Sample records for higher parent-reported internalizing

  1. Parents' Reports of Children's Internalizing Symptoms: Associations with Parents' Mental Health Symptoms and Substance Use Disorder. (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Bravo, Adrian J; Hamrick, Hannah C; Braitman, Abby L; White, Tyler D; Jenkins, Jennika


    This brief report examined the unique associations between parents' ratings of child internalizing symptoms and their own depression and anxiety in families with parental substance use disorder (SUD). Further, we examined whether parental SUD (father only, mother only, both parents) was related to discrepancy in mothers' and fathers' reports of children's internalizing symptoms. Participants were 97 triads (fathers, mothers) in which one or both parents met criteria for SUD. Polynomial regression analyses were conducted to examine whether father-mother reports of child internalizing symptoms had unique associations with parents' own symptoms of depression and anxiety while controlling for child gender, child age, and SUD diagnoses. Controlling for fathers' symptoms and other covariates, mothers experiencing more depression and anxiety symptoms reported more symptoms of child internalizing symptoms than did fathers. Mothers' and fathers' SUD was associated with higher anxiety symptoms among mothers after controlling for other variables. A second set of polynomial regressions examined whether father-mother reports of child internalizing symptoms had unique associations with parents' SUD diagnoses while controlling for child gender and child age. After controlling for mothers' symptoms and other covariates, parents' reports of children's internalizing symptoms were not significantly associated with either parent's SUD or parental SUD interactions (i.e., both parents have SUD diagnoses). Taken together, mothers' ratings of children's internalizing symptoms may be accounted for, in part, by her reports of depression and anxiety symptoms.

  2. Using Self- and Parent-Reports to Test the Association between Peer Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms in Verbally Fluent Adolescents with ASD (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Duncan, Amie W.; Holleb, Lauren J.; Bishop, Somer L.


    The current study tested the associations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms in 54 verbally fluent adolescent males with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Adolescent- and parent-reports of multiple types of peer victimization and internalizing symptoms were used. First, the validity and reliability of the…

  3. International comparisons of behavioral and emotional problems in preschool children: parents' reports from 24 societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, Leslie A; Achenbach, Thomas M; Ivanova, Masha Y


    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½-5 by parents in 24 societies (N = 19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental...... Disorders-oriented scales; a Stress Problems scale; and Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales. Effect sizes for scale score differences among the 24 societies ranged from small to medium (3-12%). Although societies differed greatly in language, culture, and other characteristics, Total...

  4. International Comparisons of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Preschool Children: Parents' Reports from 24 Societies (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Harder, Valerie S.; Otten, Laura; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michel; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Goncalves, Miguel; Gudmundsson, Halldor; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Liu, Jianghong; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Machado, Barbara Cesar; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Pluck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Pranvera, Jetishi; Schmeck, Klaus; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zeynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; van der Ende, Jan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Yurdusen, Sema; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.


    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1 1/2-5 by parents in 24 societies (N = 19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders"-oriented scales; a Stress…

  5. The Development of Internal State Language during the Third Year of Life: A Longitudinal Parent Report Study (United States)

    Kristen, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Licata, Maria; Thoermer, Claudia; Poulin-Dubois, Diane


    Children's talk about the mind has been scarcely studied in non-English speakers. For this reason, this longitudinal study documents age-related changes in German-speaking children's internal state language. At 24, 30 and 36?months, children were administered general language tests and their internal state vocabulary levels were obtained via…

  6. Mapping Global Research on International Higher Education (United States)

    Kuzhabekova, Aliya; Hendel, Darwin D.; Chapman, David W.


    The purpose of the study is to map global research in international higher education. Specifically, the study uses bibliometric and social network analysis methods to identify key individuals, institutions, countries, and disciplines contributing to research in international higher education and to investigate patterns of connectivity among…

  7. International Higher Education in Australia: Unplanned Future (United States)

    Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid


    International education is the third largest export industry in Australia and is worth almost A$20 billion. The last ten years have witnessed significant growth in both onshore and offshore enrolments of international students in Australian universities. The offshore component of all Australian universities has been subject to scrutiny by the…

  8. The International Higher Education Market: Mexico's Case (United States)

    Andere, Eduardo


    For years student scholarship programs to promote knowledge or international cooperation have functioned without question in Mexico. Economics of education literature has questioned the validity of similar programs, and the paradigm is shifting from scholarship support to loan schemes and from merit- to need-based grants. This article, based on…

  9. International Perceptions of Cyberbullying within Higher Education (United States)

    Luker, Julie Marie; Curchack, Barbara C.


    In this study, we investigated perceptions of cyberbullying within higher education among 1,587 professionals from Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Regardless of country or professional role, participants presented essentially the same bleak picture. Almost half of all participants observed cyberbullying between…

  10. International student adaptation to academic writing in higher education

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, Ly Thi


    Academic writing is a key practice in higher education and central to international students' academic success in the country of education. International Student Adaptation to Academic Writing in Higher Education addresses the prominent forms of adaptation emerging from international students' journey to mediate between disciplinary practices, cultural norms and personal desires in meaning making. It introduces new concepts that present different patterns of international student adaptation including surface adaptation, committed adaptation, reverse adaptation and hybrid adaptation. Drawing on

  11. International Consultation on Peace Education and Research in Higher Education. (United States)

    Higher Education in Europe, 1986


    A January 1986 UNESCO international conference on the role of higher education in promoting international understanding, cooperation, peace, and respect for human rights focused on the nuclear threat and conventional warfare, the role of international governmental and nongovernmental organizations, research and education for peace, and…

  12. Higher prudence as the supreme virtue in international politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, M.R.


    This article defends a radical, morally ambitious version of prudence in international politics. Thus, it claims that, rather than the ‘lower prudence’ favoured by political realist Hans Morgenthau, ‘higher prudence’ (Cochran 1983) should be regarded as the supreme virtue in international politics.

  13. Conceptual approaches to international cooperation between higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Obolenska


    Full Text Available The existing conceptual and technological approaches to the organization and implementation of international cooperation between higher education institutions with the performance of international accreditation based on education quality system have been characterized in complex, considering the key trends of internationalization of higher education. Priority strategies of higher education internationalization and types of international academic cooperation between universities regarding education services were defined. It has been substantiated that the most important manifestation of higher education internationalization is international cooperation between universities regarding rendering education services, while the highest level of internationalization of this service is joint educational programs. A complex analysis of international accreditation requirements to joint education programs was made on the basis of the system of education quality improvement, its advantages were proven and its distinct features that influence the choice and substantiation of international cooperation, marketing and branding of individual programs were characterized. Technology of international accreditation for joint programs was detailed. Special attention was paid to the practical component of launching joint degree programs between Ukrainian and foreign higher education institutions. The experience of joint master’s degree programs of Kyiv National Economic University named after Vadym Hetman and the University of Redlands Business School (California, USA was analyzed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aléssio Bessa Sarquis


    Full Text Available Internal marketing comprises the set of strategies to enable internally compliance of the organization's marketing promises. This study examines the use of internal marketing strategies in a higher education institution in the process of implementing a new educational model. This is one case study with qualitative and exploratory approach. The data collection techniques used were interviews and document analysis, interpreted through content analysis. The results show that the most commonly used strategies are: implementation of employee training programs; development of materials / guidance handouts; creating web blog; and the application of internal research. The testimonies indicate that the internal marketing strategies contributed to the implementation of new educational model, but there is dissatisfaction among managers with the internal marketing program of the institution.

  15. The Palgrave international handbook of higher education policy and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Jeroen; de Boer, Harry F.; Souto-Otero, Manuel


    This authoritative, state-of-the-art reference collection addresses the major themes, theories and key concepts related to higher education policy and governance on an international scale in one accessible volume. Mapping the field and showcasing current research and theorizations from diverse

  16. Higher Education Quality: Perception Differences among Internal and External Stakeholders (United States)

    Abidin, Munirul


    Conceptually, education quality of higher education can be determined by evaluation of their stakeholders's satisfaction level. The purpose of this study is to describe how students as external stakeholder and lecturers as internal stakeholder, perceived their satisfaction of learning experience in the university. This study was conducted in…

  17. BRICS and International Collaborations in Higher Education in India (United States)

    Varghese, N. V.


    International cooperation and collaborations played an important role in the economic and educational development of several countries. In the 1950s and 1960s external aid was an important modality to establish cooperation between countries, especially between developing and developed countries. Cross-border activities in higher education used to…

  18. Crossing Cultures and Borders in International Online Distance Higher Education (United States)

    Sadykova, Gulnara; Dautermann, Jennie


    The growing demand for higher education worldwide, along with global expansion of telecommunication technologies, give online distance education a potential world-wide reach for institutions in many countries. Given the persistent international digital divide and the potential for the host institutions and languages to be those of wealthy,…

  19. Cross-Border Partnerships in Higher Education: Strategies and Issues. International Studies in Higher Education (United States)

    Sakamoto, Robin, Ed.; Chapman, David, Ed.


    "Cross-border Partnerships in Higher Education" looks beyond student and faculty exchanges to examine the myriad ways international colleges and universities work together as institutions. These partnerships have involved the creation of branch campuses, joint research and technology initiatives, collaboration in strengthening…

  20. Pediatric hearing aid use: parent-reported challenges. (United States)

    Muñoz, Karen; Olson, Whitney A; Twohig, Michael P; Preston, Elizabeth; Blaiser, Kristina; White, Karl R


    The aim of this study was to investigate parent-reported challenges related to hearing aid management and parental psychosocial characteristics during the first 3 years of the child's life. Using a cross-sectional survey design, surveys were distributed to parents of children with hearing loss via state Early Intervention programs in Utah and Indiana. Packets contained one family demographic form and two sets of three questionnaires to obtain responses from mothers and fathers separately: the Parent Hearing Aid Management Inventory explored parent access to information, parent confidence in performing skills, expectations, communication with the audiologist, and hearing aid use challenges. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire measured psychological flexibility, experiential avoidance, and internal thought processes that can affect problem-solving ability and decrease an individual's ability to take value-based actions. The Patient Health Questionnaire identified symptoms of depression. Thirty-seven families completed questionnaires (35 mothers and 20 fathers). Most responses were parents of toddlers (M = 22 months) who had been wearing binaural hearing aids for an average of 15 months. Both mothers and fathers reported that even though the amount of information they received was overwhelming, most (84%) preferred to have all the information at the beginning, rather than to receive it over an extended time period. Parents reported an array of challenges related to hearing aid management, with the majority related to daily management, hearing aid use, and emotional adjustment. Sixty-six percent of parents reported an audiologist taught them how to complete a listening check using a stethoscope, however, only one-third reported doing a daily hearing aid listening check. Both mothers and fathers reported a wide range of variability in their confidence in performing activities related to hearing aid management, and most reported minimal confidence in their ability to

  1. Internal Resources to Improve the Quality of Higher Education

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    Tatyana V. Zak


    Full Text Available The article deals with the situation in the Russian higher education system. The factors affecting the improvement of the quality of higher education are analyzed. The emphasis is on mass universities. The main obstacles to improving the quality of education in these institutions are the Institute of collective reputation and the high costs of the struggle for improving the quality of education.The necessity of focusing on the actuation of the internal resources to improve the quality associated with the change in the educational process: giving students the right to choose the timing exams and training period at university. The implementation of the proposed measures will reduce the opportunity costs associated with quality improvement activities. The proposed change in the organization of the learning process opens the possibility to estimate the activity of universities in terms of medium-term implementation of educational programs. The use of this indicator will not only combine the two different targets of universities, but also to minimize the costs of opportunistic behavior of teachers and management.

  2. Validity of parent-reported weight and height of preschool children measured at home or estimated without home measurement: a validation study

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    Cox Bianca


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental reports are often used in large-scale surveys to assess children's body mass index (BMI. Therefore, it is important to know to what extent these parental reports are valid and whether it makes a difference if the parents measured their children's weight and height at home or whether they simply estimated these values. The aim of this study is to compare the validity of parent-reported height, weight and BMI values of preschool children (3-7 y-old, when measured at home or estimated by parents without actual measurement. Methods The subjects were 297 Belgian preschool children (52.9% male. Participation rate was 73%. A questionnaire including questions about height and weight of the children was completed by the parents. Nurses measured height and weight following standardised procedures. International age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off values were employed to determine categories of weight status and obesity. Results On the group level, no important differences in accuracy of reported height, weight and BMI were identified between parent-measured or estimated values. However, for all 3 parameters, the correlations between parental reports and nurse measurements were higher in the group of children whose body dimensions were measured by the parents. Sensitivity for underweight and overweight/obesity were respectively 73% and 47% when parents measured their child's height and weight, and 55% and 47% when parents estimated values without measurement. Specificity for underweight and overweight/obesity were respectively 82% and 97% when parents measured the children, and 75% and 93% with parent estimations. Conclusions Diagnostic measures were more accurate when parents measured their child's weight and height at home than when those dimensions were based on parental judgements. When parent-reported data on an individual level is used, the accuracy could be improved by encouraging the parents to measure weight and height

  3. The International Branch Campus as Transnational Strategy in Higher Education (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen; Huisman, Jeroen


    The international branch campus is a phenomenon on the rise, but we still have limited knowledge of the strategic choices underlying the start of these ventures. The objective of this paper is to shed light on the motivations and decisions of universities to engage (or not) with the establishment of international branch campuses. As a point of…

  4. Transnational Higher Education and International Student Mobility: Determinants and Linkage (United States)

    Levatino, Antonina


    Transnational higher education (TNHE) is one of the most important, even if often neglected, aspects in the internationalisation of higher education. TNHE constitutes a strategy for universities to expand recruitment. Nonetheless, it is often argued that TNHE could constitute a way for the countries where it is implemented to retain their students…

  5. Higher Education Institutions: Satisfaction and Loyalty among International Students (United States)

    Paswan, Audhesh K.; Ganesh, Gopala


    This study empirically investigates the relationship between satisfaction with educational service augmenters and consumer loyalty within the context of the international student market. An enhanced state of consumer satisfaction, also labeled as delight, is captured by focusing on service augmenters that fall outside the domain of the core…

  6. Higher Education Students' Attitudes towards Experiential Learning in International Business (United States)

    Chavan, Meena


    Using qualitative and quantitative analysis this paper presents a teaching model based on experiential learning in a large "International Business" unit. Preliminary analysis of 92 student evaluations determined the effectiveness of experiential learning to allow students to explore the association between theory and practice. The…

  7. Child- and parent-reported quality of life trajectories in children with epilepsy: A prospective cohort study. (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A; Avery, Lisa; Fayed, Nora; Streiner, David L; Cunningham, Charles E; Boyle, Michael H; Lach, Lucyna; Glidden, Gina; Rosenbaum, Peter L; Ronen, Gabriel M


    To describe the developmental trajectories of quality of life (QoL) in a large cohort of children with epilepsy, and to assess the relative contribution of clinical, psychosocial, and sociodemographic variables on QoL trajectories. Five assessments during a 28-month prospective cohort study were used to model trajectories of QoL. Participants were recruited with their parents from six Canadian tertiary centers. A convenience sample of 506 children aged 8-14 years with epilepsy and without intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder were enrolled. A total of 894 children were eligible and 330 refused participation. Participating children were, on average, 11.4 years of age, and 49% were female. Nearly one third (32%) had partial seizures. At baseline, 479 and 503 child- and parent-reported questionnaires were completed. In total, 354 children (74%) and 366 parents (73%) completed the 28-month follow-up. QoL was measured using the child- and parent-reported version of the Childhood Epilepsy QoL scale (CHEQOL-25). Child-reported QoL was fitted best by a six-class model and parent-reported QoL by a five-class model. In both models, trajectories remained either stable or improved over 28 months. Of these children, 62% rated their QoL as high or moderately high, defined as at least one standard deviation above the average CHEQOL-25 score. Greater family, classmate, and peer social support, fewer symptoms of child and parent depression, and higher receptive vocabulary were identified as the most robust predictors of better QoL (all p < 0.001). Most children with epilepsy and their parents reported relatively good QoL in this first joint self- and proxy-reported trajectory study. Findings confirm the heterogeneous QoL outcomes for children with epilepsy and the primary importance of psychosocial factors rather than seizure and AED-specific factors in influencing QoL. These predictors that are potentially amenable to change should now be the focus of specific

  8. International Demand for American Higher Education: An Extension. (United States)

    Mixon, J. Wilson, Jr.; Wan, Weidong


    A study of the relationship of population and income in Asian countries and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) members to their demand for American higher education found that both population and income significantly affect demand, but not proportionally. Findings suggest countries meet most change in citizens' demand with…

  9. Connecting Higher Education Research in Japan with the International Academic Community (United States)

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi


    This study examines the historical, current, and future challenges of higher education research in Japan within a global context. Japanese higher education research has been strongly influenced by the international academic community. At the same time, higher education researchers in Japan have participated in international projects, and Japan has…

  10. Intra-European Student Mobility in International Higher Education Circuits. Europe on the Move

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mol, C.


    Intra-European Student Mobility in International Higher Education Circuits focuses on the phenomenon of international student exchanges in Europe. Strongly interdisciplinary in its focus, this book empirically addresses four main research questions: who goes abroad, how students reconstruct their

  11. Social Media and Higher Education – An International Perspective

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    Małgorzata Bartosik-Purgat


    Full Text Available This study explores the use of social media in higher education with a particular focus on the role of cultural and socioeconomic differences. The dataset, built on surveyed respondents from China, Poland, Spain, Turkey and United States, was analysed using quantitative techniques that allowed us to test various hypotheses. Findings show that the use of social media for educational purposes is determined by socio-demographic variables (gender, age, education level that returned different social media users’ profiles across countries. Overall, the results indicate that social media is a useful tool of communication between teachers and students but that national cultural differences must be taken into account in the design of subjects and teaching materials used by teachers in the digital environment. From another point of view, the results related with the cultural differences and the socio-economic determinants may give insight to the marketers in the promotion of education related products such as books, language schools, degree and certificate programs in social media.

  12. The International Baccalaureate (IB programme: An international gateway to higher education and beyond

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    Susan E. Saxton


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the International Baccalaureate (IB Programme and briefly outline its core components, followed by a review of what authoritative reports identify as skills for the future, esteemed by universities and the job market. There is a striking match between these skills and IB outcomes; thus, DP graduates perform well in higher education and add to the reputation of those institutions. After a review of the literature, the authors found the IB Diploma Programme has been studied in many countries by both consultants and educational agencies, and also by a wide array of universities themselves; however, there are fewer qualitative studies concerning the degree to which IB graduates display attitudes, values, and behaviours in line with the IB Learner Profile. This is why the authors stress the claims made are supported by examples of significant research, noting that there is a dearth of qualitative longitudinal studies to sufficiently substantiate the affective domain claims that currently rely more on anecdotal evidence. The authors conclude by pointing out more research is needed in order to substantiate anecdotal evidence regarding future employment success for IB Diploma Programme graduates.  DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v4i3.123

  13. The Stories They Tell: Understanding International Student Mobility through Higher Education Policy (United States)

    Abdullah, Doria; Abd Aziz, Mohd Ismail; Mohd Ibrahim, Abdul Latiff


    The movement of students across borders has had profound impact on higher education policy development. This article seeks to unpack international student mobility through a discourse approach, using five policy documents on international student mobility from well-established recruiters of international students. Eight headline findings are…

  14. Student Choice in Higher Education: Motivations for Choosing to Study at an International Branch Campus (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen; Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens; Huisman, Jeroen


    The international branch campus has emerged as a prominent feature on the international higher education landscape. Although there exists a fairly substantial body of literature that has sought to identify the motivations or choice criteria used by international students to select countries and institutions, there has to date been little research…

  15. The Impact of Regional Higher Education Spaces on the Security of International Students (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen


    The security of international students in regional higher education spaces in Australia has been overlooked. Contingency theory provides the framework for this case study to explore the organisational structure and support services relevant to a regional higher education space and how this impacts the security of international students. In-depth…

  16. A Better Tomorrow: Examination of International Students' Success in Higher Education (United States)

    Shen, Yue


    International student enrollment in U.S. higher education has increased and diversified over the past decade. The unique needs and challenges international students face in pursuing higher education in the U.S. need a systematic investigation. Previous research literature has identified cultural diversity as one main challenge against…

  17. Partner Positioning: Examining International Higher Education Partnerships through a Mutuality Lens (United States)

    George Mwangi, Chrystal A.


    Scholarship on international higher education partnerships is often framed by strategic management and organization theories. These approaches are useful, but can minimize how power dynamics and positioning of partners impact engagement and outcomes. This study uses qualitative inquiry to examine 60 international higher education partnerships…

  18. The "Redirecting" of International Students: American Higher Education Policy Hindrances and Implications (United States)

    García, Hugo A.; Villarreal, María de Lourdes


    International student mobility in higher education has gained currency as an important topic in today's global, political, and economic environment. United States postsecondary institutions are working to expand their international student population to increase revenue and diversity. The current higher education and economic context has produced…

  19. The Expansion of Higher Education. Papers of the International Association of Universities. No. 6. (United States)

    International Association of Universities, Paris (France).

    Papers are presented from a conference of the International Association of Universities concerning the expansion of higher education. The contents are as follows: Foreword by J. Baugniet, International Association of Universities; "The Expansion of Higher Education in Brazil," by Rev. A. Alonso, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de…

  20. Disagreement in Parental Reports of Father Involvement (United States)

    Charles, Pajarita; Spielfogel, Jill; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Schoeny, Michael; Henry, David; Tolan, Patrick


    Despite agreement on the value of father involvement in children’s lives, research has been limited due to the exclusion of fathers in studies, questionable validity of mothers’ reports on father involvement, and simple measures of fathering behavior. Our study extends previous research by comparing reports of father involvement using robust, multidimensional father involvement measures. Data from 113 fathers and 126 mothers reporting on 221 children were used to assess father involvement. Results indicate that fathers reported significantly higher levels of involvement than mothers reported. Findings from hierarchical linear models suggest that race/ethnicity and mothers’ reports of positive relationship quality were associated with smaller discrepancies in reports of father involvement, whereas nonmarried partnerships, older children, father residence, and biological status predicted larger discrepancies. Our study demonstrates the importance of obtaining father involvement reports directly from fathers and why father involvement should be assessed as a multidimensional construct to examine fathering behavior. PMID:29515272

  1. Exploration on the Evaluation Mode of "International Trade Practice" in Higher Vocational Schools (United States)

    Li, Yamin


    Considering the employment-oriented positioning of higher vocational education which is put by the education ministry and the features of higher vocational schools students, this paper indicates that the disadvantages in the evaluation mode of higher vocational school international trade course. Therefore, a reformed suggestion is given for the…

  2. The Engaged University: International Perspectives on Civic Engagement. International Studies in Higher Education (United States)

    Watson, David; Hollister, Robert; Stroud, Susan E.; Babcock, Elizabeth


    "The Engaged University" is a comprehensive empirical account of the global civic engagement movement in higher education. In universities around the world, something extraordinary is underway. Mobilizing their human and intellectual resources, institutions of higher education are directly tackling community problems--combating poverty,…

  3. Racism, Equity, and Quality of Education for International Students in South Korean Higher Education Institutes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Hee KIM


    This study aims to understand equity issues of international students' learning in Korean higher education institutions by engaging with the issue of racism and identifies how international students in Korea reshape their learning trajectory and how we could provide equitable and quality education for international students.Espousing a qualitative case study design,six students from different background were interviewed to examine features of perceived institutional racism based on their learning experience in Korea.Major findings showed that internationalization has not been fulfilled in terms of engaging with international students although Korean government and higher education institutions have developed relevant policy to attract international students.This study indicates that Korean universities need to reconstruct their social,cultural,and institutional systems to embrace equity,diversity and inclusiveness to empower international students' capacity.

  4. Understanding the Home Math Environment and Its Role in Predicting Parent Report of Children's Math Skills. (United States)

    Hart, Sara A; Ganley, Colleen M; Purpura, David J


    There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children's math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children's math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children's skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills.

  5. Socioeconomic inequalities in parent-reported and teacher-reported psychological well-being. (United States)

    Lewis, Hannah; Hope, Steven; Pearce, Anna


    To determine whether there are differences in the social gradient of parent-reported and teacher-reported child psychological well-being. Secondary data analysis comparing ratings of child psychological well-being (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ) in the UK Millennium Cohort Study at 7 years by socioeconomic circumstances (SEC). A number of measures of SEC were tested; results are reported for maternal education. From a sample of 13,168 singletons who participated at the age of 7 years, complete data were available for 8207 children. There was a social gradient in SDQ scores reported by parents and teachers, with 'borderline/abnormal' scores more prevalent in children with lower-educated mothers. However, the gradient was more marked in parent report compared with teacher report, and discrepancies between parent and teacher reports were greatest for children from higher SECs. The social gradient in child psychological well-being, although present, was weaker in teacher report compared with parent report. This may be because children behave differently in school and home settings, or parents and teachers demonstrate reporting bias. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  6. Understanding the Home Math Environment and Its Role in Predicting Parent Report of Children's Math Skills.

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    Sara A Hart

    Full Text Available There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children's math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children's math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children's skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills.

  7. International Students: Constructions of Imperialism in the "Chronicle of Higher Education" (United States)

    Rhee, Jeong-eun; Sagaria, Mary Ann Danowitz


    This article links colonial/neocolonial and feminist literature with discourses on international students to examine how a discourse of imperialism constructs and represents international students in U.S. universities. Applying a critical discourse analysis to 78 articles published in the "Chronicle of Higher Education" between 1996 and 1999, the…

  8. Factors Affecting University Image Formation among Prospective Higher Education Students: The Case of International Branch Campuses (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen; Huisman, Jeroen


    Previous research has found that the images of universities formed by prospective students greatly influence their choices. With the advent of international branch campuses in several higher education hubs worldwide, many international students now attempt to construct images of these institutions when deciding where to study. The aim of this…

  9. International E-Benchmarking: Flexible Peer Development of Authentic Learning Principles in Higher Education (United States)

    Leppisaari, Irja; Vainio, Leena; Herrington, Jan; Im, Yeonwook


    More and more, social technologies and virtual work methods are facilitating new ways of crossing boundaries in professional development and international collaborations. This paper examines the peer development of higher education teachers through the experiences of the IVBM project (International Virtual Benchmarking, 2009-2010). The…

  10. Internationalization of Canadian Higher Education: Discrepancies between Policies and International Student Experiences (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Guo, Shibao


    The internationalization of higher education in Canada is happening at a rapid pace. One manifestation of internationalization is the increasing enrolment of international students in Canadian institutions. There is little research on international undergraduate students' experiences from their own perspectives as they adapt to a new educational…

  11. Challenges of International Higher Education Students in a Foreign Country: A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Khodabandelou, Rouhollah; Karimi, Leila; Ehsani, Maryam


    Over the last several years, the number of international students attending colleges and universities in Malaysia has increased substantially. While the number of international students pursuing undergraduate and post graduate studies in Malaysian higher education institutions has increased, it is curious that some limitations and challenges exist…

  12. Global Character of International Labour Migration: Challenges and Objectives for Higher Education in World Context (United States)

    Zhuravska, Nina


    The article deals with analysis of challenges and objectives for higher education in the context of globalization: the forming of international labour market proves the fact that the process of international integration is affecting economy and technology as well as social and labour relations that are becoming more and more global. The…



    Tuukkanen, Laura; Pudas, Sini


    This thesis is commissioned by Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences, Business Department. The research is a case study of an intensive study module Digital Business Development held in August 2014. The purpose of the thesis was to investigate international higher education students’ development acquirements during a three week Digital Business Development course. The research also investigated the success of partnership between Mamk, MPY and international higher education students in th...

  14. Working in Separate Silos? What Citation Patterns Reveal about Higher Education Research Internationally (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm


    Higher education research is a growing, inter-disciplinary and increasingly international field of study. This article examines the citation patterns of articles published in six leading higher education journals--three published in the United States and three published elsewhere in the world--for what they reveal about the development of this…

  15. Uncovering the Images and Meanings of International Organizations (IOs) in Higher Education Research (United States)

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.; Madden, Meggan


    Employing Stuart Hall's concept of representation, we examine how international organizations (IOs) are presented in the higher education literature. This paper examines how IOs, such as the World Bank, OECD, and UNESCO, are conceptualized and represented by higher education researchers. We focus on three main representations of IOs in the higher…

  16. Customer Orientation in Higher Education: The Missing Link in International Student Recruitment? A Relationship Marketing Approach (United States)

    Vauterin, Johanna Julia; Linnanen, Lassi; Marttila, Esa


    This paper suggests that the service mindset of academia needs attention to ensure that the potential of university-industry linkages for creating value is used strategically in building advantage in the increasingly competitive market for international higher education. Universities should clearly articulate the value of the higher education-…

  17. The International Connections of Religious Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Rationales and Implications (United States)

    Karram, Grace


    Over the past decade, the largest growth in Sub-Saharan Africa's private higher education has been among institutions with religious affiliations. This article examines the rise of private, religious higher education in Sub-Saharan Africa with international affiliations. Using an analysis of multiple stakeholders from the region and international…

  18. Characteristics of undiagnosed children with parent-reported ADHD behaviour. (United States)

    Madsen, Kathrine Bang; Ravn, Mette Holmelin; Arnfred, Jon; Olsen, Jørn; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Obel, Carsten


    There is an ongoing public debate on the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in which critics have claimed that the disorder is over-diagnosed, while the potential under-diagnosis of children with ADHD has received little attention. In this study we estimate the number of children with parent-reported ADHD behaviour at age 7 and absence of recorded ADHD diagnosis through adolescence, and investigate whether socio-demographic characteristics of this group differed from the children diagnosed with ADHD during follow-up. Our study was based on data from the Danish National Birth Cohort, where parents of 51,527 children completed questionnaires, including the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). ADHD diagnosis was identified through Danish registers and parent-reported ADHD behaviour by the specific SDQ subscale. Socio-demographic predictors of positive parent-reported SDQ ADHD behaviour and absence of recorded ADHD diagnosis in their children were examined using logistic regression analyses. Children with parent-reported ADHD behaviour and no diagnosis (1.3%) were more likely to be girls (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.45; 2.29), more likely to have mothers with a low socioeconomic status (OR high vs. low 1.49; 95% CI 1.10; 2.02), and to live in certain regions of the country (OR: Capital vs. Southern: 2.04; 95% CI 1.51; 2.73) than children with an ADHD diagnosis. The children showed markedly impairments on all the SDQ subscales. The results demonstrate a considerable number of children with ADHD symptoms who potentially go undetected and underline the influence of socio-demographic factors in the pathway to a diagnosis of ADHD.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Viktorovna Naurazbaeva


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the research is the development of methods and models of management of the internal marketing of a higher education institute based on complex approach that includes strategic management methods and staff marketing and also technologies of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP.Method or methodology of the research. Adapted models and methods of Neuro-Linguistic Programming, strategic management and marketing to management of marketing of the university which are presented as a complex of models that are reveling through the interrelation «external labor-market – higher education institute – internal labor-market».Results:1. The mechanism of management of the internal marketing of higher education institute based on the interrelation «external labor – market – higher education institute – internal labor-market» is offered that assumes solving problem of miscomparison between market conditions, university’s opportunities and demands of an employee of this educational institute.2. Methodical bases of formation of NLP-model that coordinates the requirements of labor collective as internal consumers of the educational service and needs of higher education institute in order to provide high quality services at all stages of creation and realization of an educational service are developed.3. The infological model of construction and choosing the strategy of the internal marketing of educational institute is presented.Practical implications. The received results can be used in practical management of higher education institute when forming the strategy of the internal marketing taking into account the specific features of concrete university.

  20. From Internationalism to Internationalisation: The Illusion of a Global Community in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Pike


    Full Text Available Both global education and international education are movements designedto promote the concepts of internationalism and global community innational education systems, but with different histories. While the former, agrassroots K-12 movement, has struggled to make headway against theforces of neoliberalism, the latter has thrived in a market-driven era inwhich revenue from international student mobility has offset decliningpublic funding of higher education in many developed countries. Currenttrends in the internationalisation of higher education have resulted inincreasing commercialisation and intensive competition for internationalstudents, fuelled by world rankings of elite universities. Tensions existbetween these trends and the more altruistic goals of internationaleducation proclaimed in institutional mission statements and governmentpolicies. An analytical matrix is offered as a tool with which highereducation institutions can map their internationalisation activities andassess the extent to which they match their stated policies and missions.While the rhetoric of international education purports to promote theconcept of a global community, the article suggests this claim may beillusory.

  1. A Study of Factors Influencing International Students' Choice of Higher Education Institutions


    Akadu, Victor Abia


    This paper discusses the factors that influence international students’ choice of higher education institutions. The research conducted using the international students in the University of Nottingham (Malaysia Campus) and Monash University (Malaysia Campus) and survey questionnaires were mainly used to gather primary data for the purpose of this study. Findings from this research indicated that product and university based factors, cost factors, promotion, location and social influences all ...

  2. Authentic scientific research in an international setting as a path toward higher education (United States)

    Mladenov, N.; Palomo, M.; Casad, B.; Pietruschka, B.; Buckley, C.


    Studies have shown that undergraduate research opportunities foster student interest in research, encourage minority students to seek advanced degrees, and put students on a path toward higher education. It has been further suggested that engineering projects in international settings address issues of sustainability and promote a connection between engineering and social welfare that may compel students to seek future research opportunities. In this study, we explored the role that authentic research experiences in an international setting play in promoting higher education for students from groups typically under-represented in engineering and sciences. We hypothesized that the international context of the research experiences will provide undergraduate and graduate students with a global perspective of water reuse challenges and promote increased interest in pursuing a higher degree in engineering. Through the Sustainable Sanitation International Research Experiences for Students (IRES) Program, US students conducting research in Durban, South Africa in 2015 and 2016, were tasked with leading 6-week long research projects, collaborating with partners at the University of KwaZulu Natal, and producing papers and presentations for regional and international scientific conferences. All undergraduate participants were from groups under-represented in the sciences. Pre- and post-program survey results revealed that, after completing the program, participants of Cohort 1 had 1) greater research skills, 2) greater identification as an engineer, and 3) stronger intentions to pursue a PhD in engineering. Survey data were also used to evaluate comfort with cultural diversity before and after the international program and the effect of pairing US with South African student researchers. Our results indicate that students' awareness of societal needs and engineering challenges faced in Durban resulted in a positive impact on each student. The benefits gained from the

  3. A "Special Relationship" in Higher Education? What Influence Might the US Higher Education Sector Have in Terms of Support for International Students in the UK? (United States)

    Lochtie, David John


    As international student migration and comparative education research have increased worldwide, greater interdependency between national Higher Education (HE) systems has developed with policy and practice frequently being shared internationally. As a key player in the international student market the United States of America is especially…

  4. Understanding Personal Learning Environment Perspectives of Thai International Tourism and Hospitality Higher Education Students (United States)

    Tanyong, Siriwan; Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali


    This paper is part of a periodic research conducted in developing a personal learning environment for Thailand's higher education students with English as medium of instruction. The objective of the first phase in this research was to understand the personal learning environment perspectives of Thai International tourism and hospitality higher…

  5. Developing Global Competency in US Higher Education: Contributions of International Students (United States)

    Siczek, Megan M.


