was high, but there was insufficient evidence to confirm whether the prevalence was higher than in the general population or among keyboard workers. Working with a wide thumb-index span was associated with reporting upper limb symptoms.
Amauri Pinto da Silva
education, and were evaluated by breastfeeding rates within the two groups. The questionnaires were answered by the parents or guardians. Data from other studies were compared to those resulting from this study. RESULTS: There were significant differences in parental income, socioeconomic condition and education between the two groups of infants; however, no significant difference was observed in the breastfeeding rates between the two groups. Overall, in both groups, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in 4-month-old infants was 61.1%, and the average period of exclusive breastfeeding was 120 days. These results were higher than those registered in other studies. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed differences between the socio-economic levels of the two groups, but no differences in the breastfeeding indicators between them.. The overall rates of exclusive breastfeeding in the city of Lins, SP, Brazil, were higher than the rates reported in other investigations.
Plewa, Carolin; Ho, Joanne; Conduit, Jodie
Reputation is critical for institutions wishing to attract and retain students in today's competitive higher education setting. Drawing on the resource based view and configuration theory, this research proposes that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) need to understand not only the impact...... of independent resources but of resource configurations when seeking to achieve a strong, positive reputation. Utilizing fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), the paper provides insight into different configurations of resources that HEIs can utilize to build their reputation within their domestic...
Endometrial Polyps and Benign Endometrial Hyperplasia Present Increased Prevalence of DNA Fragmentation Factors 40 and 45 (DFF40 and DFF45) Together With the Antiapoptotic B-Cell Lymphoma (Bcl-2) Protein Compared With Normal Human Endometria.
Banas, Tomasz; Pitynski, Kazimierz; Mikos, Marcin; Cielecka-Kuszyk, Joanna
DNA fragmentation factor 40 (DFF40) is a key executor of apoptosis. It localizes to the nucleus together with DNA fragmentation factor 45 (DFF45), which acts as a DFF40 inhibitor and chaperone. B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2) protein is a proven antiapoptotic factor present in the cytoplasm. In this study, we aimed to investigate DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 immunoexpression in endometrial polyps (EPs) and benign endometrial hyperplasia (BEH) tissue compared with that in normal proliferative endometrium (NPE) and normal secretory endometrium (NSE) as well as normal post menopausal endometrium (NAE). This study used archived samples from 65 and 62 cases of EPs and BEH, respectively. The control group consisted of 52 NPE, 54 NSE, and 54 NAE specimens. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2. DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 were more highly expressed in the glandular layer of EPs and BEH compared with the stroma, and this was not influenced by menopausal status. Both glandular and stromal expression of DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 were significantly higher in EPs compared with NPE, NSE, and NAE. Glandular BEH tissue showed significantly higher DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 expression than in NPE, NSE, and NAE. No differences in the glandular expression of DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 were observed between EP and BEH tissues, while Bcl-2 stromal expression in BEH was significantly lower than in EPs. Glandular, menopause-independent DFF40, DFF45, and Bcl-2 overexpression may play an important role in the pathogenesis of EPs and BEH.
Ahmad, T.; Bilal, R.; Khanum, A.
Most Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infected individuals remain asymptomatic, but the presence of H. pylori is a risk factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. Despite the fact of high prevalence of H. pylori infection around the world, data about its prevalence in children in Pakistan is scanty. Our study was the first epidemiologic study in Pakistan designed to assess H. pylori prevalence in a school based population of children without gastrointestinal symptoms. The children were enrolled from three schools in the suburbs of Islamabad and their anthropometric data were noted. The non-invasive urea breath test was applied to find the prevalence of H. pylori infection. Overall, 72.3% of apparently healthy children were harboring the H. pylori bacterium and the prevalence was 69% in 3-6 years, 71% in 7-8 years, 79% in 9-10 years, 76% in 11-12 years and 55% in 13-16 years of age. The prevalence decreased in the higher age group significantly, while gender was not a risk factor for acquiring this infection as the prevalence of infection was not significantly different in males and females (74.0% vs. 70.3%, p=0.41). The lower prevalence in higher age group might be explained by change in degree of contact, Increasing antibody production with increasing age or improvement in sanitary habits of children as compared to younger children. (author)
Refsgaard, Lena; Holst, Anders G; Sadjadieh, Golnaz
To date, hundreds of variants in 13 genes have been associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS). The prevalence of LQTS is estimated to be between 1:2000 and 1:5000. The knowledge of genetic variation in the general population has until recently been limited, but newly published data from NHLBI GO...... variants KCNH2 P347S; SCN5A: S216L, V1951L; and CAV3 T78M in the control population (n=704) revealed prevalences comparable to those of ESP. Thus, we identified a much higher prevalence of previously LQTS-associated variants than expected in exome data from population studies. Great caution regarding...
O'Connor, A; Wellenius, G
To examine the rural-urban differences in the prevalence of diabetes and coronary heart disease, and the extent to which they are explained by the presence of established risk factors including poverty. Cross-sectional study of more than 214,000 respondents using data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Logistic regression models were utilized; prevalence odds ratios with corresponding confidence intervals and P-values are provided. The crude prevalence rates of diabetes and coronary heart disease were 8.6% (P = 0.001) and 38.8% (P rural areas compared with urban areas, respectively. The higher prevalence in rural areas of many of the common risk factors for these conditions, including poverty (P rural areas [prevalence odds ratio (POR) = 0.94, P = 0.032], but the prevalence of coronary heart disease was higher (POR = 1.09, P = 0.011). The higher prevalence of diabetes and coronary heart disease in rural populations in the USA presents a formidable public health challenge. It exacerbates many of the pre-existing rural health disparities, including a lack of access to financial resources and primary care providers. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Depa, Julia; Schweizer, Jenny; Bekers, Sandra-Kristin; Hilzendegen, Carolin; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette
Orthorexia nervosa (ON) describes the constant pathological preoccupation with "healthy" nutrition. The current results regarding the prevalence of ON differ widely possibly because of invalid measurement tools. This study aimed to investigate ON prevalence in a sample of German students and to examine age, gender, semester, and nutritional knowledge as potential predictors of ON by comparing nutrition science (NS) with economics (ES) students. A total of 446 university students participated in the survey (NS 188, ES 268). ON was determined using the 21-item-DOS, which is a well-constructed, validated, and reliability-tested questionnaire. Age, gender, and semester were also assessed. Of the total sample, 3.3 % were classified as having ON and 9.0 % were at risk of developing ON. Older students scored significantly higher on the subscale "avoidance of additives" compared with younger students and students of lower semester suffered significantly more often from ON than students of higher semester. In addition, comparing field of study showed no significant difference in the prevalence of ON or the risk of developing ON between female NS and ES students. However, mean values for the three DOS subscales were higher among female NS students, albeit far below values indicating pathological behavior. The prevalence of ON appears to be low in this sample of German university students. Female NS students do not seem to have higher prevalence of ON or risk of developing ON.
