WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher polysaccharides present

  1. Chemical Compositions and Macrophage Activation of Polysaccharides from Leon's Mane Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) in Different Maturation Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiao-Zhen; Wu, Di; Chen, Xia; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Yang, Yan; Cui, Fengjie

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of the maturation stage on the chemical compositions and macrophage activation activity of polysaccharides from the culinary-medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus. Results showed that total polysaccharides increased, whereas protein content decreased with the maturation stage development of fruiting body. Nine polysaccharide fractions, 3 from each of the maturity stages IV (small fungal spine stage), V (mid-fungal spine stage) and VI (mature), were prepared using the gradient ethanol precipitation method. The polysaccharide fraction HP4A isolated from the maturating-stage (stage IV) fruiting body had a significant difference from the fractions HP5A (stage V) and HP6A (stage VI) in the molecular weight distribution and monosaccharide compositions. Immunostimulating tests revealed that the polysaccharide fraction HP6 isolated from the mature stage (stage VI) fruiting body presented higher macrophage activation activity. Our findings provided important information for the harvest and use of H. erinaceus with higher qualities and functional benefits.

  2. Polysaccharide fraction from higher plants which strongly interacts with the cytosolic phosphorylase isozyme. I. Isolation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yi; Steup, M.

    1990-01-01

    From leaves of Spinacia oleracea L. or from Pisum sativum L. and from cotyledons of germinating pea seeds a high molecular weight polysaccharide fraction was isolated. The apparent size of the fraction, as determined by gel filtration, was similar to that of dextran blue. Following acid hydrolysis the monomer content of the polysaccharide preparation was studied using high pressure liquid and thin layer chromatography. Glucose, galactose, arabinose, and ribose were the main monosaccharide compounds. The native polysaccharide preparation interacted strongly with the cytosolic isozyme of phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1). Interaction with the plastidic phosphorylase isozyme(s) was by far weaker. Interaction with the cytosolic isozyme was demonstrated by affinity electrophoresis, kinetic measurements, and by 14 C-labeling experiments in which the glucosyl transfer from [ 14 C]glucose 1-phosphate to the polysaccharide preparation was monitored

  3. Extraction, Antimicrobial, and Antioxidant Activities of Crude Polysaccharides from the Wood Ear Medicinal Mushroom Auricularia auricula-judae (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ming; Lin, Yang; Luo, Yin-long; Liang, Han-hua; Sun, Pei-long

    2015-01-01

    In this study, crude polysaccharides of culinary-medicinal mushroom Auricularia auricular-judae were extracted by hot water extraction and alcohol precipitation, and their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were investigated. An optimum extraction condition was obtained at a ratio of liquid to solid 70 mL/g, temperature 90°C, time 4 h and extraction number 4. Accordingly, the best yield of crude polysaccharides was 6.89% with 76.12% in purity. Some bacteria and fungi were used for antimicrobial studies. It was found that crude A. auricula-judae had great antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, but no activities on the others. The inhibitory diameters of antimicrobial zones for the two were 5.55 ± 0.182 and 9.84 ± 0.076 mm, respectively. Moreover, crude A. auricula-judae had significant antioxidant activities in scavenging free radicals, reducing power assays, and Fe2+ chelating ability assay. Results revealed that crude A. auricula-judae has a great potential as antimicrobial and antioxidant, and it can be a supplementary food for human health.

  4. The Role of English in Present Day Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Abdulsalam AL-Khalil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global world and with the help of modern technology, English has become the most common and dominant language spoken and used both at the national and international levels. It has been playing a major role in many sectors as medicine, engineering, politics, economics, international relations, and higher education in particular, the most important area where English is needed. It has also become a medium of instruction at universities in a large number of countries, a basic means of second language learning / teaching, an accessing source of modern knowledge and scientific research, and a means of global communication and earn living. It is realized nowadays at the level of Higher Education in many countries around the world, in addition to EU countries as Germany, Turkey, China, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, Australian, India …, the significance of providing education in English side by side with their natives. Hence, serious steps have taken to improve the quality of instruction in English at the administrative, academic, students’, publications and research levels. And in order to prove English language international power, it goes beyond its tertiary. Many English language proficiency, training and degree programs are managed not only inside but also abroad for internationalization of higher education to keep it up to date. However, this paper signifies the role of English in modern education, particularly in higher education sector and the role of modern technology in promoting English language learning / teaching quality to meet the standards, communication needs and cultural exchange across the world.

  5. Radiation processed polysaccharide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Quoc Hien

    2007-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

  6. THE PRESENT COLLAPSE OF ROMANIAN HIGHER EDUCATION. CAUSES AND EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA DUMBRAVĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper corroborates statistical data of economic and social nature in an attempt to outline the national and European context within which the Romanian educational system has constantly degraded over the past years. At the same time, the study exceeds the limits of a simple identification of causes and analyzes the collapse of higher education both as an ultimate consequence of governmental oblivion towards national education, and from the perspective of its devastating boomerang effect on the Romanian economy and on the society at large.

  7. Using polysaccharides against cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Azarnoosh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Nowadays cancer is one of the most important concerns of the society. The adverse effects of common therapeutics and resistance of some cancerous cells to treatment have brought the necessity of new approaches towards the issue. Polysaccharides are a group of carbohydrates found in natural sources. In the present article, our goal was to show the positive effects of carbohydrates (especially polysaccharides in cancer treatment, based on literature review. Methods: The literature review was carried out between 1990 and 2017 inclusive using the following search terms: cancer, carbohydrate and polysaccharide and was performed with use of Google scholar, Medline, Scopus, PubMed, Elsevier and other similar data banks, related to medicine and pharmaceutical fields. Results: Plants like Lyceum barbarum, Astragalus membrannceous, Panax ginseng, and Antrodia camphorate have been studied with promising effects in combating cancerous cells. The polysaccharides from these plants have benefits with numerous mechanisms such as apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis, anti-proliferation, immunomodulation, tumor suppression, and increase in macrophage activity. Other studies showed over 200 mushrooms with anticancer effects, especially basidiomycetes (e.g. Ganoderma lucidum. Sulfated polysaccharides found in sea and animals or even a few bacteria like E. coli showed to be useful in cancer. Conclusion: Scientists are realizing the importance of natural drugs and polysaccharide as good and available sources that could give a bright future for prevention, cure and palliative therapy in cancer.

  8. Effect of acetylation on antioxidant and cytoprotective activity of polysaccharides isolated from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yuyu; Duan, Liusheng; Zhou, Chunli; Ni, Yuanying; Liao, Xiaojun; Li, Quanhong; Hu, Xiaosong

    2013-10-15

    Acetylation of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva variety) polysaccharide using acetic anhydride with pyridines as catalyst under different conditions was conducted to obtain different degrees of acetylation on a laboratory scale. Furthermore, antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effects of pumpkin polysaccharide and its acetylated derivatives were investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Results showed that addition of pyridine as catalyst could increase the degree of substitution, whereas volume of acetic anhydride had little effect. The acetylated polysaccharides in DPPH scavenging radical activity assay, superoxide anion radical activity assay and reducing power assay exhibited higher antioxidant activity than that of unmodified polysaccharide. H2O2-induced oxidative damages on rat thymic lymphocyte were also prevented by pumpkin polysaccharide and its acetylated derivatives and the derivatives presented higher protective effects. On the whole, acetylated polysaccharide showed relevant antioxidant activity both in vitro and in a cell system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of bacterial polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellwood, D C; Evans, C G.T.; Yeo, R G

    1978-06-01

    A process for the biochemical synthesis of polysaccharides comprises growing polysaccharide-producing bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas in a single stage continuous culture in a chemically-defined medium. The term chemically-defined medium denotes a culture medium wherein nutrients other than carbon are provided as inorganic salts or single organic compounds of known molecular structure rather than as complex naturally-derived mixtures. Normally the only organic component of the chemically-defined medium will be a conventional carbon source such as a carbohydrate, especially glucose, or glycerol. Preferably the medium should contain only one nitrogen source, since the use of multiple nitrogen sources, as present in complex media, appears to promote changes in the nature of the culture resulting in loss of polysaccharide production. 22 claims.

  10. Modulation of Th1/Th2 Immune Responses by Killed Propionibacterium acnes and Its Soluble Polysaccharide Fraction in a Type I Hypersensitivity Murine Model: Induction of Different Activation Status of Antigen-Presenting Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina Squaiella-Baptistão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus present in normal human skin microbiota, which exerts important immunomodulatory effects, when used as heat- or phenol-killed suspensions. We previously demonstrated that heat-killed P. acnes or its soluble polysaccharide (PS, extracted from the bacterium cell wall, suppressed or potentiated the Th2 response to ovalbumin (OVA in an immediate hypersensitivity model, depending on the treatment protocol. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for these effects, using the same model and focusing on the activation status of antigen-presenting cells (APCs. We verified that higher numbers of APCs expressing costimulatory molecules and higher expression levels of these molecules are probably related to potentiation of the Th2 response to OVA induced by P. acnes or PS, while higher expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs seems to be related to Th2 suppression. In vitro cytokines production in cocultures of dendritic cells and T lymphocytes indicated that P. acnes and PS seem to perform their effects by acting directly on APCs. Our data suggest that P. acnes and PS directly act on APCs, modulating the expression of costimulatory molecules and TLRs, and these differently activated APCs drive distinct T helper patterns to OVA in our model.

  11. Production of biomass and polysaccharides of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt. :Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes), by submerged cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habijanic, Jozica; Berovic, Marin; Boh, Bojana; Wraber, Branka; Petravic-Tominac, Vlatka

    2013-01-01

    Submerged batch and repeated fed-batch cultivation techniques were used for mycelia cultivation and polysaccharide production of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Although most publications use various Asiatic G. lucidum strains, the growth of the strain Ga.l 4 (Biotechnical Faculty Strain Collection, Ljubljana, Slovenia), originally isolated from the Slovenian forest, is much faster. The results between the batch and repeated fed-batch cultivation are compared with the polysaccharide production in batch cultivation. From the aspect of biomass production, the best results were obtained in repeated fed-batch after 44 days, where 12.4 g/L of dry fungal biomass was obtained.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of thiolated tamarind seed polysaccharide as a mucoadhesive polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harmanmeet; Yadav, Shikha; Ahuja, Munish; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2012-11-06

    In the present study, thiol-functionalization of tamarind seed polysaccharide was carried out by esterification with thioglycolic acid. Thiol-functionalization was confirmed by SH stretch in Fourier-transformed infra-red spectra at 2586 cm(-1). It was found to possess 104.5 mM of thiol groups per gram. The results of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction study indicate increase in crystallinity. Polymer compacts of thiolated tamarind seed polysaccharide required 6.85-fold greater force to detach from the mucin coated membrane than that of tamarind seed polysaccharide. Comparative evaluation of Carbopol-based metronidazole gels containing thiolated tamarind seed polysaccharide with gels containing tamarind seed polysaccharide for mucoadhesive strength using chicken ileum by modified balance method revealed higher mucoadhesion of gels containing thiolated tamarind seed polysaccharide. Further, the gels containing tamarind seed polysaccharide and thiolated tamarind seed polysaccharide released the drug by Fickian-diffusion following the first-order and Higuchi's-square root release kinetics, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Botanical polysaccharides: macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Quinn, Mark T

    2006-03-01

    Botanical polysaccharides exhibit a number of beneficial therapeutic properties, and it is thought that the mechanisms involved in these effects are due to the modulation of innate immunity and, more specifically, macrophage function. In this review, we summarize our current state of understanding of the macrophage modulatory effects of botanical polysaccharides isolated from a wide array of different species of flora, including higher plants, mushrooms, lichens and algae. Overall, the primary effect of botanical polysaccharides is to enhance and/or activate macrophage immune responses, leading to immunomodulation, anti-tumor activity, wound-healing and other therapeutic effects. Furthermore, botanical and microbial polysaccharides bind to common surface receptors and induce similar immunomodulatory responses in macrophages, suggesting that evolutionarily conserved polysaccharide structural features are shared between these organisms. Thus, the evaluation of botanical polysaccharides provides a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents and adjuvants that exhibit beneficial immunomodulatory properties.

  14. The diversity of Klebsiella pneumoniae surface polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follador, Rainer; Heinz, Eva; Wyres, Kelly L; Ellington, Matthew J; Kowarik, Michael; Holt, Kathryn E; Thomson, Nicholas R

    2016-08-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered an urgent health concern due to the emergence of multi-drug-resistant strains for which vaccination offers a potential remedy. Vaccines based on surface polysaccharides are highly promising but need to address the high diversity of surface-exposed polysaccharides, synthesized as O-antigens (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and K-antigens (capsule polysaccharide, CPS), present in K. pneumoniae . We present a comprehensive and clinically relevant study of the diversity of O- and K-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters across a global collection of over 500 K. pneumoniae whole-genome sequences and the seroepidemiology of human isolates from different infection types. Our study defines the genetic diversity of O- and K-antigen biosynthesis cluster sequences across this collection, identifying sequences for known serotypes as well as identifying novel LPS and CPS gene clusters found in circulating contemporary isolates. Serotypes O1, O2 and O3 were most prevalent in our sample set, accounting for approximately 80 % of all infections. In contrast, K serotypes showed an order of magnitude higher diversity and differ among infection types. In addition we investigated a potential association of O or K serotypes with phylogenetic lineage, infection type and the presence of known virulence genes. K1 and K2 serotypes, which are associated with hypervirulent K. pneumoniae , were associated with a higher abundance of virulence genes and more diverse O serotypes compared to other common K serotypes.

  15. Bioactive polysaccharides and gut microbiome (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many polysaccharides have shown the ability to reduce plasma cholesterol or postprandial glycemia. Viscosity in the small intestine seems to be required to slow glucose uptake. Cereal mixed linkage beta-glucans, psyllium, glucomannans, and other polysaccharides also seem to require higher molecula...

  16. Antioxidant effects of polysaccharides from traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Huang, Gangliang

    2017-12-07

    Polysaccharides are a kind of biological macromolecules with immune regulation, anti-tumor, anti-radiation, anti-inflammation, anti-fatigue and anti-aging effects. These effects are related to their antioxidant properties. The action mechanisms of antioxidation and scavenging free radicals for polysaccharides were reviewed. The polysaccharides contain plant polysaccharides, animal polysaccharides and microbial polysaccharides. The recent research progresses and our work on antioxidant properties of polysaccharides and their derivatives were summarized. At last, the existing problems of antioxidant polysaccharides were analyzed, and the development prospects were also presented. It is important to study the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides and their derivatives for the development of natural antioxidants. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Selenylation Modification of Degraded Polysaccharide from Enteromorpha prolifera and Its Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Haitao; Duan, Ke; Shan, Hu

    2018-04-01

    Polysaccharide extracted from Enteromorpha prolifera possessed excellent biological activities, but its molecular weight was greatly high which influenced the activity. Organic Se had higher biological activities and was safer than inorganic Se species. In the present study, Enteromorpha polysaccharide was degraded to low molecular weight by free-radical degradation method of H2O2 and ascorbic acid. By single factor and orthogonal experiments, the optimal degradation conditions were reaction time of 2 h, reaction temperature of 50°C, H2O2/ascorbic acid (n/n=1:1) concentration of 15 mmol L-1, and solid-liquid ratio of 1:50 (g mL-1). Then, the degraded polysaccharide was chemically modified to obtain its selenide derivatives by nitric acid-sodium selenite method. The selenium content was 1137.29 μg g-1, while the content of sulfate radical had no change. IR spectra indicated that the selenite ester group was formed. Degraded polysaccharide selenide was characterized and evaluated for antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial activities. The results showed that degraded polysaccharide selenide had strong capacity of scavenging DPPH and ·OH free radical. It had significant antibacterial properties for Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella spp., and it also had significant antifungal properties for Apple anthrax. The result ascertained degradation and selenylation modification did not change the main structure of polysaccharides. It was possible that free-radical degradation was an effective way for enhancing antioxidant activity to decrease molecular weight of polysaccharides.

  18. Research and higher education background of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary. Past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csom, Gy.

    2002-01-01

    The connection of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary, with research and development as well as with higher education is discussed. The main research areas include reactor physics, thermohydraulics, radiochemistry and radiochemical analysis, electronics and nuclear instruments, computers, materials science. The evolution of relations with higher education in Hungary and the PNPP is presented, before and after the installation of the various units. (R.P.)

  19. Electronic Slideshow Presentations in the Higher Education Teaching and Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carlos Miguel; Santos, Ana Isabel; Serpa, Sandro

    2018-01-01

    The use of electronic slide presentations (ESP), usually through PowerPoint or Prezi software, has become widespread in higher education and is part of the expectations and perceptions of both teachers and students of how a successful and quality class should be. Is this dissemination of ESP use justified by the pedagogical quality fostered in…

  20. Method to conjugate polysaccharide antigens to surfaces for the detection of antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Ulrik; Lind, Peter; Riber, Ulla

    2014-11-15

    A new generic method for the conjugation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-derived polysaccharide antigens from gram-negative bacteria has been developed using Salmonella as a model. After removal of lipid A from the LPS by mild acidolysis, the polysaccharide antigen was conjugated to polystyrene microbeads modified with N-alkyl hydroxylamine and N-alkyl-O-methyl hydroxylamine surface groups by incubation of antigen and beads for 16 h at 40 °C without the need for coupling agents. The efficiency of the new method was evaluated by flow cytometry in model samples and serum samples containing antibodies against Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella dublin. The presented method was compared with a similar method for conjugation of Salmonella polysaccharide antigens to surfaces. Here, the new method showed higher antigen coupling efficiency by detecting low concentrations of antibodies. Furthermore, the polysaccharide-conjugated beads showed preserved bioactivity after 1 year of use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Polysaccharides from Extremophilic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, B.; Moriello, V. Schiano; Lama, L.; Poli, A.; Gambacorta, A.

    2004-02-01

    Several marine thermophilic strains were analyzed for exopolysaccharide production. The screening process revealed that a significant number of thermophilic microorganisms were able to produce biopolymers, and some of them also revealed interesting chemical compositions. We have identified four new polysaccharides from thermophilic marine bacteria, with complex primary structures and with different repetitive units: a galacto-mannane type from strain number 4004 and mannane type for the other strains. The thermophilic Bacillus thermantarcticus produces two exocellular polysaccharides (EPS 1, EPS 2) that give the colonies a typical mucous character. The exopolysaccharide fraction was produced with all substrates assayed, although a higher yield 400 mg liter-1 was obtained with mannose as carbon and energy source. NMR spectra confirmed that EPS 1 was a heteropolysaccharide of which the repeating unit was constituted by four different α-D-mannoses and three different β-D-glucoses. It seems to be close to some xantan polymers. EPS 2 was a mannan. Four different α-D-mannoses were found as the repeating unit. Production and chemical studies of biopolymers produced by halophilic archaea, Haloarcula species were also reported.

  2. Two dimensional NMR studies of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, R.A.; Egan, W.; Summers, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    Polysaccharides are very important components in the immune response system. Capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides occupy cell surface sites of bacteria, play key roles in recognition and some have been used to develop vaccines. Consequently, the ability to determine chemical structures of these systems is vital to an understanding of their immunogenic action. The authors have been utilizing recently developed two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy for unambiguous assignment and structure determination of a number of polysaccharides. In particular, the 1 H-detected heteronuclear correlation experiments are essential to the rapid and sensitive determination of these structures. Linkage sites are determined by independent polarization transfer experiments and multiple quantum correlation experiments. These methods permit the complete structure determination on very small amounts of the polysaccharides. They present the results of a number of structural determinations and discuss the limits of these experiments in terms of their applications to polysaccharides

  3. Improved coupling of bacterial polysaccharides to macromolecules and solid supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing a polysaccharide-carrier conjugate comprising coupling a polysaccharide to a carrier, said polysaccharide comprising at least one monosaccharide unit comprising a keto-carboxy group according to the formula -C(=O)COOR, where R is either hydrogen or C1......-alkoxyamine group of the carrier with a keto-carboxy group of said polysaccharide to form a covalent amide bond between the carrier and the polysaccharide. Another aspect of the present invention relates to a compound or solid surface obtained when performing the method of the present invention. A third aspect...

  4. Polysaccharide-producing microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braud, J.P.; Chaumont, D.; Gudin, C.; Thepenier, C.; Chassin, P.; Lemaire, C.

    1982-11-01

    The production of extracellular polysaccharides is studied with Nostoc sp (cyanophycus), Porphiridium cruentum, Rhodosorus marinus, Rhodella maculata (rhodophyci) and Chlamydomonas mexicana (chlorophycus). The polysaccharides produced are separated by centrifugation of the culture then precipitation with alcohol. Their chemical structure was studied by infrared spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. By their rheological properties and especially their insensitivity to temperatrure and pH variations the polysaccharides produced by Porphryridium cruentum and Rhodella maculata appear as suitable candidates for industrial applications.

  5. Can air-breathing fish be adapted to higher than present temperatures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, Mark

    Air-breathing in fish is thought to have evolved in environments at lower than present oxygen levels and higher than present temperatures raising the question of whether extant species are adapted to recent temperature regimes or living at sub-optimal temperatures. The air-breathing Pangasionodon...... hypophthalmus inhabits the Mekong river system covering two climate zones during its life cycle and migrating more than 2000 km from hatching in northern Laos to its adult life in the southern delta region. It is a facultative air-breather with well-developed gills and air-breathing organ and an unusual...... circulatory bauplan. Here we examine the question of its optimal temperature through aspects of its cardio respiratory physiology including temperature effects on blood oxygen binding, ventilation and blood gasses, stereological measures of cardiorespiratory system, metabolic rate and growth. Comparing...

  6. The Place of Entrepreneurship in Higher Education – Present State and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iga Kott

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the main driving forces of the national economies. In Poland, more and more jobs are created in private enterprises, set up and running by entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs are characterized as people, which seize the opportunity to act, have higher self-esteem and a greater sense of control over their lives, and they, usually become successful people. This causes a widespread conviction, that the promotion of entrepreneurship, may result in maximizing the success of both, individual and in the scale of the national economy as well. Therefore, it becomes important to develop standards in the field of entrepreneurship education, the greater numbers of people would have been able to achieve a professional success. This article presents the essence of the entrepreneurship and the role of education, in entrepreneurship’s excitation or strengthening. Also a practical example of the implementation of these provisions by one of the Polish Universities - Czestochowa University of Technology, is presented.

  7. Higher-than-present Medieval pine (Pinus sylvestris treeline along the Swedish Scandes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Kullman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The upper treeline of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. is renowned as a sensitive indicator of climate change and variability. By use of megafossil tree remains, preserved exposed on the ground surface, treeline shift over the past millennium was investigated at multiple sites along the Scandes in northern Sweden. Difference in thermal level between the present and the Medieval period, about AD 1000-1200, is a central, although controversial, aspect concerning the detection and attribution of anthropogenic climate warming. Radiocarbon-dated megafossil pines revealed that the treeline was consistently positioned as much as 115 m higher during the Medieval period than today (AD 2000-2010, after a century of warming and substantial treeline upshift. Drawing on the last-mentioned figure, and a lapse rate of 0.6 °C/100 m, it may be inferred that Medieval summer temperatures were about 0.7 °C warmer than much of the past 100 years. Extensive pine mortality and treeline descent after the Medieval warming peak reflect substantially depressed temperatures during the Little Ice Age. Warmer-than-present conditions during the Medieval period concur with temperature reconstructions from different parts of northern Fennoscandia, northwestern Russia and Greenland. Modern warming has not been sufficient to restore Medieval treelines. Against this background, there is little reason to view further modest warming as unnatural.

  8. Research and Data Services for Higher Education Information Technology: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajek, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Those in the higher education community live in interesting times. For decades, higher education has occupied a relatively stable, trusted position in society, as a place to invest the most precious resources: (1) youth; (2) minds; (3) future; and (4) values. Today, the purpose and value of higher education is under question and under…

  9. Governance and Funding Reforms in Dutch Higher Education: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzen, Jozef M. M.; Marconi, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the history of higher education governance and funding in The Netherlands, generalising when possible to other European countries. It finds that governance reforms and the funding of higher education appear to be driven by economic and demographic factors, including massification. Furthermore, the Bologna Process can be…

  10. Biochemical Aspects of Non-Starch Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides are macromolecules of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds. Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP are principally non-α-glucan polysaccharides of the plant cell wall. They are a heterogeneous group of polysaccharides with varying degrees of water solubility, size, and structure. The water insoluble fiber fraction include cellulose, galactomannans, xylans, xyloglucans, and lignin, while the water-soluble fibers are the pectins, arabinogalactans, arabinoxylans, and β-(1,3(1,4-D-glucans (β-glucans. Knowledge of the chemical structure of NSP has permitted the development of enzyme technology to overcome their antinutritional effects. The physiological effects of NSP on the digestion and absorption of nutrients in human and monogastric animals have been attributed to their physicochemical properties: hydration properties, viscosity, cation exchange capacity and organic compound absorptive properties. This paper reviews and presents information on NSPs chemistry, physicochemical properties and physiological effects on the nutrient entrapment.

  11. Radiochemistry and radiopolymerization of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, J.

    1980-03-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on dry state polysaccharides (example: starch) are presented in an overall manner by order of quantitative importance: recombination of radicals to recover the initial macromolecule (cage effect) or smaller molecules which are chemically identical (radiopolymerization) and evolution of radicals to give secondary reactions (formation of radiolysis products). The effect of the botanical origin of the starch studied is briefly discussed, applications and extensions to the case of radiochemically induced modifications to foodstuffs being envisaged [fr

  12. Production of heterologous storage polysaccharides in potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.; Vincken, J.P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Starch is the most important storage polysaccharide in higher plants. This polysaccharide is used in many industrial applications as it is abundant, renewable and biodegradable and it can be modified into a wide range of products used in food, animal feed, pharmaceuticals and industry. With the

  13. Effects of Polysaccharide-Based Edible Coatings on Quality and Antioxidant Enzyme System of Strawberry during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a nutritious, but highly perishable fruit. Three polysaccharide-based edible coatings (alginate, chitosan, and pullulan were applied to postharvest strawberry fruit during cold storage (4°C, and their effects on fruit quality and antioxidant enzyme system were investigated in the present study. The results showed that polysaccharide coatings showed a significant delay in fruit softening and rot and reduced changes in total soluble solid and titratable acidity content during 16 d storage. Polysaccharide coatings also maintained higher ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents than control from day 2 and significantly inhibited fruit decay and respiration after 12 d storage (p<0.05. Polysaccharide treatments enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and ascorbate peroxidase so as to prevent lipid peroxidation and reduce membrane damage. Additionally, chitosan coating had the most positive effects on fruit quality amongst three polysaccharide-based edible coatings and presented the highest relative activities of antioxidant enzymes. These results indicated that polysaccharide-based edible coatings were helpful in postharvest quality maintenance of strawberry fruit.

  14. Oral Presentations in Higher Education: A Comparison of the Impact of Peer and Teacher Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Zamorano, Luis R.; Montanero, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    In this paper the authors analyse the competency of a sample of economics and business students in orally presenting academic content, as well as the changes that occurred after receiving feedback. The students' presentations were videotaped, and a total of 96 were analysed at three stages: pre-test, post-test and follow-up. The participants were…

  15. Towards a set of design principles for developing oral presentation competence: A synthesis of research in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van S.O.; Gulikers, J.T.M.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Mulder, M.

    2015-01-01

    Developing oral presentation competence is an essential objective in higher education. However, a comprehensive picture of effective learning environment characteristics for encouraging oral presentation performance is lacking hitherto. This review identifies and classifies relevant studies with the

  16. Application of gamma irradiation for the enhanced physiological properties of polysaccharides from seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Soo Chun, Byeong; Hyun Ahn, Dong; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Kim, Duk-Jin; Kim, Gwang Hoon; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Polysaccharides from seaweeds, fucoidan and laminarin, were irradiated with gamma rays, and their structural changes and anti-oxidative activities were investigated. The gamma irradiation decreased the average molecular weights of polysaccharides, and UV spectra of irradiated polysaccharides showed increases in the numbers of carboxyl and carbonyl groups and double bonds. DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power of the gamma irradiated polysaccharides were significantly higher than those non-irradiated.

  17. Influence of Polysaccharides from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller, Liliaceae on Mechanically Induced Cough in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šutovská

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Different plants have been reported to be a source of polysaccharides that possess a great variety of biological activities, including cough suppression. The experiments were aimed on the influence of two polysaccharides isolated from the gel (A, HF1-Z and one from the epidermis (SL-1 of Aloe vera leaves, characterized by chemical composition and structural properties, on the cough reflex. The method of mechanically induced cough was used in conscious cats. A nylon fibre directed individually into the mucous area of the laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial airways via endotracheal cannula elicited the cough reflex. Statistical evaluation registered cough reflex indicators (number of cough efforts - NE, cough frequency - NE min–1 intensity of cough attacks during expiration and inspiration - IA+ and IA-, intensity of maximal inspiratory and expiratory cough efforts - IME- and IME+ showed that gel polysaccharide HF1-Z possessed higher cough-suppressing activity than dropropizine, a nonnarcotic peripheral cough suppressant. Their antitussive activity was accompanied mainly with a decrease of NE, IA+ and IA- from both laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial mucous areas of the airways. Results of the presented study also showed minimal influence of polysaccharide HF1-Z on expectoration predictor, IME- and IME+. New pharmacodynamic property of polysaccharides isolated from Aloe vera was shown during experiments, which could be a base of their possible therapeutic use in this indication in future.

  18. In vitro antioxidant properties of sulfated polysaccharide from brown marine algae Sargassum tenerrimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijayabaskar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study the physico chemical characteristics, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, reducing power and the free radical scavenging potentials (DPPH radical, ABTS, H2O2 radical of sulfated polysaccharide from marine brown algae Sargassum tenerrimum was investigated. Methods: The Sargassum tenerrimum seaweed, which have wide pharmaceutical application, were collected from the coastal region of Mandapam (Lat 09 ° 17 ’N, Long 79 ° 07 ’E, Tamil Nadu, India and evaluated for In vitro antioxidant properties. Results: The extract showed higher percentage of carbohydrate (8.20暲1.23% followed by sulphate (6.6暲1.42% and protein (0.86暲0.42%. The free radical scavenging potential was found to be higher in ABTS (70.33暲 2.33% followed by DPPH (64.66暲2.08% and H2O2 (61.56暲2.05%. the TAC was found to be 62.55暲 1.40%. The characterization of sulfated polysaccharide by FT-IR spectrum showed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulfate groups. The structure of mobility was assed by agarose gel electrophoresis which showed highest mobility at higher pH values especially in buffer carbonate -bicarbonate (pH 10. The molecular weight of the sulfated polysaccharide was determined by gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which was found to be 40 kDa. Finally, GCMS analysis of sulfated polysaccharide from S. tenerrimum exhibited peaks corresponding to Benzenamine (31.67% and Aminocarb (21.45%. The overall results have established that the sulfated polysaccharide from S. tenerrimum could be used as a promising antioxidant agent. Conclusion: Physico-chemical analysis and elemental analysis of crude seaweed polysaccharide from Sargassum tenerrimum a brown algae elicited the antioxidant activity

  19. Elderly women with metabolic syndrome present higher cardiovascular risk and lower relative muscle strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Darlan Lopes; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Teixeira, Tatiane Gomes; Vieira, Denis César Leite; Tarja, Vitor; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz [Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Coura, Maritza Alves de Sousa; Valduga, Renato [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira [Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Prestes, Jonato [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To compare the metabolic, anthropometric, arterial blood pressure, and muscle strength parameters of elderly women with and without metabolic syndrome. A case-control study with 27 (67.3±4.8 years of age, 31.0±5.0kg/m{sup 2}) elderly women with metabolic syndrome and 33 (68.8±5.6 years of age, 27.2±5.3kg/m{sup 2}) sedentary control elderly women. They were submitted to an evaluation of body composition by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle strength testing with 10 maximal repetitions of knee extension. When compared to the elderly women without metabolic syndrome, those with the metabolic syndrome had higher levels for body mass (72.2±13.5 versus 63.4±14.6kg, p=0.03), body mass index (31.0±5.0 versus 27.2±5.3kg/m{sup 2,} p=0.007), fat mass (30.9±9.9 versus 24.4±8.5kg, p=0.01), systolic arterial pressure (125.1±8.2 versus 119.3±8.7mmHg, p=0.01), diastolic arterial pressure (75.5±6.9 versus 71.4±6.7mmHg, p=0.03), mean arterial pressure (92.5±6.2 versus 87.1±6.7mmHg, p=0.004), blood glucose (103.8±19.1 versus 91.1±5.9mg/dL, p=0.001), triglycerides (187.1±70.2 versus 116.3±36.7mg/dL, p=0.001), and creatine kinase (122.6±58.6 versus 89.8±32.5U/L, p=0.01); lower levels were found for fat-free mass (55.9±5.8 versus 59.3±6.7%; p=0.05), HDL-C (40.7±5.0 versus 50.5±10.1mg/dL, p=0.001), and relative muscle strength (0.53±0.14 versus 0.62±0.12, p=0.01). Elderly women with metabolic syndrome have a higher cardiovascular risk and less relative muscle strength when compared to those without metabolic syndrome. Relative muscle strength may be related to the cardiovascularr risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  20. Elderly women with metabolic syndrome present higher cardiovascular risk and lower relative muscle strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Darlan Lopes; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Teixeira, Tatiane Gomes; Vieira, Denis César Leite; Tarja, Vitor; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira; Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Coura, Maritza Alves de Sousa; Valduga, Renato; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Prestes, Jonato

    2013-01-01

    To compare the metabolic, anthropometric, arterial blood pressure, and muscle strength parameters of elderly women with and without metabolic syndrome. A case-control study with 27 (67.3±4.8 years of age, 31.0±5.0kg/m"2) elderly women with metabolic syndrome and 33 (68.8±5.6 years of age, 27.2±5.3kg/m"2) sedentary control elderly women. They were submitted to an evaluation of body composition by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle strength testing with 10 maximal repetitions of knee extension. When compared to the elderly women without metabolic syndrome, those with the metabolic syndrome had higher levels for body mass (72.2±13.5 versus 63.4±14.6kg, p=0.03), body mass index (31.0±5.0 versus 27.2±5.3kg/m"2", p=0.007), fat mass (30.9±9.9 versus 24.4±8.5kg, p=0.01), systolic arterial pressure (125.1±8.2 versus 119.3±8.7mmHg, p=0.01), diastolic arterial pressure (75.5±6.9 versus 71.4±6.7mmHg, p=0.03), mean arterial pressure (92.5±6.2 versus 87.1±6.7mmHg, p=0.004), blood glucose (103.8±19.1 versus 91.1±5.9mg/dL, p=0.001), triglycerides (187.1±70.2 versus 116.3±36.7mg/dL, p=0.001), and creatine kinase (122.6±58.6 versus 89.8±32.5U/L, p=0.01); lower levels were found for fat-free mass (55.9±5.8 versus 59.3±6.7%; p=0.05), HDL-C (40.7±5.0 versus 50.5±10.1mg/dL, p=0.001), and relative muscle strength (0.53±0.14 versus 0.62±0.12, p=0.01). Elderly women with metabolic syndrome have a higher cardiovascular risk and less relative muscle strength when compared to those without metabolic syndrome. Relative muscle strength may be related to the cardiovascularr risk factors of the metabolic syndrome

  1. Polysaccharides and their depolymerized fragments from Costaria costata: Molecular weight and sulfation-dependent anticoagulant and FGF/FGFR signal activating activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ningning; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Yingjie; Sun, Zhongmin; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Quanbin

    2017-12-01

    Crude polysaccharides from Costaria costata were extracted by hot water and further fractionated by anion exchange chromatography into three polysaccharide fractions. Three low molecular weight fragments were then prepared by degradation of the polysaccharides with hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid. The structural features of the polysaccharides and their low molecular weight fragments were elucidated for the first time based on the HGPC, FT-IR, NMR, MS, monosaccharide composition, and other chemical analyses. Their anticoagulant and FGF-1, -2, -7, -8, -9, -10/FGFR1c signaling activation activities in BaF3 cells were also examined. Our studies showed that the polysaccharides were sulfated at different positions of galactose and fucose residues. The APTT-, PT- and TT-based anticoagulant assay results indicated that a high molecular weight and a higher degree of sulfation were essential for their anticoagulant activities. In contrast, not only the polysaccharides but also the depolymerized fragments showed significant FGF/FGFR signal activating activities in a FGF-, molecular weight-, and sulfation-dependent manner. The results presented in current study demonstrated the potential use of the polysaccharides and their fragments as anticoagulants and FGF signal regulators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The presented materials consist of presentations of international workshop which held in Warsaw from 4 to 5 October 2007. Main subject of the meeting was progress in manufacturing as well as research program development for neutron detector which is planned to be placed at GANIL laboratory and will be used in nuclear spectroscopy research

  3. Modulation of Porphyridium aerugineum polysaccharide rheology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A stock (0.5% w/v) aqueous solution of the polysaccharide of the microalga Porphyridium aerugineum was further diluted using (i) deionized water and (ii) an aqueous (0.2% w/v) solution of a new, garden soil extract. The viscosity of the resultant solution was higher by about 23% (5 samples) where the soil extract was used ...

  4. Structure of polysaccharide antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matutano, L.

    1966-01-01

    Study of the structure of antibiotics having two or several sugars in their molecule. One may distinguish: the polysaccharide antibiotics themselves, made up of two or several sugars either with or without nitrogen, such as streptomycin, neomycins, paromomycine, kanamycin, chalcomycin; the hetero-polysaccharide antibiotics made up of one saccharide part linked to an aglycone of various type through a glucoside: macrolide, pigment, pyrimidine purine. Amongst these latter are: erythromycin, magnamycin, spiramycin, oleandomycin, cinerubin and amicetin. The sugars can either play a direct role in biochemical reactions or act as a dissolving agent, as far as the anti-microbe power of these antibiotics is concerned. (author) [fr

  5. Self-presentation in Online Professional Networks: Men's Higher and Women's Lower Facial Prominence in Self-created Profile Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Sczesny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Men are presented with higher facial prominence than women in the media, a phenomenon that is called face-ism. In naturalistic settings, face-ism effects could be driven by gender biases of photographers and/or by gender differences in self-presentation. The present research is the first to investigate whether women and men themselves create this different facial prominence. In a controlled laboratory study, 61 participants prepared a picture of themselves from a half-body photograph, allegedly to be uploaded to their profile for an online professional network. As expected, men cropped their photos with higher facial prominence than women did. However, women and men did not differ in the self-presentational motivations, goals, strategies, and personality variables under investigation, so that the observed face-ism effect could not be explained with these variables. Generally, the higher participants' physical appearance self-esteem, the higher was their self-created facial prominence.

  6. Self-presentation in Online Professional Networks: Men's Higher and Women's Lower Facial Prominence in Self-created Profile Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny, Sabine; Kaufmann, Michèle C.

    2018-01-01

    Men are presented with higher facial prominence than women in the media, a phenomenon that is called face-ism. In naturalistic settings, face-ism effects could be driven by gender biases of photographers and/or by gender differences in self-presentation. The present research is the first to investigate whether women and men themselves create this different facial prominence. In a controlled laboratory study, 61 participants prepared a picture of themselves from a half-body photograph, allegedly to be uploaded to their profile for an online professional network. As expected, men cropped their photos with higher facial prominence than women did. However, women and men did not differ in the self-presentational motivations, goals, strategies, and personality variables under investigation, so that the observed face-ism effect could not be explained with these variables. Generally, the higher participants' physical appearance self-esteem, the higher was their self-created facial prominence. PMID:29387029

  7. Self-presentation in Online Professional Networks: Men's Higher and Women's Lower Facial Prominence in Self-created Profile Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny, Sabine; Kaufmann, Michèle C

    2017-01-01

    Men are presented with higher facial prominence than women in the media, a phenomenon that is called face-ism . In naturalistic settings, face-ism effects could be driven by gender biases of photographers and/or by gender differences in self-presentation. The present research is the first to investigate whether women and men themselves create this different facial prominence. In a controlled laboratory study, 61 participants prepared a picture of themselves from a half-body photograph, allegedly to be uploaded to their profile for an online professional network. As expected, men cropped their photos with higher facial prominence than women did. However, women and men did not differ in the self-presentational motivations, goals, strategies, and personality variables under investigation, so that the observed face-ism effect could not be explained with these variables. Generally, the higher participants' physical appearance self-esteem, the higher was their self-created facial prominence.

  8. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The PARIS meeting held in Cracow, Poland from 14 to 15 May 2007. The main subjects discussed during this meeting were the status of international project dedicated to gamma spectroscopy research. The scientific research program includes investigations of giant dipole resonance, probe of hot nuclei induced in heavy reactions, Jacobi shape transitions, isospin mixing and nuclear multifragmentation. The mentioned programme needs Rand D development such as new scintillations materials as lanthanum chlorides and bromides as well as new photo detection sensors as avalanche photodiodes - such subjects are also subjects of discussion. Additionally results of computerized simulations of scintillation detectors properties by means of GEANT- 4 code are presented

  9. The antitussive activity of polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis l., var. Robusta, Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules, and Prunus persica L., Batsch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutovska, M; Nosalova, G; Franova, S; Kardosova, A

    2007-01-01

    The therapy of pathological type of cough presents serious medical problem. The aim of experiments was to investigate polysaccacharide influence on experimentally induced cough. The purified and/or modified polysaccharides from the flowers and plants, characterized by chemical composition and molecular properties were subjected to tests for antitussive activity on cough, induced mechanically in conscious cats of both sexes. The results revealed that the tested polysaccharides exhibited statistically significant cough-suppressing activity, which was noticeably higher than that of the non-narcotic drug used in clinical practice to treat coughing. The most expressive antitussive activity was observed with the polysaccharide from marsh mallow, containing the highest proportion of the uronic acid constituent. Negative influence of the tested compounds on expectoration was negligible when compared to that of codeine. Antitussive activity of various plant polysaccharides was confirmed. These results allow ranging them among prospective antitussive agents (Tab. 2, Fig. 6, Ref. 15) Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  10. Modified polysaccharides as alternative binders for foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kaczmarska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides constitute a wide group of important polymers with many commercial applications, for example food packaging, fibres, coatings, adhesives etc. This review is devoted to the presentation of polysaccharide application in foundry industry. In this paper the selected properties of foundry moulding sand and core sand containing modified polysaccharides as binders are presented according to foreign literature data. Also, author’s own research about effect of using moulding sand binder consisting of modified polysaccharide (modified starch or its composition with non-toxic synthetic polymers are discussed. Based on technologies taken under consideration in this paper, it could be concluded that polysaccharides are suitable as an alternative for use as binder in foundry moulding applications.

  11. Identification of interstellar polysaccharides and related hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, F.; Olavesen, A.H.; Wickramasinghe, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the infrared transmittance spectra of several polysaccharides that may be of interest as possible interstellar candidates. It is stated that a 2.5 to 15 μm spectrum computed from the author's measurements is remarkably close to that required to explain a wide range of astronomical data, except for two points. First the required relative opacity at the 3 μm absorption dip is a factor of about 1.5 lower than was found in laboratory measurements; this difference may arise from the presence of water in terrestrial polysaccharide samples. Secondly, in the 9.5 to 12 μm waveband an additional source of opacity appears to be necessary. Close agreement between the spectrum of this additional opacity and the absorption spectrum of propene, C 3 H 6 , points strongly to the presence of hydrocarbons of this type, which may be associated with polysaccharide grains in interstellar space. (U.K.)

  12. PVA/Polysaccharides Blended Films: Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio E. F. Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blends of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and angico gum (AG and/or cashew gum (CG were used to produce films by casting method. Morphological and mechanical properties of these films were studied and compared to the properties of a commercial collagen membrane of bovine origin (MBO. The films presented thickness varying from 70 to 140 μm (PVA/AG and 140 to 200 μm (PVA/CG. Macroscopic analysis showed that a PVA/CG film was very similar to MBO regarding the color and transparency. The higher values of tensile strength (TS and elastic modulus (EM were observed in the film. On the other hand, PVA/CG and PVA/CG-AG presented the highest value of percentage of elongation (E%. Pearson’s Correlation Analysis revealed a positive correlation between TS and EM and a negative correlation between E% and EM. The PVA/CG film presented mechanical properties very similar to MBO, with the advantage of a higher E% (11.96 than MBO (2.94. The properties of the PVA blended films depended on the polysaccharide added in the blend, as well as the acid used as a catalyst. However, all produced films presented interesting mechanical characteristics which enables several biotechnological applications.

  13. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and

  14. Polysaccharide components from the scape of Musa paradisiaca: main structural features of water-soluble polysaccharide component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaneyalu, Y V; Jagadish, R L; Raju, T S

    1997-06-01

    Polysaccharide components present in the pseudo-stem (scape) of M. paradisiaca were purified from acetone powder of the scape by delignification followed by extraction with aqueous solvents into water soluble polysaccharide (WSP), EDTA-soluble polysaccharide (EDTA-SP), alkali-soluble polysaccharide (ASP) and alkali-insoluble polysaccharide (AISP) fractions. Sugar compositional analysis showed that WSP and EDTA-SP contained only D-Glc whereas ASP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 1:1:10 ratio, respectively, and AISP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 10:1:2 ratio, respectively. WSP was further purified by complexation with iso-amylalcohol and characterized by specific rotation, IR spectroscopy, Iodine affinity, ferricyanide number, blue value, hydrolysis with alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, and methylation linkage analysis, and shown to be a amylopectin type alpha-D-glucan.

  15. Perspectives on the Present State and Future of Higher Education Faculty Development in Kazakhstan: Implications for National Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitova, Dinara

    2016-01-01

    The article aims at examining the present state of higher education faculty development in Kazakhstan in the context of multidimensional nationwide development reforms and exploring implications for the National Human Resource Development of the country. For the purpose of this research, theoretical human resource development (HRD) and…

  16. Characterization of active polysaccharides of HemoHIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang Sun; Shin, Myeong Suk; Bae, Beom Seon; Hwang, Yong Cheol [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kwang Won [Chungju University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    In this study, we aimed to elucidate the detailed structure and active moiety of polysaccharide, one of the active constituents of immune and hematopoietic modulating activities of HemoHIM. We first isolated the polysaccharide fractions from the hot water extracts of the each ingredient herbs (A. gigas, P. janonica, C. officinale) of HemoHIM and their mixture. These polysaccharides were composed of neutral (85.32-92.73%) and acidic (4.25-7.88%) saccharides, proteins (0.16-4.02%), and polyphenols (2.09-5.37%). The hydrolytic analysis of polysaccharide fractions showed that they commonly showed higher arabinose, galactose, and galacturonic acid contents. These result suggested that these polysaccharides may have higher contents of rhamnogalacturonan among pectic substances and the main active moiety is composed of polysaccharides. The anion exchange chromatography of HemoHIM and each ingredient herb extract using DEAE-Sepharose FF (Cl- form) column resulted in 1 non-adsorption and 8 adsorption fractions. The analysis of immune activity (lymphocyte proliferation) on these fractions showed that the fractions obtained by higher salt concentration carried the higher activity, but all fractions showed considerable immune activity

  17. Characterization of active polysaccharides of HemoHIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Kwang Sun; Shin, Myeong Suk; Bae, Beom Seon; Hwang, Yong Cheol; Ryu, Kwang Won

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to elucidate the detailed structure and active moiety of polysaccharide, one of the active constituents of immune and hematopoietic modulating activities of HemoHIM. We first isolated the polysaccharide fractions from the hot water extracts of the each ingredient herbs (A. gigas, P. janonica, C. officinale) of HemoHIM and their mixture. These polysaccharides were composed of neutral (85.32-92.73%) and acidic (4.25-7.88%) saccharides, proteins (0.16-4.02%), and polyphenols (2.09-5.37%). The hydrolytic analysis of polysaccharide fractions showed that they commonly showed higher arabinose, galactose, and galacturonic acid contents. These result suggested that these polysaccharides may have higher contents of rhamnogalacturonan among pectic substances and the main active moiety is composed of polysaccharides. The anion exchange chromatography of HemoHIM and each ingredient herb extract using DEAE-Sepharose FF (Cl- form) column resulted in 1 non-adsorption and 8 adsorption fractions. The analysis of immune activity (lymphocyte proliferation) on these fractions showed that the fractions obtained by higher salt concentration carried the higher activity, but all fractions showed considerable immune activity

  18. Non-cellulosic polysaccharides from cotton fibre are differently impacted by textile processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan; Willats, William George Tycho

    2014-01-01

    -cellulosic cotton fibre polysaccharides during different steps of cotton textile processing using GC-MS, HPLC and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling to obtain monosaccharide and polysaccharide amounts and linkage compositions. Additionally, in situ detection was used to obtain information on polysaccharide......Cotton fibre is mainly composed of cellulose, although non-cellulosic polysaccharides play key roles during fibre development and are still present in the harvested fibre. This study aimed at determining the fate of non-cellulosic polysaccharides during cotton textile processing. We analyzed non...... localization and accessibility. We show that pectic and hemicellulosic polysaccharide levels decrease during cotton textile processing and that some processing steps have more impact than others. Pectins and arabinose-containing polysaccharides are strongly impacted by the chemical treatments, with most being...

  19. Chemical Structures and Bioactivities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Stephen Ewart

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans (e.g., agarans and carrageenans, ulvans, and fucans. It will then review the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application.

  20. Electrospinning of Xanthan Polysaccharide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Faralli, Adele; Ndoni, Sokol

    2017-01-01

    .5 to 2.5 wt/vol%). The correlation between the concentration and the rheological properties of xanthan solutions, with the morphology of the nanofibers is investigated. At the polysaccharide concentrations where nanofiber formation is observed, an increase of the elastic modulus and first normal stress...... differences is observed. The typical “weak gel-like” and thixotropic properties known for aqueous xanthan solutions, are not observed for the xanthan solutions in formic acid. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic and circular dichroism studies verify that an esterification reaction takes place, where...

  1. [Quantitive variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in F1 generation of Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Jing-Jing; Wu, Ling-Shang; Si, Jin-Ping; Guo, Ying-Ying; Yu, Jie; Wang, Lin-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Using phenol-sulfuric acid method and hot-dip method of alcohol-soluble extracts, the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in 11 F1 generations of Dendrobium officinale were determined. The results showed that the polysaccharides contents in samples collected in May and February were 32.89%-43.07% and 25.77%-35.25%, respectively, while the extracts contents were 2.81%-4.85% and 7.90%-17.40%, respectively. They were significantly different among families. The content of polysaccharides in offspring could be significantly improved by hybridization between parents with low and high polysaccharides contents, and the hybrid vigor was obvious. Cross breeding was an effective way for breeding new varieties with higher polysaccharides contents. Harvest time would significantly affect the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts. The contents of polysaccharides in families collected in May were higher than those of polysaccharides in families collected in February, but the extracts content had the opposite variation. The extents of quantitative variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts were different among families, and each family had its own rules. It would be significant in giving full play to their role as the excellent varieties and increasing effectiveness by studying on the quantitative accumulation regularity of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in superior families (varieties) of D. officinale to determine the best harvesting time.

  2. Anti-radiation effect of hericium erinaceus polysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuchen; Zhang Huijuan; Luo Chuanhuan; Wang Bingji

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-radiation effect of hericium erinaceus polysaccharide on irradiated mice. Methods: 520 female mice were randomized to several groups and exposed to 6.25-8.5 Gy whole-body γ-rays. The hericium erinaceus polysaccharide was injected i.p before or after irradiation. The 30-day survival rate of mice was determined, and DNA content of bone marrow was observed as well at seventh day after irradiation. Results: It was showed that the 30-day survival rate and DNA content of bone marrow were all significantly higher in 30 mg or 15 mg hericium erinaceus polysaccharide-treated groups than those in the corresponding irradiated controls (P < 0.01). The 30-day survival rate increased from 35% to 97.5%. Conclusion: The hericium erinaceus polysaccharide has marked anti-radiation effect. Further investigation is worthwhile

  3. Why Were Polysaccharides Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoguzov, Vladimir

    2004-12-01

    The main idea of this paper is that the primordial soup may be modelled by food systems whose structure-property relationship is based on non-specific interactions between denatured biopolymers. According to the proposed hypothesis, polysaccharides were the first biopolymers that decreased concentration of salts in the primordial soup, `compatibilised' and drove the joint evolution of proto-biopolymers. Synthesis of macromolecules within the polysaccharide-rich medium could have resulted in phase separation of the primordial soup and concentration of the polypeptides and nucleic acids in the dispersed phase particles. The concentration of proto-biopolymer mixtures favoured their cross-linking in hybrid supermacromolecules of conjugates. The cross-linking of proto-biopolymers could occur by hydrophobic, electrostatic interactions, H-bonds due to freezing aqueous mixed biopolymer dispersions and/or by covalent bonds due to the Maillard reaction. Cross-linking could have increased the local concentration of chemically different proto-biopolymers, fixed their relative positions and made their interactions reproducible. Attractive-repulsive interactions between cross-linked proto-biopolymer chains could develop pairing of the monomer units, improved chemical stability (against hydrolysis) and led to their mutual catalytic activity and coding. Conjugates could probably evolve to the first self-reproduced entities and then to specialized cellular organelles. Phase separation of the primordial soup with concentration of conjugates in the dispersed particles has probably resulted in proto-cells.

  4. Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXII. Hypoglycemic activity and chemical properties of a polysaccharide from the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiho, T; Hui, J; Yamane, A; Ukai, S

    1993-12-01

    Crude polysaccharides were obtained from a hot-water extract and alkaline extracts of the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis. They showed significant activity in normal mice and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice as a result of intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. A crude polysaccharide (CS-OHEP) obtained from 5% sodium hydroxide extract slightly lowered the plasma glucose level in normal mice by oral (p.o.) administration. A neutral polysaccharide (CS-F30) exhibited higher hypoglycemic activity than its crude polysaccharide (CS-OHEP), exhibited by i.p. injection, and it significantly lowered the glucose level by p.o. administration (50 mg/kg). However, it hardly affected the plasma insulin level in normal mice. CS-F30 ([alpha]D + 21 degrees in water) is composed of galactose, glucose and mannose (molar percent, 62:28:10), and its molecular weight is about 45000.

  5. Partial characterization, antioxidant and antitumor activities of polysaccharides from Philomycusbilineatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rongjun; Ye, Jiaming; Zhao, Yuejun; Su, Weike

    2014-04-01

    Four polysaccharides (PBP60-A, PBP60-B, PBP60-C and PBP60-D) were purified from slug (Philomycusbilineatus) by ion-exchange chromatography. The antioxidant activities were studied by ABTS, DPPH, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical and reducing power assay. In vitro antitumor activities were evaluated by MTT assay. Results demonstrated that PBP60-A was mainly composed of Man, Rha, Glc, Gal, Xyl and Fuc in a mole ratio of 6.13:3.08:8.97:5.22:2.46:1.13. PBP60-B was composed of Man, GlcN, Rha, GalN, GlcU, Glc, Gal, Xyl and Fuc in a mole ratio of 0.90:0.31:1.15:0.37:0.24:1.02:3.84:0.93:1.99. PBP60-C and PBP60-D were composed of Man, GlcN, Rha, GalN, GlcU, Glc, Gal, Xyl, Fuc and an unknown monosaccharide. Antioxidant tests indicated that four polysaccharides exhibited significant antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent manner. PBP60-D presented relative stronger antioxidant activity. PBP60-C showed higher antitumor activity against A549 and MCF-7 cells in vitro. At concentration of500 μg/mL, the antitumor activities of PBP60-C on theA549 and MCF-7 cells were 65.30% and 42.45%, respectively. These results indicated that polysaccharides from Philomycusbilineatus could be explored as potential natural antioxidants and cancer prevention agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of the aqueous extract and polysaccharide fraction from brown marine macroalgae Padina sp. from Gulf of Mannar of Peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nammunayathuputhenkotta Krishnankartha Praveen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of the aqueous extract and polysaccharide fraction from two brown marine macroalga, Padina gymnospora (P. gymnospora and Padina tetrastomatica (P. tetrastomatica harvested from Gulf of Mannar of peninsular India. Methods: The antioxidant activity was evaluated using different in vitro systems, viz., 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2, 2′-azino-bis-3ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS, H2O2/ HO. radical scavenging, Fe2+ ion chelating ability, and reducing potential. Folin–Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content, and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents (GE. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance formation inhibition assay was employed to assess the ability of the samples to inhibit lipid oxidation in a model system. COXII and LOXV inhibition assays were employed to assess the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous extract and polysaccharide fraction. Results: The aqueous extract fraction of P. tetrastomatica realized high total phenolic content (288 mg GE/g, and its activity towards scavenging short-lived radicals (OH. and H2O2 (27.8% and 68.3%, respectively; 0.6 mg/mL are higher than those registered for Padina gymnospora. Aqueous extract and polysaccharide fractions of P. gymnospora showed higher anti-inflammatory activities against LOXV (56% and 53%, respectively and COXII (30% and 35%, respectively; 1 mg/mL enzymes. The correlation studies confirmed that polysaccharides present with the Padina sp. are responsible for their anti-inflammatory potential. IR spectral data of polysaccharide fraction revealed the presence of polysaccharide in alginate form and also confirmed the presence of sulphated polysaccharides as principle bioactive constituents. Conclusions: The study revealed that these seaweeds possess beneficial value as human food or health additives and can be used as a natural green

  7. Protective effect of plant polysaccharides against radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bingji; Huang Shafei; Cheng Lurong

    1989-01-01

    A series of polysaccharides have been isolated from Chinese traditional medicinal herbs and tested in mice subjected to ionizing radiation for their protective action. The polysaccharides from different origins showed various degrees of radioprotection. Those isolated from Hericium erinaceus and Armillaria mellea showed a higher radioprotective effect than some other polysaccharides. They could increase the survival rate of irradiated mice to 60%. But the polysaccheride separated from Apocynum venetum has negligible effect. In general, most of these polysaccharides are effective only on administration before irradiation. No apparent protection was observed when given post irradiation. The polysaccharide isolated from Armillaria venetum could raise the survival rate of mice irradiated by lethal dose of γ-rays to 58%. It is effective even when administered after irradiation. Some work has been carried out to clarify the mechanism of radioprotective action of polysaccharides. Protection of hemapoietic organs, regulation of immunological system, induction of release of some endogeneous bioactive substances in the organism and reduction of oxygen tension in some vital tissues may be correlated with the protection of organism against radiation injury

  8. Homogenate extraction of crude polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes and evaluation of the antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leqin KE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Crude polysaccharides of Lentinus edodes were extracted using homogenate method. Factors affecting the yield of crude polysaccharides were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology. The homogenate extraction method was compared with traditional heating extraction method. The antioxidant activity of crude polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes was evaluated. Results showed that, the optimal conditions of homogenate extraction were as follows: solvent pH, 10; liquid-solid ratio, 30: 1 (mL: g, extraction time, 66 s; number of extraction, 1. Under these conditions, the yield of crude polysaccharides was (13.2 ± 0.9%, which was 29.82% higher than that of traditional heating extraction. Crude polysaccharides of Lentinus edodes had good DPPH scavenging activity. Compared with the traditional heating extraction, the homogenate extraction had notable advantages including good extraction yield, short extraction time and low extraction temperature. It is an efficient way to extract crude polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes.