    International students are key players in realizing the goal of internationalizing US colleges and universities, particularly when it comes to engagement on issues of global significance. This article contextualizes the phenomenon of the internationalization of higher education and recent patterns of transnational mobility for international…

  6. Higher Education and International Student Mobility in the Global Knowledge Economy: Revised and Updated Second Edition (United States)

    Guruz, Kemal


    Students and scholars leaving their homes in search of education and knowledge is not a new phenomenon. An indispensable resource for understanding the international mobility of students, this book reveals how the global mobility of such students, scholars, programs, and institutions of higher education have evolved over time. Kemal Guruz explores…

  7. Back to the UK Future: Trends in Internationalism and Cross-Border Higher Education (United States)

    Olcott, Don


    Globalisation is transforming the international marketplace and accelerating unprecedented socio-economic, cultural, social, political and educational change across the globe. This global transformation has served as a catalyst for increasing deliberation, dialogue and consensus among government, business and higher education to create, attract…

  8. The Culture of Learning Continuum: Promoting Internal Values in Higher Education (United States)

    Sagy, Ornit; Kali, Yael; Tsaushu, Masha; Tal, Tali


    This study endeavors to identify ways to promote a productive learning culture in higher education. Specifically, we sought to encourage development of internal values in students' culture of learning and examine how this can promote their understanding of scientific content. Set in a high enrollment undergraduate biology course, we designed a…

  9. Modeling and Mapping Personal Learning Environment of Thai International Higher Education Students (United States)

    Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali; Sawad, Buncha Panacharoen; Wongwai, Sarun


    This research article is part of a periodic study conducted to understand, model, map and to develop an integrated approach for effective and interactive self-learning phases of Thai International Hospitality and Tourism higher education students. Questionnaire containing both qualitative and quantitative questions was distributed at the beginning…

  10. The Effect of Internal Marketing on Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Academic Staff in Higher Educational Institutions (United States)

    Yildiz, Suleyman M.


    Due to their important roles in organizational performance, internal marketing and organizational citizenship behavior have become more interesting subjects among researchers and practitioners. However, empirical research is limited in the literature, and the relationship between these two variables in higher educational institutions is not clear.…

  11. Reforming Higher Education in "Transition": Between National and International Reform Initiatives--The Case of Slovenia (United States)

    Zgaga, Pavel; Miklavic, Klemen


    The article analyzes the last two decades of higher education reforms in Slovenia. During the "period of transition," they were led by national as well as international initiatives. At an early stage, the national initiatives were mainly based on criticisms of the last reform made by the former regime, although the generation of new…

  12. The Role of an International Higher Education Partnership to Improve Gender Equality and Empower Women (United States)

    Morgan, Sandra Louise Clements


    This is a research case study of an International Higher Education Partnership (IHEP) between Vanguard University of Southern California (VUSC) and the University of Duhok (UoD) in the Kurdistan Region of northern Iraq funded by the British Council DelPHE-Iraq project targeting Millennial Development Goal (MDG) #3 to promote gender equality and…

  13. A Unidimensional Instrument for Measuring Internal Marketing Concept in the Higher Education Sector: IM-11 Scale (United States)

    Yildiz, Suleyman Murat; Kara, Ali


    Purpose: Although the existing internal marketing (IM) scales include various scale items to measure employee motivation, they fall short of incorporating the needs and expectations of service sector employees. Hence, the purpose of this study is to present a practical instrument designed to measure the IM construct in the higher education sector.…

  14. International Conference on Higher Education and Disabilities--Innsbruck, Austria: A Brief History (United States)

    Zangla, Ken; Moore, Naomi; Hurst, Alan


    Access to higher education for people with disabilities has been a concern and motivation for change internationally. Collaborative discussions about the attitudes and policies addressing these issues began many years ago with several organizations and agencies representing the interest of people with disabilities. There were international…

  15. International Relations as a Field of Study in the Canadian System of Higher Education (United States)

    Istomina, Kateryna


    The research presents an attempt to investigate the current state of international relations as a field of study in the context of higher education system in Canada. It contains a general overview of the field of study, focusing predominantly on the role and function of the given academic discipline. The scientific investigation covers the issue…

  16. Qatari Women in a Corporatized Higher Education Setting: International Reforms and Their Local Bearings (United States)

    Al-Muftah, Esraa


    Discussions of the difficulties Qatari women experience in higher educational settings are unlikely to be found in international organization or government reports on the State of Qatar. Instead, recent reports have tended to gloss over gender inequalities raising a "successful girl discourse." Drawing on my own teaching experience at…

  17. Internationalising Nordic higher education: comparing the imagined with actual worlds of international scholar-practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeri Hellstén


    Full Text Available This comparative case study addresses a timely issue engaging researchers involved in the internationalisation of Nordic Higher Education, in the context of Sweden and Finland. The study examines a hypothetical imaginary in the transition between university international policy statements and their understandings from the position of a globalised episteme. The investigation forms a tag-project as part of a funded large international research project examining ethical internationalism in times of global crises, involving a partnership between more than twenty higher education institutions in excess of ten countries across five continents. The data was collected using a mixed-methods design, whilst being controlled across the matched data collection period in 2013-2014. Data consisted of policy texts, surveys and interviews. The current research inquiry reports on a within and across comparative analyses of certain policy texts and follow-up interviews with university management. The results yield logical support for a global higher education imaginary driving internationalisation in ways which reveal paradoxical associations between the imagined and the real worlds of international scholar-practitioners.

  18. Factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among international university students in the Philippines. (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B; Maria, Madelene Sta; Estanislao, Susana; Rodriguez, Cristina


    Over the years, the number of international university students has been increasing in the Philippines. Depression tends to be common among this demographic sector, because of the varying challenges and expectations associated with studying abroad. Depression can be prevented if its symptoms, particularly those at higher levels, are identified and addressed early and effectively. This survey examined the social and demographic factors that are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. One hundred twenty-six international university students were interviewed using the University Students Depression Inventory. Of the 13 factors analyzed, 3 were found with statistically significant associations with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: level of satisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. In identifying international students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to their financial condition and primary group relationships can be considered. There is a need to carry out more studies to confirm this initial evidence. The findings can help guide further discourse, research and program to benefit international students with higher levels of depressive symptoms.

  19. Ethnicity and parental report of postoperative behavioral changes in children. (United States)

    Fortier, Michelle A; Tan, Edwin T; Mayes, Linda C; Wahi, Aditi; Rosenbaum, Abraham; Strom, Suzanne; Santistevan, Ricci; Kain, Zeev N


    To examine the role of ethnicity and language in parent report of children's postoperative behavioral recovery. To compare incidence of new onset negative behavior change in English- and Spanish-speaking White and Hispanic children following outpatient surgery. Postoperative behavioral change in children is common; however, it is unknown whether cultural variables including ethnicity and language may influence parent report of children's behavioral recovery. Participants included 288 parents (English-speaking White, English-speaking Hispanic, Spanish-speaking Hispanic parents) of children undergoing outpatient elective surgery. Parents completed the post-hospitalization behavior questionnaire (PHBQ) and parents' postoperative pain measure (PPPM) on postoperative days one, three, and seven at home. Most parents (83%) reported onset of new negative behavioral change in children postoperatively. Generalized estimating equations revealed significant group differences in overall behavior change [Wald χ(2)(12) = 375.69, P children compared to English-speaking White (ESW) parents (day 1: P children's postoperative behavioral recovery may be influenced by cultural variables, such as ethnicity and language. The present results contribute to a growing body of evidence that highlights the need for culturally sensitive assessment and care of families in the medical setting. The findings may reflect differences in cultural values such as stoicism; however, future studies would benefit from examination of the factors that may account for the differences in reported behavior change after surgery (i.e., report bias, cultural values). © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Public and Private Sectors in Asian Higher Education Systems: Issues and Prospects. Reports from the International Seminar on Higher Education in Asia (3rd, Hiroshima, Japan, 1987). (United States)

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    The roles of public and private sectors of higher education in Asia and relationships to national systems are explored in reports from the Third International Seminar on Higher Education in Asia. The focus was China, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, Japan, and Thailand. Patterns by which national systems of higher education are differentiated…

  1. On Demand Internal Short Circuit Device Enables Verification of Safer, Higher Performing Battery Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcy, Eric; Keyser, Matthew


    The Internal Short Circuit (ISC) device enables critical battery safety verification. With the aluminum interstitial heat sink between the cells, normal trigger cells cannot be driven into thermal runaway without excessive temperature bias of adjacent cells. With an implantable, on-demand ISC device, thermal runaway tests show that the conductive heat sinks protected adjacent cells from propagation. High heat dissipation and structural support of Al heat sinks show high promise for safer, higher performing batteries.

  2. Internal brand co-creation: The experiential brand meaning cycle in higher education


    Punjaisri, K; Dean, D; Arroyo-Gamez, R; Pich, C


    Higher education (HE) institutions need to adapt to the global environment but the complex nature of HE highlights the role of marketing and the internal market in realizing the brand identity, creating a challenge for developing a shared brand meaning. This research explores how employees co-create brand meaning through their brand experiences and social interactions with management, colleagues and customers. Using a phenomenological approach, the findings highlight that brand meaning commen...

  3. A parent-report gender identity questionnaire for children. (United States)

    Johnson, Laurel L; Bradley, Susan J; Birkenfeld-Adams, Andrea S; Kuksis, Myra A Radzins; Maing, Dianne M; Mitchell, Janet N; Zucker, Kenneth J


    This paper reports on the psychometric properties of a 16-item parent-report Gender Identity Questionnaire, originally developed by P. H. Elizabeth and R. Green (1984), to aid in the assessment of children with potential problems in their gender identity development. The questionnaire, which covered aspects of the core phenomenology of gender identity disorder (GID), was completed by parents of gender-referred children (N = 325) and controls (siblings, clinic-referred, and nonreferred; N = 504), who ranged in age from 2.5-12 years (mean age, 7.6 years). Factor-analysis indicated that a one-factor solution, containing 14 of the 16 items with factor loadings > or =.30, best fit the data, accounting for 43.7% of the variance. The gender-referred children had a significantly more deviant total score than did the controls, with a large effect size of 3.70. The GIQ total score had negligible age effects, indicating that the questionnaire has utility for assessing change over time. The gender-referred children who met the complete DSM criteria for GID had a significantly more deviant total score than did the children who were subthreshold for GID, although the latter group had a mean score that was closer to the threshold cases than to the controls. With a specificity rate set at 95% for the controls, the sensitivity rate for the probands was 86.8%. It is concluded that this parent-report gender identity questionnaire has excellent psychometric properties and can serve as a useful screening device for front-line clinicians, for whom more extensive, expensive, and time-consuming assessment procedures may be precluded.

  4. Predictors of parent-reported quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Marion; Eisemann, Nora; Arnaud, Catherine


    AIM: Parent-reporting is needed to examine Quality of Life (QoL) of children with cerebral palsy (CP) across all severities. This study examines whether QoL changes between childhood and adolescence, and what predicts adolescent QoL. METHOD: SPARCLE is a European cohort study of children with CP...... domain). Associations were assessed using linear regression. RESULTS: Between childhood and adolescence, average QoL reduced in six domains (1.3-3.8 points, pChildhood...... QoL was a strong predictor of all domains of adolescent QoL. Severe impairments of motor function, IQ or communication predicted higher adolescent QoL on some domains; except that severe motor impairment predicted lower adolescent QoL on the Autonomy domain. More psychological problems and higher...

  5. The Kingston Allergy Birth Cohort: Exploring parentally reported respiratory outcomes through the lens of the exposome. (United States)

    North, Michelle L; Brook, Jeffrey R; Lee, Elizabeth Y; Omana, Vanessa; Daniel, Nadia M; Steacy, Lisa M; Evans, Greg J; Diamond, Miriam L; Ellis, Anne K


    The Kingston Allergy Birth Cohort (KABC) is a prenatally recruited cohort initiated to study the developmental origins of allergic disease. Kingston General Hospital was chosen for recruitment because it serves a population with notable diversity in environmental exposures relevant to the emerging concept of the exposome. To establish a profile of the KABC using the exposome framework and examine parentally reported respiratory symptoms to 2 years of age. Data on phase 1 of the cohort (n = 560 deliveries) were compiled, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine associations with respiratory symptoms. The KABC exhibits diversity within the 3 exposome domains of general external (socioeconomic status, rural or urban residence), specific external (cigarette smoke, breastfeeding, mold or dampness), and internal (respiratory health, gestational age), as well as significant associations between exposures from different domains. Significant associations emerged between parental reports of wheeze or cough without a cold and prenatal cigarette smoke exposure, mold or dampness in the home, and the use of air fresheners in the early-life home environment. Breastfeeding, older siblings, and increased gestational age were associated with decreased respiratory symptoms. The KABC is a unique cohort with diversity that can be leveraged for exposomics-based studies. This study found that all 3 domains of the exposome had effects on the respiratory health of KABC children. Ongoing studies using phase 1 of the KABC continue to explore the internal exposome through allergy skin testing and epigenetic analyses and the specific external domain through in-home environmental analyses, air pollution modeling, and ultimately potential convergences within and among domains. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Software requirements elicitation to support internal monitoring of quality assurance system for higher education in Indonesia (United States)

    Amalia, A.; Gunawan, D.; Hardi, S. M.; Rachmawati, D.


    The Internal Quality Assurance System (in Indonesian: SPMI (Sistem Penjaminan Mutu Internal) is a systemic activity of quality assurance of higher education in Indonesia. SPMI should be done by all higher education or universities in Indonesia based on the Regulation of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia Number 62 of 2016. Implementation of SPMI must refer to the principle of SPMI that is independent, standardize, accurate, well planned and sustainable, documented and systematic. To assist the SPMI cycle properly, universities need a supporting software to monitor all the activities of SPMI. But in reality, many universities are not optimal in building this SPMI monitoring system. One of the obstacles is the determination of system requirements in support of SPMI principles is difficult to achieve. In this paper, we observe the initial phase of the engineering requirements elicitation. Unlike other methods that collect system requirements from users and stakeholders, we find the system requirements of the SPMI principles from SPMI guideline book. The result of this paper can be used as a choice in determining SPMI software requirements. This paper can also be used by developers and users to understand the scenario of SPMI so that could overcome the problems of understanding between this two parties.

  7. Parental reports of behavioural outcome among paediatric leukaemia survivors in Malaysia: a single institution experience. (United States)

    Hamidah, Alias; Sham Marina, Mohd; Tamil, Azmi M; Loh, C-Khai; Zarina, Latiff A; Jamal, Rahman; Tuti Iryani, Mohd Daud; Ratnam, Vijayalakshmi C


    To determine the behavioural impact of chemotherapy in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treated with chemotherapy only and to identify treatment-related or sociodemography-related factors that might be associated with behavioural outcome. We examined 57 survivors of childhood ALL, who were off treatment for at least 2 years and were in remission, aged 4-18 years, and 221 unrelated healthy controls. The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) parent report was used either in English or in Bahasa Malaysia (the national language of Malaysia) to assess the behavioural outcome. Childhood ALL survivors had significantly higher scores on externalising behaviour on the CBCL parent report than did controls. Higher problem scores were found in ALL survivors with single parents on 'total problems' (P = 0.03) and subscales 'withdrawn' (P = 0.03), 'social problems' (P < 0.01) and 'delinquent behaviour' (P = 0.03) than in survivors with married parents. Significant associations were seen between a lower education level of the father and the variables representing internalising (withdrawn, anxious/depressed) and externalising (aggressive behaviour). We observed trends on higher scores in all scales in ALL survivors with single parents than in controls with single parents or with fathers with low education level, especially primary education only. Malaysian childhood ALL survivors had a significantly increased risk for externalising behavioural problems, and there was a trend towards increased risk of problems in many other behavioural scales. Understanding the sociocultural dimension of patients' health is important to be able to design the most appropriate remedy for problem behaviours detected in this multi-ethnic population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Thermo-Elastic Analysis of Internally Cooled Structures Using a Higher Order Theory (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob


    This paper presents the results of a study on the thermomechanical behavior of internally cooled silicon nitride structures. Silicon nitride is under consideration for elevated temperature aerospace engine applications. and techniques for lowering the operating temperature of structures composed of this material are under development. Lowering the operating temperature provides a large payoff in terms of fatigue life and may be accomplished through the use of thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) and the novel concept of included cooling channels. Herein, an in-depth study is performed on the behavior of a flame-impinged silicon nitride plate with a TBC and internal channels cooled by forced air. The analysis is performed using the higher order theory for functionally graded materials (HOTFGM), which has been developed through NASA Glenn Research Center funding over the past several years. HOTFGM was chosen over the traditional finite element approach as a prelude to an examination of functionally graded silicon nitride structures for which HOTFGM is ideally suited. To accommodate the analysis requirement% of the internally cooled plate problem, two crucial enhancements were made to the two-dimensional Cartesian-based version of HOTFGM. namely, incorporation of internal boundary capabilities and incorporation of convective boundary conditions. Results indicate the viability and large benefits of cooling the plate via forced air through cooling channels. Furthermore, cooling can positively impact the stress and displacement fields present in the plate, yielding an additional payoff in terms of fatigue life. Finally, a spin-off capability resulted from inclusion of internal boundaries within HOTFGM; the ability to simulate the thermo-elastic response of structures with curved surfaces. This new capability is demonstrated, and through comparison with an analytical solution, shown to be viable and accurate.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Tsarenko


    Full Text Available The purpose of research is evaluation of competitiveness of higher education of Ukraine in comparison with the foreign countries and under the influence of the globalization of market environment. The evaluation of the level of competitiveness of higher education in Ukraine on the modern stage under the influence of the globalization transformation and in the light of international comparisons is investigated insufficiently, which makes up for the purpose and objectives of this research. Methodology. The research is based on a comparison of the data, which are set out in the international reports about the competitiveness of countries in the world, in particular about the higher education. The analysis of the degree of researching the problem of competitiveness of higher education in the works of scientists is made in advance. Results of the research showed that the main components of pillar «High education and training» of the Global Competitiveness Index, namely: secondary education enrollment, tertiary education enrollment, quality of the education system, quality of math and science education, quality of management schools, internet access in schools, availability of research and training services and extent of staff training. The analysis of the dynamics of the indicator “Higher education and training” of Global Competitiveness Index is made for Ukraine and the other countries, which is showed the following: in the last five years the highest index of higher education and training belongs to Finland, the score of which, in the dynamics, significantly increases, concerning Ukraine, it among 132 countries takes 40th place, that is top 50 countries with the highest ranking of the competitiveness of higher education and training, this position for Ukraine is stable, with the exception of 2011, when the position was reduced to 51 in the rankings. Furthermore, in 2014 Ukraine’s rating has increased in comparison with other years. Then in

  10. Could we use parent report as a valid proxy of child report on anxiety, depression, and distress? A systematic investigation of father-mother-child triads in children successfully treated for leukemia. (United States)

    Abate, Cybelle; Lippé, Sarah; Bertout, Laurence; Drouin, Simon; Krajinovic, Maja; Rondeau, Émélie; Sinnett, Daniel; Laverdière, Caroline; Sultan, Serge


    Systematic assessment of emotional distress is recommended in after care. Yet, it is unclear if parent report may be used as a proxy of child report. The aim of this study was to assess agreements and differences and explore possible moderators of disagreement between child and parent ratings. Sixty-two young survivors treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (9-18 years) and both parents responded to the Beck Youth Inventory (anxiety and depression) and the distress rating scale on the child's status. Parents completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 on their own psychological status. Systematic analyses of agreement and differences were performed. Mother-child and father-child agreements were fair on anxiety, depression, and distress (median intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.37). Differences between parents and children were medium sized (median d = 0.55) with parents giving higher scores than their children on anxiety, depression, and distress. Mothers reported distress more frequently than fathers (39 vs. 17%) when children reported none. The child being female and lower parental income were associated with lower agreement in fathers when rating child distress. Higher levels of parental psychological symptoms were consistently associated with lower agreement. Parent-child differences when rating adolescent survivors' difficulties may be more important than previously thought. Parent report probably cannot be considered as a valid proxy of older child report on such internalized domains as anxiety, depression, or distress in the after-care clinic. Parents' report is also likely to be influenced by their own mood, a factor that should be corrected for when using their report. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Competitiveness, Diversification and the International Higher Education Cash Flow: The EU's Higher Education Discourse amidst the Challenges of Globalisation (United States)

    Mayo, Peter


    This paper focuses on the EU discourse on Higher Education and analyses this discourse within the context of globalisation. Importance is attached to the issues of lifelong learning, competitiveness, diversification, entrepreneurship, access, knowledge society, modernisation, quality assurance, innovation and creativity, governance and business-HE…

  12. An International Orientation on Institutional Strategies and Governmental Policies for the Use of ICT in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wende, Marijk; Beerkens, Eric


    This article provides an international comparative overview of institutional strategies, collaboration patterns and governmental policies related to the use of ICT in higher education. It has been produced as part of an international comparative study on the use of ICT in higher education. A study

  13. Sequential Schooling or Lifelong Learning? International Frameworks through the Lens of English Higher Professional and Vocational Education (United States)

    Lester, Stan


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review three international frameworks, including the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), in relation to one country's higher professional and vocational education system. Design/methodology/approach: The frameworks were examined in the context of English higher work-related…

  14. Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandrina Cristia

    Full Text Available Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child's use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children's employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes.

  15. Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood. (United States)

    Cristia, Alejandrina; Seidl, Amanda


    Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child's use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children's employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes.

  16. Parental Reports of Prodromal Psychopathology in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder. (United States)

    Hernandez, Mariely; Marangoni, Ciro; Grant, Marie C; Estrada, Jezelle; Faedda, Gianni L


    Early psychopathology in children diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder (BD) remains poorly characterized. Parental retrospective reports provide helpful details on the earliest manifestations and their evolution over time. These symptoms occur early in the course of BD, often before a formal diagnosis is made and/or treatment is implemented, and are of great importance to early recognition and prevention. Parents of pre-pubertal children and adolescents with DSM-IV diagnoses of BD attending an outpatient mood disorders clinic provided retrospective ratings of 37 symptoms of child psychopathology. Stability and comorbidity of diagnoses were evaluated, and severity of symptoms for each subject was assessed by identifying the earliest occurrence of the reported symptoms causing impairment. Severe mood instability, temper tantrums, anxiety symptoms, sleep disturbances and aggression were among the most common signs of psychopathology reported in children diagnosed with BD before puberty. Symptoms were already apparent in the first three years in 28%, and formal diagnoses were made before the age of 8 y in the majority of cases. Retrospective parental reports of early symptoms of psychopathology in pre-pubertal children with BD revealed a very early occurrence of affective precursors (irritability and mood dysregulation) and clinical risk factors like impulsive aggression and anxiety that can precede the syndromal onset of mania by several years. These findings support previous reports suggesting a progression of symptoms from abnormal, non-specific presentations to sub-threshold and finally syndromal BD. The importance of early identification and intervention is discussed.

  17. Understanding the Home Math Environment and Its Role in Predicting Parent Report of Children’s Math Skills (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Purpura, David J.


    There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children’s math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children’s math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children’s skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills. PMID:28005925

  18. The impact of an international online accreditation system on pedagogical models and strategies in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garista Patrizia


    Full Text Available Health promotion practice is characterised by a diverse workforce drawn from a broad range of disciplines, bringing together an extensive breadth of knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes and values stemming from biomedical and social science frameworks. One of the goals of the CompHP Project was to ensure that higher education training would not only reach competency-based standards necessary for best practice, but also facilitate mobility within the EU and beyond through the accreditation of professional practitioners and educational courses. As a result, higher education institutions in Italy and elsewhere are requested to shift the focus from the definition of learning objectives to the identification of teaching strategies and assessment measures to guarantee that students have acquired the competencies identified. This requires reflection on the pedagogical models underpinning course curricula and teaching–learning approaches in higher education, not only to meet the competency-based standards but also to incorporate overarching transversal competencies inherent to the profession and, more specifically, to the online accreditation procedure. Professionals applying for registration require competence in foreign languages, metacognition and be digitally literate. The article provides a brief overview of the development and structure of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education online accreditation system and proposes a pedagogical reflection on course curricula.

  19. Child and Parent Report of Parenting as Predictors of Substance Use and Suspensions from School (United States)

    Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Thompson, Ronald W.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Gross, Thomas J.


    This study examined how child and parent reports of parenting were related to early adolescent substance use and school suspensions. Data were from two time points 6 months apart on 321 families with an eighth-grade student attending one of five schools in the Pacific Northwest. Child- and parent-report measures of family management practices were…

  20. Educating Higher Education Students for Innovative Economies: What International Data Tell Us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Avvisati


    Full Text Available As innovation increasingly fuels economic growth, higher education institutions and systems face the challenge of equipping students with the skills required by innovative economies. Using two international surveys of tertiary education graduates five years after their graduation, we show that the innovative, tertiary-educated workforce comprises a mix of graduates holding degrees from all disciplines. The contribution to innovation of different graduates varies by type of innovation. When they assess the strong and weak points of their university education, graduates give a mixed picture of the quality of the education they have received. We then link the propensity to participate in innovation to the relative emphasis on theory and practice in university programmes and conclude by highlighting the importance of a competence-based approach to curriculum and pedagogy

  1. In Defence of International Comparative Studies. on the Analytical and Explanatory Power of the Nation State in International Comparative Higher Education Research (United States)

    Kosmützky, Anna


    Higher education is undergoing a process of globalization and new realities of a globalized higher education world are emerging. Globalization also has a profound impact on higher education research. Global and transnational topics are theoretically and empirically elaborated and seem on the rise, whereas the international comparative outlook…

  2. Internal-wave reflection from uniform slopes: higher harmonics and Coriolis effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gerkema


    Full Text Available Weakly nonlinear reflection of internal waves from uniform slopes produces higher harmonics and mean fields; the expressions are here derived for constant stratification and with Coriolis effects fully included, i.e. the horizontal component of the earth rotation vector (referred to as 'non-traditional'' is taken into account. Uniformity in one of the horizontal directions is assumed. It is shown that solutions can be as readily derived with as without ; hence there is no need to make the so-called Traditional Approximation. Examples of reflecting internal-wave beams are presented for super-inertial, inertial and sub-inertial frequencies. The problem of resonant and non-resonant forcing of the second harmonic is studied for single plane waves; unlike under the Traditional Approximation, the problem of reflection from a horizontal bottom no longer forms a singular case. Non-traditional effects are favourable to resonant forcing at near-tidal rather than near-inertial frequencies, and generally increase the intensity of the second harmonic. Strong stratification tends to suppress non-traditional effects, but a near-total suppression is only attained for high values of stratification that are characteristic of the seasonal thermocline; in most parts of the ocean, non-traditional effects can therefore be expected to be important.

  3. Higher Fluid Balance Increases the Risk of Death From Sepsis: Results From a Large International Audit. (United States)

    Sakr, Yasser; Rubatto Birri, Paolo Nahuel; Kotfis, Katarzyna; Nanchal, Rahul; Shah, Bhagyesh; Kluge, Stefan; Schroeder, Mary E; Marshall, John C; Vincent, Jean-Louis


    Excessive fluid therapy in patients with sepsis may be associated with risks that outweigh any benefit. We investigated the possible influence of early fluid balance on outcome in a large international database of ICU patients with sepsis. Observational cohort study. Seven hundred and thirty ICUs in 84 countries. All adult patients admitted between May 8 and May 18, 2012, except admissions for routine postoperative surveillance. For this analysis, we included only the 1,808 patients with an admission diagnosis of sepsis. Patients were stratified according to quartiles of cumulative fluid balance 24 hours and 3 days after ICU admission. ICU and hospital mortality rates were 27.6% and 37.3%, respectively. The cumulative fluid balance increased from 1,217 mL (-90 to 2,783 mL) in the first 24 hours after ICU admission to 1,794 mL (-951 to 5,108 mL) on day 3 and decreased thereafter. The cumulative fluid intake was similar in survivors and nonsurvivors, but fluid balance was less positive in survivors because of higher fluid output in these patients. Fluid balances became negative after the third ICU day in survivors but remained positive in nonsurvivors. After adjustment for possible confounders in multivariable analysis, the 24-hour cumulative fluid balance was not associated with an increased hazard of 28-day in-hospital death. However, there was a stepwise increase in the hazard of death with higher quartiles of 3-day cumulative fluid balance in the whole population and after stratification according to the presence of septic shock. In this large cohort of patients with sepsis, higher cumulative fluid balance at day 3 but not in the first 24 hours after ICU admission was independently associated with an increase in the hazard of death.

  4. An Exploration of the Relationship between International Students and Their Advisors in U.S. Higher Education Institution


    Mitra, Shreya


    International students in U.S. academic settings are facing barriers in the path of their academic accomplishments. In higher educational institutions, students work very closely with their academic advisors to solve a definite problem. Dependence on the academic advisor is much more when the advisee is international. Keeping these points in mind, one of the factors that might impact academic environment for an international student is the bonding that they share with their advisor. This rese...

  5. "Empty Signifiers" and "Dreamy Ideals": Perceptions of the "International University" among Higher Education Students and Staff at a British University (United States)

    Schartner, Alina; Cho, Yoonjoo


    This paper reports on a mixed-methods case study investigating how higher education staff and students understand, experience and envision the "international university." As it is becoming clear that international student mobility is not in itself a panacea for universities seeking to internationalise, "internationalisation at…

  6. International Students' Course Satisfaction and Continuance Behavioral Intention in Higher Education Setting: An Empirical Assessment in Malaysia (United States)

    Shahijan, Milad Kalantari; Rezaei, Sajad; Amin, Muslim


    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of perceived brand orientation, intercultural friendship, and university reputation on international students' course satisfaction and continuance behavioral intention towards the higher education in Malaysia. A total of 348 questionnaires, administered on international students, were collected to…

  7. Realizing Internationalization at Home in Korean Higher Education: Promoting Domestic Students' Interaction with International Students and Intercultural Competence (United States)

    Jon, Jae-Eun


    Increased international student mobility worldwide necessitates studying its impact on students, particularly for domestic students who have been neglected in research but who are greater in number than mobile students. It is also important that higher education institutions facilitate domestic students' relationships with international students…

  8. Geographic, Racial/Ethnic, and Sociodemographic Disparities in Parent-Reported Receipt of Family-Centered Care among US Children. (United States)

    Azuine, Romuladus E; Singh, Gopal K; Ghandour, Reem M; Kogan, Michael D


    This study examined geographic, racial/ethnic, and sociodemographic disparities in parental reporting of receipt of family-centered care (FCC) and its components among US children aged 0-17 years. We used the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health to estimate the prevalence and odds of not receiving FCC by covariates. Based on parent report, 33.4% of US children did not receive FCC. Children in Arizona, Mississippi, Nevada, California, New Jersey, Virginia, Florida, and New York had at least 1.51 times higher adjusted odds of not receiving FCC than children in Vermont. Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic children had 2.11 and 1.58 times higher odds, respectively, of not receiving FCC than non-Hispanic White children. Children from non-English-speaking households had 2.23 and 2.35 times higher adjusted odds of not receiving FCC overall and their doctors not spending enough time in their care than children from English-speaking households, respectively. Children from low-education and low-income households had a higher likelihood of not receiving FCC. The clustering of children who did not receive FCC and its components in several Southern and Western US states, as well as children from poor, uninsured, and publicly insured and of minority background, is a cause for concern in the face of federal policies to reduce health care disparities.

  9. Portfolio Practices in Higher Education in Norway in an International Perspective: Macro-, Meso- and Micro-Level Influences (United States)

    Dysthe, Olga; Engelsen, Knut Steinar


    The point of departure for this article is the "chameleon" aspect of portfolios and the diversity of portfolio models and practices in higher education on the international arena today. Our aim is to investigate the contextual character of this diversity by using Norwegian higher education as an example and to show how macro-level…

  10. Improving Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. International Conference (West Berlin, Germany, September 28 - October 10, 1981). (United States)

    Berendt, Brigitte

    A report of a 1981 conference on improving teaching and learning in higher education sponsored by the German Foundation for International Development is presented. Topics include the following: problems of higher education specific to Africa and the Federal Republic of Germany, common problems, approaches to dealing with problems, units for higher…

  11. Parental depression and child well-being: Young children's self-reports helped addressing biases in parent reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Ringoot (Ank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); P. So (Pety); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); P.W. Jansen (Pauline)


    textabstractObjectives Effects of maternal and paternal depression on child development are typically evaluated using parental reports of child problems. Yet, parental reports may be biased. Methods In a population-based cohort, parents reported lifetime depression (N = 3,178) and depressive


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Д. Антонюк


    Full Text Available The object for research in this article are departments of international connections of the Ukrainian  higher educational  institutions, becoming of which happened at the beginning of 90th of the ХХ th century. International cooperation in the field of education is an important norm of the Bologna Declaration, as actually facilitates increase of mobility of teachers and students, independence of students, their level of self-organization.The purpose of this article is an analysis of the international cooperation departments activities of higher educational institutions of Ukraine as an effective mechanism for the integration of Ukrainian higher education system in the global educational community.Making preparations of the article we conformed to scientific methods of cognition, and also historical methods. We succeeded in  analysis of activity of international connections departments of  higher educational institutions thanks to using of methods of search, analysis and synthesis of empiric material.With accession of Ukraine to the Council of Europe and joining to the Bologna Declaration, there emerged a need for the formation of new structural subdivisions in the higher educational institutions  - departments of international connections.Contacts with higher educational establishments of foreign countries grew into an important resource for rise of the employees qualification by realization of common scientific researches, organization of internship of faculty and student staff.Some features depending on the specific of  personnels training and profile of university take place in activity of departments of international connections of every higher educational institution. However directions and tasks in the general measuring remain identical for the departments of international connections of all  universities.Departments of international connections are the important centers of international activity of higher educational institutions

  13. Convergent validity of actigraphy with polysomnography and parent reports when measuring sleep in children with Down syndrome. (United States)

    Esbensen, A J; Hoffman, E K; Stansberry, E; Shaffer, R


    There is a need for rigorous measures of sleep in children with Down syndrome as sleep is a substantial problem in this population and there are barriers to obtaining the gold standard polysomnography (PSG). PSG is cost-prohibitive when measuring treatment effects in some clinical trials, and children with Down syndrome may not cooperate with undergoing a PSG. Minimal information is available on the validity of alternative methods of assessing sleep in children with Down syndrome, such as actigraphy and parent ratings. Our study examined the concurrent and convergent validity of different measures of sleep, including PSG, actigraphy and parent reports of sleep among children with Down syndrome. A clinic (n = 27) and a community (n = 47) sample of children with Down syndrome were examined. In clinic, children with Down syndrome wore an actigraph watch during a routine PSG. In the community, children with Down syndrome wore an actigraph watch for a week at home at night as part of a larger study on sleep and behaviour. Their parent completed ratings of the child's sleep during that same week. Actigraph watches demonstrated convergent validity with PSG when measuring a child with Down syndrome's total amount of sleep time, total wake time after sleep onset and sleep period efficiency. In contrast, actigraph watches demonstrated poor correlations with parent reports of sleep, and with PSG when measuring the total time in bed and total wake episodes. Actigraphy, PSG and parent ratings of sleep demonstrated poor concurrent validity with clinical diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea. Our current data suggest that actigraph watches demonstrate convergent validity and are sensitive to measuring certain sleep constructs (duration, efficiency) in children with Down syndrome. However, parent reports, such as the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, may be measuring other sleep constructs. These findings highlight the importance of selecting measures of sleep related to

  14. Comparison of Parent Report and Direct Assessment of Child Skills in Toddlers. (United States)

    Miller, Lauren E; Perkins, Kayla A; Dai, Yael G; Fein, Deborah A


    There are unique challenges associated with measuring development in early childhood. Two primary sources of information are used: parent report and direct assessment. Each approach has strengths and weaknesses, particularly when used to identify and diagnose developmental delays. The present study aimed to evaluate consistency between parent report and direct assessment of child skills in toddlers with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) across receptive language, expressive language, and fine motor domains. 109 children were evaluated at an average age of two years; data on child skills were collected via parent report and direct assessment. Children were classified into three groups (i.e., ASD, Other Developmental Disorder, or Typical Development) based on DSM-IV-TR diagnosis. Mixed design ANOVAs, with data source as a within subjects factor and diagnostic group as a between subjects factor, were used to assess agreement. Chi square tests of agreement were then used to examine correspondence at the item level. Results suggested that parent report of language and fine motor skills did not significantly differ from direct assessment, and this finding held across diagnostic groups. Item level analyses revealed that, in most cases of significant disagreement, parents reported a skill as present, but it was not seen on direct testing. Results indicate that parents are generally reliable reporters of child language and fine motor abilities in toddlerhood, even when their children have developmental disorders such as ASD. However, the fullest picture may be obtained by using both parent report and direct assessment.