Morais, Samantha; Costa, Ana Rute; Ferro, Ana; Lunet, Nuno; Peleteiro, Bárbara
A rapid growth in the number of international migrants over the past years has occurred with most traveling to more affluent settings. As Helicobacter pylori infects over half of the adult population and its prevalence is higher in developing countries, understanding the prevalence of infection in migrants can provide insight into future trends in the burden and management of infection. We aimed to describe the prevalence of H. pylori among migrants through a systematic literature review. We searched PubMed ® from inception to September 2015 to identify studies reporting the prevalence of H. pylori in international migrants according to country of birth for first-generation, and country of birth and parents' nationality for successive generations. Comparable data from origin and destination populations were obtained from the same studies or, when not present, from a previous systematic review on H. pylori worldwide. A total of 28 eligible studies were identified with data for 29 origin and 12 destination countries. Two studies that evaluated refugees presented prevalences of infection higher than both the origin and destination countries. Otherwise, the prevalences among migrants were generally similar or below that of the origin and higher than the destination. Second- or more generation had lower prevalences compared to first-generation migrants. Our study findings are consistent with what would be expected based on the prevalence of H. pylori worldwide. The results of this review show that migrants are particularly at risk of infection and help to identify gaps in the knowledge of migrants' prevalence of infection globally. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the light of the universal healthcare coverage that was achieved in Thailand in 2002, policy makers have raised concerns about whether there is still unmet need within the population. Our objectives were to assess the annual prevalence, characteristics and reasons for unmet healthcare need in the Thai population in 2010 and to compare our findings with relevant international literature. Methods A standard set of OECD unmet need questionnaires was used in a nationally-representative household survey conducted in 2010 by the National Statistical Office. The prevalence of unmet need among respondents with various socio-economic characteristics was estimated to determine an inequity in the unmet need and the reasons behind it. Results The annual prevalence of unmet need for outpatient and inpatient services in 2010 was 1.4% and 0.4%, respectively. Despite this low prevalence, there are inequities with relatively higher proportion of the unmet need among Universal Coverage Scheme members, and the poor and rural populations. There was less unmet need due to cost than there was due to geographical barriers. The prevalence of unmet need due to cost and geographical barriers among the richest and poorest quintiles were comparable to those of selected OECD countries. The geographical extension of healthcare infrastructure and of the distribution of health workers is a major contributing factor to the low prevalence of unmet need. Conclusions The low prevalence of unmet need for both outpatient and inpatient services is a result of the availability of well-functioning health services at the most peripheral level, and of the comprehensive benefit package offered free of charge by all health insurance schemes. This assessment prompts a need for regular monitoring of unmet need in nationally-representative household surveys.
Albadran, Asma; Hibshi, Ali; Saeed, Bahjat; Coskun, Serdar; Awartani, Khalid Arab
Viral hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) are a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia. Recent data has indicated a major reduction in viral hepatitis prevalence in Saudi population. However, there is limited data for infertile Saudi couples. To determine the prevalence of HCV and HBV attending an in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinic in Saudi Arabia between 2012 and 2015 to compare with the prevalence 10 years earlier in the same center. Retrospective prevalence study. Tertiary care center in Riyadh. Data on the prevalence of HBV and HCV was collected on all couples seen at the IVF unit between 2002-2005 and 2012-2015. Prevalence of HBV and HCV. In 4442 patients during 2002-2005 and 5747 patients during 2012-2015, the prevalence of HBV was significantly less in 2012-2015 compared with 2002-2005 (1.67% [97 patients] vs 4.7% [210 patients], P < .0001), respectively, but HCV prevalence was similar for the two periods (0.7% for both periods) (P=.887). The hepatitis B seroprevalence rate was higher in males compared to females during 2002-2005 (6.3% vs 3.1%) (P < .0001) and 2012-2015 (2.4% vs 1.1% ) (P < .0001), respectively. The significant drop in HBV prevalence was most likely due to the introduction of the vaccination program in 1989, while reasons for HCV prevalence remaining unchanged are unclear. No data on confounding factors that may have affected the prevalence.
Queiroz, Luiz P; Silva Junior, Ariovaldo A
In Brazil, several epidemiological studies on headache have been produced, most with an emphasis on prevalence and the association of primary headaches with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population. Data on the burden of headache, however, are scarce. The aim of this paper is to review all Brazilian population-based studies on headache, as well as to analyze the Migraine Disability Assessment Score (MIDAS) data collected with the PhD thesis of the senior author (LPQ). A literature review was performed using the keywords ("headache" or "migraine") and ("epidemiology" or "prevalence") and (Brazil). Another part of this paper will look at unpublished data on disability (MIDAS), collected with the prevalence data of the Brazilian nationwide epidemiological study of headache. There are 6 published epidemiological studies of headache in Brazil. The mean 1-year prevalence of headache in Brazil is 70.6%, of migraine 15.8%, of tension-type headache (TTH) 29.5%, and of chronic daily headache (CDH) 6.1%. Disability is significantly higher: in females compared to males; in patients with migraine and CDH compared to patients with TTH; and in those with headaches ≥15 days per month rather than those with episodic headaches. There was also a positive relationship between pain intensity and severity of disability. Patients with higher disability used more both abortive and prophylactic medication. The mean prevalence of headache in Brazil, and some of its subtypes, is similar to the rates described in other countries of the world. Disability is higher in females, in patients with migraine, in individuals with headaches ≥15 days per month, and in those with severe head pain. © 2015 American Headache Society.
Akhavan Karbasi Sedighah
Full Text Available Congenital malformation (CM will begin to emerge as one of the major childhood health problems .Treatment and rehabilitation of children with congenital malformations are costly and complete recovery is usually impossible. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of CM in Yazd central city of the Islamic Republic of Iran to find out if there has been any difference in the rate and types of CM in this area. This descriptive-observational study carried on 4800 births delivered at all maternity hospitals in Yazd from October 2003 to June 2004. Prevalence of CM was 2.83% (2.86 % in male and 2.68 % in female out of the 136 cases 69(51.88% were males and 64 (48.12% were females and 3 with ambiguous genitalia. Positive family history of CM in sibling was in only 6 cases (4.41%.Overall, musculoskeletal (0.83%, central nerv-ous system (0.47% and genital system (0.37% were accounted as the most common. Frequency of CM was more seen in still birth (12.5% as in comparison to live birth (2.71%. There was not statistical difference be-tween prevalence of CM and neonatal's gender, gestational age, birth order and mother's age, drug ingestion, illness and parental consanguinity. In this study the overall prevalence of congenital malformation among the newborn was higher than those previous reported in Iran and determining the causes of this difference needs more extensive studies.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: About 1 million people worldwide commit suicide each year, and college students with suicidal ideation are at high risk of suicide. The prevalence of suicidal ideation in college students has been estimated extensively, but quantitative syntheses of overall prevalence are scarce, especially in China. Accurate estimates of prevalence are important for making public policy. In this paper, we aimed to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Databases including PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wangfang (Chinese database and Weipu (Chinese database were systematically reviewed to identify articles published between 2004 to July 2013, in either English or Chinese, reporting prevalence estimates of suicidal ideation among Chinese college students. The strategy also included a secondary search of reference lists of records retrieved from databases. Then the prevalence estimates were summarized using a random effects model. The effects of moderator variables on the prevalence estimates were assessed using a meta-regression model. RESULTS: A total of 41 studies involving 160339 college students were identified, and the prevalence ranged from 1.24% to 26.00%. The overall pooled prevalence of suicidal ideation among Chinese college students was 10.72% (95%CI: 8.41% to 13.28%. We noted substantial heterogeneity in prevalence estimates. Subgroup analyses showed that prevalence of suicidal ideation in females is higher than in males. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students is relatively high, although the suicide rate is lower compared with the entire society, suggesting the need for local surveys to inform the development of health services for college students.