  9. Immunoregulatory activities of polysaccharides from mung bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yingying; Ren, Guixing

    2016-03-30

    Ultrasonic treatment was performed on water-extractable polysaccharides from the seed of mung beans. Purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography, MWP-1' and MWP-2' were obtained. Average molecular weights (Mws) of MWP-1' and MWP-2' were 68.4 kDa, and 52.4 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharides components analysis indicated that MWP-1' was composed of Rha, Ara, Man and Gal in a molar percent of 0.4:2.6:5.3:0.7. MWP-2' was composed of Ara, Man, Gal and Glc in a molar percent of 0.5:1.4:2.1:0.4. In vitro study showed that both polysaccharides samples were able to stimulate the production of secretory molecules (NO, TNF-α and IL-6) of RAW264.7 murine macrophages in a dosage dependent manner. MWP-2' seemed to be the most potent and induced significantly higher the NO production. These findings suggest that the ultrasonic treatment polysaccharides isolated in our study have immune potentiation effects on macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Marine Polysaccharides: A Source of Bioactive Molecules for Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Fischer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic potential of natural bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, especially glycosaminoglycans, is now well documented, and this activity combined with natural biodiversity will allow the development of a new generation of therapeutics. Advances in our understanding of the biosynthesis, structure and function of complex glycans from mammalian origin have shown the crucial role of this class of molecules to modulate disease processes and the importance of a deeper knowledge of structure-activity relationships. Marine environment offers a tremendous biodiversity and original polysaccharides have been discovered presenting a great chemical diversity that is largely species specific. The study of the biological properties of the polysaccharides from marine eukaryotes and marine prokaryotes revealed that the polysaccharides from the marine environment could provide a valid alternative to traditional polysaccharides such as glycosaminoglycans. Marine polysaccharides present a real potential for natural product drug discovery and for the delivery of new marine derived products for therapeutic applications.

  11. Biological activities of the sulfated polysaccharide from the vascular plant Halodule wrightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M. C. Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A sulfated polysaccharide (SPSG was successfully isolated from seagrass Halodule wrightii Asch., Cymodoceaceae, and its antioxidant and anticoagulant activities were investigated. The data presented here showed that the SPSG is a 11 kDa sulfated heterogalactan with a sulfatation degree of 20.63% and it also contains glucose and xylose. SPSG antioxidant activities were evaluated using several in vitro assays and the anticoagulant activity was evaluated by aPTT and PT tests. These assays suggested that the SPSG possessed remarkable antioxidant properties in different in vitro assays and an outstanding anticoagulant activity 2.5-fold higher than that of heparin Clexane® in the aPTT test. This data represents the first reported on the sulfated polysaccharide biological activities from seagrass. These results indicate that SPSG can be considered in the future as a drug utilized in treating diseases from these systems.

  12. Immunomodulatory effects of hydroxyethylated Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide on macrophages RAW264.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhe; Qin, Tao; Qiu, Fuan; Song, Yulong; Lin, Dandan; Ma, Yufang; Li, Jian; Huang, Yifan

    2017-12-01

    Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (HEP) has been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. In present study, HEP was successfully modified to obtain its hydroxyethylated derivative hHEP. Its potential immunomodulatory activities on RAW264.7 macrophages were investigated. Results showed that the hHEP were significantly stronger than that of the corresponding unmodified polysaccharide, HEP. Meanwhile, the NO, IL-6 and TNF-α production activities of macrophages were enhanced in the RAW264.7 macrophages by stimulation of hHEP. In addition, the hHEP increase significantly higher iNOS expression than HEP. These results indicated that the hydroxyethylated derivative hHEP could enhance the activation of peritoneal macrophages, and hydroxyethylation modification can enhance the immunomodulation function of HEP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono- and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from this organism. One such example is the identification of a full set of extracellular polysaccharide-acting genes for the degradation of oat spelt xylan. Conclusions The mapping of plant polysaccharide structures along with the corresponding enzymatic activities is a powerful framework for expression analysis of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applying this network-based approach, we provide the first genome-scale characterization of all genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes identified in A. niger. PMID:22799883

  14. Marine Derived Polysaccharides for Biomedical Applications: Chemical Modification Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Laurienzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide-based biomaterials are an emerging class in several biomedical fields such as tissue regeneration, particularly for cartilage, drug delivery devices and gelentrapment systems for the immobilization of cells. Important properties of the polysaccharides include controllable biological activity, biodegradability, and their ability to form hydrogels. Most of the polysaccharides used derive from natural sources; particularly, alginate and chitin, two polysaccharides which have an extensive history of use in medicine, pharmacy and basic sciences, and can be easily extracted from marine plants (algae kelp and crab shells, respectively. The recent rediscovery of poly-saccharidebased materials is also attributable to new synthetic routes for their chemical modification, with the aim of promoting new biological activities and/or to modify the final properties of the biomaterials for specific purposes. These synthetic strategies also involve the combination of polysaccharides with other polymers. A review of the more recent research in the field of chemical modification of alginate, chitin and its derivative chitosan is presented. Moreover, we report as case studies the results of our recent work concerning various different approaches and applications of polysaccharide-based biomaterials, such as the realization of novel composites based on calcium sulphate blended with alginate and with a chemically modified chitosan, the synthesis of novel alginate-poly(ethylene glycol copolymers and the development of a family of materials based on alginate and acrylic polymers of potential interest as drug delivery systems.

  15. Liposome-Based Delivery Systems in Plant Polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiwan, C.; Yitao, W.; Yanfang, Z.; Xinsheng, P.; Jingjing, H.; Ping, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Plant polysaccharides consist of many monosaccharide by α or β glycosidic bond which can be extracted by the water, alcohol, lipophile liquid from a variety of plants including Cordyceps sinensis, astragalus, and mushrooms. Recently, many evidences illustrate that natural plant polysaccharides possess various biological activities including strengthening immunity, lowering blood sugar, regulating lipid metabolism, anti oxidation, anti aging, and antitumour. Plant polysaccharides have been widely used in the medical field due to their special features and low toxicity. As an important drug delivery system, liposomes can not only encapsulate small-molecule compound but also big-molecule drug; therefore, they present great promise for the application of plant polysaccharides with unique physical and chemical properties and make remarkable successes. This paper summarized the current progress in plant polysaccharides liposomes, gave an overview on their experiment design method, preparation, and formulation, characterization and quality control, as well as in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover, the potential application of plant polysaccharides liposomes was prospected as well.

  16. Antioxidant properties of cell wall polysaccharides of Stevia rebaudiana leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mediesse Kengne Francine

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the total phenolic and protein contents, and the antioxidant activities of cell wall polysaccharide fractions of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Methods: Three different polysaccharide-enriched fractions, namely FPE (extract with 50 mmol/ L ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid, FPK (extract with 0.05 mol/L KOH and FH (extract with 4 mol/L KOH were extracted from Stevia rebaudiana leaves. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was evaluated based on their ability to scavenge DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical, to reduce ferric power, to chelate ferrous ion and to protect human DNA. Results: The results indicated that protein content was found to be higher in FPK polysaccharide enriched fraction (47.48 µg per mg of FPK. Furthermore, the phenolic compound analysis according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method was higher in FPK (17.71 µg ferulic acid. The DPPH maximal inhibition percentage of the three polysaccharide-enriched fractions at 400 µg/mL was 27.66%, 59.90% and 23.21% respectively for FPE, FPK and FH. All the polysaccharide fractions exhibited a ferric reducing power except the FH one. The three fractions also exhibited lipid peroxidation inhibition, and they completely reverted the DNA damage induced by H2O2/FeCl2. FPK showed the strongest scavenging activity against the DPPH radical, the best chelating ability and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Conclusions: Stevia cell wall polysaccharide fractions are potent protective agents against oxidative stress. The analysis revealed major differences in the antioxidant activity in the three polysaccharides fractions. However, the 0.05 mol/L KOH pectin fraction (FPK showed better antioxidant activity.

  17. Computer simulation and experimental study of the polysaccharide-polysaccharide interaction in the bacteria Azospirillum brasilense Sp245

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefeva, Oksana A.; Kuznetsov, Pavel E.; Tolmachev, Sergey A.; Kupadze, Machammad S.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Rogacheva, Svetlana M.

    2003-09-01

    We have studied the conformational properties and molecular dynamics of polysaccharides by using molecular modeling methods. Theoretical and experimental results of polysaccharide-polysaccharide interactions are described.

  18. Arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides from buriti (Mauritia flexuosa): an Amazonian edible palm fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu-Jungles, Thaisa Moro; Almeida, Carolina Pierobom de; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales R; Cordeiro, Lucimara M C

    2015-05-20

    Primary cell wall polysaccharides from aqueous extract of buriti fruit pulp (Mauritia flexuosa, an exotic tropical palm) were isolated and characterized. After freeze-thaw and α-amylase treatments, extracted polysaccharides were purified by sequential ultrafiltration through membranes. Two homogeneous fractions were obtained, SBW-100R and SBW-30R (Mw of 126 kDa and 20 kDa, respectively). Monosaccharide composition, methylation and (13)C NMR analysis showed that fraction SBW-100R contained a (1 → 5)-linked arabinan, branched at O-3 and O-2 positions, linked to a type I rhamnogalacturonan. Low amounts of these polymers were also present in fraction SBW-30R according to (13)C NMR analysis and monosaccharide composition. However, a high methyl esterified homogalacturonan (HG) was present in higher proportions. These results reinforce previous findings present in literature data which indicate that pectic polysaccharides are found in high amounts in primary cell walls of palms, which are commelinid monocotyledons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards Quality Higher Education in the Arab World: Challenges of the Present and Aspirations of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Mohammad Amin

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an objective evaluation and transformation of Higher Education in the Arab World with a focus on its contribution to knowledge and human development. It argues that despite the great expansion in the number of higher education institutions and the great increase in the number of students enrolled in them, the needs and…

  20. Biochemical And Genetic Modification Of Polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Roger G.; Petersen, Gene R.; Richards, Gil F.

    1993-01-01

    Bacteriophages producing endopolysaccharase-type enzymes used to produce, isolate, and purify high yields of modified polysaccharides from polysaccharides produced by, and incorporated into capsules of, certain bacteria. Bacteriophages used in conversion of native polysaccharide materials into polymers of nearly uniform high molecular weight or, alternatively, into highly pure oligosaccharides. Also used in genetic selection of families of polysaccharides structurally related to native polysaccharide materials, but having altered properties. Resulting new polysaccharides and oligosaccharides prove useful in variety of products, including pharmaceutical chemicals, coating materials, biologically active carbohydrates, and drag-reducing additives for fluids.

  1. Fractionation, physicochemical property and immunological activity of polysaccharides from Cassia obtusifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Yin, Junyi; Nie, Shaoping; Wan, Yiqun; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-10-01

    The seeds of Cassia obtusifolia are widely used as a drink in Asia and an additive in food industry. Considerable amounts of water-soluble polysaccharides were found in the whole seeds, while conflicting results on structure characteristics have been reported, and few studies have been reported on physicochemical properties and immunomodulatory activities. In the present study, gradient ethanol precipitation was applied to fractionate the water-soluble polysaccharide (CP), and two sub-fractions CP-30 (30% ethanol precipitate) and CP-40 (40% ethanol precipitate) were obtained. Different rheological properties for CP-30 and CP-40 were found, indicating the differences in structure characteristics between CP-30 and CP-40. Chemical properties, including molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, and glycosidic linkage were investigated. Compared with CP-30, CP-40 had lower molecular weight and higher content of xylose. The immunomodulatory effects of CP, CP-30 and CP-40 were assessed. All of them were found to possess significant immunomodulation activities, while varied effects of them on macrophage functions were observed. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple and efficient method to purify cassia polysaccharides, and investigate their physicochemical properties and biological activities, which was meaningful for their potential use in food industry and folk medicine. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Radiation processing of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    Radiation processing is a very convenient tool for imparting desirable effects in polymeric materials and it has been an area of enormous interest in the last few decades. The success of radiation technology for processing of synthetic polymers can be attributed to two reasons namely, their ease of processing in various shapes and sizes, and secondly, most of these polymers undergo crosslinking reaction upon exposure to radiation. In recent years, natural polymers are being looked at with renewed interest because of their unique characteristics, such as inherent biocompatibility, biodegradability and easy availability. Traditionally, the commercial exploitation of natural polymers like carrageenans, alginates or starch etc. has been based, to a large extent, on empirical knowledge. But now, the applications of natural polymers are being sought in knowledge - demanding areas such as pharmacy and biotechnology, which is acting as a locomotive for further scientific research in their structure-function relationship. Selected success stories concerning radiation processed natural polymers and application of their derivatives in the health care products industries and agriculture are reported. This publication will be of interest to individuals at nuclear institutions worldwide that have programmes of R and D and applications in radiation processing technologies. New developments in radiation processing of polymers and other natural raw materials give insight into converting them into useful products for every day life, human health and environmental remediation. The book will also be of interest to other field specialists, readers including managers and decision makers in industry (health care, food and agriculture) helping them to understand the important role of radiation processing technology in polysaccharides

  3. [Comparison on polysaccharide content and PMP-HPLC fingerprints of polysaccharide in stems and leaves of Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gui-Fen; Pang, Min-Xia; Chen, Su-Hong; Lv, Gui-Yuan; Yan, Mei-Qiu

    2014-03-01

    In order to provide scientific basics for exploitation and sufficient application of Dendrobium officinale leaves resources, the phenol-sulfuric acid method was applied to determine the polysaccharide content. The monosaccharides were derivated by PMP and the derivatives were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and the contents of mannose and glucose were determined simultaneously. Similarity evaluation system for chromatographic fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine (2004A) was employed to generate the mean chromatogram and similarity analysis of the samples was carried out. The results demonstrated that polysaccharide content, monosaccharide compositions and composition ratio had an obvious difference between stems and leaves. The polysaccharide content of stems was higher than that of leaves. Monosaccharide composition in leaf was significantly different from that in stem. The polysaccharide from stems was composed of mannose and glucose, however the polysaccharide of leaves was acid heteropolysaccharide and was mainly composed of five monosaccharides, including mannose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose. The similarity value of the 14 batches was above 0.9, indicating that similarity of fingerprints among different samples was high. The study can provide evidence for expanding the medicinal parts of D. officinale.

  4. Presentation of MSc in Higher Education Dissertation School Meeting : What are the key dimensions of the personal tutor role for nurse education today?,

    OpenAIRE

    Leddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Presentation of MSc in Higher Education Dissertation School Meeting : What are the key dimensions of the personal tutor role for nurse education today?, A literature review, Missenden Abbey, June 2009, presentation

  5. Development and evaluation of orodispersible tablets using a natural polysaccharide isolated from Cassia tora seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Pawar

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The present work revealed that C. tora seed polysaccharide has a good potential as a disintegrant in the formulation of orodispersible tablets. Because C. tora polysaccharide is inexpensive as compared to synthetic superdisintegrants, nontoxic, compatible, and easy to manufacture, it can be used in place of currently marketed superdisintegrants.

  6. Research and Development of Radiation Processing of Polysaccharide for Agricultural Sector in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lay, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    Myanmar is an agricultural-based country in which rice is the main staple food and present agricultural systems still follow the traditional methods that utilise the available natural resources combined with improved cultural practices. To fulfil the major needs for improving safety agricultural productivity in the country, and to apply radiation technology for useful products in agriculture, current research is based on radiation processing of polysaccharide for production of super water absorbents and plant growth promoter (liquid fertilizer) using Gamma Radiation. Corn starch, Brown seaweed and Rice straw cellulose were used as polysaccharide in this research work. Morphological structures of products super water absorbents from corn starch and rice straw cellulose were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Fourier Transfer Infrared (FTIR) was used to analyze the changes of chemical structure of the original polysaccharides and products (super water absorbents and plant growth promoter). The effect of radiation dose and monomer concentration on grafting efficiency, gel fraction, crosslink density, and swelling degree were studied for two types of super water absorbent. It was found that the grafting efficiency and gel fraction increased with increasing in radiation dose as well as the higher in crosslink density, which is directly proportional to increasing in radiation dose, led to decreasing in swelling degree. Decreasing molecular weights of the irradiated seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF) were generally found with increasing radiation doses. To study the water retention properties of super water absorbents and growth promotion effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF), field tests were done. This research showed that radiation technology is very useful not only for agriculture sector but also for environmental monitoring since the agricultural waste such as rice straw was used as polysaccharide in this research work. (author)

  7. Chemical studies on the polysaccharides of Salicornia brachiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanandiya, Naresh D; Siddhanta, A K

    2014-11-04

    A group of 12 polysaccharide extracts were prepared from the tips, stem and roots of an Indian halophyte Salicornia brachiata Roxb. obtained by sequential extractions with cold water (CW), hot water (HW), aqueous ammonium oxalate (OX) and aqueous sodium hydroxide (ALK) solutions. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that all the polysaccharide extract samples consisted primarily of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, glucose, whereas ribose and xylose were present only in some of the extracts. All the extracts exhibited low apparent viscosity (1.47-2.02 cP) and sulphate and contained no prominent toxic metal ions. Fucose was detected only in OX extract of the roots. These polysaccharides were found to be heterogeneous and highly branched (glycoside linkage analysis, size-exclusion chromatography, (13)C-NMR, FT-IR, circular dichroism and optical rotation data). Physico-chemical analyses of these polysaccharides including uronic acid, sulphate and protein contents were also carried out. This constitutes the first report on the profiling of Salicornia polysaccharides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Temperature modulates the cell wall mechanical properties of rice coleoptiles by altering the molecular mass of hemicellulosic polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukiko; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hoson, Takayuki

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the mechanism inducing the difference in the cell wall extensibility of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Koshihikari) coleoptiles grown under various temperature (10-50 degrees C) conditions. The growth rate and the cell wall extensibility of rice coleoptiles exhibited the maximum value at 30-40 degrees C, and became smaller as the growth temperature rose or dropped from this temperature range. The amounts of cell wall polysaccharides per unit length of coleoptile increased in coleoptiles grown at 40 degrees C, but not at other temperature conditions. On the other hand, the molecular size of hemicellulosic polysaccharides was small at temperatures where the cell wall extensibility was high (30-40 degrees C). The autolytic activities of cell walls obtained from coleoptiles grown at 30 and 40 degrees C were substantially higher than those grown at 10, 20 and 50 degrees C. Furthermore, the activities of (1-->3),(1-->4)-beta-glucanases extracted from coleoptile cell walls showed a similar tendency. When oat (1-->3),(1-->4)-beta-glucans with high molecular mass were incubated with the cell wall enzyme preparations from coleoptiles grown at various temperature conditions, the extensive molecular mass downshifts were brought about only by the cell wall enzymes obtained from coleoptiles grown at 30-40 degrees C. There were close correlations between the cell wall extensibility and the molecular mass of hemicellulosic polysaccharides or the activity of beta -glucanases. These results suggest that the environmental temperature regulates the cell wall extensibility of rice coleoptiles by modifying mainly the molecular mass of hemicellulosic polysaccharides. Modulation of the activity of beta-glucanases under various temperature conditions may be involved in the alteration of the molecular size of hemicellulosic polysaccharides.

  9. Polysaccharides in Human Health Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides are abundant natural polymers found in plants, animals and microorganisms with exceptional properties and essential roles to sustain life. They are well known for their high nutritive value and the positive effects on our immune and digestive functions and detoxification system. The

  10. Alu Sb2 subfamily is present in all higher primates but was most succesfully amplified in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richer, C.; Zietkiewicz, E.; Labuda, D. [Universite de Montreal, Que (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Alu repeats can be classified into subfamilies which amplified in primate genomes at different evolutionary time periods. A young Alu subfamily, Sb2, with a characteristic 7-nucleotide duplication at position 256, has been described in seven human loci. An Sb2 insertion found near the HD gene was unique to two HD families, indicating that Sb2 was still retropositionally active. Here, we have shown that the Sb2 insertion in the CHOL locus was similarly rare, being absent in 120 individuals of Caucasian, Oriental and Black origin. In contrast, Sb2 inserts in five other loci were found fixed (non-polymorphic), based on measurements in the same population sample, but absent from orthologous positions in higher apes. This suggest that Sb2 repeats spread relatively early in the human lineage following divergence from other primates and that these elements may be human-specific. By quantitative PCR, we investigated the presence of Sb2 sequences in different primate DNA, using one PCR primer anchored at the 5{prime} Alu-end and the other complementary to the duplicated Sb2-specific segment. With an Sb2-containing plasmid as a standard, we estimated the number of Sb2 repeats at 1500-1800 copies per human haploid equivalent; corresponding numbers in chimpanzee and gorilla were almost two orders of magnitude lower, while the signal observed in orangutan and gibbon DNAs was consistent with the presence of a single copy. The analysis of 22 human, 11 chimpanzee and 10 gorilla sequences indicates that the Alu Sb2 dispersed independently in these three primate lineages; gorilla consensus differs from the human Sb2 sequence by one position, while all chimpanzee repeats have their linker expanded by up to eight A-residues. Should they be thus considered as separate subfamilies? It is possible that sequence modifications with respect to the human consensus are responsible for poor retroposition of Sb2 in apes.

  11. Bioactivity and Applications of Sulphated Polysaccharides from Marine Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Santos Costa de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina, and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS. It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review.

  12. Analyses of Aloe polysaccharides using carbohydrate microarray profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isager Ahl, Louise; Grace, Olwen M; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg

    2018-01-01

    As the popularity of Aloe vera extracts continues to rise, a desire to fully understand the individual polymer components of the leaf mesophyll, their relation to one another and the effects they have on the human body are increasing. Polysaccharides present in the leaf mesophyll have been...... identified as the components responsible for the biological activities of Aloe vera, and they have been widely studied in the past decades. However, the commonly used methods do not provide the desired platform to conduct large comparative studies of polysaccharide compositions as most of them require...... a complete or near-complete fractionation of the polymers. The objective for this study was to assess whether carbohydrate microarrays could be used for the high-throughput analysis of cell wall polysaccharides in Aloe leaf mesophyll. The method we chose is known as Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling...

  13. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Giese, Malene; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required....... For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential...... of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results: Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list...

  14. Inhibition of α-glucosidase by polysaccharides from the fruit hull of Camellia oleifera Abel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Xiang-Zhou

    2015-01-22

    We isolated and purified polysaccharides from the Camellia oleifera Abel. fruit hull and studied its hypoglycemic potential. Our results revealed six polysaccharides (CFPA-1-5 & CFPB) from the aqueous extract from the defatted C. oleifera fruit hull. Purified polysaccharides (purity >90%) were investigated for the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity in vitro. Two polysaccharides, CFPB and CFPA-3 were present in high concentration in the fruit hull and showed a dose-dependent inhibition of α-glucosidase activity, with IC50 concentrations of 11.80 and 10.95 μg/mL, respectively. This result suggests that polysaccharides (CFP) extracted from the fruit hull of C. oleifera may have potential as functional foods with featuring a hypoglycemic effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical features of Ganoderma polysaccharides with antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Heleno, Sandrina A; Reis, Filipa S; Stojkovic, Dejan; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Sokovic, Marina

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma genus comprises one of the most commonly studied species worldwide, Ganoderma lucidum. However, other Ganoderma species have been also reported as important sources of bioactive compounds. Polysaccharides are important contributors to the medicinal properties reported for Ganoderma species, as demonstrated by the numerous publications, including reviews, on this matter. Yet, what are the chemical features of Ganoderma polysaccharides that have bioactivity? In the present manuscript, the chemical features of Ganoderma polysaccharides with reported antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial activities (the most studied worldwide) are analyzed in detail. The composition of sugars (homo- versus hetero-glucans and other polysaccharides), type of glycosidic linkages, branching patterns, and linkage to proteins are discussed. Methods for extraction, isolation and identification are evaluated and, finally, the bioactivity of polysaccharidic extracts and purified compounds are discussed. The integration of data allows deduction of structure-activity relationships and gives clues to the chemical aspects involved in Ganoderma bioactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The preliminary study of prebiotic potential of Polish wild mushroom polysaccharides: the stimulation effect on Lactobacillus strains growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Renata; Nowacka-Jechalke, Natalia; Juda, Marek; Malm, Anna

    2018-06-01

    According to the vast body of evidence demonstrating that the intestinal microbiota is undoubtedly linked with overall health, including cancer risk, searching for functional foods and novel prebiotic influencing on beneficial bacteria is necessary. The present study aimed to investigate the potential of polysaccharides from 53 wild-growing mushrooms to stimulate the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus and to determine the digestibility of polysaccharide fractions. Mushroom polysaccharides were precipitated with ethanol from aqueous extracts. Determination of growth promoting activity of polysaccharides was performed in U-shaped 96-plates in an ELISA reader in relation to the reference strain of L. acidophilus and two clinical strains of L. rhamnosus. The digestibility of mushroom polysaccharides was investigated in vitro by exposing them to artificial human gastric juice. Obtained results revealed that fungal polysaccharides stimulate the growth of Lactobacillus strains stronger than commercially available prebiotics like inulin or fructooligosaccharides. Moreover, selected polysaccharides were subjected to artificial human gastric juice and remain undigested in more than 90%. Obtained results indicate that mushroom polysaccharides are able to pass through the stomach unchanged, reaching the colon and stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria. Majority of 53 polysaccharide fractions were analysed for the first time in our study. Overall, our findings suggest that polysaccharide fractions from edible mushrooms might be useful in producing functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  17. Matrix polyelectrolyte capsules based on polysaccharide/MnCO₃ hybrid microparticle templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingrong; Ai, Hua; Gu, Zhongwei

    2011-06-15

    An efficient strategy for biomacromolecule encapsulation based on spontaneous deposition into polysaccharide matrix-containing capsules is introduced in this study. First, hybrid microparticles composed of manganese carbonate and ionic polysaccharides including sodium hyaluronate (HA), sodium alginate (SA) and dextran sulfate sodium (DS) with narrow size distribution were synthesized to provide monodisperse templates. Incorporation of polysaccharide into the hybrid templates was successful as verified by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Matrix polyelectrolyte microcapsules were fabricated through layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes (PEs) onto the hybrid particles, followed by removal of the inorganic part of the cores, leaving polysaccharide matrix inside the capsules. The loading and release properties of the matrix microcapsules were investigated using myoglobin as a model biomacromolecule. Compared to matrix-free capsules, the matrix capsules had a much higher loading capacity up to four times; the driving force is mostly due to electrostatic interactions between myoglobin and the polysaccharide matrix. From our observations, for the same kind of polysaccharide, a higher amount of polysaccharide inside the capsules usually led to better loading capacity. The release behavior of the loaded myoglobin could be readily controlled by altering the environmental pH. These matrix microcapsules may be used as efficient delivery systems for various charged water-soluble macromolecules with applications in biomedical fields. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Mikael R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For each type of hemicellulose, a complex mixture of enzymes is required for complete conversion to fermentable monosaccharides. In plant-biomass degrading fungi, these enzymes are regulated and released by complex regulatory structures. In this study, we present a methodology for evaluating the potential of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono- and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from this organism. One such example is the identification of a full set of extracellular polysaccharide-acting genes for the degradation of oat spelt xylan. Conclusions The mapping of plant polysaccharide structures along with the corresponding enzymatic activities is a powerful framework for expression analysis of carbohydrate-active enzymes. Applying this network-based approach, we provide the first genome-scale characterization of all genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes identified in A. niger.

  19. Thermal decomposition of natural polysaccharides: Chitin and chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchina Yu.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the thermal analysis of shrimp’s chitin and chitosan have been presented (samples of polysaccharide differed by the deacetylation degree have been studied. The thermal analysis has been carried out by differential thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Activation energy of process of chitin and chitosan thermal destruction has been calculated

  20. Diagnostic radio labelled polysaccharide derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milbrath, D.S.; Ferber, R.H.; Barnett, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    A radiopharmaceutical compound for diagnosing blood clots is claimed. It is the reaction product of a compound characterized by a water-soluble polysaccharide moiety having an average of at least 0.25 anionic group per monosaccharide unit, and at least one chelating group derived from the group consisting of amino acids, substituted cyclic acid anhydrides, and carbon disulfide; and a radioactive tracer metal compound selected from In-111, Tc-99m, Cr-51, Ga-68, and a reduced pertechnetate compound

  1. Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides Involved in Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ivanova

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and humic substances. EPS make up the intercellular space of microbial aggregates and form the structure and architecture of the biofilm matrix. The key functions of EPS comprise the mediation of the initial attachment of cells to different substrata and protection against environmental stress and dehydration. The aim of this review is to present a summary of the current status of the research into the role of EPS in bacterial attachment followed by biofilm formation. The latter has a profound impact on an array of biomedical, biotechnology and industrial fields including pharmaceutical and surgical applications, food engineering, bioremediation and biohydrometallurgy. The diverse structural variations of EPS produced by bacteria of different taxonomic lineages, together with examples of biotechnological applications, are discussed. Finally, a range of novel techniques that can be used in studies involving biofilm-specific polysaccharides is discussed.

  2. Polysaccharide-Based Micelles for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of hydrophobic molecules and proteins has been an issue due to poor bioavailability following administration. Thus, micelle carrier systems are being investigated to improve drug solubility and stability. Due to problems with toxicity and immunogenicity, natural polysaccharides are being explored as substitutes for synthetic polymers in the development of new micelle systems. By grafting hydrophobic moieties to the polysaccharide backbone, self-assembled micelles can be readily formed in aqueous solution. Many polysaccharides also possess inherent bioactivity that can facilitate mucoadhesion, enhanced targeting of specific tissues, and a reduction in the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the hydrophilic nature of some polysaccharides can be exploited to enhance circulatory stability. This review will highlight the advantages of polysaccharide use in the development of drug delivery systems and will provide an overview of the polysaccharide-based micelles that have been developed to date.

  3. Advances on Bioactive Polysaccharides from Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian-Hua; Jin, Ming-Liang; Morris, Gordon A; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Han-Qing; Yi, Yang; Li, Jing-En; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Jie; Nie, Shao-Ping; Shang, Peng; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-07-29

    In recent decades, the polysaccharides from the medicinal plants have attracted a lot of attention due to their significant bioactivities, such as anti-tumor activity, antioxidant activity, anticoagulant activity, antidiabetic activity, radioprotection effect, anti-viral activity, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory activities, which make them suitable for medicinal applications. Previous studies have also shown that medicinal plant polysaccharides are non-toxic and show no side effects. Based on these encouraging observations, most researches have been focusing on the isolation and identification of polysaccharides, as well as their bioactivities. A large number of bioactive polysaccharides with different structural features and biological effects from medicinal plants have been purified and characterized. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent developments in physiochemical, structural features and biological activities of bioactive polysaccharides from a number of important medicinal plants, such as polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, Dendrobium plants, Bupleurum, Cactus fruits, Acanthopanax senticosus, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, Aloe barbadensis Miller, and Dimocarpus longan Lour. Moreover, the paper has also been focused on the applications of bioactive polysaccharides for medicinal applications. Recent studies have provided evidence that polysaccharides from medicinal plants can play a vital role in bioactivities. The contents and data will serve as a useful reference material for further investigation, production, and application of these polysaccharides in functional foods and therapeutic agents.

  4. Capturing single cell genomes of active polysaccharide degraders: an unexpected contribution of Verrucomicrobia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martinez-Garcia

    Full Text Available Microbial hydrolysis of polysaccharides is critical to ecosystem functioning and is of great interest in diverse biotechnological applications, such as biofuel production and bioremediation. Here we demonstrate the use of a new, efficient approach to recover genomes of active polysaccharide degraders from natural, complex microbial assemblages, using a combination of fluorescently labeled substrates, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and single cell genomics. We employed this approach to analyze freshwater and coastal bacterioplankton for degraders of laminarin and xylan, two of the most abundant storage and structural polysaccharides in nature. Our results suggest that a few phylotypes of Verrucomicrobia make a considerable contribution to polysaccharide degradation, although they constituted only a minor fraction of the total microbial community. Genomic sequencing of five cells, representing the most predominant, polysaccharide-active Verrucomicrobia phylotype, revealed significant enrichment in genes encoding a wide spectrum of glycoside hydrolases, sulfatases, peptidases, carbohydrate lyases and esterases, confirming that these organisms were well equipped for the hydrolysis of diverse polysaccharides. Remarkably, this enrichment was on average higher than in the sequenced representatives of Bacteroidetes, which are frequently regarded as highly efficient biopolymer degraders. These findings shed light on the ecological roles of uncultured Verrucomicrobia and suggest specific taxa as promising bioprospecting targets. The employed method offers a powerful tool to rapidly identify and recover discrete genomes of active players in polysaccharide degradation, without the need for cultivation.

  5. Extraction, characterization and antioxidant activities of Se-enriched tea polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanfeng; Li, Yongfu; Liu, Yangyang; Chen, Xueqing; Wei, Xinlin

    2015-01-01

    Se-polysaccharides from Se-enriched tea leaves were purified by DEAE-sepharose fast flow gel column (2.5×60cm) and three polysaccharide fractions (Se-TPS1, Se-TPS2, and Se-TPS3) were isolated and purified with yields of 6.5, 37.14, and 8.57%, respectively. The average sizes of Se-TPS1 and Se-TPS2 were determined by HPGPC system, with molecular weights of 1.1×10(5) and 2.4×10(5)Da, respectively. Se-TPS3 was a polysaccharide polymer with two peaks with molecular weights of 9.2×10(5) and 2.5×10(5)Da. Monosaccharide components analysis by ion chromatography revealed Se-polysaccharides were acidic polysaccharoses and different from each other in monosaccharide kinds and molar ratio. Elements of Se, C, H, N, S, and 14 kinds of mineral elements were analyzed by AFS, EA, and ICP-AES, respectively. Spectral analysis (IR and UV) indicated Se-polysaccharides were typical glycoproteins. Morphological analyses of the samples were determined by SEM and AFM. In addition, the DPPH and superoxide radicals scavenging activities were also discussed to assess antioxidant activities of the samples, and Se-polysaccharides showed higher antioxidant activities compared to the ordinary polysaccharides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Correlation Between Functional Groups and Radical Scavenging Activities of Acidic Polysaccharides from Dendrobium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ying; Yuan, Wen-yu; Zheng, Wen-ke; Luo, Ao-xue; Fan, Yi-jun

    2015-11-01

    To compare the radical scavenging activity of five different acidic polysaccharides, and to find the correlation with the functional groups. Alkali extraction method and Stepwise ethanol precipitation method were used to extract and concentrate the five Dendrobium polysaccharides, and to determine the contents of sulfuric acid and uronic acid of each kind of acidic polysaccharides, and the scavenging activity to ABTS+ radical and hydroxyl radical. Functional group structures were examined by FTIR Spectrometer. Five kinds of Dendrobium polysaccharides had different ability of scavenging ABTS+ free radical and hydroxyl free radical. Moreover, the study had shown that five kinds of antioxidant activity of acidic polysaccharides had obvious correlation withuronic acid and sulfuric acid. The antioxidant activity of each sample was positively correlated with the content of uronic acid, and negatively correlated with the content of sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid can inhibit the antioxidant activity of acidic polysaccharide but uronic acid can enhance the free radical scavenging activity. By analyzing the structure characteristics of five acidic polysaccharides, all samples have similar structures, however, Dendrobium denneanum, Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium officinale which had β configuration have higher antioxidant activity than Dendrobium nobile and Dendrobium fimbriatum which had a configuration.

  7. Biochemical evaluation of antioxidant activity and polysaccharides fractions in seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ethanol and water extracts of 15 seaweeds, Dictyota dichotoma var. velutricata, Dictyota indica, Iyengaria stellata, Padina pavonia, Sargassum swartzii, Sargassum variegatum, Stoechospermum marginatum, Stokeyia indica, Jolyna laminarioides, Caulerpa taxifolia, Halimeda tuna, Ulva fasciata, Ulva lactuca, Solieria robusta, and Melanothamnus afaqhusainii, were evaluated for their antioxidant potential by ABTS or 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, superoxide and total antioxidant capacity (TAC assays.  The activity was concentration dependent and the variation in antioxidant potential was also observed by different assays in both extracts.  Ethanol extract of D. dichotoma var. velutricata, D. indica and S. marginatum demonstrated highest activity by TAC assay.  The antioxidant potential in organic solvent fractions of seaweeds namely P. pavonia, S. swartzii, S. marginatum and M. afaqhusainii was also determined and chloroform fraction of all the four seaweeds showed highest activity by superoxide assay.  Antioxidant activity of extracted fractions of polysaccharides from S. indica, C. taxifolia and D. dichotoma var. velutricata was also evaluated by superoxide method.  Polysaccharide fractions of S. indica obtained from HCl (at 700C and room temperature and water extract demonstrated highest activity respectively.  All the polysaccharide fractions of C. taxifolia showed excellent activity except CaClF70°C. Polysaccharide fractions of D. dichotoma var. velutricata also exhibited very good activity.

  8. Protective effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides on H2O2-induced injury in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Dou, Mengmeng; Zhang, Zhihao; Zhang, Duoduo; Huang, Chengzhi

    2017-10-01

    The preliminary studies have shown that Dendrobium officinale possessed therapeutic effects on hypertension and atherosclerosis. Studies also reported that Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides showed antioxidant capabilities. However, little is known about its effects on myocardial cells under oxidative stress. The present study was designed to study the protective effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress in H9c2 cells. MTT assay was carried out to determine the cell viability of H9c2 cells when pretreated with Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides. Fluorescent microscopy measurements were performed for evaluating the apoptosis in H9c2 cells. Furthermore, effects of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides on the activities of antioxidative indicators (malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) levels were analyzed. Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides attenuated H 2 O 2 -induced cell death, as determined by the MTT assay. Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides decreased malondialdehyde levels, increased superoxide dismutase activities, and inhibited the generation of intracellular ROS. Moreover, pretreatment with Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides also inhibited apoptosis and increased the MMP levels in H9c2 cells. These results suggested the protective effects of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides against H 2 O 2 -induced injury in H9c2 cells. The results also indicated the anti-oxidative capability of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  10. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  11. Sulfated Polysaccharides in Marine Sponges: Extraction Methods and Anti-HIV Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. S. Esteves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition. Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5% and almost no anti-HIV activity (<10% inhibition. Stelletta sp. pellets, although quite rich in polysaccharide (up to 97.3%, showed only modest bioactivity (<36% HIV-1 inhibition. Erylus discophorus pellets were among the richest in terms of polysaccharide content (up to 98% and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition. Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161 yielded only modestly active fractions. However, we could infer that the active molecule is most probably a high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide (>2000 kDa, whose mechanism is possibly preventing viral attachment and entry (fusion inhibitor.

  12. Application of Box-Behnken design for ultrasonic-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Paeonia emodi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ajaz; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Wani, Tanveer A; Raish, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the ultrasonic assisted extraction and optimization of polysaccharides from Paeonia emodi and evaluation of its anti-inflammatory response. Specifically, the optimization of polysaccharides was carried out using Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. Response surface methodology (RSM) of three factors (extraction temperature, extraction time and liquid solid ratio) was employed to optimize the percentage yield of the polysaccharides. The experimental data were fitted to quadratic response surface models using multiple regression analysis with high coefficient of determination value (R) of 0.9906. The highest polysaccharide yield (8.69%) as per the Derringer's desirability prediction tool was obtained under the optimal extraction condition (extraction temperature 47.03 °C, extraction time 15.68 min, and liquid solid ratio 1.29 ml/g) with a desirability value of 0.98. These optimized values of tested parameters were validated under similar conditions (n = 6), an average of 8.13 ± 2.08% of polysaccharide yield was obtained in an optimized extraction conditions with 93.55% validity. The anti-inflammatory effect of polysaccharides of P. emodi were studied on carrageenan induced paw edema. In vivo results showed that the P. emodi 200mg/kg of polysaccharide extract exhibited strong potential against inflammatory response induced by 1% suspension of carrageenean in normal saline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Composition and antioxidant activities of four polysaccharides extracted from Herba Lophatheri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qing; Mao, Jian-wei; Guo, Xiao-qing; Zhou, Yi-feng; Gong, Jing-yan; Mao, Shuang-rong

    2013-09-01

    Four polysaccharides (BLF80-A, BLF80-B, BLF80-C and BLF80-D) were isolated by hot-water extraction and purified from the leaves of Herba Lophatheri by DEAE-Sepharose fast flow. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of DPPH radical assay, hydroxyl radical assay and superoxide radical assay. The results showed that four polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner, and the higher molecular weight, the stronger antioxidant activities of polysaccharides. Besides, the monosaccharide compositions of polysaccharides also influence their antioxidant activities. BLP80-D showed the strongest scavenging ability, followed by BLP80-C, BLP80-B and BLP80-A. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Brown algae overproduce cell wall polysaccharides as a protection mechanism against the heavy metal toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Leonardo R.; Leal, Raquel N.; Noseda, Miguel; Duarte, Maria Eugenia R.; Pereira, Mariana S.; Mourao, Paulo A.S.; Farina, Marcos; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.

    2010-01-01

    Brown algae are often used as heavy metal biomonitors and biosorbents because they can accumulate high concentrations of metals. Cation-exchange performed by cell wall polysaccharides is pointed out as the main chemical mechanism for the metal sequestration. Here, we biochemically investigated if the brown alga Padina gymnospora living in a heavy metal contaminated area would modify their polysaccharidic content. We exposed non-living biomass to Cd and Pb and studied the metals adsorption and localization. We found that raw dried polysaccharides, sulfate groups, uronic acids, fucose, mannose, and galactose were significantly higher in contaminated algae compared with the control ones. Metal concentrations adsorbed by non-living biomass were rising comparatively to the tested concentrations. Electron microscopy showed numerous granules in the cell walls and X-ray microanalysis revealed Cd as the main element. We concluded that P. gymnospora overproduces cell wall polysaccharides when exposed to high metal concentrations as a defense mechanism.

  15. Effect of phosphorylation on antioxidant activities of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, Lady godiva) polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ni, Yuanying; Hu, Xiaosong; Li, Quanhong

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorylated derivatives of pumpkin polysaccharide with different degree of substitution were synthesized using POCl3 and pyridine. Antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effects of unmodified polysaccharide and phosphorylated derivatives were investigated employing various in vitro systems. Results showed that high ratio of POCl3/pyridine could increase the degree of substitution and no remarkable degradation occurred in the phosphorylation process. Characteristic absorption of phosphorylation appeared both in the IR and (31)P NMR spectrum. The df values between 2.27 and 2.55 indicated the relatively expanded conformation of the phosphorylated derivatives. All the phosphorylated polysaccharides exhibited higher antioxidant activities. H2O2-induced oxidative damages on rat thymic lymphocyte were also prevented by the derivatives. In general, phosphorylation could improve the antioxidant activities of pumpkin polysaccharide both in vitro and in a cell system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro prebiotic effects of seaweed polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolin; Sun, Yuhao; Hu, Linfeng; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Xing, Rong'e.; Li, Rongfeng; Wang, Xueqin; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-09-01

    Although prebiotic activities of alginate and agar oligosaccharides isolated from seaweeds have been reported, it remains unknown whether seaweed polysaccharides have prebiotic activity. In this study, we isolated polysaccharides from four species of seaweeds, such as Grateloupia filicina (GFP), Eucheuma spinosum (ESP), Ulva pertusa (UPP), and Ascophyllum nodosum (ANP), and characterized their structures and prebiotic effects in vitro. The results showed that these polysaccharides were different in total sugar and sulfate contents as well as monosaccharide composition. GFP and ESP significantly promoted bifidobacterium proliferation and 0.1% ESP and 0.4% GFP resulted in the highest proliferation rates of beneficial bacteria, whereas UPP and ANP inhibited the growth of beneficial bacteria at all tested concentrations (0.1%-0.5%). The different behaviors of the four seaweed-originated polysaccharides might be reflected by differences in monosaccharide composition and structure. Therefore, polysaccharides isolated from GFP and ESP could be utilized as prebiotics. However, more studies must be carried out in vivo.

  17. Immunomodulating activities of acidic sulphated polysaccharides obtained from the seaweed Ulva rigida C. Agardh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiro, José M; Castro, Rosario; Arranz, Jon A; Lamas, Jesús

    2007-07-01

    Water-soluble acidic polysaccharides from the cell walls of Ulva rigida are mainly composed of disaccharides that contain glucuronic acid and sulphated rhamnose. The structure of disaccharides resembles that of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) as they both contain glucuronic acid and sulphated sugars. Glycosaminoglycans occur in the extracellular matrix of animal connective tissues but can also be produced by leucocytes at inflammatory sites. Certain types of GAGs can even activate macrophages and therefore the acidic polysaccharides from U. rigida probably modulate macrophage activity. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of U. rigida polysaccharides on several RAW264.7 murine macrophage activities, including expression of inflammatory cytokines and receptors, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) production, and nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS-2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression. U. rigida acidic polysaccharides induced a more than two-fold increase in the expression of several chemokines (chemokine (C motif) ligand 1, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 14 (Cxcl14)) and in the expression of IL6 signal transducer and IL12 receptor beta 1. Incubation of macrophages with U. rigida polysaccharides also induced an increase in nitrite production, although this effect decreased considerably after desulphation of polysaccharides, suggesting that the sulphate group is important for the stimulatory capacity of these molecules. U. rigida polysaccharides also stimulated macrophage secretion of PGE(2) and induced an increase in COX-2 and NOS-2 expression. The results indicate that U. rigida acid polysaccharide can be used as an experimental immunostimulant for analysing inflammatory responses related to macrophage functions. In addition, these polysaccharides may also be of clinical interest for modifying certain macrophage activities in diseases where macrophage function is impaired or needs

  18. Oral Presentations Have a Significantly Higher Publication Rate, But Not Impact Factors, Than Poster Presentations at the International Society for Study of Lumbar Spine meeting: Review of 1126 Abstracts From 2010 to 2012 Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Inoue, Masahiro; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Norimoto, Masaki; Umimura, Tomotaka; Furuya, Takeo; Masao, Koda; Maki, Satoshi; Akazawa, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2018-03-05

    A retrospective study. The aim of this study was to determine the publication rate and impact factors (IFs) among all abstracts presented at the 2010 and 2012 meetings of the International Society for the Study of Lumbar Spine (ISSLS). The publication rate of abstracts presented at overseas meetings was reported to be around 50%. However, the publication rate and IFs of oral and poster presentations made at ISSLS meetings were unclear. Moreover, whether the publication rates and IFs differed for papers associated with oral or poster presentations at ISSLS meetings was unknown. We investigated all 1126 abstracts (oral, special posters, general posters) presented at ISSLS meetings held between 2010 and 2012. PubMed was searched to identify publications and IFs were determined using journal citation reports. We also compared the publication rates and IFs between oral and poster presentations. The overall publication rate was 50.1% for three ISSLS meetings (564 publications/1126 abstracts). The overall publication rate for oral presentations, special posters, and general posters given in the 2010 to 2012 meetings was 62.0%, 48.3, and 46.6%, respectively. Overall, papers related to oral presentations had significantly higher publication rates than those of special and general posters (P = 0.0002). The average IFs of publications associated with abstracts presented at three ISSLS meetings was 2.802 for oral presentations, 2.593 for special posters, and 2.589 for general posters. There were no significant differences in average IFs between oral and poster presentations (P > 0.05). The publication rate for abstracts presented at ISSLS meetings was high and similar to publication rates for abstracts presented at other meetings concerning orthopedic and spine research. However, there was no significant difference in IFs between oral and poster presentations, suggesting that abstract evaluations cannot predict IFs of the eventual publication. 4.

  19. Extraction of Opuntia dillenii Haw. Polysaccharides and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Use of natural polysaccharides in medicine and food has wide interest in research. In this study, we extracted and purified some polysaccharides from cactus Opuntia dillenii Haw. (ODP. Some preliminary functions of these products were characterized. Under the optimal purification conditions, the yield of ODP extracted from the 2–4 month-old Opuntia dillenii Haw. (T-ODP was 30.60% ± 0.40%, higher than that of ODP from the 5–10 month-old materials (O-ODP (18.97% ± 0.58%. The extracted ODP was purified by DEAE sepharose fast flow anion exchange and Sephacryl S-400 chromatography with four fractions obtained (ODP-Ia, ODP-Ib, ODP-IIa and ODP-IIb. Analysis with UV-vis chromatography indicated that ODP-Ia and ODP-IIa were relatively homogeneous molecules with a molecular weight of 339 kD and 943 kD, respectively. Results of infrared spectroscopy indicated that ODP, ODP-Ia, and ODP-IIa were acidic polysaccharides. Further, the antioxidant activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radical in vitro demonstrated that the T-ODP exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the O-ODP, and the purified fraction (ODP-Ia was superior to the ODP. These results will offer a theoretical basis for further research on the structure-function relationship of ODP and the rational utilization of Opuntia dillenii Haw.

  20. Extraction, Structural Characterization, and Potential Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides from Four Seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinzhe; Xu, Yaoyang; Chen, Hongbo; Sun, Peilong

    2016-01-01

    Four seaweed polysaccharides were extracted from Sarcodia ceylonensis, Ulva lactuca L., Gracilaria lemaneiformis, and Durvillaea antarctica, respectively, by microwave-assisted extraction. The effect of three significant variables (extraction time, extraction temperature, and the ratio of water to raw material) on the process for extracting polysaccharides was investigated, along with the optimization of the extraction using the response surface method (RSM) with a Box–Behnken design. The polysaccharide structure, monosaccharide composition, degree of sulfation, and molecular weight (MW) distribution were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectrometry, gas chromatography (GC), and high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). IR spectrometry showed that Sarcodia ceylonensis polysaccharide (SCP), Ulva lactuca L. polysaccharide (ULLP), and Durvillaea antarctica polysaccharide (DAP) were all sulfated polysaccharides and, except Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide (GLP), all belong to β-pyranosidic polysaccharides. The average molecular weight (MW) of SCP, ULLP, GLP, and DAP was 466, 404, 591, and 482 kDa, respectively. The quantitative and comparative results with external standards indicated that the main monosaccharide in SCP and ULLP was mannose; and GLP and DAP were mainly composed of galactose and glucose, respectively. Then the in vitro antioxidant activity of all of the polysaccharides was evaluated using different assays—2,2–azino –bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulfonate) (ABTS), hydroxyl radical, nitrite scavenging capacity, and reducing power—and the relationship between their antioxidant activity and chemical characteristics were also examined. ULLP presented the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity; ULLP, SCP and DAP also showed a strong effect on the ABTS radical scavenging activity. SCP and ULLP exhibited excellent hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, about 83.33% ± 2.31% and 80.07% ± 2.17%, respectively, at 4 mg/mL. The

  1. Extraction, Structural Characterization, and Potential Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides from Four Seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhe He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Four seaweed polysaccharides were extracted from Sarcodia ceylonensis, Ulva lactuca L., Gracilaria lemaneiformis, and Durvillaea antarctica, respectively, by microwave-assisted extraction. The effect of three significant variables (extraction time, extraction temperature, and the ratio of water to raw material on the process for extracting polysaccharides was investigated, along with the optimization of the extraction using the response surface method (RSM with a Box–Behnken design. The polysaccharide structure, monosaccharide composition, degree of sulfation, and molecular weight (MW distribution were analyzed by infrared (IR spectrometry, gas chromatography (GC, and high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC. IR spectrometry showed that Sarcodia ceylonensis polysaccharide (SCP, Ulva lactuca L. polysaccharide (ULLP, and Durvillaea antarctica polysaccharide (DAP were all sulfated polysaccharides and, except Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide (GLP, all belong to β-pyranosidic polysaccharides. The average molecular weight (MW of SCP, ULLP, GLP, and DAP was 466, 404, 591, and 482 kDa, respectively. The quantitative and comparative results with external standards indicated that the main monosaccharide in SCP and ULLP was mannose; and GLP and DAP were mainly composed of galactose and glucose, respectively. Then the in vitro antioxidant activity of all of the polysaccharides was evaluated using different assays—2,2–azino –bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulfonate (ABTS, hydroxyl radical, nitrite scavenging capacity, and reducing power—and the relationship between their antioxidant activity and chemical characteristics were also examined. ULLP presented the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity; ULLP, SCP and DAP also showed a strong effect on the ABTS radical scavenging activity. SCP and ULLP exhibited excellent hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, about 83.33% ± 2.31% and 80.07% ± 2.17%, respectively, at 4 mg/mL. The

  2. An exocellular polysaccharide and its interactions with proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinier, R.

    1999-01-01

    In the food industry polysaccharides are used as thickening or gelling agents. Polysaccharides are usually extracted from plants. Micro-organisms are also capable of excreting polysaccharides: exocellular polysaccharides (EPSs). In some cases EPSs are produced in-situ in food products,

  3. A mini-review of chemical and biological properties of polysaccharides from Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Lin, Lihua; Xie, Jianhua

    2016-11-01

    Recently, isolation and characterization of bioactive polysaccharides from natural resources have attracted increasing interest. Momordica charantia L. (M. charantia), belongs to the Curcubitaceae family, which is widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and has been used as herbal medicine and a vegetable for thousands of years. M. charantia polysaccharides, as major active ingredients of M. charantia, have attracted a great deal of attention because of their various biological activities, such as antitumor, immunomodulation, antioxidant, anti-diabetes, radioprotection, and hepatoprotection. The present review provides the most complete summary of the research progress on the polysaccharides isolated from M. charantia, including the extraction, separation, physical-chemical properties, structural characteristics, and bioactivities during the last ten years. This review also provides a foundation for the further development and application in the field of M. charantia polysaccharides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrasonic extraction, antioxidant and anticancer activities of novel polysaccharides from Chuanxiong rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Jia, Xuejing; Fang, Xiaobin; Li, Peng; He, Chengwei; Chen, Meiwan

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction technology was employed to prepare Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort polysaccharide. Single factor test and orthogonal experimental design were used to optimize the extraction conditions. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions consisted of ultrasonic temperature of 80°C, ultrasonic time of 40 min and water to raw material ratio of 30 mL/g. Three novel polysaccharides fractions, LCX0, LCX1 and LCX2, were isolated and purified from the crude polysaccharides using DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The molecular weight and monosaccharide composition of three LCX polysaccharides fractions were analyzed with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and HPLC analysis, respectively. Furthermore, the antioxidant and in vitro anticancer activities of the polysaccharides were investigated. Compared with LCX0, LCX2 and LCX1 showed relative higher antioxidant activity and inhibitory activity to the growth of HepG2, SMMC7721, A549 and HCT-116 cells. It is suggested that the novel polysaccharides from rhizome of L. chuanxiong could be promising bioactive macromolecules for biomedical use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. [The molecular composition and spectral properties of polysaccharide isolated from pu-erh tea and its material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jia-shun; Hu, Xiao-jing; Peng, Chun-xiu; Zhou, Hong-jie

    2010-07-01

    Pu-erh tea, a kind of well-known tea from the ancient time, is originally produced in the Yunnan Lanchan River basin through a special solid state fermentation by fungi. It uses sun-dried green tea as its starting materials. To investigate the variation of composition and spectral properties of polysaccharide during solid state fermentation of pu-erh tea by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as preponderant starter and using sun-dried green tea as materials in the present study. The results showed that the content of water soluble polysaccharide was increased, and the activity of hydrolase such as cellulase, pectinase and glucomylase were also enhanced. The content of neutral sugar increased with the ferment time increasing and the M(w) of raw polysaccharide showed significant difference during fermentation. The main polysaccharide TPS2 and TPS1 were isolated and purified from pu-erh tea and its materials by DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-150 column chromatography. TPS2 contains the higher content of uronic acid, but TPS1 contains the higher contents of neutral sugar and protein. Monosaccharide analysis by GC-MS revealed that TPS1 and TPS2 were composed of arabinose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose, xylose and mannose with molar ratios of 24.2 : 23.6 : 5.9 : 3.2 : 1.8 : 1.1 and 19.3 : 26.9 : 3.2 : 2.7 : 1.3 : 5.5, respectively. The average molecular weight of TPS1 and TPS2 was 1.68 x 10(4) and 1.21 x 10(4) Daltons, respectively. UV scanning spectrum showed that TPS1 and TPS2 had no characteristic absorption between 200 and 400 nm wavelength, it suggested that they contain trace protein. IR spectrum of TPS1 and TPS2 demonstrated that pyranoid rings were contained in them. As shown in the image of atomic force microscope, the molecular appearance of TPS1 and TPS2 resembled islands and apparently consisted of conglomerations. The height of conglomerations of TPS2 was about 40 nm and the length or width was 0.5-0.8 microm, while the height of conglomerations of TPS1 was about 4nm and

  6. Optimization of polysaccharides extraction from watermelon rinds: Structure, functional and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romdhane, Molka Ben; Haddar, Anissa; Ghazala, Imen; Jeddou, Khawla Ben; Helbert, Claire Boisset; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, optimization of hot water extraction, structural characteristics, functional properties, and biological activities of polysaccharides extracted from watermelon rinds (WMRP) were investigated. The physicochemical characteristics and the monosaccharide composition of these polysaccharides were then determined using chemical composition analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). SEM images showed that extracted polysaccharides had a rough surface with many cavities. GC-FID results proved that galactose was the dominant sugar in the extracted polysaccharides, followed by arabinose, glucose, galacturonic acid, rhamnose, mannose, xylose and traces of glucuronic acid. The findings revealed that WMRP displayed excellent antihypertensive and antioxidant activities. Those polysaccharides had also a protection effect against hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage. Functional properties of extracted polysaccharides were also evaluated. WMRP showed good interfacial dose-dependent proprieties. Overall, the results suggested that WMRP presents a promising natural source of antioxidants and antihypertensive agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qingxia; Xie, Yufeng; Wang, Wei; Yan, Yuhua; Ye, Hong; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-05

    Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves (MLP) were investigated in the present study. The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 10.0 ± 0.5% for MLP were determined as follows: extraction temperature 92 °C, extraction time 3.5h and ratio (v/w, mL/g) of extraction solvent (water) to raw material 34. Two purified fractions, MLP-3a and MLP-3b with molecular weights of 80.99 and 3.64 kDa, respectively, were obtained from crude MLP by chromatography of DEAE-Cellulose 52 and Sephadex G-100. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy revealed that crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b were acidic polysaccharides. Furthermore, crude MLP and MLP-3a had more complicated monosaccharide compositions, while MLP-3b had a relatively higher content of uronic acid. Crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b exhibited potent Fe(2+) chelating power and scavenging activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. The results suggested that MLP could be explored as natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interaction between gut immunity and polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojun; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong

    2017-09-22

    The human gut is colonized with a vast and diverse microbial ecosystem, and these bacteria play fundamental roles in the well being of our bodies. Gut-associated lymphoid tissues, the largest mucosal immune system, should never be overlooked for their profound effect in maintaining the host immunity. Therefore, we discussed the relationship between gut immunity and host health, primarily from two aspects: the homeostasis of gut microbiota, and the function of gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Polysaccharides, widely concerned as bioactive macromolecules in recent centuries, have been proved to benefit the intestinal health. Dietary polysaccharides can improve the ratio of probiotics, regulate the intestinal microenvironment like decreasing the gut pH, and stimulate the macrophages or lymphocytes in gut tissues to fight against diseases like cancer. Based on various experimental and clinical evidence, the impacts of dietary polysaccharides on intestinal health are summarized, in order to reveal the possible immunomodulatory mechanisms of polysaccharides.

  9. Extraction optimization and characterization of polysaccharide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Pinellia rhizoma, Polysaccharides Optimization extraction, Monosaccharide composition,. Antioxidant ..... mean yield of PRP was 2.47 %. Therefore ... Table 3: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the fitted quadratic polynomial model.

  10. APPLICATION OF A POLYSACCHARIDE DERIVED FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While Tragacanth was superior to Treculia gum, the latter performed better than sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) as a sustained release hydrophilic matrix for theophylline hydrate. Key Words: Polysaccharide, Treculia africana, Moreaceae, Hydrophilic matrix, theophylline hydrate and dissolution rate. Nig. J. Nat.

  11. Sulfated Polysaccharides in the Freshwater Green Macroalga Cladophora surera Not Linked to Salinity Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Paula X; Alberghina, Josefina; Confalonieri, Viviana; Errea, María I; Estevez, José M; Ciancia, Marina

    2017-01-01

    The presence of sulfated polysaccharides in cell walls of seaweeds is considered to be a consequence of the physiological adaptation to the high salinity of the marine environment. Recently, it was found that sulfated polysaccharides were present in certain freshwater Cladophora species and some vascular plants. Cladophora (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) is one of the largest genera of green algae that are able to grow in both, seas and freshwater courses. Previous studies carried out on the water-soluble polysaccharides of the marine species C. falklandica established the presence of sulfated xylogalactoarabinans constituted by a backbone of 4-linked β-L-arabinopyranose units partially sulfated mainly on C3 and also on C2 with partial glycosylation, mostly on C2, with terminal β-D-xylopyranose or β-D-galactofuranose units. Besides, minor amounts of 3-, 6- and/or 3,6-linked β-D-galactan structures, with galactose in the pyranosic form were detected. In this work, the main water soluble cell wall polysaccharides from the freshwater alga Cladophora surera were characterized. It was found that this green alga biosynthesizes sulfated polysaccharides, with a structure similar to those found in marine species of this genus. Calibration of molecular clock with fossil data suggests that colonization of freshwater environments occurred during the Miocene by its ancestor. Therefore, the presence of sulfated polysaccharides in the freshwater green macroalga C. surera could be, in this case, an adaptation to transient desiccation and changes in ionic strength. Retention of sulfated polysaccharides at the cell walls may represent a snapshot of an evolutionary event, and, thus constitutes an excellent model for further studies on the mechanisms of sulfation on cell wall polysaccharides and environmental stress co-evolution.