  15. Shifting Patterns of International Higher Education: Ebb and Flow or Sea Change? (United States)

    Middlehurst, Robin


    In November 2012, the US Department of Education published its first-ever "fully articulated international strategy." Its two strategic goals are to strengthen US education and advance the international priorities of the US through increasing the global competencies of students, learning from other countries, and engaging in education…

  16. Counting Family: Making the Family of International Students Visible in Higher Education Policy and Practice (United States)

    Doyle, Stephanie; Loveridge, Judith; Faamanatu-Eteuati, Niusila


    This article focuses on a significant group of postgraduate international students overlooked by institutions and policymakers, namely those with accompanying partners and children. The economic importance of international students to Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America is highlighted. It is argued…

  17. International Students' Perceptions of Race and Socio-Economic Status in an American Higher Education Landscape (United States)

    Ritter, Zachary S.


    International students add a great deal of cultural and intellectual diversity to college campuses, but they also bring racial stereotypes and socio-economic status hierarchies that can affect campus climate. Forty-seven interviews with Chinese, Japanese, and South Korean international students were conducted. Results indicated that a majority of…

  18. Ethical Issues in Transnational Higher Education: The Case of International Branch Campuses (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen


    The establishment of an international branch campus can impact upon a diverse range of stakeholders in both home and host countries. Many of the arguments against international branch campuses are based on ethical issues, such as the lack of academic freedom and civil liberties in host countries. Ignoring ethical issues may deny institutions the…

  19. Economic impacts of higher oil and gas prices. The role of international trade for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Christian; Meyer, Bernd


    The analysis concentrates on direct and indirect price increases, induced shifts in international trade and structural changes in the oil importing economies. The paper at hand asks, whether a stabilizing effect via international trade and domestic structural change on the GDP of oil importing countries can be observed, if a permanent oil price increase occurs. At least for Germany, structural change from consumer goods to investment goods industry and an improvement of international competitiveness limit negative impacts of increased energy prices. Analysis is based on the extensive and disaggregated global GINFORS model and the detailed INFORGE model for the German economy. (author)

  20. Learning for Entrepreneurship in Heterogeneous Groups: Experiences From an International, Interdisciplinary Higher Education Student Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, T.; Popov, V.; Oganisjana, K.; Täks, M.


    Although entrepreneurship education (EE) has gained popularity internationally, empirical work is scarce on the factors which influence the underlying learning process. This article presents the experiences of a European summer school where factors which contribute to entrepreneurial learning in

  1. Convergence between parent report and direct assessment of language and attention in culturally and linguistically diverse children. (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy


    Parent report is commonly used to assess language and attention in children for research and clinical purposes. It is therefore important to understand the convergent validity of parent-report tools in comparison to direct assessments of language and attention. In particular, cultural and linguistic background may influence this convergence. In this study a group of six- to eight-year old children (N = 110) completed direct assessments of language and attention and their parents reported on the same areas. Convergence between assessment types was explored using correlations. Possible influences of ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic) and of parent report language (English or Spanish) were explored using hierarchical linear regression. Correlations between parent report and direct child assessments were significant for both language and attention, suggesting convergence between assessment types. Ethnicity and parent report language did not moderate the relationships between direct child assessments and parent report tools for either attention or language.

  2. International education for peace in higher education : promoting cultures of peace in Japan


    中村, 耕二; Koji, Nakamura


    The kernel of international education is to create peace-loving citizens capable of participating in building a peaceful and sustainable society. Integrated and systematic education for peace can achieve a shared culture of peace. In the new millennium, as the world has become increasingly interdependent and interactive, peace education seeks to harness the power and intellect of future generations in the hope of building a sustainable culture of peace together. International education for pe...

  3. The child play behavior and activity questionnaire: a parent-report measure of childhood gender-related behavior in China. (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam; Xie, Dong


    Boys and girls establish relatively stable gender stereotyped behavior patterns by middle childhood. Parent-report questionnaires measuring children's gender-related behavior enable researchers to conduct large-scale screenings of community samples of children. For school-aged children, two parent-report instruments, the Child Game Participation Questionnaire (CGPQ) and the Child Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire (CBAQ), have long been used for measuring children's sex-dimorphic behaviors in Western societies, but few studies have been conducted using these measures for Chinese populations. The current study aimed to empirically examine and modify the two instruments for their applications to Chinese society. Parents of 486 Chinese boys and 417 Chinese girls (6-12 years old) completed a questionnaire comprising items from the CGPQ and CBAQ, and an additional 14 items specifically related to Chinese gender-specific games. Items revealing gender differences in a Chinese sample were identified and used to construct a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ). Four new scales were generated through factor analysis: a Gender Scale, a Girl Typicality Scale, a Boy Typicality Scale, and a Cross-Gender Scale (CGS). These scales had satisfactory internal reliabilities and large effect sizes for gender. The CPBAQ is believed to be a promising instrument for measuring children's gender-related behavior in China.

  4. Student Recruitment for the Mobile Generation : An Exploratory Study of Mobile Marketing Practices in the International Higher Education Industry


    Zinn, Marian; Johansson, Helen


    Background: In an increasingly market-driven and global higher education industry, characterized by growing international competition and the emergence of disruptive mobile technologies, higher education institutions (HEIs) are challenged to adopt innovative ways of marketing for student recruitment to sustain student enrollment numbers. Within this new landscape the concept of mobile marketing for student recruitment has become an important issue for HEIs. Mobile devices are playing an incre...

  5. Cost Economies in the Provision of Higher Education for International Students: Australian Evidence (United States)

    Zhang, Liang-Cheng; Worthington, Andrew C.; Hu, Mingyan


    In the past few decades, the additional revenues available via higher education exports (through both relatively higher prices and increased enrolments) have attracted the attention of providers in many developed countries, not least in Anglophone countries like the USA, the UK, Canada and Australia. However, while the revenue case is strong, the…

  6. Professional development of teaching staff for the international higher education environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Els; van der Poel, Marcel H.

    The professional development of teaching staff in relation to the internationalisation of higher education institutions has not received the attention that it deserves from managers in higher education. This requires an HRM policy that explicitly addresses the issue of competence development of

  7. The Effects of Employee Commitment in Transnational Higher Education: The Case of International Branch Campuses (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen; Butt, Muhammad Mohsin; Annabi, Carrie Amani


    Higher education is a labor intensive activity and strong organizational performance depends upon employee commitment. This study analyses antecedents and consequences of employee commitment in universities that are involved in transnational higher education, with a focus on identifying differences between the employees at home and foreign branch…

  8. Understanding Taiwanese Students' Decision-Making Factors regarding Australian International Higher Education (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Huei; Zimitat, Craig


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the motivators for Taiwanese students to study higher education in a western society. The behavioural motivations of Taiwanese students intending to undertake higher education in Australia and the USA were analysed using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Design/methodology/approach:…

  9. Ethical Internationalisation in Higher Education: Interfaces with International Development and Sustainability (United States)

    Pashby, Karen; de Oliveira Andreotti, Vanessa


    This analysis is situated within a larger project focusing on ethics and internationalisation in higher education. Internationalisation is occurring at a fast pace and encompasses overlapping and contradictory aims largely framed by market imperatives. At the same time, institutions of higher education increasingly promote sustainability. We use a…

  10. International mobility placements enable students and staff in Higher Education to enhance transversal and employability-related skills. (United States)

    Standley, Henrietta J


    Internationalization has commanded an ever-more prominent position in higher education over recent years, and is now firmly entrenched. While academia has long been outward looking-international research collaborations, conferences and student exchanges are well-established practices-it is relatively recently that internationalization has become a goal in its own right, rather than a consequence of normal academic activity. There are multiple interdependent drivers behind this: a focus on graduate employability and development of broad competencies and transferable skills in addition to subject-specific training, 'international awareness' being confirmed as a graduate attribute that is highly valued by employers, the availability of detailed information enabling prospective students to choose between Higher Education Institutions on the basis of their international opportunities and graduate employment rates, increasing competition between Institutions to attract the best students and to ascend national and international league tables, and (both driving and reflecting these trends) national policy frameworks. This minireview focuses on two aspects of internationalization of direct relevance to microbiology students and academic staff in a typical Higher Education Institution: student research placements overseas, and the impact of international mobility on teaching practice and the student experience. Practical strategies for developing intercultural awareness and enhancing employability are highlighted. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  11. Different Is Not Deficient: Contradicting Stereotypes of Chinese International Students in US Higher Education (United States)

    Heng, Tang T.


    Mainland Chinese students form the largest international tertiary student population in the USA, yet most discourse around them tends to adopt a deficit perspective. Adopting a hybridized sociocultural framework, this qualitative study follows 18 Chinese undergraduates over one year to examine how challenges they face are influenced by…

  12. Assessing International Opportunities in Higher Education: A Matrix-Based Assessment Tool (United States)

    Kaufman, Sophie R.; Ekstrom, David N.; Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie M.


    The pressure on academic institutions to develop sustainable programs is felt both internally and externally. Owing to shrinking operating budgets, universities will only support programs that relate directly to their mission and that are financially viable. External expectations come from funding agencies that typically require institutions to be…

  13. Faculty Perspective on Competency Development in Higher Education: An International Study (United States)

    Velasco, Paloma Julia; Learreta, Begoña; Kober, Claudia; Tan, Irene


    The purpose of this research is to establish common ground on how faculty development should be instituted and the needs it should address on an international level, with its major focus being the development of competencies. A survey was developed and distributed to a sample of 764 university teaching professionals. Results show that 90% find…

  14. Faculty of Color in Higher Education: Exploring the Intersections of Identity, Impostorship, and Internalized Racism (United States)

    Dancy, T. Elon, II.; Jean-Marie, Gaetane


    Mentoring for faculty of color is critical given their underrepresentation in American colleges and universities. However, the ways in which faculty of color internalize racialized oppression and how it affects their success remains understudied. In this manuscript, the authors juxtapose a literature synthesis concerning faculty of color against a…

  15. Challenges Facing Asian International Graduate Students in the US: Pedagogical Considerations in Higher Education (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Yuan; Scherz, Susan Day


    Non-Native English Speaking (NNES) international students attending colleges and universities in the United States often encounter difficulties in adjusting to their new cultural environment. In addition, they often struggle with academic language while learning the content and conceptual structures of various graduate level disciplines. This…

  16. Higher Education Preparation and Decision-Making Trends among International Students (United States)

    Bista, Krishna; Dagley, Amy


    This paper examines how international students obtain information about college in the United States when they are in their home countries. The findings reveal that the majority of students visit university websites to obtain information regarding various programs. Students also receive scholarships and/or assistantships from the university,…

  17. Legitimacy in Cross-Border Higher Education: Identifying Stakeholders of International Branch Campuses (United States)

    Farrugia, Christine A.; Lane, Jason E.


    When colleges and universities set up outposts such as international branch campuses (IBCs) in foreign countries, the literature suggests that the success of that outpost can be tied to its ability to build its own legitimacy. This article investigates the process of legitimacy building by IBCs through identifying who IBCs view as their salient…

  18. Entry into working life : Internal migration and the job match quality of higher-educated graduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, Viktor; Cörvers, Frank

    We estimate the impact of internal migration on job-match quality for recent Dutch university and college graduates. We find positive yet modest wage returns. After controlling for the self-selection of migrants with an IV approach, this effect is no longer significant for university graduates and

  19. Cultural Continuity in EFL Teaching in International Higher Education: From a Discourse Perspective of Chinese Learners (United States)

    Yang, Wenhui; Chen, Linhan


    This paper presents an ethnographic study of the application of cultural continuity in English as Foreign Language (EFL) teaching in International College, GDUFS China. Based on Holliday's (2001) findings and Brown's (2000) twelve "manifestos" together with interviews of the Chinese learners, the authors investigate the discoursal…

  20. "Home Away from Home"? How International Students Handle Difficult and Negative Experiences in American Higher Education (United States)

    Yan, Lu; Pei, Shaohua


    International students attending American universities often receive confusing messages: on one hand, for their contribution to the U.S. economy and fostering of domestic students' multicultural awareness; on the other, they are often targets of hostility and bias on and off campus. This qualitative phenomenological study examined 12 international…

  1. The Relevance of Learning Styles for International Pedagogy in Higher Education (United States)

    Eaves, Mina


    As the number of international students and transnational education agreements continue to rise at an unprecedented rate in many countries, an area of research that continues to lag behind is how far students' learning styles can adapt to different educational contexts. Learning styles research has recently developed from simplistic yet popular…

  2. LMS Moodle: Distance International Education in Cooperation of Higher Education Institutions of Different Countries (United States)

    Kerimbayev, N.; Kultan, J.; Abdykarimova, S.; Akramova, A.


    The development of international cooperation requires cooperation in the sphere of education. An enhanced sharing of experience in the sphere of practical teaching activities implies the increase of the quality of teaching process and of scientific cooperation. Sharing of experience in educational activities implies understanding among…

  3. Chinese International Students' and Faculty Members' Views of Plagiarism in Higher Education (United States)

    Grigg, Alan


    As the enrollment of Chinese international students (CIS) increased at a private institution in the Midwest, so did suspected cases of plagiarism. This study addressed the problem of how faculty members grappled with CIS' interpretation and application of Western-based views of plagiarism. The purpose of the study was to identify similarities and…

  4. Entry into working life: internal migration and the job match quality of higher-educated graduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, V.; Cörvers, Frank


    We estimate the impact of internal migration on job-match quality for recent Dutch university and college graduates. We find positive yet modest wage returns. After controlling for the self-selection of migrants with an IV approach, this effect is no longer significant for university graduates and

  5. French and Italian National Unions of Students Confronted with International Policymaking on Higher Education (United States)

    Genicot, Geneviève


    Similarities between French and Italian political culture of student representation include a conflictual culture in a weak national system of intermediation of interests, and a mimetic relationship with national conflictual party politics. New international topics, such as the Bologna Process or the growing commodification of education, have…

  6. International Organizations (IOs), Epistemic Tools of Influence, and the Colonial Geopolitics of Knowledge Production in Higher Education Policy (United States)

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.


    While other scholars have analyzed the way that international organizations (IOs) in higher education policy may contribute to neocolonial domination, this paper illuminates not only on "how" IOs' epistemic activities promulgate one-size fit all solutions, but centers the colonial structures of knowledge/power that inform the…

  7. The New Sphere of International Student Education in Chinese Higher Education: A Focus on English-Medium Degree Programs (United States)

    Kuroda, Chiharu


    This empirical study explores the current features of English-medium instructed master's degree programs for international students (EMIMDPs-ISs) in Chinese higher education. Since the mid-2000s, a significant number of Chinese universities have proactively engaged in establishing English-medium instructed degree programs for international…

  8. Incorporating Mind Maps into Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: My Experience as an International University Lecturer (United States)

    Guo, Xin


    This article seeks to share the author's teaching experience as an international lecturer in a UK university and in particular promote the use of Mind Maps (MM) in teaching and learning in higher education. The audience to whom the article could be beneficial is university lecturers who either are in their early teaching career or face challenges…

  9. Using International Accreditation in Higher Education to Effect Changes in Organisational Culture: A Case Study from a Turkish University (United States)

    Collins, Ian


    International accreditation is now a significant yet controversial issue in global higher education. This case study looked at the experience of an intensive English language preparatory programme within a university in Turkey going through an accreditation by a foreign institution, and assessed to what extent the project managed to foster changes…

  10. Exploring the Experiences of International Students in UK Higher Education: Possibilities and Limits of Interculturality in University Life (United States)

    Schweisfurth, Michele; Gu, Qing


    This article is based on a two-year multi-method research project, funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council, investigating the experiences of international undergraduate students in UK higher education. In investigating the influences on their experiences and the strategies that students employ, the study has also revealed something…

  11. The Methodological Approaches to Formation of the Internal System of Quality of Education of Higher Education Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doronin Stepan A.


    Full Text Available The necessity of creation of a national conception of formation of the internal system of quality assurance of higher education institutions with obligatory introduction of methodological approach in its structure is substantiated; the variant of its terminological provision with clarification of the content of concepts of «quality of education», «internal system of quality of education», «methodological approach» is proposed; positioning of the approach in the system of other standard scientific instruments (method, methodology, program, algorithm is done; arguments for the orientation of the methodology of formation of the internal system of quality assurance of higher education institutions towards the socio-cultural model of paradigm are provided; a hierarchical classification of methodological approaches with allocation of the philosophical, scientific, concrete-scientific, technological levels and the characteristics of their purpose and contents is presented.

  12. The Parenting Anxious Kids Ratings Scale-Parent Report (PAKRS-PR): Initial Scale Development and Psychometric Properties. (United States)

    Flessner, Christopher A; Murphy, Yolanda E; Brennan, Elle; D'Auria, Alexandra


    Developmental models of pediatric anxiety posit multiple, maladaptive parenting behaviors as potential risk factors. Despite this, a standardized means of assessing multiple of these practices (i.e., anxiogenic parenting) in a comprehensive and efficient manner are lacking. In Study 1531 parents of children 7-17 years old completed an online survey via Amazon Mechanical Turk. In Study 2, a separate community sample (N = 109; 9-17 years old) was recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment battery as part of a larger study. All parents (Study 1 and 2 samples) completed the Parenting Anxious Kids Ratings Scale-Parent Report (PAKRS-PR), a measurement tool designed to assess anxiogenic parenting. Factor analysis conducted as part of Study 1 revealed a 32-item scale consisting of five factors: conflict, overinvolvement, accommodation/beliefs, modeling, and emotional warmth/support. Four of these factors were significantly correlated with parent-report of anxiety severity. Within Study 2, the parents of children diagnosed with an anxiety or related disorder reported significantly higher levels of anxiogenic parenting practices as compared to the parents of healthy controls. The PAKRS-PR and respective subscales demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity in both the internet (Study 1) and community (Study 2) samples. The PAKRS-PR may be a beneficial multidimensional parenting scale for use among anxious youths.

  13. Higher prices at Canadian gas pumps: international crude oil prices or local market concentration? An empirical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anindya Sen


    There is little consensus on whether higher retail gasoline prices in Canada are the result of international crude oil price fluctuations or local market power exercised by large vertically-integrated firms. I find that although both increasing local market concentration and higher average monthly wholesale prices are positively and significantly associated with higher retail prices, wholesale prices are more important than local market concentration. Similarly, crude oil prices are more important than the number of local wholesalers in determining wholesale prices. These results suggest that movements in gasoline prices are largely the result of input price fluctuations rather than local market structure. (author)

  14. Integrating international student mobility in work-based higher education: The case of Germany


    Graf, Lukas; Powell, Justin J.W.; Fortwengel, Johann; Bernhard, Nadine


    Dual study programs are hybrid forms of work-based higher education that have expanded very rapidly in Germany—a country traditionally considered a key model in both higher education (HE) and vocational education and training (VET). The continued expansion of these hybrid programs increasingly raises questions if, how, and why they may be internationalized. Although comparative research suggests that this could be challenging due to the uniqueness of the German education and training system, ...

  15. The Travel Behaviour of Chinese International Students in Higher Education in Norway


    Lantai, Terry; Dospinescu, Cătălina


    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Understanding tourist behaviour is one of the fundamental aspects of tourism industry and business operators. For tourism organisations, “such types of knowledge will provide tourism organisations with invaluable market intelligence which can be reflected in the organisation’s marketing strategy” (Cohen et al., 2014, p. 898). Within tourism consumer behaviour research, many segments remain largely under-researched (Cohen et al.,...

  16. Impacts of Institutional Characteristics on International Students' Choice of Private Higher Education Institutions in Malaysia (United States)

    Migin, Melissa W.; Falahat, Mohammad; Yajid, Mohd Shukri Ab; Khatibi, Ali


    In recent years, Malaysia has witnessed an influx of foreign students in the local higher education institutions with the aggressive support from the Malaysian government to build Malaysia as the educational hub within the region. This is in line with Malaysia's aspiration to be a global education hub by year 2020. Besides the country level…

  17. Cycles of Expansion in Higher Education 1870-1985: An International Comparison. (United States)

    Windolf, Paul


    The relationship between business cycles and expansion in higher education in 1870-1985 is analyzed and compared for Germany, Italy, France, the United States, and Japan. In most countries, expansion corresponded to economic recession. Spectral analysis, used to explore the cyclical character of the phenomenon, was found to be a powerful…

  18. Trading Quality across Borders: Colonial Discourse and International Quality Assurance Policies in Higher Education (United States)

    Blanco Ramírez, Gerardo


    Accountability and quality assurance have become central discourses in higher education policy throughout the world. However, accountability and quality assurance involve power and control. Practices and ideas about quality developed in the Global North are spreading rapidly across the Global South, leading to increased uniformity in the…

  19. A Crisis of Trust or Trust in Crisis? Examining Internal Stakeholder Trust in Higher Education (United States)

    Siefkes-Andrew, Ashlie J.


    There is not an organization in the world immune to crisis (Coombs, 2015). From for-profit corporations to the non-profit sector of higher education, research on various crises, and the communication surrounding them, has attracted the attention of scholars and practitioners over the years. This study contributes to literature surrounding…

  20. An Analysis of Internally Funded Learning and Teaching Project Evaluation in Higher Education (United States)

    Huber, Elaine; Harvey, Marina


    Purpose: In the higher education sector, the evaluation of learning and teaching projects is assuming a role as a quality and accountability indicator. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how learning and teaching project evaluation is approached and critiques alignment between evaluation theory and practice. Design/Methodology/Approach:…

  1. Higher education and the labour market : international policy frameworks for regulating graduate employability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kottmann, Andrea; de Weert, Egbert


    This report “Higher Education and the Labour Market” builds upon the previous report and aims to digging a bit deeper into some themes in the countries Belgium, Denmark, England, Finland, Germany, Sweden and the United States, and update developments since the first review in 2011. The following

  2. A Review of the Contemporary International Literature on Student Retention in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Aljohani


    Full Text Available One of the major issues that concerns tertiary institutions around the world is the student retention rate. In general, higher rates of completion give more positive image about the academic, administrative and financial statues of these institutions. However, improving the student completion and retention rates can be a challenging task. One way toward this goal is utilising strategies and techniques that are informed by the findings of theoretical models and empirical studies. Therefore, this paper reviews some of the contemporary studies in the student retention literature from different higher educational contexts around the world followed by a list of the variables that are commonly linked to the student retention phenomenon in higher education and a discussion of the factors that are most frequently associated with student attrition as reported by these studies. A summary of the factors associated with the student attrition phenomenon suggested that, the central factors were the quality of students’ institutional experiences and their level of integration into the academic and social systems of their academic institutions. These factors relate to students’ experiences with the administrative system of their academic institution, including the admission, registration and disciplinary rules and policies and the availability and quality of student services and facilities. Keywords: Higher education, student retention, attrition, persistence

  3. Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs (United States)

    King, Janice E.


    In an ever changing global economy, higher education experiences accountability issues in educating the workforce. Graduates require the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in the global workplace. For graduates to have the opportunity to attain this understanding and expertise, it is critical to identify what influences curriculum…

  4. Small World: Access to Higher Education between Methodological Nationalism and International Organisations (United States)

    Goastellec, Gaele


    What do the shared norms emerging in the regulation of access reveal about the higher education internationalisation process? The history of access norms brings to light two characteristics of this process: the spreading of sociotechnic tools and the emergence of moral entrepreneurs. Based on case studies carried out in France, the US, South…

  5. Outsourcing Academic Development in Higher Education: Staff Perceptions of an International Program (United States)

    Dickson, Kerry; Hughes, Kate; Stephens, Bruce


    Increasingly, higher education support services are being outsourced. Our case study was of a program from a global, USA-based, non-profit organisation. From in-depth interviews, we investigated staff perceptions of academic development workshops and the efficacy of outsourcing to a transnational tertiary-support program. We found that…

  6. The international business of higher education – a managerial perspective on the internationalisation of UK universities.


    Warwick, P.


    This paper employs a managerial perspective to examine the internationalisation of higher education (HE). Using four case studies of United Kingdom (UK) universities, the research identifies the differences between organisations that are making good progress toward implementing their internationalisation strategy and those that are finding it more difficult. The literature review combines three sets of literature on: the internationalisation of HE, management of HE institutions and strategic ...

  7. Sixteen-year comparisons of parent-reported emotional and behaviour problems and competencies in Norwegian children aged 7-9 years. (United States)

    Nøvik, Torunn Stene; Jozefiak, Thomas


    Studies about changes in the prevalence of emotional and behaviour problems across time are lacking, especially among younger children. To determine if the level of parent-reported emotional and behaviour problems and competencies in young Norwegian school children had changed across a 16-year time interval. We compared parent reports obtained by the Child Behavior Checklist in two samples of children aged 7-9 years from the general population assessed in 1991 and 2007. The results demonstrated overall stability or slight decreases of emotional and behaviour problems and a significant increase in competencies, mainly due to increased activity and social competence scores in the 2007 sample. Boys obtained higher scores than girls in Total Problems, Externalizing and Attention problems at both time points and there was a high stability of the rank order of items. The findings suggest stability in child emotional and behaviour problems, and an increase of competencies across the period.

  8. Social Networking Sites and Educational Adaptation in Higher Education: A Case Study of Chinese International Students in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Cao


    Full Text Available This study aims to find out the relationship between the use of SNSs and educational adaptation process of Chinese international students (from China in New Zealand. Based on interview data, this paper addressed how Chinese international students use SNSs (RenRen, Facebook, etc. to expand and manage their online social networks to help their adaptation to new educational environment. As a case study of Chinese international students in New Zealand and from the narrative of students, we examined the relationship among educational difficulties, life satisfaction, and the use of SNSs. This study would help in further understanding how and why SNSs can be adopted in higher education to support effective overseas learning experiences.

  9. Social Networking Sites and Educational Adaptation in Higher Education: A Case Study of Chinese International Students in New Zealand (United States)

    Cao, Ling; Zhang, Tingting


    This study aims to find out the relationship between the use of SNSs and educational adaptation process of Chinese international students (from China) in New Zealand. Based on interview data, this paper addressed how Chinese international students use SNSs (RenRen, Facebook, etc.) to expand and manage their online social networks to help their adaptation to new educational environment. As a case study of Chinese international students in New Zealand and from the narrative of students, we examined the relationship among educational difficulties, life satisfaction, and the use of SNSs. This study would help in further understanding how and why SNSs can be adopted in higher education to support effective overseas learning experiences. PMID:22666100

  10. Social networking sites and educational adaptation in higher education: a case study of Chinese international students in New Zealand. (United States)

    Cao, Ling; Zhang, Tingting


    This study aims to find out the relationship between the use of SNSs and educational adaptation process of Chinese international students (from China) in New Zealand. Based on interview data, this paper addressed how Chinese international students use SNSs (RenRen, Facebook, etc.) to expand and manage their online social networks to help their adaptation to new educational environment. As a case study of Chinese international students in New Zealand and from the narrative of students, we examined the relationship among educational difficulties, life satisfaction, and the use of SNSs. This study would help in further understanding how and why SNSs can be adopted in higher education to support effective overseas learning experiences.

  11. Mental disorders in Australian 4- to 17- year olds: Parent-reported need for help. (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E; Lawrence, David; Sawyer, Michael; Zubrick, Stephen R


    To describe the extent to which parents report that 4- to 17-year-olds with symptoms meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria for mental disorders need help, the types of help needed, the extent to which this need is being met and factors associated with a need for help. During 2013-2014, a national household survey of the mental health of Australia's young people (Young Minds Matter) was conducted, involving 6310 parents (and carers) of 4- to 17-year-olds. The survey identified 12-month mental disorders using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children - Version IV ( n = 870) and asked parents about the need for four types of help - information, medication, counselling and life skills. Parents of 79% of 4- to 17-year-olds with mental disorders reported that their child needed help, and of these, only 35% had their needs fully met. The greatest need for help was for those with major depressive disorder (95%) and conduct disorder (93%). Among these, 39% of those with major depressive disorder but only 19% of those with conduct disorder had their needs fully met. Counselling was the type of help most commonly identified as being needed (68%). In multivariate models, need for counselling was higher when children had autism or an intellectual disability, in blended families, when parents were distressed, and in the most advantaged socioeconomic areas. Many children and adolescents meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria for mental disorders have a completely unmet need for help, especially those with conduct disorders. Even with mild disorders, lack of clinical assessment represents an important missed opportunity for early intervention and treatment.

  12. The impact of marketization on higher education genres - the international student prospectus as a case in point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askehave, Inger


    This paper is a contribution to the existing debate about the marketization of higher education and offers a detailed study of the way the practises of marketization manifest themselves at the level of discourse in higher education. Taking its point of departure in Critical Discourse Analysis...... and using a text-driven procedure for genre analysis, the paper describes and analyses the international student prospectus as an instance of a highly promotional genre which clearly reflects the values and forces of the free market. The paper contains two analyses. The first analysis compares four...... instances of the international student prospectus genre from Finland, Scotland, Australia and Japan and tries to establish genre membership and genre characteristics by considering the overall text structure, and by looking for similarities in content and ‘rhetorical moves'. The second analysis is an in...

  13. Early Childhood Predictors of Post-Kindergarten Executive Function: Behavior, Parent Report, and Psychophysiology (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Hubble, Morgan; Bell, Martha Ann


    Research Findings: This study examined whether children's executive functions before kindergarten would predict variance in executive functions after kindergarten. We obtained behavioral (working memory task performance), parent-reported (temperament-based inhibitory control), and psychophysiological (working memory-related changes in heart rate…

  14. Parental Report of the Diagnostic Process and Outcome: ASD Compared with Other Developmental Disabilities (United States)

    Oswald, Donald P.; Haworth, Shannon M.; Mackenzie, Bernadette K.; Willis, Janet H.


    Parents report that the process of getting an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis is arduous, lengthy, and fraught with difficulties. This analysis of the Pathways survey data set examined the experiences of parents who said, at the time of the survey, that their child currently had ASD compared with parents who said, at the time of the…

  15. The proxy problem: Child report versus parent report in health-related quality of life research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, N.C.M.; Vogels, T.G.C.; Koopman, H.M.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Zwinderman, K.A.H.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Wit, J.M.


    This study evaluates the agreement between child and parent reports on children's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a representative sample of 1,105 Dutch children (age 8-11 years old). Both children and their parents completed a 56 item questionnaire (TACQOL). The questionnaire contains

  16. Parent-reported problem behavior among children with sensory disabilities attending elementary regular schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, B; Grietens, H


    Parent-reported problem behaviors of 94 children with visual and auditory disabilities, attending elementary regular schools, were compared with problems reported in a general population sample of nondisabled children. Both samples were matched by means of a pairwise matching procedure, taking into

  17. Parent Reports of Young Spanish-English Bilingual Children's Productive Vocabulary: A Development and Validation Study (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Gámez, Perla B.; Vagh, Shaher Banu; Lesaux, Nonie K.


    Purpose: This 2-phase study aims to extend research on parent report measures of children's productive vocabulary by investigating the development (n = 38) of the Spanish Vocabulary Extension and validity (n = 194) of the 100-item Spanish and English MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Toddler Short Forms and Upward Extension…

  18. Parents' Reports of Sexual Communication with Children in Kindergarten to Grade 8 (United States)

    Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.; Weaver, Angela D.


    We examined factors associated with parents' reports of three aspects of parent-child sexual communication, quality, frequency with which parents encouraged questions, and extent of communication, on each of 10 sexual health topics. Participants were 3,413 mothers and 426 fathers with children in kindergarten to grade 8. Parents' demographic…

  19. Exploring Differences in Youth and Parent Reports of Antisociality among Adolescent Sexual and Nonsexual Offenders (United States)

    Skilling, Tracey A.; Doiron, James M.; Seto, Michael C.


    This study examined the extent of, and explored several possible explanations for, the discrepancies found between adolescent and parent reports of conduct problems in adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders. We found that adolescent sexual offenders scored lower on measures of conduct problems than did nonsexual offenders, whether on the basis…

  20. International Experience in Reforming the System of Higher Education Governance in terms of Increasing the University Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmutova Iryna M.


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to summarize the international experience of reforming the system of higher education governance and develop directions that will contribute to increasing the effectiveness of the Ukrainian model for governance of higher education and ensuring its autonomy. There identified common elements and trends in European higher education reforms: greater autonomy for higher education institutions with less direct administrative intervention; greater emphasis on private rather than public funding; emphasis on the quality and effectiveness of education. The tools for implementing reforms in the European higher education system are identified: the New Public Management (NPM model, governance through networks, and new forms of governance. The changes in the university autonomy of European countries for the period of 2010-2016 are summarized. The content of the reforms in terms of increasing the autonomy of HEIs in the countries of Asia is disclosed. Possible vectors for reforming the system of higher education governance in Ukraine are identified: introduction of a model for funding HEIs on the basis of combining a one-time full budgeting and financing by results; assigning universities ownership of their buildings and their sale in the market; strengthening the decentralization of government control of higher education; development of legislative bases for the self-sufficiency of HEIs; inclusion of external stakeholders in decision-making governing bodies of HEIs; maximum involvement of students in decision-making.

  1. Brief Report : Influence of gender and age on parent reported subjective well-being in children with and without autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begeer, Sander; Ma, Yujie; Koot, Hans M.; Wierda, Marlies; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bartels, Meike


    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with reduced Subjective well-being (SWB). To examine the influence of gender and age on well-being we collected parent reported SWB in children with or without ASD (total n = 1030), aged 8–14 years. Parents reported lower SWB for children with ASD

  2. Association between Parent Reports of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Behaviours and Child Impulsivity in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability (United States)

    Bigham, K.; Daley, D. M.; Hastings, R. P.; Jones, R. S. P.


    Background: Although children with intellectual disability (ID) seemed to be at increased risk for Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/hyperactivity problems when assessed with parent report questionnaires and clinical interviews, there has been little attention to the associations between parent reports and observed child behaviours.…

  3. Sustaining the Higher Education Hub Model: The Challenge of Adequate Academic and Social Support Structures for International Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Richards


    Full Text Available In recent years, the Education Hub (EH concept has perhaps become the single most important focus of higher education policy in most Asian countries. A particular Asian Education Hub model (e.g. Cheng, 2010 is now globally influential with its emphasis on how governments can harness direct as well as indirect economic benefits of a higher education system. Such a model aims to prepare students for employment in an emerging global economy and also to attract fee-paying international students in terms of education as not just a public good but a key and increasingly important area of national investment and economic development. In a related paper which focused on a comparison between distinct Malaysian and Singaporean versions of Asian EH l models developed over the last two decades (Richards, 2011c, we investigated the dangers as well as opportunities at stake. In this paper, we investigate the linked idea that sufficient academic and social support structures for supporting international as well as local students provide the crucial key to the factors of sustainability needed to support the various versions of the general strategy of Higher Education internationalisation.