Li, Zhan-Zhan; Li, Ya-Ming; Lei, Xian-Yang; Zhang, Dan; Liu, Li; Tang, Si-Yuan; Chen, Lizhang
About 1 million people worldwide commit suicide each year, and college students with suicidal ideation are at high risk of suicide. The prevalence of suicidal ideation in college students has been estimated extensively, but quantitative syntheses of overall prevalence are scarce, especially in China. Accurate estimates of prevalence are important for making public policy. In this paper, we aimed to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students. Databases including PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wangfang (Chinese database) and Weipu (Chinese database) were systematically reviewed to identify articles published between 2004 to July 2013, in either English or Chinese, reporting prevalence estimates of suicidal ideation among Chinese college students. The strategy also included a secondary search of reference lists of records retrieved from databases. Then the prevalence estimates were summarized using a random effects model. The effects of moderator variables on the prevalence estimates were assessed using a meta-regression model. A total of 41 studies involving 160339 college students were identified, and the prevalence ranged from 1.24% to 26.00%. The overall pooled prevalence of suicidal ideation among Chinese college students was 10.72% (95%CI: 8.41% to 13.28%). We noted substantial heterogeneity in prevalence estimates. Subgroup analyses showed that prevalence of suicidal ideation in females is higher than in males. The prevalence of suicidal ideation in Chinese college students is relatively high, although the suicide rate is lower compared with the entire society, suggesting the need for local surveys to inform the development of health services for college students.
Sjöberg, Linnea; Karlsson, Björn; Atti, Anna-Rita; Skoog, Ingmar; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin
Depression prevalence in older adults varies largely across studies, which probably reflects methodological rather than true differences. This study aims to explore whether and to what extent the prevalence of depression varies when using different diagnostic criteria and rating scales, and various samples of older adults. A population-based sample of 3353 individuals aged 60-104 years from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) were examined in 2001-2004. Point prevalence of depression was estimated by: 1) diagnostic criteria, ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR/DSM-5; 2) rating scales, MADRS and GDS-15; and 3) self-report. Depression prevalence in sub-samples by dementia status, living place, and socio-demographics were compared. The prevalence of any depression (including all severity grades) was 4.2% (moderate/severe: 1.6%) for ICD-10 and 9.3% (major: 2.1%) for DSM-IV-TR; 10.6% for MADRS and 9.2% for GDS-15; and 9.1% for self-report. Depression prevalence was lower in the dementia-free sample as compared to the total population. Furthermore, having poor physical function, or not having a partner were independently associated with higher depression prevalence, across most of the depression definitions. The response rate was 73.3% and this may have resulted in an underestimation of depression. Depression prevalence was similar across all depression definitions except for ICD-10, showing much lower figures. However, independent of the definition used, depression prevalence varies greatly by dementia status, physical functioning, and marital status. These findings may be useful for clinicians when assessing depression in older adults and for researchers when exploring and comparing depression prevalence across studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Velayutham, Banurekha; Kangusamy, Boopathi; Mehendale, Sanjay
Information on disability is essential for the government to formulate policies, allocate adequate resources and implement appropriate programmes. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of disability and describe the types of disability by gender, age and geographical regions in Tamil Nadu, India. We analysed the 2011 Census cross-sectional survey data of Tamil Nadu. Age-adjusted disability rates and disability rates per 100 000 population were calculated. There were 1 179 963 disabled individuals in Tamil Nadu in 2011, a disability rate of 1635 per 100 000 population. Disability in movement, hearing and sight individually accounted for 24%, 19% and 11% of the total disability, respectively. Sixteen districts had disability rates above the state average. As age advanced, disability rates increased; the highest disability rate of 2533 per 100 000 was among people aged 60 years and above. The disability rates were higher in males compared to females (1819 v. 1451 per 100 000). Rural areas had higher disability areas compared to urban (1670 v. 1599 per 100 000). Currently married, working populations and literate populations had lower disability rates. Disability rate in the Scheduled Castes was higher at 1763 per 100 000 compared to the Scheduled Tribes and other social groups. Multiple disability was high in the age groups 0-19 years and 60 years and above. Physical or mental disability was observed in 1.6% of the population of Tamil Nadu. Research is warranted to identify underlying causes and interventions to reduce the burden of disability in the state.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of various forms of sexual harassment were higher and strongly associated with ..... Social Science and Law students, respectively, adjusted for ... depression, anxiety, and ill-health accompanying harassments.
Jun 16, 2010 ... Conclusion: The prevalence of somatised mental disorder was little higher than the psychologised mental ... hypothesised to be an expression of personal and social .... psychiatric illness; generalised anxiety disorder, depres-.
Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients attending infertility and sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria. ... A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of ...
sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria. ... A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of ... Key words: Chlamydia trachomatis, Prevalence, risk factors, Infertility, STD, Kano.
Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to re-evaluate whether the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS amongst women with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH is higher than in the general population using the NIH criteria. Methods. We included all consecutive women with IIH of child-bearing age seen at a hospital-based neuro-ophthalmology clinic between the years 2000–2005. All consenting women included in this study filled-out a screening questionnaire aimed at identifying women at risk for PCOS. The endocrinologist examined each patient suspect of PCOS as well as their biochemical results and diagnosed PCOS according to NIH criteria. The prevalence of PCOS in these women with IIH was compared with the reported prevalence of PCOS in the general population. Results. Out of 58 women with IIH who completed the study, definite PCOS was diagnosed in nine women (9/58; 15.5%. We found a significantly higher prevalence of PCOS using the NIH criteria among the IHH study group (15.5%, P=0.001 compared to the general population (8.7%. Conclusions. The prevalence of PCOS is higher among patients with IHH, compared to the general population. We suggest a novel screening questionnaire to aid in the identification of women with IIH at risk for PCOS.
Huo, Yan; Gaspar, Thomas; Pohl, Matthias
of LVZ. Conclusion: In a large cohort of patients undergoing ablation for AF, the prevalence of LVZ was higher and LVZ areas larger in patients with persistent as compared with paroxysmal AF. The most frequent localization of LVZ was anterior wall, septum and posterior wall. Presence of LVZ...
Conclusions: Hypertension prevalances in our study were similar to the PatenT 2 trial prevalances, which were 46 % for the middle age group and 78% for the geriatric age group. Compared to PatenT 2 data, the rate of hypertension awareness (54.7% vs 72.3% and the rate of being under treatment (47.5% vs 69.4% were higher. The rate of controlled hypertension was a little bit higher (28.7 % vs 34.7% in our group, whereas control rates in aware and treated groups were similar (53.9 % and 50.1 % in both studies.
Ali Reza Zolfaghari
Full Text Available Objective: Behavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence represent a range of problems and Its prevalence varies in different parts of Iran and the world. Knowledge of them is essential to the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of patients. The aim of this survey is assessment of behavior disorders prevalence in high school students in Hamedan province. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and cross sectional study, 500 boy and girl students were selected from Hamedan high schools by multistep cluster sampling, based on region and gender. Data were gathered by Achenbach experience questionnaire (YSR form and analyzed by Friedman and independent T tests. Results: The findings showed that prevalence of behavioral problems among students in the province is 10 percent and it was higher in girls than boys. Most disorders were withdrawal disorder / anxiety and attention problems and somatization disorder was the least problem. Conclusion: Prevalence of behavior disorders in Hamedan province compared to other studies is moderate, but the behavior disorders prevalence of boys and girls are different from other researchs.
Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Carroll, Dianna D; Zhang, Qing C; Stevens, Alissa C; Griffin-Blake, Shannon; Armour, Brian S; Campbell, Vincent A
Understanding the prevalence of disability is important for public health programs to be able to address the needs of persons with disabilities. Beginning in 2013, to measure disability prevalence by functional type, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), added five questions to identify disability in vision, cognition, mobility, self-care, and independent living. CDC analyzed data from the 2013 BRFSS to assess overall prevalence of any disability, as well as specific types of disability among noninstitutionalized U.S. adults. Across all states, disabilities in mobility and cognition were the most frequently reported types. State-level prevalence of each disability type ranged from 2.7% to 8.1% (vision); 6.9% to 16.8% (cognition); 8.5% to 20.7% (mobility); 1.9% to 6.2% (self-care) and 4.2% to 10.8% (independent living). A higher prevalence of any disability was generally seen among adults living in states in the South and among women (24.4%) compared with men (19.8%). Prevalences of any disability and disability in mobility were higher among older age groups. These are the first data on functional disability types available in a state-based health survey. This information can help public health programs identify the prevalence of and demographic characteristics associated with different disability types among U.S. adults and better target appropriate interventions to reduce health disparities.
Bor, Serhat; Kitapcioglu, Gul; Kasap, Elmas
AIM To evaluate the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with additional symptoms, relationship with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) of this country-wide study. METHODS Data from 3214 adults were obtained with validated questionnaire. Eight hundred and forty-one subjects were randomized to be tested for H. pylori via the urea breath test. "Frequent symptoms" were defined heartburn and/or regurgitation occurring at least weekly. RESULTS The prevalence of GERD was 22.8%, frequent and occasional heartburn were 9.3%-12.7%, regurgitation were 16.6%-18.7%, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) ≤ 18.5 showed a prevalence of 15%, BMI > 30 was 28.5%. The GERD prevalence was higher in women (26.2%) than men (18.9%) (P < 0001). Overall prevalence of H. pylori was 75.7%. The prevalence was 77.1% in subjects without symptoms vs 71.4% in subjects with GERD (χ2 = 2.6, P = 0.27). Underprivileged with the lowest income people exhibit a higher risk. CONCLUSION GERD is common in Turkey which reflects both Western and Eastern lifestyles with high rate of H. pylori. The presence of H. pylori had no effect on either the prevalence or the symptom profile of GERD. Subjects showing classical symptoms occasionally exhibit more additional symptoms compared with those without classical symptoms. PMID:28210089
Liu, Xuefeng; Chen, Yang; Boucher, Nicole L; Rothberg, Amy E
Central obesity is a major risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. The prevalence of central obesity has not been reported fully among Asian adults in the United States (US). Cross-sectional data of 1288 Asian adults aged 20 years or over was selected from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with a stratified multi-stage sampling design. The prevalence of central obesity was calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and Chi-square tests were conducted to test the significance of the prevalence differences across characteristic groups. The overall prevalence of central obesity among US Asian adults was 58.1% in 2011-2014. The prevalence of central obesity was higher in older adults (73.5%) than in young adults (45.4%) (p young adults (39.2% vs 51.5%), men (45.4% vs 56.6%), adults with college education or above (54.2% vs 61.7%) and non-poor adults (55.4% vs 62.4%). Compared with men, women had higher prevalence in each subgroup of age, education, poverty, and length of time (except for the subgroup of "born in the US") (all p obesity is prevalent in Asian adults, particularly in older adults and women. More efforts are needed to prevent and treat obesity in Asian adults as Asians are incurring the greatest increase in type 2 diabetes in parallel with the rising rate of central adiposity.
Hamdi, Emad; Gawad, Tarek; Khoweiled, Aref; Sidrak, Albert Edward; Amer, Dalal; Mamdouh, Rania; Fathi, Heba; Loza, Nasser
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of substance use and addiction in Egypt and study its sociodemographic correlates. A total of 44,000 subjects were interviewed from 8 governorates by stratified sampling. A questionnaire derived from the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was individually administered. The lifetime prevalence of any substance use varies between 7.25% and 14.5%. One-month prevalence varies between 5.4% and 11.5% when adjusted to different population parameters. A total of 4832 subjects were identified as using illicit substances at least once in their life (9.6%), including 1329 experimental and social use (3.3%), 1860 regular use (4.64%), and 629 substance dependence (1.6%). The prevalence of substance use in males is 13.2% and 1.1% in females. Prevalence increases significantly in males of Bedouin origin, in seaside governorates, with lesser levels of education, and in certain occupations. The 15-19 age group showed the highest onset of substance use. Cannabis is the drug mostly misused in Egypt; alcohol is a distant second. The prevalence of substance use is lower than Western countries and higher compared with a 1996 survey. The true population prevalence is probably higher due to underreporting. The demographic pattern reflects availability and accessibility to drugs.
Gennari, Luigi; Di Stefano, Marco; Merlotti, Daniela; Giordano, Nicola; Martini, Giuseppe; Tamone, Cristina; Zatteri, Roberto; De Lucchi, Roberto; Baldi, Carlo; Vattimo, Angelo; Capoccia, Silvia; Burroni, Luca; Geraci, Simone; De Paola, Vincenzo; Calabrò, Anna; Avanzati, Annalisa; Isaia, Giancarlo; Nuti, Ranuccio
of PDB was evident after comparison of prevalence rates from different periods. Biochemical analyses showed 296/7449 subjects with elevated ALP levels and normal liver enzymes, 87 of whom had confirmed diagnosis of PDB. The estimated prevalence of biochemical PDB was 1.5%. The scintigraphic survey showed a PDB prevalence of 194/7906 (2.4%), which was significantly higher than the radiological and biochemical estimates. Our surveys suggest that PDB in Italy has an estimated prevalence of at least 1%, comparable with that observed in United States and other European countries, but lower than that described in Britain and New Zealand. No secular trend for a decreasing prevalence of PDB was observed.
Loria, Hilda; Caughy, Margaret
To estimate the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences in low-income Latino children and examine differences in the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences by immigrant generational status. This is a secondary data analysis of the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, a telephone survey of parents/caregivers of a nationally representative sample of US children. The study sample was limited to Latino children in households with an annual income ≤200% of the federal poverty level (FPL) whose parents responded to a 9-item inventory of adverse childhood experiences. Descriptive statistics estimated the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences and examined differences in prevalence by immigrant generational status. Of 22 297 children, 29% (n = 6483) were Latino (9% first generation, 57% second generation, 30% third or higher generation); 25% (n = 1692) of all Latino children were exposed to 2 or more adverse childhood experiences. Latino immigrant children had a lower prevalence (13%; n = 801) compared with nonimmigrant Latino children (40%; n = 772). The most common adverse childhood experiences were financial hardship and parent divorce/separation. The total number and mean number of adverse childhood experiences differed by child generational status, and the differences persisted after stratification by age and FPL. The prevalence of exposure to adverse childhood experiences was highest among third- or higher-generation nonimmigrant children and lowest among second-generation immigrant children. The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences in low-income Latino children is similar to the prevalence for all US children; however, the prevalence is significantly higher in nonimmigrant children. Targeted screening to address adverse childhood experiences, policy changes, and guidance regarding care practices to address adverse childhood experiences in Latino children are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights
Full Text Available Abstract Background Central obesity is a major risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. The prevalence of central obesity has not been reported fully among Asian adults in the United States (US. Methods Cross-sectional data of 1288 Asian adults aged 20 years or over was selected from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with a stratified multi-stage sampling design. The prevalence of central obesity was calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs and Chi-square tests were conducted to test the significance of the prevalence differences across characteristic groups. Results The overall prevalence of central obesity among US Asian adults was 58.1% in 2011–2014. The prevalence of central obesity was higher in older adults (73.5% than in young adults (45.4% (p < 0.0001. Women had 13.4% higher prevalence than men (64.4% vs 51.0%, p < 0.0001. The prevalence increased over time (2011–2012 vs 2013–2014 in young adults (39.2% vs 51.5%, men (45.4% vs 56.6%, adults with college education or above (54.2% vs 61.7% and non-poor adults (55.4% vs 62.4%. Compared with men, women had higher prevalence in each subgroup of age, education, poverty, and length of time (except for the subgroup of “born in the US” (all p < 0.05 and in the subgroup of “married or living with partner” for marital status (p < 0.0001. Conclusion Central obesity is prevalent in Asian adults, particularly in older adults and women. More efforts are needed to prevent and treat obesity in Asian adults as Asians are incurring the greatest increase in type 2 diabetes in parallel with the rising rate of central adiposity.