  12. Sulfated Polysaccharides in the Freshwater Green Macroalga Cladophora surera Not Linked to Salinity Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula X. Arata

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sulfated polysaccharides in cell walls of seaweeds is considered to be a consequence of the physiological adaptation to the high salinity of the marine environment. Recently, it was found that sulfated polysaccharides were present in certain freshwater Cladophora species and some vascular plants. Cladophora (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta is one of the largest genera of green algae that are able to grow in both, seas and freshwater courses. Previous studies carried out on the water-soluble polysaccharides of the marine species C. falklandica established the presence of sulfated xylogalactoarabinans constituted by a backbone of 4-linked β-L-arabinopyranose units partially sulfated mainly on C3 and also on C2 with partial glycosylation, mostly on C2, with terminal β-D-xylopyranose or β-D-galactofuranose units. Besides, minor amounts of 3-, 6- and/or 3,6-linked β-D-galactan structures, with galactose in the pyranosic form were detected. In this work, the main water soluble cell wall polysaccharides from the freshwater alga Cladophora surera were characterized. It was found that this green alga biosynthesizes sulfated polysaccharides, with a structure similar to those found in marine species of this genus. Calibration of molecular clock with fossil data suggests that colonization of freshwater environments occurred during the Miocene by its ancestor. Therefore, the presence of sulfated polysaccharides in the freshwater green macroalga C. surera could be, in this case, an adaptation to transient desiccation and changes in ionic strength. Retention of sulfated polysaccharides at the cell walls may represent a snapshot of an evolutionary event, and, thus constitutes an excellent model for further studies on the mechanisms of sulfation on cell wall polysaccharides and environmental stress co-evolution.

  13. [Detection of putative polysaccharide biosynthesis genes in Azospirillum brasilense strains from serogroups I and II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, L P; Prilipov, A G; Katsy, E I

    2017-01-01

    It is known that in Azospirillum brasilense strains Sp245 and SR75 included in serogroup I, the repeat units of their O-polysaccharides consist of five residues of D-rhamnose, and in strain SR15, of four; and the heteropolymeric O-polysaccharide of A. brasilense type strain Sp7 from serogroup II contains not less than five types of repeat units. In the present work, a complex of nondegenerate primers to the genes of A. brasilense Sp245 plasmids AZOBR_p6, AZOBR_p3, and AZOBR_p2, which encode putative enzymes for the biosynthesis of core oligosaccharide and O-polysaccharide of lipopolysaccharide, capsular polysaccharides, and exopolysaccharides, was proposed. By using the designed primers, products of the expected sizes were synthesized in polymerase chain reactions on genomic DNA of A. brasilense Sp245, SR75, SR15, and Sp7 in 36, 29, 23, and 12 cases, respectively. As a result of sequencing of a number of amplicons, a high (86–99%) level of identity of the corresponding putative polysaccharide biosynthesis genes in three A. brasilense strains from serogroup I was detected. In a blotting-hybridization reaction with the biotin-labeled DNA of the A. brasilense gene AZOBR_p60122 coding for putative permease of the ABC transporter of polysaccharides, localization of the homologous gene in ~120-MDa plasmids of the bacteria A. brasilense SR15 and SR75 was revealed.

  14. The elevation effect on water-soluble polysaccharides and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of Ganoderma lucidum K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsih, C.; Apriyana, W.; Nur Hayati, S.; Taufika Rosyida, V.; Hernawan; Dewi Poeloengasih, C.

    2017-02-01

    Water soluble polysaccharide is one of the important phytochemical in Ganoderma lucidum K. Phytochemicals in the plants, microorganisms, and plants were affected by internal and external factors. The objective of the research was to evaluate the effect of elevation on the water-soluble polysaccharides and its DPPH radical scavenging activity. We found that the water-polysaccharides in mushroom from Godean (elevation Ganoderma lucidum K from Godean (IC50 11.5 ± 0.29 mg/mL) higher than Kaliurang (IC50 14.4 ± 0.27%).

  15. Severe polysaccharide storage myopathy in Belgian and Percheron draught horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, B A; Credille, K M; Lavoie, J P; Fatone, S; Guard, C; Cummings, J F; Cooper, B J

    1997-05-01

    A severe myopathy leading to death or euthanasia was identified in 4 Belgian and 4 Percheron draught horses age 2-21 years. Clinical signs ranged from overt weakness and muscle atrophy in 2 horses age 2 and 3 years, to recumbency with inability to rise in 6 horses age 4-21 years. In 5 horses there was mild to severe increases in muscle enzyme levels. Clinical diagnoses included equine motor neuron disease (2 horses), post anaesthetic myopathy (2 horses), exertional myopathy (2 horses), myopathy due to unknown (one horse), and equine protozoal myelitis (one horse). Characteristic histopathology of muscle from affected horses was the presence of excessive complex polysaccharide and/or glycogen, revealed by periodic acid-Schiff staining in all cases and by electron microscopy in one case. Evaluation of frozen section histochemistry performed on 2 cases indicated that affected fibres were Type 2 glycolytic fibres. Subsarcolemmal and intracytoplasmic vacuoles were most prominent in 3 horses age 2-4 years, and excessive glycogen, with little or no complex polysaccharide, was the primary compound stored in affected muscle in these young horses. Myopathic changes, including fibre size variation, fibre hypertrophy, internal nuclei, and interstitial fat infiltration, were most prominent in 5 horses age 6-21 years, and the accumulation of complex polysaccharide appeared to increase with age. Mild to moderate segmental myofibre necrosis was present in all cases.

  16. African-American (AA) men with local-regional prostate cancer (PC) present with higher prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels than whites: results of RTOG 94-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Winter, K.; Sause, W.; Gallagher, M.J.; Perez, C.; Bondy, M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To use pretreatment serum PSA levels as an 20), gleason score (2-5,6-7,7-10), race (whites and AAs), and two interactions viz (a) PSA by race (p=0.0012) and (b) PSA by total gleason score (p=0.0001). When race was replaced by educational status, or income, or both, the fits (0.8246,0.8197, and 0.7815, respectively) were not as good as the fit with race in the model. Conclusion: The findings of this nation-wide prospective registration study with a high percentage of AA patient participation confirms previous, smaller, geographically-limited studies (1,2,3) results that AA patients with non-metastatic PC present with a higher mean PSA values than whites. The multivariate findings imply that, for each level of total gleason score, there is a higher percentage of whites with PSA levels 20. Education and/or income as surrogates of sociological status could not completely explain the racial differences. Other reasons for health-care barriers among AAs need to be identified

  17. Chemical modification, antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitory activities of corn silk polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuhan; Chen, Haixia; Tian, Jingge; Wang, Yanwei; Xing, Lisha; Wang, Jia

    2013-10-15

    Water-soluble corn silk polysaccharides (CSPS) were chemically modified to obtain their sulfated, acetylated and carboxymethylated derivatives. Chemical characterization and bioactivities of CSPS and its derivatives were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, scanning electron microscope, infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy, scavenging DPPH free radical assay, scavenging hydroxyl radical assay, ferric reducing power assay, lipid peroxidation inhibition assay and α-amylase activity inhibitory assay, respectively. Among the three derivatives, carboxylmethylated polysaccharide (C-CSPS) demonstrated higher solubility, narrower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, significantly higher antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitory abilities compared with the native polysaccharide and other derivatives. C-CSPS might be used as a novel nutraceutical agent for human consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sulfated modification and anticoagulant activity of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, Lady Godiva) polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Ao, Le; Ma, Tao; Ni, Yuanying; Liao, Xiaojun; Hu, Xiaosong; Song, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Sulfated modification of pumpkin polysaccharide using CAS with pyridines as catalysts under different conditions was conducted to obtain different degrees of sulfation on a laboratory scale. Anticoagulant activities of pumpkin polysaccharide and its sulfated derivatives were also investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Results showed that addition of high ratio of CAS/pyridine under constant conditions could increase the degree of substitution. Sulfate substitution was further confirmed by the FT-IR and 13 C NMR analysis. The d f values between 2.11-2.73 indicated the relatively expanded conformation of the sulfated derivatives. The sulfated polysaccharides showed higher anticoagulant activities through activated partial thrombosis time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT) and anti-Xa activity assay, which revealed that better anticoagulant activities could be obtained when DS remained higher and M w maintained in a moderate range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In intro antioxidant activities of different sulfated polysaccharides from chlorophytan seaweeds Ulva fasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ping; Chen, Meng; Pei, Yaping; Sun, Peilong

    2013-08-01

    Four different molecular weight sulfated polysaccharides (UFP1, UFP2, UFP3 and UFP4) were extracted and separated from Ulva fasciata by hot water extraction and ultrafiltration. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of superoxide radical assay, hydroxyl radical assay, ABTS radical assay, and reducing power assay. The results showed that four polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant properties, and UFP2 and UFP3, which have lower content of sulfate showed higher antioxidant activities than UFP1 and UFP4, which have higher content of sulfate. Besides, the content of protein, uronic acid and molecular weights of polysaccharides also influence their antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activities of UFP were not a function of a single factor but a combination of several factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibitory effects of Enteromorpha linza polysaccharide on micronucleus of Allium sativum root cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongshan; Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Jingfen; Liu, Chongbin; Zhang, Quanbin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the antimutagenic function of the polysaccharide from Enteromorpha linza with the micronucleus test of Allium sativum root cells induced by sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet was studied. The concentration-effect relation of the two inducers was firstly evaluated. The results showed that an increase of genotoxicity damage was demonstrated and micronuclei frequency induced by sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet displayed dose dependent increases. All the doses of polysaccharide did affect the micronuclei frequency formation compared with the negative control. And also, the significant increase in inhibition rate of micronuclei frequency was observed with the increase of the dose of polysaccharide. It was showed maximum inhibition of micronuclei frequency cells (71.74% and 66.70%) at a concentration of 200g/mL in three experiments. The low molecular weight polysaccharide showed higher inhibition rate than raw polysaccharide at the higher concentration (50g/mL) in the absence of sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet. It was confirmed to be a good mutant inhibitor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Extraction, characterisation and antioxidant activity of Allium sativum polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hao; Huang, Gangliang

    2018-07-15

    Extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Allium sativum were investigated. The crude polysaccharide was obtained by the hot-water extraction method. The molecular weight of polysaccharide deproteinized with CaCl 2 was 7.35×10 3 . It indicated that polysaccharide from Allium sativum consisted of three monosaccharides, namely fructose, glucose, and galactose by HPLC. The polysaccharide had the β-glycosidic bond. Moreover, it was proved that the polysaccharide had the potential scavenging ability to superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. So, it should be a potential antioxidant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural analysis of cell wall polysaccharides using PACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortimer, Jennifer C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint BioEnergy Institute

    2017-01-01

    The plant cell wall is composed of many complex polysaccharides. The composition and structure of the polysaccharides affect various cell properties including cell shape, cell function and cell adhesion. Many techniques to characterize polysaccharide structure are complicated, requiring expensive equipment and specialized operators e.g. NMR, MALDI-MS. PACE (Polysaccharide Analysis using Carbohydrate gel Electrophoresis) uses a simple, rapid technique to analyze polysaccharide quantity and structure (Goubet et al. 2002). Whilst the method here describes xylan analysis, it can be applied (by use of the appropriate glycosyl hydrolase) to any cell wall polysaccharide.

  3. Radical scavenging activity of crude polysaccharides from Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A preparation of crude polysaccharides (TPS was isolated from Camellia sinensis by precipitation and ultrafiltration. TPS1, TPS2, and TPS3 had molecular weights of 240, 21.4, and 2.46 kDa, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of TPS were evaluated by DPPH free radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging. These results revealed that TPS exhibited strong radical scavenging activity in a concentration-dependent manner. TPS3 with lowest molecular weight showed a higher radical scavenging activity.

  4. Immunomodulatory Polysaccharide from Chlorophytum borivilianum Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau & Fernandes (Liliaceae is an ayurvedic Rasayana herb with immunostimulating properties. The polysaccharide fraction (CBP derived from hot water extraction of C. borivilianum (CB, comprising of ~31% inulin-type fructans and ~25% acetylated mannans (of hot water-soluble extract, was evaluated for its effect on natural killer (NK cell activity (in vitro. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, isolated from whole blood on a Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient, were tested in the presence or absence of varying concentrations of each C. borivilianum fraction for modulation of NK cell cytotoxic activity toward K562 cells. Preliminary cytotoxicity evaluation against P388 cells was performed to establish non-cytotoxic concentrations of the different fractions. Testing showed the observed significant stimulation of NK cell activity to be due to the CBP of C. borivilianum. Furthermore, in vivo evaluation carried out on Wistar strain albino rats for humoral response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs and immunoglobulin-level determination using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, exhibited an effectiveness of C. borivilianum aqueous extract in improving immune function. Present results provide useful information for understanding the role of CBP in modulating immune function.

  5. Ice nucleation activity of polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichler, Magdalena; Felgitsch, Laura; Haeusler, Thomas; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is an important process in the atmosphere. It shows direct impact on our climate by triggering ice cloud formation and therefore it has much influence on the radiation balance of our planet (Lohmann et al. 2002; Mishchenko et al. 1996). The process itself is not completely understood so far and many questions remain open. Different substances have been found to exhibit ice nucleation activity (INA). Due to their vast differences in chemistry and morphology it is difficult to predict what substance will make good ice nuclei and which will not. Hence simple model substances must be found and be tested regarding INA. Our work aims at gaining to a deeper understanding of heterogeneous ice nucleation. We intend to find some reference standards with defined chemistry, which may explain the mechanisms of heterogeneous ice nucleation. A particular focus lies on biological carbohydrates in regards to their INA. Biological carbohydrates are widely distributed in all kingdoms of life. Mostly they are specific for certain organisms and have well defined purposes, e.g. structural polysaccharides like chitin (in fungi and insects) and pectin (in plants), which has also water-binding properties. Since they are widely distributed throughout our biosphere and mostly safe to use for nutrition purposes, they are well studied and easily accessible, rendering them ideal candidates as proxies. In our experiments we examined various carbohydrates, like the already mentioned chitin and pectin, as well as their chemical modifications. Lohmann U.; A Glaciation Indirect Aerosol Effect Caused by Soot Aerosols; J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 24 No.4; pp 11-1 - 11-4; 2002 Mishchenko M.I., Rossow W.B., Macke A., Lacis A. A.; Sensitivity of Cirrus Cloud Albedo, Bidirectional Reflectance and Optical Thickness Retrieval Accuracy to Ice Particle Shape, J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 101, No D12; pp. 16,973 - 16,985; 1996

  6. Photochemistry of Fe(Iii)-Carboxylates in Polysaccharide-Based Materials with Tunable Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammanco, Giuseppe E.

    We present the formulation and study of light-responsive materials based on carboxylate-containing polysaccharides. The functional groups in these natural polymers allow for strong interactions with transition metal ions such as Fe(III). The known photochemistry of hydroxycarboxylic acids in natural waters inspired us in exploring the visible light induced photochemistry of the carboxylates in these polysaccharides when coordinated to Fe(III) ions. Described in this dissertation are the design and characterization of the Fe(III)-polysaccharide materials, specifically the mechanistic aspects of the photochemistry and the effects that these reactions have on the structure of the polymer materials. We present a study of the quantitative photochemistry of different polysaccharide systems, where the presence of uronic acids was important for the photoreaction to take place. Alginate (Alg), pectate (Pec), hyaluronic acid (Hya), xanthan gum (Xan), and a polysaccharide extracted from the Noni fruit (NoniPs), were among the natural uronic acid-containing polysaccharide (UCPS) systems we analyzed. Potato starch, lacking of uronate groups, did not present any photochemistry in the presence of Fe(III); however, we were able to induce a photochemical response in this polysaccharide upon chemical manipulation of its functional groups. Important structure-function relationships were drawn from this study. The uronate moiety present in these polysaccharides is then envisioned as a tool to induce response to light in a variety of materials. Following this approach, we report the formulation of materials for controlled drug release, able to encapsulate and release different drug models only upon illumination with visible light. Furthermore, hybrid hydrogels were prepared from UPCS and non-responsive polymers. Different properties of these materials could be tuned by controlling the irradiation time, intensity and location. These hybrid gels were evaluated as scaffolds for tissue

  7. Post Approval Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Uptake Is Higher in Minorities Compared to Whites in Girls Presenting for Well-Child Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Modesitt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Since introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine, there remains low uptake compared to other adolescent vaccines. There is limited information postapproval about parental attitudes and barriers when presenting for routine care. This study evaluates HPV vaccine uptake and assesses demographics and attitudes correlating with vaccination for girls aged 11–12 years. A prospective cohort study was performed utilizing the University of Virginia (UVA Clinical Data Repository (CDR. The CDR was used to identify girls aged 11–12 presenting to any UVA practice for a well-child visit between May 2008 and April 2009. Billing data were searched to determine rates of HPV vaccine uptake. The parents of all identified girls were contacted four to seven months after the visit to complete a telephone questionnaire including insurance information, child’s vaccination status, HPV vaccine attitudes, and demographics. Five hundred and fifty girls were identified, 48.2% of whom received at least one HPV vaccine dose. White race and private insurance were negatively associated with HPV vaccine initiation (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.61–0.85 and RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.72–1.01, respectively. In the follow-up questionnaire, 242 interviews were conducted and included in the final cohort. In the sample, 183 (75.6% parents reported white race, 38 (15.7% black race, and 27 (11.2% reported other race. Overall 85% of parents understood that the HPV vaccine was recommended and 58.9% of parents believed the HPV vaccine was safe. In multivariate logistic regression, patients of black and other minority races were 4.9 and 4.2 times more likely to receive the HPV vaccine compared to their white counterparts. Safety concerns were the strongest barrier to vaccination. To conclude, HPV vaccine uptake was higher among minority girls and girls with public insurance in this cohort.

  8. Structural, functional and pH sensitive release characteristics of water-soluble polysaccharide from the seeds of Albizia lebbeck L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Varma, Chekuri Ashok; Jayaram Kumar, K

    2017-11-01

    Plant polysaccharides, generally regarded as safe (GRAS), are gaining importance as excipients in drug delivery. Therefore, the current paper presents the studies on structural, functional and drug release study of water soluble polysaccharide (ALPS) from seeds of Albizia lebbeck L. High swelling, water holding capacity, foam stability and lower moisture content suggests its use as additive in food preparations. The apparent molecular weight of polysaccharide was found to be 1.98×10 2 kDa. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that ALPS consists of mannose (4.06%), rhamnose (22.79%), glucose (38.9%), galactose (17.84%) and xylose (16.42%). Micromeritic properties revealed that the polysaccharide possess potential for pharmaceutical applications. From the surface charge analysis, ALPS was found to be non-ionic polysaccharide. Morphological study reveals the polysaccharide with irregular particle shape and rough surface. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study confirms the carbohydrate nature of polysaccharide. From the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data, the second mass loss (243-340°C) attributed to polysaccharide degradation. The drug release profile reveals the use of polysaccharide for the preparation of pH sensitive pharmaceutical dosage forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibitory Effects of Various Ratios of Polysaccharides/Alkaloids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and increases survival in endotoxemic mice. Acta. Pharmacol Sin ... secretion in hyperthyroid diarrheic rats. Regul Peptides ... effect of Coptis chinensis polysaccharide in high-fat diet ... polysaccharides decrease blood sugar by inhibition of α-.

  10. Three-Dimensional Structural Aspects of Protein–Polysaccharide Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Nagae

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear polysaccharides are typically composed of repeating mono- or disaccharide units and are ubiquitous among living organisms. Polysaccharide diversity arises from chain-length variation, branching, and additional modifications. Structural diversity is associated with various physiological functions, which are often regulated by cognate polysaccharide-binding proteins. Proteins that interact with linear polysaccharides have been identified or developed, such as galectins and polysaccharide-specific antibodies, respectively. Currently, data is accumulating on the three-dimensional structure of polysaccharide-binding proteins. These proteins are classified into two types: exo-type and endo-type. The former group specifically interacts with the terminal units of polysaccharides, whereas the latter with internal units. In this review, we describe the structural aspects of exo-type and endo-type protein-polysaccharide interactions. Further, we discuss the structural basis for affinity and specificity enhancement in the face of inherently weak binding interactions.

  11. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases from Myceliophthora thermophila C1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frommhagen, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Current developments aim at the effective enzymatic degradation of plant biomass polysaccharides into fermentable monosaccharides for biofuels and biochemicals. Recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxgygenases (LPMOs) boost the hydrolytic breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass, especially

  12. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide acetyltransferase, methods and compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, David S [Stone Mountain, GA; Gudlavalleti, Seshu K [Kensington, MD; Tzeng, Yih-Ling [Atlanta, GA; Datta, Anup K [San Diego, CA; Carlson, Russell W [Athens, GA

    2011-02-08

    Provided are methods for recombinant production of an O-acetyltransferase and methods for acetylating capsular polysaccharides, especially those of a Serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis using the recombinant O-acetyltransferase, and immunogenic compositions comprising the acetylated capsular polysaccharide.

  13. Thermo-mechanical and hydrophilic properties of polysaccharide/gluten-based bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate-Ramírez, L S; Romero, A; Bengoechea, C; Partal, P; Guerrero, A

    2014-11-04

    The influence of adding different polysaccharides (locust bean gum, LBG; methyl cellulose, MC; and carboxymethyl cellulose, CMC) to gluten-based biodegradable polymeric materials was assessed in this work. Gluten/polysaccharide/plasticiser bioplastics were prepared at different polysaccharide concentrations (0-4.5%) and pH values by mixing in a two-blade counter-rotating batch mixer (at 25 °C under adiabatic conditions) and thermomoulding at 9MPa and 130 °C. Bioplastic probes were evaluated through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, tensile strength and water absorption capacity tests. Results pointed out that a moderate enhancement of the network structure may be achieved by adding polysaccharide at a pH close to the protein isoelectric point (pH 6), which also conferred a further thermosetting capacity to the system. Moreover, the addition of MC and CMC was found to significantly enhance material elongation properties. However, the presence of charges induced by pH leaded to a higher incompatibility between the polysaccharide and protein domains forming the composite. The pH value played a relevant role in the material water absorption, which significantly increased under acidic or basic conditions (particularly at pH 3). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from spent Lentinus edodes substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongji; Tian, Li; Zhang, Lei; Bi, Jingxiu; Song, Qianqian; Yang, Hui; Qiao, Jianjun

    2018-06-01

    This study explored the potential of spent Lentinus edodes substrate, a by-product of mushroom industries causing environmental pollution, serving as materials to produce antioxidant polysaccharide. The extraction process of spent Lentinus edodes substrate polysaccharide (SLSP) was optimized and the effects of drying methods on chemical composition, morphological property and antioxidant activity were investigated. Results showed that freeze-dried SLSP (SLSP-F) exhibited the best quality in terms of the polysaccharide yield (13.00%) and antioxidant activity. The EC 50 values of SLSP-F on DPPH, ABTS and superoxide anion radicals was 0.051mg/mL, 0.379mg/mL, 0.719mg/mL, respectively, which was significantly lower than that of freeze-dried Lentinus edodes polysaccharide (LP-F). After purification by Sephadex G-150, the purified SLSP-F (PSP) has a molecular weight of 16.77kDa. Compared with LP-F, PSP has more reducing sugars and uronic acids in chemical composition and higher contents of xylose, glucose and galactose in monosaccharide composition. FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy analysis revealed that PSP has both α and β glycosidic bonds and massive acetyl groups, which is different from LP-F mainly composed of 1, 3 linked α-D-Manp residue with some acetyl groups. The findings provided a reliable approach for the development of antioxidant polysaccharide from spent Lentinus edodes substrate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Capsular Polysaccharide Expression in Commensal Streptococcus Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Sørensen, Uffe B; Yao, Kaihu; Yang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Expression of a capsular polysaccharide is considered a hallmark of most invasive species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which the capsule is among the principal virulence factors and is the basis for successful vaccines. Consequently, it was previously assumed that capsule....... pneumoniae evolved by import of cps fragments from commensal Streptococcus species, resulting in a mosaic of genes of different origins. The demonstrated antigenic identity of at least eight of the numerous capsular polysaccharide structures expressed by commensal streptococci with recognized serotypes of S...... of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is the basis for successful vaccines against infections caused by this important pathogen. Contrasting with previous assumptions, this study showed that expression of capsular polysaccharides by the same genetic mechanisms is a general property of closely related species...

  16. Extraction of polysaccharide from fruits of Cordia dichotoma G. Forst using acid precipitation method and its physicochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Harshal Ashok; Gavasane, Amit Jagannath; Choudhary, Pritam Dinesh

    2018-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to isolate and characterize polysaccharide from fruits of Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. (Family Boraginaceae). Polysaccharide was isolated by using 1% Hydrochloric acid solution. The isolated polysaccharide was tested for physicochemical characteristics such as solubility, pH (1% w/w in water), swelling capacity, loss on drying, ash value, bulk and tapped density, Carr's capacity, Hausner's ratio and angle of repose. Also isolated polysaccharide was characterized by Differential scanning colorimeter (DSC), Estimation of total sugar content, Rheological study and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The isolated mucilage showed positive results for Molisch's test and negative for Ruthenium red test which indicated presence of carbohydrate and gum. The result of physicochemical characteristics reveals that isolated Cordia dichotoma polysaccharide possesses good flow properties. The total polysaccharide content of Cordia dichotoma polymer isolate was found to be 86.24% (w/w). From this study it can be concluded that the polysaccharide isolated from Cordia dichotoma fruits has the required properties and could be used as an excipient for pharmaceutical dosage forms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. PolySac3DB: an annotated data base of 3 dimensional structures of polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Anita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polysaccharides are ubiquitously present in the living world. Their structural versatility makes them important and interesting components in numerous biological and technological processes ranging from structural stabilization to a variety of immunologically important molecular recognition events. The knowledge of polysaccharide three-dimensional (3D structure is important in studying carbohydrate-mediated host-pathogen interactions, interactions with other bio-macromolecules, drug design and vaccine development as well as material science applications or production of bio-ethanol. Description PolySac3DB is an annotated database that contains the 3D structural information of 157 polysaccharide entries that have been collected from an extensive screening of scientific literature. They have been systematically organized using standard names in the field of carbohydrate research into 18 categories representing polysaccharide families. Structure-related information includes the saccharides making up the repeat unit(s and their glycosidic linkages, the expanded 3D representation of the repeat unit, unit cell dimensions and space group, helix type, diffraction diagram(s (when applicable, experimental and/or simulation methods used for structure description, link to the abstract of the publication, reference and the atomic coordinate files for visualization and download. The database is accompanied by a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI. It features interactive displays of polysaccharide structures and customized search options for beginners and experts, respectively. The site also serves as an information portal for polysaccharide structure determination techniques. The web-interface also references external links where other carbohydrate-related resources are available. Conclusion PolySac3DB is established to maintain information on the detailed 3D structures of polysaccharides. All the data and features are available

  18. Polysaccharides from Dioscorea (山藥 Shān Yào and Other Phytochemicals Enhance Antitumor Effects Induced by DNA Vaccine Against Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chi Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvants can be used to enhance the immunogenicity of antigens and improve the efficacy of vaccines. Potent adjuvant action is known to often correlate with the activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB. Specific plant polysaccharides and a variety of phytochemicals from foods and traditional medicinal herbs have been shown to modulate NF-κB activation. In the present study, selected plant polysaccharides and phytochemicals were evaluated for use as a DNA vaccine adjuvant in a murine melanoma model. We observed that a specific ethanol extract fraction (DsCE-I from the tuber of a key Traditional Chinese Medicine plant, Dioscorea (山藥 Shān Yào, enhanced the protection against melanoma after immunization with a gene-based vaccine. A number of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals tested were able to partially diminish the inflammation-associated tumorigenesis elicited by LPS. Among the several phytochemical combinations investigated, the use of an adjuvant containing LPS in combination with emodin resulted in smaller tumors and higher survival rate in test mice than the use of other adjuvant treatments and the control sets in this DNA cancer vaccine model. A Dioscorea polysaccharide fraction (DsCE-I and several specific phytochemicals warrant further exploration as useful adjuvants for anticancer vaccines.

  19. Structural characteristics of polysaccharides from olive fruit cell walls in relation to ripening and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhuis, E.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: Olive fruit; olive oil; pectic polysaccharides; xyloglucans; xylans;

    enzyme preparations; phenolic compounds; processing; ripening

    Technical enzyme preparations can be used as processing aids in the olive oil industry to obtain a higher yield

  20. Regulation and diversity of plant polysaccharide utilisation in fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, E.

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous fungi obtain their nutrients by degrading dead or living plant material. Plant material consists of different cell wall and storage polysaccharides. Due to the complex structure and the variety of plant polysaccharides, filamentous fungi secrete a wide range of plant polysaccharide

  1. Polysaccharide characterization by hollow-fiber flow field-flow fractionation with on-line multi-angle static light scattering and differential refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Leena; Striegel, André M

    2015-02-06

    Accurate characterization of the molar mass and size of polysaccharides is an ongoing challenge, oftentimes due to architectural diversity but also to the broad molar mass (M) range over which a single polysaccharide can exist and to the ultra-high M of many polysaccharides. Because of the latter, many of these biomacromolecules experience on-column, flow-induced degradation during analysis by size-exclusion and, even, hydrodynamic chromatography (SEC and HDC, respectively). The necessity for gentler fractionation methods has, to date, been addressed employing asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). Here, we introduce the coupling of hollow-fiber flow field-flow fractionation (HF5) to multi-angle static light scattering (MALS) and differential refractometry (DRI) detection for the analysis of polysaccharides. In HF5, less stresses are placed on the macromolecules during separation than in SEC or HDC, and HF5 can offer a higher sensitivity, with less propensity for system overloading and analyte aggregation, than generally found in AF4. The coupling to MALS and DRI affords the determination of absolute, calibration-curve-independent molar mass averages and dispersities. Results from the present HF5/MALS/DRI experiments with dextrans, pullulans, and larch arabinogalactan were augmented with hydrodynamic radius (RH) measurements from off-line quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) and by RH distribution calculations and fractogram simulations obtained via a finite element analysis implementation of field-flow fractionation theory by commercially available software. As part of this study, we have investigated analyte recovery in HF5 and also possible reasons for discrepancies between calculated and simulated results vis-à-vis experimentally determined data. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Polysaccharide charge density regulating protein adsorption to air/water interfaces by protein/polysaccharide complex formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzevles, R.A.; Kosters, H.; Vliet, T. van; Stuart, M.A.C.; Jongh, H.H.J. de

    2007-01-01

    Because the formation of protein/polysaccharide complexes is dominated by electrostatic interaction, polysaccharide charge density is expected to play a major role in the adsorption behavior of the complexes. In this study, pullulan (a non-charged polysaccharide) carboxylated to four different

  3. Characterization of EDTA-soluble polysaccharides from the scape of Musa paradisiaca (banana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, T S; Jagadish, R L; Anjaneyalu, Y V

    2001-02-01

    The polysaccharide components present in the scape of Musa paradisiaca (banana) were fractionated into water-soluble (WSP), EDTA-soluble (EDTA-SP), alkali-soluble (ASP) and alkali-insoluble (AISP) polysaccharide fractions [Anjaneyalu, Jagadish and Raju (1997) Glycoconj. J. 14, 507-512]. The EDTA-SP was further fractionated by iso-amyl alcohol into EDTA-SP-A and EDTA-SP-B. The homogeneity of these two polysaccharides was established by repeated precipitation with iso-amyl alcohol, gel-filtration chromatography and sedimentation analysis. The polysaccharides were characterized by monosaccharide composition analysis, methylation linkage analysis, iodine affinity, ferricyanide number, blue value, hydrolysis with alpha-amylase, gold-electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Data from all of these studies suggest that EDTA-SP-A is a branched amylose-type alpha-D-glucan and that EDTA-SP-B is a highly branched amylopectin-type polymer. The nature of the branching patterns of these polysaccharides suggests that they are unique to M. paradisiaca.

  4. Chemical profile of a polysaccharide from Psidium guajava leaves and it's in vivo antitussive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawas, Sadhana; Sivová, Veronika; Anand, Namrata; Bera, Kaushik; Ray, Bimalendu; Nosáľová, Gabriela; Ray, Sayani

    2018-04-01

    Decoction of Psidium guajava leaves has been used as medication for chronic coughs and breathlessness for ages. Despite demonstration of antitussive activity, the specific molecule responsible for this remains unidentified. Herein, we report chemical profile and antitussive activity of its water extract (WE) and a polysaccharide (F1) present therein. This polysaccharide (F1), purified from WE by precipitation with ethanol and then through Cu(II)acetate, contains Ara, Gal, Rha, Glc and GalA residues, and has a molecular mass of 156 kDa. It comprises of terminal-, (1,5)- and (1,3,5)-linked Araf; (1,3)-, (1,6)- and (1,3,6)-linked Galp alongside (1,2)- and (1,2,4)-linked Rhap residues. Oligosaccharides indicating polysaccharide structure have been generated by Smith degradation and characterized. The WE fraction suppressed citric acid induced cough efforts in guinea pigs in the dose of 50 mg kg -1 . Assessment of antitussive activity of fractions prepared from WE namely F1 (polysaccharide) and F2 (ethanol soluble fraction) revealed that polysaccharide is the active component. Remarkably, tested samples do not alter the specific airway smooth muscle reactivity in animals significantly. The simple extraction method, prominent activity and favorable reactions profile suggest that this macromolecule could be an antitussive drug candidate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Seaweed Polysaccharide-Based Nanoparticles: Preparation and Applications for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Venkatesan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been major advances and increasing amounts of research on the utilization of natural polymeric materials as drug delivery vehicles due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. Seaweed polysaccharides are abundant resources and have been extensively studied for several biological, biomedical, and functional food applications. The exploration of seaweed polysaccharides for drug delivery applications is still in its infancy. Alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, ulvan, and laminarin are polysaccharides commonly isolated from seaweed. These natural polymers can be converted into nanoparticles (NPs by different types of methods, such as ionic gelation, emulsion, and polyelectrolyte complexing. Ionic gelation and polyelectrolyte complexing are commonly employed by adding cationic molecules to these anionic polymers to produce NPs of a desired shape, size, and charge. In the present review, we have discussed the preparation of seaweed polysaccharide-based NPs using different types of methods as well as their usage as carriers for the delivery of various therapeutic molecules (e.g., proteins, peptides, anti-cancer drugs, and antibiotics. Seaweed polysaccharide-based NPs exhibit suitable particle size, high drug encapsulation, and sustained drug release with high biocompatibility, thereby demonstrating their high potential for safe and efficient drug delivery.

  6. Effect of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sholly, D.M.; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Sutton, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to study the impact of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the small intestine and total tract of growing pigs. Eight pigs (initial BW, 34.5 ± 0.9 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin...... of polysaccharides and other macronutrients at the ileum and in feces to a larger extent for barley than wheat....

  7. Polysaccharide coating of human corneal endothelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroder, H D; Sperling, S

    1977-01-01

    Electron microscopy revealed the presence of a 600-1500 A thick layer of polysaccharide on the surface of human corneal endothelial cells. The surface layer was visualized by combined fixation and staining in a mixture of ruthenium red and osmium tetroxide. The coating material was stable for at ...... for at least 39 h post mortem and was retained on disintegrating cells....

  8. Bacillus subtilis biofilm induction by plant polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, Pascale B; Chai, Yunrong; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-04-23

    Bacillus subtilis is a plant-beneficial Gram-positive bacterium widely used as a biofertilizer. However, relatively little is known regarding the molecular processes underlying this bacterium's ability to colonize roots. In contrast, much is known about how this bacterium forms matrix-enclosed multicellular communities (biofilms) in vitro. Here, we show that, when B. subtilis colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots it forms biofilms that depend on the same matrix genes required in vitro. B. subtilis biofilm formation was triggered by certain plant polysaccharides. These polysaccharides served as a signal for biofilm formation transduced via the kinases controlling the phosphorylation state of the master regulator Spo0A. In addition, plant polysaccharides are used as a source of sugars for the synthesis of the matrix exopolysaccharide. The bacterium's response to plant polysaccharides was observed across several different strains of the species, some of which are known to have beneficial effects on plants. These observations provide evidence that biofilm genes are crucial for Arabidopsis root colonization by B. subtilis and provide insights into how matrix synthesis may be triggered by this plant.

  9. Therapeutic role of glucogalactan polysaccharide extracted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... Neurotransmitters and nitric oxide were significantly increased in the group given GA treatment compared to TMT .... Fractionation was performed by precipitating with ammonium sulfate. ..... deleterious effects of nitrogen reactive species accumula- .... Studies on the production of sulfated polysaccharide by.

  10. Preparation and antidiabetic activity of polysaccharide from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extraction parameters of polysaccharide from Portulaca oleracea L. (POP) and antidiabetic activity of POP on alloxan induced diabetic mice were studied. Better extraction parameters of POP were obtained by the single factor test, as follows: extraction temperature 95°C, extraction time 5 h, and ratio of solvent to raw ...

  11. Extraction optimization and characterization of polysaccharide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the optimum extraction conditions of polysaccharides from Pinellia Rhizoma (PRP) and their antioxidant activities. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the water extraction conditions of PRP by Box-Benhnken design (BBD). A high performance liquid ...

  12. Enzymatic production of polysaccharides from gum tragacanth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Plant polysaccharides, relating to the field of natural probiotic components, can comprise structures similar to human milk oligosaccharides. A method for enzymatic hydrolysis of gum tragacanth from the bush-like legumes of the genus Astragalus, using a combination of pectin hydrolases...

  13. Plant-Polysaccharide-Degrading Enzymes from Basidiomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Yuzon, Jennifer; Hatakka, Annele; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Basidiomycete fungi subsist on various types of plant material in diverse environments, from living and dead trees and forest litter to crops and grasses and to decaying plant matter in soils. Due to the variation in their natural carbon sources, basidiomycetes have highly varied plant-polysaccharide-degrading capabilities. This topic is not as well studied for basidiomycetes as for ascomycete fungi, which are the main sources of knowledge on fungal plant polysaccharide degradation. Research on plant-biomass-decaying fungi has focused on isolating enzymes for current and future applications, such as for the production of fuels, the food industry, and waste treatment. More recently, genomic studies of basidiomycete fungi have provided a profound view of the plant-biomass-degrading potential of wood-rotting, litter-decomposing, plant-pathogenic, and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) basidiomycetes. This review summarizes the current knowledge on plant polysaccharide depolymerization by basidiomycete species from diverse habitats. In addition, these data are compared to those for the most broadly studied ascomycete genus, Aspergillus, to provide insight into specific features of basidiomycetes with respect to plant polysaccharide degradation. PMID:25428937

  14. Enzymatic production of hyaluronan oligo- and polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, F.K.

    2010-01-01

    Hyaluronan oligo- and polysaccharides are abundant in the human body. Depending on the chain length, hyaluronan is an important structural component or is involved in influencing cell responses during embryonic development, healing processes, inflammation and cancer. Due to these diverse roles of

  15. Radiation degradation of marine polysaccharides by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    The radiation degradations of marine polysaccharides by both gamma Co-60 and electron beam irradiations are investigated. Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides can be produced by degradation of corresponding polysaccharides including marine polysaccharides such as alginates, chitin chitosan and carrageenan. The viscosity of alginate, chitosan and carrageenan solution decreases markedly with increase of the low energy electron beam irradiation time and the beam current. Furthermore, the viscosity is reduced sharply in short time for polysaccharide solution with low concentration, for instance carrageenan solution of 1%. (author)

  16. Biodegradation of bacterial polysaccharides adsorbed on montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guckert, A.; Tok, H.H.; Jacquin, F.

    1977-01-01

    In this research, by means of a model, a study was made of the biodegradation of microbial organic compounds adsorbed on clays, with a parallel experiment on Fontainebleau sand serving as the control. During incubation the three classes of organic matter ( 14 C-labelled glucose, 14 C-labelled polysaccharides and 14 C-labelled microbial cells) mineralize more actively in the presence of sand than in the presence of clay, since the latter provides protection against biodegradation. Mineralization of the adsorbed organic compounds, however, is marked by clear-cut differences after three weeks - glucose (55%)>polysaccharides (43%)>microbial organisms (7.3%). After incubation, chemical extraction of the organo-mineral complexes by alkaline solvents shows only water-soluble and alkali-soluble products in the case of sand; conversely, in that of montmorillonite the bulk of the 14 C was found in the non-extractable fraction or humin (18.1% of the initial 14 C for glucose, 27.3% for the polysaccharides, and 67.6% for the microbial organisms). A second incubation carried out after a phase in which there was drying and remoistening of the organo-mineral complexes, brings to light the important part played by climatic alternations during the biodegradation process. A new mineralization phase is observed, affecting more the bacterial organisms (14.1%) than the polysaccharides (6.3%), with the glucose-base complexes occupying an intermediate position (11.2%). The chemical fractioning of the organo-mineral complexes following re-incubation shows the stability of 14 C in humin very clearly, especially in the case of polysaccharides, where the mineralization phase relates primarily to the products extractable with alkalis. (author)

  17. Chemical Constituents and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharides from Four Typical Bamboo Species Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Zhang Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to find bamboo leaves with high contents of bioactive polysaccharides, 32 samples were chosen to analyze their polysaccharide content by GC and sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetric assays. Purified polysaccharides (BLPS were separated from the four varieties P. nigra (Lodd. Munro (PN, P. vivax McClure (PV, Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (Fenzi Makino (CQ, and P. bambussoides cv. Tanakae (PB by ultrasound extraction, solution precipitation, ion exchange resin, DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. BLPS structural characterization was accomplished by HPLC-GPC, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR and NaIO4-HIO4 oxidation reactions. The results showed that the total polysaccharides of the bamboo leaves in samples 1–32 ranged between 1.4% and 5.4%, Samples No. 29–No. 32 (PN, PV, CQ, and PB contained 2–3 fold more polysaccharides than No. 1~No. 28 among the 32 different species, particularly the content of galactose was in a range of 21.5%–34.1% for these four typical bamboo species leaves, which was also more than 2–3 fold higher than in No. 1–No. 28. Sugar analysis indicated that PN-PBLPS-1, PV-PBLPS-1, CQ-PBLPS-1 and PB-PBLPS-1 from the four varieties were homogeneous polysaccharides with molecular weights of 2.04 × 104, 1.15 × 104, 8.75 × 104 and 1.48 × 104 Da, respectively. PB-PBLPS-1 was a mixture of α-galactopyranose and β-d-glucopyranose linkages with α-(1→6 or β-(1→6glycosidic bonds, while PN-PBLPS-1, PV-PBLPS-1, and CQ-PBLPS-1 had α galactopyranose linkages with α-(1→6 glycosidic bonds.

  18. Effects of light wavelengths on extracellular and capsular polysaccharide production by Nostoc flagelliforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pei-pei; Sun, Ying; Jia, Shi-ru; Zhong, Cheng; Tan, Zhi-lei

    2014-05-25

    The influences of different wavelengths of light (red 660nm, yellow 590nm, green 520nm, blue 460nm, purple 400nm) and white light on extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) production by Nostoc flagelliforme in liquid culture were demonstrated in this study. The results showed that, compared with white light, red and blue lights significantly increased both EPS and CPS production while yellow light reduced their production; purple and green lights stimulated EPS production but inhibited CPS formation. Nine constituent monosaccharides and one uronic acid were detected in both EPS and CPS, and their ratios showed significant differences among treatment with different light wavelengths. However, the advanced structure of EPS and CPS from various light conditions did not present obvious difference through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction characterization. These findings establish a basis for development of high-yielding polysaccharide production process and understanding their regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biocatalytic cross-linking of pectic polysaccharides for designed food functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz Abang; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    the mechanisms of formation of functional pectic polysaccharide cross-links, including covalent cross-links (notably phenolic esters and uronyl ester linkages) and non-covalent, ionic cross-links (which involve calcium and borate ester links). The treatise examines how such cross-links can be designed via......Recent research has demonstrated how cross-linking of pectic polysaccharides to obtain gel formation can be promoted by enzymatic catalysis reactions, and provide opportunities for functional upgrading of pectic polysaccharides present in agro-industrial sidestreams. This review highlights...... specific enzymatic reactions, and highlights the most recent data concerning enzyme catalyzed engineering of cross-links for in situ structural design of functional properties of foods....

  20. Effect of growth conditions on production of rhamnose-containing cell wall and capsular polysaccharides by strains of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicken, A J; Ayres, A; Campbell, L K; Knox, K W

    1983-01-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus possessing two cell wall polysaccharides, a hexosamine-containing H-polysaccharide and a rhamnose-containing R-polysaccharide, were examined for the effect of growth conditions on the production of these two components. In strain NCTC 6375, R- and H-polysaccharides accounted for an estimated 44 and 20%, respectively, of the cell wall for organisms grown in batch culture with glucose as the carbohydrate source. Growth on fructose-containing media reduced the amount of R-polysaccharide by approximately 50% without affecting the amount of H-polysaccharide. Subculture of fructose-grown organisms in glucose restored the original proportions of the two polysaccharides. Galactose- and sucrose-grown cells behaved similarly to glucose-grown cells with respect to polysaccharide production, whereas growth in rhamnose or ribose showed values close to those for fructose-grown cells. Continuous culture of strain NCTC 6375 for more than 100 generations showed a gradual and irreversible reduction of the R-polysaccharide to less than 5% of the cell wall and an increase of the H-polysaccharide to 40% of the cell wall. Other type culture strains of L. casei subsp. rhamnosus, NCIB 7473 and ATCC 7469, behaved similarly in batch and continuous culture. In contrast, strains of L. casei subsp. rhamnosus isolated at the Institute of Dental Research showed phenotypic stability with respect to the relative proportions of R- and H-polysaccharides in both batch and continuous culture. Changes in polysaccharide composition of type culture strains were also mirrored in changes in the immunogenicity of the two components and resistance to the rate of enzymic lysis of whole organisms. For L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strain NCTC 10302 the R-polysaccharide is present entirely as capsular material. The amount of R-polysaccharide produced was also markedly dependent on the carbohydrate component of the medium in batch culture and both dilution rate and

  1. Definition and characterization of enzymes for maximal biocatalytic solubilization of prebiotic polysaccharides from potato pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Larsen, Dorte Møller; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2011-01-01

    of these polysaccharides from the potato pulp. The pH and temperature optima of two selected pectin lyases from Emericella nidulans (formerly known as Aspergillus nidulans) and Aspergillus niger were determined to 8.6 and 4.0, respectively, at ≥100°C within 1min of reaction. The optima for the two selected......Potato pulp is a high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I polysaccharides, which are highly bifidogenic when solubilized. The objective of the present study...

  2. Application of electron beam on natural polymer systems. Viscose rayon and polysaccharide derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudoh, Hisaaki

    2003-01-01

    Application of electron accelerator on natural polymers, viscose rayon and polysaccharide derivatives is presented. In Canada at AECL, a high-energy (10 MeV) electron linear accelerator named IMPELA was used to reduce and control molecular weight of cellulose. Recently, under UNDP/RCA/IAEA project, Asian countries had a cooperated research program on this subject. Kinetics of radiation chemistry of polysaccharide derivatives is under investigation by means of pulse radiolysis with a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator. Rate constants between polymers and hydrated electron etc., and characteristics of very long-lived polymer radical were reported. (author)

  3. Three kinds of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides attenuate DDC-induced chronic pancreatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Koukou; Yu, Min; Hu, Yang; Ren, Guangming; Zang, Tingting; Xu, Xiuhong; Qu, Juanjuan

    2016-03-05

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive inflammation of pancreas characterized by irreversible morphologic change and dysfunction. Patients with chronic pancreatitis often present with abdominal pain, diarrhoea, jaundice, weight loss and the development of diabetes. Polysaccharides of Ganoderma lucidum strain S3 (GLPS3) possess antioxidative and immunomodulatory activities. This study was to characterize chemical structures of GLPS3 and determine their effects on diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC)-induced CP in mice. The total sugar content of GLPS3 from fermentation broth (GLPS3-Ⅰ), cultured mycelia (GLPS3-Ⅱ) and fruiting body (GLPS3-Ⅲ) was 90.4%, 92.2% and 91.8% respectively. GLPS3-Ⅰ, GLPS3-Ⅱ and GLPS3-Ⅲ were composed of Glu:Gal:Ara:Xyl, Glu:Gal:Ara:Xyl:Man:Rha, and Glu:Gal:Xyl:Man:Rha:Fuc, with molar ratio of 2.82: 1.33: 1.26: 0.87, 5.84: 2.23: 0.72:1.38: 1.40: 0.51 and 5.34: 2.72: 1.14: 1.10: 0.33: 0.38, respectively. The antioxidative activity of GLPS3-Ⅱfrom cultured mycelia in vitro is higher than other two polysaccharides. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in serum were increased while the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were reversely decreased by GLPS3 treatment. Serum amylase (AMS) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) changes indicated the therapeutic effects of GLPS3. Moreover, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and interferon-gamma (INF-γ) contents were reduced most by GLPS3-Ⅱ. The results revealed that GLPS3 especially GLPS3-Ⅱfrom cultured mycelia were effective for CP therapy and bioactivity difference might be attributed to monosaccharide composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacterial community dynamics during polysaccharide degradation at contrasting sites in the Southern and Atlantic Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietz, Matthias; Wemheuer, Bernd; Simon, Heike; Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Seibt, Maren A; Daniel, Rolf; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Simon, Meinhard

    2015-10-01

    The bacterial degradation of polysaccharides is central to marine carbon cycling, but little is known about the bacterial taxa that degrade specific marine polysaccharides. Here, bacterial growth and community dynamics were studied during the degradation of the polysaccharides chitin, alginate and agarose in microcosm experiments at four contrasting locations in the Southern and Atlantic Oceans. At the Southern polar front, chitin-supplemented microcosms were characterized by higher fractions of actively growing cells and a community shift from Alphaproteobacteria to Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. At the Antarctic ice shelf, chitin degradation was associated with growth of Bacteroidetes, with 24% higher cell numbers compared with the control. At the Patagonian continental shelf, alginate and agarose degradation covaried with growth of different Alteromonadaceae populations, each with specific temporal growth patterns. At the Mauritanian upwelling, only the alginate hydrolysis product guluronate was consumed, coincident with increasing abundances of Alteromonadaceae and possibly cross-feeding SAR11. 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries indicated that growth of the Bacteroidetes-affiliated genus Reichenbachiella was stimulated by chitin at all cold and temperate water stations, suggesting comparable ecological roles over wide geographical scales. Overall, the predominance of location-specific patterns showed that bacterial communities from contrasting oceanic biomes have members with different potentials to hydrolyse polysaccharides. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Astragalus membranaceus-Polysaccharides Ameliorates Obesity, Hepatic Steatosis, Neuroinflammation and Cognition Impairment without Affecting Amyloid Deposition in Metabolically Stressed APPswe/PS1dE9 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Cheng Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus membranaceus is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for strengthening the host defense system. Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides is an effective component with various important bioactivities, such as immunomodulation, antioxidant, anti-diabetes, anti-inflammation and neuroprotection. In the present study, we determine the effects of Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides on metabolically stressed transgenic mice in order to develop this macromolecules for treatment of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease, a neurodegenerative disease with metabolic risk factors. Transgenic mice, at 10 weeks old prior to the appearance of senile plaques, were treated in combination of administrating high-fat diet and injecting low-dose streptozotocin to create the metabolically stressed mice model. Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides was administrated starting at 14 weeks for 7 weeks. We found that Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides reduced metabolic stress-induced increase of body weight, insulin and insulin and leptin level, insulin resistance, and hepatic triglyceride. Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides also ameliorated metabolic stress-exacerbated oral glucose intolerance, although the fasting blood glucose was only temporally reduced. In brain, metabolic stress-elicited astrogliosis and microglia activation in the vicinity of plaques was also diminished by Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides administration. The plaque deposition, however, was not significantly affected by Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides administration. These findings suggest that Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides may be used to ameliorate metabolic stress-induced diabesity and the subsequent neuroinflammation, which improved the behavior performance in metabolically stressed transgenic mice.

  6. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation presenting with steroid-responsive higher brain dysfunction: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeda Yasushi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 56-year-old man noticed discomfort in his left lower limb, followed by convulsion and numbness in the same area. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed white matter lesions in the right parietal lobe accompanied by leptomeningeal or leptomeningeal and cortical post-contrast enhancement along the parietal sulci. The patient also exhibited higher brain dysfunction corresponding with the lesions on MRI. Histological pathology disclosed β-amyloid in the blood vessels and perivascular inflammation, which highlights the diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA-related inflammation. Pulse steroid therapy was so effective that clinical and radiological findings immediately improved. CAA-related inflammation is a rare disease, defined by the deposition of amyloid proteins within the leptomeningeal and cortical arteries associated with vasculitis or perivasculitis. Here we report a patient with CAA-related inflammation who showed higher brain dysfunction that improved with steroid therapy. In cases with atypical radiological lesions like our case, cerebral biopsy with histological confirmation remains necessary for an accurate diagnosis.

  7. 2-Fluoro-L-Fucose Is a Metabolically Incorporated Inhibitor of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharide Fucosylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A Villalobos

    Full Text Available The monosaccharide L-fucose (L-Fuc is a common component of plant cell wall polysaccharides and other plant glycans, including the hemicellulose xyloglucan, pectic rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I and rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II, arabinogalactan proteins, and N-linked glycans. Mutations compromising the biosynthesis of many plant cell wall polysaccharides are lethal, and as a result, small molecule inhibitors of plant cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis have been developed because these molecules can be applied at defined concentrations and developmental stages. In this study, we characterize novel small molecule inhibitors of plant fucosylation. 2-fluoro-L-fucose (2F-Fuc analogs caused severe growth phenotypes when applied to Arabidopsis seedlings, including reduced root growth and altered root morphology. These phenotypic defects were dependent upon the L-Fuc salvage pathway enzyme L-Fucose Kinase/ GDP-L-Fucose Pyrophosphorylase (FKGP, suggesting that 2F-Fuc is metabolically converted to the sugar nucleotide GDP-2F-Fuc, which serves as the active inhibitory molecule. The L-Fuc content of cell wall matrix polysaccharides was reduced in plants treated with 2F-Fuc, suggesting that this molecule inhibits the incorporation of L-Fuc into these polysaccharides. Additionally, phenotypic defects induced by 2F-Fuc treatment could be partially relieved by the exogenous application of boric acid, suggesting that 2F-Fuc inhibits RG-II biosynthesis. Overall, the results presented here suggest that 2F-Fuc is a metabolically incorporated inhibitor of plant cellular fucosylation events, and potentially suggest that other 2-fluorinated monosaccharides could serve as useful chemical probes for the inhibition of cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis.

  8. Antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo of the polysaccharides from different varieties of Auricularia auricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Siqi; Zhang, Yongjun; Jiang, Kan

    2016-09-14

    In this study, five different kinds of polysaccharides (AAP1, AAP2, AAP3, AAP4, and AAP5) were extracted from different varieties of Auricularia auricula through an alkali extraction process. Furthermore, the crude polysaccharides were deproteinized by the Sevag method. Auricularia auricula produced in the Shanxi province had the highest content of polysaccharide, 53.02%. The monosaccharide composition was determined by the GC method. Their antioxidant capacities in vitro were assessed by radical-scavenging capacity (DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals), metal chelating ability and reducing-power methods. In addition, the evaluation of their antioxidant effects in vivo was performed using the C. elegans model. The yield of crude polysaccharides, monosaccharide composition and antioxidant activity of Auricularia auricula polysaccharides (AAPs) were different among samples from various sources. Among them, the strongest antioxidant activity was shown for AAP1, consisting of arabinose, xylose, 2-deoxy-d-glucose, mannose, glucose, and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine with the molar ratio of 1 : 0.44 : 0.33 : 1.67 : 1 : 0.17. It could scavenge free radicals, up-regulate stress-resistance-related enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 70.04 ± 8.75% and CAT by 117.32 ± 8.06% and reduce the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C. elegans under oxidative stress. The present results suggested that variety was an important factor that affects the antioxidant activity of A. auricula polysaccharides.

  9. An inventory of factors that affect polysaccharide production by Phaeocystis globosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijssel, M.; Janse, I.; Noordkamp, D. J. B.; Gieskes, W. W. C.

    2000-08-01

    Phaeocystis material contains polysaccharides that are built from at least eight different monosaccharides. Differences have been reported between the carbohydrate composition of different Phaeocystis species, and also between samples taken from Phaeocystis globosa blooms in different areas. In order to elucidate factors that could play a role in determining variation in carbohydrate composition and production, a number of Phaeocystis globosa strains were studied under laboratory conditions. Although there was a clear distinction of a northern and a southern cluster in the Phaeocystis globosa strains based on RAPD analysis, the differences in the composition of the mucopolysaccharides were relatively small. The contribution of glucose, however, ranged from 7-85% of total sugars. A strain that was cultured in seawaters of diverse origin produced polysaccharides of a different composition, suggesting the effect of environmental factors. The presence of bacteria affected neither the amount, nor the composition of the carbohydrates that were produced by Phaeocystis globosa. Glucose is part of both the intracellular polysaccharide pool and of the mucopolysaccharides in the colony matrix. Using specific digestion of the intracellular chrysolaminaran by laminarinase, the distribution of polysaccharides over different pools could be assessed. During growth of an axenic, mucus-producing strain, the portion of glucose present as chrysolaminaran appeared to increase. The polyglucose that was not digested by laminarinase remains unidentified. This study shows that environmental factors rather than strain differences determine differences in the sugar composition of Phaeocystis globosa, especially with respect to the glucose content of the material. A difference in the contribution of glucose could be correlated to the portion of cells in the culture that are not in the colonies. Our study emphasises that for studying polysaccharide dynamics in Phaeocystis globosa it is

  10. 2-Fluoro-L-Fucose Is a Metabolically Incorporated Inhibitor of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharide Fucosylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ian S.