  4. Assessment of parent reported quality of life in children with epilepsy from Northern India: A cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Arya, Vandana; Gehlawat, Virender Kumar; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar; Gathwala, Geeta


    The objective of the following study is to assess parent reported quality of life (QOL) in children with epilepsy and to assess the demographic and clinical factors, which influence the QOL in children with epilepsy. We consecutively enrolled 40 children aged from 2 years to 14 years with active epilepsy who had undergone a comprehensive evaluation for epilepsy. Parents were enquired on baseline demographic variables including age, gender, socio-economic status and parental education. Clinical details of epilepsy including the type of epilepsy, seizure frequency were assessed. QOL was evaluated with the parent reported quality of life in childhood epilepsy (QOLCE) questionnaire. A total of 40 children were enrolled of which 55% (22/40) were males and the mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of enrolled children was 10.6 (2.7) years. The majority came from a rural background (80% [32/40]), were from lower (15 [37.5%]) or middle (23 [57.5%]) socio-economic status, with almost half (22 [55%]) of mothers being educated until high school. The overall mean (SD) QOL score was 66.7 (4.83). Lowest mean (SD) scores were observed in self-esteem (45.2 [7.3]) subscale and subscales with higher QOL scores included control/helplessness (82.1 [8.51]), anxiety (81.6 [12.55]) and social stigma (95.0 [11.6]). Parental education, socio-economic status (P = 0.96), frequency of seizure (P = 0.34) or type of epilepsy (P = 0.92) did not significantly affect the overall QOL among children with epilepsy. Our study concluded that overall QOL was compromised in Indian children with epilepsy. Demographic factors like parental education, socio-economic status and clinical factors like frequency of seizure or type of seizure did not significantly affect the QOL of epileptic children.

  5. Parent report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Niss, Nete K; Pejtersen, Jan H


    Background. Identifying young children at risk for socio-emotional developmental problems at an early stage, to prevent serious problems later in life, is crucial. Therefore, we need high quality measures to identify those children at risk for social-emotional problems who require further...... evaluation and intervention. Objective. To systematically identify parent report measures of infant and toddler (0–24 months) social-emotional development for use in primary care settings. Methods. We conducted a systematic review applying a narrative synthesis approach. We searched Medline, Psych......Info, Embase and SocIndex for articles published from 2008 through September 2015 to identify parent-report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development. Data on the characteristics of the measures, including psychometric data, were collected. Results. Based on 3310 screened articles, we located...

  6. Development of a brief parent-report risk index for children following parental divorce. (United States)

    Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N; Braver, Sanford L; Wolchik, Sharlene A


    This article reports on the development of a brief 15-item parent-report risk index (Child Risk Index for Divorced or Separated Families; CRI-DS) to predict problem outcomes of children who have experienced parental divorce. A series of analyses using 3 data sets were conducted that identified and cross-validated a parsimonious set of items representing parent report of child behavior problems and family level risk and protective factors, each of which contributed to the predictive accuracy of the index. The index predicted child behavior outcomes and substance abuse problems up to 6 years later. The index has acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity as a screening measure to predict problem outcomes up to 1 year later. The use of the index to identify the need for preventive services is discussed, along with limitations of the study.

  7. Parent Report of Community Psychiatric Comorbid Diagnoses in Autism Spectrum Disorders


    Rosenberg, Rebecca E.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Law, J. Kiely; Law, Paul A.


    We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-as...

  8. Self-Efficacy, Perceived Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment in International Undergraduate Students in a Public Higher Education Institution in Malaysia (United States)

    Yusoff, Yusliza Mohd.


    The globalization of the economy and society has had its impact on Malaysian higher education institutions, particularly universities. The Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education aims at intensifying globalization through increasing the number of international students. However, many international students struggle with adjusting to a new culture.…

  9. Food allergies in children: a comparison of parental reports and skin prick test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilia Metadea Aji Savitri


    Full Text Available Background Food allergy is common in children and its prevalence is generally on the rise. Imprecise parental reports about reactions to particular foods can lead to unnecessary restrictions. Since children have specific growth requirements, such nutritional restrictions may have disturbing effects on children’s growth and development. Objective To compare parental reports on food reactions to skin prick test results in their children. Method Retrospective, cross sectional study using patient’s medical record data during one-year study period. Data were analyzed manually and statistically, to assess the degree of agreement (Kappa’s coefficient and significance (P. Results We collected data from 154 subjects aged 0-18 years. For every allergen assessed, parents reported more food reactions than positive skin prick test results. Allergy incidence were caused, in order, by cow’s milk and chicken (25.3%, eggs (22.1%, chocolate (20.1%, fruits (14.3%, seafood (13%, and saltwater fish (1.9%. Kappa coefficient are all poor (0.05 except for chicken (P=0.02. Conclusion Most parents tend to overestimate which food cause reactions in their children, as reactions reported were not necessarily allergenic. Therefore, every patient experiencing allergy reactions should undergo skin prick testing to confirm the possibility of allergy.

  10. Race influences parent report of concerns about symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. (United States)

    Donohue, Meghan Rose; Childs, Amber W; Richards, Megan; Robins, Diana L


    Racial differences in parent report of concerns about their child's development to healthcare providers may contribute to delayed autism spectrum disorder diagnoses in Black children. We tested the hypotheses that compared to White parents, Black parents of children with autism spectrum disorder would report fewer concerns about autism symptoms and would be more likely to report concerns about disruptive behaviors. A sample of 18- to 40-month-old toddlers ( N = 174) with autism spectrum disorder and their parent participated. After screening positive for autism spectrum disorder risk, but prior to a diagnostic evaluation, parents completed free-response questions soliciting concerns about their child's development. Parent responses were coded for the presence or the absence of 10 possible concerns, which were grouped into autism concerns (e.g. social and restricted and repetitive behavior concerns) or non-autism concerns (e.g. general developmental and disruptive behavior concerns). Compared to White parents, Black parents reported significantly fewer autism concerns and fewer social and restricted and repetitive behavior concerns. However, Black parents did not report significantly fewer non-autism concerns. Race did not influence parent report of disruptive behavior concerns. Lower reporting of autism concerns by Black parents may impact providers' abilities to identify children who need further screening or evaluation.

  11. A parent-report Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children: A cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis. (United States)

    Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Wallien, Madeleine; Johnson, Laurel L; Owen-Anderson, Allison F H; Bradley, Susan J; Zucker, Kenneth J


    A one-factor, 14-item parent-report Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children (GIQC) was developed in a sample of 325 clinic-referred children with gender identity problems and 504 controls from Toronto, Canada (Johnson et al., 2004). In this study, we report a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis of the GIQC on gender-referred children (N = 338) from Toronto and gender-referred children (N = 175) from Utrecht, The Netherlands. Across clinics, the results showed both similarities and differences. Gender-referred boys from Utrecht had a significantly higher total score (indicating more cross-gender behavior) than did gender-referred boys from Toronto, but there was no significant difference for girls. In the Toronto sample, the gender-referred girls had a significantly higher total score than the gender-referred boys, but there was no significant sex difference in the Utrecht sample. Across both clinics, gender-referred children who met the complete DSM criteria for gender identity disorder (GID) had a significantly higher cross-gender score than the gender-referred children who were subthreshold for GID (Cohen's d = 1.11). The results of this study provide the first empirical evidence of relative similarity in cross-gender behavior in a sample of gender-referred children from western Europe when compared to North American children. The results also provide some support for cross-clinic consistency in clinician-based diagnosis of GID.

  12. Librarian co-authors correlated with higher quality reported search strategies in general internal medicine systematic reviews. (United States)

    Rethlefsen, Melissa L; Farrell, Ann M; Osterhaus Trzasko, Leah C; Brigham, Tara J


    To determine whether librarian and information specialist authorship was associated with better reported systematic review (SR) search quality. SRs from high-impact general internal medicine journals were reviewed for search quality characteristics and reporting quality by independent reviewers using three instruments, including a checklist of Institute of Medicine Recommended Standards for the Search Process and a scored modification of the Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies instrument. The level of librarian and information specialist participation was significantly associated with search reproducibility from reported search strategies (Χ(2) = 23.5; P Librarian co-authored SRs had significantly higher odds of meeting 8 of 13 analyzed search standards than those with no librarian participation and six more than those with mentioned librarian participation. One-way ANOVA showed that differences in total search quality scores between all three groups were statistically significant (F2,267 = 10.1233; P librarian or information specialist co-authors are correlated with significantly higher quality reported search strategies. To minimize bias in SRs, authors and editors could encourage librarian engagement in SRs including authorship as a potential way to help improve documentation of the search strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Parent-reported measures of child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: a cross-sectional survey (United States)


    Background It has been suggested that children with same-sex attracted parents score well in psychosocial aspects of their health, however questions remain about the impact of stigma on these children. Research to date has focused on lesbian parents and has been limited by small sample sizes. This study aims to describe the physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents, and the impact that stigma has on them. Methods A cross-sectional survey, the Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families, was distributed in 2012 to a convenience sample of 390 parents from Australia who self-identified as same-sex attracted and had children aged 0-17 years. Parent-reported, multidimensional measures of child health and wellbeing and the relationship to perceived stigma were measured. Results 315 parents completed the survey (completion rate = 81%) representing 500 children. 80% of children had a female index parent while 18% had a male index parent. Children in same-sex parent families had higher scores on measures of general behavior, general health and family cohesion compared to population normative data (β = 2.93, 95% CI = 0.35 to 5.52, P = .03; β = 5.60, 95% CI = 2.69 to 8.52, P = mental health, and family cohesion were all negatively associated with increased stigma (β = -3.03, 95% CI = -5.86 to -0.21, P = .04; β = -10.45, 95% CI = -18.48 to -2.42, P = .01; and β = -9.82, 95% CI = -17.86 to -1.78, P = .02 respectively) and the presence of emotional symptoms was positively associated with increased stigma (β =0.94, 95% CI = 0.08 to 1.81, P = .03). Conclusions Australian children with same-sex attracted parents score higher than population samples on a number of parent-reported measures of child health. Perceived stigma is negatively associated with mental health. Through improved awareness of stigma these findings play an important role in

  14. The agreement between parent-reported and directly measured child language and parenting behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon K Bennetts


    Full Text Available Parenting behaviors are commonly targeted in early interventions to improve children’s language development. Accurate measurement of both parenting behaviors and children’s language outcomes is thus crucial for sensitive assessment of intervention outcomes. To date, only a small number of studies have compared parent-reported and directly measured behaviors, and these have been hampered by small sample sizes and inaccurate statistical techniques, such as correlations. The Bland-Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression represent more reliable alternatives because they allow us to quantify fixed and proportional bias between measures. In this study, we draw on data from two Australian early childhood cohorts (N= 201 parents and slow-to-talk toddlers aged 24 months; and N=218 parents and children aged 6-36 months experiencing social adversity to (1 examine agreement and quantify bias between parent-reported and direct measures, and (2 to determine socio-demographic predictors of the differences between parent-reported and direct measures. Measures of child language and parenting behaviors were collected from parents and their children. Our findings support the utility of the Bland-Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression in comparing measurement methods. Results indicated stronger agreement between parent-reported and directly measured child language, and poorer agreement between measures of parenting behaviors. Child age was associated with difference scores for child language; however the direction varied for each cohort. Parents who rated their child’s temperament as more difficult tended to report lower language scores on the parent questionnaire, compared to the directly measured scores. Older parents tended to report lower parenting responsiveness on the parent questionnaire, compared to directly measured scores. Finally, speaking a language other than English was associated with less responsive parenting behaviors on the

  15. Models of technology and change in higher education: an international comparative survey on the current and future use of ICT in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; van der Wende, Marijk


    The aim of this study is to investigate which scenarios are emerging with respect to the use of ICT in higher education and how future developments can be predicted and strategic choices can be based on that. It seeks to answer the following questions: What strategic responses do institutions make

  16. Tribes and Territories in the 21st Century: Rethinking the Significance of Disciplines in Higher Education. International Studies in Higher Education (United States)

    Trowler, Paul, Ed.; Saunders, Murray, Ed.; Bamber, Veronica, Ed.


    The "tribes and territories" metaphor for the cultures of academic disciplines and their roots in different knowledge characteristics has been used by those interested in university life and work since the early 1990s. This book draws together research, data and theory to show how higher education has gone through major change since then…

  17. An investigation into international business collaboration in higher education organisations: a case study of international partnerships in four UK leading universities


    Ayoubi, R; Al-Habaibeh, A


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a comparative analysis of the main objectives of international institutional partnerships in four UK leading universities. Based on the presented case studies, the paper outlines a model for objectives and implementation of international partnership. Design/methodology/approach - Using a multiple case study approach, the paper employs three sources of data: templates of international partnerships, actual agreements of international partnership...

  18. The Perceptions of Commoditisation and Internationalisation of Higher Education in Australia: An Interview Study of Chinese International Students and Their Lecturers (United States)

    McCrohon, Mark; Nyland, Berenice


    This paper examined domestic educator and Chinese international student (CIS) perspectives on their experience of the commoditisation of international higher education in Australia. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with academic and student participants. A Trans-disciplinary Framework derived from grounded theory and the Auditable…

  19. Heart transplant centers with multidisciplinary team show a higher level of chronic illness management - Findings from the International BRIGHT Study. (United States)

    Cajita, Maan Isabella; Baumgartner, Eva; Berben, Lut; Denhaerynck, Kris; Helmy, Remon; Schönfeld, Sandra; Berger, Gabriele; Vetter, Christine; Dobbels, Fabienne; Russell, Cynthia L; De Geest, Sabina

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) explore the proportion of HTx centers that have a multidisciplinary team and (2) assess the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of chronic illness management (CIM). The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) recommends a multidisciplinary approach in heart transplant (HTx) follow-up care but little is known regarding the proportion of HTx centers that meet this recommendation and the impact on patient care. HTx centers with a multidisciplinary team may offer higher levels of CIM, a care model that has the potential to improve outcomes after HTx. We conducted a secondary analysis of the BRIGHT study, a cross-sectional study in 11 countries. Multidisciplinarity in the 36 HTx centers was assessed through HTx director reports and was defined as having a team that was composed of physician(s), nurse(s), and another healthcare professional (either a social worker, psychiatrist, psychologist, pharmacist, dietician, physical therapist, or occupational therapist). CIM was assessed with the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC). Multiple linear regression assessed the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of CIM. Twenty-nine (80.6%) of the HTx centers had a multidisciplinary team. Furthermore, multidisciplinarity was significantly associated with higher levels of CIM (β = 5.2, P = 0.042). Majority of the HTx centers follows the ISHLT recommendation for a multidisciplinary approach. Multidisciplinarity was associated with CIM and point toward a structural factor that needs to be in place for moving toward CIM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-report and parent-report of physical and psychosocial well-being in Dutch adolescents with type 1 diabetes in relation to glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houdijk Mieke C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine physical and psychosocial well-being of adolescents with type 1 diabetes by self-report and parent report and to explore associations with glycemic control and other clinical and socio-demographic characteristics. Methods Demographic, medical and psychosocial data were gathered from 4 participating outpatient pediatric diabetes clinics in the Netherlands. Ninety-one patients completed the Child Health Questionnaire-CF87 (CHQ-CF87, Centre for Epidemiological Studies scale for Depression (CES-D, and the DFCS (Diabetes-specific Family Conflict Scale. Parents completed the CHQ-PF50, CES-D and the DFCS. Results Mean age was 14.9 years (± 1.1, mean HbA1c 8.8% (± 1.7; 6.2–15.0%. Compared to healthy controls, patients scored lower on CHQ subscales role functioning-physical and general health. Parents reported less favorable scores on the behavior subscale than adolescents. Fewer diabetes-specific family conflicts were associated with better psychosocial well-being and less depressive symptoms. Living in a one-parent family, being member of an ethnic minority and reporting lower well-being were all associated with higher HbA1c values. Conclusion Overall, adolescents with type 1 diabetes report optimal well-being and parent report is in accordance with these findings. Poor glycemic control is common, with single-parent families and ethnic minorities particularly at risk. High HbA1c values are related to lower social and family functioning.

  1. Agreement between two different approaches to assess parent-reported sleep bruxism in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Duarte

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parents' report is the most used method for the study of sleep bruxism (SB in children, especially in research with large samples. However, there is no consensus about the questions used to assess SB, what may difficult the comparisons between studies. Objective: The aim of this research was to evaluate the agreement between two different approaches to assess possible sleep bruxism (PSB in children using parents' report. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 parents/caregivers. Prior to the questionnaire completion, all participants received a standard explanation of SB concept. Subsequently, the parents/caregivers answered a general question (GQ and a frequency-time question (FTQ about SB, and the answers were compared. Results: The majority of the participants were the children's mothers (73% and the childrens mean age was 7.5 years (SD: 2.25. PSB frequency in children did not differ statistically through the two questions [GQ: 30.7% (CI95%: 24.2 - 37.1 and FTQ: 26.6% (CI95%: 20.4 - 32.8], and an almost perfect agreement was observed between the answers (kp=0.812. Nevertheless, the FTQ showed a more coherent relation with the factors already recognized as associated with childhood bruxism than GQ. Conclusions: Different approaches result in similar PSB frequency, however, they show different ability to identify PSB associated factors and suggest the need of questions including frequency and time in further studies.

  2. The role of attitudes about vaccine safety, efficacy, and value in explaining parents' reported vaccination behavior. (United States)

    Lavail, Katherine Hart; Kennedy, Allison Michelle


    To explain vaccine confidence as it related to parents' decisions to vaccinate their children with recommended vaccines, and to develop a confidence measure to efficiently and effectively predict parents' self-reported vaccine behaviors. A sample of parents with at least one child younger than 6 years (n = 376) was analyzed using data from the HealthStyles 2010 survey. Questions were grouped into block variables to create three confidence constructs: value, safety, and efficacy. Regression equations controlling for demographic characteristics were used to identify the confidence construct(s) that best predicted parents' self-reported vaccination decisions (accept all, some, or none of the recommended childhood vaccines). Among the three constructs evaluated, confidence in the value of vaccines, that is the belief that vaccines are important and vaccinating one's children is the right thing to do, was the best predictor of parents' vaccine decisions, F(2, 351) = 119.199, p parents' self-reported vaccine decisions. Confidence in the safety or efficacy of vaccines failed to account for additional significant variance in parent-reported vaccination behavior. Confidence in the value of vaccines is a helpful predictor of parent-reported vaccination behavior. Attitudinal constructs of confidence in the safety and efficacy of vaccines failed to account for additional significant variance in parents' vaccination behaviors. Future research should assess the role of vaccine knowledge and tangible barriers, such as access and cost, to further explain parents' vaccination behaviors.

  3. Parent-reported suicidal behavior and correlates among adolescents in China. (United States)

    Liu, Xianchen; Sun, Zhenxiao; Yang, Yanyun


    Suicidal risk begins to increase during adolescence and is associated with multiple biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors. This study examined the prevalence and psychosocial factors of parent-reported suicidal behavior in Chinese adolescents. A community sample of 1920 adolescents in China participated in an epidemiological study. Parents completed a structured questionnaire including child suicidal behavior, illness history, mental health problems, family history, parenting, and family environment. Multiple logistic regression was used for data analysis. Overall, 2.4% of the sample talked about suicide in the previous 6 months, 3.2% had deliberately hurt themselves or attempted suicide, and 5.1% had either suicidal talk or self-harm. The rate of suicidal behavior increased as adolescents aged. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that the following factors were significantly associated with elevated risk for suicidal behavior: depressive/anxious symptoms, poor maternal health, family conflict, and physical punishment of parental discipline style. Suicidal behavior was reported by parents. No causal relationships could be made based on cross-sectional data. The prevalence rate of parent-reported suicidal behavior is markedly lower than self-reported rate in previous research. Depressive/anxious symptoms and multiple family environmental factors are associated with suicidal behavior in Chinese adolescents.

  4. Sex differences in parent-reported executive functioning and adaptive behavior in children and young adults with autism spectrum disorder. (United States)

    White, Emily I; Wallace, Gregory L; Bascom, Julia; Armour, Anna C; Register-Brown, Kelly; Popal, Haroon S; Ratto, Allison B; Martin, Alex; Kenworthy, Lauren


    This study is the largest to date examining executive function and adaptive skills in females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Its primary aim was to utilize parent ratings of real-world executive functioning and adaptive behavior to better understand whether females with ASD differ from males with ASD in these areas of everyday functioning. We compared 79 females with ASD to 158 males with ASD (ages 7-18) who were statistically matched on age, IQ, and level of ADHD or ASD traits. All participants were assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a subset (56 females and 130 males) also received the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Females were rated by parents as having greater problems with executive function on the BRIEF. Parents also rated females as exhibiting more difficulties than males on the Daily Living Skills domain of the VABS. There was a correlation between increased global EF difficulty and decreased adaptive ability in both males and females. Our results indicate relative weaknesses for females compared to males diagnosed with ASD on executive function and daily living skills. These differences occur in the absence of sex differences in our sample in age, IQ, clinician ratings of core ASD symptomatology, parent ratings of ADHD symptoms, and parent-reported social and communication adaptive skills on the VABS. These findings indicate specific liabilities in real world EF and daily living skills for females with ASD and have important implications for targeting their treatments. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1653-1662. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Parental perception of health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with short stature: literature review and introduction of the parent-reported QoLISSY instrument. (United States)

    Quitmann, Julia; Rohenkohl, Anja; Bullinger, Monika; Chaplin, John E; Herdman, Michael; Sanz, Dolores; Mimoun, Emmanuelle; Feigerlova, Eva; DeBusk, Kendra; Power, Michael; Wollmann, Hartmut; Pleil, Andreas


    , additional 44 items assessing three mediator domains and two parent specific domains. The parent report version demonstrated good criterion and construct validity as well as internal consistency and test retest reliability. The QoLISSY parent report questionnaire closes a gap in the simultaneous assessment of parent and child perception of HrQoL in an international context. It is based on items generated from the experience of short statured children, adolescents and their parents and is validated for use in five European languages. It is feasible, relevant for this population, psychometrically sound and is easy to administer in research and clinical settings.

  6. International Higher Education for Whom? Expatriate Students, Choice-Making and International (Im)mobility in the Northern United Arab Emirates (United States)

    Rensimer, Lee


    This article identifies a research gap on expatriate students attending international branch campuses in their country of residence, and presents evidence that they are insufficiently distinguished from international students in research on student mobility and choice-making. It finds that the priorities and enrollment choices of expatriates are…

  7. Does Higher Education Service Quality Effect Student Satisfaction, Image and Loyalty? A Study of International Students in Malaysian Public Universities (United States)

    Ali, Faizan; Zhou, Yuan; Hussain, Kashif; Nair, Pradeep Kumar; Ragavan, Neethiahnanthan Ari


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Malaysian public universities' service quality on international student satisfaction, institutional image and loyalty. Design/methodology/approach: A total number of 400 questionnaires were distributed to international students, selected using convenience sampling technique, at…

  8. Actigraphic and parental reports of sleep difficulties in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, Allan; Jørgensen, Jan; Bilenberg, Niels


    OBJECTIVES: To describe actigraphically detected and parent-reported sleep problems in nonmedicated children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); to clarify whether or not comorbid oppositional defiant disorder contributes to sleep difficulties; and to compare objectively measured...... subjects. Average sleep onset latencies were 26.3 minutes in the ADHD group, 18.6 minutes in the psychiatric control group, and 13.5 minutes in the healthy reference group. There was no apparent relationship between sleep problems and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. We found discrepancies between...... the objectively measured sleep variables and those reported by parents, who overestimated sleep onset latency. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study allow us to conclude that some children with ADHD have impaired sleep that cannot be referred to comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. However, it is important...

  9. Parent report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development: a systematic review. (United States)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Niss, Nete K; Pejtersen, Jan H; Julian, Megan M; Væver, Mette S


    Identifying young children at risk for socio-emotional developmental problems at an early stage, to prevent serious problems later in life, is crucial. Therefore, we need high quality measures to identify those children at risk for social-emotional problems who require further evaluation and intervention. To systematically identify parent report measures of infant and toddler (0-24 months) social-emotional development for use in primary care settings. We conducted a systematic review applying a narrative synthesis approach. We searched Medline, PsychInfo, Embase and SocIndex for articles published from 2008 through September 2015 to identify parent-report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development. Data on the characteristics of the measures, including psychometric data, were collected. Based on 3310 screened articles, we located 242 measures that were screened for eligibility. In all 18 measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development were included. Ten of the measures were developed specifically for measuring social-emotional development, and eight were measures including subscales of social-emotional development. The measures varied with respect to, e.g. the time of publication, number of items, age span, cost and amount of psychometric data available. Several measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development have been developed within the last decade. The majority of psychometric data are available through manuals, not peer-reviewed journals. Although all measures show acceptable reliability, the most comprehensive and psychometrically sound measures are the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional-2, Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment, Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment and Child Behaviour Checklist 1½-5. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  10. Parent-Reported Penicillin Allergy Symptoms in the Pediatric Emergency Department. (United States)

    Vyles, David; Chiu, Asriani; Simpson, Pippa; Nimmer, Mark; Adams, Juan; Brousseau, David C


    Children often present to the pediatric emergency department (ED) with a reported penicillin allergy. The true incidence of pediatric penicillin allergy is low, and patients may be inappropriately denied first-line antibiotics. We hypothesized that more than 70% of reported penicillin allergies in the pediatric ED are low risk for true allergy. Parents of children presenting to the pediatric ED with parent-reported penicillin allergy completed an allergy questionnaire. The questionnaire included age at allergy diagnosis, symptoms of allergy, and time to allergic reaction from first dose. The allergy symptoms were dichotomized into high and low risk in consultation with a pediatric allergist before questionnaire implementation. A total of 605 parents were approached; 500 (82.6%) completed the survey. The median (interquartile range) age of the children at diagnosis was 1 year (7 months, 2 years); 75% were diagnosed before their third birthday. Overall, 380 (76%) (95% confidence interval 72.3, 79.7) children had exclusively low-risk symptoms. The most commonly reported symptoms were rash (466, 92.8%) and itching (203, 40.6%). Of the 120 children with one or more high-risk symptom, facial swelling (50, 10%) was the most common. Overall, 354 children (71%) were diagnosed after their first exposure to penicillin. Symptom onset within 24 hours of medication administration occurred in 274 children (54.8%). Seventy-six percent of patients with parent-reported penicillin allergy have symptoms unlikely to be consistent with true allergy. Determination of true penicillin allergy in patients with low-risk symptoms may permit the increased use of first-line penicillin antibiotics. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Trends in International Trade in Higher Education: Implications and Options for Developing Countries. Education Working Paper Series, Number 6 (United States)

    Bashir, Sajitha


    This paper analyzes the trends, underlying factors and implications of the trade in higher education services. The term "trade in higher education" refers to the purchase of higher education services from a foreign country using domestic resources. The objectives of this paper are to provide policy makers in developing countries, World Bank staff,…

  12. International Dimensions of Nursing and Health Care in Baccalaureate and Higher Degree Nursing Programs in the United States. (United States)

    Mooneyhan, Esther L.; And Others


    Results of a national survey of undergraduate and graduate nursing programs to determine the extent of curriculum content and faculty training in international health issues are reported. The importance of this aspect of nursing education is discussed. (MSE)

  13. Asperger syndrome and nonverbal learning difficulties in adult males: self- and parent-reported autism, attention and executive problems. (United States)

    Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Nydén, Agneta; Gillberg, Christopher


    A specific overlap between Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning difficulties (NLD) has been proposed, based on the observation that, as a group, people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal IQ (VIQ) than performance IQ (PIQ), one of the core features of NLD. The primary aim was to assess the longer term outcome of NLD--broken down into persistent and transient forms. The present study of 68 individuals was performed in the context of a larger prospective longitudinal study to late adolescence/early adult life of 100 boys with AS. Using self- and parent-report measures, we studied the longer term outcome of the NLD (defined as VIQ > PIQ by 15 points) as regards social communication, repetitive behaviour, attention, and executive function (EF) was studied. Three subgroups were identified: (1) Persistent NLD (P-NLD), (2) Childhood "only" NLD (CO-NLD) and (3) Never NLD (NO-NLD). The P-NLD group had the worst outcome overall. The CO-NLD group had better reported EF scores than the two other AS subgroups. There were no differences between the subgroups regarding social communication, repetitive behaviour, or attentional skills. Low PIQ increased the risk of ADHD symptoms. In the context of AS in males, P-NLD carries a relatively poor outcome, particularly with regard to self-reported EF. However, CO-NLD appears to entail a significantly better outcome. The results underscore the importance of analysing the cognitive profile both at diagnosis and after several years, so as to be able to formulate a realistic prognosis.

  14. A Quiet Revolution--International Influence, Domestic Elites and the Transformation of Higher Technical Education in Ireland 1959-72 (United States)

    Walsh, John


    The upgrading of higher technical education which began in the 1960s marked the most influential intervention by the Irish government in the third-level sector since the establishment of the independent Irish state. A series of reforming initiatives extended educational opportunity and transformed the status of technical education at higher level.…

  15. Global Connections to Global Partnerships: Navigating the Changing Landscape of Internationalism and Cross-Border Higher Education (United States)

    Olcott, Don, Jr.


    The purpose of this article is to provide continuing higher education leaders with a comprehensive overview of the major considerations for doing business in the global market. Included is an analysis of the driving forces in global higher education and current trends in cross-border programs and a brief review of activities that may be part of a…

  16. The Hunt Report and Higher Education Policy in the Republic of Ireland: "An International Solution to an Irish Problem?" (United States)

    Walsh, John; Loxley, Andrew


    The "National Strategy for Higher Education to 2030" in the Republic of Ireland (universally known as the Hunt Report) represents the latest and most assertive attempt by the Irish state to re-construct higher education in accordance with economic utilitarian objectives. This paper sets out to analyse the historical context, key themes…

  17. International Education as Soft Power? The Contributions and Challenges of Canadian Foreign Policy to the Internationalization of Higher Education (United States)

    Trilokekar, Roopa Desai


    This paper explores the role of the Canadian federal government in two foreign policy areas: overseas development assistance and international cultural relations by providing a brief history of the federal government's engagement in both policy areas and highlighting the contributions and challenges of Canadian foreign policy to the…

  18. Virtual Worlds and Gamification to Increase Integration of International Students in Higher Education: An Inclusive Design Approach (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Robb, Nigel; Eyerman, Joe; Goodman, Lizbeth


    In response to the growing trend of internationalisation in education, it is important to consider approaches to help international students integrate in their new settings. One possible approach involves the use of e-Learning tools, such as virtual worlds and gamification. To maximise the potential effectiveness of such tools, it may be…

  19. Innovative Social Support Systems and the Recruitment and Retention of International Students in U.S. Higher Education (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Han


    As the notion of globalization becomes more and more important, students from all over the world decide to study abroad in order to gain multicultural experiences. The United States has always been the leading country, with the most international enrollment; yet the increasing demand for enrollment in universities between English-speaking…

  20. "It's the Method, Stupid." Interrelations between Methodological and Theoretical Advances: The Example of Comparing Higher Education Systems Internationally (United States)

    Hoelscher, Michael


    This article argues that strong interrelations between methodological and theoretical advances exist. Progress in, especially comparative, methods may have important impacts on theory evaluation. By using the example of the "Varieties of Capitalism" approach and an international comparison of higher education systems, it can be shown…

  1. The Globalisation of Higher Education and the Sojourner Academic: Insights into Challenges Experienced by Newly Appointed International Academic Staff in a UK University (United States)

    Walker, Patricia


    The increasingly diverse nature of the higher education academic community in the United Kingdom is under-researched and under-theorised. This article presents an exploratory study of the lived experiences of newly appointed international academic staff as expressed in their written reflections on their professional practice and interpreted by the…

  2. Establishing a Formal Cross-Cultural Mentoring Organization and Program: A Case Study of International Student Mentor Association in a Higher Education Context (United States)

    Kim, Sewon; Egan, Toby


    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to offer potential insight regarding formal cross-cultural mentoring organization and program development in higher education contexts and beyond, by elaborating regarding the founding and programmatic efforts of an International Student Mentor Association (ISMA) at a large university in North America.…

  3. Are Non-Intellectually Disabled Black Youth with ASD Less Impaired on Parent Report than Their White Peers? (United States)

    Ratto, Allison B.; Anthony, Bruno J.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Armour, Anna Chelsea; Dudley, Katerina; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth


    There is a lack of research examining differences in functioning in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across ethnicity, particularly among those without intellectual disability (ID). This study investigated ethnic differences in parent-reported impairment in executive function, adaptive behavior, and social-emotional functioning. White and Black…

  4. The Screening Test for Emotional Problems-Parent Report (STEP-P): Studies of Reliability and Validity (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Alsamadi, Silvana C.


    Score reliability and validity of parent responses concerning their 10- to 17-year-old students were analyzed using the Screening Test for Emotional Problems-Parent Report (STEP-P), which assesses a variety of emotional problems classified under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. Score reliability, convergent, and…

  5. Verification of Parent-Report of Child Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis to a Web-Based Autism Registry (United States)

    Daniels, Amy M.; Rosenberg, Rebecca E.; Anderson, Connie; Law, J. Kiely; Marvin, Alison R.; Law, Paul A.


    Growing interest in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research requires increasingly large samples to uncover epidemiologic trends; such a large dataset is available in a national, web-based autism registry, the Interactive Autism Network (IAN). The objective of this study was to verify parent-report of professional ASD diagnosis to the registry's…

  6. Cross-Informant Agreement between Parent-Reported and Adolescent Self-Reported Problems in 25 Societies (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Ginzburg, Sofia; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Almqvist, Fredrik; Begovac, Ivan; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chahed, Myriam; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Minaei, Asghar; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Petot, Djaouida; Petot, Jean-Michel; Pomalima, Rolando; Rudan, Vlasta; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Valverde, Jose; van der Ende, Jan; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zhang, Eugene Yuqing; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C.


    We used population sample data from 25 societies to answer the following questions: (a) How consistently across societies do adolescents report more problems than their parents report about them? (b) Do levels of parent-adolescent agreement vary among societies for different kinds of problems? (c) How well do parents and adolescents in different…

  7. Cross-informant agreement between parent-reported and adolescent self-reported problems in 25 societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, Leslie A; Ginzburg, Sofia; Achenbach, Thomas M


    We used population sample data from 25 societies to answer the following questions: (a) How consistently across societies do adolescents report more problems than their parents report about them? (b) Do levels of parent-adolescent agreement vary among societies for different kinds of problems? (c...

  8. Retrospective Parent Report of Early Vocal Behaviours in Children with Suspected Childhood Apraxia of Speech (sCAS) (United States)

    Highman, Chantelle; Hennessey, Neville; Sherwood, Mellanie; Leitao, Suze


    Parents of children with suspected Childhood Apraxia of Speech (sCAS, n = 20), Specific Language Impairment (SLI, n = 20), and typically developing speech and language skills (TD, n = 20) participated in this study, which aimed to quantify and compare reports of early vocal development. Via a questionnaire, parents reported on their child's early…

  9. Risk score for predicting adolescent mental health problems among children using parental report only : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Huibert; Boks, Marco P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Aukes, Maartje F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.


    OBJECTIVE: To construct a risk score for adolescent mental health problems among children, using parental data only and without potentially stigmatizing mental health items. METHODS: We prospectively derived a prediction model for mental health problems at age 16 using data from parent report on

  10. Investigating Use of a Parent Report Tool to Measure Vocabulary Development in Deaf Greek-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants (United States)

    Oktapoti, Maria; Okalidou, Areti; Kyriafinis, George; Petinou, Kakia; Vital, Victor; Herman, Rosalind


    Objective: There are very few measures of language development in spoken Greek that can be used with young deaf children. This study investigated the use of Cyprus Lexical List (CYLEX), a receptive and expressive vocabulary assessment based on parent report that has recently been adapted to Standard Greek, to measure the vocabulary development of…

  11. DSM-5 Changes and the Prevalence of Parent-Reported Autism Spectrum Symptoms in Fragile X Syndrome (United States)

    Wheeler, Anne C.; Mussey, Joanna; Villagomez, Adrienne; Bishop, Ellen; Raspa, Melissa; Edwards, Anne; Bodfish, James; Bann, Carla; Bailey, Donald B.