Full Text Available Involvement of European Union plays an important role in the areas of education and training equally. The member states are responsible for organizing and operating their education and training systems themselves. And, EU policy is aimed at supporting the efforts of member states and trying to find solutions for the common challenges which appear. In order to make our future sustainable maximally; the key to it lies in education. The highly qualified workforce is the key to development, advancement and innovation of the world. Nowadays, the competitiveness of higher education institutions has become more and more appreciated in the national economy. In recent years, the frameworks of operation of higher education systems have gone through a total transformation. The number of applying students is continuously decreasing in some European countries therefore only those institutions can “survive” this shortfall, which are able to minimize the loss of the number of students. In this process, the factors forming the competitiveness of these budgetary institutions play an important role from the point of view of survival. The more competitive a higher education institution is, the greater the chance is that the students would like to continue their studies there and thus this institution will have a greater chance for the survival in the future, compared to ones lagging behind in the competition. Aim of our treatise prepared is to present the current situation and main data of the EU higher education and we examine the performance of higher education: to what extent it fulfils the strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth which is worded in the framework of Europe 2020 programme. The treatise is based on analysis of statistical data.
Prevalence and factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Nigeria: A comparative study of rural and urban residences based on the 2013 Nigeria demographic and health survey.
Adewuyi, Emmanuel Olorunleke; Auta, Asa; Khanal, Vishnu; Bamidele, Olasunkanmi David; Akuoko, Cynthia Pomaa; Adefemi, Kazeem; Tapshak, Samson Joseph; Zhao, Yun
Antenatal care (ANC) is a major public health intervention aimed at ensuring safe pregnancy outcomes. In Nigeria, the recommended minimum of four times ANC attendance is underutilized. This study investigates the prevalence and factors associated with underutilization of ANC services with a focus on the differences between rural and urban residences in Nigeria. We analyzed the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey dataset with adjustment for the sampling weight and the cluster design of the survey. The prevalence of underutilization of ANC was assessed using frequency tabulation while associated factors were examined using Chi-Square test and multivariable logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of underutilization of ANC was 46.5% in Nigeria, 61.1% in rural residence and 22.4% in urban residence. The North-West region had the highest prevalence of ANC underuse in Nigeria at 69.3%, 76.6% and 44.8% for the overall, rural and urban residences respectively. Factors associated with greater odds of ANC underuse in rural residence were maternal non-working status, birth interval urban residence, mothers professing Islam, those who did not read newspaper at all, and those who lacked health insurance, had greater odds of ANC underuse. In both rural and urban residence, maternal and husband's education level, region of residence, wealth index, maternal age, frequency of watching television, distance to- and permission to visit health facility were significantly associated with ANC underuse. Rural-urban differences exist in the use of ANC services, and to varying degrees, factors associated with underuse of ANC in Nigeria. Interventions aimed at addressing factors identified in this study may help to improve the utilization of ANC services both in rural and urban Nigeria. Such interventions need to focus more on reducing socioeconomic, geographic and regional disparities in access to ANC in Nigeria.
Full Text Available Background: Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the prevalence of dyslipidemia, we examined the associations between blood cadmium concentration and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey on demographic data, blood cadmium level and lipid profile in cadmium exposed workers from seven cadmium smelting factories in central and southwestern China was conducted. We measured blood cadmium concentration and lipid components of 1489 cadmium exposed workers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was compared across blood cadmium quartiles. Associations between the blood cadmium concentrations and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were assessed using confounder adjusted linear and logistic regressions. Results: The blood cadmium concentration was 3.61±0.84µg/L ( mean ±SD. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in this occupational population was 66.3%. Mean blood cadmium concentration of workers with dyslipedemia was significantly higher than that of workers without dyslipidemia (p Conclusion: Elevated blood cadmium concentration is associated with prevalence of dyslipidemia. Cadmium exposure could alter lipid metabolism in humans. It is imperative to control cadmium exposure of occupational population in cadmium related industries and reduce adverse health effects.
Bernatsky, S; Joseph, L; Pineau, C A; Belisle, P; Hudson, M; Clarke, A E
To estimate the prevalence of systemic sclerosis (SSc) using population-based administrative data, and to assess the sensitivity of case ascertainment approaches. We ascertained SSc cases from Quebec physician billing and hospitalization databases (covering approximately 7.5 million individuals). Three case definition algorithms were compared, and statistical methods accounting for imperfect case ascertainment were used to estimate SSc prevalence and case ascertainment sensitivity. A hierarchical Bayesian latent class regression model that accounted for possible between-test dependence conditional on disease status estimated the effect of patient characteristics on SSc prevalence and the sensitivity of the 3 ascertainment algorithms. Accounting for error inherent in both the billing and the hospitalization data, we estimated SSc prevalence in 2003 at 74.4 cases per 100,000 women (95% credible interval [95% CrI] 69.3-79.7) and 13.3 cases per 100,000 men (95% CrI 11.1-16.1). Prevalence was higher for older individuals, particularly in urban women (161.2 cases per 100,000, 95% CrI 148.6-175.0). Prevalence was lowest in young men (in rural areas, as low as 2.8 cases per 100,000, 95% CrI 1.4-4.8). In general, no single algorithm was very sensitive, with point estimates for sensitivity ranging from 20-73%. We found marked differences in SSc prevalence according to age, sex, and region. In general, no single case ascertainment approach was very sensitive for SSc. Therefore, using data from multiple sources, with adjustment for the imperfect nature of each, is an important strategy in population-based studies of SSc and similar conditions.
Steinberg, Tamar; Tamir, Inbal; Zimmerman-Brenner, Sharon; Friling, Michal; Apter, Alan
Tic disorders are common causes of morbidity in Israel but their prevalence in this country needs further study. To assess the prevalence of mental disorders in Israeli youth including tic disorders, as part of the Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA). The ISMEHA was conducted in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers during 2004-2005. We interviewed the adolescents and their mothers in their homes and collected demographic information about the use of services. We also administered a psychiatric interview, the Development and Well-Being Assessment inventory (DAWBA), which included a question on tic disorder. The prevalence of tic disorders was calculated based on the adolescents' and maternal reports. The relationships among demographic data, comorbidity rates, help-seeking behaviors and tic disorder are presented. The prevalence of tics was 1.3% according to maternal reports and 4.4% according to adolescents' reports. The prevalence correlated with externalizing disorders and learning disabilities. A higher prevalence of tics was found in the Arab population compared with Jewish adolescents. The prevalence of tic disorders in Israel, as measured by a direct question in this epidemiological study, and associated comorbidities concurs with previous reports. The complexities of prevalence estimations, comorbidities, demographic correlates, and help-seeking behaviors are discussed.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common inflammatory and chronically relapsing disorder with increasing prevalence. However, little is known about its prevalence in Shanghai, the top metropolitan of China. This study will estimate and compare the prevalence of AD in urban and rural areas in representative samples of 3 to 6-year-old children in Shanghai. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed. Pre-school children were obtained by cluster sampling from 8 communities in different districts in Shanghai. The main instrument was the core questionnaire module for AD used in the U.K. Working Party's study. All the data were statistically analyzed by EpiData 3.1 and SPSS16.0. A total of 10,436 children completed the study satisfactorily, with a response rate of 95.8%. The prevalence of AD in 3 to 6-year-old children was 8.3% (Male: 8.5%, Female: 8.2%. The prevalence in urban areas of Shanghai was gradiently and significantly higher than that in rural areas. The highest prevalence was in the core urban area (10.2% in Xuhui Tianping vs. the lowest far from the urban areas (4.6% in Chongming Baozhen. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The prevalence of AD was 8.3% (95%CI: 7.6%-9.1% in children aged 3 to 6 in Shanghai. The prevalence of AD decreased from the center to the rural areas in Shanghai.