    2015-01-01

    The monosaccharide L-fucose (L-Fuc) is a common component of plant cell wall polysaccharides and other plant glycans, including the hemicellulose xyloglucan, pectic rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) and rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II), arabinogalactan proteins, and N-linked glycans. Mutations compromising the biosynthesis of many plant cell wall polysaccharides are lethal, and as a result, small molecule inhibitors of plant cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis have been developed because these molecules can be applied at defined concentrations and developmental stages. In this study, we characterize novel small molecule inhibitors of plant fucosylation. 2-fluoro-L-fucose (2F-Fuc) analogs caused severe growth phenotypes when applied to Arabidopsis seedlings, including reduced root growth and altered root morphology. These phenotypic defects were dependent upon the L-Fuc salvage pathway enzyme L-Fucose Kinase/ GDP-L-Fucose Pyrophosphorylase (FKGP), suggesting that 2F-Fuc is metabolically converted to the sugar nucleotide GDP-2F-Fuc, which serves as the active inhibitory molecule. The L-Fuc content of cell wall matrix polysaccharides was reduced in plants treated with 2F-Fuc, suggesting that this molecule inhibits the incorporation of L-Fuc into these polysaccharides. Additionally, phenotypic defects induced by 2F-Fuc treatment could be partially relieved by the exogenous application of boric acid, suggesting that 2F-Fuc inhibits RG-II biosynthesis. Overall, the results presented here suggest that 2F-Fuc is a metabolically incorporated inhibitor of plant cellular fucosylation events, and potentially suggest that other 2-fluorinated monosaccharides could serve as useful chemical probes for the inhibition of cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis. PMID:26414071

  11. Identification of key genes involved in polysaccharide bioflocculant synthesis in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Liu, Peize; Li, Zhipeng; Yu, Wencheng; Wang, Zhi; Yao, Haosheng; Wang, Yuanpeng; Li, Qingbiao; Deng, Xu; He, Ning

    2017-03-01

    The present study reports the sequenced genome of Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC 2876, which is composed of a 4,284,461 bp chromosome that contains 4,188 protein-coding genes, 72 tRNA genes, and 21 rRNA genes. Additional analysis revealed an eps gene cluster with 16 open reading frames. Conserved Domains Database analysis combined with qPCR experiments indicated that all genes in this cluster were involved in polysaccharide bioflocculant synthesis. Phosphoglucomutase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase were supposed to be key enzymes in polysaccharide secretion in B. licheniformis. A biosynthesis pathway for the production of polysaccharide bioflocculant involving the integration of individual genes was proposed based on functional analysis. Overexpression of epsDEF from the eps gene cluster in B. licheniformis CGMCC 2876 increased the flocculating activity of the recombinant strain by 90% compared to the original strain. Similarly, the crude yield of polysaccharide bioflocculant was enhanced by 27.8%. Overexpression of the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene not only increased the flocculating activity by 71% but also increased bioflocculant yield by 13.3%. Independent of UDP-N-acetyl-D-mannosamine dehydrogenase gene, flocculating activity, and polysaccharide yield were negatively impacted by overexpression of the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase gene. Overall, epsDEF and gtaB2 were identified as key genes for polysaccharide bioflocculant synthesis in B. licheniformis. These results will be useful for further engineering of B. licheniformis for industrial bioflocculant production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 645-655. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles containing a polysaccharide from Ulva fasciata with potent antihyperlipidaemic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza A. Matloub

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study involves the preparation of cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles (cubsomes for liver targeting to assess the potential of a formulated bioactive polysaccharide isolated from the hot aqueous extract of Ulva fasciata as an alternative natural agent with anti-hyperlipidaemic activity. Cubosomal nanoparticles were prepared by disrupting the cubic gel phase of the polysaccharide and water in the presence of a surfactant. Different lipid matrices and stabilizers were tested. All the formulations were in the nanosize range and showed sufficient negative charge to inhibit the aggregation of the cubosomes. Drug entrapment efficiencies (EEs% were determined and in vitro release studies were performed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and differential scanning calorimetry were used to analyze the loaded cubosomal nanoparticles containing glyceryl monostearate (GMO 2.25 g, poloxamer 407 (0.25 g and 50 mg of the polysaccharide. A preclinical study comparing the cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles containing polysaccharide to fluvastatin as a reference drug in hyperlipidaemic rats was conducted. The rats treated with the polysaccharide- loaded cubosomes showed significant decreases in total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG and total lipid (TL compared to the untreated HL rats. In addition, oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers were measured in the HL rats. Compared to the untreated HL rats, the cubosome treated rats showed a significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA, whereas insignificant changes were detected in nitric oxide (NO, glutathione (GSH levels and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. Further, vascular and intercellular adhesion molecules (VCAM, ICAM, and myeloperoxidase were demonstrated. A histopathological examination was conducted to study the alterations in histopathological lesions and to document the biochemical results. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the superiority of using a natural lipid

  13. Charge Density Quantification of Polyelectrolyte Polysaccharides by Conductometric Titration: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Stefano; Mora, Luigi; Capretti, Giorgio; Piergiovanni, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    An easy analytical method for determination of the charge density of polyelectrolytes, including polysaccharides and other biopolymers, is presented. The basic principles of conductometric titration, which is used in the pulp and paper industry as well as in colloid and interface science, were adapted to quantify the charge densities of a…

  14. Strain-specific features of extracellular polysaccharides and their impact on Lactobacillus plantarum-host interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, I.C.; Caggianiello, Graziano; Swam, van Iris I.; Taverne, Nico; Meijerink, Marjolein; Bron, Peter A.; Spano, Giuseppe; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacilli are found in diverse environments and are widely applied as probiotic, health-promoting food supplements. Polysaccharides are ubiquitously present on the cell surface of lactobacilli and are considered to contribute to the species- and strainspecific probiotic effects that are

  15. The characteristics of polysaccharides fractions of sunflower obtained in dynamic mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhkamov, Kh.K.; Gorshkova, R.M.; Khalikova, S.

    2013-01-01

    Present article describes characteristics of polysaccharides fractions of sunflower obtained in dynamic mode. The decomposition of sunflower pectin was studied by means of continuous fractionation method in dynamic regime. It was found that the process is of extreme nature due to heterogeneity of its macromolecule structure. The additional information on macromolecule structure of sunflower pectin was obtained.

  16. Methylation analysis of polysaccharides: Technical advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Ian M; Carnachan, Susan M; Bell, Tracey J; Hinkley, Simon F R

    2018-05-15

    Glycosyl linkage (methylation) analysis is used widely for the structural determination of oligo- and poly-saccharides. The procedure involves derivatisation of the individual component sugars of a polysaccharide to partially methylated alditol acetates which are analysed and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The linkage positions for each component sugar can be determined by correctly identifying the partially methylated alditol acetates. Although the methods are well established, there are many technical aspects to this procedure and both careful attention to detail and considerable experience are required to achieve a successful methylation analysis and to correctly interpret the data generated. The aim of this article is to provide the technical details and critical procedural steps necessary for a successful methylation analysis and to assist researchers (a) with interpreting data correctly and (b) in providing the comprehensive data required for reviewers to fully assess the work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Purification, structure and immunobiological activity of an arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharide from the cell walls of Prunus dulcis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Fernando; Madureira, Pedro; Carvalho, Vera; Coelho, Ricardo; Coimbra, Manuel A; Vilanova, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Gama, Francisco M

    2004-10-20

    The structure and bioactivity of a polysaccharide extracted and purified from a 4M KOH + H3BO3 solution from Prunus dulcis seed cell wall material was studied. Anion-exchange chromatography of the crude extract yielded two sugar-rich fractions: one neutral (A), the other acidic (E). These fractions contain a very similar monosaccharide composition: 5:2:1 for arabinose, uronic acids and xylose, respectively, rhamnose and galactose being present in smaller amounts. As estimated by size-exclusion chromatography, the acidic fraction had an apparent molecular mass of 762 kDa. Methylation analysis (from the crude and fractions A and E), suggests that the polysaccharide is an arabinan-rich pectin. In all cases, the polysaccharides bear the same type of structural Ara moieties with highly branched arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides. The average relative proportions of the arabinosyl linkages is 3:2:1:1 for T-Araf:(1-->5)-Araf:(1-->3,5)-Araf:(1-->2,3,5)-Araf. The crude polysaccharide extract and fractions A and E induced a murine lymphocyte stimulatory effect, as evaluated by the in vitro and in vivo expression of lymphocyte activation markers and spleen mononuclear cells culture proliferation. The lymphocyte stimulatory effect was stronger on B- than on T-cells. No evidence of cytotoxic effects induced by the polysaccharide fractions was found.

  18. Biodegradability of polyurethane/polysaccharide blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothe, Cheila G.; Leite, Selma G.

    2001-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers for use in environmental waste-management has been the subject of much discussion over the last few years. Polyurethane mixtures with polysaccharide (80/20 and 90/10 w/w ) have been prepared and films obtained. These films were inoculated, according to ASTM G22-76 rule and analysed by thermogravimetry and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results are discussed in terms of thermal degradation and biodegradability. (author)

  19. Electrospinning of food proteins and polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2017-01-01

    Nano-microfibrous structures of biopolymers with a wide range of compositions, morphologies, mechanical properties and bioactivities could be developed using electrospinning technology. This review focuses on the processing, properties, functionalization and potential applications of electrospun ...... biopolymers. Biopolymers include proteins (gelatin, collagen, elastin, silk, soy zein, gliadin, hordein, amaranth, casein, wheat, whey, marine sources proteins), and polysaccharides (chitosan, starch, alginate, cellulose and cellulose derivatives, pullulan, dextran, cyclodextrins)....

  20. Immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Baomei; Dai Hui; Xu Wen; Lin Zhibin; Gao Xiaoming

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to identify and characterize the immune receptors for polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum, a Chinese medicinal fungus that exhibits anti-tumor activities via enhancing host immunity. We herein demonstrate that G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) activated BALB/c mouse B cells and macrophages, but not T cells, in vitro. However, GLPS was unable to activate splenic B cells from C3H/HeJ mice that have a mutated TLR4 molecule (incapable of signal transduction) in proliferation assays. Rat anti-mouse TLR4 monoclonal antibody (Ab) inhibited the proliferation of BALB/c mouse B cells under GLPS stimulation. Combination of Abs against mouse TLR4 and immunoglobulin (Ig) achieved almost complete inhibition of GLPS-induced B cell proliferation, implying that both membrane Ig and TLR4 are required for GLPS-mediated B cell activation. In addition, GLPS significantly inhibited the binding of mouse peritoneal macrophages with polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, which is known to bind directly with TLR4 on macrophage surface. Moreover, GLPS induced IL-1β production by peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c, but not C3H/HeJ, mice, suggesting that TLR4 is also involved in GLPS-mediated macrophage activation. We Further identified a unique 31 kDa serum protein and two intracellular proteins (ribosomal protein S7 and a transcriptional coactivator) capable of binding with GLPS in co-precipitation experiments. Our results may have important implications for our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of immunopotentiating polysaccharides from traditional Chinese medicine

  1. Co-administration of the polysaccharide of Lycium barbarum with DNA vaccine of Chlamydophila abortus augments protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yong; Li, Shaowen; Yang, Junjing; Yuan, Jilei; He, Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) can stimulate moderate immune responses therefore could potentially be used as a substitute for oil adjuvants in veterinary vaccines. In the present study, it was shown that the isolated active component of LBP3a, combined with a DNA vaccine encoding the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila abortus, induced protection in mice against challenge. Sixty BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to 5 groups. Sub-fractions of polysaccharide LBP3a, at 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg concentrations, respectively, were mixed with a pCI-neo::MOMP (pMOMP) vaccine. Mice administrated with pCI-neo + LBP3a were served as a control. All mice were inoculated at day 0, 14, and 28, and challenged on day 44. The effects of LBp3a on serum antibody levels, in vitro lymphocyte proliferation, the activity of interleaukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α)and chlamydia clearance were determined. A combination of DNA vaccine and LBP3a induced significantly higher antibody levels in mice, higher T cell proliferation and higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-2. Mice immunized with DNA and LBP3a also showed significantly higher levels of chlamydia clearance in mice spleens and a greater Th1 immune response. The immunoenhancement induced by 25 mg/kg LBP3a is more effective than that induced by a 12.5 and 50 mg/kg. This implies that LBP3a at 25 mg/kg has a high potential to be used as an effective adjuvant with a DNA vaccine against swine Chlamydophila abortus.

  2. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  3. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Matias J; Costa, Rui R; Mano, João F

    2016-02-05

    Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine.

  4. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Matias J.; Costa, Rui R.; Mano, João F.

    2016-01-01

    Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine. PMID:26861358

  5. Marine Origin Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias J. Cardoso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oceans are a vast source of natural substances. In them, we find various compounds with wide biotechnological and biomedical applicabilities. The exploitation of the sea as a renewable source of biocompounds can have a positive impact on the development of new systems and devices for biomedical applications. Marine polysaccharides are among the most abundant materials in the seas, which contributes to a decrease of the extraction costs, besides their solubility behavior in aqueous solvents and extraction media, and their interaction with other biocompounds. Polysaccharides such as alginate, carrageenan and fucoidan can be extracted from algae, whereas chitosan and hyaluronan can be obtained from animal sources. Most marine polysaccharides have important biological properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as adhesive and antimicrobial actions. Moreover, they can be modified in order to allow processing them into various shapes and sizes and may exhibit response dependence to external stimuli, such as pH and temperature. Due to these properties, these biomaterials have been studied as raw material for the construction of carrier devices for drugs, including particles, capsules and hydrogels. The devices are designed to achieve a controlled release of therapeutic agents in an attempt to fight against serious diseases, and to be used in advanced therapies, such as gene delivery or regenerative medicine.

  6. Transport of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide in MHC Class II tubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Li Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial capsular polysaccharides are virulence factors and are considered T cell-independent antigens. However, the capsular polysaccharide Sp1 from Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 has been shown to activate CD4(+ T cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II-dependent manner. The mechanism of carbohydrate presentation to CD4(+ T cells is unknown. We show in live murine dendritic cells (DCs that Sp1 translocates from lysosomal compartments to the plasma membrane in MHCII-positive tubules. Sp1 cell surface presentation results in reduction of self-peptide presentation without alteration of the MHCII self peptide repertoire. In DM-deficient mice, retrograde transport of Sp1/MHCII complexes resulting in T cell-dependent immune responses to the polysaccharide in vitro and in vivo is significantly reduced. The results demonstrate the capacity of a bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigen to use DC tubules as a vehicle for its transport as an MHCII/saccharide complex to the cell surface for the induction of T cell activation. Furthermore, retrograde transport requires the functional role of DM in self peptide-carbohydrate exchange. These observations open new opportunities for the design of vaccines against microbial encapsulated pathogens.

  7. Structural characterization and immunomodulating activity of polysaccharide from Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao-Bin; Huang, Yan-Ping; Yang, Liu; Liu, Ti-Ti; Gong, Wan-Ying; Wang, Xuan-Jun; Sheng, Jun; Hu, Jiang-Miao

    2016-02-01

    A neutral heteropolysaccharide (DOP-1-1) consisted by mannose and glucose (5.9:1) with an average molecular weight at about 1.78×10(5) Da was purified from Dendrobium officinale. Based on Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, it suggested that partial structure of DOP-1-1 is an O-acetylated glucomannan with β-d configuration in pyranose sugar forms. The immunomodulatory activity of DOP-1-1 was evaluated by secretion level of cytokine (interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in vitro. Our results suggested that DOP-1-1 could stimulate cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β) in cells. These findings demonstrated that the purified polysaccharide from D. officinale presented significant immune-modulating activities. Furthermore, by Western-blot we can found that the signaling pathways of DOP-1-1 induced immune activities involving ERK1/2 and NF-кB. As to antioxidant activity, DOP-1-1 hadn't showed remarkable scavenging capacity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) in contrast with other studies of polysaccharides from D. officinale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from thirteen boletus mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan; Hu, Yu; Duan, Xiaoyu; Tang, Tingting; Shen, Yingbin; Hu, Bin; Liu, Aiping; Chen, Hong; Li, Cheng; Liu, Yuntao

    2018-07-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from the caps and stipes of thirteen boletus mushrooms representing five different species collected in Southwest China. Investigations of their structures and antioxidant activities allowed an evaluation of structure-function relationships. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of the monosaccharides arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose. Most samples displayed a broad molecular weight range, with significant differences observed between the molecular weight ranges of the polysaccharides from the caps and the stipes. FT-IR spectral analysis of the polysaccharides revealed that most of polysaccharides from boletus mushrooms (except Boletus edulis) contained a pyranose ring. The antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides in stipes showed a significant correlation with their monosaccharide composition, and were also related to their molecular weight and anomeric configuration. Suillellus luridus collected in Pingwu, Mianyang, Sichuan, China had remarkably superior antioxidant activity and might be developed as a natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Different Temperatures on the Chemical Structure and Antitumor Activities of Polysaccharides from Cordyceps militaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliyas Nurmamat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different extraction temperatures (4 and 80 °C on the physicochemical properties and antitumor activity of water soluble polysaccharides (CMPs-4 and CMPs-80 from Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris were evaluated in this study. The results of gas chromatography (GC and high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC showed that a higher extraction temperature could degrade the polysaccharides with 188 kDa, mainly composed of glucose, and increase the dissolution rate of polysaccharides about 308 kDa, mainly consisting of rhamnose and galactose. In addition, the CMPs displayed the same sugar ring and category of glycosidic linkage based on Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis, however, their invisible structural difference occurred in the specific rotation and conformational characteristics according to the results of specific optical rotation measurement and Congo red test. In vitro antitumor experiments indicated that CMPs-4 possessed stronger inhibitory effects on human esophagus cancer Eca-109 cells by inducing cell apoptosis more than CMPs-80 did. These findings demonstrated that the polysaccharides extracted with cold water (4 °C could be applied as a novel alternative chemotherapeutic agent or dietary supplement with its underlying antitumor property.

  10. Production of monosaccharides and bio-active compounds derived from marine polysaccharides using subcritical water hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillisa, Aviannie; Woo, Hee-Chul; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2015-03-15

    Polysaccharides are the major components of brown seaweed, accounting for approximately 40-65% of the total mass. The majority of the brown seaweed polysaccharides consists of alginate (40% of dry matter), a linear hetero-polysaccharides commonly developed in fields. However, depolymerisation of alginate is required to recover high-value compounds. In this report, depolymerisation was performed using subcritical water hydrolysis (SWH) at 180-260°C, with a ratio of material to water of 1:25 (w/v) and 1% formic acid as a catalyst. Sugar recovery was higher at low temperatures in the presence of catalyst. The antioxidant properties of Saccharina japonica showed the best activity at 180°C in the presence of a catalyst. The mass spectra produced using MALDI-TOF showed that polysaccharides and oligosaccharides were produced during hydrothermal treatment. Hydrolysis treatment at 180°C in the presence of a catalyst may be useful for modifying the structure of S. japonica and purified alginate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization and Bioactivity of Polysaccharides Obtained from Pine Cones of Pinus koraiensis by Graded Ethanol Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pinus koraiensis polysaccharides (PKP were extracted by hot water from P. koraiensis pine cones. Five polysaccharide fractions named PKP-A, PKP-B, PKP-C, PKP-D and PKP-E were successfully separated at final ethanol concentrations of 30%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80%, respectively. HPLC, FT-IR, GC-MS and automatic amino-acid analysis were applied to investigate their chemical characteristics. Monosaccharide component analysis indicated that the five fractions were all composed of d-ribose, l-rhamnose, l-arabinose, d-xylose, d-mannose, d-glucose and d-galactose, but their molar ratios were quite different. HPLC results revealed that the polysaccharides precipitated by higher concentrations of ethanol solution had lower molecular masses. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of the five fractions were studied on the basis of hydroxyl radical and ABTS radical scavenging tests. The five graded polysaccharide fractions exhibited good inhibitory power, and MTT tests in vitro showed the IC50 of PKP-A and PKP-E were 1,072.5 and 2,070.0 μg·mL−1, respectively. These results demonstrated that the PKP could be a potential source of natural antioxidants or dietary supplements.

  12. [Effects of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on serum lipids and lipoperoxidation in experimental hyperlipidemic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-qiang; Luo, Shao-hong; Ll, Hong-zhi; Yang, Hong

    2005-09-01

    To investigate the effect of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on blood lipid and lipoperoxidation from the experimental hyperlipidemic rats. 50 rats were randomly divided into normal group, hyperlipidemia control group, experimental group 1, 2 and 3 in which the rats were treated with ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides at dosages of 200 mg x kg(-1) and 400 mg x kg(-1) and 800 mg x kg(-1) respectively. Apart from the rats in control group, all the rats in other groups were fed with high fat forage for 30 days. The blood was collected from the tails of rats for measuring the serum TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, GSH-Px, SOD and LPO. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides could significantly decrease the serum contents of TC, TG, LDL-c in the experimental hyperlipidemic rats (P < 0.01), and markedly increase the level of serum HDL-C (P < 0.05), Mean Level of blood LPO in the experimental groups treated by ganoderma lacidum polysaccharides at different dosages were much lower than that in hyper lipidema group, and the GSH-Px and SOD activities of blood in the group of ganoderma were much higher than those in hyperlipidema group. Ganoderma can regulate lipid metabolism, enhance the antioxidation and reduce the lipid peroxidation in the rats with hyperlipidemia.

  13. Comparison of Polysaccharides from Two Species of Ganoderma

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Hu, De-Jun; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Li, Shao-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense, known as Lingzhi in Chinese, are commonly used Chinese medicines with excellent beneficial health effects. Triterpenes and polysaccharides are usually considered as their main active components. However, the content of triterpenes differs significantly between the two species of Ganoderma. To date, a careful comparison of polysaccharides from the two species of Ganoderma has not been performed. In this study, polysaccharides from fruiting bodies of two...

  14. Fresh pasta quality as affected by enrichment of nonstarch polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, C S; Tudorica, C M

    2007-11-01

    Nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs), both soluble and insoluble, were added to pasta doughs at levels of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% levels. The cooking and textural characteristics of the pastas were evaluated using a range of analytical techniques. Generally, NSP addition was found to increase the cooking losses, and reduce the protein and starch contents of the pasta. This effect was dependent on the level of NSP added and also the type (soluble or insoluble). Pasta firmness was generally reduced in relation to the level of NSP addition, although some gel-forming NSPs resulted in higher firmness values. Pasta stickiness, adhesiveness, and elasticity were also affected. The results indicate that careful selection of NSP addition is needed to ensure optimum textural and cooking characteristics in NSP enriched pasta products.

  15. Bug22p, a Conserved Centrosomal/Ciliary Protein Also Present in Higher Plants, Is Required for an Effective Ciliary Stroke in Paramecium ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laligné, C.; Klotz, C.; Garreau de Loubresse, N.; Lemullois, M.; Hori, M.; Laurent, F. X.; Papon, J. F.; Louis, B.; Cohen, J.; Koll, F.

    2010-01-01

    Centrioles, cilia, and flagella are ancestral conserved organelles of eukaryotic cells. Among the proteins identified in the proteomics of ciliary proteins in Paramecium, we focus here on a protein, Bug22p, previously detected by cilia and basal-body high-throughput studies but never analyzed per se. Remarkably, this protein is also present in plants, which lack centrioles and cilia. Bug22p sequence alignments revealed consensus positions that distinguish species with centrioles/cilia from plants. In Paramecium, antibody and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion labeling localized Bug22p in basal bodies and cilia, and electron microscopy immunolabeling refined the localization to the terminal plate of the basal bodies, the transition zone, and spots along the axoneme, preferentially between the membrane and the microtubules. RNA interference (RNAi) depletion of Bug22p provoked a strong decrease in swimming speed, followed by cell death after a few days. High-speed video microscopy and morphological analysis of Bug22p-depleted cells showed that the protein plays an important role in the efficiency of ciliary movement by participating in the stroke shape and rigidity of cilia. The defects in cell swimming and growth provoked by RNAi can be complemented by expression of human Bug22p. This is the first reported case of complementation by a human gene in a ciliate. PMID:20118210

  16. Bug22p, a conserved centrosomal/ciliary protein also present in higher plants, is required for an effective ciliary stroke in Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laligné, C; Klotz, C; de Loubresse, N Garreau; Lemullois, M; Hori, M; Laurent, F X; Papon, J F; Louis, B; Cohen, J; Koll, F

    2010-04-01

    Centrioles, cilia, and flagella are ancestral conserved organelles of eukaryotic cells. Among the proteins identified in the proteomics of ciliary proteins in Paramecium, we focus here on a protein, Bug22p, previously detected by cilia and basal-body high-throughput studies but never analyzed per se. Remarkably, this protein is also present in plants, which lack centrioles and cilia. Bug22p sequence alignments revealed consensus positions that distinguish species with centrioles/cilia from plants. In Paramecium, antibody and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion labeling localized Bug22p in basal bodies and cilia, and electron microscopy immunolabeling refined the localization to the terminal plate of the basal bodies, the transition zone, and spots along the axoneme, preferentially between the membrane and the microtubules. RNA interference (RNAi) depletion of Bug22p provoked a strong decrease in swimming speed, followed by cell death after a few days. High-speed video microscopy and morphological analysis of Bug22p-depleted cells showed that the protein plays an important role in the efficiency of ciliary movement by participating in the stroke shape and rigidity of cilia. The defects in cell swimming and growth provoked by RNAi can be complemented by expression of human Bug22p. This is the first reported case of complementation by a human gene in a ciliate.

  17. Maca polysaccharides: A review of compositions, isolation, therapeutics and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujuan; Xu, Fangxue; Zheng, Mengmeng; Xi, Xiaozhi; Cui, Xiaowei; Han, Chunchao

    2018-05-01

    Maca polysaccharides, some of the major bioactive substances in Lepidium meyenii (Walp.) (Maca), have various biological properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-fatigue, anti-tumor, and immunomodulatory effects, as well as hepatoprotective activity and regulation function. Although many therapeutics depend on multiple structures of maca polysaccharides in addition to providing sufficient foundations for maca polysaccharide products in industrial applications, the relationships between the pharmacological effects and structures have not been established. Therefore, this article summarizes the extraction and purification methods, compositions, pharmacological effects, prospects and industrial applications of maca polysaccharides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Suppressive effect of pectic polysaccharides from Cucurbita pepo L. var. Styriaca on citric acid-induced cough reflex in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosáľová, Gabriela; Prisenžňáková, Lubica; Košťálová, Zuzana; Ebringerová, Anna; Hromádková, Zdenka

    2011-04-01

    Several water-soluble pectic polysaccharides were isolated from the pumpkin fruit biomass and characterized by composition, structural features and molecular properties. The pectic polysaccharides were tested for antitussive activity by studying the effects of citric acid-induced cough reflex in guinea pigs and reactivity of the airway smooth muscle in vivo conditions in comparison to the narcotic drug codeine. Oral administration of all pectic polysaccharides from pumpkin inhibited the number of coughs induced by citric acid in guinea pigs, but to various extents. The results indicated that the antitussive activity of the pectic polysaccharides is affected by their molecular and structural properties, whereby a synergistic action between the polysaccharide and non-carbohydrate components on the biological response has been suggested as well. The cough depressive efficacy of most of the tested polysaccharides was comparable and even higher than that of codeine. Moreover, the application of these polysaccharides provoked any side effects what is their advantage towards the conventional opioid-derived antitussive agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Water-Soluble Polysaccharide Extracts from the Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Agaricomycetes) with HMGCR Inhibitory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Ramirez, Alicia; Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Morales, Diego; Govers, Coen; Synytsya, Andriy; Wichers, Harry J; Iacomini, Marcello; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Water extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus containing no statins showed 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR) inhibitory activity (in vitro) that might be due to specific water-soluble polysaccharides (WSPs); when isolated and deproteinized, increasing concentrations of the WSP extract induced higher inhibition. The WSP extract contained mainly β-glucans, mannogalactans, and glycogen (e.g., α-glucans), although derivatives or fragments with lower molecular weights (between 14 and 3.5 kDa) were present and were able to induce the inhibitory activity. The extract contained more β-(1→3)-glucans than β-(11→3),(11→6)-glucans, and they partially survived digestion and managed to pass through Caco2 cell monolayers to the lower compartment after in vitro digestion and transport experiments. The WSP might also modulate Caco2 membrane integrity.

  20. Comparison of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on extraction yield, morphological and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from tamarind seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong-il [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Kyung [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate school of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 146-701 (Korea, Republic of); Srinivasan, Periasamy; Kim, Jae-Hun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun-Jin [Graduate school of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 146-701 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) seed polysaccharide (TSP) is of great important due to its various biological activities. The present investigation was carried out to compare extraction yield, morphological characteristics, average molecular weights and antioxidant activities of TSP from gamma- and electron beam (EB)-irradiated tamarind kernel powder. The tamarind kernel powder was irradiated with 0, 5 and 10 kGy by gamma ray (GR) and electron beam, respectively. The extraction yield of TSP was increased significantly by EB and GR irradiation, but there was no significant difference between irradiation types. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscope showed that TSP from GR-irradiated tamarind seed had a fibrous structure, different from that of EB irradiated with a particle structures. The average molecular weight of TSP was decreased by the irradiation, and EB treatment degraded more severely than GR. Superoxide radical scavenging ability and total antioxidant capacity of EB-treated TSP showed higher than those of GR-treated TSP.

  1. Are Cancer incidence Rates Among Present And Past Workers Of The research Centers Of The Atomic Energy Commission higher Than The Rates Among The General Population?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litai, D.

    1999-01-01

    for age, sex, etc.). A similar study conducted in this country by the Ministry of Health for the workers of the AEC yielded comparable results. This review paper presents some statistical data about cancer morbidity in Israel and in other countries and comparative summaries of the results of the principal epidemiological studies that have been mentioned above

  2. A polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against a Salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent disease that results mainly from bacterial infection. The present study investigates the inhibitory effect of the bio-processed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from the edible Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial mushroom culture supplemented...

  3. Synthesis, Structural, and Adsorption Properties and Thermal Stability of Nanohydroxyapatite/Polysaccharide Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwarek, Ewa; Goncharuk, Olena; Sternik, Dariusz; Janusz, Wladyslaw; Gdula, Karolina; Gun'ko, Vladimir M

    2017-12-01

    A series of composites based on nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) and natural polysaccharides (PS) (nHAp/agar, nHAp/chitosan, nHAp/pectin FB300, nHAp/pectin APA103, nHAp/sodium alginate) was synthesized by liquid-phase two-step method and characterized using nitrogen adsorption-desorption, DSC, TG, FTIR spectroscopy, and SEM. The analysis of nitrogen adsorption-desorption data shows that composites with a nHAp: PS ratio of 4:1 exhibit a sufficiently high specific surface area from 49 to 82 m 2 /g. The incremental pore size distributions indicate mainly mesoporosity. The composites with the component ratio 1:1 preferably form a film-like structure, and the value of S BET varies from 0.3 to 43 m 2 /g depending on the nature of a polysaccharide. Adsorption of Sr(II) on the composites from the aqueous solutions has been studied. The thermal properties of polysaccharides alone and in nHAp/PS show the influence of nHAp, since there is a shift of characteristic DSC and DTG peaks. FTIR spectroscopy data confirm the presence of functional groups typical for nHAp as well as polysaccharides in composites. Structure and morphological characteristics of the composites are strongly dependent on the ratio of components, since nHAp/PS at 4:1 have relatively large S BET values and a good ability to adsorb metal ions. The comparison of the adsorption capacity with respect to Sr(II) of nHAp, polysaccharides, and composites shows that it of the latter is higher than that of nHAp (per 1 m 2 of surface).

  4. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of docetaxel-loaded stearic acid-modified Bletilla striata polysaccharide copolymer micelles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxiang Guan

    Full Text Available Bletilla striata polysaccharides (BSPs have been used in pharmaceutical and biomedical industry, the aim of the present study was to explore a BSPs amphiphilic derivative to overcome its application limit as poorly water-soluble drug carriers due to water-soluble polymers. Stearic acid (SA was selected as a hydrophobic block to modify B. striata polysaccharides (SA-BSPs. Docetaxel (DTX-loaded SA-BSPs (DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles were prepared and characterized. The DTX release percentage in vitro and DTX concentration in vivo was carried out by using high performance liquid chromatography. HepG2 and HeLa cells were subjected to MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazonium bromide assay to evaluate the cell viability. In vitro evaluation of copolymer micelles showed higher drug encapsulation and loading capacity. The release percentage of DTX from DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles and docetaxel injection was 66.93 ± 1.79% and 97.06 ± 1.56% in 2 days, respectively. The DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles exhibited a sustained release of DTX. A 50% increase in growth inhibition was observed for HepG2 cells treated with DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles as compared to those treated with docetaxel injection for 72 h. DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles presented a similar growth inhibition effect on Hela cells. Furthermore, absolute bioavailability of DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles was shown to be 1.39-fold higher than that of docetaxel injection. Therefore, SA-BSPs copolymer micelles may be used as potential biocompatible polymers for cancer chemotherapy.

  5. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Erika D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor

  6. Thermal, emulsifying and rheological properties of polysaccharides sequentially extracted from Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi-Xin; Shi, Jun-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Li, Ling; Jiang, Li; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2016-12-01

    Plant polysaccharides are widely used in food industry as thickening and gelling agents and these attributes largely depend on their thermal, emulsifying and rheological properties. As known, the extraction methods always bring about the diversification of property and functions of polysaccharides. Thus, the Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb leaves polysaccharides (VBTLP) were sequentially extracted using hot buffer (HBSS), chelating agent (CHSS), dilute alkaline (DASS) and concentrated alkaline (CASS). The thermal, emulsifying and rheological properties of VBTLP were investigated in the present study. Within the range of 20-225°C, CHSS showed the highest peak temperature, whereas HBSS displayed the highest endothermic enthalpy and highest emulsifying activity, while, CASS showed the longest emulsifying stability. The VBTLP solutions exhibited non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior within the concentrations of 0.6-2.5%. The apparent viscosity of VBTLP solution decreased under following conditions: acidic pH (4.0), alkaline pH (10.0), in the presence of Ca 2+ and at high temperature, while it increased in the presence of Na + and at freezing conditions. The modulus G' and G″ of VBTLP solutions were increased with increasing oscillation frequency, and the crossover frequency shifted to lower values when the polysaccharide content increased. The above results of thermal, emulsifying and rheological properties of VBTLPs supplied the basis for V. bracteatum leaves in potential industrial applications of foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Depolymerization of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica: Antioxidant and antiglycated activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouch, Mohamed Aymen; Hafsa, Jawhar; Rihouey, Christophe; Le Cerf, Didier; Majdoub, Hatem

    2015-08-01

    The extraction, purification and degradation of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes, as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant and antiglycated activities in vitro were investigated. The optimization of the extraction showed that extraction by ultrasound at 40 °C presented the best carbohydrates yield. The degradation of the extracted polysaccharides was achieved by free radical depolymerization with H2O2 in the presence of copper(II) acetate for various reaction times. Sugar contents were determined by colorimetric assays. The macromolecular characteristics of the different isolated and degraded carbohydrates were carried by size exclusion chromatography (SEC/MALS/VD/DRI). These experiments showed that all samples are polysaccharides, which are probably pectins and that molecular weight (Mw) has decreased from 6,800,000 to 14,000 g/mol after 3 h of depolymerization without changing the structure. Preliminary antioxidant and antiglycated tests indicated that degraded polysaccharides for 2 and 3 h showed even better antioxidant and antiglycated activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Compositional analysis of sulfated polysaccharides from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) released by autolysis reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Wu, Sufeng; Ai, Chunqing; Xu, Xin; Zhu, Zhenjun; Cao, Chunyang; Yang, Jingfeng; Wen, Chengrong

    2018-07-15

    Autolysis is not only a major reason for postharvest quality deterioration of sea cucumber, but also a promising alternative for exogenous protease to produce peptides or polysaccharides. However, little has been known about the effects of autolysis on bioactive polysaccharides of sea cucumber. Concerning the quality and safety of sea cucumber products involved autolysis reaction, the present study focused on the chemical composition of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) released by autolysis reaction. Chemical analysis indicated that after 3-day autolysis 63% of sulfated polysaccharides were liberated but with protein chains at their reducing ends. Then the composition of SP obtained by autolysis (A-SP) was compared with that of total SPs (T-SP) via a series of analysis techniques, including FTIR, 1 H NMR, HPLC and mass spectroscopy. As indicated by the results, fucan to fucosylated chondroitin sulfate ratio was found high in A-SP compared to T-SP, fucan with a lower molecular weight was the major fraction in A-SP, and the di-sulfated Fuc residue observed in T-SP was absent in A-SP. To conclude, A-SP differed greatly from T-SP in the chemical composition, suggesting possible changes on their bioactivities. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Extraction optimization, preliminary characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Glycine soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Changliang; Yuan, Yuan; Tang, Qi; Zou, Ping; Li, Yiqiang; Zhang, Chengsheng

    2017-10-01

    Single-factor experiment and Central Composite Design (CCD) was applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions of polysaccharides from Glycine soja (CGPS), and a preliminary characterization of three polysaccharide fractions (CGPS, GPS-1, and GPS-2) and their antioxidant activities were investigated. Under the optimal conditions: ratio of liquid to solid 42.7mL/g, extraction power 293.7W, extraction temperature 68.9°C, and extraction time 34.7min, the experimental CGPS yield was 6.04mg/g. CGPS was further purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex-100 chromatography to obtain two fractions (GPS-1 and GPS-2), and their monosaccharides compositions were characterized by HPLC. Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) indicated the chemical structures of them. Moreover, they exhibited high antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. In summary, the present study suggested that UAE was a very effective method to extract polysaccharides from Glycine soja and the polysaccharides could be explored as potential antioxidant agents for medicine and function food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization and in vitro antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunxia; Dai, Ling; Kong, Xiaowei; Chen, Liangwen

    2012-10-01

    Two polysaccharide fractions (PSPO-1a and PSPO-4a) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus using ethanol precipitation, anion-exchange chromatography and gel permeation chromatography. Both fractions were heteropolysaccharide containing protein and uronic acid. PSPO-1a was composed of mannose, glucose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose with a molar ratio of 2.47:0.91:1.00:1.66:3.87. PSPO-4a was composed of only three monosaccharides: rhamnose, mannose and galactose with a molar ratio of 0.92:2.69:1.00. The average molecular weight of PSPO-1a and PSPO-4a determined by HPLC were estimated to be 1.8 × 10(4)Da and 1.1 × 10(6)Da respectively. The in vitro tests revealed that two polysaccharides were natural potential antioxidant. Both polysaccharides presented stronger DPPH radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity with increasing concentrations, but less effective on scavenging hydroxyl radical. Compared with PSPO-4a, PSPO-1a was the more effective free-radical scavenger. In conclusion, the two polysaccharides may be useful as a naturally potential antioxidant agent for application in food and medicinal fields. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cross-protection in Neisseria meningitidis serogroups Y and W polysaccharides: A comparative conformational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttel, Michelle M; Timol, Zaheer; Ravenscroft, Neil

    2017-06-29

    The capsular polysaccharide is the main virulence factor in meningococcus. The capsular polysaccharides for meningococcal serogroups Y and W are almost identical polymers of hexose-sialic acid, suggesting the possibility of cross-protection between group Y and W vaccines. However, early studies indicated that they elicit different levels of cross-protection. Here we explore the conformations of the meningococcal Y and W polysaccharides with molecular dynamics simulations of three repeating unit oligosaccharide strands. We find differences in Y and W antigen conformation: the Y polysaccharide has a single dominant conformation, whereas W exhibits a family of conformations including the Y conformation. This result is supported by our NMR NOESY analysis, which indicates key close contacts for W that are not present in Y. These conformational differences provide an explanation for the different levels of cross-protection measured for the Y and W monovalent vaccines and the high group W responses observed in HibMenCY-TT vaccinees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biosynthesis of the fungal cell wall polysaccharide galactomannan requires intraluminal GDP-mannose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Jakob; Schmalhorst, Philipp S; Routier, Françoise H

    2012-12-28

    Fungal cell walls frequently contain a polymer of mannose and galactose called galactomannan. In the pathogenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, this polysaccharide is made of a linear mannan backbone with side chains of galactofuran and is anchored to the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol or is covalently linked to the cell wall. To date, the biosynthesis and significance of this polysaccharide are unknown. The present data demonstrate that deletion of the Golgi UDP-galactofuranose transporter GlfB or the GDP-mannose transporter GmtA leads to the absence of galactofuran or galactomannan, respectively. This indicates that the biosynthesis of galactomannan probably occurs in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus and thus contrasts with the biosynthesis of other fungal cell wall polysaccharides studied to date that takes place at the plasma membrane. Transglycosylation of galactomannan from the membrane to the cell wall is hypothesized because both the cell wall-bound and membrane-bound polysaccharide forms are affected in the generated mutants. Considering the severe growth defect of the A. fumigatus GmtA-deficient mutant, proving this paradigm might provide new targets for antifungal therapy.

  13. Overexpression of O-polysaccharide chain length regulators in Gram-negative bacteria using the Wzx-/Wzy-dependent pathway enhances production of defined modal length O-polysaccharide polymers for use as haptens in glycoconjugate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerle, N; Bose, J; Ramachandran, G; Galen, J E; Levine, M M; Simon, R; Tennant, S M

    2018-03-30

    O-polysaccharide (OPS) molecules are protective antigens for several bacterial pathogens, and have broad utility as components of glycoconjugate vaccines. Variability in the OPS chain length is one obstacle towards further development of these vaccines. Introduction of sizing steps during purification of OPS molecules of suboptimal or of mixed lengths introduces additional costs and complexity while decreasing the final yield. The overall goal of this study was to demonstrate the utility of engineering Gram-negative bacteria to produce homogenous O-polysaccharide populations that can be used as the basis of carbohydrate vaccines by overexpressing O-polysaccharide chain length regulators of the Wzx-/Wzy-dependent pathway. The O-polysaccharide chain length regulators wzzB and fepE from Salmonella Typhimurium I77 and wzz2 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 were cloned and expressed in the homologous organism or in other Gram-negative bacteria. Overexpression of these Wzz proteins in the homologous organism significantly increased the proportion of long or very long chain O-polysaccharides. The same observation was made when wzzB was overexpressed in Salmonella Paratyphi A and Shigella flexneri, and wzz2 was overexpressed in two other strains of P. aeruginosa. Overexpression of Wzz proteins in Gram-negative bacteria using the Wzx/Wzy-dependant pathway for lipopolysaccharide synthesis provides a genetic method to increase the production of an O-polysaccharide population of a defined size. The methods presented herein represent a cost-effective and improved strategy for isolating preferred OPS vaccine haptens, and could facilitate the further use of O-polysaccharides in glycoconjugate vaccine development. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Chemical characterization, antioxidant, immune-regulating and anticancer activities of a novel bioactive polysaccharide from Chenopodium quinoa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yichen; Zhang, Jinming; Zou, Liang; Fu, Chaomei; Li, Peng; Zhao, Gang

    2017-06-01

    Chenopodium quinoa, a promising nutraceutical cereal, has attracted increasing research interest, yet its polysaccharides remains to get few systematic studies. In this study, we employed orthogonal experimental design to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction process for highest yield of C. quinoa polysaccharides. A novel C. quinoa polysaccharide (CQP) fraction with high content and low molecular weight (8852Da) was subsequently purified by column chromatography, constituted by galacturonic acid and glucose monosaccharides. The purified CQP exhibited significantly antioxidant effect against DPPH + and ABTS + , with even higher efficiency than some other reported polysaccharides. Moreover, CQP could promote the RAW264.7 macrophage proliferation, while suppress the nitri oxide production on inflammatory RAW264.7 macrophage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In view of the pathological correlation of free radical, inflammation and carcinogenesis, the anticancer effect of CQP was further investigated on human liver cancer SMMC 7721 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, CQP displayed cytotoxicity against cancer cells, while none proliferation inhibition on normal cells. These results suggest that the bioactive polysaccharide from C. quinoa provided the promising potential as a natural antioxidant, immune-regulating and anticancer candidate for food and even drug application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Constant current chronopotentiometric stripping of sulphated polysaccharides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strmečki, S.; Plavšić, M.; Ćosović, B.; Ostatná, Veronika; Paleček, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2009), s. 2032-2035 ISSN 1388-2481 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/0490; GA ČR(CZ) GP202/07/P497; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : sulphated polysaccharides * ióta-carrageenan * catalysis of hydrogen evolution Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.243, year: 2009

  16. Methods of saccharification of polysaccharides in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Fake, Gina

    2014-04-29

    Saccharification of polysaccharides of plants is provided, where release of fermentable sugars from cellulose is obtained by adding plant tissue composition. Production of glucose is obtained without the need to add additional .beta.-glucosidase. Adding plant tissue composition to a process using a cellulose degrading composition to degrade cellulose results in an increase in the production of fermentable sugars compared to a process in which plant tissue composition is not added. Using plant tissue composition in a process using a cellulose degrading enzyme composition to degrade cellulose results in decrease in the amount of cellulose degrading enzyme composition or exogenously applied cellulase required to produce fermentable sugars.

  17. Voltammetry of Os(VI)-modified polysaccharides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trefulka, Mojmír; Paleček, Emil

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 16 (2010), s. 1837-1845 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) GPP301/10/P548; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400310651 Program:KA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : chemical modification of polysaccharides * electroactive labels * osmium(VI) complexes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2010

  18. In vitro immunobiological activity of an Antarctic streptomyces polysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshkova, R.; Yossifova, L.; Gardeva, E.; Zvetkova, E.; Ivanova, V.

    2010-01-01

    Antarctic Streptomyces sp. 1010, were obtained from sea water samples (Livingston Island, Antarctica), during the Third Bulgarian Antarctic Scientific Expedition (1994-1995). The ecophysiological methods for isolation and characterization of these active, cold-adapted, Gram-positive microorganisms (psychrophiles) in morphological, phenotypic, genetic and taxonomic aspects, have been earlier reported. In this study, a new extracellular polysaccharide (heteropolysaccharide) has been isolated and purified from cultured broth of the Antarctic Streptomyces sp. 1010. The monosaccharide content of the Antarctic streptomyces heteropolysaccharide has been examined by TLC and GC/MS. The mitogenic and immuno potential properties of the purified Antarctic Streptomyces polysaccharide (ASMP) have been studied in vitro - in the short-term cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs - lymphocytes and monocytes) and mouse spleen lymphocytes (mouse splenocytes - mSps). The results obtained show that ASMP has a double lectin-like effect on the proliferative activity of hPBMCs: similar to this of Con A on the lymphoid cells (preliminary T-lymphocytes) and to the effect of LPS on the mononuclear from monocyte-macrophage lineage. Expressed as proliferative index (PI), the mitogenic response of mSps to the in vitro influence of ASMP was also higher than PI in the negative, as well as in the positive controls (mSps, cultured in the presence of PHA, Con A and LPS). The new Antarctic Streptomyces' heteropolysaccharide examined could be useful in the future as an immunomodulative biologically active substance and its extracellular production may contribute to the development of thermobiochemistry, immunomodulative drug therapy and immunopharmaceutical industry. (authors)

  19. Preparation of Polysaccharide-Based Microspheres by a Water-in-Oil Emulsion Solvent Diffusion Method for Drug Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yodthong Baimark

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide-based microspheres of chitosan, starch, and alginate were prepared by the water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method for use as drug carriers. Blue dextran was used as a water-soluble biomacromolecular drug model. Scanning electron microscopy showed sizes of the resultant microspheres that were approximately 100 μm or less. They were spherical in shape with a rough surface and good dispersibility. Microsphere matrices were shown as a sponge. Drug loading efficiencies of all the microspheres were higher than 80%, which suggested that this method has potential to prepare polysaccharide-based microspheres containing a biomacromolecular drug model for drug delivery applications.

  20. Anticoagulant Activity and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide from Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino Gonad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed at characterizing the structure and the anticoagulant activity of a polysaccharide fraction (AGP33 isolated from the gonads of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. AGP33 was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis and purified by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The backbone fraction of AGP33 (BAGP33, which appeared to contain of mannose, glucose and galactose, was prepared by partial acid hydrolysis. According to methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, the backbone of AGP33 was identified as mainly consisting of 1→3-linked, 1→4-linked, and 1→6-linked monosaccharides. AGP33 is a sulfated polysaccharide with sulfates occur at 3-O- and 4-O-positions. It prolonged thromboplastin time (APTT, thrombin time (TT and prothrombin time (PT compared to a saline control solution in a dosage-dependent manner. AGP33 exhibited an extension (p < 0.01 of APTT compared to the saline group at concentrations higher than 5 μg/mL. AGP33 exhibited higher anticoagulant activity than its desulfated product (AGP33-des and BAGP33. The results showed that polysaccharide with higher molecular weight and sulfate content demonstrated greater anticoagulant activity.

  1. Bio-inspired materials engineering using polysaccharide based biotemplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollfrank, C.

    2007-01-01

    Nano-structured materials with a controlled microstructure and tailored properties at a scale below 100 nm are of interest for applications in micro-mechanical, sensor and biomedical devices. In contrast to top-down manufacturing processes the formation of solid matter structures in nature is templated and directed by biomacromolecules such as polysaccharides and polypeptides. A promising biomimetic route for the directed deposition of ceramic materials is the application of anisotropically structured biomacromolecules as patterned templates. The polysaccharides exhibit a hierarchical multi scale order as well as self-assembly properties. The bio-inspired deposition and formation of ceramic phases on biomolecular polysaccharide templates was investigated. The polysaccharides were used at various structural levels from the molecular scale up to three-dimensional parts in the millimetre range. The versatility of polysaccharide shaping capabilities was explored using dissolved polysaccharide molecules as well as thin films for the or simultaneous or successive formation of inorganic mineral phases. Microalgae with a spherical appearance of 5 micro-m were applied in mineralisation studies. The extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) layers on the microalgae were used as biotemplates for manufacturing of functional ceramics. The obtained results on the mineralisation of inorganic phases on polysaccharides are adapted for novel biomimetic routes used in the fabrication for functional and biomedical ceramics. (author)

  2. Iodophilic polysaccharide synthesis, acid production and growth in oral streptococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houte, J. van; Winkler, K.C.; Jansen, H.M.

    The relation between iodophilic polysaccharide formation, acid production and growth in α-haemolytic streptococci, isolated from human dental plaque, was studied. In experiments with resting cell suspensions, or with cells growing at a low rate, all strains synthesizing iodophilic polysaccharide

  3. In vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Gardenia jasminoides ellis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.; Ge, Z.; Luo, A.

    2011-01-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide, GP, was isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The in vitro free radicals scavenging tests exhibited that GP has significant scavenging abilities especially for ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radicals, which suggests that the polysaccharide GP is a novel antioxidant. ?? 2011 Academic Journals.

  4. Structural modification of polysaccharides: A biochemical-genetic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Roger G.; Petersen, Gene R.

    1991-01-01

    Polysaccharides have a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. An industry trend is underway towards the increased use of bacteria to produce polysaccharides. Long term goals of this work are the adaptation and enhancement of saccharide properties for electronic and optic applications. In this report we illustrate the application of enzyme-bearing bacteriophage on strains of the enteric bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, which produces a polysaccharide with the relatively rare rheological property of drag-reduction. This has resulted in the production of new polysaccharides with enhanced rheological properties. Our laboratory is developing techniques for processing and structurally modifying bacterial polysaccharides and oligosaccharides which comprise their basic polymeric repeat units. Our research has focused on bacteriophage which produce specific polysaccharide degrading enzymes. This has lead to the development of enzymes generated by bacteriophage as tools for polysaccharide modification and purification. These enzymes were used to efficiently convert the native material to uniform-sized high molecular weight polymers, or alternatively into high-purity oligosaccharides. Enzyme-bearing bacteriophage also serve as genetic selection tools for bacteria that produce new families of polysaccharides with modified structures.

  5. Life cycle assessment of polysaccharide materials: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310872022; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X

    2008-01-01

    Apart from conventional uses of polysaccharide materials, such as food, clothing, paper packaging and construction, new polysaccharide products and materials have been developed. This paper reviews life cycle assessment (LCA) studies in order to gain insight of the environmental profiles of

  6. Modulating surface rheology by electrostatic protein/polysaccharide interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzevles, R.A.; Zinoviadou, K.; Vliet, van T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a large interest in mixed protein/polysaccharide layers at air-water and oil-water interfaces because of their ability to stabilize foams and emulsions. Mixed protein/polysaccharide adsorbed layers at air-water interfaces can be prepared either by adsorption of soluble protein/

  7. Microwave-Assisted Extraction, Chemical Structures, and Chain Conformation of Polysaccharides from a Novel Cordyceps Sinensis Fungus UM01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wang, Lan-Ying; Wu, Ding-Tao; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a well-known tonic food with broad medicinal properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and characterize chemical structures and chain conformation of polysaccharides from a novel C. sinensis fungus UM01. Ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify the polysaccharides. The chemical structure of purified polysaccharide was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with refractive index detector and multiangle laser light scattering were conducted to analyze the molecular weight (Mw ) and chain conformation of purified polysaccharide. Based on the orthogonal design L9 , optimal MAE conditions could be obtained through 1300 W of microwave power, with a 5-min irradiation time at a solid to water ratio of 1:60, generating the highest extraction yield of 6.20%. Subsequently, the polysaccharide UM01-S1 was purified. The UM01-S1 is a glucan-type polysaccharide with a (1→4)-β-d-glucosyl backbone and branching points located at O-3 of Glcp with a terminal-d-Glcp. The Mw , radius of gyration (Rg ) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) of UM01-S1 were determined as 5.442 × 10(6)  Da, 21.8 and 20.2 nm, respectively. Using the polymer solution theory, the exponent (ν) value of the power law function was calculated as 0.38, and the shape factor (ρ = Rg /Rh ) was 1.079, indicating that UM01-S1 has a sphere-like conformation with a branched structure in an aqueous solution. These results provide fundamental information for the future application of polysaccharides from cultured C. sinensis in health and functional food area. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Influence of grape maturity and maceration length on color, polyphenolic composition, and polysaccharide content of Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mariona; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; González, Elena; Esteruelas, Mireia; Fort, Francesca; Canals, Joan Miquel; Zamora, Fernando

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this paper was to study how maturity and maceration length affect color, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, and sensorial quality of Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo wines at three stages of grape ripening. Ripeness increased color extractability, phenolic compounds, and polysaccharide concentrations. Moreover, the proanthocyanidin mean degree of polymerization (mDP) and the percentage of prodelphinidins also increased with maturity, whereas the percentage of galloylation decreased. In general, wines from riper grapes contain higher proportions of skin proanthocyanidins. Color and anthocyanin concentration decreased when the maceration was longer, whereas polysaccharide and proanthocyanidin concentrations did the opposite. It was also detected that the mDP and the percentage of prodelphinidins decreased when the maceration was extended, whereas the percentage of galloylation increased. These data seem to indicate that proanthocyanidin extraction from seeds is clearly increased throughout the maceration time.

  9. Polysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eRoca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, produced by a wide range of bacteria, are high molecular weight biopolymers, presenting an extreme diversity in terms of chemical structure and composition. They may be used in many applications, depending on their chemical and physical properties. A rather unexplored aspect is the presence of rare sugars in the composition of some EPS. Rare sugars, such as rhamnose or fucose, may provide EPS with additional biological properties compared to those composed of more common sugar monomers.This review gives a brief overview of these specific EPS and their producing bacteria. Cultivation conditions are summarized, demonstrating their impact on the EPS composition, together with downstream processing. Finally, their use in different areas, including cosmetics, food products, pharmaceuticals and biomedical applications, are discussed.

  10. Synthesis of Oligosaccharide Fragments of the Pectic Polysaccharide Rhamnogalacturonan I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakharova, Alexandra

    in products such as jams, yoghurts and jellies. Rhamnogalacturonan I is one of the structural classes of pectic polysaccharides, along with homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan II. The chemical structure of rhamnogalacturonan I is complex having a backbone consisting of alternating -linked L......-rhamnose and D-galacturonic acid units with numerous branches of arabinans, galactans or arabinogalactans positioned at C-4 of the rhamnose residues. The structural complexity of pectin together with the wide range of its practical applications and a desire to understand its structure and functions in details...... have inspired many researches to pursuit chemical syntheses of pectic oligosaccharides. Herein, the strategies for chemical synthesis of linear and branched oligosaccharide fragments of rhamnogalacturonan I are presented.The first successful synthesis of a fully unprotected linear hexasaccharide...

  11. Promotion of myelopoiesis in myelosuppressed mice by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ling Zhu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS exhibit potent immunomodulating effects. Immunomodulation plays an important role in hematopoiesis. To investigate the mechanism by which Gl-PS promote myelopoiesis during myelosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide, mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p. once daily with 2.5 mg/kg of Gl-PS or with vehicle (i.e. sterile physiological saline as negative controls for 10 days and were treated i.p. once daily with cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg on days 2 through 4. In the present study, we demonstrated that Gl-PS selectively bind to bone marrow stromal cells, stimulate the secretion of hematopoietic growth factors and enhance the clonogenic activities of hematopoietic and stromal cells to promote hematopoiesis.

  12. Polysaccharide-based biomaterials with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Coma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active packaging is one of the responses to the recent food-borne microbial outbreaks and to the consumer’s demand for high quality food and for packaging that is more advanced and creative than what is currently offered. Moreover, with the recent increase in ecological awareness associated with the dramatic decrease in fossil resources, research has turned towards the elaboration of more natural materials. This paper provides a short review of biomaterials exhibiting antimicrobial and antioxidant properties for applications in food preservation. The two main concepts of active biopackaging materials are briefly introduced. The different polysaccharides potentially used in packaging materials are then presented associated with a brief overview of research works related to biopackaging, exhibiting notably antimicrobial or antioxidant properties. Finally, future trends such as the release-on-demand of bioactive agents are discussed.

  13. Ultrasonic extraction of polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica and their antioxidative and glycosidase inhibitory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Peng; Yang, Xiaoman; Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Huili; Chen, Deke; Pan, Jianyu

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, ultrasonic extraction technique (UET) is used to improve the yield of polysaccharides from Laminaria japonica (LJPs). And their antioxidative as well as glycosidase inhibitory activities are investigated. Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) is applied to optimize ultrasonic extraction for polysaccharides. The optimized conditions are obtained as extraction time at 54 min, ultrasonic power at 1050 W, extraction temperature at 80°C and ratio of material to solvent at 1:50 (g mL-1). Under these optimal ultrasonic extraction conditions, an actual experimental yield (5.75% ± 0.3%) is close to the predicted result (5.67%) with no significant difference ( P > 0.05). Vitro antioxidative and glycosidase inhibitory activities tests indicate that the crude polysaccharides (LJP) and two major ethanol precipitated fractions (LJP1 and LJP2) are in a concentration-dependent manner. LJP2 (30%-60% ethanol precipitated polysaccharides) possesses the strongest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and moderate scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals (66.09% ± 2.19%, 3.0 mg mL-1). Also, the inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (59.08% ± 3.79%, 5.0 mg mL-1) is close to that of acarbose (63.99% ± 3.27%, 5.0 mg mL-1). LJP1 (30% ethanol precipitated polysaccharides) exhibits the strongest scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals (99.80% ± 0.00%, 3.0 mg mL-1) and moderate α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (47.76% ± 1.92%, 5.0 mg mL-1). LJP shows the most remarkable DPPH scavenging activity (66.20% ± 0.11%, 5.0 mg mL-1) but weakest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (37.77% ± 1.30%, 5.0 mg mL-1). However, all these LJPs exert weak inhibitory effects against α-amylase. These results show that UET is an effective method for extracting bioactive polysaccharides from seaweed materials. LJP1 and LJP2 can be developed as a potential ingredient in hypoglycemic agents or functional food for the management of

  14. Polysaccharide rich fractions from barks of Ximenia americana inhibit peripheral inflammatory nociception in mice Antinociceptive effect of Ximenia americana polysaccharide rich fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaira E.S. da Silva-Leite

    Full Text Available Abstract Ximenia americana L., Olacaceae, barks are utilized in folk medicine as analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The objective was to evaluate the toxicity and antinociceptive effect of polysaccharides rich fractions from X. americana barks. The fractions were obtained by extraction with NaOH, followed by precipitation with ethanol and fractionation by ion exchange chromatography. They were administered i.v. or p.o. before nociception tests (writhing, formalin, carragenan-induced hypernociception, hot plate, or during 14 days for toxicity assay. The total polysaccharides fraction (TPL-Xa: 8.1% yield presented 43% carbohydrate (21% uronic acid and resulted in two main fractions after chromatography (FI: 12%, FII: 22% yield. FII showed better homogeneity/purity, content of 44% carbohydrate, including 39% uronic acid, arabinose and galactose as major monosaccharides, and infrared spectra with peaks in carbohydrate range for COO- groups of uronic acid. TPL-Xa (10 mg/kg and FII (0.1 and 1 mg/kg presented inhibitory effect in behavior tests that evaluate nociception induced by chemical and mechanical, but not thermal stimuli. TPL-Xa did not alter parameters of systemic toxicity. In conclusion, polysaccharides rich fractions of X. americana barks inhibit peripheral inflammatory nociception, being well tolerated by animals.