    We used survey methodology to assess parent-reported autism symptomology in 758 individuals (639 males; 119 females) with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Caregivers reported whether their child with FXS had been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and endorsed symptoms based on a list of observable behaviors related to ASD diagnoses.…

  12. Perspectives on and obstacles to the internal reporting reform at higher education institutions – Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Dragija Kostić


    Full Text Available Higher education institutions are going through a different reform processes that differ from country to country. However, the common challenge of higher education institutions is to assure the financial sustainability and only those institutions that have stable financial structure will be able to fulfil their missions and goals in conditions of limited financial resources. One of very important preconditions for assuring financial sustainability is a high quality reporting system, providing comprehensive and detailed information about all aspects of the activities, performed by an institution of higher education and, especially, its full costs. The objective of the paper is two-fold. On the one hand, its aim is to address reform processes regarding reporting systems at higher education institutions in selected countries; Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia, and on the other hand, to highlight most important obstacles for development of efficient internal reporting systems. The empirical research was conducted in 2016 and data collection was based on the survey method. The questionnaires were sent to all public higher education institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia. The results of research have shown that, even though there is a positive perception regarding the need to improve existing internal reporting systems, there are significant differences in obstacles for development of efficient internal reporting systems in observed countries.

  13. Higher Storage Temperature Causes Greater Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Internal Penetration of Artificially Contaminated, Commercially Available, Washed Free Range Eggs. (United States)

    Whiley, Alice; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin; McEvoy, Vanessa; Whiley, Harriet


    Foodborne salmonellosis is a major public health concern, with contaminated eggs identified as a significant source of infection. In Australia, the most prevalent cause of salmonellosis from eggs is Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. This study explored the effect of temperature after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage on commercially available washed free range eggs, artificially contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium on the external surface. At each time point, the external surface of the egg, the crushed eggshell, and the internal egg yolk and albumen were analyzed for Salmonella. After 28 days of storage, 25% of eggs stored at 4°C, 50% of eggs stored at 14°C, and 100% of eggs stored at 23 and 35°C were internally contaminated with Salmonella. After 1 day of storage, more than 50% of all eggs had Salmonella present in the crushed shell after the external surface had been disinfected with ethanol. This is the first study to demonstrate that refrigeration reduced the potential for Salmonella Typhimurium to penetrate the eggshell membrane and internally contaminate table eggs commercially available in Australia. It also suggests that the processes of cracking eggs may be a source of cross-contamination within the kitchen.

  14. Validation of parental reports of asthma trajectory, burden, and risk by using the pediatric asthma control and communication instrument. (United States)

    Okelo, Sande O; Eakin, Michelle N; Riekert, Kristin A; Teodoro, Alvin P; Bilderback, Andrew L; Thompson, Darcy A; Loiaza-Martinez, Antonio; Rand, Cynthia S; Thyne, Shannon; Diette, Gregory B; Patino, Cecilia M


    Despite a growing interest, few pediatric asthma questionnaires assess multiple dimensions of asthma morbidity, as recommended by national asthma guidelines, or use patient-reported outcomes. To evaluate a questionnaire that measures multiple dimensions of parent-reported asthma morbidity (Direction, Bother, and Risk). We administered the Pediatric Asthma Control and Communication Instrument (PACCI) and assessed asthma control (PACCI Control), quality of life, and lung function among children who presented for routine asthma care. The PACCI was evaluated for discriminative validity. A total of 317 children participated (mean age, 8.2 years; 58% boys; 44% African American). As parent-reported PACCI Direction changed from "better" to "worse," we observed poorer asthma control (P < .001), mean Pediatric Asthma Caregiver Quality of Life Questionnaire (PACQLQ) scores (P < .001), and FEV1% (P = .025). Linear regression showed that, for each change in PACCI Direction, the mean PACQLQ score decreased by -0.6 (95% CI, -0.8 to -0.4). As parent-reported PACCI Bother changed from "not bothered" to "very bothered," we observed poorer asthma control (P < .001) and lower mean PACQLQ scores (P < .001). Linear regression showed that, for each change in PACCI Bother category, the mean PACQLQ score decreased by -1.1 (95% CI, -1.3 to -0.9). Any reported PACCI Risk event (emergency department visit, hospitalization, or use of an oral corticosteroid) was associated with poorer asthma control (P < .05) and PACQLQ scores (P < .01). PACCI Direction, Bother, and Risk are valid measures of parent-reported outcomes and show good discriminative validity. The PACCI is a simple clinical tool to assess multiple dimensions of parent-reported asthma morbidity, in addition to risk and control. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Parent-Reported Bullying and Child Weight Gain between Ages 6 and 15. (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Robinson, Eric; Daly, Michael; Terracciano, Antonio


    Childhood bullying has long-term negative mental and physical health correlates, including weight gain and symptoms of depression. The purpose of this research is to examine whether bullying in the first year of school is associated with greater weight gain by early adolescence and whether adolescent depressive symptoms mediate this association. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Children (N = 3929) were measured every 2 years; BMI and waist circumference were available from ages 4 to 15. Parents reported on bullying at age 6. Children reported on their depressive symptoms at ages 12-13. Participants who weighed in the obese category at age 4 had an over 50% increased risk of being bullied in school at age 6. Being bullied at age 6 was associated with excess weight gain between ages 6 and 15, defined as either BMI or waist circumference. Depressive symptoms at age 12 partially explained the association between bullying and increases in adiposity. None of the associations varied by gender. Similar to other forms of peer victimization, bullying early in school is associated with greater weight gain through early adolescence; depressive symptom is one mechanism that contributes to this association.

  16. Stakeholder Engagement in Sustainability Reporting in Higher Education: An Analysis of Key Internal Stakeholders' Expectations (United States)

    Ferrero-Ferrero, Idoya; Fernández-Izquierdo, María Ángeles; Muñoz-Torres, María Jesús; Bellés-Colomer, Lucía


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of stakeholder engagement in the context of sustainability reporting (SR) for higher education institutions (HEIs), together with the materiality principle and stakeholder expectations. Design/methodology/approach: This research uses an exploratory approach based on content…

  17. Come on Higher Ed...Get with the Programme! A Study of Market Orientation in International Student Recruitment (United States)

    Ross, Mitchell; Grace, Debra; Shao, Wei


    This paper investigates higher education (HE) student recruitment practices from the standpoint of market orientation. By adopting the well-established market orientation framework of Narver and Slater [1990, The effect of a market orientation on a business profitability. "Journal of Marketing" 54, no. 4: 20-35], we examine the extent to…

  18. The Contribution of East Asian Countries to Internationally Published Asian Higher Education Research: The Role of System Development and Internationalization (United States)

    Jung, Jisun; Horta, Hugo


    Studies of higher education by scholars based in Asia have been growing in volume, following worldwide trends. To a large extent, this growth has been driven by East Asian countries, but little is known about the characteristics of the contribution of these countries. This study analyses their overall and specific contribution. The paper concludes…

  19. Does Internal Quality Management Contribute to More Control or to Improvement of Higher Education?: A Survey on Faculty's Perceptions (United States)

    Kleijnen, Jan; Dolmans, Diana; Willems, Jos; van Hout, Hans


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore faculty's perceptions of quality management activities (QMA) within their departments, attention being paid to relevant quality aspects and whether quality management contributes to control or improvement of higher education. Furthermore, it examines differences between departments and relationships…

  20. The Use of Critical Thinking in Higher Education in Relation to the International Student: Shifting Policy and Practice (United States)

    Hammersley-Fletcher, Linda; Hanley, Christopher


    Academic staff working within Western higher education institutions (HEIs), have a responsibility to encourage the continuous critique of knowledge and values, expressed both within the curriculum that they deliver and within society more widely. Critical thinking is often regarded as the hallmark of a good education. Atkinson however raised…

  1. Quality Assurance in an International Higher Education Area: A Summary of a Case-Study Approach and Comparative Analysis (United States)

    Bernhard, Andrea


    Transparency and comparability of higher education institutions especially in terms of their academic programmes and research activities are important issues for today's working environment. This paper is an overview of a recently completed PhD thesis which outlines examples of selected Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development…

  2. Cooperation, complexity and adaptation: higher education capacity initiatives in international development assistance programmes in sub-Saharan Africa.


    McEvoy, Peter


    At a time when global relations are characterised by great complexity, uncertainty and inequality, the role of higher education is crucial for a balanced and coherent development strategy, and achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This is especially true for countries of sub-Saharan Africa, where there is a critical need to generate knowledge that can be used in the service of social and economic development, human rights and climate change adaptation. The study concern...

  3. The relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and parental-reported experience of dental caries in Indigenous Australian children. (United States)

    Claudia, C; Ju, X; Mejia, G; Jamieson, L


    This study aimed to test the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and parental-reported experience of dental caries in Indigenous Australian children. Data were from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC); a population-based cohort study in Australia. Participants were 1,687 Indigenous Australian children aged 5 or less. Biological, social and behavioural variables were tested using log-linear modelling with binomial regression to determine the association with parental-reported experience of dental caries. Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods were used for multiple imputation of missing data. Overall 25.8% of Indigenous Australian children had dental caries as reported by a carer. In the multivariable model, increased prevalence of parental-reported caries was significantly associated with low maternal education levels (RR=1.60, 95%CI 1.17,2.20) and high sugar consumption (RR= 1.60, 95%CI 1.26,2.02). In the group of children whose mothers smoked tobacco during pregnancy, the association with parent-reported dental caries approached the threshold of significance, but was not significantly associated with caries status in children (RR=1.19, 95%CI 0.99,1.43). After multiple imputation, the most significant association was evident in children of the least educated mothers (RR=1.57, 95%CI 1.25,1.95), breastfeeding more than 12 months (RR=1.26, 95%CI 1.01,1.56), sweet intake more than 30% (RR=1.42, 95%CI 1.15,1.74) and 20-30% (RR=1.29 95%CI 1.04,1.59) and residing in outer regional (RR=1.56, 95%CI 1.19,2.05) or inner regional locations (RR=1.50, 95%CI 1.19,1.88). Mothers' tobacco smoking status showed a weak association with parent-reported dental decay (RR=1.42, 95%CI 1.20,1.68). This study suggests there is a weak association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and prevalence of parentally-reported dental caries in Indigenous Australian children. Copyright© 2016 Dennis Barber Ltd

  4. The validity of parental reports on motor skills performance level in preschool children: a comparison with a standardized motor test. (United States)

    Zysset, Annina E; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Meyer, Andrea H; Stülb, Kerstin; Leeger-Aschmann, Claudia S; Schmutz, Einat A; Arhab, Amar; Ferrazzini, Valentina; Kriemler, Susi; Munsch, Simone; Puder, Jardena J; Jenni, Oskar G


    Motor skills are interrelated with essential domains of childhood such as cognitive and social development. Thus, the evaluation of motor skills and the identification of atypical or delayed motor development is crucial in pediatric practice (e.g., during well-child visits). Parental reports on motor skills may serve as possible indicators to decide whether further assessment of a child is necessary or not. We compared parental reports on fundamental motor skills performance level (e.g., hopping, throwing), based on questions frequently asked in pediatric practice, with a standardized motor test in 389 children (46.5% girls/53.5% boys, M age = 3.8 years, SD = 0.5, range 3.0-5.0 years) from the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY). Motor skills were examined using the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment 3-5 (ZNA3-5), and parents filled in an online questionnaire on fundamental motor skills performance level. The results showed that the answers from the parental report correlated only weakly with the objectively assessed motor skills (r = .225, p skills would be desirable, the parent's report used in this study was not a valid indicator for children's fundamental motor skills. Thus, we may recommend to objectively examine motor skills in clinical practice and not to exclusively rely on parental report. What is Known: • Early assessment of motor skills in preschool children is important because motor skills are essential for the engagement in social activities and the development of cognitive abilities. Atypical or delayed motor development can be an indicator for different developmental needs or disorders. • Pediatricians frequently ask parents about the motor competences of their child during well-child visits. What is New: • The parental report on fundamental motor skills performance level used in this study was not a reliable indicator for describing motor development in the preschool age. • Standardized examinations of motor skills are

  5. Hearing devices for children with unilateral hearing loss: Patient- and parent-reported perspectives. (United States)

    Purcell, Patricia L; Jones-Goodrich, Rose; Wisneski, Meghan; Edwards, Todd C; Sie, Kathleen C Y


    Management of children with unilateral hearing loss is not standardized. The primary goal of this study was to elicit patient- and parent-reported perspectives regarding usage of hearing devices in pediatric UHL and to suggest a basic algorithmic approach to management. Our tertiary care center recruited families of youth ages 5-19 years with unilateral hearing loss from January 2014 through October 2015. Parents of all youths completed a 36-item survey, and some youth ages 11-19 years participated in hour-long interviews. We assessed patterns of hearing device usage among participants, and performed qualitative data analysis to understand factors considered by youths when deciding whether or not to use a hearing device. Survey information was collected for 50 patients. Distribution of hearing loss severity in affected ear was mild 14%, moderate 26%, severe 22%, and profound 38%. The majority of children had sensorineural hearing loss (57%), followed by mixed (32%), and then conductive (11%). 34 children (68%) had tried a hearing device; 20 continued to use the device. Retention rates were similar among children with different degrees of hearing loss: mild 66%, moderate 50%, severe 60%, profound 64%. Sixteen children tried a wireless contralateral routing of signal (CROS) device, and 15 tried a behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aid. Retention rates for CROS and BTE devices were 69% and 47%, respectively. The most common reason for cessation of use was discomfort, followed by lack of benefit. A majority of children with unilateral hearing loss who tried a hearing device continued to use it, and retention rates were similar across all degrees of hearing loss. These findings suggest that personal hearing devices should be included in management protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Disparity of care for children with parent-reported autism spectrum disorders. (United States)

    Harstad, Elizabeth; Huntington, Noelle; Bacic, Janine; Barbaresi, William


    Although children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are eligible to receive special education services via an individualized education program (IEP), approximately 12% to 20% do not. Our objective was to determine which clinical and demographic characteristics are associated with IEP receipt among a nationally representative sample of children with ASD. Using data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, we determined which clinical and demographic covariates are associated with IEP receipt for children ages 6 to 17 years with a current, parent-reported ASD diagnosis (n = 759). Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of covariates with IEP receipt. Application of weighting techniques made the findings representative of the noninstitutionalized population of US children 6 to 17 years old. In the weighted model, 90% of children with ASD receive an IEP. Maternal education level above high school (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.08, P = .01) and presence of perceived need for coordination of care (aOR 3.62, P = .02) were associated with IEP receipt, while Hispanic children were less likely to receive an IEP compared with white children (aOR 0.12, P = .001). The following factors were not associated with IEP receipt: severity of ASD, speech, and behavior problems. For children with ASD in the United States, socioeconomic factors, not disability severity, are associated with IEP receipt. Future research should address methods to overcome this disparity in care. Health care providers may help to advocate for appropriate educational services for patients with ASD. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Concurrent validity of caregiver/parent report measures of language for children who are learning both English and Spanish. (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A; Martine-Sussmann, Carmen


    The validity of two analogous caregiver/parent report measures of early language development in young children who are learning both English and Spanish is examined. Caregiver/parent report indices of vocabulary production and grammar were obtained for 26 children using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory: Words & Sentences (CDI; Fenson et al., 1994) and the Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas: Palabras y Enunciados (IDHC; Jackson-Maldonado, Bates, & Thal, 1992). Scores were significantly correlated with analogous laboratory measures in both English and Spanish, including a real-object naming task and spontaneous language use during free-play. The findings offer evidence that the CDI and IDHC provide valid assessments of early language milestones in young English- and Spanish-speaking children. Factors that may influence the validity of these tools for use with this population are also discussed.

  8. Parental Catastrophizing Partially Mediates the Association between Parent-Reported Child Pain Behavior and Parental Protective Responses


    Langer, Shelby L.; Romano, Joan M.; Mancl, Lloyd; Levy, Rona L.


    This study sought to model and test the role of parental catastrophizing in relationship to parent-reported child pain behavior and parental protective (solicitous) responses to child pain in a sample of children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and their parents (n = 184 dyads). Parents completed measures designed to assess cognitions about and responses to their child's abdominal pain. They also rated their child's pain behavior. Mediation analyses were performed using regression-based techn...

  9. Parent-reported Mental Health Problems and Mental Health Services Use in South Australian School-aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu


    Full Text Available Background:Monitoring and reporting childhood mental health problems and mental health services utilization over time provide important information to identify mental health related issues and to guide early intervention. This paper aims to describe the recent prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among South Australian (SA children; to identify mental health problems associated characteristics; and to describe mental health services utilization and its related characteristics among this population. Methods:Parent-reported mental health problems were assessed against the first item of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. School-aged children were randomly sampled monthly and data were collected using a surveillance system between 2005 and 2015. Associations between mental health problems and various factors were analysed using univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results:Prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among children was 9.1% and 9.3% for children aged 5 to 11 years and children aged 12 to 15 years, respectively. No change in prevalence was observed during the past decade. Mental health problems were associated with male sex, long-term illness or pain, negative school experiences, not living with biological parents, and living in a rental dwelling. Less than half (48.7% of the children with mental health problems received professional help. An increasing trend was found in mental health services utilisation among children aged 5 to 15 years. Utilization of mental health services was associated with male sex, older age, long-term illness or pain, and feeling unhappy at school. Conclusion:This study reports the prevalence of parent-reported mental and mental health services utilisation among SA school-aged children. Identified characteristics associated with mental health problems and mental health services utilisation provide useful information for the planning of

  10. Assessment of parent reported quality of life in children with epilepsy from Northern India: A cross-sectional study


    Arya, Vandana; Gehlawat, Virender Kumar; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar; Gathwala, Geeta


    Objective: The objective of the following study is to assess parent reported quality of life (QOL) in children with epilepsy and to assess the demographic and clinical factors, which influence the QOL in children with epilepsy. Study Participants: We consecutively enrolled 40 children aged from 2 years to 14 years with active epilepsy who had undergone a comprehensive evaluation for epilepsy. Materials and Methods: Parents were enquired on baseline demographic variables including age, gender,...

  11. Parent-reported indicators for detecting feeding and swallowing difficulties and undernutrition in preschool-aged children with cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Arvedson, Joan; Boyd, Roslyn N; Bell, Kristie L


    To determine the most accurate parent-reported indicators for detecting (1) feeding/swallowing difficulties and (2) undernutrition in preschool-aged children with cerebral palsy (CP). This was a longitudinal, population-based study, involving 179 children with CP, aged 18 to 60 months (mean 34.1mo [SD 11.9] at entry, 111 males, 68 females [Gross Motor Function Classification System level I, 84; II, 23; III, 28; IV, 18; V, 26], 423 data points). Feeding/swallowing difficulties were determined by the Dysphagia Disorders Survey and 16 signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment. Undernutrition was indicated by height-weight and skinfold composite z-scores less than -2. Primary parent-reported indicators included mealtime duration, mealtime stress, concern about growth, and respiratory problems. Other indicators were derived from a parent feeding questionnaire, including 'significant difficulty eating and drinking'. Data were analysed using multilevel mixed-effects regression and diagnostic statistics. Primary parent-reported indicators associated with feeding/swallowing were 'moderate-severe parent stress' (odds ratio [OR]=3.2 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.3-7.8]; ppalsy. Most accurate screening questions were 0-10 scales for 'difficulty eating' and 'difficulty drinking'. Supplementation of these scales with additional indicators would improve detection. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  12. Assessing cannabis use in adolescents and young adults: what do urine screen and parental report tell you? (United States)

    Gignac, Martin; Wilens, Timothy E; Biederman, Joseph; Kwon, A; Mick, E; Swezey, A


    Our analysis compares three approaches to detect the most common drug abused in early adulthood, cannabis: (1) report on direct structured interview; (2) indirect parental report; and (3) urine toxicology screen. We examined data on 207 subjects (36% also met criteria for alcohol abuse; 9% for alcohol dependence) derived from two prospective and ongoing family studies of boys and girls with or without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Assessments relied on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS-E; under 18 years of age) and on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV; over 18 years of age). Urine samples were analyzed with Auccusign DOA5 (on-site screening assay). Ninety-seven percent (97%) of individuals, who reported no use of cannabis within the past month, had a negative urine screening and 79% of individuals, who endorsed cannabis abuse/dependence, had a positive urine screening. The sensitivity of the direct structured interview report was 91%, the specificity 87%, the positive predicting value 67%, and the negative predictive value 97%. Indirect parental reports were found to be less informative on cannabis use than direct report. Direct report of cannabis use, abuse, or dependence during the structured interview is both sensitive and specific when compared to urine toxicology screens and indirect parental reports.

  13. National allergy programme had little impact on parent-reported food allergies in children aged 6-7 years. (United States)

    Palmu, Sauli; Heikkilä, Paula; Uski, Virpi; Niitty, Siina; Kurikka, Sari; Korppi, Matti


    The ten-year Finnish national allergy programme was launched in 2008 to lessen the disease and psychological burden of allergy. This study assessed the prevalence of parent-reported food allergies requiring avoidance diets at primary school in children aged six and seven years. The cohort comprised 1937 children (51% boys) who started primary school in Tampere, Finland, in August 2016. School health nurses charted parent-reported, doctor-diagnosed food allergies requiring avoidance diets as part of the routine health examination. We found that 127 (6.6%) children had parent-reported, doctor-diagnosed allergies to at least one food and 37 (1.9%) were allergic to basic foods, namely cows' milk, wheat and one other grain. All required an avoidance diet. The figure did not differ significantly from the 2.7% and 2.5% found by studies of this age group in 2009 and 2013, respectively. Allergies to fresh fruit and vegetables decreased from 5.8% in 2009 to 3.6% in 2016. We studied the national allergy programme that started in 2008 and found that there was a nonsignificant overall decrease in the number of children aged six to seven years on avoidance diets for allergies between 2009 and 2016. The only allergies that showed significant decreases were fresh fruit and vegetables. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. High agreement on family affluence between children's and parents' reports: international study of 11-year-olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikke; Currie, Candace


    OBJECTIVE: To examine the agreement between parents' and children's reports on four items of family affluence: number of cars, own bedroom, number of family holidays, and number of computers, and to analyse predictors of disagreement. DESIGN: Cross sectional child-parent validation study of selec...

  15. The origins of mental toughness – prosocial behavior and low internalizing and externalizing problems at age 5 predict higher mental toughness scores at age 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dena Sadeghi Bahmani


    Full Text Available Background: The concept of mental toughness has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of mental toughness. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both 1 mental toughness scores and 2 sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3 to explore possible gender differences.Method: Nine years after their first assessment at age five (preschoolers, a total of 77 adolescents (mean age: 14.35 years; SD = 1.22; 42% females took part in this follow-up study. At baseline, both parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ, covering internalizing and externalizing problems, hyperactivity, negative peer relationships, and prosocial behavior. At follow-up, participants completed a booklet of questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, mental toughness, and sleep disturbances.Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, were associated with self-reported higher mental toughness and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbances.Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, predicted self-reported higher mental toughness and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbance.Conclusions: The pattern of results suggests that mental toughness traits during adolescence may have their origins in the pre-school years.

  16. Plants experiencing chronic internal exposure to ionizing radiation exhibit higher frequency of homologous recombination than acutely irradiated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalchuk, O.; Kovalchuk, I.; Hohn, B. [Friedrich Miescher Institute, P.O. Box 2543, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); Arkhipov, A. [Chernobyl Scientific and Technical Center of International Research, Shkolnaya Str. 6, 255620 Chernobyl (Ukraine); Barylyak, I.; Karachov, I. [Ukrainian Scientific Genetics Center, Popudrenko Str. 50, 253660 Kiev (Ukraine); Titov, V. [Ivano-Frankivsk State Medical Academy, Galitska Str.2, 284000 Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukraine)


    different chemical composition, but equal radioactivity, exhibited different levels of HR, dependent upon the absorbed dose of radiation. Remarkably, we observed a much higher frequency of HR in plants exposed to chronic irradiation when compared to acutely irradiated plants. Although acute application of 0.1-0.5 Gy did not lead to an increase of frequency of HR, the chronic exposure of the plants to several orders of magnitude lower dose of 200 {mu}Gy led to a 5-6-fold induction of the frequency of HR as compared to the control.

  17. The Little Six Personality Dimensions From Early Childhood to Early Adulthood: Mean-Level Age and Gender Differences in Parents' Reports. (United States)

    Soto, Christopher J


    The present research pursues three major goals. First, we develop scales to measure the Little Six youth personality dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Activity. Second, we examine mean-level age and gender differences in the Little Six from early childhood into early adulthood. Third, we examine the development of more specific nuance traits. We analyze parent reports, made using the common-language California Child Q-Set (CCQ), for a cross-sectional sample of 16,000 target children ranging from 3 to 20 years old. We construct CCQ-Little Six scales that reliably measure each Little Six dimension. Using these scales, we find (a) curvilinear, U-shaped age trends for Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness, with declines followed by subsequent inclines; (b) monotonic, negative age trends for Extraversion and Activity; (c) higher levels of Conscientiousness and Agreeableness among girls than boys, as well as higher levels of Activity among boys than girls; and (d) gender-specific age trends for Neuroticism, with girls scoring higher than boys by mid-adolescence. Finally, we find that several nuance traits show distinctive developmental trends that differ from their superordinate Little Six dimension. These results highlight childhood and adolescence as key periods of personality development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Tilt, Decentration, and Internal Higher-Order Aberrations of Sutured Posterior-Chamber Intraocular Lenses in Patients with Open Globe Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjia Zhu


    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the tilt, decentration, and internal higher-order aberrations (HOAs of sutured posterior-chamber intraocular lenses (IOLs in patients with open globe injuries. Methods. 46 consecutive patients (47 eyes who underwent transsclerally sutured IOL implantation were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Nineteen eyes had a history of open globe injury. The tilt and decentration of the IOLs and the visual quality were measured 1 month after surgery. Results. The horizontal tilt and decentration of the IOLs in the open-globe-injury group were significantly higher than those in the control group (both P<0.05. In the open-globe-injury group, the horizontal decentration was significantly greater in the limbus-sclera-involved group (n=11 than in the only-cornea-involved group (n=8, P=0.040. The internal coma, 3rd-order, and total HOA values at pupil sizes of 4 mm (P=0.006 and 6 mm (P=0.013 were significantly higher in the open-globe-injury group than in the controls. Consequently, the optical quality data for the modulation transfer function and the Strehl ratio (all P<0.05 were significantly poorer in the open-globe-injury group. Conclusions. Open globe injuries damage the structural integrity of the eyeball, resulting in more-misaligned sutured IOLs and poorer visual quality.

  19. International Monetary Fund sacrifices higher growth, employment, spending, and public investment in health systems in order to keep inflation unnecessarily low. (United States)

    Rowden, Rick


    The International Monetary Fund's response to evidence on the impact of its programs on public health fails to address the fundamental criticisms about its policies. The IMF's demand for borrowers to achieve extremely low inflation targets is founded on very little empirical evidence in the peer-reviewed literature. The low-inflation policies privilege international creditors over domestic debtors and short-term priorities over long-term development goals, and contain high social costs, referred to by economists as a "sacrifice ratio." For example, governments' raising of interest rates to bring down inflation undermines the ability of domestic firms to expand production and employment and thus "sacrifices" higher economic growth and higher tax revenues and unnecessarily constrains domestic health spending. During financial crisis, most countries seek to lower interest rates to stimulate the economy, the opposite of the IMF's general advice. Perversely, compliance with IMF policies has become a prerequisite for receiving donor aid. Critiques of the IMF express significant concerns that IMF fiscal and monetary policies are unduly restrictive. Health advocates must weigh in on such matters and pressure their finance ministries, particularly in the G7, to take steps at the level of the IMF Executive Board to revisit and modify its policy framework on deficits and inflation. Such reforms are crucial to enable countries to generate more domestic resources while the global health community searches for ways to support strengthening health system capacity.

  20. The Children's Social Understanding Scale: construction and validation of a parent-report measure for assessing individual differences in children's theories of mind. (United States)

    Tahiroglu, Deniz; Moses, Louis J; Carlson, Stephanie M; Mahy, Caitlin E V; Olofson, Eric L; Sabbagh, Mark A


    Children's theory of mind (ToM) is typically measured with laboratory assessments of performance. Although these measures have generated a wealth of informative data concerning developmental progressions in ToM, they may be less useful as the sole source of information about individual differences in ToM and their relation to other facets of development. In the current research, we aimed to expand the repertoire of methods available for measuring ToM by developing and validating a parent-report ToM measure: the Children's Social Understanding Scale (CSUS). We present 3 studies assessing the psychometric properties of the CSUS. Study 1 describes item analysis, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and relation of the scale to children's performance on laboratory ToM tasks. Study 2 presents cross-validation data for the scale in a different sample of preschool children with a different set of ToM tasks. Study 3 presents further validation data for the scale with a slightly older age group and a more advanced ToM task, while controlling for several other relevant cognitive abilities. The findings indicate that the CSUS is a reliable and valid measure of individual differences in children's ToM that may be of great value as a complement to standard ToM tasks in many different research contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Correlates of Adolescent-reported and Parent-reported Family Conflict Among Canadian Adolescents With Bipolar Disorder. (United States)

    Timmins, Vanessa; Swampillai, Brenda; Hatch, Jessica; Scavone, Antonette; Collinger, Katelyn; Boulos, Carolyn; Goldstein, Benjamin I


    Family conflict exacerbates the course of bipolar disorder (BP) among adults. However, few studies have examined family conflict among adolescents with BP, and fewer have looked at adolescent-reported and parent-reported family conflict separately. Subjects were 89 adolescents, aged 13 to 19 years, with a diagnosis of BP on the basis of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL). Subjects were divided into high-conflict and low-conflict groups using a median split on the Conflict Behavior Questionnaire (child report and parent report). The χ(2) analyses and independent samples t tests were performed for univariate analyses. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed on variables with Padolescent-reported Conflict Behavior Questionnaire scores were significantly correlated (r=0.50, Padolescent-reported family conflict was positively associated with recent manic symptoms and emotional dysregulation, and negatively associated with socioeconomic status and lifetime psychiatric hospitalization. Bipolar subtype was significantly associated with high versus low family conflict. The limitations of this study included being a cross-sectional study, use of a medium-sized sample, and lack of a control group. Despite substantial agreement between adolescents and parents regarding the amount of family conflict, there were meaningful differences in the factors associated with adolescent-reported and parent-reported conflict. These findings demonstrate the importance of ascertaining family conflict from adolescents as well as from parents. Moreover, these findings can potentially inform family therapy, which is known to be effective for adolescents with BP.

  2. Parents' reports of the body shape and feeding habits of 36-month-old children: an investigation of gender differences. (United States)

    Holm-Denoma, Jill M; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Gau, Jeffrey M; Joiner, Thomas E; Striegel-Moore, Ruth; Otamendi, Ainhoa


    The current study examined parental perception of offspring body shape, differential reporting of offspring eating behaviors by mothers and fathers, and gender-specific patterns of offspring feeding habits. Parents of a community sample of 36-month-old children (N = 93) completed measures regarding their offspring's feeding patterns and body shape. Results revealed noteworthy correlates (e.g., concerns about their child's appetite) of parental perception of offspring weight status. They further suggested that mothers and fathers often differed in their accounts of their child's eating habits, and that parents report certain eating behaviors differently depending on the gender of their child. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  3. Medical homes for at-risk children: parental reports of clinician-parent relationships, anticipatory guidance, and behavior changes. (United States)

    Nelson, Catherine S; Higman, Susan M; Sia, Calvin; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Fuddy, Loretta; Duggan, Anne K


    Family-centeredness, compassion, and trust are 3 attributes of the clinician-parent relationship in the medical home. Among adults, these attributes are associated with patients' adherence to clinicians' advice. The objectives were (1) to measure medical home attributes related to the clinician-parent relationship, (2) to measure provision of anticipatory guidance regarding injury and illness prevention, (3) to relate anticipatory guidance to parental behavior changes, and (4) to relate medical home attributes to anticipatory guidance and parental behavior changes. A cross-sectional study of data collected among at-risk families when children were 1 year of age, in a randomized, controlled trial of a home-visiting program to prevent child abuse and neglect, was performed. Modified subscales of the Primary Care Assessment Survey were used to measure parental ratings of clinicians' family-centeredness, compassion, and trust. Parental reports of provision of anticipatory guidance regarding injury and illness prevention topics (smoke alarms, infant walkers, car seats, hot water temperature, stair guards, sunscreen, firearm safety, and bottle propping) and behavior changes were recorded. Of the 564 mothers interviewed when their children were 1 year of age, 402 (71%) had a primary care provider and had complete data for anticipatory guidance items. By definition, poverty, partner violence, poor maternal mental health, and maternal substance abuse were common in the study sample. Maternal ratings of clinicians' family-centeredness, compassion, and trust were fairly high but ranged widely and varied among population subgroups. Families reported anticipatory guidance for a mean of 4.6 +/- 2.2 topics relevant for discussion. Each medical home attribute was positively associated with parental reports of completeness of anticipatory guidance, ie, family-centeredness (beta = .026, SE = .004), compassion (beta = .019, SE = .005), and trust (beta = .016, SE = .005). Parents

  4. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  5. Does Parent Report Gross Motor Function Level of Cerebral Palsy Children Impact on the Quality of Life in these Children? (United States)

    Pashmdarfard, Marzieh; Amini, Malek; Badv, Reza Shervin; Ghaffarzade Namazi, Narges; Rassafiani, Mehdi


    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of parent report gross motor function level of cerebral palsy (CP) children on the parent report quality of life of CP children. Sampling of this cross-sectional study was done in occupational therapy clinics and CP children's schools in 2016 in Zanjan, Iran. Samples size was 60 CP children aged 6-12 yr and for sampling method, a non-probability convenience was used. For assessing the quality of life of CP children the cerebral palsy quality of life (CP QOL) questionnaire and for assessing the level of gross motor function of CP children the Gross Motor Function Classification System Family Report Questionnaire (GMFCSFRQ) were used. The average age of children (22 males and 30 females) was 8.92 yr old (minimum 6 yr and maximum 12 yr). The relationship between the level of gross motor function and participation and physical health was direct and significant (r=0.65). The relationship between functioning, access to services and family health with the level of gross motor function was direct but was not significant ( P >0.05) and the relationship between pain and impact of disability and emotional well-being with the level of gross motor function was significant ( P quality of life of children with cerebral palsy. It means that the level of gross motor function cannot be used as a predictor of quality of life for children with cerebral palsy alone.