A multicenter prospective randomized study comparing the efficacy of escalating higher biphasic versus low biphasic energy defibrillations in patients presenting with cardiac arrest in the in-hospital environment
Full Text Available Venkataraman Anantharaman,1 Seow Yian Tay,2 Peter George Manning,3 Swee Han Lim,1 Terrance Siang Jin Chua,4 Mohan Tiru,5 Rabind Antony Charles,1 Vidya Sudarshan1 1Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 3Emergency Medicine Department, National University Hospital, 4Department of Cardiology, National Heart Centre, 5Accident and Emergency Department, Changi General Hospital, Singapore Background: Biphasic defibrillation has been practiced worldwide for >15 years. Yet, consensus does not exist on the best energy levels for optimal outcomes when used in patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT.Methods: This prospective, randomized, controlled trial of 235 adult cardiac arrest patients with VF/VT was conducted in the emergency and cardiology departments. One group received low-energy (LE shocks at 150–150–150 J and the other escalating higher-energy (HE shocks at 200–300–360 J. If return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC was not achieved by the third shock, LE patients crossed over to the HE arm and HE patients continued at 360 J. Primary end point was ROSC. Secondary end points were 24-hour, 7-day, and 30-day survival.Results: Both groups were comparable for age, sex, cardiac risk factors, and duration of collapse and VF/VT. Of the 118 patients randomized to the LE group, 48 crossed over to the HE protocol, 24 for persistent VF, and 24 for recurrent VF. First-shock termination rates for HE and LE patients were 66.67% and 64.41%, respectively (P=0.78, confidence interval: 0.65–1.89. First-shock ROSC rates were 25.64% and 29.66%, respectively (P=0.56, confidence interval: 0.46–1.45. The 24-hour, 7-day, and 30-day survival rates were 85.71%, 74.29%, and 62.86% for first-shock ROSC LE patients and 70.00%, 50.00%, and 46.67% for first-shock ROSC HE patients, respectively. Conversion rates for further shocks at 200 J and
Morrell, Stephen; Lin, Sophia; Tukana, Isimeli; Linhart, Christine; Taylor, Richard; Vatucawaqa, Penina; Magliano, Dianna J; Zimmet, Paul
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence is traditionally derived from cohort studies that are not always feasible, representative, or available. The present study estimates T2DM incidence in Fijian adults from T2DM prevalence estimates assembled from surveys of 25-64 year old adults conducted over 30 years (n = 14,288). T2DM prevalence by five-year age group from five population-based risk factor surveys conducted over 1980-2011 were variously adjusted for urban-rural residency, ethnicity, and sex to previous censuses (1976, 1986, 1996, 2009) to improve representativeness. Prevalence estimates were then used to calculate T2DM incidence based on birth cohorts from the age-period (Lexis) matrix following the Styblo technique, first used to estimate annual risk of tuberculosis infection (incidence) from sequential Mantoux population surveys. Poisson regression of year, age, sex, and ethnicity strata (n = 160) was used to develop projections of T2DM prevalence and incidence to 2020 based on various scenarios of population weight measured by body mass index (BMI) change. T2DM prevalence and annual incidence increased in Fiji over 1980-2011. Prevalence was higher in Indians and men than i-Taukei and women. Incidence was higher in Indians and women. From regression analyses, absolute reductions of 2.6 to 5.1% in T2DM prevalence (13-26% lower), and 0.5-0.9 per 1000 person-years in incidence (8-14% lower), could be expected in 2020 in adults if mean population weight could be reduced by 1-4 kg, compared to the current period trend in weight gain. This is the first application of the Styblo technique to calculate T2DM incidence from population-based prevalence surveys over time. Reductions in population BMI are predicted to reduce T2DM incidence and prevalence in Fiji among adults aged 25-64 years.
Full Text Available Objectives. Prevalence of hypertension has not been studied in the Ethiopian HIV-infected population, which represents 60% of the patients in our AIDS unit. Our aim was to identify risk factors and characterize the prevalence of hypertension in the population monitored at our unit. Methods. A retrospective chart review categorized subjects according to their blood pressure levels. Hypertension prevalence was determined and stratified according to variables perceived to contribute to elevated blood pressure. Results. The prevalence of hypertension in our study population was significantly higher compared to the general population (53% versus 20%, P<0.0001 and was associated with known risk factors and not with patients’ viral load and CD4 levels. Ethiopian HIV-infected adults had a prominently higher rate of blood pressure rise over time as compared to non-Ethiopians (P=0.016. Conclusions. The high prevalence of hypertension in this cohort and the rapid increase in blood pressure in Ethiopians are alarming. We could not attribute high prevalence to HIV-related factors and we presume it is part of the metabolic syndrome. The lifelong cardiovascular risk associated with HIV infection mandates hypertension screening and close monitoring in this population.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with latent autoimmune diabetes secrete higher levels of pro- & anti-inflammatory cytokines compared to those with type-1 diabetes mellitus following in vitro stimulation with β-cell autoantigens
Interpretation & conclusions: There are differences in the portfolio of cytokine secretion in diabetic subjects with varying rates of β-cell destruction as LADA subjects secrete higher levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines on exposure to β-cell autoantigens, thus highlighting another distinguishing feature in the pathophysiology of the two forms of autoimmune diabetes.
Schroll, Anne-Mette; Tabor, Ann; Kjaergaard, Hanne
To estimate the prevalence of self-reported lifetime violence and to assess whether women exposed to any physical violence or sexual violence (SEV) had a higher risk of having fear of childbirth (FOC) before, during or after delivery compared with women without such history.......To estimate the prevalence of self-reported lifetime violence and to assess whether women exposed to any physical violence or sexual violence (SEV) had a higher risk of having fear of childbirth (FOC) before, during or after delivery compared with women without such history....