  15. Recent Advances in Marine Algae Polysaccharides: Isolation, Structure, and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu-Ying; Huang, Xuesong; Cheong, Kit-Leong

    2017-12-13

    Marine algae have attracted a great deal of interest as excellent sources of nutrients. Polysaccharides are the main components in marine algae, hence a great deal of attention has been directed at isolation and characterization of marine algae polysaccharides because of their numerous health benefits. In this review, extraction and purification approaches and chemico-physical properties of marine algae polysaccharides (MAPs) are summarized. The biological activities, which include immunomodulatory, antitumor, antiviral, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic, are also discussed. Additionally, structure-function relationships are analyzed and summarized. MAPs' biological activities are closely correlated with their monosaccharide composition, molecular weights, linkage types, and chain conformation. In order to promote further exploitation and utilization of polysaccharides from marine algae for functional food and pharmaceutical areas, high efficiency, and low-cost polysaccharide extraction and purification methods, quality control, structure-function activity relationships, and specific mechanisms of MAPs activation need to be extensively investigated.

  16. Visualization of bacterial polysaccharides by scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanski, B S; McAleer, W J; Hilleman, M R

    1983-04-01

    Highly purified capsular polysaccharides of Neisseria meningitidis groups A, B, and C have been visualized by high resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM). Spheroidal macromolecules approximately 200 A in diameter are characteristic of the Meningococcus A and C polysaccharides whereas filaments that are 400-600 A in length are found in Meningococcus B polysaccharide preparations. Filaments are occasionally found associated with the spheroidal Meningococcus A and C polysaccharides and it is proposed that these structures are composed of a long (1-4 microns) filament or filaments that are arranged in spheroidal molecules or micelles of high molecular weight. The Meningococcus B polysaccharide, by contrast, is a short flexuous filament or strand of relatively low molecular weight. A relationship between morphology and antigenicity is proposed.

  17. Chromatography in characterization of polysaccharides from medicinal plants and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, De-jun; Cheong, Kit-leong; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-ping

    2013-01-01

    Polysaccharides isolated from medicinal plants and fungi exhibit multiple pharmacological activities. The biological activities of polysaccharides depend on their chemical characteristics. However, characterization of polysaccahrides is a challenge because of their complicated structure and macromolecular mass. In this review, chromatography in characterization of polysaccharides, including physicochemical characterization (purity, molecular mass, and distribution), structural characterization (constituent monosaccharide composition and the ratio, the features of glycosidic linkages), and fingerprint of polysaccharides (acidic and enzymatic hydrolysates), from medicinal plants and fungi were reviewed and discussed according to the publications collected in Web of Science since 2007. The perspective for characterization of polysaccharides has also been described. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Comparison of polysaccharides from two species of Ganoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Hu, De-Jun; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Li, Shao-Ping

    2012-01-13

    Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense, known as Lingzhi in Chinese, are commonly used Chinese medicines with excellent beneficial health effects. Triterpenes and polysaccharides are usually considered as their main active components. However, the content of triterpenes differs significantly between the two species of Ganoderma. To date, a careful comparison of polysaccharides from the two species of Ganoderma has not been performed. In this study, polysaccharides from fruiting bodies of two species of Lingzhi collected from different regions of China were analyzed and compared based on HPSEC-ELSD and HPSEC-MALLS-RI analyses, as well as enzymatic digestion and HPTLC of acid hydrolysates. The results indicated that both the HPSEC-ELSD profiles and the molecular weights of the polysaccharides were similar. Enzymatic digestion showed that polysaccharides from all samples of Lingzhi could be hydrolyzed by pectinase and dextranase. HPTLC profiles of their TFA hydrolysates colored with different reagents and their monosaccharides composition were also similar.

  19. Characterization of polysaccharides from Ganoderma spp. using saccharide mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Xie, Jing; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2013-09-12

    Polysaccharides from Ganoderma spp. and their adulterants were firstly investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, enzymatic (endo-1,3-β-D-glucanase and pectinase) digestion followed by polysaccharide analysis using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis analysis. The results showed that both 1,3-β-D-glucosidic and 1,4-α-D-galactosiduronic linkages were existed in Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense), and the similarity of polysaccharides from G. lucidum and G. sinense was high, which may contribute to rational use of Lingzhi. Different species of Ganoderma and their adulterants can be differentiated based on the saccharide mapping, which is helpful to well understand the structural characters of polysaccharides from different species of Ganoderma and to improve the quality control of polysaccharides in Lingzhi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural Features and Healthy Properties of Polysaccharides Occurring in Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guillamón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from mushrooms have attracted a great deal of attention due to the many healthy benefits they have demonstrated, such as immunomodulation, anticancer activity, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, antiviral and antimicrobial effects, among others. Isolation and purification of polysaccharides commonly involve several steps, and different techniques are actually available in order to increase extraction yield and purity. Studies have demonstrated that the molecular structure and arrangement significantly influence the biological activity; therefore, there is a wide range of analytical techniques for the elucidation of chemical structures. Different polysaccharides have been isolated from mushrooms, most of them consisting of β-linked glucans, such as lentinan from Lentinus edodes, pleuran from Pleurotus species, schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune, calocyban from Calocybe indica, or ganoderan and ganopoly from Ganoderma lucidum. This article reviews the main methods of polysaccharide isolation and structural characterization, as well as some of the most important polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms and the healthy benefits they provide.

  1. Fiber and nonstarch polysaccharide content and variation in common crops used in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-09-01

    The current paper reviews content and variation in fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) of common crops used in broiler diets. The cereal grain is a complex structure, and its cell walls (CW) differ in their composition and hence properties. Arabinoxylan (AX), mixed linkage (1→3; 1→4)-β-glucan (β-glucan), cellulose, and the noncarbohydrate component lignin are the predominant polymers in cereals. They occur in different proportions depending on the species and tissue type. Rye, triticale, wheat, corn, and sorghum are all rich in AX, whereas barley and oats contain a high level of β-glucan. The AX from rye, wheat, and triticale and β-glucan from barley and oats are to a large extent soluble, whereas the solubility of AX found in corn and sorghum is lower than the other cereals. The ratio of arabinose to xylose gives a crude indication of the AX structure, which varies between the endosperm, the aleurone and the outer grain layers as well as between the same tissues from different grains. Varietal differences in AX structure of the endosperm are also identified. From the analysis of the released oligomers after hydrolysis with a specific (1→3,1→4)-β-d-glucan hydrolase, it is found that the ratio of trisaccharides (degree of polymerization 3) and tetrasaccharides (degree of polymerization 4) varies depending on the source, being higher in barley than in oats but lower than in wheat. The molecular weight of β-glucan is higher than that of AX, and both polymers contribute to the viscosity of the extract. However, because AX molecules are more resistant to degradation than β-glucan, the use of AX rich grains in broiler diets is usually more problematic than those containing high concentrations of β-glucan. The cereal coproducts (brans and hulls) are concentrated sources of cellulose, lignin, and insoluble AX, but β-glucan can also be present mainly in rye and wheat brans. The CW composition of seeds and grains of protein crops and feedstuffs are

  2. Organized polysaccharide fibers as stable drug carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Gill, Kristin L.; Campanella, Osvaldo H.; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems, and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects is very much in need and food grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of sodium iota-carrageenan fibers and their distinctive water pockets to embed and release a wide variety of drug molecules. Structural analysis has revealed the existence of crystalline network in the fibers even after encapsulating the drug molecules, and iota-carrageenan maintains its characteristic and reproducible double helical structure suggesting that the composites thus produced are reminiscent of cocrystals. The melting properties of iota-carrageenan:drug complexes are distinctly different from those of either drug or iota-carrageenan fiber. The encapsulated drugs are released in a sustained manner from the fiber matrix. Overall, our research provides an elegant opportunity for developing effective drug carriers with stable network toward enhancing and/or controlling bioavailability and extending shelf-life of drug molecules using GRAS excipients, food polysaccharides, that are inexpensive and non–toxic. PMID:23544530

  3. Nanoengineering of vaccines using natural polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ana Sara; Alonso, María José; de la Fuente, María

    2015-11-01

    Currently, there are over 70 licensed vaccines, which prevent the pathogenesis of around 30 viruses and bacteria. Nevertheless, there are still important challenges in this area, which include the development of more active, non-invasive, and thermo-resistant vaccines. Important biotechnological advances have led to safer subunit antigens, such as proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids. However, their limited immunogenicity has demanded potent adjuvants that can strengthen the immune response. Particulate nanocarriers hold a high potential as adjuvants in vaccination. Due to their pathogen-like size and structure, they can enhance immune responses by mimicking the natural infection process. Additionally, they can be tailored for non-invasive mucosal administration (needle-free vaccination), and control the delivery of the associated antigens to a specific location and for prolonged times, opening room for single-dose vaccination. Moreover, they allow co-association of immunostimulatory molecules to improve the overall adjuvant capacity. The natural and ubiquitous character of polysaccharides, together with their intrinsic immunomodulating properties, their biocompatibility, and biodegradability, justify their interest in the engineering of nanovaccines. In this review, we aim to provide a state-of-the-art overview regarding the application of nanotechnology in vaccine delivery, with a focus on the most recent advances in the development and application of polysaccharide-based antigen nanocarriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Research of polysaccharide complexes from asteraceae family plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Михайлівна Марчишин

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. Depth study of polysaccharides in some little-known plant species of Asteraceae family is pressing question, considering that polysaccharides are important biologically active compounds widely used in pharmaceutical and medical practice as remedies and preventive medications. The aim of research was to determinate both quantitative content and monomeric composition of polysaccharide complexes from Asteraceae family plant species – Tagetes genus, Arnica genus, and Bellis genus.Materials and methods. Determination of polysaccharides was carried out by the precipitation reaction, using 96 % ethyl alcohol P and Fehling's solution after acid hydrolysis; quantitative content of this group of compounds was determined by gravimetric analysis. On purpose to identify the monomeric composition hydrolysis under sulfuric acid conditions was conducted. Qualitative monomeric composition of polysaccharides after hydrolysis was carried out by paper chromatography method in n-Butanol – Pyridine – Distilled water P (6:4:3 system along with saccharides reference samples.Results. Polysaccharide complexes from Tagetes erecta, Tagetes patula, Tagetes tenuifolia, Arnica montana, Arnica foliosa, wild and cultivated Bellis perennis herbs were studied. Water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin fractions were isolated from studied objects; their quantitative content and monomeric composition were determined.Conclusion. The highest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides was found in cultivated Bellis perennis herb (10,13 %, the highest amount of pectin compounds – in Tagetes tenuifolia herb (13,62 %; the lowest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin compounds was found in Arnica montana herb (4,61 % and Tagetes patula herb (3,62 %, respectively. It was found that polysaccharide complexes from all studied species include glucose and arabinose

  5. Physicochemical properties and membrane biofouling of extra-cellular polysaccharide produced by a Micrococcus luteus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Li, Xiufen; Song, Ping; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-07-01

    The physicochemical properties of the extra-cellular polysaccharide (EPS) produced by a Micrococcus luteus strain, a dominating strain isolated from membrane biofouling layer, were determined in this study. The EPS isolated from this strain was measured to have an average molecular weight of 63,540 Da and some typical polysaccharide absorption peaks in Fourier transform infrared spectrum. Monosaccharide components of the EPS contained rhamnose, fucose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose and glucose in a molar ratio of 0.2074:0.0454:0.0262:0.0446:1.7942:1.2086:0.4578. Pseudo plastic properties were also observed for the EPS through the rheological measurement. The EPS was further characterized for its behavior to cause membrane flux decline. The results showed that both flux declines for polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and polypropylene membranes became more severe as EPS feed concentration increased. A higher irreversible fouling for the PVDF membrane suggested that the EPS had the larger fouling potential to this microfiltration membrane.

  6. Characteristics and bioactivities of different molecular weight polysaccharides from camellia seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhou; Li, Xu; Feng, Shiling; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Lijun; Yuan, Ming; Ding, Chunbang

    2016-10-01

    Four polysaccharides, namely COP-1, COP-2, COP-3 and COP-4, were ultrafiltrated from crud Camellia oleifera seed cake polysaccharides (COP-c), purified, and characterized, including the determination of antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Their molecular weights were 7.9, 36, 83 and 225kDa, respectively. All COPs showed the similar FT-IR spectrums, but significant differentials in monosaccharide components. COP-2 exhibited the highest radical scavenging abilities. COP-1 has the strongest metal chelating capabilities. Although with higher molecular weight, COP-4 showed the poorest antioxidant abilities. These results suggested appreciate molecular weight COP possessed a better antioxidant activities. Additionally, all COPs had non-significant antiproliferative abilities in HaLa and HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cellulase-assisted extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Rhizoma imperata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Long-Fa

    2014-08-08

    In this study, the cellulase-assisted extraction and antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides from Rhizoma imperata were investigated. To improve the yield of R. Imperata polysaccharides (RPs), the extraction conditions were optimized as follows: time, 69.48 min; temperature, 45.36°C; pH, 4.58; cellulase amount, 1,200 U/g. Under these optimum conditions, the yield of RPs reached 0.67% (w/w), and was higher than that of the traditionally aqueous extraction method. The sugar content in the RPs product reached up to 93.25% (w/w). The RPs product has high antioxidant activity including hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity at the concentration of 100mg/mL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel mechanically competent polysaccharide scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbar, S G; Toti, U S; Deng, M; James, R; Laurencin, C T; Aravamudhan, A; Harmon, M; Ramos, D M

    2011-01-01

    The success of the scaffold-based bone regeneration approach critically depends on the biomaterial's mechanical and biological properties. Cellulose and its derivatives are inherently associated with exceptional strength and biocompatibility due to their β-glycosidic linkage and extensive hydrogen bonding. This polymer class has a long medical history as a dialysis membrane, wound care system and pharmaceutical excipient. Recently cellulose-based scaffolds have been developed and evaluated for a variety of tissue engineering applications. In general porous polysaccharide scaffolds in spite of many merits lack the necessary mechanical competence needed for load-bearing applications. The present study reports the fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional (3D) porous sintered microsphere scaffolds based on cellulose derivatives using a solvent/non-solvent sintering approach for load-bearing applications. These 3D scaffolds exhibited a compressive modulus and strength in the mid-range of human trabecular bone and underwent degradation resulting in a weight loss of 10–15% after 24 weeks. A typical stress–strain curve for these scaffolds showed an initial elastic region and a less-stiff post-yield region similar to that of native bone. Human osteoblasts cultured on these scaffolds showed progressive growth with time and maintained expression of osteoblast phenotype markers. Further, the elevated expression of alkaline phosphatase and mineralization at early time points as compared to heat-sintered poly(lactic acid–glycolic acid) control scaffolds with identical pore properties affirmed the advantages of polysaccharides and their potential for scaffold-based bone regeneration.

  9. Quantitative determination of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide serotype 14 using a modification of phenol-sulfuric acid method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Gabriela; Suarez, Norma; Bessio, Maria I; Ferreira, Fernando; Massaldi, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    The capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae, serotype 14, is part of every pneumococcal vaccine presently in the market or under development. A strategy for the quantitative determination of this polysaccharide by the phenol-sulfuric acid method is described. The modality of acid addition is shown to be the critical step for obtaining reproducible test results between different technicians. Raising the incubation temperature above 80 degrees C increased the consistency of the method by more than 60% regardless of the acid addition modality, but at the expense of some loss of sensitivity. Incubation at 110 degrees C was found necessary to obtain reproducible results within 3% for this technique, which was used to follow the enrichment of the polysaccharide during the last steps of purification. A model mixture of the component polysaccharide sugars provided an adequate and economic standard to construct the calibration curve for this assay, with absorbance reading either in the reaction tubes or in a microplate. A similar procedure may be applied to the determination of other bacterial polysaccharides as well.

  10. Perspective on the Use of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Organisms as a Source of New Antithrombotic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. S. Mourão

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thromboembolic diseases are increasing worldwide and always require anticoagulant therapy. We still need safer and more secure antithrombotic drugs than those presently available. Sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms may constitute a new source for the development of such drugs. Investigation of these compounds usually attempts to reproduce the therapeutic effects of heparin. However, we may need to follow different routes, focusing particularly in the following aspects: (1 defining precisely the specific structures required for interaction of these sulfated polysaccharides with proteins of the coagulation system; (2 looking for alternative mechanisms of action, distinct from those of heparin; (3 identifying side effects (mostly pro-coagulant action and hypotension rather than bleeding and preparing derivatives that retain the desired antithrombotic action but are devoid of side effects; (4 considering that sulfated polysaccharides with low anticoagulant action on in vitro assays may display potent effects on animal models of experimental thrombosis; and finally (5 investigating the antithrombotic effect of these sulfated polysaccharides after oral administration or preparing derivatives that may achieve this effect. If these aspects are successfully addressed, sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms may conquer the frontier of antithrombotic therapy and open new avenues for treatment or prevention of thromboembolic diseases.

  11. New polysaccharide-based polymer electrolytes; Nouveaux electrolytes polymeres a base de polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Morales, P.; Le Nest, J.F.; Gandini, A. [Ecole Francaise de Papeterie et des Industries Graphique, 38 - Saint Martin d`Heres (France)

    1996-12-31

    Polysaccharides like cellulose and chitosan are known for their filmic properties. This paper concerns the synthesis and the study of chitosan-based polymer electrolytes. A preliminary work concerns the study of glucosamine reactivity. The poly-condensation of chitosan ethers (obtained by reaction with ethylene oxide or propylene oxide) with bifunctional and monofunctional oligo-ethers leads to the formation of thin lattices (10 {mu}m) having excellent mechanical properties. The presence of grafted polyether chains along the polysaccharide skeleton allows to modify the vitreous transition temperature and the molecular disorder of the system. Two type of polymer electrolytes have been synthesized: electrolytes carrying a dissolved alkaline metal salt and ionomers. The analysis of their thermal, dynamical mechanical, nuclear magnetic relaxation, electrical, and electrochemical properties shows that this new class of polymer electrolytes has the same performances as ethylene poly-oxide based amorphous lattices plus the advantage of having good filmic properties. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  12. New polysaccharide-based polymer electrolytes; Nouveaux electrolytes polymeres a base de polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Morales, P; Le Nest, J F; Gandini, A [Ecole Francaise de Papeterie et des Industries Graphique, 38 - Saint Martin d` Heres (France)

    1997-12-31

    Polysaccharides like cellulose and chitosan are known for their filmic properties. This paper concerns the synthesis and the study of chitosan-based polymer electrolytes. A preliminary work concerns the study of glucosamine reactivity. The poly-condensation of chitosan ethers (obtained by reaction with ethylene oxide or propylene oxide) with bifunctional and monofunctional oligo-ethers leads to the formation of thin lattices (10 {mu}m) having excellent mechanical properties. The presence of grafted polyether chains along the polysaccharide skeleton allows to modify the vitreous transition temperature and the molecular disorder of the system. Two type of polymer electrolytes have been synthesized: electrolytes carrying a dissolved alkaline metal salt and ionomers. The analysis of their thermal, dynamical mechanical, nuclear magnetic relaxation, electrical, and electrochemical properties shows that this new class of polymer electrolytes has the same performances as ethylene poly-oxide based amorphous lattices plus the advantage of having good filmic properties. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  13. Optimization of extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ye, Hong; Hu, Bing; Zhou, Li; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong; Shen, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    The root of Brassica rapa L. has been traditionally used as a Uyghur folk medicine to cure cough and asthma by Uyghur nationality in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. In the present study, therefore, extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from the root of B. rapa L. (BRP) were investigated. The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 21.48 ± 0.41% for crude BRP were obtained as follows: extraction temperature 93°C, extraction time 4.3h and ratio of extraction solvent (water) to raw material 75 mL/g. The crude BRP was purified by chromatographic columns of DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100, affording three purified fractions of BRP-1-1, BRP-2-1 and BRP-2-2 with average molecular weight of 1510, 1110 and 838 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that BRP-1-1 was composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose and arabinose, BRP-2-1 was composed of rhamnose, galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose, and BRP-2-2 was composed of rhamnose and galacturonic acid in a molar ratio of 1.27: 54.92. Furthermore, the crude BRP exhibited relatively higher antioxidant activity in vitro than purified fractions; hence, it could be used as a natural antioxidant in functional foods or medicines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharides on boar spermatozoa during freezing-thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tao; Jiang, Zhong-Liang; Liu, Hong; Li, Qing-Wang

    2015-08-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharides (SMPs) were extracted from S. miltiorrhiza in this study. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of SMP on the motility of boar sperm, including the antioxidant effect of SMP on boar sperm and the effect of SMP on the in vivo fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Fifty ejaculates from 5 Swagger boars were collected and diluted with an extender, which contained 3% glycerol (v/v) with five concentrations of SMP (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0mg/mL). The semen was frozen in 0.25mL straws at 1.0×10(9) cells/mL. Sixty gilts were inseminated using fresh semen, frozen semen with 0.4mg/mL of SMP and frozen semen without SMP. The results indicate that the addition of SMP to the extender results in a higher percentage of motile sperm post-thaw (Pextender (Pboar sperm from peroxidative damage and increase sperm motility and litter size during the process of freezing-thawing. The optimal concentration of SMP for the frozen extenders in this study was determined to be 0.4mg/mL. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Antibiofilm activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Karwacki

    Full Text Available Cell-free extracts isolated from colony biofilms of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were found to inhibit biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, but not by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 itself, in a 96-well microtiter plate assay. Physical and chemical analyses indicated that the antibiofilm activity in the extract was due to high-molecular-weight polysaccharide. Extracts isolated from a mutant strain deficient in the production of serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide did not exhibit antibiofilm activity. A plasmid harboring the serotype 5 capsule genes restored the antibiofilm activity in the mutant extract. Purified serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide also exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts did not inhibit S. aureus growth, but did inhibit S. aureus intercellular adhesion and binding of S. aureus cells to stainless steel surfaces. Furthermore, polystyrene surfaces coated with A. pleuropneumoniae wild-type extracts, but not with capsule-mutant extracts, resisted S. aureus biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsule inhibits cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions of other bacteria. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 capsular polysaccharide is one of a growing number of bacterial polysaccharides that exhibit broad-spectrum, nonbiocidal antibiofilm activity. Future studies on these antibiofilm polysaccharides may uncover novel functions for bacterial polysaccharides in nature, and may lead to the development of new classes of antibiofilm agents for industrial and clinical applications.

  16. The immunostimulating role of lichen polysaccharides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Gajendra; St Clair, Larry L; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-03-01

    The immune system has capacity to suppress the development or progression of various malignancies including cancer. Research on the immunomodulating properties of polysaccharides obtained from plants, microorganisms, marine organisms, and fungi is growing rapidly. Among the various potential sources, lichens, symbiotic systems involving a fungus and an alga and/or a cyanobacterium, show promise as a potential source of immunomodulating compounds. It is well known that lichens produce an abundance of structurally diverse polysaccharides. However, only a limited number of studies have explored the immunostimulating properties of lichen polysaccharides. Published studies have shown that some lichen polysaccharides enhance production of nitrous oxide (NO) by macrophages and also alter the production levels of various proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-12, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-α/β) by macrophages and dendritic cells. Although there are only a limited number of studies examining the role of lichen polysaccharides, all results suggest that lichen polysaccharides can induce immunomodulatory responses in macrophages and dendritic cells. Thus, a detailed evaluation of immunomodulatory capacity of lichen polysaccharides could provide a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Enzymatic method for improving the injectability of polysaccharides. [US Patent Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Holleman, J.W.

    A method for enhancing the ability of polysaccharides in aqueous solution to flow through a porous medium comprises contacting the polysaccharides with an endoenzyme capable of hydrolyzing at least one of the linkages of the sugar units of the polysaccharides and maintaining the polysaccharides in contact with the enzyme under hydrolysis conditions for a time sufficient to decrease the tendency of the polysaccharides to plug the porous medium yet insufficient to decrease the viscosity of the aqueous polysaccharides by more than 25%. The partially hydrolyzed polysaccharides are useful as thickening agents for flooding water used to recover oil from oil-containing subterranean formations.

  18. Enzymatic Modification of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Jens; Hayashi, Takahisa; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell walls are intricate structures with remarkable properties, widely used in almost every aspect of our life. Cell walls consist largely of complex polysaccharides and there is often a need for chemical and biochemical processing before industrial use. There is an increasing demand...... for sustainable processes that replace chemical treatments with white biotechnology. Plants can contribute significantly to this sustainable process by producing plant or microbialenzymes in planta that are necessary for plant cell wall modification or total degradation. This will give rise to superior food...... fibres, hydrocolloids, paper,textile, animal feeds or biofuels. Classical microbial-based fermentation systems could in the future face serious competition from plant-based expression systems for enzyme production. Plant expressed enzymes can either be targeted to specific cellular compartments...

  19. Unusual monosaccharides: components of O-antigenic polysaccharides of microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkov, Nikolai K.

    1996-09-01

    The data on new monosaccharides detected in O-antigenic polysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria have been surveyed. The results of isolation and structure determination of these unusual monosaccharides have been arranged and described systematically. The NMR spectroscopy techniques are shown to be promising for the O-antigenic polysaccharides structure determination. The information about fine structure of monosaccharides which constitute the base of important class of microbial polysaccharides, is of great significance for applied studies, first of all, the design and synthesis of biologically active substances. The bibliography includes 216 references.

  20. Lead complexation in wines with the dimers of the grape pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Pellerin

    1997-03-01

    Our study is the first to show that in wine most of the lead is complexed with a pectic polysaccharide that is not degraded during vinification. dRG-II-B is also known to form complexes with other cations, including strontium and barium. However, it is not known what role dRG-II-B has in determining the metabolic fate in humans of toxic cations present in wine.

  1. Synergistic Effects of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Mexican Seaweeds against Measles Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Morán-Santibañez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs extracted from five seaweed samples collected or cultivated in Mexico (Macrocystis pyrifera, Eisenia arborea, Pelvetia compressa, Ulva intestinalis, and Solieria filiformis were tested in this study in order to evaluate their effect on measles virus in vitro. All polysaccharides showed antiviral activity (as measured by the reduction of syncytia formation and low cytotoxicity (MTT assay at inhibitory concentrations. SPs from Eisenia arborea and Solieria filiformis showed the highest antiviral activities (confirmed by qPCR and were selected to determine their combined effect. Their synergistic effect was observed at low concentrations (0.0274 μg/mL and 0.011 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis SPs, resp., which exhibited by far a higher inhibitory effect (96% syncytia reduction in comparison to the individual SP effects (50% inhibition with 0.275 μg/mL and 0.985 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis, resp.. Time of addition experiments and viral penetration assays suggest that best activities of these SPs occur at different stages of infection. The synergistic effect would allow reducing the treatment dose and toxicity and minimizing or delaying the induction of antiviral resistance; sulfated polysaccharides of the tested seaweed species thus appear as promising candidates for the development of natural antiviral agents.

  2. Effect of the molecular weight of a neutral polysaccharide on soy protein gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sónia R; Lopes-da-Silva, José A

    2017-12-01

    The effects of galactomannans with different molecular weights on the heat-induced gelation characteristics of soybean protein were investigated using dynamic small-strain rheometry, under conditions where the proteins carry a net negative charge (pH7). Microstructure of the resulting gels was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Phase-separated systems were obtained with different morphologies and degree of phase separation, depending on both biopolymer concentrations and polysaccharide molecular weight. In general, a gelling enhancing effect on soy proteins was verified, despite extensive phase-separation processes observed at the higher polysaccharide molecular weight. This effect was demonstrated by an increase of the gelation rate, a decrease in the temperature at the onset of gelation, and an increase of gel stiffness and elastic character, with the length of polysaccharide chains. Overall, the results obtained established that the judicious selection of the galactomannan molecular weight may be used to modify the structure and gelation properties of soy proteins, originating a diversity of rheological characteristics and microstructures that will impact on the design of novel food formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of different extraction techniques on property and bioactivity of polysaccharides from Dioscorea hemsleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chengcheng; Li, Xia; Miao, Jing; Jing, Songsong; Li, Xuejiao; Huang, Luqi; Gao, Wenyuan

    2017-09-01

    The rhizoma of Dioscorea hemsleyi (DH) has been used as a treatment of diabetes in China for hundreds of years. Polysaccharides in DH were extracted by using ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), cold water extraction (CWE), warm water extraction (WWE) and hot water extraction (HWE), separately. Then the different characterizations of four DH polysaccharide (DHP) samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), high-performance Gel permeation chromatography (HGPC), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy(UV), fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Their activities in vitro of DHP were compared. Experimental results showed that HWE had the highest yield and large molecular weight. CWE had the highest uronic acid yield and little molecular weight, and its DPPH, AGI and AAI activity were the best. The molecular weight of UAE was small, and its RP and FRAP activity were the best. Four DHP samples had differences in the surface topography, while they all had the typical IR spectra characteristic of polysaccharides. According the correlation analysis, it showed that the more uronic acid and the lower molecular weight was, the higher the antioxidant activity was. The high content of monosaccharide composition of Xyl, Ara, GlcA and GalA, and little molecular weight have good effect on antidiabetic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Purification, antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides from soybean residue fermented with Morchella esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuhong; Gao, Ang; Dong, Shuang; Chen, Ye; Sun, Shuang; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2017-03-01

    Crude polysaccharides (MPS) from soybean residue fermented with Morchella esculenta were extracted and purified by DEAE Sephadex A-50 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 size-exclusion chromatography in sequence. Three main fractions MP-1, MP-3 and MP-4 were obtained during the purification steps. The recovery rates based on MPS used were 26.2%, 29.1% and 18.7% for MP-1, MP-3 and MP-4 respectively. The monosaccharide composition, ultraviolet spectrum, infrared spectrum and NMR of the three fractions were analyzed. Furthermore, the influence of polysaccharides fractions upon activation of macrophage cells (RAW 264.7), antitumor activities of the human hepatocellular cell line (HepG-2) and human cervical carcinoma cells (Hela) in vitro were evaluated. The results indicated that the proliferation of MP-3 on RAW 264.7 was 313.57% at 25μg/mL, which is high while MP-1 had a higher growth inhibition effect on HepG-2 cells of 68.01% at concentration of 50μg/mL. The fractions of MP-1, MP-3 and MP-4 induced apoptosis in HepG-2 cells and Hela cells by arresting cell cycle progression at the G 0 /G 1 phase. These findings suggest that the purified polysaccharides fractions may be a potent candidate for human hepatocellular and cervical carcinoma treatment and prevention in functional foods and pharmacological fields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical stability of R-(+)-Limonene emulsions stabilized by Ulva fasciata algae polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ping; Ma, Huiling; Qiu, Qiang; Jing, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    The physical stability of R-(+)-Limonene emulsions stabilized by Ulva fasciata polysaccharide (UFP) was investigated in this study. Emulsion physical stability was evaluated under different polysaccharide concentrations (1%-5%, wt/wt) and pH values (3.0-11.0). The stability of R-(+)-Limonene emulsions was demonstrated by droplet size distribution, rheological properties, zeta potential and visual phase separation. R-(+)-Limonene emulsions displayed monomodal droplet size distributions, high absolute values of zeta potential and good storage stability when 3% (wt/wt) UFP was used. The rheological properties and stability of R-(+)-Limonene emulsions appeared to be dependent on polysaccharide concentration. The emulsion stability was impacted by pH. Higher zeta potential (-52.6mV) and smaller mean droplet diameter (2.45μm) were achieved in neutral liquid environment (pH 7.0). Extreme acidity caused the flocculation of emulsions, which was manifested as phase separation, while emulsions were quite stable in an alkaline environment. Through comparing the stabilities of emulsions stabilized by different emulsifiers (i.e. UFP, GA and Gelatin), the result suggested that UFP was the best emulsifying agent among them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gene expression profiling in equine polysaccharide storage myopathy revealed inflammation, glycogenesis inhibition, hypoxia and mitochondrial dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benech Philippe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several cases of myopathies have been observed in the horse Norman Cob breed. Muscle histology examinations revealed that some families suffer from a polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM. It is assumed that a gene expression signature related to PSSM should be observed at the transcriptional level because the glycogen storage disease could also be linked to other dysfunctions in gene regulation. Thus, the functional genomic approach could be conducted in order to provide new knowledge about the metabolic disorders related to PSSM. We propose exploring the PSSM muscle fiber metabolic disorders by measuring gene expression in relationship with the histological phenotype. Results Genotypying analysis of GYS1 mutation revealed 2 homozygous (AA and 5 heterozygous (GA PSSM horses. In the PSSM muscles, histological data revealed PAS positive amylase resistant abnormal polysaccharides, inflammation, necrosis, and lipomatosis and active regeneration of fibers. Ultrastructural evaluation revealed a decrease of mitochondrial number and structural disorders. Extensive accumulation of an abnormal polysaccharide displaced and partially replaced mitochondria and myofibrils. The severity of the disease was higher in the two homozygous PSSM horses. Gene expression analysis revealed 129 genes significantly modulated (p Conclusion The main disorders observed in PSSM muscles could be related to mitochondrial dysfunctions, glycogenesis inhibition and the chronic hypoxia of the PSSM muscles.

  7. Schizosaccharomyces japonicus: A Polysaccharide-Overproducing Yeast to Be Used in Winemaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Romani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixed starter cultures made of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 and Schizosaccharomyces japonicus #13 were inoculated in commercial grape must, and the impact of different inoculum ratios (1:1; 1:100; 1:10,000 on growth and fermentation kinetics and on the analytical profiles of the experimental wines was here evaluated. Results obtained showed that S. japonicus #13 affects S. cerevisiae growth and fermentative capability only for S. cerevisiae/S. japonicus inoculum ratio 1:10,000. The analytical profiles of the wines produced by mixed starter cultures indicated that this non-Saccharomyces yeast modulates the concentration of malic and acetic acids and of some of the most important volatile compounds, such as β-phenyl ethanol, in an inoculum-ratio-dependent fashion. Moreover, all experimental wines obtained with S. japonicus #13 in mixed cultures reached concentrations of total polysaccharides significantly higher than those obtained with pure cultures of S. cerevisiae EC1118, and total polysaccharides increased with the increase of S. japonicus #13 cell concentration. Based on these results, S. japonicus #13 might be profitably inoculated in combination with S. cerevisiae EC1118 to enhance wine complexity and aroma and to improve wine stability by increasing the final concentration of polysaccharides.

  8. Chemical properties and antioxidant activity of a water-soluble polysaccharide from Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiu-Lian; Tang, Zhuan-Hui; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Zhong, Yong-Hong; Yao, Su-Zhi; Wang, Li-Sheng; Lin, Cui-Wu; Luo, Xuan

    2016-08-01

    In this report, a water-soluble polysaccharide was obtained from the dried stems of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo by hot-water (70-75°C) extraction and 85% ethanol precipitation, and successively purification by DEAE-cellulose anion-exchange chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography. The D. officinale polysaccharide (DOP) has a molecular weight of 8500Da. Monosaccharide composition analysis reveals that DOP is composed of mannose, glucose, and arabinose with a trace of galacturonic acid in a molar ratio of 6.2:2.3:2.1:0.1. Periodate oxidation-smith degradation and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy analysis suggest the predominance of mannose and glucose, and it contains a 2-O-acetylglucomannan and (1→4)-linked-β-d-mannopyranosyl and (1→4)-linked-β-d-glucopyranosyl residues. Atomic force microscope shows that DOP mainly exists as rod-shaped chains, supporting high degrees of polymerization. The antioxidant activities of the polysaccharide in vitro assay indicate that DOP has good scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, higher scavenging activity of hydroxyl radical, and metal chelating activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Polysaccharide with antioxidant, α-amylase inhibitory and ACE inhibitory activities from Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hwee-Feng; Gan, Chee-Yuen

    2016-04-01

    Functional polysaccharide was isolated from Momordica charantia, with a yield of 36% (w/w). M. charantia bioactive polysaccharide (MCBP) was an acidic and branched heteropolysaccharide with a molecular weight of 92 kDa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis indicated that MCBP was a pectin-like polysaccharide with an esterification degree of 53% and it contains numerous monosaccharides, predominantly glucose, galactose, and galaturonic acid. The results also showed that MCBP exhibited free radical scavenging activity (31.9%), ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.95 mM), α-amylase inhibition (89.1%), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (94.1%). In the terms of functionality, MCBP showed a lower water-holding capacity but higher in oil-holding capacity, emulsifying activity and foaming capacity compared to citrus pectin. Scanning electron microscopy images demonstrated that MCBP formed gels with a porous structure, and flow analysis showed that the gel solution exhibited pseudoplastic shear-thinning behavior. These findings indicated that MCBP is a promising functional macromolecular carbohydrate for the food and nutraceutical industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural characterization and evaluation of the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Qingzhuan brick tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinhe; Huang, Mingjun; Qin, Caiqin; Lv, Bangyu; Mao, Qingli; Liu, Zhonghua

    2017-08-01

    The crude tea polysaccharides (CTPS) from Qingzhuan brick tea(QZBT) were extracted and fractionated to afford two fractions, namely TPS-1 and TPS-2. Analyses were conducted concerning the structural characterization and antioxidant activities of these samples. Component analysis revealed that the carbohydrate, uronic acid, protein and polyphenol contents of these samples differed significantly. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed that these samples showed similar characteristic absorption peaks for polysaccharides. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, circular dichroism, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analyses indicated that there were considerable differences in the presence of protein, surface features, conformational characteristics and thermodynamic behaviors. For antioxidant activities in vitro, CTPS, TPS-1 and TPS-2 exhibited concentration-dependent antioxidant activities, with TPS-2 showing significantly higher antioxidant activity than CTPS and TPS-1. These results provide a scientific and strong foundation for the use of tea polysaccharides(TPS) from QZBT and further research towards the relationships between the characteristics and antioxidant activities of TPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Studies of polysaccharides from three edible species of Nostoc (cyanobacteria) with different colony morphologies : structural characterization and effect on the complement system of polysaccharides from Nostoc commune

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüll, L.P.; Huang, Z.; Thomas-Oates, J.E.; Smestad-Paulsen, B.; Cohen, E.H.; Michaelsen, T.E.

    2000-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Nostoc commune Vaucher produces quite complex extracellular polysaccharides. The cyanobacterium is nitrogen fixing, and on growing the cyanobacterium in media with and without nitrogen, different types of extracellular polysaccharides were obtained. These were also different from

  12. High molecular weight of polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus against amyloid beta-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jai-Hong; Tsai, Chia-Ling; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

    2016-06-07

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is a well-known mushroom in traditional Chinese food and medicine. HE extracts from the fruiting body and mycelia not only exhibit immunomodulatory, antimutagenic and antitumor activity but also have neuroprotective properties. Here, we purified HE polysaccharides (HEPS), composed of two high molecular weight polysaccharides (1.7 × 10(5) Da and 1.1 × 10(5) Da), and evaluated their protective effects on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. HEPS were prepared and purified using a 95 % ethanol extraction method. The components of HEPS were analyzed and the molecular weights of the polysaccharides were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The neuroprotective effects of the polysaccharides were evaluated through a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and an MTT assay and by quantifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potentials (MMP) of Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in cells. Our results showed that 250 μg/ml HEPS was harmless and promoted cell viability with 1.2 μM Aβ treatment. We observed that the free radical scavenging rate exceeded 90 % when the concentration of HEPS was higher than 1 mg/mL in cells. The HEPS decreased the production of ROS from 80 to 58 % in a dose-dependent manner. Cell pretreatment with 250 μg/mL HEPS significantly reduced Aβ-induced high MMPs from 74 to 51 % and 94 to 62 % at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Finally, 250 μg/mL of HEPS prevented Aβ-induced cell shrinkage and nuclear degradation of PC12 cells. Our results demonstrate that HEPS exhibit antioxidant and neuroprotective effects on Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in neurons.

  13. Visualization of capsular polysaccharide induction in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellenberg, S.; Leon Morales, C.F.; Sand, W.; Vera, M.

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) are of fundamental importance for attachment to metal sulfides, biofilm formation and leaching efficiency of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. In this work we have visualized the capsular polysaccharides (CPS) of A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 using the

  14. Cholesterol and fat lowering with hydrophobic polysaccharide derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čopíková, J.; Taubner, T.; Tůma, J.; Synytsya, A.; Dušková, Dagmar; Marounek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 1 (2015), s. 207-214 ISSN 0144-8617 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : hydrophobically modified polysaccharides * structure * thermal analysis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.219, year: 2015

  15. Comparison of Polysaccharides from Two Species of Ganoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense, known as Lingzhi in Chinese, are commonly used Chinese medicines with excellent beneficial health effects. Triterpenes and polysaccharides are usually considered as their main active components. However, the content of triterpenes differs significantly between the two species of Ganoderma. To date, a careful comparison of polysaccharides from the two species of Ganoderma has not been performed. In this study, polysaccharides from fruiting bodies of two species of Lingzhi collected from different regions of China were analyzed and compared based on HPSEC-ELSD and HPSEC-MALLS-RI analyses, as well as enzymatic digestion and HPTLC of acid hydrolysates. The results indicated that both the HPSEC-ELSD profiles and the molecular weights of the polysaccharides were similar. Enzymatic digestion showed that polyshaccharides from all samples of Lingzhi could be hydrolyzed by pectinase and dextranase. HPTLC profiles of their TFA hydrolysates colored with different reagents and their monosaccharides composition were also similar.

  16. STUDY OF POLYSACCHARIDE COMPLEX OF SORBARIA SORBIFOLIA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Guschina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated polysaccharides and identified monosaccharides after hydrolysis during the work. Gravimetric analysis identifies the prevalence of pectin substances (PS and hemicelluloses A (HC A.

  17. Optimization of polysaccharides extracted from Verbena officinalis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Polysaccharides, Colorectal cancer, Verbena officinalis, SW480 cell lines, Cell invasion,. Metastasis ..... receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family, is found to be abnormal in many ... invasion of human prostate cancer cells via Caveolin-.

  18. Nitroxide-catalyzed selective oxidation of alcohols and polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponedel'kina, I Yu; Khaibrakhmanova, E A; Odinokov, Viktor N

    2010-01-01

    The use of nitroxide radicals in the selective oxidation of alcohols is considered. Attention is focused on the oxidation of polysaccharides as a method of preparation of polyuronic acids, aldehydes and hemiacetals.

  19. Detection of Inulin, a Prebiotic Polysaccharide, in Maple Syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiadong; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P; Rowley, David C

    2016-09-28

    Maple syrup is a widely consumed plant-derived natural sweetener produced by concentrating xylem sap collected from certain maple (Acer) species. During thermal evaporation of water, natural phytochemical components are concentrated in maple syrup. The polymeric components from maple syrup were isolated by ethanol precipitation, dialysis, and anion exchange chromatography and structurally characterized by glycosyl composition analysis, glycosyl linkage analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Among the maple syrup polysaccharides, one neutral polysaccharide was characterized as inulin with a broad molecular weight distribution, representing the first isolation of this prebiotic carbohydrate from a xylem sap. In addition, two acidic polysaccharides with structural similarity were identified as arabinogalactans derived from rhamnogalacturonan type I pectic polysaccharides.

  20. Structural Characterization and Enzymatic Modification of Soybean Polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierce, Brian; Wichmann, Jesper

    % galacturonic acid, 8% xylose, 3% rhamnose, and 3% fucose. Currently, the majority of this material is disposed of as waste, increasing production costs. Opportunities exist for the develop-ment of novel functional ingredients from this abundant and underutilized ma-terial; however, efforts in this area......The work in this thesis explores the structure of soybean polysaccharides, and examines approaches for the chemical and enzymatic degradation and solu-bilization of this material. Soybean polysaccharides are produced in large quantities globally as a by-product of various soy production processes...... are currently limited by the material’s insol-ubility. A central hypothesis of this work was that by obtaining a more complete understanding of the structure of this material, chemical and enzymatic ap-proaches could be developed to modify the polysaccharides, creating soluble polysaccharide fractions...

  1. Radiation-chemical destruction of cellulose and other polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    The studies concerning the radiation-chemical destruction of cellulose, its ethers and some polysaccharides (xylan, starch, decstrans, chitin, chitosan and geparin) are discussed. Ionising irradiation causes the destruction of these compounds with the decay of pyranose ring, accompanied by the formation of compounds containing carbonyl or carboxyl groups, as well as hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon oxide. The efficiency of radiation degradation increases with increasing the temperature and depends on the structure of polysaccharides and the nature of substituents. The mechanism of radiation-chemical transformations of cellulose and others polysaccharides is proposed. Prospects of the application of radiation-chemical methods of treatment of cellulose and other polysaccharides in industry and agriculture considered [ru

  2. Impact of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide on apoptosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China ... Keywords: Lycium barbarum polysaccharide, Splenic lymphocytes, ROS, Caspase-3, Bax, Nrf2. Tropical Journal of .... and 5′- TCC ACT GTC TGC TTC AAT ACC -3′.

  3. Nanocoating of titanium implant surfaces with organic molecules. Polysaccharides including glycosaminoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna Aleksandra; Svava, Rikke; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2012-01-01

    Long-term stability of titanium implants are dependent on a variety of factors. Nanocoating with organic molecules is one of the method used to improve osseointegration. Nanoscale modification of titanium implants affects surface properties, such as hydrophilicity, biochemical bonding capacity...... and roughness. This influences cell behaviour on the surface such as adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of cells as well as the mineralization of the extracellular matrix at the implant surfaces. The aim of the present systematic review was to describe organic molecules used for surface nanocoating...... nanocoatings. The included in vivo studies, showed improvement of bone interface reactions measured as increased Bone-to-Implant Contact length and Bone Mineral Density adjacent to the polysaccharide coated surfaces. Based on existing literature, surface modification with polysaccharide and glycosaminoglycans...

  4. Reduced order dynamic model for polysaccharides molecule attached to an atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Deman; Li Aiqin; Attar, Peter; Dowell, Earl H.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic analysis and numerical simulation has been conducted of a polysaccharides molecular structure (a ten (10) single-α-D-glucose molecule chain) connected to a moving atomic force microscope (AFM). Sinusoidal base excitation of the AFM cantilevered beam is considered. First a linearized perturbation model is constructed for the complex polysaccharides molecular structure. Then reduced order (dynamic) models based upon a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique are constructed using global modes for both the linearized perturbation model and for the full nonlinear model. The agreement between the original and reduced order models (ROM/POD) is very good even when only a few global modes are included in the ROM for either the linear case or for the nonlinear case. The computational advantage of the reduced order model is clear from the results presented

  5. Cellulase-assisted extraction and antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides from garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Saikun; Wu, Shengjun

    2014-10-13

    In the present study, the polysaccharides were prepared from garlic by using a cellulase-assisted extraction method and the antioxidant activity of garlic polysaccharides (GPs) was evaluated. To improve the yield of GPs, the influences of the several factors such as extraction time, temperature, pH, and cellulase amount on the extraction efficiency were studied. The optimal conditions for extraction of GPs were determined as follows: time, 80 min; temperature, 45 °C; pH, 5; cellulase amount, 8000 U/g. Under the optimised extraction conditions, the yield of GPS reached up to 35.34%. The GPs product exhibited strong antioxidant activity including hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and reducing power. The results suggest that the GPs could be used as potential antioxidants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Polysaccharides as Bacterial Antiadhesive Agents and "Smart" Constituents for Improved Drug Delivery Systems Against Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchicchi, Bianca; Hensel, Andreas; Goycoolea, Francisco M

    2015-01-01

    , the exploration of the biological activity of plant-derived products or polysaccharides commonly present in foods is increasingly becoming more and more attractive. This review aims to present the current state-of-the-art on the antiadhesive capacity of different polysaccharide families, on polysaccharide-based nanosystems and the proof-of-concept evidence of their potential use as alternative medicines against H. pylori.

  7. Structure of polysaccharide and structural analysis by x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuguchi, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Polysaccharides occur in plants and the living body in the solid, gel, or liquid. They have a highly structural diversity and possess the potential to be used for development of new materials and energy sources. So it is very important to understand their molecular structure under various conditions. This review introduces the structural characteristics of polysaccharides and the examples of their analysis by the X-ray scattering method. (author)

  8. Voltammetry of Os(VI)-modified polysaccharides at carbon electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trefulka, Mojmír; Paleček, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 15 (2009), s. 1763-1766 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/0490; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : chemical modification of polysaccharides * Os(VI)L-polysaccharide adducts * pyrolytic graphite electrodes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2009

  9. Demonstration of Polysaccharide Capsule in Campylobacter jejuni Using Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Karlyshev, Andrey V.; McCrossan, Maria V.; Wren, Brendan W.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we reported that Campylobacter jejuni, an important gastrointestinal pathogen, has the genetic determinants to produce a capsular polysaccharide (Karlyshev et al., Mol. Microbiol. 35:529–541, 2000). Despite these data, the presence of a capsule in these bacteria has remained controversial. In this study we stain C. jejuni cells with the cationic dye Alcian blue and demonstrate for the first time by electron microscopy that C. jejuni cells produce a polysaccharide capsule that is ret...

  10. Tamarind seed polysaccharide: A promising natural excipient for pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Joshny Joseph; S N Kanchalochana; G Rajalakshmi; Vedha Hari; Ramya Devi Durai

    2012-01-01

    The natural polymers always have exceptional properties which make them distinct from the synthetic polymers and tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) is one such example which shows more valuable properties making it a useful excipient for a wide range of applications. TSP is a natural polysaccharide obtained from the seeds of Tamarindus indica, recently gaining a wide potential in the field of pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Its isolation and characterisation involve simple techniques ...

  11. Cytochemical Localization of Polysaccharides in Dendrobium officinale and the Involvement of DoCSLA6 in the Synthesis of Mannan Polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    He, Chunmei; Wu, Kunlin; Zhang, Jianxia; Liu, Xuncheng; Zeng, Songjun; Yu, Zhenming; Zhang, Xinghua; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Deng, Rufang; Tan, Jianwen; Luo, Jianping; Duan, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Dendrobium officinale is a precious traditional Chinese medicinal plant because of its abundant polysaccharides found in stems. We determined the composition of water-soluble polysaccharides and starch content in D. officinale stems. The extracted water-soluble polysaccharide content was as high as 35% (w/w). Analysis of the composition of monosaccharides showed that the water-soluble polysaccharides were dominated by mannose, to a lesser extent glucose, and a small amount of galactose, in a ...

  12. [Analysis of thickening polysaccharides by the improved diethyldithioacetal derivatization method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Takumi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    The identification test for thickening polysaccharides containing neutral saccharides and uronic acids was investigated by GC analysis of constituent monosaccharides. The reported method, in which monosaccharides were converted to diethyldithioacetal derivatives with ethanethiol followed by trimethylsilylation, was improved in terms of operability and reproducibility of GC/MS analysis. The suitability of the improved diethyldithioacetal derivatization method was determined for seven thickening polysaccharides, i.e., carob bean gum, guar gum, karaya gum, gum arabic, gum ghatti, tragacanth gum and peach gum. The samples were acid-hydrolyzed to form monosaccharides. The hydrolysates were derivatized and analyzed with GC/FID. Each sugar derivative was detected as a single peak and was well separated from others on the chromatograms. The amounts of constituent monosaccharides in thickening polysaccharides were successfully estimated. Seven polysaccharides were distinguished from each other on the basis of constituent monosaccharides. Further examination of the time period of hydrolysis of polysaccharides using peach gum showed that the optimal times were not the same for all monosaccharides. A longer time was needed to hydrolyze glucuronic acid than neutral saccharides. The findings suggest that hydrolysis time may sometimes affect the analytical results on composition of constituent monosaccharides in polysaccharides.

  13. Protective effects of a polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis on dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced Parkinson′s disease model in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine whether a polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis shows protective effects on dopaminergic neurons. A Parkinson′s disease model was established through the intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP in C57BL/6J mice. Prior to the MPTP injection, some mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of a polysaccharide derived from Spirulina platensis once daily for 10 days. The results showed that the immunoreactive staining and mRNA expression of the dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, in the substantia nigra, were significantly increased in mice pretreated with 800 mg/kg of the polysaccharide compared with those in MPTP-treated mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and midbrain were also increased significantly in mice injected with MPTP after pretreatment with the polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis. By contrast, the activity of monoamine oxidase B in serum and midbrain maintained unchanged. These experimental findings indicate that the polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis plays a protective role against the MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6J mice, and that the antioxidative properties of this polysaccharide likely underlie its neuroprotective effect.

  14. Therapeutic Effects of Bupleurum Polysaccharides in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyu Pan

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is related to low-grade chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Bupleurum Polysaccharides (BPs, isolated from Bupleurum smithii var. parvifolium has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. However, little is known about its therapeutic effects on diabetes. In this experiment, the effects of BPs on alleviation of diabetes and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Diabetic mice model was established via successive intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (100 mg/kg body weight for two days. Mice with blood glucose levels higher than 16.8mmol/L were selected for experiments. The diabetic mice were orally administered with BPs (30 and 60 mg/kg once a day for 35 days. BPs not only significantly decreased levels of blood glucose, but also increased those of serum insulin and liver glycogen in diabetic mice compared to model mice. Additionally, BPs adminstration improved the insulin expression and suppressed the apoptosis in pancreas of the diabetic mice. Histopathological observations further demonstrated that BPs protected the pancreas and liver from oxidative and inflammatory damages. These results suggest that BPs protect pancreatic β cells and liver hepatocytes and ameliorate diabetes, which is associated with its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties.

  15. Modifications of Saccharomyces pastorianus cell wall polysaccharides with brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Rita; Coelho, Elisabete; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2015-06-25

    The cell wall polysaccharides of brewers spent yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus (BSY) and the inoculum yeast (IY) were studied in order to understand the changes induced by the brewing process. The hot water and alkali extractions performed solubilized mainly mannoproteins, more branched for BSY than those of IY. Also, (31)P solid state NMR showed that the BSY mannoproteins were 3 times more phosphorylated. By electron microscopy it was observed that the final residues of alkali sequential extraction until 4M KOH preserved the yeast three-dimensional structure. The final residues, composed mainly by glucans (92%), showed that the BSY, when compared with IY, contained higher amount of (1→4)-linked Glc (43% for BSY and 16% for IY) and lower (1→3)-linked Glc (17% for BSY and 42% for IY). The enzymatic treatment of final residue showed that both BSY and IY had (α1→4)-linked Glc and (β1→4)-linked Glc, in a 2:1 ratio, showing that S. pastorianus increases their cellulose-like linkages with the brewing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of heparin and related polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneu, B.; Dol, F.; Caranobe, C.; Sie, P.; Houin, G.

    1989-01-01

    The pharmacodynamic profile of standard heparin (SH), a low molecular weight derivative (CY 216) and of dermatan sulfate (DS), a new potential antithrombotic drug, was investigated in the rabbit over a large range of doses. After bolus i.v. injection of low doses, the biological activity of SH disappeared exponentially; however, its half-life was prolonged when the dose injected increased, and over 158 micrograms/kg (100 anti-factor Xa U/kg) the biological activity disappeared as a concave-convex curve. CY 216 disappeared more slowly than SH at low doses but faster than SH at higher doses. More than 90% of the DS biological activity present 1 minute after the i.v. injection disappeared exponentially without dose-dependent effects. Increasing doses of the three drugs were then delivered for 5 h under continuous infusions. Below 500 micrograms/kg/h the DS and CY 216 plateau concentrations were higher than that of SH while above this dose the SH concentration was higher than that of DS and CY 216. These observations may be explained by the results of pharmacokinetics experiments where 125 I-labeled compounds were delivered by bolus i.v. injection in association with increasing doses of their unlabeled counterparts. For SH there was a 10-fold difference between the half-life of the lower dose (32 micrograms/kg or 5 anti-factor Xa U/kg) and that of the higher dose (3200 micrograms/kg); it was demonstrated that the half-life of SH continuously shortened as its plasma concentration decreased. In contrast the CY 216 and DS half-lives were very close, independent of the dose delivered, and therefore longer than that of SH at low doses and shorter than that of SH at higher doses

  17. Studying the effect of some growth factors and gamma radiation on the production of polysaccharides by lactic acid bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, W.S.H.

    2008-01-01

    using cheese whey as a microbial production medium for exo polysaccharides (EPS) presents a cleaner production opportunity (CPO)to create value-added products and protect the environment. In the present study, fifty lactic acid bacterial strains were isolated from some traditional dairy products including buttermilk, Karish cheese, and yoghurt. The isolates were assessed for EPS production , and three isolates were selected as good EPS producers. When comparing the growth and production kinetics achieved by the selected 3 isolates (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus l1, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris I2, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus I3) and 3 reference LAB strains including Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris DSM 20069, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus EMCC 1102 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus EMCC 1105 in MRS broth and whey based medium (WBM), it was found that reference strains achieved higher growth and EPS productivity than isolates. In addition the growth and productivity achieved in MRS broth were higher than these achieved in WBM. In this study, the optimum nutritional supplements for EPS production in WBM by the studied strains were identified as 100 g/l glucose and 30 g/l yeast extract. In addition, the optimum fermentation conditions were identified as incubation temperature of 37 degree C, initial ph of 6.2 and agitation speed of 50 rpm.

  18. Similarity Evaluation of Different Origins and Species of Dendrobiums by GC-MS and FTIR Analysis of Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Dong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available GC-MS method combined with FTIR techniques by the analysis of polysaccharide was applied to evaluate the similarity between wild (W and tissue-cultured (TC Dendrobium huoshanense (DHS, Dendrobium officinale (DO, and Dendrobium moniliforme (DM as well as 3 wild Dendrobium spp.: Dendrobium henanense (DHN, Dendrobium loddigesii (DL, and Dendrobium crepidatum (DC. Eight monosaccharides involving xylose, arabinose, rhamnose, glucose, mannose, fructose, galactose, and galacturonic acid were identified in the polysaccharide from each Dendrobium sample while the contents of the monosugars varied remarkably across origins and species. Further similarity evaluation based on GC-MS data showed that the rcor values of different origins of DHS, DO, and DM were 0.831, 0.865, and 0.884, respectively, while the rcor values ranged from 0.475 to 0.837 across species. FTIR files of the polysaccharides revealed that the similarity coefficients between W and TC-DHS, DO, and DM were 88.7%, 86.8%, and 88.5%, respectively, in contrast to the similarity coefficients varying from 57.4% to 82.6% across species. These results suggested that the structures of polysaccharides between different origins of the investigated Dendrobiums might be higher than what we had supposed.

  19. Selection and protein sds-page identification of a new high-producing polysaccharide strain of Spirulina platensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiping; Liu Yanhui

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between anti-radiation capacity and polysaccharide contents of ten Spirulina platensis strains were studied. The results showed that the correlation coefficient between 60 Co γ-ray half-lethal dose (LD 50 ) and polysaccharide contents of the 10 strains was 0.9873. After the single cells or spheroplasts of Sp-08 were treated by 0.6%EMS and 2.4 kGy 60 Co γ-ray irradiation, four morphological mutant named Sp-08A, Sp-08B, Sp-08C and Sp-08D, which could endure about 7.0 kGy γ-ray irradiation, were obtained. The polysaccharide contents of Sp-08A, Sp-08B, Sp-08C and Sp-08D, were 32.8%, 17.3%, 3.4% and 42.3% higher than that of their parent Sp-08, respectively. The results of protein SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the heredity of Sp-08A, Sp-08C and Sp-08D were mutated. Therefore, Sp-08A was a perfect high-producing polysaccharide strain with excellent characteristics of morphology and growth. Now, Sp-08A is applied in mass cultivation and industrialization. (authors)

  20. Enzymes in biogenesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides. Enzyme characterization using tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    Enzymes and metabolic pathways, by which starch and cell wall polysaccharides are formed, were investigated in order to learn how these processes are regulated and to identify the enzymatic regulatory mechanisms involved. Germinating lily pollen was used for studies of cell wall formation, and pollen and maize endosperm for studies of starch biosynthesis. Hexokinase being the first step in conversion of hexoses to starch, wall polysaccharides and respiratory substrates, maize endosperm enzyme was assayed by its conversion of 14 C-hexose to 14 C-hexose-6-P, and rapid separation of the two labelled compounds on anion-exchange paper. This enzyme did not appear to be under tight regulation by feed-back inhibition or activation, nor to be severely inhibited by glucose-6-P or activated by citrate. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and other pyrophosphorylases were assayed radiochemically with 14 C-glucose-1-P (forward direction) or 32-PPsub(i) (reverse direction). They showed that the maize endosperm enzyme was activated by the glycolytic intermediates fructose-6-P and 3-phosphoglycerate, and that low levels of the enzyme were present in the high sucrose-low starch mutant named shrunken-2. Under optimal in-vitro assay conditions, the pollen enzyme reacted four times faster than the observed in-vivo rate of starch accumulation. Biogenesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides requires the conversion of hexose phosphates to various sugar nucleotides and utilization of the latter by the appropriate polysaccharide synthetases. Lily pollen possesses a β-1,3-glucan synthetase which is activated up to six-fold by β-linked oligosaccharides. Hence, the in-vivo activity of this enzyme may be modulated by such effector molecules

  1. Soft X-ray induced chemical modification of polysaccharides in vascular plant cell walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cody, George D.; Brandes, Jay; Jacobsen, Chris; Wirick, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and micro carbon X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (C-XANES) can provide quantitative information regarding the distribution of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in vascular plant cell walls. In the case of angiosperms, flowering plants, C-XANES may also be able to distinguish variations in lignin monomer distributions throughout the cell wall. Polysaccharides are susceptible to soft X-ray irradiation induced chemical transformations that may complicate spectral analysis. The stability of a model polysaccharide, cellulose acetate, to variable doses of soft X-rays under conditions optimized for high quality C-XANES spectroscopy was investigated. The primary chemical effect of soft X-ray irradiation on cellulose acetate involves mass loss coincident with de-acetylation. A lesser amount of vinyl ketone formation also occurs. Reduction in irradiation dose via defocusing does enable high quality pristine spectra to be obtained. Radiation induced chemical modification studies of oak cell wall reveals that cellulose and hemicellulose are less labile to chemical modification than cellulose acetate. Strategies for obtaining pristine C-XANES spectra of polysaccharides are presented.