  6. Neurofeedback for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD: a randomized and controlled clinical trial using parental reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duric Nezla S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A randomized and controlled clinical study was performed to evaluate the use of neurofeedback (NF to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children and adolescents. Methods The ADHD population was selected from an outpatient clinic for Child and Adolescent Mental Health in Norway. Ninety-one of the 275 children and adolescents ranging in age from 6 to 18 years (10.5 years participated in 30 sessions of an intensive NF program. The reinforcement contingency was based on the subjects’ production of cortical beta1 activity (15–18 Hz. The ADHD participants were randomized into three groups, with 30 in the NF group, 31 controls in a group that was given methylphenidate, and 30 in a group that received NF and methylphenidate. ADHD core symptoms were reported by parents using the parent form of the Clinician’s Manual for Assessment by Russell A. Barkley. Results Ninety-one children and adolescents were effectively randomized by age, sex, intelligence and distribution of ADHD core symptoms. The parents reported significant effects of the treatments, but no significant differences between the treatment groups were observed. Conclusions NF was as effective as methylphenidate at treating the attentional and hyperactivity symptoms of ADHD, based on parental reports. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials NCT01252446

  7. Parental report of abdominal pain and abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders from a community survey. (United States)

    Saps, Miguel; Adams, Papa; Bonilla, Silvana; Chogle, Ashish; Nichols-Vinueza, Diana


    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common in children. Abdominal pain (AP) is the most common gastrointestinal (GI) symptom in children. The severity of AP drives medical consultations and quality of life in adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Thirty-eight percent of 8- to 15-year-old schoolchildren report AP weekly with 24% of those children reporting persistence of AP >8 weeks. Despite the high prevalence of AP, only 2% of school children seek medical attention for AP. Lack of parental knowledge on their child's symptoms may constitute one of the factors affecting the low ratio of consultation in children reporting AP. The aim was to assess parental reports of AP symptoms in a population of healthy community children. Data of 5 studies with identical methodology to assess GI symptoms in children with celiac disease (CD), cow's milk allergy (CMA), pyloric stenosis (PS), Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP), and stem cell transplant (SC) and their healthy siblings were reviewed: a phone questionnaire on GI symptoms and Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rome III version questionnaire (QPGS-RIII). Inclusion criteria were healthy children 4 to 18 years of age with a sibling previously diagnosed with CD, CMA, PS, HSP, or SC. Data on 246 healthy children, mean age (9.8 years, range 3-24, 112 girls) were obtained. Parents reported presence of AP in the last 8 weeks before the telephone contact in 20 (8.1%) children (age range 4-18 years, 11 girls). There was no significant difference in AP prevalence between boys and girls (P = 0.64). Six children (2.4%) met QPGS-RIII diagnostic criteria for FGIDs: 3 functional abdominal pain (FAP) and 3 IBS. AP was common in community children. FAP was the most common FGID among healthy community children. The prevalence of AP by parental report is lower than the previously published prevalence of AP reported by children. Lack of awareness of children's symptoms may play a role in the low ratio of

  8. Are Non-intellectually Disabled Black Youth with ASD Less Impaired on Parent Report than Their White Peers? (United States)

    Anthony, Bruno J.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Armour, Anna Chelsea; Dudley, Katerina; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth


    There is a lack of research examining differences in functioning in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across ethnicity, particularly among those without intellectual disability (ID). This study investigated ethnic differences in parent-reported impairment in executive function, adaptive behavior, and social–emotional functioning. White and Black youth (n = 64; ages 6–17) with ASD without ID were compared on each of these domains. Black youth had significantly lower levels of impairment on all three domains. Findings may reflect better daily functioning among Black youth with ASD and/or cultural differences in parent response to questionnaires. Regardless, these findings raise concern about the sensitivity of commonly used measures for Black children with ASD and the impact of culture on daily functioning and symptom manifestation. PMID:26439481

  9. Agreement between child self-reported and parent-reported scores for chronic pain secondary to specific pediatric diseases. (United States)

    Díez Rodriguez-Labajo, A; Castarlenas, E; Miró, J; Reinoso-Barbero, F


    Parental report on a child's secondary chronic pain is commonly requested by anesthesiologists when the child cannot directly provide information. Daily pain intensity is reported as highest, average and lowest. However, it is unclear whether the parents' score is a valid indicator of the child's pain experience. Nineteen children (aged 6-18years) with secondary chronic pain attending our anesthesiologist-run pediatric pain unit participated in this study. Identification of highest, average and lowest pain intensity levels were requested during initial screening interviews with the child and parents. Pain intensity was scored on a 0-10 numerical rating scale. Agreement was examined using: (i) intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and (ii) the Bland-Altman method. The ICC's between the children and the parents' pain intensity reports were: 0.92 for the highest, 0.68 for the average, and 0.50 for the lowest pain intensity domains. The limits of agreement set at 95% between child and parental reports were respectively +2.19 to -2.07, +3.17 to -3.88 and +5.15 to -5.50 for the highest, average and lowest pain domains. For the highest pain intensity domain, agreement between parents and children was excellent. If replicated this preliminary finding would suggest the highest pain intensity is the easiest domain for reporting pain intensity when a child cannot directly express him or herself. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Secular trends in parent-reported television viewing among children in the United States, 2001-2012. (United States)

    Loprinzi, P D; Davis, R E


    Examine trends in parent-reported television (TV) viewing among preschoolers (2-5 years) and children (6-11 years) between 2001 and 2012. Data from the 2001-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used. The analytic sample included 5724 preschoolers and 7104 children. Parent proxy of TV viewing at each of the six 2-year cycles was assessed. Statistically significant decreases in mean TV viewing between 2001 and 2012 were observed for preschoolers of nearly all gender, race-ethnicity and poverty combinations (exception of Mexican American boys), with the largest decrease occurring among non-Hispanic white boys (29% decrease; 2.24 h/day in 2001-2002 to 1.59 h/day in 2011-2012; P = .01). There was evidence of progressive decrease in mean TV viewing among children, but not to the extent that occurred among the preschool population. Across the six respective cycles for the entire preschool sample, the proportion watching <2 h/day of TV was: 34.9, 34.2, 43.9, 43.4, 39.1 and 49.2 (P(trend)  < .001). For children, the respective proportions were: 32.9, 25.2, 38.2, 36.5, 38.1 and 36.6 (P(trend)  = .01). Statistically significant decreases in mean TV viewing between 2001 and 2012 were observed for preschoolers and children. However, a relatively large proportion of parents report their children watching 2 or more hours/day of TV. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Recent Temporal Trends in Parent-Reported Physical Activity in Children in the United States, 2009 to 2014. (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Davis, Robert E


    The objective of this study was to provide recent temporal trends in parent-reported physical activity in children (6-11 years) between 2009 and 2014. Data from the 2009 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The analytic sample included 3946 children. Parent proxy of child physical activity at each of the 3 2-year cycles was assessed. For the entire sample, there was a quadratic trend, with the number of days children engaged in at least 60 min/d of physical activity increasing in the period 2011 to 2012 (6.12 days) when compared with the period 2009 to 2010 (5.96 days) and then decreasing in the period 2013 to 2014 (5.83 days). A similar quadratic trend was evident for boys, those above the poverty level, non-Hispanic whites (particularly boys), and those with less than the 85th body mass index-for-age percentile based on sex. A negative linear trend was observed for those above the poverty level and non-Hispanic whites (particularly girls). In conclusion, these findings provide suggestive evidence that over the past 6 years (1999-2014), parents report that children's physical activity has slightly decreased in the latest years, with this observation being most pronounced in boys, those above the poverty level, non-Hispanic whites, and those with less than the 85th body mass index-for-age and sex percentile. Encouragingly, however, across all evaluated subpopulations, most children (55%-82%), as determined by their parents, engaged in 60 min/d of physical activity (consistent with government recommendations). Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Are Context-specific Measures of Parental-reported Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Associated with Accelerometer Data in 2–9-year-old European Children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbestel, Vera; De Henauw, Stefaan; Bammann, Karin


    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate if context-specific measures of parental-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour are associated with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in children. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Seven European...... countries taking part in the IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants) study. Subjects: Data were analysed from 2–9-year-old children (n 5982) who provided both parental-reported and accelerometer-derived physical activity....../sedentary behaviour measures. Parents reported their children’s daily screen-time, weekly sports participation and daily outdoor playtime by means of the Outdoor Playtime Checklist (OPC) and Outdoor Playtime Recall Questions (OPRQ). Results: Sports participation, OPC- and OPRQ-derived outdoor play were positively...

  13. Effects of internal displacement and resettlement on the mental health of Turkish children and adolescents. (United States)

    Erol, Neşe; Simşek, Zeynep; Oner, Ozgür; Munir, Kerim


    To evaluate the effects of internal displacement and resettlement within Turkey on the emotional and behavioral profile of children, age 5-18 after controlling for possible confounding and demographic variables. We conducted a national population survey using a self-weighted, equal probability sample. We compared the CBCL, TRF and YSR responses regarding children with (n = 1644) and without (n = 1855) experience of internal displacement. We examined the effects of gender, age, paternal employment, resettlement, urban residence and physical illness. The children and adolescents with internal displacement had significantly higher internalizing, externalizing and total problem scores on the CBCL and YSR, and higher internalizing scores on the TRF. The effect of displacement was related to higher internalizing problems when factors like physical illness, child age, child gender and urban residence were accounted. The overall effect was small explaining only 0.1-1.5% of the total variance by parent reports, and not evident by teacher reports. To our knowledge the present study is the first to examine Turkish children and adolescents with and without experience of internal displacement. The results are consistent with previous immigration studies: child age, gender, presence of physical illness and urban residence were more important predictors of internalization and externalization problem scores irrespective of informant source.

  14. Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Child Health and Illness Profile (CHIP Child-Edition, Parent Report Form (CHIP-CE/PRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebé Cristian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of the study were to assess the reliability, and the content, construct, and convergent validity of the Spanish version of the CHIP-CE/PRF, to analyze parent-child agreement, and compare the results with those of the original U.S. version. Methods Parents from a representative sample of children aged 6-12 years were selected from 9 primary schools in Barcelona. Test-retest reliability was assessed in a convenience subsample of parents from 2 schools. Parents completed the Spanish version of the CHIP-CE/PRF. The Achenbach Child Behavioural Checklist (CBCL was administered to a convenience subsample. Results The overall response rate was 67% (n = 871. There was no floor effect. A ceiling effect was found in 4 subdomains. Reliability was acceptable at the domain level (internal consistency = 0.68-0.86; test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.69-0.85. Younger girls had better scores on Satisfaction and Achievement than older girls. Comfort domain score was lower (worse in children with a probable mental health problem, with high effect size (ES = 1.45. The level of parent-child agreement was low (0.22-0.37. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the parent version of the Spanish CHIP-CE has acceptable psychometric properties although further research is needed to check reliability at sub-domain level. The CHIP-CE parent report form provides a comprehensive, psychometrically sound measure of health for Spanish children 6 to 12 years old. It can be a complementary perspective to the self-reported measure or an alternative when the child is unable to complete the questionnaire. In general, the results are similar to the original U.S. version.

  15. Psychometric validation of the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Report Form in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (United States)

    Gajria, Kavita; Kosinski, Mark; Sikirica, Vanja; Huss, Michael; Livote, Elayne; Reilly, Kathleen; Dittmann, Ralf W; Erder, M Haim


    Measurement properties of the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Report Form (WFIRS-P), which assesses attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related functional impairment in children/adolescents (6-17 years), were examined. Data from seven randomized, controlled trials were pooled. Analyses were conducted in two random half-samples. WFIRS-P conceptual framework was evaluated using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). Reliability was estimated using internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability methods. Convergent validity was assessed using correlations between WFIRS-P domain scores and the ADHD-RS-IV and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scales. Responsiveness was tested by comparing mean changes in WFIRS-P domain scores between responders and non-responders based on clinical criteria. CFA adequately confirmed the item-to-scale relationships defined in the WFIRS-P conceptual framework. Cronbach's alpha coefficient exceeded 0.7 for all domains and test-retest reliability exceeded 0.7 for all but Risky Activities. With few exceptions, WFIRS-P domains correlated significantly (p ADHD-RS-IV Total, Inattention and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores and CGI-S at baseline and follow-up in both random half-samples. Mean changes in WFIRS-P domain scores differed significantly between responder and non-responder groups in the expected direction (p < 0.001). Study results support the reliability, validity and responsiveness of the WFIRS-P. Findings were replicated between two random samples, further demonstrating the robustness of results.

  16. Parent-reported quality of life of children with cerebral palsy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaud, Catherine; White-Koning, Melanie; I. Michelsen, Susan


    : The parental response rates were >93% for all domains except one. Gross motor function and IQ level were found to be associated independently with quality of life in most domains. However, greater severity of impairment was not always associated with poorer quality of life; in the moods and emotions, self-perception......, social acceptance, and school environment domains, less severely impaired children were more likely to have poor quality of life. Pain was associated with poor quality of life in the physical and psychological well-being and self-perception domains. Parents with higher levels of stress were more likely...

  17. Measuring Adolescent Self-Awareness and Accuracy Using a Performance-Based Assessment and Parental Report

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    Sharon Zlotnik


    Full Text Available AimThe aim of this study was to assess awareness of performance and performance accuracy for a task that requires executive functions (EF, among healthy adolescents and to compare their performance to their parent’s ratings.MethodParticipants: 109 healthy adolescents (mean age 15.2 ± 1.86 years completed the Weekly Calendar Planning Activity (WCPA. The discrepancy between self-estimated and actual performance was used to measure the level of awareness. The participants were divided into high and low accuracy groups according to the WCPA accuracy median score. The participants were also divided into high and low awareness groups. A comparison was conducted between groups using WCPA performance and parent ratings on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF.ResultsHigher awareness was associated with better EF performance. Participants with high accuracy scores were more likely to show high awareness of performance as compared to participants with low accuracy scores. The high accuracy group had better parental ratings of EF, higher efficiency, followed more rules, and were more aware of their WCPA performance.ConclusionOur results highlight the important contribution that self-awareness of performance may have on the individual’s function. Assessing the level of awareness and providing metacognitive training techniques for those adolescents who are less aware, could support their performance.

  18. Parental Reports of Stigma Associated with Child’s Disorder of Sex Development

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    Aimee M. Rolston


    Full Text Available Disorders of sex development (DSD are congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex development is atypical. DSD-associated stigma is purported to threaten positive psychosocial adaptation. Parental perceptions of DSD-related stigma were assessed in 154 parents of 107 children (newborn–17 years questionnaire comprising two scales, child-focused and parent-focused, and three subscales, perceived stigmatization, future worries, and feelings about the child’s condition. Medical chart excerpts identified diagnoses and clinical management details. Stigma scale scores were generally low. Parents of children with DSD reported less stigma than parents of children with epilepsy; however, a notable proportion rated individual items in the moderate to high range. Stigma was unrelated to child’s age or the number of DSD-related surgeries. Child-focused stigma scores exceeded parent-focused stigma and mothers reported more stigma than fathers, with a moderate level of agreement. Within 46,XY DSD, reported stigma was higher for children reared as girls. In conclusion, in this first quantitative study of ongoing experiences, DSD-related stigma in childhood and adolescence, while limited in the aggregate, is reported at moderate to high levels in specific areas. Because stigma threatens positive psychosocial adaptation, systematic screening for these concerns should be considered and, when reported, targeted for psychoeducational counseling.

  19. No further increase in the parent reported prevalence of allergies in Bavarian preschool children: Results from three cross-sectional studies. (United States)

    Weber, Alisa; Herr, Caroline; Hendrowarsito, Lana; Meyer, Nicole; Nennstiel-Ratzel, Uta; von Mutius, Erika; Bolte, Gabriele; Colon, Diana; Kolb, Stefanie


    After three decades of an increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergies, new findings show a plateau in the prevalence of industrialized nations. The objective of this study was to determine whether there was a change in the parent reported prevalence of asthma and allergies among Bavarian preschool children since 2004. A parent questionnaire was administered as part of the Bavarian school entrance examination in three cross-sectional studies from 2004/2005, 2006/2007 and 2012/2013. The questionnaire included items on allergy testing history, identified allergens, symptoms (e.g. wheezing, itchy eyes, rash), medically diagnosed asthma, hay fever and atopic dermatitis. Logistic regression was performed to observe time patterns and adjust for risk factors. Data were available for 6350 (2004/2005), 6483 (2006/2007) and 5052 (2012/2013) individuals. Symptoms and diseases were more frequent in boys, except for allergies which affect the skin. From 2004 to 2012 the parent reported prevalence of asthma (2.6% to 2.8%), hay fever (4.7% to 4.0%) and atopic dermatitis (12.4% to 11.1%) either remained quite stable or decreased not significantly. Results from these three cross-sectional surveys of parent reports suggest that the parent reported prevalences of asthma and allergies are quite stable with small fluctuations since 2004 for Bavarian preschool children. Future research is needed to determine if this trend will continue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and Initial Validation of a Parent Report Measure of the Behavioral Development of Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice A.; Ward, Rebecca A.; Savona, Danielle; Regehr, Kaleigh; Parker, Kevin; Hudson, Melissa; Penning, Henderika; Holden, Jeanette J. A.


    We developed and evaluated a new parent report instrument--Parent Observation of Early Markers Scale (POEMS)--to monitor the behavioral development of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have older affected siblings. Parents of 108 at-risk infants (74 males, 34 females) completed the POEMS from child age 1-24 months.…

  1. Comparison of Percentage of Syllables Stuttered With Parent-Reported Severity Ratings as a Primary Outcome Measure in Clinical Trials of Early Stuttering Treatment. (United States)

    Onslow, Mark; Jones, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Lowe, Robyn; Arnott, Simone; Bridgman, Kate; de Sonneville, Caroline; Franken, Marie-Christine


    This report investigates whether parent-reported stuttering severity ratings (SRs) provide similar estimates of effect size as percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) for randomized trials of early stuttering treatment with preschool children. Data sets from 3 randomized controlled trials of an early stuttering intervention were selected for analyses. Analyses included median changes and 95% confidence intervals per treatment group, Bland-Altman plots, analysis of covariance, and Spearman rho correlations. Both SRs and %SS showed large effect sizes from pretreatment to follow-up, although correlations between the 2 measures were moderate at best. Absolute agreement between the 2 measures improved as percentage reduction of stuttering frequency and severity increased, probably due to innate measurement limitations for participants with low baseline severity. Analysis of covariance for the 3 trials showed consistent results. There is no statistical reason to favor %SS over parent-reported stuttering SRs as primary outcomes for clinical trials of early stuttering treatment. However, there are logistical reasons to favor parent-reported stuttering SRs. We conclude that parent-reported rating of the child's typical stuttering severity for the week or month prior to each assessment is a justifiable alternative to %SS as a primary outcome measure in clinical trials of early stuttering treatment.

  2. Source of parental reports of child height and weight during phone interviews and influence on obesity prevalence estimates among children aged 3-17 years. (United States)

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Miles, Donna; Perrin, Eliana M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Ford, Carol


    We compared parental reports of children's height and weight when the values were estimated vs. parent-measured to determine how these reports influence the estimated prevalence of childhood obesity. In the 2007 and 2008 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program surveys, parents reported height and weight for children aged 3-17 years. When parents reported the values were not measured (by doctor, school, or home), they were asked to measure their child and were later called back. We categorized body mass index status using standard CDC definitions, and we used Chi-square tests and the Stuart-Maxwell test of marginal homogeneity to examine reporting differences. About 80% (n=509) of the 638 parents who reported an unmeasured height and/or weight participated in a callback and provided updated measures. Children originally classified as obese were subsequently classified as obese (67%), overweight (13%), and healthy weight (19%). An estimated 28% of younger children (children (aged ≥10 years) were reclassified on callback. Having parents who guessed the height and weight of their children and then reported updated values did not significantly change the overall population estimates of obesity. Our findings demonstrate that using parent-reported height and weight values may be sufficient to provide reasonable estimates of obesity prevalence. Systematically asking the source of height and weight information may help improve how it is applied to research of the prevalence of childhood obesity when gold-standard measurements are not available.

  3. Brief Report: Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Parent-Reported Autism Symptoms in School-Age Children with High-Functioning Autism (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Drahota, Amy; Sze, Karen; Van Dyke, Marilyn; Decker, Kelly; Fujii, Cori; Bahng, Christie; Renno, Patricia; Hwang, Wei-Chin; Spiker, Michael


    This pilot study tested the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on parent-reported autism symptoms. Nineteen children with autism spectrum disorders and an anxiety disorder (7-11 years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or a waitlist condition. The CBT program emphasized in vivo exposure supported by parent training and…

  4. Effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder: based on parental report. (United States)

    Pennesi, Christine M; Klein, Laura Cousino


    Studies on the gluten-free and/or casein-free (GFCF) dietary intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) suggest that some children may positively respond to implementation of the dietary intervention. Other research suggests that children diagnosed with ASD can be classified into subpopulations based on various factors, including gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities and immune function. This study analyzes parental report data collected using a 90-item online questionnaire from 387 parents or primary caregivers of children diagnosed with ASD on the efficacy of the GFCF diet. Parents reported on their child's GI symptoms, food allergy diagnoses, and suspected food sensitivities, as well as the degree and length of their diet implementation. Overall, diet efficacy among children whose parents reported the presence of GI symptoms, food allergy diagnoses, and suspected food sensitivities included greater improvement in ASD behaviors, physiological symptoms, and social behaviors compared with children whose parents reported none of these symptoms, diagnoses, or sensitivities (P diet implementation, indicated by complete gluten/casein elimination and infrequent diet errors during and outside of parental care, also corresponded to improvement in ASD behaviors, physiological symptoms, and social behaviors (P diet implementation and GI and immune factors may play a role in differentiating diet responders from diet non-responders and substantiate the importance of further investigations into the various, nuanced factors that influence efficacy of the intervention among children with ASDs.

  5. Population Estimates, Health Care Characteristics, and Material Hardship Experiences of U.S. Children with Parent-Reported Speech-Language Difficulties: Evidence from Three Nationally Representative Surveys (United States)

    Sonik, Rajan A.; Parish, Susan L.; Akorbirshoev, Ilhom; Son, Esther; Rosenthal, Eliana


    Purpose: To provide estimates for the prevalence of parent-reported speech-language difficulties in U.S. children, and to describe the levels of health care access and material hardship in this population. Method: We tabulated descriptive and bivariate statistics using cross-sectional data from the 2007 and 2011/2012 iterations of the National…

  6. The Autism Parent Screen for Infants: Predicting Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder Based on Parent-Reported Behavior Observed at 6-24 Months of Age (United States)

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R.; Bryson, Susan; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Brian, Jessica; Smith, Isabel M.; Roberts, Wendy; Szatmari, Peter; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Roncadin, Caroline; Garon, Nancy


    This study examined whether a novel parent-report questionnaire, the Autism Parent Screen for Infants, could differentiate infants subsequently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder from a high-risk cohort (siblings of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (n = 66)) from high-risk and low-risk comparison infants (no family history of…

  7. International Organizations, Changing Governance and China's Policy Making in Higher Education: An Analysis of the World Bank and the World Trade Organization (United States)

    Yang, Rui


    In a context of intensified globalization, the importance of international governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations as influencers and shapers of the global environment is becoming prominent. Participation in international organizations leads to active incorporation of nation-states with worldwide connotations. In higher…

  8. Socio-Economic, Environmental and Personal Factors in the Choice of Country and Higher Education Institution for Studying Abroad among International Students in Malaysia (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the pull factors that influenced international students' choice of country and institution for their Master's education. Design/Methodology/ Approach: This qualitative study relied upon focus group interviews with 70 international students registered in taught Master programmes at a higher…

  9. Are context-specific measures of parental-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour associated with accelerometer data in 2-9-year-old European children? (United States)

    Verbestel, Vera; De Henauw, Stefaan; Bammann, Karin; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Eiben, Gabriele; Konstabel, Kenn; Kovács, Eva; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Reisch, Lucia; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Maes, Lea; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse


    The aim of the present study was to investigate if context-specific measures of parental-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour are associated with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in children. Cross-sectional study. Seven European countries taking part in the IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants) study. Data were analysed from 2-9-year-old children (n 5982) who provided both parental-reported and accelerometer-derived physical activity/sedentary behaviour measures. Parents reported their children's daily screen-time, weekly sports participation and daily outdoor playtime by means of the Outdoor Playtime Checklist (OPC) and Outdoor Playtime Recall Questions (OPRQ). Sports participation, OPC- and OPRQ-derived outdoor play were positively associated with accelerometer-derived physical activity. Television viewing and computer use were positively associated with accelerometer-derived sedentary time. All parental-reported measures that were significantly associated with accelerometer outcomes explained only a minor part of the variance in accelerometer-derived physical activity or sedentary time. Parental-reported measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviour are not useful as a proxy for 2-9-year-old children's physical activity and sedentary time. Findings do not preclude the use of context-specific measures but imply that conclusions should be limited to the context-specific behaviours that are actually measured. Depending on the aim of the study, future research should carefully consider the choice of measurements, including the use of subjective or objective measures of the behaviour of interest or a combination of both.

  10. Relations between fine motor skill and parental report of attention in young children with neurofibromatosis type 1. (United States)

    Casnar, Christy L; Janke, Kelly M; van der Fluit, Faye; Brei, Natalie G; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P


    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common genetic disorders presenting in approximately 1 in 3,500 live births. NF1 is a highly variable condition with a large number of complications. A common complication is neuropsychological problems, including developmental delays and learning difficulties that affect as many as 60% of patients. Research has suggested that school-aged children with NF1 often have poorer fine motor skills and are at greater risk for attention difficulties than the general population. Thirty-eight children with NF1 and 23 unaffected children between the ages of 4 and 6 years, who are enrolled in a study of early development in NF1, were included in the present study. Varying levels of fine motor functioning were examined (simple to complex fine motor tasks). For children with NF1, significant difficulties were demonstrated on lab-based mid-level and complex fine motor tasks, even after controlling for nonverbal reasoning abilities, but not on simple fine motor tasks. Parental report also indicated difficulties in everyday adaptive fine motor functioning. No significant correlations were found between complex fine motor ability and attention difficulties. This study provides much needed descriptive data on the early emergence of fine motor difficulties and attention difficulties in young children with NF1.

  11. DSM-5 changes and the prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum symptoms in Fragile X syndrome. (United States)

    Wheeler, Anne C; Mussey, Joanna; Villagomez, Adrienne; Bishop, Ellen; Raspa, Melissa; Edwards, Anne; Bodfish, James; Bann, Carla; Bailey, Donald B


    We used survey methodology to assess parent-reported autism symptomology in 758 individuals (639 males; 119 females) with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Caregivers reported whether their child with FXS had been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and endorsed symptoms based on a list of observable behaviors related to ASD diagnoses. Symptom counts were categorized based on DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria. Based on behavioral symptoms endorsed by caregivers, 38.7 % of males and 24.7 % of females met criteria for DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of autistic disorder. Significantly fewer males (27.8 %) and females (11.3 %) met criteria for ASD based on DSM-5 criteria. Although 86.4 % of males and 61.7 % of females met criteria for the restricted and repetitive behavior domain for DSM-5, only 29.4 % of males and 13.0 % of females met criteria for the social communication and interaction (SCI) domain. Relaxing the social communication criteria by one symptom count led to a threefold increase in those meeting criteria for ASD, suggesting the importance of subthreshold SCI symptoms for individuals with FXS in ASD diagnoses. Findings suggest important differences in the way ASD may be conceptualized in FXS based on the new DSM-5 criteria.

  12. Vocabulary used by ethno-linguistically diverse South African toddlers: a parent report using the language development survey. (United States)

    Gonasillan, A; Bornman, J; Harty, M


    The primary aim of this study was to ascertain the relevance of the vocabulary of the Language Development Survey (LDS) for typically developing South African toddlers who attend ethno-linguistically diverse early childhood development centres. The need for exploration of the expressive vocabulary of this population stems from the diverse linguistic contexts to which toddlers are exposed on a day-to-day basis in South Africa. Many parents prefer English as the language of learning and teaching for their child. As a result, toddlers interact with ethno-linguistically diverse peers from a young age, usually within their early childhood development centres. An adapted version of the LDS was presented to 40 middle-class parents in Mpumalanga. Vocabulary commonly used by toddlers was determined and a comparison of parent responses made between the present study and the original American-based survey. Results revealed that nouns were used most often by toddlers, in keeping with research on vocabulary acquisition. Significant correlations between the two groups were evident in 12 of the 14 categories. Parents reported that nouns, verbs, adjectives and words from other word classes were used similarly by toddlers, despite differences in their linguistic exposure. These findings suggest that the LDS is a valuable clinical screening tool for speech-language therapists who deliver services to toddlers within the South African context.

  13. Empirically based solutions for the Serbian adaptation of a parent report inventory used in the assessment of child language development

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    Anđelković Darinka


    Full Text Available The study is aimed at providing empirical basis for the adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates’ Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs for Serbian language, a parent report instrument for the language development assessment. Two sources of data were used in order to provide the basis for selection of items and evaluation of their linguistic, cultural and developmental validity: a. Serbian Corpus of Early Child Language (SCECL, and b. focus groups with experts and parents/caregivers. Exploration of the frequency of words/forms in Serbian child language and the qualitative analysis of focus groups discussions provided criteria for selection/adjustment of items in the course of inventory adaptation. The results also revealed that parents are naturally more focused on semantic and communicational aspects of utterances, and insufficiently aware of formal properties of their children’s production. The paper presents significant changes and modifications of the instrument in the course of its adaptation for Serbian, which is a step closer to the final aim - providing a standardized instrument for the assessment of language development in Serbian. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. ON179033, Grant no. ON179034 and Grant no. III47008

  14. Improved parent-reported mobility and achievement of individual goals on activity and participation level after functional power-training in young children with cerebral palsy: a double-baseline controlled trial. (United States)

    van Vulpen, Liesbeth F; de Groot, Sonja; Rameckers, Eugene A; Becher, Jules G; Dallmeijer, Annet J


    In children with cerebral palsy (CP), strength training programs to improve walking capacity and participation in activities of daily living are commonly used in clinical practice, despite lacking evidence of its effectiveness. It has been suggested that strength training with high movement velocity could be more effective than traditional resistance training to improve functional abilities such as walking. In a recently published study, we have demonstrated the positive effects of functional high-velocity resistance (power) training on muscle strength and walking capacity in young children with CP. Whether this type of training is also effective in achieving individual predefined goals in daily activities and self-reported mobility limitations, has not yet been described however. To evaluate the effect of functional power-training on parent-reported mobility and achievement of individual goals on activity and participation level in young children with CP. A double-baseline design was used to compare a 14-week period usual care with a 14-week period of functional power-training (3 times a week) and a follow-up period of 14-weeks. Twenty-two children with spastic CP (13 bilateral, GMFCS level I (N=10) and level II (N=12), mean age 7.5 years (SD 1.8, range 4-10 y)) and their parents participated. Outcome measures were goal attainment scaling (GAS) of individual daily activity related treatment goals, mobility performance as measured using the Functional Mobility Scale (FMS-5m, 50m and 500m), and the parent-reported Mobility Questionnaire (MobQues). After power-training, 86% of children achieved or exceeded their goal, compared with 14% in the usual care period (pfunctional power-training was 10 times higher, compared with the usual care period (Relative Risk=10.0 with 95%CI 1.4 - 71.3). No changes were found in the FMS-5m and FMS-50m categories. Improvement on the MobQues was significantly greater after power-training compared with usual care (7.9% (95% CI 2.7 - 13

  15. Globalisation and Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marginson, Simon; van der Wende, Marijk


    Economic and cultural globalisation has ushered in a new era in higher education. Higher education was always more internationally open than most sectors because of its immersion in knowledge, which never showed much respect for juridical boundaries. In global knowledge economies, higher education

  16. “Stories from No-Man’s Land?” Situated language learning through the use of role models in the context of international Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haines, Kevin


    This article discusses the value of role models in the language acquisition process of international students following an English as Medium of Instruction (EMI) programme in the Netherlands. Narrative interpretations of qualitative data provide insights into the identity work involved in the use of

  17. Country of Origin and Country of Service Delivery Effects in Transnational Higher Education: A Comparison of International Branch Campuses from Developed and Developing Nations (United States)

    Chee, Chiu Mei; Butt, Muhammad Mohsin; Wilkins, Stephen; Ong, Fon Sim


    Over the last decade, international branch campuses have been established by universities from developing countries as well as developed countries. Little research has been conducted into students' perceptions of branch campuses from different countries, or how universities from different countries compete in the increasingly competitive market. A…

  18. "This Is Malaysia. You Have to Follow the Custom Here": Narratives of the Student and Academic Experience in International Higher Education in Malaysia (United States)

    Trahar, Sheila


    An invitation to be a visiting academic at a Malaysian university provided me with rich opportunities to talk with international students and academics and to explore their experiences of learning and teaching in that context. The university had developed an internationalisation strategy and was positioning itself as an "education hub"…

  19. Similar or Different?: A Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Research in Political Science and International Relations between the United States of America and the United Kingdom (United States)

    Blair, Alasdair


    This article focuses on the nature of the writing in 73 articles published in six U.S. and U.K. political science and international relations journals that focus on teaching and learning. A comparative analysis is made of the articles through a review of the characteristics of the authors, the themes researched, the analytical focus, the research…

  20. Caregiver talk to young Spanish-English bilinguals: Comparing direct observation and parent-report measures of dual-language exposure (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A.; Martínez, Lucía Z.; Hurtado, Nereyda; Grüter, Theres; Fernald, Anne


    In research on language development by bilingual children, the early language environment is commonly characterized in terms of the relative amount of exposure a child gets to each language based on parent report. Little is known about how absolute measures of child-directed speech in two languages relate to language growth. In this study of 3-year-old Spanish-English bilinguals (n = 18), traditional parent-report estimates of exposure were compared to measures of the number of Spanish and English words children heard during naturalistic audio recordings. While the two estimates were moderately correlated, observed numbers of child-directed words were more consistently predictive of children's processing speed and standardized test performance, even when controlling for reported proportion of exposure. These findings highlight the importance of caregiver engagement in bilingual children's language outcomes in both of the languages they are learning. PMID:27197746

  1. Canadian children's and youth's pedometer-determined steps/day, parent-reported TV watching time, and overweight/obesity: The CANPLAY Surveillance Study


    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Craig, Cora L; Cameron, Christine; Griffiths, Joseph M


    Abstract Background This study examines associations between pedometer-determined steps/day and parent-reported child's Body Mass Index (BMI) and time typically spent watching television between school and dinner. Methods Young people (aged 5-19 years) were recruited through their parents by random digit dialling and mailed a data collection package. Information on height and weight and time spent watching television between school and dinner on a typical school day was collected from parents...

  2. Brief Report: Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Parent-Reported Autism Symptoms in School-Age Children with High-Functioning Autism


    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Drahota, Amy; Sze, Karen; Dyke, Marilyn; Decker, Kelly; Fujii, Cori; Bahng, Christie; Renno, Patricia; Hwang, Wei-Chin; Spiker, Michael


    This pilot study tested the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on parent-reported autism symptoms. Nineteen children with autism spectrum disorders and an anxiety disorder (7?11?years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or a waitlist condition. The CBT program emphasized in vivo exposure supported by parent training and school consultation to promote social communication and emotion regulation skills. Parents completed a standardized autism symptom checklist at baselin...