Akhter, Ehtisham; Bilal, Saira; Kiani, Adnan; Haque, Uzma
Recent studies of rheumatoid arthritis worldwide suggest that prevalence of arthritis is higher in Europe and North America than in developing countries. Prevalence data for major arthritis disorders have been compiled in West for several decades, but figures from the third world are just emerging. A coordinated effort by WHO and ILAR (International League Against Rheumatism) has resulted in collecting data for countries like Philippines, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, and rural South Africa but the information about prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan is scarce. Since both countries, i.e., India and Pakistan, share some ethnic identity, we reviewed published literature to examine the prevalence of arthritis in these countries. Medline and Pubmed were searched for suitable articles about arthritis from 1980 and onwards. Findings from these articles were reviewed and summarized. The prevalence, clinical features, and laboratory findings of rheumatoid arthritis are compiled for both India and Pakistan. Data collected from these two countries were compared with each other, and some of the characteristics of the disease were compared with Europe and North America. It is found to be quite similar to developed countries. Additionally, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is of different variety than reported in West. It is more of polyarticular onset type while in West pauciarticular predominates. Additionally, in systemic onset, JRA uveitis and ANA are common finding in developed countries; on the other hand, they are hardly seen in this region. Although the prevalence of arthritis in Pakistan and India is similar to Western countries, there are inherent differences (clinical features, laboratory findings) in the presentation of disease. The major strength of the study is that it is the first to pool reports to provide an estimate of the disease in the Indian subcontinent. Scarcity of data is one of the major limitations. This study helps to understand the pattern of
Sultana, Marufa; Sheikh, Nurnabi; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Jahir, Tania; Islam, Ziaul; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque
Approximately 80% of deaths attributed to malaria worldwide occurred mainly in Africa in 2015. Kenya is one of the major malaria endemic countries, making malaria the leading public health concern in this country. This study intended to document the prevalence of malaria and determine associated factors including socioeconomic status among children aged 6 months to 14 years in Kenya. This study analyzed the secondary data extracted from the 2015 Kenya Malaria Indicator Survey (KMIS), a cross-sectional country representative survey. Associations of demographic, socioeconomic, community-based, and behavioral factors with the prevalence of malaria in children were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Data from 7040 children aged 6 months to 14 years were analyzed. The prevalence of malaria showed an upward trend in terms of age, with the highest prevalence among children aged 11-14 years. Prevalence was also higher among rural children (10.16%) compared to urban children (2.93%), as well as poor children (11.05%) compared to rich children (3.23%). The likelihood of having malaria was higher among children aged 10-14 years (AOR = 4.47, 95% CI = 3.33, 6.02; P level of the household head (AOR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.08, 2.25; P knowledge in practice to control the malaria burden in Kenya. Furthermore, this study suggests that improving the information available through the mass media and introducing behavior change communication and intervention program specifically for those of poor socioeconomic status will help to reduce malaria cases.
Adrian P Mundt
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. METHOD: A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1 for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0 for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8 for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1 for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2 for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3 for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05 and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001. Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05, simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001 and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05 were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05 and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001 were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders.
Increasing prevalence of wildtypes in the dihydrofolate reductase gene of Plasmodium falciparum in an area with high levels of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance after introduction of treated bed nets
Alifrangis, Michael; Lemnge, Martha M; Rønn, Anita M
years old living in the villages from 1998 to 2000. In 2000, after two years of bed net use, the prevalence of wild types in codon 51, 59, and 108 of dhfr increased significantly in Magoda compared with previous years. Furthermore, the prevalence of dhfr wild types was significantly higher in Magoda...
Full Text Available Thyroid nodules (TNs have annual increasing trends worldwide, and large-scale investigations on the prevalence of TNs in Beijing communities have not been conducted since the introduction of salt iodization in 1995. We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of TNs, their epidemiological characteristics, and their correlation with lifestyle factors. A total of 6324 permanent residents aged 18 years or older (mean age, 52.15 ± 11.58 years from seven representative communities in Beijing were included in the analyses. Once informed consent was obtained, the subjects were asked to complete questionnaires, a physical examination, and thyroid ultrasound. A total of 3100 cases had TNs. The overall prevalence rate was 49.0%, and the age-standardized prevalence was 40.1%, which increased significantly as age increased (p < 0.001. The prevalence was significantly higher in females compared to males (p < 0.001, and it was significantly higher among female current smokers and former smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 0.007. There was no correlation between alcohol consumption and TNs, and there were no significant differences in the prevalence among different groups of taste preference. The prevalence decreased with an increased frequency of seafood intake (p = 0.015 and with higher literacy levels (p < 0.001. The Cochran–Armitage trend test showed that the prevalence significantly increased with decreased physical labor and exercise intensity (p < 0.001, p = 0.009. Logistic regression analysis showed that age (Odds ratio (OR = 1.039 (1.034–1.044, p < 0.001, the female sex (OR = 1.789 (1.527–2.097, Body mass index (BMI (OR = 1.019 (1.005–1.034, and current smoking habits (OR = 1.246 (1.046–1.483 were independent risk factors for TNs. Our findings indicate that there is a high prevalence of TNs in Beijing, with a higher prevalence in females than in males. Moreover, the prevalence increases as age increases. Smoking and
Prevalence and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine use among people with coronary heart disease or at risk for this in the sixth Tromsø study: a comparative analysis using protection motivation theory.
Kristoffersen, Agnete Egilsdatter; Sirois, Fuschia; Stub, Trine; Hansen, Anne Helen
Source at https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1817-x Background: Engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviors, such as healthy diet and regular physical activity, are known to reduce the risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD). Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is known to be associated with having a healthy lifestyle. The primary aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of CAM use in CHD patients, and in those without CHD but at risk for developing C...
Elias-Boneta, Augusto R; Ramirez, Karol; Rivas-Tumanyan, Sona; Murillo, Margarita; Toro, Milagros J
Gingivitis is a common oral health problem. Untreated gingivitis may progress to periodontitis, a common cause of tooth loss. The prevalence of gingivitis and calculus among Puerto Rican children is unknown. Understanding this prevalence can support early public health preventative strategies. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of gingivitis and calculus among 12-year-old Puerto Ricans by health region and to explore differences in distribution by school type (proxy for socio-economic status) and gender. A probability-based sample of 113 schools was selected proportional to enrollment size and stratified by health region, school type, and gender. Two trained examiners evaluated the presence of gingivitis and both supragingival and subgingival dental calculus. Gingivitis was defined as the presence of gingival bleeding upon gentle probing (BOP) in at least one site, and the extent of the problem was classified according to the percentage of teeth whose gingiva presented BOP (limited: 25-49% of the teeth tested; extensive: >50% of teeth tested). Logistic and linear regression models, adjusted for health regions, were used to compare gingivitis and calculus prevalence and extent between genders and school types. Gingivitis was found in 80.41% of the 1586 children evaluated. Urban-public schoolchildren had a slightly higher prevalence (83.24%) compared to private (79.15%, p = 0.16); those in rural-public (77.59%) and private schools had similar prevalence (p = 0.15). Extensive gingivitis was present in 60.81% of all children. The mean percentage of sites presenting BOP (BOP%) was 17.79%. Rural and urban public schoolchildren presented significantly higher BOP% compared to children from private schools (p = 0.0005, p = 0.002, respectively). Dental calculus was detected in 61.59% of the sample, boys presenting significantly higher (p = 0.005) total and supragingival calculus. Rural-public schoolchildren had a significantly higher prevalence of
Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan; Ismail, Aziz al-Safi; Khir, Amir Sharifuddin Md; Ismail, Ikram Shah; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Kadir, Khalid Abdul; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Yaacob, Nor Azwany; Mustafa, Norlaila; Ali, Osman; Isa, Siti Harnida Md; Bebakar, Wan Mohamad Wan
Aim: To report the national prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its risk factors among adult Malaysians (>18 years old) based on World Health Organization (WHO), the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel III (ATP III), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the 'Harmonized' criteria.Methods: A multi-stage stratified sampling method was used to select 4341 subjects from Peninsular and East Malaysia. Subjects underwent physical and clinical examinations.Results: Based on the WHO, ATP III, IDF and Harmonized definitions, the overall crude prevalences of MetS were 32.1, 34.3, 37.1 and 42.5%, respectively. Regardless of the criteria used, MetS was higher in urban areas, in females, in the Indian population and increased significantly with age. Risk factors also increased with age; abdominal obesity was most prevalent (57.4%), was higher in females (64.2%) and was highest in Indians (68.8%).Hypertension was higher in males (56.5%) and highest among Malays (52.2%). In contrast,the Chinese had the highest prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia (47.4%).Conclusions: Malaysia has a much higher prevalence of MetS compared with other Asian countries and, unless there is immediate intervention to reduce risk factors, this may pose serious implications on the country's healthcare costs and services.
Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip
Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…
Marks, Joseph L.; Diaz, Alicia A.
The "Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fact Book on Higher Education" is one of the nation's most comprehensive collections of comparative data on higher education. For decades, state leaders, policy-makers, researchers and journalists have used the "Fact Book" to find useful data quickly--and to learn more about…
Dermatophilosis was significantly (p<0.05) higher in animals 2-5 years of age, cross breed and semi-intensively managed cattle. Generally, the prevalence of tick was high, that of lice and mange mite was moderate prevalence whereas the prevalence of dermatophillosis, skin wart, LSD and photosensitization was low.
Baixa prevalência de PPD reativo prévia ao uso de infliximabe: estudo comparativo em população amostral do Hospital Geral de Fortaleza Low prevalence of reactive PPD prior to infliximab use: comparative study on a population sample of Hospital Geral de Fortaleza
Maria Roseli Monteiro Callado
subgroup (4% was also lower as compared with that of the chronic patients group (22% (OR = 0.16; CI: 0.05-0.49; χ2 = 14; P = 0.0002, even when reclassified into four subgroups: rheumatology (OR = 0.19; CI: 0.04-0.72, kidney transplantation (OR = 0.16; CI: 0.05-0.51, infectology (OR = 0.21; CI: 0.05-0.75, and other conditions (OR = 0.13; CI: 0.04-0.44. CONCLUSION: The low prevalence of PPD reaction in this Brazilian population, mainly in chronic patients, with the worst performance among RA patients, shwoed that the test has limited value for diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in candidates to infliximab therapy
Joana Marcela Sales de Lucena
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of excessive screen time and to analyze associated factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study with 2874 high school adolescents with age 14-19 years (57.8% female from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Northeast Brazil. Excessive screen time was defined as watching television and playing video games or using the computer for more than 2 h/day. The associated factors analyzed were: sociodemographic (gender, age, economic class, and skin color, physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents. Results: The prevalence of excessive screen time was 79.5% (95%CI 78.1-81.1 and it was higher in males (84.3% compared to females (76.1%; p<0.001. In multivariate analysis, adolescent males, those aged 14-15 year old and the highest economic class had higher chances of exposure to excessive screen time. The level of physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents were not associated with excessive screen time. Conclusions: The prevalence of excessive screen time was high and varied according to sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents. It is necessary to develop interventions to reduce the excessive screen time among adolescents, particularly in subgroups with higher exposure.
Dancz, Christina E; Walker, Daphne; Thomas, Diane; Özel, Begüm
To describe the prevalence of hydronephrosis in advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and to describe clinical and urodynamic parameters associated with hydronephrosis. Prospective, observational cohort study examining the prevalence of hydronephrosis in advanced POP. Women with a POP-Q examination of at least +1 for points C, Aa, or Ba were enrolled and screened for hydronephrosis. Basic demographics, clinical, and urodynamic findings among women with and without hydronephrosis were compared. The University of Southern California IRB approved this protocol. A total of 180 participants were enrolled. Fifty-five women had some hydronephrosis, for a prevalence of 30.6% (24.3%-37.6%). Mean age was 57.9 (±9.0) years and mean body mass index was 29.2 kg/m(2) (± 4.6). Of the participants, 80.6% were postmenopausal. The presence of diabetes mellitus was significantly associated with hydronephrosis (8% without vs 21.8% with, P = .009), as was the degree of anterior and apical (median Aa, Ba, C, and D higher with hydronephrosis than without, P hydronephrosis had higher mean post void residuals (64.8 vs 38.5 mL, P = .007), lower mean first leak (199.6 vs 280.8 mL, P = .006), and higher mean maximum cystometric capacity (525.2 vs 476.7 mL, P = .02) compared with participants without hydronephrosis. The prevalence of hydronephrosis in women with advanced POP is 30.6%. Clinical factors associated with hydronephrosis include degree of anterior or apical POP and diabetes mellitus. Urodynamic factors associated with hydronephrosis include elevated postvoid residuals, larger cystometric capacity, and lower volume at first leak. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The incidence and mortality of sepsis and severe sepsis in hospitalised patients is seasonal and consistently highest during the winter. The primary aim of this study was to measure the seasonal variation in the prevalence of emergency department (ED) patients with sepsis. This cross-sectional study was performed over two four-week periods in the summer and in the winter, respectively. The clinical records of all patients presenting to the ED during the study periods were retrospectively screened to determine if they met the criteria for “uncomplicated” sepsis and severe sepsis or septic shock. The prevalence of “uncomplicated” sepsis was higher in the winter (43.9 per 1000) compared to the summer (30.7 per 1000). The prevalence of severe sepsis or septic shock was also higher in the winter (17.7 per 1000) compared to the summer (11.7 per 1000). This quantitatively demonstrates the increased ED burden of sepsis in the winter that can be used to inform healthcare planning and resource allocation.
Nayerifard, Razieh; Bureng, Majid Akbari; Zahiroddin, Alireza; Namjoo, Massood; Rajezi, Sepideh
Research has shown that the metabolic syndrome is more prevalent among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder. Given the scarcity of research on the disorders, this paper aims to compare the prevalence of the syndrome among the two groups of patients. A total of 120 individuals participated in this cross sectional study: 60 patients with schizophrenia (26 males and 34 females) and 60 patients with bipolar I disorder (32 males and 28 females). The psychological disorders were diagnosed by some experienced psychiatrists according to the DSM-V. Furthermore, metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to ATP III guidelines. Metabolic syndrome prevalence among schizophrenic and bipolar I patients was 28 and 36 percent, respectively; the disparity in prevalence is not significant. According to the results, compared to their male counterparts, females were more prone significant to metabolic syndrome. Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher among bipolar I patients. On the other hand, schizophrenic males were observed to have higher fasting blood sugar levels in comparison to bipolar I males patients. Age, consumption of second generation antipsychotics or antidepressants, and the duration of the disorder were found to be related to metabolic syndrome. This study showed that metabolic syndrome is not more prevalent among bipolar I patients, compared to those with schizophrenia. Also, women are more likely to be affected by the syndrome. A number of factors such as age, consumption of medication, and duration of the disorder are associated with the likelihood of the syndrome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Morozov, S V; Stavraki, E S; Isakov, V A
Heartburn is the most common symptom of GERD. It's prevalence among different age groups of Russian population has not been studied yet. To study the prevalence of heartburn and its influence on the quality of life patterns in Russian urban primary care patients. The data presented in the article is a part of ARIADNE study on epidemiology of heartburn in Russian urban population. A cross-sectional survey, using a reliable and validated self-filled questionnaire was performed on randomly selected 18706 primary care patients in the 11 largest cities of Russia. The data of 14,521 respondents were available to the final analysis. Among the respondents 8,643 (59.5%) reported heartburn, among them elderly (> or = 60 y. o.) 2,017. Heartburn was more prevalent in elderly (61.87%) compared to younger people (59.29%), p = 0.028. Frequent (> or = 2 times a week) heartburn was found in 3,295 respondents. The prevalence of frequent symptom was also higher in elderly then in people less