  2. Models based on ultraviolet spectroscopy, polyphenols, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides for prediction of wine astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Jean-Claude; Trarieux, Corinne; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Ducasse, Maris-Agnés; Caillé, Soline; Samson, Alain; Williams, Pascale; Doco, Thierry; Cheynier, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Astringency elicited by tannins is usually assessed by tasting. Alternative methods involving tannin precipitation have been proposed, but they remain time-consuming. Our goal was to propose a faster method and investigate the links between wine composition and astringency. Red wines covering a wide range of astringency intensities, assessed by sensory analysis, were selected. Prediction models based on multiple linear regression (MLR) were built using UV spectrophotometry (190-400 nm) and chemical analysis (enological analysis, polyphenols, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides). Astringency intensity was strongly correlated (R(2) = 0.825) with tannin precipitation by bovine serum albumin (BSA). Wine absorbances at 230 nm (A230) proved more suitable for astringency prediction (R(2) = 0.705) than A280 (R(2) = 0.56) or tannin concentration estimated by phloroglucinolysis (R(2) = 0.59). Three variable models built with A230, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides presented high R(2) and low errors of cross-validation. These models confirmed that polysaccharides decrease astringency perception and indicated a positive relationship between oligosaccharides and astringency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimization of Alkaline Extraction and Bioactivities of Polysaccharides from Rhizome of Polygonatum odoratum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Yin, Luoyi; Zhang, Xuejiao; Wang, Yan; Chen, Qiuzhi; Jin, Chenzhong; Wang, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to explore the optimal extraction parameters, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial activity of alkaline soluble polysaccharides from rhizome of Polygonatum odoratum. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as the following: NaOH concentration (A) 0.3 M, temperature (B) 80°C, ratio of NaOH to solid (C) 10-fold, and extraction time (D) 4 h, in which ratio of NaOH to solid was a key factor. The order of the factors was ratio of NaOH to solid (fold, C) > extraction temperature (°C, B) > NaOH concentration (M, A) > extraction time (h, D). The monosaccharide compositions of polysaccharides from P. odoratum were rhamnose, mannose, xylose, and arabinose with the molecular ratio of 31.78, 31.89, 11.11, and 1.00, respectively. The reducing power, the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging rate, the hydroxyl radicals scavenging rate, and the inhibition rate to polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation of the alkaline soluble polysaccharides from P. odoratum at 1 mg/mL were 9.81%, 52.84%, 19.22%, and 19.42% of ascorbic acid at the same concentration, respectively. They also showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli. PMID:25093173

  4. Extraction Optimization, Preliminary Characterization and Bioactivities in Vitro of Ligularia hodgsonii Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimization extraction, preliminary characterization and bioactivities of Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides were investigated. Based on single-factor experiments and orthogonal array test, the optimum extraction conditions were obtained as follows: extraction time 3 h, temperature 85 °C, water/raw material ratio 36. Further Sevag deproteinization and dialysis yielded the dialyzed Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides (DLHP, 19.2 ± 1.4 mg/g crude herb. Compositional analysis, size-exclusion chromatography connected with multi-angle laser light-scattering and refractive index (SEC-MALLS-RI, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy were employed for characterization of the polysaccharides. DLHP was found to have a major component with a weight-average molecular weight of 1.17 × 105 Da, mainly comprising of glucose, galactose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid. By in vitro antioxidant activity assays, DLHP presented remarkable scavenging capacities towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ions chelating ability. Moreover, it exhibited appreciable anti-hyperglycemic activity as demonstrated by differential inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The results indicated that DLHP could potentially be a resource for antioxidant and hypoglycemic agents.

  5. Structure characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Chinese quince seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Liu, Hua-Min; Qin, Guang-Yong

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, three polysaccharide fractions, QSMP-1, QSMP-2, and QSMP-3, were isolated and purified from the seed meal of Chinese quince. These fractions' structures were investigated by high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and their antioxidant activities were assessed. The results showed that QSMP-1 is a novel polysaccharide with a backbone mainly composed of →4)-Glcp-(1→, →6)-Glcp-(1→, →6)-Galp-(1→, →2, 3, 4)-Xylp-(1→. The side chains consist of →4)-Arap-(1→, →3, 4)-Arap-(1→, →2)-Galp-(1→, →4)-Manp-(1→, →3)-Galp-(1→, and →3, 6)-Glcp-(1→ with the non-reducing terminals Glcp and Galp. QSMP-1 exhibited effective antioxidant activities by ferrous ion chelation and superoxide anion-scavenging in a dose-dependent manner. These investigations of the polysaccharides from the seed meal of Chinese quince provide a scientific basis for the use of the by-products of quince seed oil processing, particularly as an ingredient in functional foods and medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. PVA/Polysaccharides Blended Films: Mechanical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fábio E. F.; Di-Medeiros, Maria Carolina B.; Batista, Karla A.; Fernandes, Kátia F.

    2013-01-01

    Blends of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and angico gum (AG) and/or cashew gum (CG) were used to produce films by casting method. Morphological and mechanical properties of these films were studied and compared to the properties of a commercial collagen membrane of bovine origin (MBO). The films presented thickness varying from 70 to 140 μm (PVA/AG) and 140 to 200 μm (PVA/CG). Macroscopic analysis showed that a PVA/CG film was very similar to MBO regarding the color and transparency. The higher valu...

  7. Animal lectins: potential receptors for ginseng polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hee Loh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng Meyer, belonging to the genus Panax of the family Araliaceae, is known for its human immune system-related effects, such as immune-boosting effects. Ginseng polysaccharides (GPs are the responsible ingredient of ginseng in immunomodulation, and are classified as acidic and neutral GPs. Although GPs participate in various immune reactions including the stimulation of immune cells and production of cytokines, the precise function of GPs together with its potential receptor(s and their signal transduction pathways have remained largely unknown. Animal lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are highly specific for sugar moieties. Among many different biological functions in vivo, animal lectins especially play important roles in the immune system by recognizing carbohydrates that are found exclusively on pathogens or that are inaccessible on host cells. This review summarizes the immunological activities of GPs and the diverse roles of animal lectins in the immune system, suggesting the possibility of animal lectins as the potential receptor candidates of GPs and giving insights into the development of GPs as therapeutic biomaterials for many immunological diseases.

  8. Filtration Behaviour and Fouling Mechanisms of Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondus Jamal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated filtration behaviors of polysaccharides solutions, both alone and in mixture with proteins, in the short-time constant flux filtration with the focus on factors affecting the transmembrane pressure (TMP increase rate, the irreversible filtration resistance, and the membrane rejection behavior. The results showed that the TMP increase rates in the short-time constant flux filtration of alginate solutions were significantly affected by the calcium addition, alginate concentration, and flux. Although the addition of calcium resulted in a decrease in the TMP increase rate, it was found that the irreversible fouling developed during the filtration increased with the calcium addition, implying that the double-sided effect of calcium on membrane filtration and that the TMP increase rate observed in the filtration does not always reflect the irreversible membrane fouling development. It was also found that for the filtration of solutions containing mixed alginate and BSA, alginate exerted a dominant effect on the TMP increase rate and the membrane exhibited a reduced rejection to both alginate and BSA molecules compared to that in the filtration of the pure alginate or BSA.

  9. Effect of selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and different aging techniques on the polysaccharide and polyphenolic composition and sensorial characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Barrio-Galán, Rubén; Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Medel-Marabolí, Marcela; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2015-08-15

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains with different capabilities of polysaccharide liberation during alcoholic fermentation in addition to subsequent aging on lees with or without oak wood chips as well as aging with commercial inactive dry yeast on the physical, chemical and sensorial characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines. The HPS (high levels of polysaccharides) yeast strain released higher amounts of polysaccharides (429 g L(-1)) than EC1118 (390 g L(-1)) during alcoholic fermentation, but the concentration equalized during the aging period (424 and 417 g L(-1) respectively). All aging techniques increased the polysaccharide concentration, but the increase was dependent on the technique applied. A higher liberation of polysaccharides reduced the concentration of most of the phenolic families analyzed. Moreover, no clear effect of the different aging techniques used in this study on color stabilization was found. The HPS wines were better valued than the EC1118 wines by the panel of tasters after alcoholic fermentation. In general, the HPS wines showed better physicochemical and sensorial characteristics than the EC1118 wines. According to the results obtained during the aging period, all aging techniques contributed to improve wine quality, but it was difficult to establish the technique that allowed the best wine to be obtained, because it depended on the aging technique used and the period of aging. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. A Microwave-Assisted Simultaneous Distillation and Extraction Method for the Separation of Polysaccharides and Essential Oil from the Leaves of Taxus chinensis Var. mairei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjian Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient microwave-assisted simultaneous distillation and extraction (MA-SDE method has been developed for the separation of polysaccharides and essential oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei. The key operating parameters for MA-SDE were optimized by single factor and central composite design experiments, and the optimal conditions were found to include a particle size of 60–80 mesh, liquid/solid ratio of 22.5 mL/g, extraction time of 17.5 min, microwave power of 547 W, and dichloromethane was used as the extraction solvent of the essential oil. The yields obtained for polysaccharides and essential oil under the optimized conditions were 6.39% ± 0.12% and 0.27% ± 0.03%, respectively. The MA-SDE method was also compared with conventional heat reflux extraction (HRE and hydrodistillation extraction (HDE. The MA-SDE method not only allowed for the simultaneous extraction of polysaccharides and essential oil, but also completed the task with a much shorter extraction time of 17.5 min (HRE and HDE required 3 and 6 h, respectively. Furthermore, the MA-SDE method gave increased extraction yields for polysaccharides (1.14-fold higher than HRE and essential oil (1.23-fold higher than HDE. Based on these results, this MA-SDE method represents a rapid and efficient technique for the simultaneous extraction of polysaccharides and essential oil.

  11. Xylan polysaccharides fabricated into nanofibrous substrate for myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, J.; Rajeswari, R.; Shayanti, M.; Sridhar, R.; Sundarrajan, S.; Balamurugan, R.; Ramakrishna, S.

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial infarction, a main cause of heart failure, leads to loss of cardiac tissue impairment of left ventricular function. Repair of diseased myocardium with in vitro engineered cardiac muscle patch/injectable biopolymers with cells may become a viable option for myocardial infarction. We attempted to solve these problems by in vitro study by selecting a plant based polysaccharides beech wood Xylan for the normal functioning of infarcted myocardium. The present study fabricated Xylan based nanofibrous scaffolds cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (Glu) vapors for 24 h, 48 h and 1% Glu blended fibers for the culture of neonatal rat cardiac cells for myocardial infarction. These nanofibers were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, tensile testing and cell culture studies for the normal expression of cardiac proteins. The observed results showed that the Xylan/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) 24 h Glu vapor cross-linked nanofibers (427 nm) having mechanical strength of 2.43 MPa and Young modulus of 3.74 MPa are suitable for the culture of cardiac cells. Cardiac cells proliferation increased only by 11% in Xylan/PVA 24 h Glu cross-linked nanofibers compared to control tissue culture plate (TCP). The normal cardiac cell morphology was observed in 24 h cross-linked Xylan/PVA nanofibers but 48 h cross-linked fibers cell morphology was changed to flattened and elongated on the fibrous surfaces. Confocal analysis for cardiac expression proteins actinin, connexin 43 was observed normally in 24 h Glu cross-linked nanofibers compared to all other nanofibrous scaffolds. The fabricated Xylan/PVA nanofibrous scaffold may have good potential for the normal functioning of infarcted myocardium. - Highlights: ► Fabrication of polysaccharides Xylan/PVA nanofibers for cardiac tissue engineering ► Nanofibers characterized by SEM, FT-IR, tensile testing and cell culture studies ► Isolation of cardiac cells and cultured on Xylan/PVA nanofibrous scaffolds ► Cultured cells on 24 h Glu cross

  12. Xylan polysaccharides fabricated into nanofibrous substrate for myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venugopal, J., E-mail: nnijrv@nus.edu.sg; Rajeswari, R.; Shayanti, M.; Sridhar, R.; Sundarrajan, S.; Balamurugan, R.; Ramakrishna, S.

    2013-04-01

    Myocardial infarction, a main cause of heart failure, leads to loss of cardiac tissue impairment of left ventricular function. Repair of diseased myocardium with in vitro engineered cardiac muscle patch/injectable biopolymers with cells may become a viable option for myocardial infarction. We attempted to solve these problems by in vitro study by selecting a plant based polysaccharides beech wood Xylan for the normal functioning of infarcted myocardium. The present study fabricated Xylan based nanofibrous scaffolds cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (Glu) vapors for 24 h, 48 h and 1% Glu blended fibers for the culture of neonatal rat cardiac cells for myocardial infarction. These nanofibers were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, tensile testing and cell culture studies for the normal expression of cardiac proteins. The observed results showed that the Xylan/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) 24 h Glu vapor cross-linked nanofibers (427 nm) having mechanical strength of 2.43 MPa and Young modulus of 3.74 MPa are suitable for the culture of cardiac cells. Cardiac cells proliferation increased only by 11% in Xylan/PVA 24 h Glu cross-linked nanofibers compared to control tissue culture plate (TCP). The normal cardiac cell morphology was observed in 24 h cross-linked Xylan/PVA nanofibers but 48 h cross-linked fibers cell morphology was changed to flattened and elongated on the fibrous surfaces. Confocal analysis for cardiac expression proteins actinin, connexin 43 was observed normally in 24 h Glu cross-linked nanofibers compared to all other nanofibrous scaffolds. The fabricated Xylan/PVA nanofibrous scaffold may have good potential for the normal functioning of infarcted myocardium. - Highlights: ► Fabrication of polysaccharides Xylan/PVA nanofibers for cardiac tissue engineering ► Nanofibers characterized by SEM, FT-IR, tensile testing and cell culture studies ► Isolation of cardiac cells and cultured on Xylan/PVA nanofibrous scaffolds ► Cultured cells on 24 h Glu cross

  13. Optimization for ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis and characterization of polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Jiang, Zhonghai; Zhou, Xinghai

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction (UMSE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. RSM results showed that the optimal conditions were extraction time of 31.49823 min, microwave power of 99.39769 W, and water-to-raw material ratio of 28.16273. The COP yield was 11.38±0.31% using the modified optimal conditions, which was consistent with the value predicted by the model. The crude COP was purified by DEAE-Cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Five fractions, namely, crude COP, COP-1, COP-2, COP-3, and COP-4, were obtained. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that the COP was composed of glucose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, mannose, and rhamnose. Preliminary structural characterizations of COP were conducted by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-inflammatory polysaccharides of Azadirachta indica seed tegument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Paulo Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae, or Indian neem is a plant used to treat inûammatory disorders. Total polysaccharide (TPL and FI (fractioned by ion exchange chromatography from the seed tegument of A. indica were evaluated in models of acute inflammation (paw edema/peritonitis using Wistar rats. Paw edema (measured by hydroplethysmometry was induced s.c. by Λ-carrageenan (300 µg, histamine (100 µg, serotonin (20 µg, compound 48/80 (10 µg, prostaglandin (PGE2 30 µg or L-arginine (15 µg. Peritonitis (analyzed for leukocyte counts/protein dosage was induced i.p. by carrageenan (500 mg or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP 50 ng. Animals were treated i.v. with TPL (1 mg/kg or FI (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg 30 min before stimuli. FI toxicity (at 0.1 mg/kg, i.v. for seven days was analyzed by the variation of body/organ mass and hematological/biochemical parameters. TPL extraction yielded 1.3%; FI, presenting high carbohydrate and low protein content, at 0.1 mg/kg inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (77%, serotonin (54%, PGE2 (69% and nitric oxide (73%, and the peritonitis elicited by carrageenan (48% or fMLP (67%, being well tolerated by animals. FI exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, revealing to be important active component in traditionally prepared remedies to treat inflammatory states.

  15. Development and characterisation of hybrid polysaccharide membranes for dehydration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, Inês T; Huertas, Rosa M; Torres, Cristiana A V; Coelhoso, Isabel M; Crespo, João G

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this work is the development and characterisation of new hybrid polysaccharide (FucoPol) membranes. These membranes were prepared by incorporation of a SiO 2 network homogeneously dispersed by using a sol-gel method with GPTMS as a crosslinker silica precursor. They were further crosslinked with CaCl 2 for reinforcement of mechanical properties and improvement of their permeation performance. They were characterised in terms of their structural, mechanical and thermal properties. They presented a dense and homogeneous structure, resistant to deformation, with a Tg of 43 °C and a thermal decomposition between 240 and 251 °C. The hybrid FucoPol membranes were tested for ethanol dehydration by pervaporation and also for nitrogen dehydration. They exhibited high water selectivity values, similar to PERVAP ® 4101, however they lost their stability when exposed to solutions of 10.0 wt.% water in ethanol. In contrast, these membranes were stable when applied in N 2 dehydration, leading to reproducible performance and very high water selectivities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Phosphorylation and antiaging activity of polysaccharide from Trichosanthes peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from Trichosanthes peel (TPP were obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction. TPP-1 was separated from the TPP by Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Phosphorylation of TPP-1 was carried out and phosphorylated TPP-1 was named as PTTP-1. The results of infrared spectra, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra showed that the main structure of PTPP-1 was similar to that of TPP-1 and -H2PO3 groups which were conjugated to C-6 of →4-α-D-Manp-(1→, C-4 of →6-α-D-Galp-(1→, C-2 and C-3 of →1-α-L-Araf, C-2 of →1-α-L-Araf-(3→, and C-6 and C-3 of →1-α-D-Glcp. In vivo antiaging activity results proved that TTP-1 and PTTP-1 could both significantly improve the body weight, spleen index, and thymus index of the D-galactose-induced aging mice, increase the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduce malondialdehyde contents in the liver, brain, and serum of aging mice. These results indicated that both TPP-1 and PTTP-1 presented significant antiaging activity. Moreover, PTTP-1 showed stronger antiaging effects in aging mice, indicating that phosphorylation improved antiaging effect.

  17. Natural polysaccharides as active biomaterials in nanostructured films for sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, Carla; Santos, Amanda C; Zampa, Maysa F; de Brito, Ana Cristina Facundo; Leopoldo Constantino, Carlos J; Zucolotto, Valtencir; dos Santos, José R

    2010-01-01

    The search for natural, biocompatible and degradable materials amenable to be used in biomedical/analytical applications has attracted attention, either from the environmental or medical point of view. Examples are the polysaccharides extracted from natural gums, which have found applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries as stabilizers or thickening agent. In a previous paper, however, it was shown that a Brazilian natural gum, chicha (Sterculia striata), is suitable for application as building block for nanostructured film fabrication in conjunction with phthalocyanines. The films displayed electroactivity and could be used in sensing. In the present paper, we introduce the use of two different natural gums, viz., angico (Anadenanthera colubrina) and caraia (Sterculia urens), as active biomaterials to be used to modification layers, in the form of nanostructured thin films, including the study of dopamine detection. The multilayer films were assembled in conjunction with nickel tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines (NiTsPC) and displayed good chemical and electrochemical stability, allowing their use as transducer elements in sensors for detection of specific neurotransmitters. It is suggested here that nanoscale manipulation of new biodegradable natural polymers opens up a variety of new opportunities for the use of these materials in advanced biomedical and analytical devices.

  18. Brucellosis vaccines: assessment of Brucella melitensis lipopolysaccharide rough mutants defective in core and O-polysaccharide synthesis and export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David González

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The brucellae are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, one of the major neglected zoonoses. In endemic areas, vaccination is the only effective way to control this disease. Brucella melitensis Rev 1 is a vaccine effective against the brucellosis of sheep and goat caused by B. melitensis, the commonest source of human infection. However, Rev 1 carries a smooth lipopolysaccharide with an O-polysaccharide that elicits antibodies interfering in serodiagnosis, a major problem in eradication campaigns. Because of this, rough Brucella mutants lacking the O-polysaccharide have been proposed as vaccines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine the possibilities of rough vaccines, we screened B. melitensis for lipopolysaccharide genes and obtained mutants representing all main rough phenotypes with regard to core oligosaccharide and O-polysaccharide synthesis and export. Using the mouse model, mutants were classified into four attenuation patterns according to their multiplication and persistence in spleens at different doses. In macrophages, mutants belonging to three of these attenuation patterns reached the Brucella characteristic intracellular niche and multiplied intracellularly, suggesting that they could be suitable vaccine candidates. Virulence patterns, intracellular behavior and lipopolysaccharide defects roughly correlated with the degree of protection afforded by the mutants upon intraperitoneal vaccination of mice. However, when vaccination was applied by the subcutaneous route, only two mutants matched the protection obtained with Rev 1 albeit at doses one thousand fold higher than this reference vaccine. These mutants, which were blocked in O-polysaccharide export and accumulated internal O-polysaccharides, stimulated weak anti-smooth lipopolysaccharide antibodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate that no rough mutant is equal to Rev 1 in laboratory models and question the notion that

  19. Effects of Polysaccharides on the physical properties of Hydrogels prepared by the application of Gamma (-γ) rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, M. N. K.; Alam, A. K. M. M.; Bhattacharia, S. K.; Dafader, N. C.; Haque, M. E.; Akhtar, F.

    2004-06-01

    The effects of polysaccharides as additives on the physical properties of hydrogels prepared by the application of gamma (-γ) rays were investigated. The polysaccharides- sago, barley and rice powder were used as additives for the preparation of hydrogel from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) having molecular weight 72,000 by applying various doses of gamma rays. The physical properties of the prepared hydrogel, such as gel fraction, degree of swelling, water absorption- and desorption rates were determined. It is found that the gel fraction of hydrogel with barley is higher than that of hydrogel with rice powder and sago. It is also found that the water absorption- and desorption rates of hydrogel with rice powder are higher than those of hydrogel with barley and sago

  20. Crosslinked ionic polysaccharides for stimuli-sensitive drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Blanco-Fernandez, Barbara; Puga, Ana M; Concheiro, Angel

    2013-08-01

    Polysaccharides are gaining increasing attention as components of stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems, particularly since they can be obtained in a well characterized and reproducible way from the natural sources. Ionic polysaccharides can be readily crosslinked to render hydrogel networks sensitive to a variety of internal and external variables, and thus suitable for switching drug release on-off through diverse mechanisms. Hybrids, composites and grafted polymers can reinforce the responsiveness and widen the range of stimuli to which polysaccharide-based systems can respond. This review analyzes the state of the art of crosslinked ionic polysaccharides as components of delivery systems that can regulate drug release as a function of changes in pH, ion nature and concentration, electric and magnetic field intensity, light wavelength, temperature, redox potential, and certain molecules (enzymes, illness markers, and so on). Examples of specific applications are provided. The information compiled demonstrates that crosslinked networks of ionic polysaccharides are suitable building blocks for developing advanced externally activated and feed-back modulated drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLUBLE POLYSACCHARIDES FROM CALAMAGROSTIS ANGUSTIFOLIA KOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Fei Cao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequential treatments of dewaxed Calamagrostis angustifolia Kom with water (60 ºC and 90 ºC, 70% ethanol, and 70% ethanol containing 0.2%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 4.0%, and 8.0% NaOH at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:25 (g/mL at 80 ºC for 3 h yielded 36.2% soluble polysaccharides of the dry dewaxed material. The eight polysaccharide fractions obtained were comparatively studied by sugar analysis, GPC, FT-IR, 1H and 13C-NMR, and 2D-NMR (HSQC spectroscopy. The results showed that the water-soluble polysaccharides might contain noticeable amounts of β-D-glucan, as well as some pectic substances and galactoarabinoxylan. 70% ethanol-soluble polysaccharide was mainly arabinogalactan. The five alkali-soluble hemicelluloses were mainly galactoarabinoxylans. The Ara/Xyl and Ara/Gal values of H5-H8 fractions decreased with the increment of NaOH concentration from 1.0% to 8.0%. Meanwhile, the molecular weights had a declining trend from ~60,000 to ~40,000 g/mol. The smaller sized and more branched polysaccharides tended to be extracted in the early stages under milder conditions, and the larger molecular sized and more linear hemicelluloses tended to be isolated under more highly alkaline conditions.

  2. Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles in Presence of a Linear Polysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto A. Monreal Romero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles compounds were synthesized. Natural hydroxyapatite and a linear polysaccharide (1–3 linked   β-D galactopyranose and 1,4 linked 3,6 anhydro-α-L-galactopyranose were used as a precursor in its formation. Our purpose was to produce nanoparticles in the presence of a linear polysaccharide with the use of a gelification method. The powder sample was evaluated by scanning tunneling microscope (STM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET analysis, X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD, differential thermal analysis (DTA, infrared (IR analysis, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. According to the results, it was found that these nanoparticles can successfully be synthesized using a polysaccharide in a solution. On the other hand, the XRD peak intensity corresponds to hydroxyapatite structure in the range of temperature of 810°C. The influence of the polysaccharide on the evolution of the nanoparticles has been demonstrated. This observation opens up new routes for the fabrication of nanoparticles using polysaccharides network. The synthesized nanoparticles have diameters ranging from 10 nm to 11 nm approximately. The elaboration conditions such as pH and concentration were optimized in this solution.

  3. Extraction, purification and elicitor activities of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ningning; Tian, Wei; Zheng, Dongfang; Zhang, Xinyi; Qin, Pinyan

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharides isolated from Chrysanthemum indicum were studied for their pathogen-derived resistance against Sclerotium rolfsii sacc in Atractylodis maceocephalae koidz. The total sugar content and monosaccharide analysis were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method and gas chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy performed for simple structure information. The activities of CAT and POD as protective enzymes in A. maceocephalae leaves were evaluated. The purified polysaccharides exhibited strong CAT and POD activities in inoculated with S. rolfsii in A. macrocephala leaves, attained the maximum value 568.3 Ug(-1)min(-1) and 604.4 Ug(-1)min(-1)respectively. Whereas, when compared with the control plants, 20mg/ml purified polysaccharides exhibited the strongest CAT and POD activities. Notably, the treatments of A. macepcephalae seedlings with C. indicum polysaccharides (CIP) decreased disease index development caused by S. rolfsii. The disease index after 10 days was significantly reduced when the seedlings treated with 20mg/ml CIP, 4.41 compared to the control plants 32.00. Given together, these results indicated that purified polysaccharides derived from C. indicum may be useful as a natural inducer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Purification and composition analysis of polysaccharide RCPS from Rhodiola crenulata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xue-Wei; Ren, Lei; Han, Yong-Ping; Cui, Zhi-Bin; Huang, Jia-Kun

    2008-03-01

    Hot water extracting and ethanol precipitating method was employed to isolate polysaccharides. RCP (Rhodiola crenulata polysaccharide) was fractionally precipitated with EtOH. RCP3 (Rhodiola crenulata polysaccharide 3) was one of the three fractions. RCPS was obtained after RCP3 was purified by deproteination; decolourization and gel chromatography on Sephadex G-100. The homogeneity and molecular masses of RCPS were proved by HLGPC. The amount of total carbohydrates of RCPS was measured with phenol-sulfuric acid method. IR spectrometry and UV-spectrophotometer were used to determine the characteristic absorption of RCPS. The monosaccharides contained in the RCPS were analyzed by GC. The amount of total carbohydrates in RCPS is 99.11%. The molecular weight was 27 876. IR spectrometry analysis indicated that RCPS showed typical signals of acid polysaccharide, including signals at 3 424.83, 2 934.10, 1 742.11, 1 438.96, 1 261.40, 1 103.54 and 832.86 cm(-1); UV-spectrophotometer analysis indicated that RCPS showed a signal of polysaccharide at 195 nm and no signals of protein, nucleic acid at 260 and 280 nm. The monosaccharide constituents of RCPS were Rha, Ara, Xyl, Man, Glu, Gal and GalA, and their molar proportions were 1 : 2.96 : 0.21 : 0.26 : 0.08 : 0.58 and 0.15, respectively.

  5. Materials for higher steam temperatures (up to 600 deg C) in biomass and waste fired plant. A review of present knowledge; Material foer hoegre aangtemperaturer (upp till 600 grader C) i bio- och avfallseldade anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staalenheim, Annika; Henderson, Pamela

    2011-02-15

    A goal for the Swedish power industry is to build a demonstration biomass-fired plant with 600 deg C steam data in 2015. Vaermeforsk also has a goal to identify materials that can be used in such a plant. This project involves a survey of present knowledge and published articles concerning materials that are suitable for use in biomass and wastefired plants with steam data up to 600 deg C. The information has been gathered from plants presently in operation, and from field tests previously performed with probes. Plants firing only household waste are excluded. The components considered are waterwalls/furnace walls (affected because of higher steam pressures) and superheaters. Fireside corrosion and steam-side oxidation are dealt with. Candidate materials (or coatings) are suggested and areas for further research have been identified. The purpose of this project is to give state-of-the-art information on what materials could be used in biomass and waste-fired plant to reach a maximum steam temperature of 600 deg C. This report is aimed at suppliers of boilers and materials, energy utility companies and others involved in building new plant with higher steam data. In accordance with the goals of this project: - Materials suitable for use at higher steam temperatures (up to 600 deg C steam) in wood-based biomass and waste-fired plant have been identified. Austenitic stainless steels HR3C, TP 347 HFG and AC66 all have adequate strength, steam-side oxidation and fireside corrosion resistance for use as superheaters. AC66 and HR3C have better steam-side oxidation resistance than TP 347 HFG , but TP 347 HFG has better fireside corrosion resistance. It is recommended that TP 347 HFG be shot-peened on the inside to improve the oxidation resistance if in service with steam temperatures above 580 deg C. - Furnace walls coated with Ni-based alloys or a mixture of Ni- alloy and ceramic show good corrosion resistance at lower temperatures and should be evaluated at higher

  6. THE EFFECT OF NON-STARCH POLYSACCHARIDES DERIVED FROM DIFFERENT GRAINS ON PERFORMANCE AND DIGESTIVE ACTIVITY IN LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hartini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to observe the effect of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP onperformance and digestive activity of laying hens. Thirty-two ISA Brown hens were individually cagedand offered four diets (wheat-based, millrun-based, barley-based, and barley-enzymes diets for 10weeks. The present experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design with 8 replicates perdietary treatment. Wheat- and barley diets caused significantly higher (P<0.05 viscosity than otherdiets. Increased viscosity caused lower digesta dry matter (DM (P<0.01 and higher excreta moisture(P<0.05. The wheat diet did not cause a negative effect on intestinal starch digestibility, feed intake, andbird performance (P>0.05. Birds fed the barley-based diet had lower weight gain (P<0.05 and highercaecal weight (P<0.05 than those given other diets. Enzyme supplementation on barley dietssignificantly (P<0.05 reduced jejunal digesta viscosity and caecal weight, increased weight gain(P<0.05 and ileal digesta DM (P<0.01, and numerically reduced excreta moisture. The current studydemonstrated that NSP have a profound effect on digesta viscosity, performance, and digestive organs ofbirds; however, the NSP action may be modified by an interaction with each other and with other cellwallcomponents of grains in the gut. Enzyme supplementation reduced the negative effect of digestaviscosity.

  7. Extracellular polysaccharide production by a novel osmotolerant marine strain of Alteromonas macleodii and its application towards biomineralization of silver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mehta

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates exopolysaccharide production by an osmotolerant marine isolate and also describes further application of the purified polysaccharide for production of colloidal suspension of silver nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S r RNA gene sequencing revealed close affinity of the isolate to Alteromonas macleodii. Unlike earlier reports, where glucose was used as the carbon source, lactose was found to be the most suitable substrate for polysaccharide production. The strain was capable of producing 23.4 gl(-1 exopolysaccharide with a productivity of 7.8 gl(-1 day(-1 when 15% (w/v lactose was used as carbon source. Furthermore, the purified polysaccharide was able to produce spherical shaped silver nanoparticles of around 70 nm size as characterized by Uv-vis spectroscopy, Dynamic light scattering and Transmission electron microscopy. These observations suggested possible commercial potential of the isolated strain for production of a polysaccharide which has the capability of synthesizing biocompatible metal nanoparticle.

  8. Strain-Specific Features of Extracellular Polysaccharides and Their Impact on Lactobacillus plantarum-Host Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Chiao; Caggianiello, Graziano; van Swam, Iris I; Taverne, Nico; Meijerink, Marjolein; Bron, Peter A; Spano, Giuseppe; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2016-07-01

    Lactobacilli are found in diverse environments and are widely applied as probiotic, health-promoting food supplements. Polysaccharides are ubiquitously present on the cell surface of lactobacilli and are considered to contribute to the species- and strain-specific probiotic effects that are typically observed. Two Lactobacillus plantarum strains, SF2A35B and Lp90, have an obvious ropy phenotype, implying high extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production levels. In this work, we set out to identify the genes involved in EPS production in these L. plantarum strains and to demonstrate their role in EPS production by gene deletion analysis. A model L. plantarum strain, WCFS1, and its previously constructed derivative that produced reduced levels of EPS were included as reference strains. The constructed EPS-reduced derivatives were analyzed for the abundance and sugar compositions of their EPS, revealing cps2-like gene clusters in SF2A35B and Lp90 responsible for major EPS production. Moreover, these mutant strains were tested for phenotypic characteristics that are of relevance for their capacity to interact with the host epithelium in the intestinal tract, including bacterial surface properties as well as survival under the stress conditions encountered in the gastrointestinal tract (acid and bile stress). In addition, the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling and immunomodulatory capacities of the EPS-negative derivatives and their respective wild-type strains were compared, revealing strain-specific impacts of EPS on the immunomodulatory properties. Taken together, these experiments illustrate the importance of EPS in L. plantarum strains as a strain-specific determinant in host interaction. This study evaluates the role of extracellular polysaccharides that are produced by different strains of Lactobacillus plantarum in the determination of the cell surface properties of these bacteria and their capacity to interact with their environment, including their

  9. Antitumour, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Antiacetylcholinesterase Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Terpenoids and Polysaccharides: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cör, Darija; Knez, Željko; Knez Hrnčič, Maša

    2018-03-13

    Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) is a popular medicinal mushroom and has been used in oriental medicine because of its promoting effects on health and life expectancy. G. lucidum contains various compounds with a high grade of biological activty, which increase the immunity and show antitumour, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Several of these substances belong to the triterpenoids and polysaccharides classes. Proteins, lipids, phenols, sterols, etc. are also present. In the present review, an extensive overview of the presence of antitumour, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase compounds in G. lucidum extracts will be given, along with an evaluation of their therapeutic effects.

  10. Antitumour, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Antiacetylcholinesterase Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Terpenoids and Polysaccharides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darija Cör

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi is a popular medicinal mushroom and has been used in oriental medicine because of its promoting effects on health and life expectancy. G. lucidum contains various compounds with a high grade of biological activty, which increase the immunity and show antitumour, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Several of these substances belong to the triterpenoids and polysaccharides classes. Proteins, lipids, phenols, sterols, etc. are also present. In the present review, an extensive overview of the presence of antitumour, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase compounds in G. lucidum extracts will be given, along with an evaluation of their therapeutic effects.

  11. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PSL polysaccharide is a social but noncheatable trait in biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irie, Yasuhiko; Roberts, Aled E.L.; Kragh, Kasper N.

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular polysaccharides are compounds secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding environment, and they are important for surface attachment and maintaining structural integrity within biofilms. The social nature of many extracellular polysaccharides remains unclear, and it has been sug...

  12. Polysaccharide-Based Membranes in Food Packaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. V. Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plastic packaging is essential nowadays. However, the huge environmental problem caused by landfill disposal of non-biodegradable polymers in the end of life has to be minimized and preferentially eliminated. The solution may rely on the use of biopolymers, in particular polysaccharides. These macromolecules with film-forming properties are able to produce attracting biodegradable materials, possibly applicable in food packaging. Despite all advantages of using polysaccharides obtained from different sources, some drawbacks, mostly related to their low resistance to water, mechanical performance and price, have hindered their wider use and commercialization. Nevertheless, with increasing attention and research on this field, it has been possible to trace some strategies to overcome the problems and recognize solutions. This review summarizes some of the most used polysaccharides in food packaging applications.

  13. Plant cell wall polysaccharide analysis during cell elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoyuan

    Plant cell walls are complex structures whose composition and architecture are important to various cellular activities. Plant cell elongation requires a high level of rearrangement of the cell wall polymers to enable cell expansion. However, the cell wall polysaccharides dynamics during plant cell...... elongation is poorly understood. This PhD project aims to elucidate the cell wall compositional and structural change during cell elongation by using Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP), microscopic techniques and molecular modifications of cell wall polysaccharide. Developing cotton fibre......, pea and Arabidopsis thaliana were selected as research models to investigate different types of cell elongation, developmental elongation and tropism elongation. A set of comprehensive analysis covering 4 cotton species and 11 time points suggests that non-cellulosic polysaccharides contribute...

  14. Carrageenan: a natural seaweed polysaccharide and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Maheriya, Pankaj M; Jani, Girish K; Solanki, Himanshu K

    2014-05-25

    Polysaccharides have been gaining interesting and valuable applications in the food and pharmaceutical fields. As they are derived from the natural source, they are easily available, non-toxic, cheap, biodegradable and biocompatible. Carrageenan is one among them, which fulfills the criteria of polysaccharide; it is a natural carbohydrate (polysaccharide) obtained from edible red seaweeds. The name Carrageenan is derived from the Chondrus crispus species of seaweed (Rhodophyceace) known as Carrageen Moss or Irish Moss, and Carraigin. A demand based on its application has been widely increasing in food and pharmaceutical sectors. Carrageenan has gained wide applications in experimental medicine, pharmaceutical formulations, cosmetics, and food industries. Through keen references of the reported literature on carrageenan, in this review, we have described about carrageenan, its properties, extraction and refining, and its food and pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Polysaccharides from Probiotics: New Developments as Food Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Michaud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial polysaccharides with nutraceutical potential and bioactive properties have been investigated in detail during the last few decades. There is an increasing demand in food industries for live microbes or polysaccharides produced by them which assert health benefits other than dietetic constituents. Although there are a large number of exopolysaccharide (EPS-producing bacteria, the titers are low for commercialization. This manuscript deals with the polysaccharides produced by probiotic strains, with major emphasis on the EPSs, their properties, applications and some of the strategies adopted which would be helpful in better understanding of the process in the near future. Research on the improved EPS biosynthesis is essential for obtaining high yields. Therefore, to reach commercialization, metabolic engineering must be applied.

  16. Polysaccharide-Based Membranes in Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana R. V.; Alves, Vítor D.; Coelhoso, Isabel M.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic packaging is essential nowadays. However, the huge environmental problem caused by landfill disposal of non-biodegradable polymers in the end of life has to be minimized and preferentially eliminated. The solution may rely on the use of biopolymers, in particular polysaccharides. These macromolecules with film-forming properties are able to produce attracting biodegradable materials, possibly applicable in food packaging. Despite all advantages of using polysaccharides obtained from different sources, some drawbacks, mostly related to their low resistance to water, mechanical performance and price, have hindered their wider use and commercialization. Nevertheless, with increasing attention and research on this field, it has been possible to trace some strategies to overcome the problems and recognize solutions. This review summarizes some of the most used polysaccharides in food packaging applications. PMID:27089372

  17. Structures of two cell wall-associated polysaccharides of a Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 strain. A unique teichoic acid-like polysaccharide and the group O antigen which is a C-polysaccharide in common with pneumococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, N; Jansson, P.-E.; Kilian, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    The cell wall of Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 strain SK137 contains the C-polysaccharide known as the common antigen of a closely related species Streptococcus pneumoniae, and a teichoic acid-like polysaccharide with a unique structure. The two polysaccharides are different entities and could...... be partially separated by gel chromatography. The structures of the two polysaccharides were determined by chemical methods and by NMR spectroscopy. The teichoic acid-like polymer has a heptasaccharide phosphate repeating unit with the following structure: The structure neither contains ribitol nor glycerol...... phosphate as classical teichoic acids do, thus we have used the expression teichoic acid-like for this polysaccharide. The following structure of the C-polysaccharide repeating unit was established: where AAT is 2-acetamido-4-amino-2,4, 6-trideoxy-D-galactose. It has a carbohydrate backbone identical...

  18. [Antivirus effect of polysaccharides of brewer yeast in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F; Shi, Y; Guan, X; Zhang, S; Tian, T

    1998-03-01

    The antivirus effect of polysaccharides of brewer yeast from yeast mud on 13 kinds of viruses including DNA and RNA virus along with their mechanisms were studied. The result showed that this effect was remarkable on the infections with poliovirus III, adenovirus III, ECHO6 virus, enterovirus 71, vesicular stomatitis virus, herpesvirus I, II, coxsackie A16 virus and coxsackie B3 virus. The polysaccharides of brewer yeast could also inhibit the development of cytopathic effect(CPE) and protect cultural cells from being infected with the above viruses.

  19. Processing of Polymer Nanocomposites Reinforced with Polysaccharide Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Dufresne

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous suspensions of polysaccharide (cellulose, chitin or starch nanocrystals can be prepared by acid hydrolysis of biomass. The main problem with their practical use is related to the homogeneous dispersion of these nanoparticles within a polymeric matrix. Water is the preferred processing medium. A new and interesting way for the processing of polysaccharide nanocrystals-based nanocomposites is their transformation into a co-continuous material through long chain surface chemical modification. It involves the surface chemical modification of the nanoparticles based on the use of grafting agents bearing a reactive end group and a long compatibilizing tail.

  20. [Extraction and content determination of polysaccharides in Viscum coloratum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zhu, Yi-fan

    2007-11-01

    To establish a method for extraction and content determination of polysaccharide in Viscum coloratum. Polysaccharide was extracted by hot water, separated by ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography. The content determination was performed at wavelength 490 nm with phenol-sulfuric acid as a chtomo-genic agent. The content of polyaccharide in V. coloratum, CVPS-III, and CVPS-III-C were respectively 4.93% (RSD 1.04%, n = 3), 43.28% (RSD 1.39%, n =3), 69.55% (RSD 1.62%, n = 3), and the average recovery was 96.07% (RSD 2.54%, n = 5). The method was simple, rapid, and accurate.

  1. Extraction and purification of pumpkin polysaccharides and their hypoglycemic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Lu, Aoxue; Zhang, Lu; Shen, Meng; Xu, Tian; Zhan, Wangyang; Jin, Hui; Zhang, Yongjun; Wang, Weimin

    2017-05-01

    The anti-diabetic activity of the polysaccharides (PPs) obtained from the dried pumpkin pulp was studied in this paper. The PPs were administered by intraperitoneal injection to the alloxan-induced diabetic male ICR mice. The PPs hypoglycemic effect was evaluated by testing the fast blood glucose level, fasting serum insulin and hepatic glycogen. After 7h administration, the PPs showed a significantly hypoglycemic effect (ppumpkin polysaccharides in alloxan-induced diabetic mice and for the treatment of diabetic mellitus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Polysaccharide microarray technology for the detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Narayanan; DeShazer, David; England, Marilyn; Waag, David M

    2006-11-01

    A polysaccharide microarray platform was prepared by immobilizing Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei polysaccharides. This polysaccharide array was tested with success for detecting B. pseudomallei and B. mallei serum (human and animal) antibodies. The advantages of this microarray technology over the current serodiagnosis of the above bacterial infections were discussed.

  3. Nr 257 - Opinion presented on the behalf of the Commission of sustainable development and land planning on the finance bill for 2013 (nr 235), Volumes 1-10, ecology, sustainable development and planning, regional policies, research and higher education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krabal, Jacques; Sermier, Jean-Marie; Gaillard, Genevieve; Baupin, Denis; Pauvros, Remi; Benisti, Jacques Alain; Fromantin, Jean-Christophe; Calmette, Alain; Plisson, Philippe; Ginesy, Charles-Ange

    2012-01-01

    This huge document comprises ten volumes which present and discuss public programs (objectives, strategies, plans, and actions), public finances, economic activity data and evolutions, debates by commissions, and amendments on different issues. A first set of issues deals with ecology, sustainable development and planning: protection of the environment and risk prevention (volume 1), and then with sustainable development policies (vol. 2), landscapes, water, biodiversity, and geographic and cartographic information (vol. 3), ecological transition (vol. 4), road, railway and water transports (vol. 5), air transports (vol. 6), maritime affairs (vol. 7). The next volume addresses regional policies (vol. 8). The last parts concern research and higher education: research in the field of sustainable development (vol. 9) and in the fields of environments and resources (vol. 10)

  4. Extraction and characterization of three polysaccharides extracted from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Nadia; Kriaa, Mouna; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-11-01

    The chemical extraction and the characterization of polysaccharides from mucilage (MC), pectin (PC) and total pectic mucilage fraction (TFC) of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant activities was investigated. The FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups corresponding to polysaccharides. Uronic acid and the total sugar contents of PC were higher than those of TFC and MC whereas ash content of MC was considerably more important. In addition, the findings showed that all the samples had little protein content and low average molecular weight compared to the results mentioned in literature. Furthermore, MC reached not only the highest water (WHC) and oil holding (OHC) capacities (7.81g/g and 1.34g/g, respectively) but also the highest antioxidant properties (DPPH and ABTS scavenging activities, β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity and reducing power). However, PC had the strongest emulsifying and foaming properties. As for TFC, it had low WHC, OHC and emulsifying properties whereas it had higher foaming properties than MC and greater antioxidant properties compared to PC. These outcomes can encourage the use of PC as a surfactant and MC and TFC as natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Formation and ecotoxicity of N-heterocyclic compounds on ammoxidation of mono- and polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Karl Michael; Liebner, Falk; Fritz, Ines; Potthast, Antje; Rosenau, Thomas

    2013-09-25

    Ammoxidation of technical lignins under mild conditions is a suitable approach to artificial humic substances. However, carbohydrates as common minor constituents of technical lignins have been demonstrated to be a potential source of N-heterocyclic ecotoxic compounds. Ethyl acetate extracts of ammoxidation mixtures of the monosaccharides glucose and xylose exhibited considerable growth inhibiting activity in the OECD 201 test, with 4-methyl-1H-imidazole, 4-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-imidazole, and 3-hydroxypyridine being the most active compounds. The amount of N-heterocyclic compounds formed at moderate ammoxidation conditions (70 °C, 0.2 MPa O2, 3 h) was significantly lower for the polysaccharides cellulose and xylan (16-30 μg/g of educt) compared to glucose (15.4 mg). Ammoxidation at higher temperature is not recommendable for carbohydrate-rich materials as much higher amounts of N-heterocyclic compounds were formed from both monosaccharides (100 °C: 122.4-160.5 mg/g of educt) and polysaccharides (140 °C: 5.52-16.03 mg/g of educt).

  6. Enhanced active extracellular polysaccharide production from Ganoderma formosanum using computational modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kai-Di; Wu, Shu-Pei; Lin, Shin-Ping; Lum, Chi-Chin; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2017-10-01

    Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) is one of the major bioactive ingredients contributing to the health benefits of Ganoderma spp. In this study, response surface methodology was applied to determine the optimal culture conditions for EPS production of Ganoderma formosanum. The optimum medium composition was found to be at initial pH 5.3, 49.2 g/L of glucose, and 4.9 g/L of yeast extract by implementing a three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design. Under this condition, the predicted yield of EPS was up to 830.2 mg/L, which was 1.4-fold higher than the one from basic medium (604.5 mg/L). Furthermore, validating the experimental value of EPS production depicted a high correlation (100.4%) with the computational prediction response model. In addition, the percentage of β-glucan, a well-recognized bioactive polysaccharide, in EPS was 53±5.5%, which was higher than that from Ganoderma lucidum in a previous study. Moreover, results of monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that glucose was the major component of G. formosanum EPS, supporting a high β-glucan percentage in EPS. Taken together, this is the first study to investigate the influence of medium composition for G. formosanum EPS production as well as its β-glucan composition. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Structural studies of the O-specific polysaccharide(s) from the lipopolysaccharide of Azospirillum brasilense type strain Sp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigida, Elena N; Fedonenko, Yuliya P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Konnova, Svetlana A; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2013-10-18

    Lipopolysaccharide was obtained by phenol-water extraction from dried bacterial cells of Azospirillum brasilense type strain Sp7. Mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide followed by GPC on Sephadex G-50 resulted in a polysaccharide mixture, which was studied by composition and methylation analyses, Smith degradation and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The following polysaccharide structures were established, where italics indicate a non-stoichiometric (∼40%) 2-O-methylation of l-rhamnose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of light intensity on components and topographical structures of extracellular polysaccharides from the cyanobacteria Nostoc sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hongmei; Xia, Ling; Zhou, Xuping; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

    2014-02-01

    A study on the effects of light intensity (40 and 80 μE/m(2)/sec) on the components and topographical structures of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) was carried out in cyanobacteria Nostoc sp.. EPS yield increased with light intensity. However, light intensity did not significantly affect the EPS fractions and monosaccharide composition. Higher light intensity generally resulted in higher protein content of EPS in similar fractions. The topographical structure of EPS, investigated by atomic force microscopy, appeared as spherical lumps, chains and networks. The long chains were observed at higher light intensity. Thus, light intensity affected the yield and nature of EPS.

  9. Sulfated polysaccharides with antioxidant and anticoagulant activity from the sea cucumber Holothuria fuscogliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongfeng; Yu, Huahua; Yue, Yang; Liu, Song; Xing, Rong'e.; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-07-01

    Sea cucumber is a traditional nutritional food and medicinal resource with many bioactive components in China. Holothuria fuscogliva is a big sea cucumber with a rich of bioactive polysaccharides. To investigate the bioactivities of the polysaccharides from sea cucumber H. fuscogliva, we prepared the sulfated polysaccharides (HfP) from sea cucumber H. fuscogliva using a protease hydrolysis method. Antioxidant activities of HfP were investigated, including hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. And, the anticoagulant activities of HfP were studied, including the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and thrombin time (TT). The average molecular weight was 1 867.1 Da, with a sulfate content of 20.7%. In addition, the molar ratio of monosaccharide composition of HfP was Man: Rha: Glc A: Glc: Gal: Xyl: Fuc=0.083 6: 0.437: 0.134: 0:1.182: 0.748: 1. It had a strong antioxidant activity, the hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity EC50 of HfP was 3.74 and 0.037 mg/mL, respectively. It also showed a good anticoagulant activity in our study. The APTT of HfP was much higher than that of heparin sodium, and the PT and TT of HfP was close to that of heparin sodium at a low concentration. Therefore, HfP shows a good antioxidant and anticoagulant activity and it may become a potential candidate of the natural antioxidant and anticoagulant and will have a good application future in health product or medicine industry.

  10. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on immunological activities of polysaccharides from adlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yingying; Gao, Yue; Ren, Guixing

    2015-09-01

    Alkali-extractable polysaccharides from the seed of adlay and their two polysaccharide sub-fractions (AAP-1 and AAP-2) were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Ultrasonic treatment was put in place to obtain AAP-1' and AAP-2'. Average molecular weights (Mws) of AAP-1, AAP-1', AAP-2, and AAP-2' were 94.2 kDa, 63.1 kDa, 82.3 kDa, and 60.4 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharides composition analysis indicated that AAP-1 and AAP-1' were composed of Rha, Ara, Glc, and Gal in a molar ratio of 1.1:0.4:0.7:0.5 and 1.4:1.6:0.4:0.7. AAP-2 and AAP-2' were composed of Xyl, Rha, Gal and Glc in a molar percent of 0.4:1.4:1.6:0.5 and 0.3:1.6:1.1:0.7. In vitro study showed that AAP-1, AAP-1', AAP-2, and AAP-2' were all able to encourage the production of secretory molecules (NO, TNF-α and IL-6) of RAW264.7 murine macrophages in concentrations determines manner. AAP-2' seemed to be the most potent and induced significantly higher the NO production. These findings suggest that the ultrasonic polysaccharides isolated in our study have immune potentiation effects on macrophages and should serve as a beneficial health food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modification of Cell Wall Polysaccharides during Drying Process Affects Texture Properties of Apple Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of hot air drying (AD, medium- and short-wave infrared drying (IR, instant controlled pressure drop drying (DIC, and vacuum freeze drying (FD on cell wall polysaccharide modification were studied, and the relationship between the modifications and texture properties was analyzed. The results showed that the DIC treated apple chips exhibited the highest crispness (92 and excellent honeycomb-like structure among all the dried samples, whereas the FD dried apple chips had low crispness (10, the minimum hardness (17.4 N, and the highest volume ratio (0.76 and rehydration ratio (7.55. Remarkable decreases in the contents of total galacturonic acid and the amounts of water extractable pectin (WEP were found in all the dried apple chips as compared with the fresh materials. The highest retention of WEP fraction (102.7 mg/g AIR was observed in the FD dried apple chips, which may lead to a low structural rigidity and may be partially responsible for the lower hardness of the FD apple chips. In addition, the crispness of the apple chips obtained by DIC treatment, as well as AD and IR at 90°C, was higher than that of the samples obtained from the other drying processes, which might be due to the severe degradation of pectic polysaccharides, considering the results of the amounts of pectic fractions, the molar mass distribution, and concentrations of the WEP fractions. Overall, the data suggested that the modifications of pectic polysaccharides of apple chips, including the amount of the pectic fractions and their structural characteristics and the extent of degradation, significantly affect the texture of apple chips.

  12. Synthesis of branched–backbone oligosaccharides of the pectic RG-I plant cell wall polysaccharide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awan, Shahid Iqbal; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    with numerous branches of galactan, arabinan, or arabinogalactan positioned at C-4 of the rhamnose residues. The use of defined oligosaccharides rather than isolated polysaccharides can aid in obtaining detailedinformation about biosynthetic pathways, plant evolution, and agronomical properties. Furthermore......,biological testing can provide new insight into plant biology; important for plant preservation, engineering,and utilization of plants as a source of bioenergy. Present work towards defined RG-I substructures involvesa [4+3]-coupling to furnish a heptasaccharide backbone unit (see Figure 1). Moreover, installation...

  13. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: new applications in the quantification and assessment of polysaccharide-based vaccine intermediates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido, Raine; Velez, Herman; Verez, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance has become the choice for structural studies, identity assays and simultaneous quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredient of different polysaccharide-based vaccine. In the last two decades, the application of quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance had an increasing impact to support several quantification necessities. The technique involves experiments with several modified parameters in order to obtain spectra with quantifiable signals. The present review is supported by some recent relevant reports and it discusses several applications of NMR in carbohydrate-based vaccines. Moreover, it emphasizes and describes several parameters and applications of quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

  14. Fermentation of mucins and plant polysaccharides by anaerobic bacteria from the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyers, A A; West, S E; Vercellotti, J R; Wilkins, T D

    1977-01-01

    A total of 154 strains from 22 species of Bifidobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, Coprococcus, Eubacterium, and Fusobacterium, which are present in high concentrations in the human colon, were surveyed for their ability to ferment 21 different complex carbohydrates. Plant polysaccharides, including amylose, amylopectin, pectin, polygalacturonate, xylan, laminarin, guar gum, locust bean gum, gum ghatti, gum arabic, and gum tragacanth, were fermented by some strains from Bifidobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium species. Porcine gastric mucin, which was fermented by some strains of Ruminococcus torques and Bifidobacterium bifidum, was the only mucin utilized by any of the strains tested. PMID:563214

  15. Antioxidant and immunostimulatory activities in vitro of polysaccharides from pomegrante peels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, C.L.; Wang, D.; Yao, X.; Xu, H.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the crude polysaccharides from pomegranate peels(CPP) were prepared by water-extraction technology. In vitro antioxidant assay, CPP showed strong inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing ability, moderate 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl(DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The immunostimulatory activity of CPP was also evaluated by using in vitro cell models. The results demonstrated that CPP could promote the splenocyte proliferation, increase the activity of acid phosphatase in peritoneal macrophages and strengthen peritoneal macrophages to devour neutral red in vitro. (author)

  16. Fiber and nonstarch polysaccharide content and variation in common crops used in broiler diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-01-01

    The current paper reviews content and variation in fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) of common crops used in broiler diets. The cereal grain is a complex structure, and its cell walls (CW) differ in their composition and hence properties. Arabinoxylan (AX), mixed linkage (1→3; 1→4)-β...... AX, but β-glucan can also be present mainly in rye and wheat brans. The CW composition of seeds and grains of protein crops and feedstuffs are different from that of cereals. The main CW polymers are pectic substances (homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan type I and II, xylogalacturonan...