  3. Versión española del perfil de salud infantil, cuestionario para padres y madres: Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition Parent Report Form (CHIP-CE/PRF Spanish version of the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition Parent Report Form [CHIP-CE/PRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rajmil


    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar la fiabilidad y validez de las dimensiones del Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition Parent Report Form (CHIP-CE/PRF incluidas en la Encuesta de Salud de Barcelona 2000 (ESB-2000 y obtener sus valores de referencia poblacional. Métodos: Los datos del estudio provienen de las entrevistas a los informadores indirectos de los menores de 5-14 años de edad (n = 836 participantes en la ESB-2000. Se analizaron 4 subdimensiones de la versión para padres del cuestionario CHIP-PRF: «satisfacción con la salud», y bienestar físico, bienestar emocional y limitación de actividad, que constituyen la dimensión de «bienestar». Se analizó la consistencia interna a partir del coeficiente α de Cronbach. Se realizσ un anαlisis factorial exploratorio y se compararon las puntuaciones medias mediante análisis de la covarianza para evaluar la validez de constructo de las subdimensiones. Resultados: El coeficiente alfa fue mayor de 0,70 en todas las subdimensiones analizadas (rango, 0,76-0,98. En el análisis factorial, casi todos los ítems (31/35 presentaron la carga más elevada en su subdimensión correspondiente. Se comprobó la mayoría de las diferencias estadísticas esperadas en las puntuaciones medias entre grupos. Las niñas de 10-14 años de edad presentaron las puntuaciones más bajas tanto en «satisfacción con la salud» (48,93; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC del 95%], 47,40-50,47 como en «bienestar» (48,87; IC del 95%, 47,51-50,22. No se encontraron diferencias según la clase social de la persona cabeza de familia. Conclusiones: El estudio permite disponer de una medida de salud percibida útil en las encuestas de salud infantil.Objectives: To analyze the reliability and validity of the domains of the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition Parent Report Form (CHIP-CE/PRF included in the Barcelona Health Survey conducted in 2000 and to obtain population-based reference values. Methods: Data were

  4. Links of adolescent- and parent-reported eating in the absence of hunger with observed eating in the absence of hunger. (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Mooreville, Mira; Reina, Samantha A; Courville, Amber B; Field, Sara E; Matheson, Brittany E; Brady, Sheila M; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A


    Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) typically was assessed by measuring snack intake after consumption of a meal. There were no validated self-report measures of EAH. The relationship of adolescent self-report and parent-reported EAH to adolescents' measured intake in the absence of hunger was examined. Ninety adolescents completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EAH-C) to describe eating when not hungry. Parents described children's EAH on a parallel version designed for parents (EAH-P). In a randomized crossover study, adolescent EAH in response to external cues was measured as snack intake after a lunch meal standardized to provide 50% of daily energy requirements and after a large array (>10,000 kcal). Parents' reports of children's EAH in response to external cues were associated with greater EAH after both meals, adjusting for body composition, sex, age, race, puberty, and meal intake. Adolescent-reported EAH was unrelated or showed an inverse association with observed EAH. Parent-reported EAH showed a positive association with adolescents' observed EAH and may be a useful research and clinical tool for assessing EAH in response to external cues in conditions when laboratory assessments are not feasible. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  5. Validity and reliability of parental report of frequency, severity and risk factors of urinary tract infection and urinary incontinence in children. (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Premala; Cumming, Robert G; Craig, Jonathan C


    We describe the validity and reliability of a questionnaire designed to determine frequency, severity and risk factors of urinary tract infection and daytime urinary incontinence in primary school-age children. Based on published validated questionnaires and advice from content experts, a questionnaire was developed and piloted in children attending outpatient clinics. Construct validity for parent report of frequency and severity of daytime urinary incontinence was tested by comparison with a daily accident diary in 52 primary school children, and criterion validity of parent report for UTI was verified by comparison with the reference standard (urine culture) in 100 primary school children. Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was assessed in 106 children from primary schools. There was excellent agreement between the questionnaire and accident diary in severity (weighted kappa 0.94, 95% confidence intervals 0.85 to 1.03) and frequency of daytime urinary incontinence (0.88, 0.7 to 1.0). Parents reported urinary tract infection in 15% of children, compared to a positive urine culture in 8% (sensitivity 100% and specificity 68.5%). Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was excellent (mean k 0.78, range 0.61 to 1.00). Parents overreport UTI by about 2-fold but can recall frequency and severity of daytime urinary incontinence well during a 3-month period. The developed questionnaire is a valid tool to estimate frequency, severity and risk factors of daytime urinary incontinence and UTI in primary school children.

  6. International comparisons of preterm birth: higher rates of late preterm birth are associated with lower rates of stillbirth and neonatal death. (United States)

    Lisonkova, S; Sabr, Y; Butler, B; Joseph, K S


    To examine international rates of preterm birth and potential associations with stillbirths and neonatal deaths at late preterm and term gestation. Ecological study. Canada, USA and 26 countries in Europe. All deliveries in 2004. Information on preterm birth (Statistics Canada, the EURO-PERISTAT project and the National Center for Health Statistics. Pearson correlation coefficients and random-intercept Poisson regression were used to examine the association between preterm birth rates and gestational age-specific stillbirth and neonatal death rates. Rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated after adjustment for maternal age, parity and multiple births. Stillbirths and neonatal deaths ≥ 32 and ≥ 37 weeks of gestation. International rates of preterm birth (births. Preterm birth rates at 32-36 weeks were inversely associated with stillbirths at ≥ 32 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.94, 95% CI 0.92-0.96) and ≥ 37 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.91) of gestation and inversely associated with neonatal deaths at ≥ 32 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.91) and ≥ 37 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.78-0.86) of gestation. Countries with high rates of preterm birth at 32-36 weeks of gestation have lower stillbirth and neonatal death rates at and beyond 32 weeks of gestation. Contemporary rates of preterm birth are indicators of both perinatal health and obstetric care services. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  7. Coping with International migration and diversity : how do teacher teams in Dutch higher vocational education relate to their diverse student population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerman, Martha; van Middelkoop, Daniel; Pilati, Massimo; Sheikh, Hina; Sperotti, Francesca; Tilly, Chris


    In a knowledge economy such as that of the Netherlands, the importance of higher education is widely recognized. Dutch universities of Applied Sciences aim to create successful learning environments to prepare young people for their future work and role in society.

  8. Mental health in the United States: parental report of diagnosed autism in children aged 4-17 years--United States, 2003-2004. (United States)


    Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early onset of impairments in social interaction and communication and unusual, stereotyped behaviors. Autism (i.e., autistic disorder) often is classified with two related, although less severe, developmental disorders: Asperger disorder and pervasive developmental disorder--not otherwise specified. These three constitute the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Diagnosis of ASDs is based exclusively on developmental pattern and behavioral observation. Two population-based studies conducted by CDC in selected U.S. locations reported ASD prevalence of 3.4 and 6.7 per 1,000 children, respectively. CDC also conducts two nationally representative surveys, the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), in which parents are asked whether their child ever received a diagnosis of autism. Because of similarities in methodology used by the two surveys, CDC analyzed 2003-2004 data from NHIS and data from the first-ever NSCH (collected during January 2003-July 2004) to 1) estimate the population-based prevalence of parental report of diagnosed autism in the United States and 2) assess parental reporting of child social, emotional, and behavioral strengths and difficulties and special-health care needs among children with and without reported autism. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that the prevalence of parent-reported diagnosis of autism was 5.7 per 1,000 children in NHIS and 5.5 per 1,000 children in NSCH. Prevalence estimates in the two studies were similar across age, sex, and racial/ethnic populations. The consistency in estimates between the two surveys suggests high reliability for parental report of autism. These estimates suggest that, as of 2003-2004, autism had been diagnosed in at least 300,000 U.S. children aged 4-17 years. In addition, parental reports of autism were associated with reported social, emotional, and

  9. Reflection on Promoting Internal Financial Control in Higher Vocational Colleges%关于推进高职院校内部财务控制的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Along with the increasing of national funds investment to higher vocational education, higher vocational colleges attach greater importance to the cost control. Through the introduction of business management idea, the current problems in financial control of higher vocational colleges have been improved and the ability of sustainable development is promoted by taking the measures of changing ideas, improving personnel quality and perfecting precautionary mechanism.%随着国家对高职教育经费投入的逐年攀升,高职院校成本管理的问题日益得到重视。借鉴企业管理的理念,通过转变观念、提升人员素质、健全防范机制等措施,改善院校现行财务控制工作中存在的问题,提高其可持续发展的能力。

  10. Noninjured Knees of Patients With Noncontact ACL Injuries Display Higher Average Anterior and Internal Rotational Knee Laxity Compared With Healthy Knees of a Noninjured Population. (United States)

    Mouton, Caroline; Theisen, Daniel; Meyer, Tim; Agostinis, Hélène; Nührenbörger, Christian; Pape, Dietrich; Seil, Romain


    Excessive physiological anterior and rotational knee laxity is thought to be a risk factor for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and inferior reconstruction outcomes, but no thresholds have been established to identify patients with increased laxity. (1) To determine if the healthy contralateral knees of ACL-injured patients have greater anterior and rotational knee laxity, leading to different laxity profiles (combination of laxities), compared with healthy control knees and (2) to set a threshold to help discriminate anterior and rotational knee laxity between these groups. Case-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 171 healthy contralateral knees of noncontact ACL-injured patients (ACL-H group) and 104 healthy knees of control participants (CTL group) were tested for anterior and rotational laxity. Laxity scores (measurements corrected for sex and body mass) were used to classify knees as hypolax (score 1). Proportions of patients in each group were compared using χ(2) tests. Receiver operating characteristic curves were computed to discriminate laxity between the groups. Odds ratios were calculated to determine the probability of being in the ACL-H group. The ACL-H group displayed greater laxity scores for anterior displacement and internal rotation in their uninjured knee compared with the CTL group (P knees of patients with noncontact ACL injuries display different laxity values both for internal rotation and anterior displacement compared with healthy control knees. The identification of knee laxity profiles may be of relevance for primary and secondary prevention programs of noncontact ACL injuries. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  12. Longitudinal relations between adolescent and parental behaviors, parental knowledge, and internalizing behaviors among urban adolescents. (United States)

    Garthe, Rachel C; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy


    High prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among adolescents underscore the importance of identifying parental and adolescent behaviors that may lessen the risk for these outcomes. Previous research has shown that parental acceptance, parental knowledge, and child disclosure are negatively associated with internalizing behaviors. It is also important to explore the impact of internalizing behaviors on these parental and child constructs. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between parental acceptance, parental knowledge, child disclosure, and internalizing symptoms across a one-year time period. Participants were 358 adolescents (54 % female) and their primary caregivers, who were primarily African American (92 %). Parents and adolescents provided data through face-to-face interviews. Results showed that parental knowledge and parental acceptance predicted child disclosure, and child disclosure predicted parental knowledge one year later. Higher levels of parental acceptance predicted lower levels of adolescent-reported depressive symptoms, while higher levels of parental report of adolescents' internalizing symptoms predicted lower levels of parental knowledge. No differences in the strength of these relationships were found across grade or gender. These findings highlight the role of the adolescent's perceived acceptance by parents in promoting children's disclosure, and the benefits of parental acceptance in decreasing depressive symptoms over time. Overall, these results show the impact that both adolescent and parental behaviors and internalizing behaviors have on each other across time.

  13. Higher Education (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  14. Identifying the Role of the International Consortium ``MIT/ LINC'' in Supporting the Integration of ICT in Higher Education in Emerging Countries (United States)

    Park, Young; Moser, Franziska Zellweger


    The goal of this research effort is to provide insights on what core needs and difficulties exist toward the implementation of ICT in higher education in emerging countries and how a consortium like LINC can best support these efforts. An exploratory research design combining a survey, on-site interviews, participant observation and document analysis were employed to answer the research questions. Main challenges in establishing technology- based learning environments were identified in the area of pedagogies, finances, technological infrastructure, cultural change, organization, and management. LINC, as an non-political organization embedded in an academic environment, can take an important role in facilitating the dialogue among participants through various platforms, take an active role in promoting joint programs and assist with efforts to "localize" tools and practice.

  15. Burden of malaria is higher among children in an internal displacement camp compared to a neighbouring village in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. (United States)

    Charchuk, Rhianna; Paul, Makelele Katsuva Jean; Claude, Kasereka Masumbuko; Houston, Stan; Hawkes, Michael T


    In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), violent conflict has caused the displacement of millions of people into camps where they are exposed to poor living conditions and high rates of infectious diseases. Malaria, in particular, is a major cause of mortality in children under five; however, the burden of disease in displacement camps has not previously been described. Two cross-sectional surveys were performed. First, prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum antigenemia was measured in a random sample of 200 children living in a displacement camp and 200 children from a nearby village (control group). Second, the proportion of febrile illness attributable to malaria was measured in a study of 100 children from the displacement camp and 100 children from the control village presenting to the same health clinic with fever. All participants were tested for P. falciparum with a rapid diagnostic test and additional demographic data, clinical characteristics, and malaria risk factors were determined using a parental questionnaire. In the community survey, children living in the displacement camp had a higher prevalence of P. falciparum infection (17 %) than controls (7.5 %) (OR 2.6; 95 % CI 1.3-4.1; P = 0.0095). In the clinic-based survey, the proportion of febrile illness attributable to malaria was higher among children from the displacement camp (78 %) than controls (39 %) (OR 5.5; 95 % CI 3.0-10.3; P displacement camp than control village in both surveys. Statistically significant differences in household wealth, maternal education, and exposure to community violence were also found. Population displacement due to violent conflict appears to be a risk factor for malaria, a major cause of child mortality. Children living in displacement camps are a relatively understudied population, but have a high burden of malaria, despite control programmes focused on bed net distribution.

  16. Canadian children's and youth's pedometer-determined steps/day, parent-reported TV watching time, and overweight/obesity: The CANPLAY Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Cora L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines associations between pedometer-determined steps/day and parent-reported child's Body Mass Index (BMI and time typically spent watching television between school and dinner. Methods Young people (aged 5-19 years were recruited through their parents by random digit dialling and mailed a data collection package. Information on height and weight and time spent watching television between school and dinner on a typical school day was collected from parents. In total, 5949 boys and 5709 girls reported daily steps. BMI was categorized as overweight or obese using Cole's cut points. Participants wore pedometers for 7 days and logged daily steps. The odds of being overweight and obese by steps/day and parent-reported time spent television watching were estimated using logistic regression for complex samples. Results Girls had a lower median steps/day (10682 versus 11059 for boys and also a narrower variation in steps/day (interquartile range, 4410 versus 5309 for boys. 11% of children aged 5-19 years were classified as obese; 17% of boys and girls were overweight. Both boys and girls watched, on average, Discussion Television viewing is the more prominent factor in terms of predicting overweight, and it contributes to obesity, but steps/day attenuates the association between television viewing and obesity, and therefore can be considered protective against obesity. In addition to replacing opportunities for active alternative behaviours, exposure to television might also impact body weight by promoting excess energy intake. Conclusions In this large nationally representative sample, pedometer-determined steps/day was associated with reduced odds of being obese (but not overweight whereas each parent-reported hour spent watching television between school and dinner increased the odds of both overweight and obesity.

  17. Does Competence Mediate the Associations between Puberty and Internalizing or Externalizing Problems in Adolescent Girls (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Hillman, Jennifer, B.; Dorn, Lorah D.


    Purpose To examine separate mediational models linking a) menarcheal status or b) pubertal timing to internalizing and externalizing problems through competence. Method Cross-sectional analyses of 262 adolescent girls (11–17 years; M=14.93, SD=2.17) enrolled in a longitudinal study examining the association of psychological functioning and smoking with reproductive and bone health. Measures of menarcheal status (pre/post), pubertal timing (early, on-time, or late), internalizing and externalizing behavior, and perceived competence (parent and adolescent report) were obtained. Structural Equation Modeling was used for analyses. Results Perceived competence was found to fully mediate the association between menarcheal status and parent report of internalizing and externalizing problems. For adolescent report, there was a full mediation effect for internalizing problems but a partial mediation effect for externalizing problems. Being menarcheal was related to lower competence which was related to higher internalizing and externalizing problems. Models including pubertal timing were not significant. Conclusions Perceived competence is important in understanding the associations between menarcheal status and internalizing and externalizing problems. Interventions targeting competence, particularly in post-menarcheal girls, may reduce or prevent problem behaviors. PMID:21939864

  18. Makerere Journal of Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makerere Journal of Higher Education (MAJOHE) is the official publication of ... management and improvement of higher education from an international viewpoint. ... Historical Development of Science and Technology Education in Nigeria: ...

  19. Higher Education. (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  20. The Autism Parent Screen for Infants: Predicting risk of autism spectrum disorder based on parent-reported behavior observed at 6-24 months of age. (United States)

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Bryson, Susan; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Brian, Jessica; Smith, Isabel M; Roberts, Wendy; Szatmari, Peter; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Roncadin, Caroline; Garon, Nancy


    This study examined whether a novel parent-report questionnaire, the Autism Parent Screen for Infants, could differentiate infants subsequently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder from a high-risk cohort (siblings of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (n = 66)) from high-risk and low-risk comparison infants (no family history of autism spectrum disorder) who did not develop autism spectrum disorder (n = 138 and 79, respectively). Participants were assessed prospectively at 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months of age. At 36 months, a blind independent diagnostic assessment for autism spectrum disorder was completed. Parent report on the Autism Parent Screen for Infants was examined in relation to diagnostic outcome and risk status (i.e. high-risk sibling with autism spectrum disorder, high-risk sibling without autism spectrum disorder, and low-risk control). The results indicated that from 6 months of age, total score on the Autism Parent Screen for Infants differentiated between the siblings with autism spectrum disorder and the other two groups. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive validity of the Autism Parent Screen for Infants highlight its potential for the early screening of autism spectrum disorder in high-risk cohorts.

  1. Matched trauma: The role of parents' and children's shared history of childhood domestic violence exposure in parents' report of children's trauma-related symptomatology. (United States)

    Cohodes, Emily; Hagan, Melissa; Narayan, Angela; Lieberman, Alicia


    Parents' childhood experiences of trauma may influence their reports of their children's behavior, and this may be particularly true when children are also traumatized. The present study proposed and tested a matched trauma hypothesis, positing that compared to parents without a childhood history of witnessing domestic violence (DV), parents with a childhood history of witnessing DV may report their children's trauma-related symptomatology differently following children's exposure to DV. Of 137 included parents (M age = 32 years; 93% mothers), 81 reported witnessing childhood DV (matched group), whereas 56 reported no childhood DV exposure (nonmatched comparison group). All parents reported on their 3- to 6-year-old children's dissociation and posttraumatic stress symptoms following children's DV exposure. An analysis of covariance controlling for parental life stress, dissociation symptoms, and other childhood traumatic events revealed that parents who witnessed childhood DV reported significantly fewer child dissociation symptoms than comparison parents. No difference was found for parents' reports of children's posttraumatic stress symptoms. Exploratory analyses on a subsample of children with teacher reports of child dissociation symptoms (n = 75) revealed that the strength of the association between parent and teacher reports of dissociation symptoms was moderated by matched versus nonmatched group membership. Findings suggest the importance of considering a parent's history of trauma when using parents as informants for children's trauma symptoms.

  2. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani


    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines

  3. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan

    is about constructing a more inclusive understanding of quality in higher education through combining the macro, meso and micro levels, i.e. from the perspectives of national policy, higher education institutions as organizations in society, individual teaching staff and students. It covers both......Quality in higher education was not invented in recent decades – universities have always possessed mechanisms for assuring the quality of their work. The rising concern over quality is closely related to the changes in higher education and its social context. Among others, the most conspicuous...... changes are the massive expansion, diversification and increased cost in higher education, and new mechanisms of accountability initiated by the state. With these changes the traditional internally enacted academic quality-keeping has been given an important external dimension – quality assurance, which...

  4. Reliability of the Music in Everyday Life (MEL) Scale: A Parent-Report Assessment for Children on the Autism Spectrum. (United States)

    Gottfried, Tali; Thompson, Grace; Elefant, Cochavit; Gold, Christian


    For young children on the autism spectrum, the inclusion of shared parent-child music activities in everyday life may provide additional opportunities for social interactions in the home. However, no psychometrically validated assessment exists to measure the extent of shared music activity within family or community contexts. This study aimed to develop and test the reliability of a self-report assessment to measure the use of Music in Everyday Life (MEL) by parents with young children on the autism spectrum. A total of 45 mothers of children with autism aged between 4 and 7 years completed the MEL questionnaire. Internal consistency and item-total correlation were examined. Analysis confirmed the reliability of two predetermined subscales: Music in Everyday Life-Joint Activities using Music (MEL-JAM) and Music in Everyday Life-Routine Activities using Music (MEL-RAM). Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.63 and 0.75) and positive item-total correlation (Pearson's r between .23 to .62 for MEL-JAM and between .30 to .67 for MEL-RAM) were demonstrated. The reliability of the MEL assessment to measure the use of music in everyday life by parents with their children with autism was confirmed, filling an important gap in the availability of assessment tools.

  5. Higher Education in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch


    Higher education systems around the world have been undergoing fundamental changes through the last 50 years from more narrow self-sustaining universities for the elite and into mass universities, where new groups of students have been recruited and the number of students enrolled has increased...... an impact on the educational systems in Scandinavia, and what possible futures can be envisioned?...... dramatically. In adjusting to the role of being a mass educational institution, universities have been challenged on how to cope with external pressures, such as forces of globalization and international markets, increased national and international competition for students and research grants, increased...

  6. The costs and benefits of self-monitoring for higher functioning children and adolescents with autism. (United States)

    Henderson, Heather A; Ono, Kim E; McMahon, Camilla M; Schwartz, Caley B; Usher, Lauren V; Mundy, Peter C


    The ability to regulate behaviors and emotions depends in part on the ability to flexibly monitor one's own progress toward a goal. Atypical patterns of response monitoring have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the current study we examined the error related negativity (ERN), an electrophysiological index of response monitoring, in relation to behavioral, social cognitive, and emotional presentation in higher functioning children (8-16 years) diagnosed with autism (HFA: N = 38) and an age- and IQ-matched sample of children without autism (COM: N = 36). Both HFA and COM participants displayed larger amplitude responses to error compared to correct response trials and these amplitudes did not differ by diagnostic group. For participants with HFA, larger ERN amplitudes were associated with more parent-reported autistic symptoms and more self-reported internalizing problems. However, across the full sample, larger ERN amplitudes were associated with better performance on theory of mind tasks. The results are discussed in terms of the utility of electrophysiological measures for understanding essential moderating processes that contribute to the spectrum of behavioral expression in the development of ASD.

  7. Sleep in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: How Are Measures of Parent Report and Actigraphy Related and Affected by Sleep Education? (United States)

    Veatch, Olivia J; Reynolds, Ann; Katz, Terry; Weiss, Shelly K; Loh, Alvin; Wang, Lily; Malow, Beth A


    Sleep disturbance is common in children with autism, resulting in a great need for effective treatments. To evaluate treatments for sleep disturbance in this population, it is critical to understand the relationship between measures of sleep captured by parent report and objective measures. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and actigraphy-measured data from 80 children with autism and sleep-onset delay were evaluated. Reported problems with sleep-onset delay were concurrent with sleep duration problems in 66% of children, night wakings in 72% of children, and bedtime resistance in 66% of children; 38% of children were reported to have problems with all CSHQ insomnia domains. Actigraphy-measured sleep duration was correlated with estimates using CSHQ-reported bed and wake times.

  8. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan


    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  9. Hungary Higher Education Quality Assurance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Ru-shan


    Full Text Available Higher education quality assurance system has drawn much attention since 1980s. Most countries are committed to build the higher education quality assurance system to meet international standards. Under such an international trend, Hungary also actively promotes higher education reform, and established Hungarian Accreditation Committee and in order to ensure the quality of higher education.

  10. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A


    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Crisan-Mitra


    Full Text Available Internationalization of higher education is one of the key trends of development. There are several approaches on how to achieve competitiveness and performance in higher education and international academic mobility; students’ exchange programs, partnerships are some of the aspects that can play a significant role in this process. This paper wants to point out the student’s perception regarding two main directions: one about the master students’ expectation regarding how an internationalized master should be organized and should function, and second the degree of satisfaction of the beneficiaries of internationalized master programs from Babe-Bolyai University. This article is based on an empirical qualitative research that was implemented to students of an internationalized master from the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. This research can be considered a useful example for those preoccupied to increase the quality of higher education and conclusions drawn have relevance both theoretically and especially practically.

  12. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani


    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  13. The association between parent-reported provider communication quality and child obesity status: Variation by parent obesity and child race/ethnicity. (United States)

    Wong, Michelle S; Showell, Nakiya N; Bleich, Sara N; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Chan, Kitty S


    To examine the association between healthcare provider communication quality and child obesity status, and the role of parent obesity and child race/ethnicity regarding this association. We conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis with the 2011-2013 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey of parents with children ages 6-12 (n=5390). We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association of parent-reported healthcare provider communication quality (explaining well, listening carefully, showing respect, and spending enough time) with child obesity status, and effect modification by parent obesity and child race/ethnicity. Parents of obese children were more likely to report that their child's healthcare provider listened carefully (OR=1.41, p=0.002) and spent enough time (OR=1.33, p=0.022) than parents of non-obese children. Non-obese parents of obese children experienced better communication in the domains of listening carefully (pobese non-Hispanic Asian children and non-Hispanic Black children were more likely to report that providers explained things well (p=0.043) and listened carefully (p=0.012), respectively. Parents of obese children experienced better communication if parents were non-obese or children were non-Hispanic Black or Asian. Healthcare providers should ensure effective communication with obese parents of obese children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Parent-reported and clinician-observed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): implications for practice under DSM-5. (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Dick, Catherine; Lord, Catherine; Bishop, Somer


    Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often present with social difficulties, though the extent to which these clearly overlap with symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not well understood. We explored parent-reported and directly-observed ASD symptoms on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in children referred to ASD-specialty clinics who received diagnoses of either ADHD (n = 48) or ASD (n = 164). Of the ADHD sample, 21 % met ASD cut-offs on the ADOS and 30 % met ASD cut-offs on all domains of the ADI-R. Four social communication ADOS items (Quality of Social Overtures, Unusual Eye Contact, Facial Expressions Directed to Examiner, and Amount of Reciprocal Social Communication) adequately differentiated the groups while none of the items on the ADI-R met the criteria for adequate discrimination. Results of this work highlight the challenges that clinicians and researchers face when distinguishing ASD from other disorders in verbally fluent, school-age children.

  15. Higher Education, Poverty and Development (United States)

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.


    There is a presumption among many policy makers that higher education is not necessary for economic growth and development; it is literacy and basic education and at best secondary education that are argued to be important. Estimates of internal rate of return contributed to strengthening of such a presumption. Accordingly, higher education has…

  16. A Global Talent Magnet: How a San Francisco/Bay Area Global Higher Education Hub Could Advance California's Comparative Advantage in Attracting International Talent and Further Build US Economic Competitiveness. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.9.11 (United States)

    Douglass, John; Edelstein, Richard; Hoareau, Cecile


    During the 2009-10 academic year international students generated more than $18.8 billion in net income into the US economy. California alone had nearly 100,000 international students with an economic impact of nearly $3.0 billion. In this paper, we outline a strategy for the San Francisco/Bay Area to double the number of international students…

  17. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain


    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  18. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain; Alkhalifah, Tariq


    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green's function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green's function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green's function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  19. The bidirectional pathways between internalizing and externalizing problems and academic performance from 6 to 18 years. (United States)

    Van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning


    Internalizing and externalizing problems are associated with poor academic performance, both concurrently and longitudinally. Important questions are whether problems precede academic performance or vice versa, whether both internalizing and externalizing are associated with academic problems when simultaneously tested, and whether associations and their direction depend on the informant providing information. These questions were addressed in a sample of 816 children who were assessed four times. The children were 6-10 years at baseline and 14-18 years at the last assessment. Parent-reported internalizing and externalizing problems and teacher-reported academic performance were tested in cross-lagged models to examine bidirectional paths between these constructs. These models were compared with cross-lagged models testing paths between teacher-reported internalizing and externalizing problems and parent-reported academic performance. Both final models revealed similar pathways from mostly externalizing problems to academic performance. No paths emerged from internalizing problems to academic performance. Moreover, paths from academic performance to internalizing and externalizing problems were only found when teachers reported on children's problems and not for parent-reported problems. Additional model tests revealed that paths were observed in both childhood and adolescence. Externalizing problems place children at increased risk of poor academic performance and should therefore be the target for interventions.

  20. Oral Presentations Have a Significantly Higher Publication Rate, But Not Impact Factors, Than Poster Presentations at the International Society for Study of Lumbar Spine meeting: Review of 1126 Abstracts From 2010 to 2012 Meetings. (United States)

    Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Inoue, Masahiro; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Norimoto, Masaki; Umimura, Tomotaka; Furuya, Takeo; Masao, Koda; Maki, Satoshi; Akazawa, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Kazuhisa


    A retrospective study. The aim of this study was to determine the publication rate and impact factors (IFs) among all abstracts presented at the 2010 and 2012 meetings of the International Society for the Study of Lumbar Spine (ISSLS). The publication rate of abstracts presented at overseas meetings was reported to be around 50%. However, the publication rate and IFs of oral and poster presentations made at ISSLS meetings were unclear. Moreover, whether the publication rates and IFs differed for papers associated with oral or poster presentations at ISSLS meetings was unknown. We investigated all 1126 abstracts (oral, special posters, general posters) presented at ISSLS meetings held between 2010 and 2012. PubMed was searched to identify publications and IFs were determined using journal citation reports. We also compared the publication rates and IFs between oral and poster presentations. The overall publication rate was 50.1% for three ISSLS meetings (564 publications/1126 abstracts). The overall publication rate for oral presentations, special posters, and general posters given in the 2010 to 2012 meetings was 62.0%, 48.3, and 46.6%, respectively. Overall, papers related to oral presentations had significantly higher publication rates than those of special and general posters (P = 0.0002). The average IFs of publications associated with abstracts presented at three ISSLS meetings was 2.802 for oral presentations, 2.593 for special posters, and 2.589 for general posters. There were no significant differences in average IFs between oral and poster presentations (P > 0.05). The publication rate for abstracts presented at ISSLS meetings was high and similar to publication rates for abstracts presented at other meetings concerning orthopedic and spine research. However, there was no significant difference in IFs between oral and poster presentations, suggesting that abstract evaluations cannot predict IFs of the eventual publication. 4.

  1. Parent-Reported Behavioral and Psychiatric Problems Mediate the Relationship between Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Cognitive Deficits in School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale L. Smith


    Full Text Available BackgroundNumerous studies over the past several decades have illustrated that children who suffer from sleep-disordered breathing (SDB are at greater risk for cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric problems. Although behavioral problems have been proposed as a potential mediator between SDB and cognitive functioning, these relationships have not been critically examined.MethodsThis analysis is based on a community-based cohort of 1,115 children who underwent overnight polysomnography, and cognitive and behavioral phenotyping. Structural model of the relationships between SDB, behavior, and cognition, and two recently developed mediation approaches based on propensity score weighting and resampling were used to assess the mediational role of parent-reported behavior and psychiatric problems in the relationship between SDB and cognitive functioning. Multiple models utilizing two different SDB definitions further explored direct effects of SDB on cognition as well as indirect effects through behavioral pathology. All models were adjusted for age, sex, race, BMI z-score, and asthma status.ResultsIndirect effects of SDB through behavior problems were significant in all mediation models, while direct effects of SDB on cognition were not. The findings were consistent across different mediation procedures and remained essentially unaltered when different criteria for SDB, behavior, and cognition were used.ConclusionPotential effects of SDB on cognitive functioning appear to occur through behavioral problems that are detectable in this pediatric population. Thus, early attentional or behavioral pathology may be implicated in the cognitive functioning deficits associated with SDB, and may present an early morbidity-related susceptibility biomarker.

  2. Parent reports of health-related quality of life and heart failure severity score independently predict outcome in children with dilated cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    den Boer, Susanna L; Baart, Sara J; van der Meulen, Marijke H; van Iperen, Gabriëlle G; Backx, Ad P; Ten Harkel, Arend D; Rammeloo, Lukas A; du Marchie Sarvaas, Gideon J; Tanke, Ronald B; Helbing, Willem A; Utens, Elisabeth M; Dalinghaus, Michiel


    Dilated cardiomyopathy in children causes heart failure and has a poor prognosis. Health-related quality of life in this patient group is unknown. Moreover, results may provide detailed information of parents' sense of their child's functioning. We hypothesised that health-related quality of life, as rated by parents, and the paediatric heart failure score, as assessed by physicians, have both predictive value on outcome. Methods and results In this prospective study, health-related quality of life was assessed by parent reports: the Infant Toddler Quality of Life questionnaire (0-4 years) or Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form 50 (4-18 years) at 3-6-month intervals. We included 90 children (median age 3.8 years, interquartile range (IQR) 0.9-12.3) whose parents completed 515 questionnaires. At the same visit, physicians completed the New York University Pediatric Heart Failure Index. Compared with Dutch normative data, quality of life was severely impaired at diagnosis (0-4 years: 7/10 subscales and 4-18 years: 8/11 subscales) and ⩾1 year after diagnosis (3/10 and 6/11 subscales). Older children were more impaired (pFailure Index were independently predictive of the risk of death and heart transplantation (hazard ratio 1.24 per 10% decrease of predicted, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.47 and hazard ratio 1.38 per unit, 95% CI 1.19-1.61, respectively). Physical impairment rated by parents and heart failure severity assessed by physicians independently predicted the risk of death or heart transplantation in children with dilated cardiomyopathy.

  3. The association of mothers' and fathers' insomnia symptoms with school-aged children's sleep assessed by parent report and in-home sleep-electroencephalography. (United States)

    Urfer-Maurer, Natalie; Weidmann, Rebekka; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Grob, Alexander; Weber, Peter; Lemola, Sakari


    Sleep plays an essential role for children's well-being. Because children's sleep is associated with parental sleep patterns, it must be considered in the family context. As a first aim of the present study, we test whether parental insomnia symptoms are related to children's in-home sleep-electroencephalography (EEG). Second, we examine the association between parental insomnia symptoms and maternal and paternal perception of children's sleep using actor-partner interdependence models. A total of 191 healthy children enrolled in public school and aged 7-12 years took part in the study. Ninety-six were formerly very preterm born children. Children underwent in-home sleep-EEG, and parents reported children's sleep-related behavior by using the German version of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Further, parents completed the Insomnia Severity Index to report their own insomnia symptoms. Maternal but not paternal insomnia symptoms were related to less children's EEG-derived total sleep time, more stage 2 sleep, less slow wave sleep, later sleep onset time, and later awakening time. Mothers' and fathers' own insomnia symptoms were related to their reports of children's bedtime resistance, sleep duration, sleep anxiety, night wakings, and/or daytime sleepiness. Moreover, maternal insomnia symptoms were associated with paternal reports of children's bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, and sleep-disordered breathing. The associations between parental insomnia symptoms and parents' perception of children's sleep could not be explained by children's objectively measured sleep. Mothers' insomnia symptoms and children's objective sleep patterns are associated. Moreover, the parents' own insomnia symptoms might bias their perception of children's sleep-related behavior problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The International Adoption Project: population-based surveillance of Minnesota parents who adopted children internationally. (United States)

    Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Madsen, Nikki J; Gunnar, Megan R; Grotevant, Harold D; Lee, Richard M; Johnson, Dana E


    To conduct the first population-based surveillance in the United States of parents who adopted children from countries outside of the United States. A 556-item survey was mailed to 2,977 parents who finalized an international adoption in Minnesota between January 1990 and December 1998; 1,834 (62%) parents returned a survey. Eighty-eight percent of the parents reported transracial adoptions (97% of the parents were white); 57% of the adopted children were Asian; 60% were female; and on average, the children were 18 months-old at the time of placement. Only 15% of the parents reported household annual incomes less than $50,000 and 71% reported they had college educations. Sixty-one percent traveled to their child's country of birth prior to the adoption. Almost three-quarters involved their children in experiences related to their birth countries and 98% would recommend international adoption. Three-quarters of the parents believe that parental leave was an issue for them as they adopted. This is the first population-based survey of U.S. parents who have adopted internationally. The adoptive parents were socioeconomically different than birth parents in Minnesota and their families are most likely to be transracial. Because international adoption has become more prevalent, it is important to understand the strengths and needs of families that are created through this unique form of migration.

  5. Updated prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in 4- to 10-year-old children in Germany. Results from the telephone-based KiGGS Wave 1 after correction for bias in parental reports. (United States)

    Brettschneider, Anna-Kristin; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Schmidt, Steffen; Ellert, Ute; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria


    The nationwide 'German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents' (KiGGS), conducted in 2003-2006, showed an increase in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity compared to the early 1990s, indicating the need for regular monitoring. Recently, a follow-up-KiGGS Wave 1 (2009-2012)-was carried out as a telephone-based survey, providing parent-reported height and weight from 5155 children aged 4-10 years. Since parental reports lead to a bias in prevalence rates of weight status, a correction is needed. From a subsample of KiGGS Wave 1 participants, measurements for height and weight were collected in a physical examination. In order to correct prevalence rates derived from parent reports, weight status categories based on parent-reported and measured height and weight were used to estimate a correction formula according to an established procedure. The corrected prevalence rates derived from KiGGS Wave 1 for overweight, including obesity, in children aged 4-10 years in Germany showed that stagnation is reached compared to the KiGGS baseline study (2003-2006). The rates for overweight, including obesity, in Germany have levelled off. However, they still remain at a high level, indicating a need for further public health action. What is Known: • In the last decades, prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen. Now a days, the prevalence seems to be stagnating. • In Germany, prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are only available from regional or non-representative studies. What is New: • This article gives an update for prevalence rates of overweight and obesity amongst children aged 4-10 years in Germany based on a nationwide and representative sample. • Results show that stagnation in prevalence rates for overweight in children in Germany is reached.