  17. Location effects on the polyphenolic and polysaccharidic profiles and colour of Carignan grape variety wines from the Chilean Maule region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Del Barrio-Galán, Rubén; Heredia, Francisco J; Medel-Marabolí, Marcela; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports on a study of chemical characterization and colour parameters of cv. Carignan red wines from six locations and two production years of the Chilean Maule valley. The chemical study was performed on polyphenolic composition (benzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, stilbenes, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and anthocyanins) and several fractions of proanthocyanidins and polysaccharides. Results revealed that although significantly (p < 0.05) different content of anthocyanins were observed according to the production year, it could be possible to establish fingerprints of the different locations of the Maule valley wines. Thus, wines from zones closer to the Andes Mountains had higher content of procyanidin B3 (Caliboro), polysaccharides and cis-resveratrol-glucoside (Loncomilla and Melozal), whereas the proximity to the Pacific Ocean provoked a unifying effect in chemical and colorimetric terms (Cauquenes, Sauzal and Huerta del Maule). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Comparison of the immunomodulatory effects of spore polysaccharides and broken spore polysaccharides isolated from Ganoderma lucidum on murine splenic lymphocytes and peritoneal macrophages in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-yun; Wang, Sai-zhen; Lin, Shu-qian; Lin, Zhi-bin

    2005-12-18

    To compare the immunomodulatory effects of spore polysaccharides (Gl-SP) and broken spore polysaccharides (Gl-BSP) isolated from Ganoderma lucidum(Leyss et Fr.) Karst. on murine splenic lymphocytes and peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Mixed lymphocyte culture reaction (MLR), lymphocyte proliferation in the presence or absence of mitogen, and the cytotoxic activity of splenic natural killer (NK) cells were detected with MTT assay in vitro. The percentage of phagocytosis of neutral red (NR) by mouse peritoneal macrophages was detected by colorimetric assay. Splenic T-lymphocyte subpopulations were measured with flow cytometry(FCM). IL-2, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha in the culture supernatants were detected by ELISA and biological assay. Nitric oxide (NO) production was examined by Griess reaction. At the concentration range of 0.2-12.8 mg/L, Gl-SP and Gl-BSP were shown to increase lymphocyte proliferation in the presence or absence of mitogen, enhance NK cytotoxic activity, augment the production of TNF-alpha and NO in Gl-SP- or Gl-BSP-activated macrophages, as well the percentage of phagocytosis of NR by macrophages in vitro. Both Gl-SP and Gl-BSP could promote MLR, however, at the dose of 12.8 mg/L, Gl-BSP showed higher activity than Gl-SP in the proliferation of lymphocytes. These two kinds of polysaccharide could significantly increase the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-gamma in doublejway MLR at the concentrations of 0.2-12.8 mg/L, but Gl-BSP had stronger effects than Gl-SP at the same concentrations. Both Gl-SP and Gl-BSP could increase the ratio of T-lymphocyte subpopulations in double-way MLR. At the concentrations of 0.2-12.8 mg/L or 3.2-12.8 mg/L, Gl-BSP demonstrated more significant activity in increasing the percentage of the CD4(+) or CD8(+) subset than Gl-SP. At the concentrations of 0.2-0.8 mg/L, the ratio of the CD4(+) and CD8(+) subset in the Gl-BSP treated group was higher than that of the Gl-SP treated group. Gl-SP and Gl-BSP have similar immunomodulatory

  19. Differences between easy- and difficult-to-mill chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes. Part III: free sugar and non-starch polysaccharide composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jennifer A; Knights, Edmund J; Campbell, Grant M; Choct, Mingan

    2014-05-01

    Parts I and II of this series of papers identified several associations between the ease of milling and the chemical compositions of different chickpea seed fractions. Non-starch polysaccharides were implicated; hence, this study examines the free sugars and sugar residues. Difficult milling is associated with: (1) lower glucose and xylose residues (less cellulose and xyloglucans) and more arabinose, rhamnose and uronic acid in the seed coat, suggesting a more flexible seed coat that resists cracking and decortication; (2) a higher content of soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharide fractions in the cotyledon periphery, supporting a pectic polysaccharide mechanism comprising arabinogalacturonan, homogalacturonan, rhamnogalalcturonan, and glucuronan backbone structures; (3) higher glucose and mannose residues in the cotyledon periphery, supporting a lectin-mediated mechanism of adhesion; and (4) higher arabinose and glucose residues in the cotyledon periphery, supporting a mechanism involving arabinogalactan-proteins. This series has shown that the chemical composition of chickpea does vary in ways that are consistent with physical explanations of how seed structure and properties relate to milling behaviour. Seed coat strength and flexibility, pectic polysaccharide binding, lectins and arabinogalactan-proteins have been implicated. Increased understanding in these mechanisms will allow breeding programmes to optimise milling performance in new cultivars. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Protein/polysaccharide complexes at air/water interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzevles, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    KEYWORDS:protein, polysaccharide,«

  21. 17
  22. 18
  23. 19
  24. 20
  25. 21
  26. »
  1. The digestion of yeast cell wall polysaccharides in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaillard, B.D.E.; Weerden, van E.J.

    1976-01-01

    1. The digestibility of the cell wall polysaccharides of an alkane-grown yeast in different parts of the digestive tract of two veal calves fitted with re-entrant cannulas at the end of the ileum was studied by replacing part of the skim-milk powder of their ‘normal’, milk-substitute

  2. The Specific Nature of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Donald J.; English, Patricia D.; Albersheim, Peter

    1967-01-01

    Polysaccharide compositions of cell walls were assessed by quantitative analyses of the component sugars. Cell walls were hydrolyzed in 2 n trifluoroacetic acid and the liberated sugars reduced to their respective alditols. The alditols were acetylated and the resulting alditol acetates separated by gas chromatography. Quantitative assay of the alditol acetates was accomplished by electronically integrating the detector output of the gas chromatograph. Myo-inositol, introduced into the sample prior to hydrolysis, served as an internal standard. The cell wall polysaccharide compositions of plant varieties within a given species are essentially identical. However, differences in the sugar composition were observed in cell walls prepared from different species of the same as well as of different genera. The fact that the wall compositions of different varieties of the same species are the same indicates that the biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides is genetically regulated. The cell walls of various morphological parts (roots, hypocotyls, first internodes and primary leaves) of bean plants were each found to have a characteristic sugar composition. It was found that the cell wall sugar composition of suspension-cultured sycamore cells could be altered by growing the cells on different carbon sources. This demonstrates that the biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides can be manipulated without fatal consequences. PMID:16656594

  3. Influence of non starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... A total of 195 1-d-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were allocated to 5 treatment groups ... by reducing the anti-nutritional effects of non-starch polysaccharides ..... mineral density and weights of the head, neck and back.

  4. Reduced-molecular-weight derivatives of frost grape polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Type II arabinogalactan was recently described as an abundant gum exudate from stems of wildfrost grape (Vitus riparia Michx.). The purpose of the current study is to more thoroughly characterize the physical properties of this frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), and develop methods to modify th...

  5. Immunological and biochemical characterization of extracellular polysaccharides of mucoralean moulds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, de G.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis the characterization is described of the antigenic determinants (epitopes) of the extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) from moulds belonging to the order of Mucorales. Detailed knowledge of the structure of these epitopes allows for further development of a new generation of

  6. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersen, M.R.; Giese, M.; De Vries, R.P.; Nielsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required. For

  7. extraction of high quality dna from polysaccharides-secreting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    A DNA extraction method using CTAB was used for the isolation of genomic DNA from ten. Xanthomonas campestris pathovars, ten isolates of Xanthomonas albilineans and one isolate of. Pseudomonas rubrisubalbicans. High quality DNA was obtained that was ideal for molecular analy- ses. Extracellular polysaccharides ...

  8. Afzelia africana , A Novel Non Starch Polysaccharide, Raised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects o vegetable flour prepared from indigenous plant Afzelia africana, a legume, on the fasting plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels of rats were investigated. Chemical analysis indicated that Afzelia flour contained significant amount of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). The flour of Afzelia was incorporated ...

  9. Production and characterization of the polysaccharide ''xanthan gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... microbial polysaccharide (Paul et al., 1986) is produced by microbial ... production basic medium composed of the following (g/l), K2HPo4, .... Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Roberts PA, Smith F (1956). ... John Wiley and.

  10. Structure and immunological activity of a novel polysaccharide from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water-soluble polysaccharide (GLP) was obtained from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum by hot water extraction and gel chromatography. The molecular weight was estimated to be 143 KD determined by using HPGPC. Structure features of GLP were investigated by a combination of chemical and instrumental ...

  11. Purification, characterization and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides from stem lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Chenzhipeng; Zhu, Peilei; Ma, Shuping; Wang, Mingchun; Hu, Youdong

    2018-05-15

    Stem lettuce has a long history of cultivation in China and possesses high nutritional and medicinal value. In our previous studies, extraction optimization, characterization, and bioactivities of stem lettuce polysaccharides (SLP) were investigated. In this study, SLP were further separated into two purified polysaccharides, SLP-1 and SLP-2, by anion exchange chromatography followed by size exclusion chromatography. SLP-1, with a molecular weight of 90 KDa, was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 17.6:41.7:33.9. SLP-2, with a molecular weight of 44 KDa, was mainly composed of mannose, galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 11.5:69.5:9.3:8.2. In addition, both purified polysaccharides contain sulphate radicals, have triple helical structures and can promote macrophage proliferation without cytotoxicity. SLP-2 was better able to stimulate phagocytic and nitric oxide production than SLP-1. The results suggest that polysaccharides from stem lettuce could be explored as immunomodulatory agents in the field of pharmaceuticals and functional foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Polysaccharides into Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Strohmenger, Timm; Goycoolea, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the anionic polysaccharide Xanthan gum (X) was mixed with positively charged Chitosan oligomers (ChO), and used as building blocks, to generate novel nanofibers by electrostatic self-assembly in aqueous conditions. Different concentrations, ionic strength and order of mixing of both...

  13. Structure of pectic polysaccharides from sunflower salts-soluble fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript discusses the structural features of pectin polysaccharides extracted from seedless sunflower head residues. The analysis using 1H, 13C and two-dimensional gHSQC NMR showed various numbers of methyl and hydroxyl groups attached to the anomeric carbons in the pectin backbone at differe...

  14. Impact of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide on apoptosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on apoptosis in Mycoplasma-infected splenic lymphocytes (SLs), and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: SLs isolated from C57BL/6J mice were infected with Mycoplasma. The infected SLs were administered at different concentrations of LBP for ...

  15. Interfaces study of all-polysaccharide composite films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimkovic, I.; Kelnar, Ivan; Mendichi, R.; Tracz, A.; Filip, J.; Bertók, T.; Kasák, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 3 (2018), s. 711-718 ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : all-polysaccharide composites * elemental analysis * film properties study Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Polysaccharides from Scutellaria barbata D. Don ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the inhibitory effect of polysaccharides from Scutellaria barbata (PSB) on invasion and metastasis of lung cancer, and study the possible mechanism. Methods: PSB was extracted with water and by alcohol precipitation, and purified by DEAE-52 column chromatography. A highly invasive and ...

  17. Optimization of polysaccharides extracted from Verbena officinalis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate polysaccharides (PEV) extracted from the aerial part of Verbena officinalis L. and their inhibitory effects on the invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Methods: PEV was extracted by water and the optimization of extraction conditions was performed using a Box-Benhnken design ...

  18. Antitumor effect and mechanism of action of polysaccharides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from ... surface plots and variance analysis, it predicted that the optimum conditions for PSDP ..... Mean. C.V.%. Press. R2. R2. Adj. R2. Pred. Adequate precision. 0.15. 4.69.

  19. Extraction, Characterization and Immunological Activity of Polysaccharides from Rhizoma gastrodiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juncheng Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A response surface and Box-Behnken design approach was applied to augment polysaccharide extraction from the residue of Rhizoma gastrodiae. Statistical analysis revealed that the linear and quadratic terms for three variables during extraction exhibited obvious effects on extraction yield. The optimum conditions were determined to be a liquid-to-solid ratio of 54 mL/g, an extraction temperature of 74 °C, an extraction time of 66 min, and three extractions. These conditions resulted in a maximum Rhizoma gastrodiae polysaccharide (RGP extraction yield of 6.11% ± 0.13%. Two homogeneous polysaccharides (RGP-1a and RGP-1b were obtained using DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephadex G-100 columns. The preliminary characterization of RGP-1a and RGP-1b was performed using HPLC-RID, HPGPC, and FTIR. Tests of the immunological activity in vitro showed that the two polysaccharides could significantly stimulate macrophages to release NO and enhance phagocytosis in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, RGP-1b (200 μg/mL and LPS (2 μg/mL had almost the same influence on the NO production and phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 macrophages (p > 0.05. All the data obtained indicate that RGP-1a and RGP-1b have the potential to be developed as a health food.

  20. Anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides extracted from Senecio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from the root of Senecio scandens Buch,-Ham. (PRS) and evaluate its anti-tumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) applied with a Box-Behnken design (BBD, three levels and three factors) was employed to ...

  1. Electrochemical writing on edible polysaccharide films for intelligent food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Si; Wang, Wenqi; Yan, Kun; Ding, Fuyuan; Shi, Xiaowen; Deng, Hongbing; Du, Yumin

    2018-04-15

    Polysaccharide films used as intelligent food packaging possess the advantages of renewability, safety and biodegradability. Printing on the polysaccharidic food packaging is challenging due to the high demand for edible-ink and the need for a suitable printing technique. In this work, we propose an electrochemical method for writing on polysaccharide film. Unlike conventional printing, this electrochemical writing process relies on the pH responsive color change of anthocyanin embedded in the chitosan/agarose hydrogel. By biasing a negative potential to a stainless wire (used as a pen) contacting the surface of the chitosan/agarose/ATH hydrogel, the locally generated pH change induced the color change of ATH and wrote programmed information on the hydrogel. We demonstrate the writing can be temporary in the hydrogel but stable when the hydrogel is dried. We further demonstrate that the written film is applicable for the detection of the spoilage of crucian fish. The reported electrochemical writing process provides a novel method for printing information on polysaccharide film and great potential for intelligent food packaging. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  3. Pharmacological evaluation for anticancer and immune activities of a novel polysaccharide isolated from Boletus speciosus Frost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yiling; Ding, Xiang; Hou, Wanru; Song, Bo; Wang, Ting; Wang, Fang; Li, Jian; Zeng, Yichun; Zhong, Jie; Xu, Ting; Zhu, Hongqing

    2014-04-01

    The fungal polysaccharides have been revealed to exhibit a variety of biological activities, including antitumor, immune-stimulation and antioxidation activities. In the present study, the immune and anticancer activities of a novel polysaccharide, BSF-A, isolated from Boletus speciosus Frost was investigated. The inhibitory rate of S180 tumors in mice treated with 40 mg/kg BSF-A reached 62.449%, which was the highest rate from the three doses administered; this may be comparable to mannatide. The antitumor activity of BSF-A is commonly considered to be a consequence of the stimulation of the cell-mediated immune response, as it may significantly promote the macrophage cells in the dose range of 100-400 µg/ml in vitro. The levels of the cytokines, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α, and nitric oxide, induced by BSF-A treatment at varying concentrations in the macrophage cells were similar to the levels in the cells treated with lipopolysaccharide. There was weak expression of the TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA in the untreated macrophages, but this increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner in the BSF-A-treated cells. BSF-A also had a time- and dose-dependent effect on the growth inhibition of the Hep-2 cells, with the concentration of 400 µg/ml having the highest inhibitory rate. A quantitative PCR array analysis of the gene expression profiles indicated that BSF-A had anticancer activities that affected cell apoptosis in the Hep-2 cells. The results obtained in the present study indicated that the purified polysaccharide of Boletus speciosus Frost is a potential source of natural anticancer substances.

  4. Quantitative high throughput analytics to support polysaccharide production process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Aaron; Godavarti, Ranga; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel; Coffman, Jonathan; Mukhopadhyay, Tarit

    2014-05-19

    The rapid development of purification processes for polysaccharide vaccines is constrained by a lack of analytical tools current technologies for the measurement of polysaccharide recovery and process-related impurity clearance are complex, time-consuming, and generally not amenable to high throughput process development (HTPD). HTPD is envisioned to be central to the improvement of existing polysaccharide manufacturing processes through the identification of critical process parameters that potentially impact the quality attributes of the vaccine and to the development of de novo processes for clinical candidates, across the spectrum of downstream processing. The availability of a fast and automated analytics platform will expand the scope, robustness, and evolution of Design of Experiment (DOE) studies. This paper details recent advances in improving the speed, throughput, and success of in-process analytics at the micro-scale. Two methods, based on modifications of existing procedures, are described for the rapid measurement of polysaccharide titre in microplates without the need for heating steps. A simplification of a commercial endotoxin assay is also described that features a single measurement at room temperature. These assays, along with existing assays for protein and nucleic acids are qualified for deployment in the high throughput screening of polysaccharide feedstreams. Assay accuracy, precision, robustness, interference, and ease of use are assessed and described. In combination, these assays are capable of measuring the product concentration and impurity profile of a microplate of 96 samples in less than one day. This body of work relies on the evaluation of a combination of commercially available and clinically relevant polysaccharides to ensure maximum versatility and reactivity of the final assay suite. Together, these advancements reduce overall process time by up to 30-fold and significantly reduce sample volume over current practices. The

  5. Size resolved airborne particulate polysaccharides in summer high Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leck, C.; Gao, Q.; Mashayekhy Rad, F.; Nilsson, U.

    2013-04-01

    Size-resolved aerosol samples for subsequent determination of polysaccharides (monosaccharides in combined form) were collected in air over the central Arctic Ocean during the biologically most active period between the late summer melt season and into the transition to autumn freeze-up. The analysis was carried out using liquid chromatography coupled with highly selective and sensitive tandem mass spectrometry. Polysaccharides were detected in all sizes ranging from 0.035 to 10 μm in diameter with distinct features of heteropolysaccharides, enriched in xylose, glucose + mannose as well as a substantial fraction of deoxysugars. Polysaccharides containing deoxysugars showed a bimodal structure with about 60% of their mass found in the Aitken mode over the pack ice area. Pentose (xylose) and hexose (glucose + mannose) showed a weaker bimodal character and were largely found in the coarse mode in addition to a minor fraction apportioned in the sub-micrometer size range. The concentration of total hydrolysable neutral sugars (THNS) in the samples collected varied over 3 orders of magnitude (1 to 692 pmol m-3) in the super-micrometer size fraction and to a lesser extent in sub-micrometer particles (4 to 88 pmol m-3). Lowest THNS concentrations were observed in air masses that had spent more than 5 days over the pack ice. Within the pack ice area, about 53% (by mass) of the total mass of polysaccharides were found in sub-micrometer particles. The relative abundance of sub-micrometer polysaccharides was closely related to the length of time that the air mass spent over pack ice, with highest fraction (> 90%) observed for > 7 days of advection. The ambient aerosol particles collected onboard ship showed similar monosaccharide composition, compared to particles generated experimentally in situ at the open lead site. This supports the existence of a primary source of particulate polysaccharides from open leads by bubble bursting at the air-sea interface. We speculate that

  6. Chlorophytum borivilianum Polysaccharide Fraction Provokes the Immune Function and Disease Resistance of Labeo rohita against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sib Sankar Giri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Chlorophytum borivilianum polysaccharide (CBP, as a dietary supplement administered at varying concentrations with feed (basal diet, on various cytokine-related responses in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Immune parameters and immune-related gene expressions were measured at 3rd, 4th, and 5th week after feeding. The results revealed that dietary administration of CBP at 0.2% and 0.4% for 4 weeks significantly upregulated serum lysozyme and phagocytic activity. Complement C3 and respiratory burst activity (RBA were significantly higher after 4 weeks of CBP feeding. The immune related genes IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS were downregulated (P<0.05 in groups with 0.2% and 0.4% CBP supplemented diets at week 4. Expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β was also downregulated (P<0.5 after 4 weeks of feeding with 0.2% to 0.8% CBP. However, five weeks of CBP administration had no significant effect on immune gene expression, except TNF-α and IL-8. Fish fed with 0.4% CBP for 4 weeks showed maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila (73.3% survival compared to control. From these results, we recommend that CBP administration at 0.4% for 4 weeks could effectively improve immune response and disease resistance in L. rohita.

  7. La relation extraction-structure-propriétés des polysaccharides : cas des galactomannanes et des alginates

    OpenAIRE

    Gillet, Sébastien; Richel, Aurore

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharides are usually composed of various monosaccharides linked with different glucosidic bonds. Some polysaccharides have hyperbranched structures. Moreover, polysaccharides often have high molecular weights, and tend to form aggregates in solution that can mask the behavior of individual macromolecules. In consequence, to characterize the chemical structures, chain conformations and physical properties of polysaccharides is not an easy task.

  8. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction and in vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, De-Liang; Zhao, Feng; Huang, Hai-Zhong; Fan, Chun-Chun; Han, Lei

    2012-08-01

    To optimize ultrasonic-assisted extraction parameters of polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus and evaluate antioxidant activities of A. bisporus polysaccharides. Polysaccharides from A. bisporus was extracted by using methods of ultrasonic-assisted hot water lixiviation, ethanol precipitation, Sevag's deproteination and ethanol precipitation again. Extraction temperature, extraction time, ratio of water to raw material and ultrasonic power were selected in single-factor tests. Based on the single-factor tests, parameters combination for the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of A. bisporus polysaccharides was optimized by using four-factor-three-level orthogonal test. Antioxidant activities (reductive potential, superoxide anion scavenging activity and H2O2 scavenging activity) of A. bisporus polysaccharides were evaluated in vitro. Optimum conditions for the extracting of A. bisporus polysaccharides were extracting temperature 65 degrees C, extracting time 40 min, ratio of water to raw material 30 mL/g and ultrasonic power 170 w. Practicing this optimal condition, extraction yield of polysaccharides from A. bisporus was 5.6 014%. In crude polysaccharides of A. bisporus, carbohydrates content, determined by applying the phenol-sulfuric acid method, was 75.48%. Polysaccharides of A. bisporus could reduce ferric ion, scavenge superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in a dose-dependent manner. Utrasonic-assisted extraction could be used in the extracting of A. bisporus polysaccharides. Polysaccharides of A. bisporus, had direct and potent antioxidant activities, might be developed and utilized as natural antioxidant.

  9. Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on cell wall polysaccharides and aluminum tolerance of trichosanthes kirilowii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, G.; Liu, D.; Xio, Y.; Liu, P.; Gao, P. P.; Cao, L.; Wu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) on root length, relative aluminum content in the apical cell wall, acid phosphatase (APA) and pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity, root pectin, hemicellulose 1(HC1), and hemicellulose 2 (HC2) contents of Anguo Trichosanthes kirilowii (Al-tolerant genotype) and Pujiang T. kirilowii (Al-sensitive genotype) under 800 micro mol/L of aluminum stress. The results showed that the growth of Al-tolerant Anguo T. kirilowii and Al-sensitive Pujiang T. kirilowii was inhibited when exposed to 800 micro mol/L of aluminum solution. APA and PME activities were also enhanced for both genotypes. The contents of relative aluminum, pectin, HC1, and HC2, as well as Al accumulation in the root tips were increased under aluminum toxicity. Pujiang T. kirilowii showed higher enzyme activity and cell wall polysaccharide contents than Anguo T. kirilowii. In addition, the root cell wall pectin, HC1, and HC2 contents of Pujiang T. kirilowii were increased by a large margin, showing its greater sensitivity to aluminum toxicity. Root length is an important indicator of aluminum toxicity, and has an important relationship with cell wall polysaccharide content. Aluminum toxicity led to the accumulation of pectin and high PME activity, and also increased the number of free carboxyl groups, which have more aluminum binding sites. Membrane skim increased extensively with the increase in APA activity, damaging membrane structure and function. Different SA concentrations can decrease enzyme activity and cell wall polysaccharide content to some extent. With the addition of different SA concentrations, the root relative aluminum content, cell wall polysaccharide content, APA and PME activities decreased. Aluminum toxicity to both genotypes of T. kirilowii was relieved in different degrees as exogenous SA concentration increased. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker was used to examine the genetic distance

  10. Polysaccharides from Traditional Chinese Medicines: Extraction, Purification, Modification, and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has been used to treat diseases in China for thousands of years. TCM compositions are complex, using as their various sources plants, animals, fungi, and minerals. Polysaccharides are one of the active and important ingredients of TCMs. Polysaccharides from TCMs exhibit a wide range of biological activities in terms of immunity- modifying, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor properties. With their widespread biological activities, polysaccharides consistently attract scientist's interests, and the studies often concentrate on the extraction, purification, and biological activity of TCM polysaccharides. Currently, numerous studies have shown that the modification of polysaccharides can heighten or change the biological activities, which is a new angle of polysaccharide research. This review highlights the current knowledge of TCM polysaccharides, including their extraction, purification, modification, and biological activity, which will hopefully provide profound insights facilitating further research and development.

  11. Extraction, purification and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides from maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Shenghua; Zhao, Qingsheng; Chen, Jinjin; Wang, Liwei; Zhang, Guifeng; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Bing

    2014-10-13

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were separated from maca (Lepidium meyenii) aqueous extract (MAE). The crude polysaccharides were deproteinized by Sevag method. During the preparation process of maca polysaccharides, amylase and glucoamylase effectively removed starch in maca polysaccharides. Four Lepidium meyenii polysaccharides (LMPs) were obtained by changing the concentration of ethanol in the process of polysaccharide precipitation. All of the LMPs were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, glucose and galactose. Antioxidant activity tests revealed that LMP-60 showed good capability of scavenging hydroxyl free radical and superoxide radical at 2.0mg/mL, the scavenging rate was 52.9% and 85.8%, respectively. Therefore, the results showed that maca polysaccharides had a high antioxidant activity and could be explored as the source of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Polysaccharides from Traditional Chinese Medicines: Extraction, Purification, Modification, and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Yao, Fangke; Ming, Ke; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo

    2016-12-13

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diseases in China for thousands of years. TCM compositions are complex, using as their various sources plants, animals, fungi, and minerals. Polysaccharides are one of the active and important ingredients of TCMs. Polysaccharides from TCMs exhibit a wide range of biological activities in terms of immunity- modifying, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor properties. With their widespread biological activities, polysaccharides consistently attract scientist's interests, and the studies often concentrate on the extraction, purification, and biological activity of TCM polysaccharides. Currently, numerous studies have shown that the modification of polysaccharides can heighten or change the biological activities, which is a new angle of polysaccharide research. This review highlights the current knowledge of TCM polysaccharides, including their extraction, purification, modification, and biological activity, which will hopefully provide profound insights facilitating further research and development.

  13. Studies on water soluble polysaccharides from Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, S; Kumar, K Jayaram

    2016-03-15

    In this existing experimental work, water soluble PDP polysaccharides were secluded from Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. seeds. The physicochemical properties were analyzed in terms of swelling power, solubility, pH and water holding capacity. Micromeretic studies proved the polysaccharide may be used a potential pharmaceutical adjuvant. The polysaccharide was characterized by FT-IR, SEM, TGA and NMR techniques. Methylation analysis confirmed that the polysaccharide is composed of Arabinose (Araf) units. The chemical shifts of anomeric proton region were found in the region of 4.4-5.5ppm. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that PDP polysaccharide was thermally stable. The in vitro antioxidant capacities of the polysaccharide were investigated in terms of scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and reducing power assay. The polysaccharide fractions showed activity in a concentration dependent manner which was comparable to the standard, ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacological modulation of human mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis by a chemically oversulfated polysaccharide of marine origin: potential application to cartilage regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merceron, Christophe; Portron, Sophie; Vignes-Colombeix, Caroline; Rederstorff, Emilie; Masson, Martial; Lesoeur, Julie; Sourice, Sophie; Sinquin, Corinne; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia; Weiss, Pierre; Vinatier, Claire; Guicheux, Jérôme

    2012-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as an attractive source of cells for cartilage engineering due to their availability and capacity for expansion and multipotency. Differentiation of MSC into chondrocytes is crucial to successful cartilage regeneration and can be induced by various biological agents, including polysaccharides that participate in many biological processes through interactions with growth factors. Here, we hypothesize that growth factor-induced differentiation of MSC can be increased by chemically oversulfated marine polysaccharides. To test our hypothesis, human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hATSCs) were cultured in pellets with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-supplemented chondrogenic medium containing either the polysaccharide GY785 DR or its oversulfated isoform GY785 DRS. Chondrogenesis was monitored by the measurement of pellet volume, quantification of DNA, collagens, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and immunohistological staining. Our data revealed an increase in pellet volume, total collagens, and GAG production with GY785 DRS and chondrogenic medium. The enhanced chondrogenic differentiation of hATSC was further demonstrated by the increased expression of several chondrogenic markers by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, surface plasmon resonance analyses revealed that TGF-β1 bound GY785 DRS with higher affinity compared to GY785 DR. In association with TGF-β1, GY785 DRS was found to upregulate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, indicating that oversulfated polysaccharide affects the mitogen activated protein kinase signaling activity. These results demonstrate the upregulation of TGF-β1-dependent stem cell chondrogenesis by a chemically oversulfated marine polysaccharide. This polysaccharide of marine origin is easily producible and therefore could be considered a promising additive to drive efficient and reliable MSC chondrogenesis for cartilage tissue

  15. Extracellular polysaccharide production by a strain of Pleurotus djamor isolated in the south of Brazil and antitumor activity on Sarcoma 180

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Martini Borges

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides with medicinal properties can be obtained from fruiting bodies, mycelium and culture broth of several fungus species. This work was carried out in batch culture using a stirred tank reactor with two different initial glucose concentrations (40-50 g/L and pH values (3.0-4.0 to enhance extracellular polysaccharides production by Pleurotus djamor UNIVILLE 001 and evaluate antitumor effect of intraperitonial administration of Pleurotus djamor extract on sarcoma 180 animal model. According to factorial design, the low pH value (pH 3.0 led to a gain of 1.6 g/L on the extracellular polysaccharide concentration, while glucose concentration in the tested range had no significant effect on the concentration of polysaccharide. With 40 g/L initial glucose concentration and pH 3.0, it was observed that yield factor of extracellular polysaccharide on substrate (Y P/S = 0.072 and maximum extracellular polysaccharide productivity (Q Pmax = 11.26 mg/L.h were about 188% and 321% respectively higher than those obtained in the experiment performed at pH 4.0. Under these conditions, the highest values of the yield factor of biomass on substrate (Y X/S = 0.24 and maximal biomass productivity (Q Xmax = 32.2 mg/L.h were also reached. In tumor response study, mean tumor volume on the 21th day was 35.3 cm³ in untreated group and 1.6 cm³ in treated group (p = 0.05 with a tumor inhibition rate of 94%. These impressive results suggests an inhibitory effect of P.djamor extract on cancer cells.

  16. Loss of covalently linked lipid as the mechanism for radiation-induced release of membrane-bound polysaccharide and exonuclease from Micrococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, R.E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of γ-radiation-induced release of polysaccharide and exonuclease from the midwall membrane of Micrococcus radiodurans has been examined. These two components appear to be released independently, but by very similar processes. Direct analysis of radiation-released polysaccharide indicated the absence of an alkali-labile neutral lipid normally present in the native material. Radiation-induced release therefore probably results from the radiolytic cleavage of a covalently linked lipid which normally serves to anchor these substances to the membrane. The absence of a natural membrane-bound carotenoid had no effect on the rate of release of these components. Likewise, the absence of exonuclease in an exonuclease minus mutant did not influence the release of polysaccharide. It is suggested that the major pathway of radical transfer from the initiating .OH and culminating in the cleavage of the neutral lipid anchor may not be via the membrane

  17. El uso de las presentaciones digitales en la educación superior: una reflexión sobre la práctica / Use of digital presentations in higher education: a reflexion on practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroto Marín, Orlando

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El uso de las presentaciones digitales en la enseñanza universitaria se han extendido ampliamente. En esta reseña temática se realiza una reflexión sobre la pertinencia de su aplicación; además se revisan algunos detalles de su producción. Se recalca la importancia de tomar en cuenta los detalles de las presentaciones para así lograr los objetivos educativos. El uso de un medio audiovisual y digital debería favorecer el establecimiento de una comunicación interactiva entre docentes y estudiantes. Con estas notas se espera aportar ideas sobre las presentaciones digitales especialmente para el personal docente que inicia sus labores dentro de la universidad.Abstract: The use of slide show presentation in higher education has been extending wider through universities. This article is a reflection about its use and pertinence and a review of some details on its production. This research reinforces the importance of review the slide show details to achieve the educational goals. In the classroom is established communication between professor and students and vice versa. The audiovisual media must reinforce communication skills and not only an informational reception. These notes could be helpful for the newest teachers, those who are starting their teaching career into the university, finding in their beginning the way to eliminate some actions that limits their creative capacity to teach.

  18. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  19. Influence of wine pectic polysaccharides on the interactions between condensed tannins and salivary proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Elisabete; Mateus, Nuno; Plet, Benoit; Pianet, Isabelle; Dufourc, Erick; De Freitas, Victor

    2006-11-15

    Alpha-amylase, a major human salivary protein, and IB8c, a representative of the proline-rich proteins, were obtained by isolation from saliva and by solid-phase synthesis, respectively. The interactions between these proteins and condensed tannins isolated from grape seeds were studied at different protein and tannin concentrations by measuring their aggregation. Pectic polysaccharides were isolated from wine, and their effect on protein tannin aggregation was assessed. The results presented in this study showed that the most acidic fractions of arabinogalactan proteins have the ability to inhibit the formation of aggregates between the grape seed tannins and the two different salivary proteins. Rhamnogalacturonan II has the same ability toward alpha-amylase but not IB8c under the conditions of the present study. Polysaccharides show effects at concentrations at which they are present in wine, which could mean an influence in wine astringency. The interaction between condensed tannins and alpha-amylase is differently affected by ionic strength when compared with IB8c.

  20. Polysaccharides from astragali radix restore chemical-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Astragali Radix has been used widely for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and to enhance endurance and stamina in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for over 2000 years. The polysaccharide constituents of Astragali Radix (ARP) are considered as one of the major constituents contributing to the multiple pharmacological effects of this medicinal plant. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the vascular regenerative activities of ARPs in a chemically-induced blood vessel loss model in zebrafish. Methods Blood vessel loss was induced in both Tg(fli-1a:EGFP)y1 and Tg(fli-1a:nEGFP)y7 embryos by administration of 300 nM VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) for 3 h at 24 hpf (hour post-fertilization). Then, the blood vessel damaged zebrafish were treated with ARPs for 21 h and 45 h after VRI withdrawal. Morphological changes in intersegmental vessels (ISVs) of zebrafish larvae were observed under the fluorescence microscope and measured quantitatively. The rescue effect of ARPs in the zebrafish models was validated by measuring the relative mRNA expressions of Kdrl, Kdr and Flt-1 using real-time PCR. Results Two polysaccharide fractions, P4 (50000 D 0.1 μm), isolated from Astragali Radix by ultrafiltration, produced a significant and dose-dependent recovery in VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Flk-1 and Flt-1 mRNA expression induced by VRI was reversed by treatment with P4. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that P4 isolated from Astragali Radix reduces VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish. These findings support the hypothesis that polysaccharides are one of the active constituents in Astragali Radix, contributing to its beneficial effect on treatment of diseases associated with a deficiency in angiogenesis. PMID:22357377

  1. Precision Synthesis of Functional Polysaccharide Materials by Phosphorylase-Catalyzed Enzymatic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Kadokawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, the precise synthesis of functional polysaccharide materials using phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic reactions is presented. This particular enzymatic approach has been identified as a powerful tool in preparing well-defined polysaccharide materials. Phosphorylase is an enzyme that has been employed in the synthesis of pure amylose with a precisely controlled structure. Similarly, using a phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization, the chemoenzymatic synthesis of amylose-grafted heteropolysaccharides containing different main-chain polysaccharide structures (e.g., chitin/chitosan, cellulose, alginate, xanthan gum, and carboxymethyl cellulose was achieved. Amylose-based block, star, and branched polymeric materials have also been prepared using this enzymatic polymerization. Since phosphorylase shows a loose specificity for the recognition of substrates, different sugar residues have been introduced to the non-reducing ends of maltooligosaccharides by phosphorylase-catalyzed glycosylations using analog substrates such as α-d-glucuronic acid and α-d-glucosamine 1-phosphates. By means of such reactions, an amphoteric glycogen and its corresponding hydrogel were successfully prepared. Thermostable phosphorylase was able to tolerate a greater variance in the substrate structures with respect to recognition than potato phosphorylase, and as a result, the enzymatic polymerization of α-d-glucosamine 1-phosphate to produce a chitosan stereoisomer was carried out using this enzyme catalyst, which was then subsequently converted to the chitin stereoisomer by N-acetylation. Amylose supramolecular inclusion complexes with polymeric guests were obtained when the phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization was conducted in the presence of the guest polymers. Since the structure of this polymeric system is similar to the way that a plant vine twines around a rod, this polymerization system has been named

  2. Genetic basis of coaggregation receptor polysaccharide biosynthesis in Streptococcus sanguinis and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Yoshida, Y; Cisar, J O

    2014-02-01

    Interbacterial adhesion between streptococci and actinomyces promotes early dental plaque biofilm development. Recognition of coaggregation receptor polysaccharides (RPS) on strains of Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus oralis by Actinomyces spp. type 2 fimbriae is the principal mechanism of these interactions. Previous studies of genetic loci for synthesis of RPS (rps) and RPS precursors (rml, galE1 and galE2) in S. gordonii 38 and S. oralis 34 revealed differences between these strains. To determine whether these differences are strain-specific or species-specific, we identified and compared loci for polysaccharide biosynthesis in additional strains of these species and in several strains of the previously unstudied species, S. sanguinis. Genes for synthesis of RPS precursors distinguished the rps loci of different streptococci. Hence, rml genes for synthesis of TDP-L-Rha were in rps loci of S. oralis strains but at other loci in S. gordonii and S. sanguinis. Genes for two distinct galactose epimerases were also distributed differently. Hence, galE1 for epimerization of UDP-Glc and UDP-Gal was in galactose operons of S. gordonii and S. sanguinis strains but surprisingly, this gene was not present in S. oralis. Moreover, galE2 for epimerization of both UDP-Glc and UDP-Gal and UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-GalNAc was at a different locus in each species, including rps operons of S. sanguinis. The findings provide insight into cell surface properties that distinguish different RPS-producing streptococci and open an approach for identifying these bacteria based on the arrangement of genes for synthesis of polysaccharide precursors. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. High-quality total RNA isolation from melon (Cucumis melo L. fruits rich in polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Silveira de Campos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Melon, a member of the family Cucurbitaceae, is the fourth most important fruit in the world market and, on a volume basis, is Brazil’s main fresh fruit export. Many molecular techniques used to understand the maturation of these fruits require high concentrations of highly purified RNA. However, melons are rich in polyphenolic compounds and polysaccharides, which interfere with RNA extraction. This study aimed to determine the most appropriate method for total RNA extraction from melon fruits. Six extraction buffers were tested: T1 guanidine thiocyanate/phenol/chloroform; T2 sodium azide/?-mercaptoethanol; T3 phenol/guanidine thiocyanate; T4 CTAB/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol; T5 SDS/sodium perchlorate/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol, and T6 sarkosyl/PVP/guanidine thiocyanate, using the AxyPrepTM Multisource Total RNA Miniprep Kit. The best method for extracting RNA from both mature and green fruit was based on the SDS/PVP/?-mercaptoethanol buffer, because it rapidly generated a high quality and quantity of material. In general, higher amounts of RNA were obtained from green than mature fruits, probably due to the lower concentration of polysaccharides and water. The purified material can be used as a template in molecular techniques, such as microarrays, RT-PCR, and in the construction of cDNA and RNA-seq data.

  4. Efficient gene delivery to human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells by cationized Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingtong; Cao, Jin; Chen, Baoding; Deng, Wenwen; Cao, Xia; Chen, Jingjing; Wang, Yan; Wang, Shicheng; Yu, Jiangnan; Xu, Ximing; Gao, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    This study centered on an innovative application of Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide (PPS) with cationic modification as a safe and efficient nonviral gene vector to deliver a plasmid encoding human Wnt3a (pWnt3a) into human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs). After modification with branched low-molecular-weight (1,200 Da) polyethylenimine, the cationized PPS (CPPS) was combined with pWnt3a to form spherical nanoscale particles (CPPS-pWnt3a nanoparticles). Particle size and distribution indicated that the CPPS-pWnt3a nanoparticles at a CPPS:pWnt3a weight ratio of 40:1 might be a potential candidate for DNA plasmid transfection. A cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that the nanoparticles prepared at a CPPS:pWnt3a weight ratio of 40:1 were nontoxic to HUMSCs compared to those of Lipofectamine 2000 and polyethylenimine (25 kDa). These nanoparticles were further transfected to HUMSCs. Western blotting demonstrated that the nanoparticles (CPPS:pWnt3a weight ratio 40:1) had the greatest transfection efficiency in HUMSCs, which was significantly higher than that of Lipofectamine 2000; however, when the CPPS:pWnt3a weight ratio was increased to 80:1, the nanoparticle-treated group showed no obvious improvement in translation efficiency over Lipofectamine 2000. Therefore, CPPS, a novel cationic polysaccharide derived from P. yezoensis, could be developed into a safe, efficient, nonviral gene vector in a gene-delivery system.

  5. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction and Characterization of Pectic Polysaccharide from Oriental Tobacco Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.; Tian, Z.; Li, X.; He, P.; Xu, C.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of pectic Polysaccharide from oriental tobacco leaves was studied by orthogonal matrix method (L9(3)4). Furthermore, the crude Polysaccharide was purified and two components (Fr-I and Fr-II) were obtained. FT-IR spectral analysis of the purified EPS revealed prominent characteristic groups. The monosaccharide composition analysis indicated the main composition between Fr-I and Fr-II was different. Furthermore, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated the degradation temperature (Td) of the Fr-I (215 degree C) was higher than those of Fr-II (162 degree C). Detected by the pyrolysis GC/MS, though the main kinds of pyrolysis products from both Fr-I and Fr-II were similar, the larger amount of heterocycle and aromatic compounds liberated after hydrolysis of Fr-II. Finally, On the basis of the antioxidant activity test in vitro, Fr-II has stronger antioxidant activities than Fr-I. The thermal behavior and antioxidant activity might be attributed to the configuration of the sugar units and chemical compositions. (author)

  6. Is torrefaction of polysaccharides-rich biomass equivalent to carbonization of lignin-rich biomass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, E; Yaman, S; Haykiri-Acma, H; Kucukbayrak, S

    2016-01-01

    Waste biomass species such as lignin-rich hazelnut shell (HS) and polysaccharides-rich sunflower seed shell (SSS) were subjected to torrefaction at 300°C and carbonization at 600°C under nitrogen. The structural variations in torrefied and carbonized biomasses were compared. Also, the burning characteristics under dry air and pure oxygen (oxy-combustion) conditions were investigated. It was concluded that the effects of carbonization on HS are almost comparable with the effects of torrefaction on SSS in terms of devolatilization and deoxygenation potentials and the increases in carbon content and the heating value. Consequently, it can be proposed that torrefaction does not provide efficient devolatilization from the lignin-rich biomass while it is relatively more efficient for polysaccharides-rich biomass. Heat-induced variations in biomass led to significant changes in the burning characteristics under both burning conditions. That is, low temperature reactivity of biomass reduced considerably and the burning shifted to higher temperatures with very high burning rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Strong cellulase inhibition by Mannan polysaccharides in cellulose conversion to sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2014-07-01

    Cellulase enzymes contribute a major fraction of the total cost for biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Although a several fold reduction in cellulase production costs and enhancement of cellulase activity and stability have been reported in recent years, sugar yields are still lower at low enzyme doses than desired commercially. We recently reported that hemicellulose xylan and its oligomers strongly inhibit cellulase and that supplementation of cellulase with xylanase and β-xylosidase would significantly reduce such inhibition. In this study, mannan polysaccharides and their enzymatically prepared hydrolyzates were discovered to be strongly inhibitory to fungal cellulase in cellulose conversion (>50% drop in % relative conversion), even at a small concentration of 0.1 g/L, and inhibition was much greater than experienced by other known inhibitors such as cellobiose, xylooligomers, and furfural. Furthermore, cellulase inhibition dramatically increased with heteromannan loading and mannan substitution with galactose side units. In general, enzymatically prepared hydrolyzates were less inhibitory than their respective mannan polysaccharides except highly substituted ones. Supplementation of cellulase with commercial accessory enzymes such as xylanase, pectinase, and β-glucosidase was effective in greatly relieving inhibition but only for less substituted heteromannans. However, cellulase supplementation with purified heteromannan specific enzymes relieved inhibition by these more substituted heteromannans as well, suggesting that commercial preparations need to have higher amounts of such activities to realize high sugar yields at the low enzyme protein loadings needed for low cost fuels production. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Preparation, characterization, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Bi3+-Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yang; Chen, Yao; Li, Qian; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Ming; Feng, Weiwei; Takase, Mohammed; Wu, Xueshan; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-09-22

    Two new Bi3+-Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (BiHEP) complexes were prepared using Bi3+ and two purified polysaccharides from H. erinaceus (HEPs), respectively. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, CD, SEM, AFM, XRD, and TG. The anti-Helicobacter pylori (Hp) activities in vitro by agar dilution assay of the complexes were evaluated. The molecular weights of HEPs were 197 and 20 kDa, respectively. All the analyses confirmed the formation of new BiHEP complexes with lower content of Bi3+ compared with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS), the most utilized bismuth preparation clinically. Furthermore, HEPs themselves have definite inhibition effects on Hp, and BiHEP complexes have lower content of Bi exhibited strong inhibition effects on Hp (MIC=20 μg/mL), similar to that of CBS with higher content of Bi. The study provides a basis for further development of multiple treatments of Hp infection or new medicines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fast data preprocessing for chromatographic fingerprints of tomato cell wall polysaccharides using chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéméner, Bernard; Bertrand, Dominique; Marty, Isabelle; Causse, Mathilde; Lahaye, Marc

    2007-02-02

    The variability in the chemistry of cell wall polysaccharides in pericarp tissue of red-ripe tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicon Mill.) was characterized by chemical methods and enzymatic degradations coupled to high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) and mass spectrometry analysis. Large fruited line, Levovil (LEV) carrying introgressed chromosome fragments from a cherry tomato line Cervil (CER) on chromosomes 4 (LC4), 9 (LC9), or on chromosomes 1, 2, 4 and 9 (LCX) and containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for texture traits, was studied. In order to differentiate cell wall polysaccharide modifications in the tomato fruit collection by multivariate analysis, chromatograms were corrected for baseline drift and shift of the component elution time using an approach derived from image analysis and mathematical morphology. The baseline was first corrected by using a "moving window" approach while the peak-matching method developed was based upon location of peaks as local maxima within a window of a definite size. The fast chromatographic data preprocessing proposed was a prerequisite for the different chemometric treatments, such as variance and principal component analysis applied herein to the analysis. Applied to the tomato collection, the combined enzymatic degradations and HPAEC analyses revealed that the firm LCX and CER genotypes showed a higher proportion of glucuronoxylans and pectic arabinan side chains while the mealy LC9 genotype demonstrated the highest content of pectic galactan side chains. QTLs on tomato chromosomes 1, 2, 4 and 9 contain important genes controlling glucuronoxylan and pectic neutral side chains biosynthesis and/or metabolism.

  10. Improved growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as well as Increased antioxidant activity by biotransforming litchi pericarp polysaccharide with Aspergillus awamori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen; Wen, Lingrong; Yang, Bao; Jiang, Guoxiang; Shi, John; Chen, Feng; Jiang, Yueming

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to increase the bioactivity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides (LPPs) biotransformed by Aspergillus awamori. Compared to the non-A. awamori-fermented LPP, the growth effects of A. awamori-fermented LPP on Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were four and two times higher after 3 days of fermentation, respectively. Increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and DNA protection activity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides were also achieved after A. awamori fermentation. Moreover, the relative content of glucose and arabinose in LPP after fermentation decreased from 58.82% to 22.60% and from 18.82% to 10.09%, respectively, with a concomitant increase in the relative contents of galactose, rhamnose, xylose, and mannose. Furthermore, lower molecular weight polysaccharides were obtained after A. awamori fermentation. It can be concluded that A. awamori was effective in biotransforming LPP into a bioactive mixture with lower molecular weight polysaccharides and higher antioxidant activity and relative galactose content.

  11. Improved Growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as well as Increased Antioxidant Activity by Biotransforming Litchi Pericarp Polysaccharide with Aspergillus awamori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to increase the bioactivity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides (LPPs biotransformed by Aspergillus awamori. Compared to the non-A. awamori-fermented LPP, the growth effects of A. awamori-fermented LPP on Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were four and two times higher after 3 days of fermentation, respectively. Increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and DNA protection activity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides were also achieved after A. awamori fermentation. Moreover, the relative content of glucose and arabinose in LPP after fermentation decreased from 58.82% to 22.60% and from 18.82% to 10.09%, respectively, with a concomitant increase in the relative contents of galactose, rhamnose, xylose, and mannose. Furthermore, lower molecular weight polysaccharides were obtained after A. awamori fermentation. It can be concluded that A. awamori was effective in biotransforming LPP into a bioactive mixture with lower molecular weight polysaccharides and higher antioxidant activity and relative galactose content.

  12. Influence of cultivar, cooking, and storage on cell-wall polysaccharide composition of winter squash (Cucurbita maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, R M Sunil; Melton, Laurence D; Hurst, Paul L

    2003-03-26

    Changes in the cell-wall polysaccharides (CWP) of the edible tissues of four winter squash cultivars during storage and after cooking were investigated. A procedure for isolating cell walls of tissues containing high levels of starch was used. The starch-free CWP were sequentially fractionated using CDTA, dilute Na(2)CO(3), and 4 M KOH. Cellulose made up 40-42% of the total CWP for three cultivars (Delica, CF 2, and CF 4) at harvest but was 35% in the softer Red Warren. The pectic polysaccharides of Delica, CF 2, and CF 4 cell walls are more branched than those from Red Warren squash. The higher proportion of uronic acid in the pectic polysaccharides of Red Warren squash correlates with its lower firmness. Cooking resulted in an increase in the water-soluble pectins and a decrease in the pectins associated with cellulose. The total CWP content of the squash cultivars remained unchanged for up to 2 months of storage and then markedly decreased between 2 and 3 months of storage. The galactose content of Delica and Red Warren cell walls remained relatively constant from harvest to 2 months of storage and then decreased markedly during 2-3 months of storage.

  13. Characterization of Co-Cultivation of Cyanobacteria on Growth, Productions of Polysaccharides and Extracellular Proteins, Nitrogenase Activity, and Photosynthetic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chuizhao; Wang, Libo; Wu, Tong; Zhang, Shiping; Tang, Tao; Wang, Liang; Zhao, Quanyu; Sun, Yuhan

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacteria as biofertilizers are benefit to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and reestablish the ecological system in soil. In general, several strains of cyanobacteria were involved in the biofertilizers. The co-cultivation of cyanobacteria were characterized on growth profile, production of polysaccharides and extracellular proteins, nitrogenase activity, and photosynthetic activity for three selected N 2 -fixing cyanobacteria, Anabaena cylindrica (B1611 and F243) and Nostoc sp. (F280). After eight-day culture, the highest dry weights were obtained in F280 pure culture and co-cultivation of B1611 and F280. Higher production of extracellular proteins and cell-bonding polysaccharides (CPS) were observed in co-cultivations compared with pure culture. The highest released polysaccharides (RPS) contents were obtained in pure culture of F280 and co-cultivation of F280 and F243. Galactose and glucose were major components of CPS and RPS in all samples. Trehalose was a specific component of RPS in F280 pure culture. Based on the monosaccharide contents of CPS and RPS, F280 was the dominant species in the related treatments of co-cultivation. The nitrogenase activities in all treatments exhibited a sharp rise at the late stage while a significant decrease existed when three cyanobacteria strains were mixed. Photosynthetic activities for all treatments were determined with rapid light curve, and the related parameters were estimated.

  14. Rheological Flow Behavior of Structural Polysaccharides from Edible Tender Cladodes of Wild, Semidomesticated and Cultivated 'Nopal' (Opuntia) of Mexican Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Palacios, C; Peña-Valdivia, C B; Rodríguez-Hernández, A I; Reyes-Agüero, J A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the content of polysaccharides of edible tender cladodes (nopalitos) of three species of Opuntia and to evaluate the rheological flow behavior of isolated polysaccharides. A completely randomized experimental design was used to characterize a wild (O. streptacantha), a semidomesticated (O. megacantha) and a domesticated (O. ficus-indica) species. Mucilage content was higher (4.93 to 12.43 g 100 g -1 dry matter), tightly bound hemicelluloses were lower (3.32 to 1.81 g 100 g -1 dry matter) and pectins and loosely bound hemicelluloses were not different in wild than in domesticated species. Aqueous solution/suspensions of mucilage, pectins, hemicellulose and cellulose of all species showed non-Newtonian behavior under simple shear flow. The flow behavior of the structural polysaccharides was well described by the Ostwald de-Waele model. Pectins and mucilages exhibited the highest consistency indexes (K values ranged from 0.075 to 0.177 Pas n ) with a moderated shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.53 to 0.67). Cellulose dispersions exhibited the most shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.17 to 0.41) and hemicelluloses showed a tendency to Newtonian flow (n values ranged from 0.82 to 0.97). The rheological flow properties of these polysaccharides may be useful to improve the textural and sensory qualities of some foods and pharmaceutical materials. Moreover, they can emerge as functional ingredients mainly due to the nutraceutical properties that have been attributed to nopalitos.

  15. Structural characterization of the extracellular polysaccharide from Vibrio cholerae O1 El-Tor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitnat Yildiz

    Full Text Available The ability to form biofilms is important for environmental survival, transmission, and infectivity of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera in humans. To form biofilms, V. cholerae produces an extracellular matrix composed of proteins, nucleic acids and a glycoconjugate, termed Vibrio exopolysaccharide (VPS. Here, we present the data on isolation and characterization of the polysaccharide part of the VPS (VPS-PS, which has the following structure: -4-α-GulpNAcAGly3OAc-(1-4-β-D-Glcp-(1-4-α-Glcp-(1-4-α-D-Galp-(1- where α-D-Glc is partially (∼20% replaced with α-D-GlcNAc. α-GulNAcAGly is an amide between 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-guluronic acid and glycine. Apparently, the polysaccharide is bound to a yet unidentified component, which gives it high viscosity and completely suppresses any NMR signals belonging to the sugar chains of the VPS. The only reliable method to remove this component at present is a treatment of the whole glycoconjugate with concentrated hydrochloric acid.

  16. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  17. Structures, biological activities, and industrial applications of the polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus (Lion's Mane) mushroom: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xirui; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Jiacheng; Chang, Yu; Ning, Ning; Guo, Hao; Huang, Linhong; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Zhao, Zefeng

    2017-04-01

    Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers., also known as Yamabushitake, Houtou and Lion's Mane, is capable of fortifying the spleen and nourishing the stomach, tranquilizing the mind, and fighting cancer. Over the past decade, it has been demonstrated that H. erinaceus polysaccharides possess various promising bioactivities, including antitumor and immunomodulation, anti-gastric ulcer, neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, anti-oxidation and hepatoprotection, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-hyperglycemia, anti-fatigue and anti-aging. The purpose of the present review is to provide systematically reorganized information on extraction and purification, structure characteristics, biological activities, and industrial applications of H. erinaceus polysaccharides to support their therapeutic potentials and sanitarian functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Policy environments matters: Access to higher education of non-traditional students in Denmark. Paper presented at the 56th CIES conference, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 22-27 April

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    Despite the massification of higher education that has brought about an increase in the enrollment rates of non-traditional students, and the internationalization of higher education, which has led towards cross-national homogenization when it comes to the typology of educational programs run...... by universities, access of non-traditional students is still a much debated issue. The scope of this paper is to critically examine the policy environment, and related practice, which supports (or hampers) access to higher education of non-traditional students, with a special attention to adult and mature...... from a common ideal that results from cross-national cooperation implemented through the Bologna process. The data source includes relevant scientific literature, policy documents as well as interviews with policy makers, representatives of higher education institutions and non-traditional students...

  19. Development of drilling fluids based on polysaccharides and natural minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanar Nurakhmetova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The technology of oil well drilling in complex geological conditions by applying the drilling muds based on the polysaccharides – gellan, xanthan and their mixture which potentially possess a good flocculation properties and the ability to reversible sol-gel transition in dependence of temperature and concentration of low molecular weight cations in water has been justified in this work. For the preparation of drilling muds, gellan and xanthan were used, these polymers were obtained from biomass by an aerobic fermentation using microorganisms Sphingomonas elodea and Xanthomonas campestris. Bentonite was used as a natural mineral. Physical and chemical characteristics of aqueous and aqueous-salt solutions of natural polysaccharide gellan including: density, intrinsic and effective viscosity, static shear stress, dynamic shear stress, sedimentation stability and other parameters were determined while varying polymer compositions and concentrations, ionic strength of the solution, nature of low molecular weight salts, concentration of dispersion phase, pH of the medium and temperature.

  20. Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharide Peptide (GLPP for the Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Rasjidi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum mushroom (also known as Ling Zhi in China, Mannetake /Reishi in Japan has been widely used for thousands of years to prevent and treat various diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes mellitus, viral infection, and cancer. Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum has been extensively investigated for free radical scavenging activity. Both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that G. lucidum have anti-tumor effects, which mediated by its immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenesis, and cytotoxic effects. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide peptide (GLPP which extracted from Ganoderma lucidum mycelium tissue culture, give the best quality of β-D-Glucans bioactive compounds. These biologically active glucans interact with receptors on the surface of immune cells such as macrophage and natural killer cell (NK cell to induce immunomodulatory and tumoricidal effects. However, many studies still need to answer those mechanisms.

  1. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  2. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsielleae and other facultative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochuba, G U; von Riesen, V L

    1980-01-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebsiella oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carrageenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and Pectobacterium (38%). Pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant. PMID:7396489

  3. Advances in Research of Polysaccharides in Cordyceps Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps sinensis (Berk. Sacc. is one of the well-described fungi that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for over 700 years. Fungal mycelia contain some polysaccharides that are responsible for their biological activity. C. sinensis has traditionally been cultivated on the high Tibetan plateau as a parasitic fungus growing on caterpillars. However, currently it is being cultivated on some insects and in artificial media. This article deals with the advances in the production, isolation and purification of Cordyceps polysaccharide (CP in recent years, as well as the structure elucidation and pharmacological action. The article also aims to provide some references for further application and exploitation in the future.

  4. [Insertional mutation in the AZOBR_p60120 gene is accompanied by defects in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharide and calcofluor-binding polysaccharides in the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsy, E I; Prilipov, A G

    2015-03-01

    In the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245, extracellular calcofluor-binding polysaccharides (Cal+ phenotype) and two types of lipopolysaccharides, LPSI and LPSII, were previously identified. These lipopolysaccharides share the same repeating O-polysaccharide unit but have different antigenic structures and different charges of their O-polysaccharides and/or core oligosaccharides. Several dozens of predicted genes involved in the biosynthesis of polysaccharides have been localized in the AZOBR_p6 plasmid of strain Sp245 (GenBank accession no. HE577333). In the present work, it was demonstrated that an artificial transposon Omegon-Km had inserted into the central region of the AZOBR_p60120 gene in the A. brasilense Sp245 LPSI- Cal- KM252 mutant. In A. brasilense strain Sp245, this plasmid gene encodes a putative glycosyltransferase containing conserved domains characteristic of the enzymes participating in the synthesis of O-polysaccharides and capsular polysaccharides (accession no. YP004987664). In mutant KM252, a respective predicted protein is expected to be completely inactivated. As a result of the analysis of the EcoRI fragment of the AZOBR_p6 plasmid, encompassing the AZOBR_p60120 gene and a number of other loci, novel data on the structure of AZOBR_p6 were obtained: an approximately 5-kb gap (GenBank accession no. KM189439) was closed in the nucleotide sequence of this plasmid.

  5. High molecular weight polysaccharide that binds and inhibits virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konowalchuk, Thomas W

    2014-01-14

    This invention provides a high molecular weight polysaccharide capable of binding to and inhibiting virus and related pharmaceutical formulations and methods on inhibiting viral infectivity and/or pathogenicity, as well as immunogenic compositions. The invention further methods of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and of ameliorating a symptom of aging. Additionally, the invention provides methods of detecting and/or quantifying and/or isolating viruses.

  6. Photoluminescent polysaccharide-coated germanium(IV) oxide nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lobaz, Volodymyr; Rabyk, Mariia; Pánek, Jiří; Doris, E.; Nallet, F.; Štěpánek, Petr; Hrubý, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 294, č. 7 (2016), s. 1225-1235 ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14FR027; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08336S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-25781A Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : germanium oxide nanoparticles * polysaccharide coating * photoluminescent label Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.723, year: 2016

  7. Polysaccharide capsule-mediated resistance to opsonophagocytosis in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico, P; Salo, R J; Cross, A S; Cunha, B A

    1994-01-01

    The polysaccharide capsule of Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important virulence factor that confers resistance to phagocytosis. The treatment of encapsulated bacteria with salicylate to inhibit capsule expression was found to enhance the phagocytosis of encapsulated bacteria by human neutrophils only in the presence of cell surface-specific antibodies. Both type-specific rabbit antisera and anticapsular human hyperimmune globulin were employed as opsonins. Salicylate significantly enhanced phag...

  8. Drug Release Studies from Caesalpinia pulcherrima Seed Polysaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Jeevanandham, Somasundaram; Dhachinamoorthi, Duraiswamy; Bannoth Chandra Sekhar, Kothapalli

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the controlled release behavior of both water-soluble (acetaminophen, caffeine, theophylline and salicylic acid) and water insoluble (indomethacin) drugs derived from Caesalpinia pulcherrima seed Gum isolated from Caesalpinia pulcherrima kernel powder. It further investigates the effect of incorporating diluents such as microcrystalline cellulose and lactose on caffeine release. In addition the effect the gum?s (polysaccharide) partial cross-linking had on release of aceta...

  9. High molecular weight polysaccharide that binds and inhibits virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konowalchuk, Thomas W.; Konowalchuk, Jack

    2017-07-18

    This invention provides a high molecular weight polysaccharide capable of binding to and inhibiting virus and related pharmaceutical formulations and methods of inhibiting viral infectivity and/or pathogenicity, as well as immunogenic compositions. The invention further includes methods of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and of ameliorating a symptom of aging. Additionally, the invention provides methods of detecting and/or quantifying and/or isolating viruses.

  10. Complete structure of the polysaccharide from Streptococcus sanguis J22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeygunawardana, C.; Bush, C.A.; Cisar, J.O.

    1990-01-01

    The cell wall polysaccharides of certain oral streptococci such as Streptococcus sanguis strains 34 and J22, although immunologically distinct, act as receptors for the fimbrial lectins of Actinomyces viscosus T14V. The authors report the complete covalent structure of the polysaccharide from S. sanguis J22 which is composed of a heptasaccharide subunit linked by phosphodiester bonds. The repeating subunit, which contains α-GalNAc, α-rhamnose, β-rhamnose, β-glucose, and β-galactose all in the pyranoside form and β-galactofuranose, is compared with the previously published structure of the polysaccharide from strain 34. The structure has been determined almost exclusively by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance methods. The 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra of the polysaccharides from both strains 34 and J22 have been completely assigned. The stereochemistry of pyranosides was assigned from J H-H values determined from phase-sensitive COSY spectra, and acetamido sugars were assigned by correlation of the resonances of the amide 1 H with the sugar ring protons. The 13 C spectra were assigned by 1 H-detected multiple-quantum correlation (HMQC) spectra, and the assignments were confirmed by 1 H-detected multiple-bond correlation (HMBC) spectra. The positions of the glycosidic linkages were assigned by detection of three-bond 1 H- 13 C correlation across the glycosidic linkage in the HMBC spectra. The positions of the phosphodiester linkages were determined by splittings observed in the 13 C resonances due to 31 P coupling and also by 1 H-detected 31 P correlation spectroscopy

  11. Suppression of umami aftertaste by polysaccharides in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Miho; Matsushima, Kenichiro

    2013-08-01

    Umami is one of 5 basic tastes that make foods savory and palatable. The umami aftertaste is a long-lasting taste sensation that is important for Japanese broth (dashi) utilized for various Japanese foods. Soy sauce is usually added when making dashi-based dishes; however, different soy sauces produce distinct effects on the umami aftertaste. In this study, we attempted to identify the substances that cause the suppression of the umami aftertaste in soy sauce by combining sensory analysis, size fractionation, chemical analysis, and enzymatic treatment. The suppressive substance was revealed to be polysaccharides with molecular weights between 44900 and 49700. The results of acid hydrolysis and enzymatic treatment suggested that the polysaccharides were cellulose. These results indicate that a type of water-soluble cellulose derived from soybean, wheat, or microorganisms has a suppressive effect on the umami aftertaste of soy sauce. Future studies should focus on developing a strategy that regulates the amount of these polysaccharides generated during soy sauce production, to maintain or enhance the umami aftertaste. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Genetic engineering of grass cell wall polysaccharides for biorefining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Gallagher, Joe A; Gomez, Leonardo D; Bosch, Maurice

    2017-09-01

    Grasses represent an abundant and widespread source of lignocellulosic biomass, which has yet to fulfil its potential as a feedstock for biorefining into renewable and sustainable biofuels and commodity chemicals. The inherent recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials to deconstruction is the most crucial limitation for the commercial viability and economic feasibility of biomass biorefining. Over the last decade, the targeted genetic engineering of grasses has become more proficient, enabling rational approaches to modify lignocellulose with the aim of making it more amenable to bioconversion. In this review, we provide an overview of transgenic strategies and targets to tailor grass cell wall polysaccharides for biorefining applications. The bioengineering efforts and opportunities summarized here rely primarily on (A) reprogramming gene regulatory networks responsible for the biosynthesis of lignocellulose, (B) remodelling the chemical structure and substitution patterns of cell wall polysaccharides and (C) expressing lignocellulose degrading and/or modifying enzymes in planta. It is anticipated that outputs from the rational engineering of grass cell wall polysaccharides by such strategies could help in realizing an economically sustainable, grass-derived lignocellulose processing industry. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Biosynthesis and Degradation of Mono-, Oligo-, and Polysaccharides: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Iain B. H.

    Glycomolecules, whether they be mono-, oligo-, or polysaccharides or simple glycosides, are—as any biological molecules—the products of biosynthetic processes; on the other hand, at the end of their lifespan, they are also subject to degradation. The beginning point, biochemically, is the fixation of carbon by photosynthesis; subsequent metabolism in plants and other organisms results in the generation of the various monosaccharides. These must be activated—typically as nucleotide sugars or lipid-phosphosugars—before transfer by glycosyltransferases can take place in order to produce the wide variety of oligo- and polysaccharides seen in Nature; complicated remodelling processes may take place—depending on the pathway—which result in partial trimming of a precursor by glycosidases prior to the addition of further monosaccharide units. Upon completion of the 'life' of a glycoconjugate, glycosidases will degrade the macromolecule finally into monosaccharide units which can be metabolized or salvaged for incorporation into new glycan chains. In modern glycoscience, a wide variety of methods—genetic, biochemical, analytical—are being employed in order to understand these various pathways and to place them within their biological and medical context. In this chapter, these processes and relevant concepts and methods are introduced, prior to elaboration in the subsequent more specialized chapters on biosynthesis and degradation of mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides.

  14. Structural analysis of a homogeneous polysaccharide from Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Shang, Feineng; Yang, Zengming; Wu, Mingyi; Zhao, Jinhua

    2017-05-01

    Edible snails have been widely used as a health food and medicine in many countries. In our study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (AF-1) was isolated and purified from Achatina fulica by papain enzymolysis, alcohol precipitation and strong anion exchange chromatography. Structureof the polysaccharide was analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, analysis of monosaccharide composition, methylation analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy ( 1 H, 13 C, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC). Chemical composition analysis indicated that AF-1 is composed of glucose (Glc) and its average molecular weight is 1710kDa. Structural analysis suggested that AF-1 is mainly consisted of a linear repeating backbone of (1→4) linked α-d-Glc p residues with one branch, α-d-Glc p, attached to the main chain by (1→6) glycosidic bonds at every five main-chain units. Further studies on biological activities of the polysaccharide are currently in progress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Purification, Characterization and Biological Activity of Polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiwei Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide (DOPA from the stem of D. officinale, as well as two fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 of it, were isolated and purified by DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography, and their structural characteristics and bioactivities were investigated. The average molecular weights of DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were 394 kDa and 362 kDa, respectively. They were mainly composed of d-mannose, d-glucose, and had a backbone consisting of 1,4-linked β-d-Manp and 1,4-linked β-d-Glcp with O-acetyl groups. Bioactivity studies indicated that both DOPA and its purified fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 could activate splenocytes and macrophages. The D. officinale polysaccharides had stimulatory effects on splenocytes, T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes, promoting the cell viability and NO production of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, DOPA, DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were found to protect RAW 264.7 macrophages against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative injury by promoting cell viability, suppressing apoptosis and ameliorating oxidative lesions. These results suggested that D. officinale polysaccharides possessed antioxidant activity and mild immunostimulatory activity.

  16. Characterization and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides derived from Dendrobium tosaense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Chan; Lu, Ting-Jang; Hsieh, Chang-Chi; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2014-10-13

    Dendrobium tosaense is a medicinal Dendrobium species widely used in traditional medicine. This study demonstrated some structural characterizations and immunomodulatory activity of the water-soluble polysaccharides derived from the stem of D. tosaense (DTP). DTP was fractioned using DEAE-650 M anion-exchange gel filtration chromatography, producing one neutral polysaccharide fraction (DTP-N), which was investigated for its structural characteristics, using HPAEC-PAD, HP-SEC, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. DTP and DTP-N consisted of galactose, glucose, and mannose in ratios of 1:9.1:150.7 and 1:12.2:262.5, respectively. DTP-N comprised (1 → 4)Man as its main backbone, and its average molecular weight was 220 kDa. We also investigated the immunomodulatory effects of DTP administered orally to BALB/c mice for 3 weeks. DTP substantially boosted the population of splenic natural killer (NK) cells, NK cytotoxicity, macrophage phagocytosis, and cytokine induction in splenocytes. This is the first study to demonstrate the structural characteristics of an active polysaccharide derived from D. tosaense and its immunopharmacological effects in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of diferuloylated pectic polysaccharides from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa WILLD.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefers, Daniel; Gmeiner, Bianca M; Tyl, Catrin E; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-08-01

    In plants belonging to the order of Caryophyllales, pectic neutral side chains can be substituted with ferulic acid. The ability of ferulic acid to form intra- and/or intermolecular polysaccharide cross-links by dimerization was shown by the isolation and characterization of diferulic acid oligosaccharides from monocotyledonous plants. In this study, two diferulic acid oligosaccharides were isolated from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of seeds of the dicotyledonous pseudocereal quinoa by gel permeation chromatography and preparative HPLC and unambiguously identified by LC-MS(2) and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. The isolated oligosaccharides are comprised of 5-5- and 8-O-4-diferulic acid linked to the O2-position of the nonreducing residue of two (1→5)-linked arabinobioses. To get insight into the structure and the degree of phenolic acid substitution of the diferuloylated polysaccharides, polymeric sugar composition, glycosidic linkages, and polysaccharide-bound monomeric phenolic acids and diferulic acids were analyzed. This study demonstrates that diferulic acids are involved into intramolecular and/or intermolecular cross-linking of arabinan chains and may have a major impact on cell wall architecture of quinoa and other dicotyledonous plants of the order of Caryophyllales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunomodulatory activity and partial characterisation of polysaccharides from Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuan-Yuan; Yi, Yang; Zhang, Li-Fang; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Zhen-Cheng; Tang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ming-Wei

    2014-08-29

    Momordica charantia Linn. is used as an edible and medicinal vegetable in sub-tropical areas. Until now, studies on its composition and related activities have been confined to compounds of low molecular mass, and no data have been reported concerning the plant's polysaccharides. In this work, a crude polysaccharide of M. charantia (MCP) fruit was isolated by hot water extraction and then purified using DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography to produce two main fractions MCP1 and MCP2. The immunomodulatory effects and physicochemical characteristics of these fractions were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that intragastric administration of 150 or 300 mg·kg-·d⁻¹ of MCP significantly increased the carbolic particle clearance index, serum haemolysin production, spleen index, thymus index and NK cell cytotoxicity to normal control levels in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced immunosuppressed mice. Both MCP1 and MCP2 effectively stimulated normal and concanavalin A-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation in vitro at various doses. The average molecular weights of MCP1 and MCP2, which were measured using high-performance gel permeation chromatography, were 8.55×10⁴ Da and 4.41×10⁵ Da, respectively. Both fractions exhibited characteristic polysaccharide bands in their Fourier transform infrared spectrum. MCP1 is mainly composed of glucose and galactose, and MCP2 is mainly composed of glucose, mannose and galactose. The results indicate that MCP and its fractions have good potential as immunotherapeutic adjuvants.

  19. Immunomodulatory Activity and Partial Characterisation of Polysaccharides from Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Deng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia Linn. is used as an edible and medicinal vegetable in sub-tropical areas. Until now, studies on its composition and related activities have been confined to compounds of low molecular mass, and no data have been reported concerning the plant’s polysaccharides. In this work, a crude polysaccharide of M. charantia (MCP fruit was isolated by hot water extraction and then purified using DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography to produce two main fractions MCP1 and MCP2. The immunomodulatory effects and physicochemical characteristics of these fractions were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that intragastric administration of 150 or 300 mg·kg−·d−1 of MCP significantly increased the carbolic particle clearance index, serum haemolysin production, spleen index, thymus index and NK cell cytotoxicity to normal control levels in cyclophosphamide (Cy-induced immunosuppressed mice. Both MCP1 and MCP2 effectively stimulated normal and concanavalin A-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation in vitro at various doses. The average molecular weights of MCP1 and MCP2, which were measured using high-performance gel permeation chromatography, were 8.55 × 104 Da and 4.41 × 105 Da, respectively. Both fractions exhibited characteristic polysaccharide bands in their Fourier transform infrared spectrum. MCP1 is mainly composed of glucose and galactose, and MCP2 is mainly composed of glucose, mannose and galactose. The results indicate that MCP and its fractions have good potential as immunotherapeutic adjuvants.

  20. Effects of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. polysaccharides on the proliferation and cell cycle of chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liangliang; Ye, Hongzhi; Yu, Fangrong; Li, Huiting; Chen, Jiashou; Liu, Xianxiang

    2013-05-01

    It has been recently shown that polysaccharides isolated from plants exhibit a number of beneficial therapeutic properties. Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. has been widely used for the clinical treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in China. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of knee OA treatment have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. polysaccharides (BCBPs) on the proliferation and cell cycle of chondrocytes on 4-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats. Immunohistochemical staining was used to identify chondrocytes and an MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability. Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis. The mRNA and protein expression levels of cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6 in chondrocytes were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. The data demonstrate that BCBP treatment increased the viability of chondrocytes. In addition, BCBP treatment reduced the cell population in the G0/G1 phase, whereas the cell population was increased in the S phase. Furthermore, BCBP treatment enhanced the expression of cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6. These results indicate that BCBP treatment promotes cell proliferation by accelerating the G1/S transition.

  1. Isolation, purification and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from the leaves of maca (Lepidium Meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicai, Kang; Limin, Hao; Liming, Zhang; Zhiqiang, Zheng; Yongwu, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Two fractions of polysaccharides (MLP-1 and MLP-2) were extracted from the leaves of maca (Lepidium Meyenii Walp.) by water, and purified using DEAE-52 ion exchange resin and sephadex G-200 clumns chromatography. An investigation was carried out for their structural characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro. The results indicated that MLP-1 was mainly composed of ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose, with the molar ratio of 0.12:0.32:1.50:0.32:1.03:1.00:0.93; the MLP-2 was a homopolysaccharide composed of glucose. The molecular weight (Mw) of MLP-1 was 42756Da, and the Mw of MLP-2 was 93541Da. The FT-IR spectra showed the general characteristic absorption peak of maca leaf polysaccharides (MLPs). The evaluation of antioxidant activity revealed that MLP-1 had strong scavenging effects in vitro on hydroxyl, superoxide anion and DPPH radicals, whose EC 50 (mg/mL) was 0.44, 0.21, and 0.82, respectively. Both MLP-1 and MLP-2 presented dose-dependently positive effects on the antioxidant-related parameters. The results suggested that the purified MLP-1 displayed better antioxidant capacities than that of MLP-1, which could be explored as potential antioxidant agents for the complementary medicine or functional foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation and structure elucidation of pectic polysaccharide from rose hip fruits (Rosa canina L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognyanov, Manol; Remoroza, Connie; Schols, Henk A; Georgiev, Yordan; Kratchanova, Maria; Kratchanov, Christo

    2016-10-20

    A pectic polysaccharide from rose hip (RH) fruits has been obtained by extraction with 1% aqueous citric acid. It was found that the polysaccharide fraction mainly consisted of galacturonic acid (45.5%) next to galactose (5.5%) and arabinose (4.7%). RH pectin is having a relatively high degree of methylesterification (62%) and acetylation (10%) and consists of different molecular weight populations in the range of 10-100kDa. Enzymatic fingerprinting was performed using a combination of pectin lyase (PL) and endo-polygalacturonase. Detailed information about the structure and level of galacturonic acid oligomers released was obtained using LC-HILIC-MS/ELSD and HPAEC. Predominantly, unsaturated and methyl-esterified oligomers (DP 3-5) were released indicating that high proportions of methylesterified 'PL degradable' areas were present within the pectin. The data revealed that homogalacturonan is the main building block of the extracted pectin and consists of long methylesterified/acetylated GalA sequences interspersed with small blocks of non-methyl-esterified GalA units. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A medically relevant capsular polysaccharide in Acinetobacter baumannii is a potential vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng-Ling; Lou, Tze-Chi; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Wu, Wan-Ling; Chern, Jeffy; Lee, Yi-Tzu; Chen, Shui-Tsung; Zou, Wei; Lin, Nien-Tsung; Wu, Shih-Hsiung

    2017-03-07

    Concerns of Acinetobacter baumannii infection have increased due to the emergence of multi-drug resistance. In the present study, we determined the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) structure of A. baumannii SK44, a clinical isolate from Taiwan, to consist of pentasaccharide repeats. We found that CPS-induced antibody provided 55% protection against challenge in an animal model. The CPS-specific antibody reacted with the surface components of about 62% clinical isolates (342/554 strains) from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies by dot-immunoassay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of positive strains showed the antibody covered different clonalites of A. baumannii clinical isolates. Meanwhile, using the CPS antibody as a probe, we found a number of outer membrane proteins bound to the antibody, including OmpA/motB, TonB-dependent receptor, and Omp38, indicating their association with CPS. These results might lead to the use of the capsular polysaccharide as a vaccine to prevent A. baumannii infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Polysaccharide-Based Materials Associated with or Coordinated to Gold Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Medical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Débora P; da Cruz, Joziel A; Bonafé, Elton G; Pereira, Antonio G B; Fajardo, André R; Venter, Sandro A S; Monteiro, Johny P; Muniz, Edvani C; Martins, Alessandro F

    2017-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have enormous potential for application in imaging, diagnosis, and therapies in the medical field. AuNPs are renowned for their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties, large surface area, and biocompatibility with body fluids. Further, AuNPs have featured prominently in new methodologies for cancer treatments, like photothermal and imaging therapies. Although AuNPs present enormous potential for application in the medical field, their instability under physiological conditions prevents further uses. However, this limitation may be overcome by associating AuNPs with biopolymers. To the best of our knowledge, a revision paper rationalizing the structure/property relationship and applications of AuNPspolysaccharide composites in the medical field has not been published yet. This manuscript discusses the most relevant aspects and state-of-art concepts surrounding the synthesis of AuNPs based on green chemistry and their association with polysaccharides that can efficiently function both as stabilizing and reducing agents of Au nanoparticles. Even more, polysaccharide devices may inhibit non-specific interactions between AuNPs and biological macromolecules, suppressing unsuitable "protein corona" formations on AuNP surfaces, thereby increasing the potential of AuNP composites of being employing as drug delivery matrices and wound-healing devices as well as in photothermal/ imaging purposes for cancer treatments and biosensors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Xylose-rich polysaccharides from the primary walls of embryogenic cell line of Pinus caribaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, A; Domon, J M; David, H; Joseleau, J P

    1997-08-01

    Embryogenic cell lines of Pinus caribaea were isolated from somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos. Previous studies showed that the proteins and glycoproteins were characteristic of the embryogenic state. In the present work we were seeking typical feature in the polysaccharide from the cell walls of embryogenic calli at nine days of culture. Sequential extraction with water, ammonium oxalate, dimethyl sulfoxide, sodium borohydride and 4.3 M potassium hydroxide revealed that the extracted polysaccharides contained high proportions of arabinose and significant amounts of xylose. Fractionation of the hydrosoluble polymers on DEAE cellulose afforded a xylose-rich fraction (80% xylose, 24% glucose and lower properties of fucose and mannose). Methylation analysis and 13C-NMR spectra showed that the glycan backbone consisted of beta 1 --> 4 linked xylosyl residues Similar study of the fractions extracted respectively with DMSO and 4.3 M KOH showed the presence of polydisperse glycoxylans but excluded the presence of xyloglucan in significant amount. This could be a characteristic feature of embryogenic cells walls of Pinus caribaea or could be typical of cells grown as calluses. In the various fractions obtained from DEAE cellulose chromatography of the alkaline extract the infrequent occurrence of fucoxylans beside an arabinogalactan showed again the unusual nature of the cell wall polymers of this embryogenic lines, which seems to differ greatly from those found in the primary wall of cells from suspension cultures.

  6. Safety Evaluation of Turmeric Polysaccharide Extract: Assessment of Mutagenicity and Acute Oral Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusami, Chandrasekaran Chinampudur; Boddapati, Srinivasa Rao; Hongasandra Srinivasa, Srikanth; Richard, Edwin Jothie; Balasubramanian, Murali

    2013-01-01

    Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae) commonly known as turmeric has long been used for centuries as a spice and household remedy. The present study was carried out to assess the possible mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of polysaccharide extract of turmeric rhizome (NR-INF-02) using standard tests. The standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests, bacterial reverse mutation test (BRMT), chromosome aberration (CA), and micronucleus (MN) tests were employed to assess the possible mutagenic activity of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin). The results showed no mutagenic effect with NR-INF-02 up to a dose of 5000 µg/mL in BRMT. The results on CA and MN tests revealed the non clastogenic activity of NR-INF-02 in a dose range of 250.36 to 2500 µg/mL with and without metabolic activation (S9). In acute oral toxicity study, NR-INF-02 was found to be safe up to 5 g/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Overall, results indicated that polysaccharide extract of C. longa was found to be genotoxically safe and also exhibited maximum tolerable dose of more than 5 g/kg rat body weight. PMID:24455673

  7. Structural characterization and immunomodulatory activity of a pectic polysaccharide (CALB-4) from Fructus aurantii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zunpeng; Yang, Yanni; Xing, Na; Wang, Yi; Wang, Qiuhong; Kuang, Haixue

    2018-02-01

    A purified polysaccharide, designated CALB-4, was acquired from Fructus aurantii that is the traditional edible/medicina plant in China. The present study was performed to characterize the CALB-4 and to evaluate its immunomodulatory activities on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The structure of CALB-4 was characterized by partial acid hydrolysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, and methylation analysis combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that CALB-4 was elucidated as a pectic polysaccharide and its main chain is composed of Man, Gal UA and Gal, interspersed with Ara, Rha, Man and Gal. Furthermore, immunological tests showed that CALB-4 exhibits the immunoenhancement effects. The mechanism for this action might be attributed to the increase of the cytoplasmic concentration of pro-IL-1 via the up-regulation of several mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the nuclear translocation of p65. This study clarified that CALB-4 could be as an efficacious biological response modifier in immunotherapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. A Direct Sulfation Process of a Marine Polysaccharide in Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Chopin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available GY785 is an exopolysaccharide produced by a mesophilic bacterial strain Alteromonas infernus discovered in the deep-sea hydrothermal vents. GY785 highly sulfated derivative (GY785 DRS was previously demonstrated to be a promising molecule driving the efficient mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis for cartilage repair. This glycosaminoglycan- (GAG- like compound was modified in a classical solvent (N,N′-dimethylformamide. However, the use of classical solvents limits the polysaccharide solubility and causes the backbone degradation. In the present study, a one-step efficient sulfation process devoid of side effects (e.g., polysaccharide depolymerization and/or degradation was developed to produce GAG-like derivatives. The sulfation of GY785 derivative (GY785 DR was carried out using ionic liquid as a reaction medium. The successful sulfation of this anionic and highly branched heteropolysaccharide performed in ionic liquid would facilitate the production of new molecules of high specificity for biological targets such as tissue engineering or regenerative medicine.

  9. The effective mechanism of the polysaccharides from Panax ginseng on chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Sun, Chengxin; Zheng, Yan; Pan, Hongling; Zhou, Yifa; Fan, Yuying

    2014-04-01

    Ginseng acidic polysaccharide WGPA isolated from the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer was fractionated into WGPA-A and WGPA-N by anion-exchange chromatography. The antifatigue activity of ginseng acidic polysaccharide WGPA has been reported in our previous research. This present study was designed to identify its active component and elucidate the mechanism for preventing chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). WGPA, WGPA-A and WGPA-N were orally administered to mice once daily for 15 days. The effects of these compounds on physiological biomarkers of oxidative stress and on the morphology of the mitochondria in striated skeletal muscle were assessed. The results of forced swimming test-induced indicated that WGPA and WGPA-A could lengthen the swimming time, while WGPA-N could not. In addition, malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase levels in serum were enhanced; while those of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were lowered. Interestingly, the structural degeneration of mitochondria were all ameliorated. These findings suggested that WGPA-A is the active component of WGPA, it might have potential therapeutic effects for CFS and the oxidative stress might be involved in the pathogenesis. Our results also provided essential data for a better understanding of the antifatigue effects of P. ginseng extracts.

  10. Effects of selenylation modification on immune-enhancing activity of garlic polysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulei Qiu

    Full Text Available The garlic polysaccharide was modified by HNO3-Na2SeO3 method according to orthogonal design L9(3(4 to obtain nine selenizing garlic polysaccharides, sGPS1-sGPS9. Their effects on chicken peripheral lymphocytes proliferation in vitro were compared by MTT assay. The results showed that sGPSs could significantly promote lymphocytes proliferation, sGPS3, sGPS5 and sGPS6 presented stronger efficacy. In vivo experiment, 14-day-old chickens were injected respectively with sGPS3, sGPS5 and sGPS6 when they were vaccinated with ND vaccine taking unmodified GPS as control. The results showed that three sGPSs could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation, enhance serum antibody titer, IFN-γ and IL-2 contents. These results indicated that selenylation modification could significantly enhance the immune-enhancing activity of GPS, sGPS6 possessed the best efficacy and could be as a candidate drug of immunoenhancer. Its optimal modification conditions were 400 mg of sodium selenite for 500 mg of GPS, reaction temperature of 70°C and reaction time of 6 h.

  11. Insights into physicochemical and functional properties of polysaccharides sequentially extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan-Ye; Ma, Yi-Long; Wang, Cai-Hong; Wang, Hao; Ren, Ya-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Thakur, Kiran; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2017-12-01

    Onion polysaccharides (ACLP) were sequentially extracted with four different solvents (hot buffer, chelating agent, dilute alkaline and concentrated alkaline) and obtained four fractions, named as HBSS, CHSS, DASS and CASS, respectively. The present studies characterized the ACLP concerning its physicochemical and functional properties. Monosaccharides analysis revealed that mannose (81.68%) was the dominant sugar in HBSS and galactose (67.59%) was the most in CASS. Similarly, CHSS and DASS possessed mannose and galactose as major sugar, which were 25.80% and 31.37%, 20.33% and 33.96%, respectively. The obtained molecular weight of ACLPs were 7.702×10 3 (HBSS), 4.690×10 3 (CHSS), 4.943×10 3 (DASS) and 1.390×10 3 kDa (CASS). CASS resulted in the strongest solubility, fat-binding capacity, foam capacity and foam stability whereas, HBSS showed the highest thermal stability. DASS showed the best hygroscopicity and the best moisture retention was obtained by CHSS. Subsequently, the emulsifying activity and emulsifying stability were the highest for HBSS and the longest for of CASS, respectively. The rheological properties of CHSS exhibited the largest viscosity. Our results indicated that all factions could be considered as functional polysaccharides according to their respective characteristics, which have vast potential in food production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preliminary Characterization, Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Polysaccharides from Taishan Pinus massoniana Pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changming Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to characterize the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effect of the polysaccharides from Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen (TPPPS. HPLC analysis showed that TPPPS was an acidic heteropolysaccharide with glucose and arabinose as the main component monosaccharides (79.6%, molar percentage. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analysis indicated that the spectra of TPPPS displayed infrared absorption peaks characteristic of polysaccharides. In in vitro assays TPPPS exhibited different degrees of dose-dependent antioxidant activities , and this was further verified by suppression of CCl4-induced oxidative stress in the liver with three tested doses of TPPPS (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg bw in rats. Pretreatment with TPPPS significantly decreased the levels of alanine aminotransferase (AST, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH and malondialdehyde (MDA against CCl4 injuries, and elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD as well as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px. Histopathological observation further confirmed that TPPPS could protect the liver tissues from CCl4-induced histological alternation. These results suggest that TPPPS has strong antioxidant activities and significant protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4. The hepatoprotective effect may partly be related to its free radical scavenging effect, increasing antioxidant activity and inhibiting lipid peroxidation.

  13. Effect of extraction methods on property and bioactivity of water-soluble polysaccharides from Amomum villosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yajuan; Li, Xia; Wan, Mianjie; Chen, Jingping; Li, Shijie; Cao, Man; Zhang, Danyan

    2015-03-06

    In the present study, effect of different extraction methods on property and bioactivity of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) from the seeds of Amomum villosum were investigated. Firstly, four different extraction methods were used to extract WSP, which include hot water extraction (HWE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE). As a result, four WSP samples, WSP(H), WSP(U), WSP(M) and WSP(E) were acquired. Then, the difference of four WSP samples in yield, characterization and antioxidant activities in vitro were further compared. Experimental results showed that the four WSP samples had the same monosaccharide composition, but mere difference in the content; they all had typical IR spectra characteristic of polysaccharides. WSP(U) contained the highest contents of uronic acid and sulfate. The yield of WSP(U) was the highest and its antioxidant activity was the best. These results suggested that ultrasonic-assisted extraction was the best extraction method for WSP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Manipulation and Characterization of Alginate Exo polysaccharides produced by Azotobacter Vinelandii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bialy, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Exo polysaccharides (EPS) have been found in a wide range of applications in food industry and in the biomedical field. In the present study, the effect of nutritional factors (carbon and nitrogen sources) and gamma irradiations on alginate production by Azotobacter vinelandii was investigated. To understand the direct and indirect relations among these variables, a two way factorial design experiment was set up. At low concentration of carbon source (≤ 20 g/l), the alginate yield was influenced by the type of nitrogen substrate and C/N ratio, whereas the role of these factors on alginate production was minimized at high concentration of carbon source (> 20 g/l). Batch fermentation of alginate exo polysaccharides was manipulated by maintaining the ph value of the cultures at 7 along the incubation period and reducing the agitation speed to 100 rpm after 24 h at the time of inoculation. This process succeeded to increase the alginate yield exponentially with time by 50%. Exposing A. vinelandii cells to gamma irradiation at dose level 0.5 kGy decreased their activity to synthesis alginate by 44%. The produced alginate was characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC).

  15. Polysaccharide peptide induces a tumor necrosis factor-α-dependent drop of body temperature in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzejewski, Tomasz; Piotrowski, Jakub; Wrotek, Sylwia; Kozak, Wieslaw

    2014-08-01

    Polysaccharide peptide (PSP) extracted from the Coriolus versicolor mushroom is frequently suggested as an adjunct to the chemo- or radiotherapy in cancer patients. It improves quality of the patients' life by decreasing pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. However, the effect of PSP on body temperature has not thus far been studied, although it is well known that treatment with other polysaccharide adjuvants, such as lipopolysaccharides, may induce fever. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate the influence of PSP on temperature regulation in rats. We report that intraperitoneal injection of PSP provoked a dose-dependent decrease of temperature in male Wistar rats equipped with biotelemetry devices to monitor deep body temperature (Tb). The response was rapid (i.e., with latency of 15-20min), transient (lasting up to 5h post-injection), and accompanied by a significant elevation of the blood tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level. Pretreatment of the rats with anti-TNF-α antibody prevented the PSP-induced drop in Tb. Based on these data, we conclude that rats may develop an anapyrexia-like response to the injection of peptidopolysaccharide rather than fever, and the response was TNF-α-dependent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Metagenomics of the Svalbard reindeer rumen microbiome reveals abundance of polysaccharide utilization loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip B Pope

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass remains a largely untapped source of renewable energy predominantly due to its recalcitrance and an incomplete understanding of how this is overcome in nature. We present here a compositional and comparative analysis of metagenomic data pertaining to a natural biomass-converting ecosystem adapted to austere arctic nutritional conditions, namely the rumen microbiome of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus. Community analysis showed that deeply-branched cellulolytic lineages affiliated to the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes are dominant, whilst sequence binning methods facilitated the assemblage of metagenomic sequence for a dominant and novel Bacteroidales clade (SRM-1. Analysis of unassembled metagenomic sequence as well as metabolic reconstruction of SRM-1 revealed the presence of multiple polysaccharide utilization loci-like systems (PULs as well as members of more than 20 glycoside hydrolase and other carbohydrate-active enzyme families targeting various polysaccharides including cellulose, xylan and pectin. Functional screening of cloned metagenome fragments revealed high cellulolytic activity and an abundance of PULs that are rich in endoglucanases (GH5 but devoid of other common enzymes thought to be involved in cellulose degradation. Combining these results with known and partly re-evaluated metagenomic data strongly indicates that much like the human distal gut, the digestive system of herbivores harbours high numbers of deeply branched and as-yet uncultured members of the Bacteroidetes that depend on PUL-like systems for plant biomass degradation.

  17. Adsorption of histones on natural polysaccharides: The potential as agent for multiple organ failure in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Takashi; Kofuji, Kyoko; Okada, Kenji; Fujimori, Junya; Murata, Mikio; Shigeyama, Masato; Hanioka, Nobumitsu; Murata, Yoshifumi

    2016-03-01

    Histones are intracellular proteins that are structural elements of nuclear chromatin and regulate gene transcription. However, the extracellular histones released in response to bacterial challenges have been identified as mediators contributing to endothelial dysfunction, organ failure, and death during sepsis. In the present study, the adsorption of histones as well as plasma proteins (α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), albumin, and γ-globulin) on alginic acid, pectin, dextran, and chitosan was examined in order to evaluate the potential of natural polysaccharides as therapeutic agents for multiple organ failure in sepsis. Alginic acid and pectin strongly adsorbed histones, whereas the adsorption abilities of dextran and chitosan toward histones were very low or negligible. Among the natural polysaccharides examined, only alginic acid did not adsorb any of the plasma proteins. These results demonstrated that alginic acid strongly adsorbed histones, but not plasma proteins; therefore, it has potential as a candidate drug for the treatment of multiple organ failure in sepsis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effects of tree species on polysaccharides content of epiphytic Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying-Ying; Zhu, Yan; Si, Jin-Ping; Liu, Jing-Jing; Wu, Cheng-Yong; Li, Hui

    2014-11-01

    To reveals the effects of tree species on polysaccharides content of epiphytic Dendrobium officinale. The polysaccharides content of D. officinale attached to living tress in wild or stumps in bionic-facility was determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method. There were extremely significant differences of polysaccharides content of D. officinale attached to different tree species, but the differences had no relationship with the form and nutrition of barks. The polysaccharides content of D. officinale mainly affected by the light intensity of environment, so reasonable illumination favored the accumulation of polysaccharides. Various polysaccharides content of D. officinal from different attached trees is due to the difference of light regulation, but not the form and nutrition of barks.

  19. Effect of Content of Sulfate Groups in Seaweed Polysaccharides on Antioxidant Activity and Repair Effect of Subcellular Organelles in Injured HK-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tao Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the repair effect of subcellular structure injuries of the HK-2 cells of four degraded seaweed polysaccharides (DSPs, namely, the degraded Porphyra yezoensis, Gracilaria lemaneiformis, Sargassum fusiform, and Undaria pinnatifida polysaccharides. The four DSPs have similar molecular weight, but with different content of sulfate groups (i.e., 17.9%, 13.3%, 8.2%, and 5.5%, resp.. The damaged model was established using 2.8 mmol/L oxalate to injure HK-2 cells, and 60 μg/mL of various DSPs was used to repair the damaged cells. With the increase of sulfate group content in DSPs, the scavenging activity of radicals and their reducing power were all improved. Four kinds of DSPs have repair effect on the subcellular organelles of damaged HK-2 cells. After being repaired by DSPs, the release amount of lactate dehydrogenase was decreased, the integrity of cell membrane and lysosome increased, the Δψm increased, the cell of G1 phase arrest was inhibited, the proportion of S phase increased, and cell apoptotic and necrosis rates were significantly reduced. The greater the content of sulfate group is, the stronger is the repair ability of the polysaccharide. These DSPs, particularly the polysaccharide with higher sulfate group content, may be a potential drug for the prevention and cure of kidney stones.

  20. A comparison study between different molecular weight polysaccharides derived from Lentinus edodes and their antioxidant activities in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ruxu; Wang, Kaiping; Liu, Jinyu; Liu, Maochang; Luo, Li; Zhang, Yu

    2011-12-01

    Polysaccharide purified Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing (Tricholomataceae) has been reported to attenuate oxidative stress in vitro. This study investigated whether polysaccharides from L. edodes with different molecular weight have protective effects against oxidative stress induced by D-galactose (D-gal) in vivo, and determined the specific relationship between molecular weight and antioxidant activity. In the present study, we successfully obtained three purified polysaccharides, coded as LT1, LT2, and LT3, and their molecular weights were 25.5, 306.2, and 605.4 kDa, respectively. The D-gal-treated mice received three polysaccharides once daily for 60 days. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), and erythrocyte membrane fluidity were measured to evaluate the changes of the antioxidant ability. It was demonstrated that the administration of LT1, LT2, and LT3 could improve the antioxidant status to different levels. Furthermore, LT2 exhibited the highest antioxidant ability among these samples in vivo. Indeed, LT2 significantly decreased the content of MDA in liver (15.91 ± 0.31 versus 23.79 ± 1.18 nmol/mg protein for the model group, p < 0.05), enhanced the fluidity of erythrocyte membrane (2.458 ± 0.023 versus 2.167 ± 0.024 for the model group, p < 0.05), and increased the activities of SOD (147.19 ± 4.90 versus 82.26 ± 5.55 units/mg protein for the model group, p < 0.05) and GSH-Px (310.91 ± 6.24 versus 243.64 ± 6.77 units/mg protein for the model group, p < 0.05) in liver. The LT2 had a potential to be used as a novel natural antioxidant.

  1. Bringing Computers into College and University Teaching. Papers Presented at a Symposium Held under the Auspices of the Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia (Canberra, Australia, November 19, 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Allen H., Ed.; Ogilvie, John F., Ed.

    The use of computers in higher education teaching programs is discussed in 16 papers and reports. Applications of computers in teaching particular subjects including prehistory and anthropology, mathematics, Hindi, plant science, chemistry, language, medicine, drawing, statistics, and engineering are discussed in 10 of the contributions. The other…

  2. Chemical Methods for the Determination of Soluble and Insoluble Non-Starch Polysaccharides - Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica Căpriţă; Adrian Căpriţă

    2011-01-01

    Polysaccharides are macromolecules of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds. Non-starch polysaccharides(NSP) are principally non-α-glucan polysaccharides of the plant cell wall. They are a heterogeneous group ofpolysaccharides with varying degrees of water solubility, size, and structure. The water insoluble fiber fractioninclude cellulose, galactomannans, xylans, xyloglucans, and lignin, while the water-soluble fibers are the pectins,arabinogalactans, arabinoxylans, and β-(1,3)(1,4)-D-g...

  3. Determination of polysaccharide yield from the fruiting bodies and mycelium of selected mushroom species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaiful Azuar Mohamad; Mat Rasol Awang

    2006-01-01

    Numerous polysaccharides and polysaccharides-protein complexes have been isolated from mushrooms and used as a source of therapeutic agents. The mycelium of Pleurotus sajor caju, Pleurotus tuber-regium, black ganoderma, and the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus sajor caju and Pleurotus florida were used to determine the percentage of polysaccharides obtained from the mushroom raw material. Hot water extraction method was used followed by refrigerated centrifuge and lyophilization. The yield from the various species will be compared. (Author)

  4. Delivery presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - delivery presentation; Labor - delivery presentation; Occiput posterior; Occiput anterior; Brow presentation ... The mother can walk, rock, and try different delivery positions during labor to help encourage the baby ...

  5. Optimization of extracellular polysaccharide production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-11-26

    Nov 26, 2014 ... textiles, detergents, adhesives, cosmetics, pharmaceu- ticals, food additives ... Isolation and identification of EPS producing halophilic bacteria ..... The present study lead to the optimization of key culture conditions with CCD ...

  6. Effect of commercial mannoprotein addition on polysaccharide, polyphenolic, and color composition in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén

    2008-10-08

    Commercially available mannoprotein preparations were tested in Tempranillo winemaking to determine their influence on polysaccharide, polyphenolic, and color composition. No effect was found in the content of grape arabinogalactans, homogalacturonans, and type II rhamnogalacturonans. In contrast, mannoprotein-treated samples showed considerably higher values of high-molecular-weight mannoproteins (bMP) than controls from the beginning of alcoholic fermentation, although these differences diminished as vinification progressed. The bMP decrease observed in the mannoprotein-treated samples coincided with a substantial reduction in their proanthocyanidin content and wine stable color, suggesting a precipitation of the coaggregates mannoprotein-tannin and mannoprotein-pigment. Contrary to what is widely described, these results revealed that at the studied conditions, mannoproteins did not act as stabilizing colloids. Mannoprotein addition did not modify the content and composition of either monomeric anthocyanins or other monomeric phenolics, and it did not affect monomeric anthocyanin color.

  7. Dual stimuli polysaccharide nanovesicles for conjugated and physically loaded doxorubicin delivery in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, P. S.; Shah, Ruchira; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2015-04-01

    The present work reports the development of pH and enzyme dual responsive polysaccharide vesicular nano-scaffolds for the administration of doxorubicin via physical loading and polymer-drug conjugation to breast cancer cells. Dextran was suitably modified with a renewable resource 3-pentadecyl phenol unit through imine and aliphatic ester chemical linkages that acted as pH and esterase enzyme stimuli, respectively. These dual responsive polysaccharide derivatives self-organized into 200 +/- 10 nm diameter nano-vesicles in water. The water soluble anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX.HCl) was encapsulated in the hydrophilic pocket to produce core-loaded polysaccharide vesicles whereas chemical conjugation produced DOX anchored at the hydrophobic layer of the dextran nano-vesicles. In vitro studies revealed that about 70-80% of the drug was retained under circulatory conditions at pH = 7.4 and 37 °C. At a low pH of 6.0 to 5.0 and in the presence of esterase; both imine and ester linkages were cleaved instantaneously to release 100% of the loaded drugs. Cytotoxicity assays on Wild Type Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (WTMEFs) confirmed the non-toxicity of the newly developed dextran derivatives at up to 500 μg mL-1 in PBS. MTT assays on fibroblast cells revealed that DOX.HCl loaded nano-vesicles exhibited better killing abilities than DOX conjugated polymer nano-vesicles. Both DOX loaded and DOX conjugated nano-vesicles were found to show significant killing in breast cancer cells (MCF 7). Confocal microscopy images confirmed the uptake of DOX loaded (or conjugated) nano-vesicles by cells compared to free DOX. Thus, the newly developed pH and enzyme dual responsive polysaccharide vesicular assemblies are potential drug vectors for the administration of DOX in both loaded and chemically conjugated forms for the efficient killing of breast cancer cells.The present work reports the development of pH and enzyme dual responsive polysaccharide vesicular nano-scaffolds for the

  8. Bauhinia championi (Benth.) Benth. polysaccharides upregulate Wnt/β-catenin signaling in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiting; Li, Xihai; Liu, Guozhong; Chen, Jiashou; Weng, Xiaping; Liu, Fayuan; Xu, Huifeng; Liu, Xianxiang; Ye, Hongzhi

    2013-12-01

    Bauhinia championi (Benth.) Benth. polysaccharides (BCBPs), extracted from Bauhinia championi (Benth.) Benth., which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA), are the bioactive constituents of Bauhinia championi (Benth.) rattan. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for their effects on OA are poorly understood. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in the proliferation of chondrocytes. In the present study, the effects of BCBPs on Wnt/β-catenin signaling in chondrocytes were investigated. BCBPs were obtained by hot-water extraction and identified by the modified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Chondrocytes were isolated from the knees of Sprague‑Dawley rats and identified by type II collagen immunohistochemistry. The chondrocytes were treated with or without BCBPs for 48 h. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. The mRNA and protein levels of Wnt-4, β-catenin, Frizzled-2, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, cyclin D1 and collagen II were detected by western blot analysis and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. We found that the BCBPs contained at least seven monosaccharides, including D-mannose, rhamnose, D-(+) glucuronic acid, D-(+) galacturonic acid, D-glucose, galactose and arabinose. The cell viability of the chondrocytes treated with 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml BCBPs was significantly higher than that of the chondroctyes in the control group (treated with 0 µg/ml BCBPs). Furthermore, compared with the control group, the mRNA and protein expression of Wnt-4, β-catenin, Frizzled-2 and cyclin D1 in the BCBP-treated groups markedly increased, whereas the mRNA and protein expression of GSK-3β significantly decreased. Of note, the dose of 100 µg/ml BCBPs was more effective than the dose of 50 µg/ml BCBPs and 200 µg/ml BCBPs. In addition, we found that treatment with BCBPs upregulated the protein levels of collagen II in the

  9. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Ariela; Oshrat, Levy-Ontman

    2015-10-20

    Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides' antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains' interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca(2+) had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides' stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites.

  10. [Relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Teng, Jianbei; Cai, Yi; Liang, Jie; Zhu, Yilin; Wei, Tao

    2011-12-01

    To find out the relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii. Microscopy-counting process was applied to starch quantity statistics, sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetry was used to assay polysaccharides content and bromocresol green colorimetry was used to assay alkaloid content. Pearson product moment correlation analysis, Kendall's rank correlation analysis and Spearman's concordance coefficient analysis were applied to study their relativity. Extremely significant positive correlation was found between starch quantity and polysaccharides content, and significant negative correlation between alkaloid content and starch quantity was discovered, as well was between alkaloid content and polysaccharides content.

  11. The comparison of antioxidative and hepatoprotective activities of Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (CP) and sulfated CP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cui; Chen, Jin; Li, Entao; Fan, Qiang; Wang, Deyun; Li, Peng; Li, Xiuping; Chen, Xingying; Qiu, Shulei; Gao, Zhenzhen; Li, Hongquan; Hu, Yuanliang

    2015-02-01

    Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (CP) was extracted, purified and modified by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method to obtain a sulfated CP (sCP). Their antioxidative activities in vitro were compared through the free radical-scavenging test. The results demonstrated that the scavenging capabilities of sCP were significantly stronger than those of CP. In vivo test, the mice hepatic injury model was prepared by BCG/LPS method, then administrated respectively with sCP and CP at three dosages, the biochemical indexes in serum, antioxidative indexes in liver homogenate and histopathological change in liver of the mice were compared. The results showed that in high (200mg/kg) and middle (150mg/kg) dosages of sCP groups, the contents of ALT, AST and TNF-α in serum and MDA in liver homogenate were significantly lower than those in the model group and numerically lower than those in the CP groups, the activities of SOD and GSH-Px in liver homogenate were significantly higher than those in the model group and numerically higher than those in the CP groups. In the model group there were obvious pathological changes in the liver, while in the sCP groups were near normal. These results indicate that sCP and CP possess antioxidative activity in vitro and in vivo, the activity of sCP is stronger than that of CP and sulfation modification can enhance the antioxidative and hepatoprotective activities of Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Water-Soluble Polysaccharides from Tuber indicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Yan, Liang; Tang, Yuanlin; Ding, Xiang; Yang, Zhirong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Crude water-soluble Chinese truffle Tuber indicum polysaccharide (TIP) was extracted from the fruiting bodies with water and then successively purified by DEAE–cellulose 52 and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography, yielding two major polysaccharide fractions: TIP1-1 and TIP2-1. High-performance gel permeation chromatography analysis showed that the average molecular sizes of TIP1-1 and TIP2-1 were approximately 1.75×104 Da and 5.73×103 Da, respectively. Monosaccharide component analysis by gas chromatography indicated that TIP1-1 was composed of mannose, glucose, galactose, and rhamannose in the respective molar ratio of 3.93:1.24:0.75:1.26 and that TIP2-1 contained mannose, glucose, and arabinose in the respective molar ratio of 5.27:1.44:0.43. The antioxidant activity analyses revealed that TIP1-1 and TIP2-1 possessed considerable antioxidant activity. Compared with TIP1-1, which has a higher molecular weight and contains no uronic acid, TIP2-1 exhibited a protective effect on PC12 cells injured by H2O2 and a higher scavenging activity against free radicals. The relative effects of the lower molecular size, the presence of uronic acid, and the antioxidant activity of TIP2-1 appear to be significant. Accordingly, the Chinese truffle T. indicum might serve as an effective antioxidative healthcare food and source of natural antioxidants. PMID:21877953

  13. Antihepatotoxic efficacy of Mangifera indica L. polysaccharides against cyclophosphamide in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Sohair R; Amien, Ahmed I; Abd-Elgleel, Fathi M; Elaskalany, Sara M

    2016-01-25

    The present study aims to evaluate the possible protective role of polysaccharides extracted from the Egyptian mango Mangifera indica L. (MPS) and/or silymarine against cyclophosphamide (CP) toxicity in male albino rats. The MPS and/or silymarin significantly decreased the activities of serum ASAT and ALAT. However, MPS (1000 mg/kg) normalized their activities towards the normal levels recording 28.75 and 78.75 U/ml respectively. The recorded data also showed the antioxidant effect of MPS by decreasing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increasing the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as normalized the activities of the antioxidant enzyme GST and SOD. Histopathological examinations also confirmed the protective efficacy of MPS against liver toxicity of CP. In conclusion, the recorded results of the present study support the protective role of MPS and/or silymarin against CP-induced hepatic damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aqueous extracts and polysaccharides from Marshmallow roots (Althea officinalis L.): cellular internalisation and stimulation of cell physiology of human epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, Alexandra; Zippel, Janina; Hellenbrand, Nils; Pappai, Dirk; Possemeyer, Cathleen; Hensel, Andreas

    2010-01-08

    Aqueous extracts from the roots of Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) are widely used for treatment of irritated mucosa. The clinical proven effects are related to the presence of bioadhesive and mucilaginous polysaccharides from the rhamnogalacturonan type, leading to the physical formation of mucin-like on top of the irritated tissues. No data are available if the extracts or the polysaccharides from these extract exert an active influence on mucosal or connective tissue cells, in order to initiated changes in cell physiology, useful for better tissue regeneration. In vitro investigations of aqueous A. officinalis extract AE and raw polysaccharides (RPS) on epithelial KB cells and primary dermal human fibroblasts (pNHF) using WST1 vitality test and BrdU proliferation ELISA. Gene expression analysis by microarray from KB cells. Internalisation studies of polysaccharides were performed by laser scanning microscopy. AE (1, 10 microg/mL) had stimulating effect on cell viability and proliferation of epithelial KB cells. RPS (1, 10 microg/mL) stimulated cell vitality of epithelial cells significantly without triggering the cells into higher proliferation status. Neither AE nor RPS had any effect on fibroblasts. FITC-labeled RPS was shown to be internalised into epithelial cells, but not into fibroblasts. FITC-RPS was shown to form bioadhesive layers on the cell surface of dermal fibroblasts. Microarray analysis indicated an up-regulation of genes related to cell adhesion proteins, growth regulators, extracellular matrix, cytokine release and apoptosis. Aqueous extracts and polysaccharides from the roots of A. officinalis are effective stimulators of cell physiology of epithelial cells which can prove the traditional use of Marshmallow preparations for treatment of irritated mucous membranes within tissue regeneration. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of intracellular selenium-enriched polysaccharides from thin stillage by Cordyceps sinensis and its bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengli; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Thin stillage was used as the substrate to produce intracellular selenium-enriched polysaccharides (ISPS) from Cordyceps sinensis to increase the value of agricultural coproducts. Fermentation parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to improve the production of ISPS. Then, the effects of ISPS on the antioxidant activities in vitro, as well as the glycosylated serum protein concentration, malondialdehyde level, and total antioxidant capacity of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were studied. The optimized conditions were as follows: sodium selenite concentration, 33.78 µg/L; incubation time, 8.24 days; and incubation temperature, 26.69°C. A maximum yield of 197.35 mg/g ISPS was obtained from the validation experiments, which was quite close to the predicted maximum yield of 198.6839 mg/g. FT-IR spectra indicated that ISPS has been successfully selenylation modified with similar structure to polysaccharide of intracellular polysaccharides. The in vitro scavenging effects of 1.0 mg/mL ISPS on hydroxyl, superoxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals were 74.62±4.05, 71.45±3.63, and 79.48±4.75%, respectively. The reducing power of ISPS was 0.45±0.01 (absorbance at 700 nm). Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated serum protein of group C (rats with diabetes that received drinking water with ISPS) were significantly lower than those of group B (rats with diabetes) (P<0.01) after treatment was administered for 2 and 4 weeks. Serum malonaldehyde content of group C was significantly lower than that of group B at 4 weeks (P<0.01). At 4 weeks, malonaldehyde contents in heart, liver, and kidney tissues of group C were significantly lower than those of group B; however, malonaldehyde content in pancreas tissue of group C was not significantly different. Total antioxidant capacities in liver, pancreas and kidney tissues of group C were significantly higher than those of group B, but total antioxidant capacity in heart tissue was not

  16. Production of intracellular selenium-enriched polysaccharides from thin stillage by Cordyceps sinensis and its bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengli Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thin stillage was used as the substrate to produce intracellular selenium-enriched polysaccharides (ISPS from Cordyceps sinensis to increase the value of agricultural coproducts. Methods: Fermentation parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM to improve the production of ISPS. Then, the effects of ISPS on the antioxidant activities in vitro, as well as the glycosylated serum protein concentration, malondialdehyde level, and total antioxidant capacity of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were studied. Results: The optimized conditions were as follows: sodium selenite concentration, 33.78 µg/L; incubation time, 8.24 days; and incubation temperature, 26.69°C. A maximum yield of 197.35 mg/g ISPS was obtained from the validation experiments, which was quite close to the predicted maximum yield of 198.6839 mg/g. FT-IR spectra indicated that ISPS has been successfully selenylation modified with similar structure to polysaccharide of intracellular polysaccharides. The in vitro scavenging effects of 1.0 mg/mL ISPS on hydroxyl, superoxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals were 74.62±4.05, 71.45±3.63, and 79.48±4.75%, respectively. The reducing power of ISPS was 0.45±0.01 (absorbance at 700 nm. Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated serum protein of group C (rats with diabetes that received drinking water with ISPS were significantly lower than those of group B (rats with diabetes (P<0.01 after treatment was administered for 2 and 4 weeks. Serum malonaldehyde content of group C was significantly lower than that of group B at 4 weeks (P<0.01. At 4 weeks, malonaldehyde contents in heart, liver, and kidney tissues of group C were significantly lower than those of group B; however, malonaldehyde content in pancreas tissue of group C was not significantly different. Total antioxidant capacities in liver, pancreas and kidney tissues of group C were significantly higher than those of group B, but total

  17. Polysaccharides purified from wild Cordyceps activate FGF2/FGFR1c signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Yu, Guangli; Hao, Jiejie; Zhang, Lijuan

    2015-02-01

    Land animals as well as all organisms in ocean synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. Fungi split from animals about 1.5 billion years ago. As fungi make the evolutionary journey from ocean to land, the biggest changes in their living environment may be a sharp decrease in salt concentration. It is established that sulfated polysaccharides interact with hundreds of signaling molecules and facilitate many signaling transduction pathways, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor signaling pathway. The disappearance of sulfated polysaccharides in fungi and plants on land might indicate that polysaccharides without sulfation might be sufficient in facilitating protein ligand/receptor interactions in low salinity land. Recently, it was reported that plants on land start to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides in high salt environment, suggesting that fungi might be able to do the same when exposed in such environment. Interestingly, Cordyceps, a fungus habituating inside caterpillar body, is the most valued traditional Chinese Medicine. One of the important pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps is polysaccharides. Therefore, we hypothesize that the salty environment inside caterpillar body might allow the fungi to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. To test the hypothesis, we isolated polysaccharides from both lava and sporophore of wild Cordyceps and also from Cordyceps militaris cultured without or with added salts. We then measured the polysaccharide activity using a FGF2/FGFR1c signaling-dependent BaF3 cell proliferation assay and found that polysaccharides isolated from wild Cordyceps activated FGF2/FGFR signaling, indicating that the polysaccharides synthesized by wild Cordyceps are indeed different from those by the cultured mycelium.

  18. UV-radiation induced changes in antibiotic markers, chemical composition of water soluble polysaccharides and nodulation ability of Rhizobium trifolic 11B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghai, Jyotsna; Ghai, S.K.; Kalra, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Rhizobium trifolii 11B, which formed effective nodules on its host. Trifolium alexanderinum L. was UV-irradiated to isolate mutants. Out of the 9 variants isolated only 1 strain, viz. 21M11B produced more water soluble polysaccharide [752 mg (100 ml -1 )] than the parent 15 different antibiotics was similar only in two (22M11B and 26M11B) of the 9 UV-mutants. Compositional studies revealed that the water soluble polysaccharides from all strains contained glucose and galactose in the molar ratio of 7:1. Glucuronic acid which was present (2.33 per cent) in the water soluble polysaccharide from strain 11B was absent in all but 2UV-mutants (4.22per cent in 6M11B and 4.04per cent in26M11B). Five of the UB-mutants (1M11B, 17M11B, 20N11B, 22M11B and 26M11B) were Nod - . The organisms which produced more water soluble polysaccharide upon infection of the plants induced the formation of more number of nodules. (author)

  19. Biofilm extracellular polysaccharides degradation during starvation and enamel demineralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Emanoele Costa Oliveira

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate if extracellular polysaccharides (EPS are used by Streptococcus mutans (Sm biofilm during night starvation, contributing to enamel demineralization increasing occurred during daily sugar exposure. Sm biofilms were formed during 5 days on bovine enamel slabs of known surface hardness (SH. The biofilms were exposed to sucrose 10% or glucose + fructose 10.5% (carbohydrates that differ on EPS formation, 8x/day but were maintained in starvation during the night. Biofilm samples were harvested during two moments, on the end of the 4th day and in the morning of the 5th day, conditions of sugar abundance and starvation, respectively. The slabs were also collected to evaluate the percentage of surface hardness loss (%SHL. The biofilms were analyzed for EPS soluble and insoluble and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS, viable bacteria (CFU, biofilm architecture and biomass. pH, calcium and acid concentration were determined in the culture medium. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test or Student's t-test. The effect of the factor carbohydrate treatment for polysaccharide analysis was significant (p 0.05. Larger amounts of soluble and insoluble EPS and IPS were formed in the sucrose group when compared to glucose + fructose group (p < 0.05, but they were not metabolized during starvation time (S-EPS, p = 0.93; I-EPS, p = 0.11; and IPS = 0.96. Greater enamel %SHL was also found for the sucrose group (p < 0.05 but the demineralization did not increase during starvation (p = 0.09. In conclusion, the findings suggest that EPS metabolization by S. mutans during night starvation do not contribute to increase enamel demineralization occurred during the daily abundance of sugar.

  20. Homologous overexpression of RfaH in E. coli K4 improves the production of chondroitin-like capsular polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Donatella; De Rosa, Mario; Carlino, Elisabetta; Ruggiero, Alessandro; Schiraldi, Chiara

    2013-05-09

    Glycosaminoglycans, such as hyaluronic acid, heparin, and chondroitin sulfate, are among the top ranked products in industrial biotechnology for biomedical applications, with a growing world market of billion dollars per year. Recently a remarkable progress has been made in the development of tailor-made strains as sources for the manufacturing of such products. The genetic modification of E. coli K4, a natural producer of chondroitin sulfate precursor, is challenging considering the lack of detailed information on its genome, as well as its mobilome. Chondroitin sulfate is currently used as nutraceutical for the treatment of osteoarthritis, and several new therapeutic applications, spanning from the development of skin substitutes to live attenuated vaccines, are under evaluation. E. coli K4 was used as host for the overexpression of RfaH, a positive regulator that controls expression of the polysaccharide biosynthesis genes and other genes necessary for the virulence of E. coli K4. Various engineering strategies were compared to investigate different types of expression systems (plasmid vs integrative cassettes) and integration sites (genome vs endogenous mobile element). All strains analysed in shake flasks on different media showed a capsular polysaccharide production improved by 40 to 140%, compared to the wild type, with respect to the final product titer. A DO-stat fed-batch process on the 2L scale was also developed for the best performing integrative strain, EcK4r3, yielding 5.3 g ∙ L(-1) of K4 polysaccharide. The effect of rfaH overexpression in EcK4r3 affected the production of lipopolysaccharide and the expression of genes involved in the polysaccharide biosynthesis pathway (kfoC and kfoA), as expected. An alteration of cellular metabolism was revealed by changes of intracellular pools of UDP-sugars which are used as precursors for polysaccharide biosynthesis. The present study describes the identification of a gene target and the application of a