  6. Social attention in a virtual public speaking task in higher functioning children with autism. (United States)

    Jarrold, William; Mundy, Peter; Gwaltney, Mary; Bailenson, Jeremy; Hatt, Naomi; McIntyre, Nancy; Kim, Kwanguk; Solomon, Marjorie; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain, Lindsay


    Impairments in social attention play a major role in autism, but little is known about their role in development after preschool. In this study, a public speaking task was used to study social attention, its moderators, and its association with classroom learning in elementary and secondary students with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). Thirty-seven students with HFASD and 54 age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched peers without symptoms of ASD were assessed in a virtual classroom public speaking paradigm. This paradigm assessed the ability to attend to nine avatar peers seated at a table, while simultaneously answering self-referenced questions. Students with HFASD looked less frequently to avatar peers in the classroom while talking. However, social attention was moderated in the HFASD sample such that students with lower IQ, and/or more symptoms of social anxiety, and/or more attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattentive symptoms, displayed more atypical social attention. Group differences were more pronounced when the classroom contained social avatars versus nonsocial targets. Moreover, measures of social attention rather than nonsocial attention were significantly associated with parent report and objective measures of learning in the classroom. The data in this study support the hypothesis of the Social Attention Model of ASD that social attention disturbance remains part of the school-aged phenotype of autism that is related to syndrome-specific problems in social learning. More research of this kind would likely contribute to advances in the understanding of the development of the spectrum of autism and educational intervention approaches for affected school-aged children. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Is Higher Education in "Really" "Internationalising"? (United States)

    Healey, Nigel M.


    It is a widely accepted maxim that, like business generally, higher education is globalising. For many countries, higher education is now an important export sector, with university campuses attracting international students from around the world. Licensing production, in the form of franchising degree provision to international partners, is…

  8. International Trade. International Business


    Мохнюк, А. М.; Mokhniuk, A. M.


    Work programme of the study course “International Trade. International Business” was prepared in accordance with educational and vocational training program for bachelors of training direction 6.030601 “Management”.

  9. A common registration-to-publication automated pipeline for nomenclatural acts for higher plants (International Plant Names Index, IPNI), fungi (Index Fungorum, MycoBank) and animals (ZooBank)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robert, Vincent


    Collaborative effort among four lead indexes of taxon names and nomenclatural acts (International Plant Name Index (IPNI), Index Fungorum, MycoBank and ZooBank) and the journals PhytoKeys, MycoKeys and ZooKeys to create an automated, pre-publication, registration workflow, based on a

  10. Changing Boundaries in Israeli Higher Education. (United States)

    Guri-Rosenblit, Sarah


    Analyzes changes that have occurred in Israeli's higher education system over the decades, accounting for the reconstruction of its external and internal boundaries. Provides a conceptual framework for comparing national higher education systems. Examines developments characterizing the restructuring of Israeli higher education from a…

  11. Higher Education Leadership Graduate Program Development (United States)

    Freeman, Sydney, Jr.; Chambers, Crystal Renée; Newton, Rochelle


    Graduate programs in higher education administration and leadership have sought to equip students with the knowledge, skills, and competencies for higher education leadership; that is, to prepare globally minded leaders who can navigate the internal and external demands of, and for, higher education. With the use of the Lattuca and Stark model of…

  12. Branding Canadian Higher Education. CBIE Research (United States)

    Kizilbash, Zainab


    The branding of national higher education systems is a global trend that has become increasingly common over the last decade. One of the main motives driving this trend is the view that branding a national higher education system will increase that country's market share of international students. This is evident as national higher education…

  13. Parent-Adolescent Informant Discrepancies of Social Skill Importance and Social Skill Engagement for Higher-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder


    McMahon, Camilla M.; Solomon, Marjorie


    Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham & Elliott, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents reported that social skills were less important. Additionally, adolescents reported that they engaged in social skills more frequently than parents reported them to be engaging in social skills. Parents, but not adolescents, reported...

  14. Sleep, Internalizing Problems, and Social Withdrawal: Unique Associations in Clinic-Referred Youth With Elevated Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms. (United States)

    Rondon, Ana T; Hilton, Dane C; Jarrett, Matthew A; Ollendick, Thomas H


    We compared clinic-referred youth with ADHD + sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT; n = 34), ADHD Only ( n = 108), and SCT Only ( n = 22) on demographics, co-occurring symptomatology, comorbid diagnoses, and social functioning. In total, 164 youth (age = 6-17 years, M = 9.97) and their parent(s) presented to an outpatient clinic for a psychoeducational assessment. Between-group analyses and regressions were used to examine study variables. SCT groups were older and exhibited more parent-reported internalizing problems, externalizing problems, sleep problems, and social withdrawal on the Child Behavior Checklist. No significant differences emerged between groups on the Teacher Report Form. Regression analyses involving multiple covariates revealed that SCT symptoms were uniquely related to social withdrawal but not general social problems. Based on parent report, SCT symptoms have a unique relationship with internalizing problems, sleep problems, and social withdrawal. Future research should explore correlates of SCT in youth using multiple informants.

  15. The moderating effects of parenting styles in the association between behavioral inhibition and parent-reported guilt and empathy in preschool children. (United States)

    Cornell, Amy H; Frick, Paul J


    This study investigated interactions between children's temperament and parenting styles in their association with measures of guilt and empathy. Participants were 87 predominantly Caucasian, middle-class mothers and their children between the ages of 3 and 5 (M = 4.39, SD = .51). Children nominated by their preschool teachers as being behaviorally inhibited showed higher levels of parent-rated guilt and empathy than uninhibited children, irrespective of the type and quality of parenting they experienced. However, for uninhibited children, greater inconsistent discipline was associated with lower levels of guilt and lower levels of empathy, whereas higher levels of authoritarian parenting were associated with higher levels of guilt. These results support the presence of important interactions between temperament and parenting in explaining two critical dimensions of callous-unemotional traits.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Arsovski


    Full Text Available Quality assurance in higher education is streamed in two interconnected concepts: (1 quality management according to ISO 9000 and (2 Bologna process. In this paper both concepts are presented, with point on internal state and term plan activities for quality improvement in higher education in Serbia.

  17. Translanguaging in Higher Education: Beyond Monolingual Ideologies (United States)

    Mazak, Catherine M., Ed.; Carroll, Kevin S., Ed.


    This book examines translanguaging in higher education and provides clear examples of what translanguaging looks like in practice in particular contexts around the world. While higher education has historically been seen as a monolingual space, the case studies from the international contexts included in this collection show us that institutions…

  18. Instabilities of higher dimensional compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accetta, F.S.


    Various schemes for cosmological compactification of higher dimensional theories are considered. Possible instabilities which drive the ground state with static internal space to de Sitter-like expansion of all dimensions are discussed. These instabilities are due to semiclassical barrier penetration and classical thermal fluctuations. For the case of the ten dimensional Chapline-Manton action, it is possible to avoid such difficulties by balancing one-loop Casimir corrections against monopole contributions from the field strength H/sub MNP/ and fermionic condensates. 10 refs

  19. International Student Mental Health (United States)

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.


    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  20. Higher Education and Inequality (United States)

    Brown, Roger


    After climate change, rising economic inequality is the greatest challenge facing the advanced Western societies. Higher education has traditionally been seen as a means to greater equality through its role in promoting social mobility. But with increased marketisation higher education now not only reflects the forces making for greater inequality…

  1. Higher Education in California (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016


    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  2. Reimagining Christian Higher Education (United States)

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.


    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  3. Happiness in Higher Education (United States)

    Elwick, Alex; Cannizzaro, Sara


    This paper investigates the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms happiness and satisfaction interchangeably as if one were…

  4. Gender and Higher Education (United States)

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.


    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  5. Cross-cultural equivalence of the patient- and parent-reported quality of life in short stature youth (QoLISSY) questionnaire. (United States)

    Bullinger, Monika; Quitmann, Julia; Silva, Neuza; Rohenkohl, Anja; Chaplin, John E; DeBusk, Kendra; Mimoun, Emmanuelle; Feigerlova, Eva; Herdman, Michael; Sanz, Dolores; Wollmann, Hartmut; Pleil, Andreas; Power, Michael


    Testing cross-cultural equivalence of patient-reported outcomes requires sufficiently large samples per country, which is difficult to achieve in rare endocrine paediatric conditions. We describe a novel approach to cross-cultural testing of the Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth (QoLISSY) questionnaire in five countries by sequentially taking one country out (TOCO) from the total sample and iteratively comparing the resulting psychometric performance. Development of the QoLISSY proceeded from focus group discussions through pilot testing to field testing in 268 short-statured patients and their parents. To explore cross-cultural equivalence, the iterative TOCO technique was used to examine and compare the validity, reliability, and convergence of patient and parent responses on QoLISSY in the field test dataset, and to predict QoLISSY scores from clinical, socio-demographic and psychosocial variables. Validity and reliability indicators were satisfactory for each sample after iteratively omitting one country. Comparisons with the total sample revealed cross-cultural equivalence in internal consistency and construct validity for patients and parents, high inter-rater agreement and a substantial proportion of QoLISSY variance explained by predictors. The TOCO technique is a powerful method to overcome problems of country-specific testing of patient-reported outcome instruments. It provides an empirical support to QoLISSY's cross-cultural equivalence and is recommended for future research.

  6. Higher English for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann; Mitchell, John


    A brand new edition of the former Higher English: Close Reading , completely revised and updated for the new Higher element (Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation) - worth 30% of marks in the final exam!. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. Written by two highly experienced authors this book shows you how to practice for the Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation section of the new Higher English exam. This book introduces the terms and concepts that lie behind success and offers guidance on the interpretation of questions and targeting answer

  7. Planning for Higher Education. (United States)

    Lindstrom, Caj-Gunnar


    Decision processes for strategic planning for higher education institutions are outlined using these parameters: institutional goals and power structure, organizational climate, leadership attitudes, specific problem type, and problem-solving conditions and alternatives. (MSE)

  8. Advert for higher education


    N.V. Provozin; А.S. Teletov


    The article discusses the features advertising higher education institution. The analysis results of marketing research students for their choice of institutions and further study. Principles of the advertising campaign on three levels: the university, the faculty, the separate department.

  9. On higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.


    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt

  10. Higher Spins & Strings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The conjectured relation between higher spin theories on anti de-Sitter (AdS) spaces and weakly coupled conformal field theories is reviewed. I shall then outline the evidence in favour of a concrete duality of this kind, relating a specific higher spin theory on AdS3 to a family of 2d minimal model CFTs. Finally, I shall explain how this relation fits into the framework of the familiar stringy AdS/CFT correspondence.

  11. Quality of life in newly diagnosed children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) and differences from typically developing children: a study of child and parent reports. (United States)

    Ginieri-Coccossis, M; Rotsika, V; Skevington, S; Papaevangelou, S; Malliori, M; Tomaras, V; Kokkevi, A


    Research on quality of life (QoL) of school children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) and their parents is scarce. The present study explores QoL deficits in newly diagnosed children with SpLD and their parents, in comparison to a similar age group of typically developing children. Possible associations between parental and child QoL were statistically explored in both groups of children. 70 newly diagnosed children with SpLD [International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) criteria] (38 boys, 32 girls, mean age 10.1 years) and a control group of 69 typically developing children of the same age (40 boys, 29 girls, mean age 10.6 years) were recruited. Children were of normal intelligence quotient, attending mainstream schools. Their parents were also recruited so a child's scores could be associated with corresponding parental scores (mother or father). Children's QoL was assessed by the German questionnaire for measuring quality of life in children and adolescents (KINDL(R) ) questionnaire and parental QoL by World Health Organization Quality of Life brief questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) of the World Health Organization. Children with SpLD in comparison to typically developing children reported according to the KINDL(R) measurement poorer emotional well-being, lower self-esteem and satisfaction in their relationships with family and friends. Surprisingly, school functioning was not reported by these children as an area of concern. Parents of children with SpLD indicated experiencing lower satisfaction in the WHOQOL-BREF domains of social relationships and environment. Correlational and regression analysis with parental-child QoL scores provided evidence that in the SpLD group, parental scores on WHOQOL-BREF social relationships and psychological health domains could be predictors of the child's emotional well-being, satisfaction with family, friends and school functioning. Stepwise regression analysis verified the effect of parents' WHOQOL-BREF social

  12. Roles of Women's Higher Education Institutions in International Contexts (United States)

    Renn, Kristen A.


    Women's colleges and universities persist around the world, even as the vast majority of tertiary institutions are open to men and women. In nearly every nation, women can attend even the most elite formerly all-male universities, and in several nations women are the majority of all college students. Questions therefore arise about the continued…

  13. Academic Freedom in International Higher Education: Right or Responsibility? (United States)

    Gibbs, Alexis


    This paper explores the conceptual history of academic freedom and its emergence as a substantive right that pertains to either the academic or the university. It is suggested that historical reconceptualisations necessitated by contingent circumstance may have led to academic freedom being seen as a form of protection for those working within…

  14. More food, higher incomes in the Andes | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Nov 16, 2010 ... “You can see nutritional status has improved because today people are taller ... The work is continuing under the Andean Agriculture in the Altiplano ... adapting to the environment and finding novel ways of dealing with this.

  15. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan; Zhao, Yingsheng; Du, Xiangyun

    . This transformation involves a broad scale of change at individual level, organizational level, and societal level. In this change process in higher education, staff development remains one of the key elements for university innovation and at the same time demands a systematic and holistic approach.......This paper starts with a critical approach to reflect on the current practice of quality assessment and assurance in higher education. This is followed by a proposal that in response to the global challenges for improving the quality of higher education, universities should take active actions...... of change by improving the quality of teaching and learning. From a constructivist perspective of understanding education and learning, this paper also discusses why and how universities should give more weight to learning and change the traditional role of teaching to an innovative approach of facilitation...

  16. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Grønholdt, Lars


    leaders of higher education institutions to set strategic directions and support their decisions in an effort to create even better study programmes with a better reputation. Finally, managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.Keywords: Reputation, image, corporate identity......The purpose of this paper is to develop a reputation model for higher education programmes, provide empirical evidence for the model and illustrate its application by using Copenhagen Business School (CBS) as the recurrent case. The developed model is a cause-and-effect model linking image...

  17. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plewa, Carolin; Ho, Joanne; Conduit, Jodie


    Reputation is critical for institutions wishing to attract and retain students in today's competitive higher education setting. Drawing on the resource based view and configuration theory, this research proposes that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) need to understand not only the impact...... of independent resources but of resource configurations when seeking to achieve a strong, positive reputation. Utilizing fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), the paper provides insight into different configurations of resources that HEIs can utilize to build their reputation within their domestic...

  18. Navigating in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Hanne Balsby; Reimer, David; Keiding, Tina Bering

    Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur, Informati......Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur...

  19. A History of Learning Communities within American Higher Education (United States)

    Fink, John E.; Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi


    This chapter describes the historical development of learning communities within American higher education. We examine the forces both internal and external to higher education that contributed to and stalled the emergence of learning communities in their contemporary form.

  20. Multicultural awareness and technology in higher education: global perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Tomayess; Isaias, Pedro; Kommers, Petrus A.M.


    This book encompasses information on the effects of international students' exchanges in higher education through e-learning technologies, providing the latest teaching and learning methods, technologies, and approaches in the higher education sector worldwide

  1. Learning from the Field: Innovating China's Higher Education System

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Apr 15, 2008 ... Learning from the Field: Innovating China's Higher Education System ... to translating China's higher education policy reforms into practice. The editors. Ronnie Vernooy is Senior Program Specialist, International Development ...

  2. Exploring Higher Thinking. (United States)

    Conover, Willis M.


    Maintains that the social studies reform movement includes a call for the de-emphasis of rote memory and more attention to the development of higher-order thinking skills. Discusses the "thinking tasks" concept derived from the work of Hilda Taba and asserts that the tasks can be used with almost any social studies topic. (CFR)

  3. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik


    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must be po...

  4. Inflation from higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.


    We argue that an inflationary phase in the very early universe is related to the transition from a higher dimensional to a four-dimensional universe. We present details of a previously considered model which gives sufficient inflation without fine tuning of parameters. (orig.)

  5. Higher Education Funding Formulas. (United States)

    McKeown-Moak, Mary P.


    One of the most critical components of the college or university chief financial officer's job is budget planning, especially using formulas. A discussion of funding formulas looks at advantages, disadvantages, and types of formulas used by states in budgeting for higher education, and examines how chief financial officers can position the campus…

  6. Liberty and Higher Education. (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F.


    John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty is discussed with the view that it needs to be revised to guide moral judgments in higher education. Three key elements need to be modified: the action that is constrained; the constraint on the action; and the agent whose action is constrained. (MLW)

  7. Evaluation in Higher Education (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Bungic, Maja


    One of the means of transforming classroom experience is by conducting action research with students. This paper reports about the action research with university students. It has been carried out within a semester of the course "Methods of Upbringing". Its goal has been to improve evaluation of higher education teaching. Different forms…

  8. Higher-level Innovization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal; Deb, Kalyanmoy


    we introduce the higher-level innovization task through an application of a manufacturing process simulation for the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process where commonalities among two different Pareto-optimal fronts are analyzed. Multiple design rules are simultaneously deciphered from each front...

  9. Benchmarking for Higher Education. (United States)

    Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson…

  10. Creativity in Higher Education (United States)

    Gaspar, Drazena; Mabic, Mirela


    The paper presents results of research related to perception of creativity in higher education made by the authors at the University of Mostar from Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research was based on a survey conducted among teachers and students at the University. The authors developed two types of questionnaires, one for teachers and the other…

  11. California's Future: Higher Education (United States)

    Johnson, Hans


    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  12. Cyberbullying in Higher Education (United States)

    Minor, Maria A.; Smith, Gina S.; Brashen, Henry


    Bullying has extended beyond the schoolyard into online forums in the form of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is a growing concern due to the effect on its victims. Current studies focus on grades K-12; however, cyberbullying has entered the world of higher education. The focus of this study was to identify the existence of cyberbullying in higher…

  13. Competitiveness - higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labas Istvan


    Full Text Available Involvement of European Union plays an important role in the areas of education and training equally. The member states are responsible for organizing and operating their education and training systems themselves. And, EU policy is aimed at supporting the efforts of member states and trying to find solutions for the common challenges which appear. In order to make our future sustainable maximally; the key to it lies in education. The highly qualified workforce is the key to development, advancement and innovation of the world. Nowadays, the competitiveness of higher education institutions has become more and more appreciated in the national economy. In recent years, the frameworks of operation of higher education systems have gone through a total transformation. The number of applying students is continuously decreasing in some European countries therefore only those institutions can “survive” this shortfall, which are able to minimize the loss of the number of students. In this process, the factors forming the competitiveness of these budgetary institutions play an important role from the point of view of survival. The more competitive a higher education institution is, the greater the chance is that the students would like to continue their studies there and thus this institution will have a greater chance for the survival in the future, compared to ones lagging behind in the competition. Aim of our treatise prepared is to present the current situation and main data of the EU higher education and we examine the performance of higher education: to what extent it fulfils the strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth which is worded in the framework of Europe 2020 programme. The treatise is based on analysis of statistical data.

  14. Inhibitory control in young children and its role in emerging internalization. (United States)

    Kochanska, G; Murray, K; Jacques, T Y; Koenig, A L; Vandegeest, K A


    We examined inhibitory control as a quality of temperament that contributes to internalization. Children were assessed twice, at 26-41 months (N = 103) and at 43-56 months (N = 99), on repeated occasions, in multiple observational contexts and using parental reports. Comprehensive behavioral batteries incorporating multiple tasks were designed to measure inhibitory control at toddler and preschool age. They had good internal consistencies, corresponded with maternal ratings, and were developmentally sensitive. Individual children's performance was significantly correlated across both assessments, indicating stable individual differences. Girls surpassed boys at both ages. Children's internalization was observed while they were alone with prohibited objects, with a mundane chore, playing games that occasioned cheating, being induced to violate standards of conduct, and assessed using maternal reports. Inhibitory control was significantly associated with internalization, both contemporaneously and as a predictor in the longitudinal sense. The implications for considering children's temperament as a significant, yet often neglected contributor to developing internalization are discussed.

  15. Is Higher Education Economically Unsustainable? An Exploration of Factors That Undermine Sustainability Assessments of Higher Education (United States)

    Maragakis, Antonios; van den Dobbelsteen, Andy; Maragakis, Alexandros


    As students continue to review the sustainability of higher education institutions, there is a growing need to understand the economic returns of degrees as a function of a sustainable institution. This paper reviews a range of international research to summarize the economic drivers of higher education attainment. Although the cost inputs to…

  16. Academically Ambitious and Relevant Higher Education Research: The Legacy of the Consortium of Higher Education Researchers (United States)

    Teichler, Ulrich


    The Consortium of Higher Education Researchers (CHER) was founded in 1988 to stimulate international communication and collaboration of higher education researchers. A need was felt to offset the isolation of the small numbers of scholars in this area of expertise in many countries, as well as the isolation of individual disciplines addressing…

  17. Batteries. Higher energy density than gasoline?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Michael; Werber, Mathew; Schwartz, Peter V.


    The energy density of batteries is two orders of magnitude below that of liquid fuels. However, this information alone cannot be used to compare batteries to liquid fuels for automobile energy storage media. Because electric motors have a higher energy conversion efficiency and lower mass than combustion engines, they can provide a higher deliverable mechanical energy density than internal combustion for most transportation applications. (author)

  18. Globalisation in higher education : manifestations and implications




    Globalisation has been adding a permanent new dimension to the world of higher education. So-called transnational or cross-border education is conceptualized here as a complement to the well-established internationalisation process. The paper elaborates on major aspects of globalisation in higher education, namely changes in the degree mobility of students, recent trends in the international mobility of scholars and also the increase in cross-border provision of study programmes (“programme m...

  19. Radiosensitivity of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhijie


    The general views on radiosensitivity of higher plants have been introduced from published references. The radiosensitivity varies with species, varieties and organs or tissues. The main factors of determining the radiosensitivity in different species are nucleus volume, chromosome volume, DNA content and endogenous compounds. The self-repair ability of DNA damage and chemical group of biological molecules, such as -SH thiohydroxy of proteins, are main factors to determine the radiosensitivity in different varieties. The moisture, oxygen, temperature radiosensitizer and protector are important external factors for radiosensitivity. Both the multiple target model and Chadwick-Leenhouts model are ideal mathematical models for describing the radiosensitivity of higher plants and the latter has more clear significance in biology

  20. Higher Education Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.


    Summary of recommendations HEIs are encouraged, within the framework of their own societal context, mission, vision and strategies, to develop the aims and objectives of a Higher Education Language Policy (HELP) that allows them to implement these strategies. In this process, they may want......: As the first step in a Higher Education Language Policy, HEIs should determine the relative status and use of the languages employed in the institution, taking into consideration the answers to the following questions:  What is/are the official language(s) of the HEI?  What is/are the language...... and the level of internationalisation the HEI has or wants to have, and as a direct implication of that, what are the language proficiency levels expected from the graduates of these programme?  Given the profile of the HEI and its educational strategies, which language components are to be offered within...

  1. Measuring child maltreatment using multi-informant survey data: a higher-order confirmatory factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni A. Salum


    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the validity and reliability of a multi-informant approach to measuring child maltreatment (CM comprising seven questions assessing CM administered to children and their parents in a large community sample. Methods Our sample comprised 2,512 children aged 6 to 12 years and their parents. Child maltreatment (CM was assessed with three questions answered by the children and four answered by their parents, covering physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse and sexual abuse. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fit indices of different models. Convergent and divergent validity were tested using parent-report and teacher-report scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Discriminant validity was investigated using the Development and Well-Being Assessment to divide subjects into five diagnostic groups: typically developing controls (n = 1,880, fear disorders (n = 108, distress disorders (n = 76, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 143 and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (n = 56. Results A higher-order model with one higher-order factor (child maltreatment encompassing two lower-order factors (child report and parent report exhibited the best fit to the data and this model's reliability results were acceptable. As expected, child maltreatment was positively associated with measures of psychopathology and negatively associated with prosocial measures. All diagnostic category groups had higher levels of overall child maltreatment than typically developing children. Conclusions We found evidence for the validity and reliability of this brief measure of child maltreatment using data from a large survey combining information from parents and their children.

  2. Measuring child maltreatment using multi-informant survey data: a higher-order confirmatory factor analysis. (United States)

    Salum, Giovanni A; DeSousa, Diogo Araújo; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Pan, Pedro Mario; Gadelha, Ary; Brietzke, Elisa; Miguel, Eurípedes Constantino; Mari, Jair J; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo


    To investigate the validity and reliability of a multi-informant approach to measuring child maltreatment (CM) comprising seven questions assessing CM administered to children and their parents in a large community sample. Our sample comprised 2,512 children aged 6 to 12 years and their parents. Child maltreatment (CM) was assessed with three questions answered by the children and four answered by their parents, covering physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse and sexual abuse. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fit indices of different models. Convergent and divergent validity were tested using parent-report and teacher-report scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Discriminant validity was investigated using the Development and Well-Being Assessment to divide subjects into five diagnostic groups: typically developing controls (n = 1,880), fear disorders (n = 108), distress disorders (n = 76), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 143) and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (n = 56). A higher-order model with one higher-order factor (child maltreatment) encompassing two lower-order factors (child report and parent report) exhibited the best fit to the data and this model's reliability results were acceptable. As expected, child maltreatment was positively associated with measures of psychopathology and negatively associated with prosocial measures. All diagnostic category groups had higher levels of overall child maltreatment than typically developing children. We found evidence for the validity and reliability of this brief measure of child maltreatment using data from a large survey combining information from parents and their children.

  3. Internal Bleeding (United States)

    ... Fractures (Part II) Additional Content Medical News Internal Bleeding By Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, ... Emergency First Aid Priorities Cardiac Arrest Choking Internal Bleeding Severed or Constricted Limbs or Digits Soft-Tissue ...

  4. Multilingual higher education in European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.; Mamadouh, V.; Marácz, L.


    Although English is often conceived as the dominant language of international and transnational communication in higher education, it is not the only medium of communication in the academic community. National, regional and local languages remain important, in some European countries more than in

  5. Ethics, Economics and Higher Education: A Comment (United States)

    Morgan, W. John


    This comment was given to an international panel on the economics of education at the invitation of the Beijing Forum, China, on 3 November 2012. It was published in Chinese in Volume 11, 2013, of the "Peking University Education Review". It considers the connections between ethics, economics and policy towards higher education, using a…

  6. Marketing services of higher education: theoretical aspect


    Evgenyi Polonskyi


    The article is devoted to theoretical aspects of the use of marketing activities in institutions of higher education. The author analyzes of education from the standpoint of the marketing mix. The main factors of the external and internal environments affecting the educational institution.

  7. Fair Access to Higher Education: Global Perspectives (United States)

    Mountford-Zimdars, Anna, Ed.; Sabbagh, Daniel, Ed.; Post, David, Ed.


    What does "fairness" mean internationally in terms of access to higher education? Increased competition for places in elite universities has prompted a worldwide discussion regarding the fairness of student admission policies. Despite budget cuts from governments--and increasing costs for students--competition is fierce at the most…

  8. Assessing Student Satisfaction in Transnational Higher Education (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen; Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens


    Purpose: Given that there exists in the literature relatively little research into student experiences in transnational higher education, the purpose of this paper is to identify the determinants of student satisfaction at international branch campuses in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Design/methodology/approach: This quantitative study involved…

  9. Stakeholders and quality assurance in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisyte, Liudvika; Westerheijden, Donald F.; Eggins, Heather


    The various changes in post-bureaucratic organising, which are moving towards network approaches, coupled with the managerial agenda of corporate governance, have redefined the roles of various internal and external stakeholders in the governance of higher education institutions (Leisyte and Dee,

  10. International Relations


    McGlinchey, S.


    A ‘Day 0’ introduction to International Relations for beginners. Written by a range of emerging and established experts, the chapters offer a broad sweep of the basic components of International Relations and the key contemporary issues that concern the discipline. The narrative arc forms a complete circle, taking readers from no knowledge to competency. The journey starts by examining how the international system was formed and ends by reflecting that International Relations is always adapti...

  11. Higher engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    John Bird


    A practical introduction to the core mathematics principles required at higher engineering levelJohn Bird's approach to mathematics, based on numerous worked examples and interactive problems, is ideal for vocational students that require an advanced textbook.Theory is kept to a minimum, with the emphasis firmly placed on problem-solving skills, making this a thoroughly practical introduction to the advanced mathematics engineering that students need to master. The extensive and thorough topic coverage makes this an ideal text for upper level vocational courses. Now in

  12. Towards higher intensities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    Over the past 2 weeks, commissioning of the machine protection system has advanced significantly, opening up the possibility of higher intensity collisions at 3.5 TeV. The intensity has been increased from 2 bunches of 1010 protons to 6 bunches of 2x1010 protons. Luminosities of 6x1028 cm-2s-1 have been achieved at the start of fills, a factor of 60 higher than those provided for the first collisions on 30 March.   The recent increase in LHC luminosity as recorded by the experiments. (Graph courtesy of the experiments and M. Ferro-Luzzi) To increase the luminosity further, the commissioning crews are now trying to push up the intensity of the individual proton bunches. After the successful injection of nominal intensity bunches containing 1.1x1011 protons, collisions were subsequently achieved at 450 GeV with these intensities. However, half-way through the first ramping of these nominal intensity bunches to 3.5 TeV on 15 May, a beam instability was observed, leading to partial beam loss...

  13. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N


    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  14. Teaching at higher levels (United States)


    Undergraduate physics programmes for the 21st century were under discussion at a recent event held in Arlington, USA, open to two or three members of the physics faculties of universities from across the whole country. The conference was organized by the American Association of Physics Teachers with co-sponsorship from the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society and Project Kaleidoscope. Among the various aims were to learn about physics departments that have successfully revitalized their undergraduate physics programmes with innovative introductory physics courses and multi-track majors programmes. Engineers and life scientists were to be asked directly how physics programmes can better serve their students, and business leaders would be speaking on how physics departments can help to prepare their students for the diverse careers that they will eventually follow. It was planned to highlight ways that departments could fulfil their responsibilities towards trainee teachers, to identify the resources needed for revitalizing a department's programme, and to develop guidelines and recommendations for a funding programme to support collaborative efforts among physics departments for carrying out the enhancements required. More details about the conference can be found on the AAPT website (see Meanwhile the UK's Higher Education Funding Council has proposed a two-pronged approach to the promotion of high quality teaching and learning, as well as widening participation in higher education from 1999-2000. A total of £60m should be available to support these initiatives by the year 2001-2002. As part of this scheme the Council will invite bids from institutions to support individual academics in enhancing learning and teaching, as well as in recognition of individual excellence. As with research grants, such awards would enable staff to pursue activities such as the development of teaching materials

  15. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  16. Spiky higher genus strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Bellini, A.; Johnston, D.


    It is clear from both the non-perturbative and perturbative approaches to two-dimensional quantum gravity that a new strong coupling regime is setting in at d=1, independent of the genus of the worldsheet being considered. It has been suggested that a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase transition in the Liouville theory is the cause of this behaviour. However, it has recently been pointed out that the XY model, which displays a KT transition on the plane and the sphere, is always in the strong coupling, disordered phase on a surface of constant negative curvature. A higher genus worldsheet can be represented as a fundamental region on just such a surface, which might seem to suggest that the KT picture predicts a strong coupling region for arbitrary d, contradicting the known results. We resolve the apparent paradox. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citra Dewi


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper discussed about how to enhance students’ higher order thinking that should be done by teacher in teaching grammar. Usually teaching grammar was boring and has the same way to learn like change the pattern of sentence into positive, negative and introgative while the students’ need more various way to develop their thinking. The outcome of students’ competence in grammar sometimes not sufficient enough when the students’ occured some test international standart like Test of English Foreign Language, International English Language Testing. Whereas in TOEFL test it needed higher order thinking answer, so teacher should develop students’ higher order thingking in daily teaching grammar in order to make the students’ enhance their thinking are higher. The method was used in this paper by using field study based on the experience of teaching grammar. It can be shown by students’ toefl score was less in stucture and written expression. The result of this paper was after teacher gave some treatments to enhance students’ higher order thinking in teaching grammar, the students’ toefl scores are sufficient enough as a part of stucture and written expression. It can concluded that it needed some strategies to enhancce students higher order thinking by teaching grammar it can make students’ higher toefl score. Teachers should be creative and inovative to teach the students’ started from giving the students’ question or test in teaching grammar.

  18. Attributional style as a mediator between parental abuse risk and child internalizing symptomatology. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M


    This study examined a model wherein children's attributional style mediates the relationship between parental physical child-abuse risk and children's internalizing problems. Using structural equation modeling, three indices of abuse risk were selected (child abuse potential, physical discipline use, and dysfunctional parenting style) and two indices of children's internalizing problems (depression and anxiety). The sample included 75 parent-child dyads, in which parents reported on their abuse risk and children independently completed measures of depressive and anxious symptomatology and a measure on their attributional style. Findings supported the model that children's attributional style for positive events (but not negative events) partially mediated the relationship between abuse risk and internalizing symptoms, with significant direct and indirect effects of abuse risk on internalizing symptomatology. Future directions to continue evaluating additional mediators and other possible contextual variables are discussed.

  19. Learning higher mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontrjagin, Lev Semenovič


    Lev Semenovic Pontrjagin (1908) is one of the outstanding figures in 20th century mathematics. In a long career he has made fundamental con­ tributions to many branches of mathematics, both pure and applied. He has received every honor that a grateful government can bestow. Though in no way constrained to do so, he has through the years taught mathematics courses at Moscow State University. In the year 1975 he set himself the task of writing a series of books on secondary school and beginning university mathematics. In his own words, "I wished to set forth the foundations of higher mathematics in a form that would have been accessible to myself as a lad, but making use of all my experience as a scientist and a teacher, ac­ cumulated over many years. " The present volume is a translation of the first two out of four moderately sized volumes on this theme planned by Pro­ fessor Pontrjagin. The book begins at the beginning of modern mathematics, analytic ge­ ometry in the plane and 3-dimensional space. Refin...

  20. internal branding


    Rai, Anu; Omanga, Josphat


    The project report provides an insight into internal branding of two different leading firms – Coca-Cola and Google. The aim of this project report is to study how these two companies use internal branding to promote or build brand performance of the company. This report follows a qualitative research method. The report is deductive in nature and hence, it is guided by the literatures of internal branding. The project report conducted research on brand identity, brand commitment and brand loy...

  1. Internal branding


    Rijal, Ramesh; Dhakal, Rajendra


    The project report provides an insight into internal branding of two different leading firms – Coca-Cola and Google. The aim of this project report is to study how these two companies use internal branding to promote or build brand performance of the company. This report follows a qualitative research method. The report is deductive in nature and hence, it is guided by the literatures of internal branding. The project report conducted research on brand identity, brand commitment and brand loy...

  2. Benchmarking in Czech Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaček Michal


    Full Text Available The first part of this article surveys the current experience with the use of benchmarking at Czech universities specializing in economics and management. The results indicate that collaborative benchmarking is not used on this level today, but most actors show some interest in its introduction. The expression of the need for it and the importance of benchmarking as a very suitable performance-management tool in less developed countries are the impetus for the second part of our article. Based on an analysis of the current situation and existing needs in the Czech Republic, as well as on a comparison with international experience, recommendations for public policy are made, which lie in the design of a model of a collaborative benchmarking for Czech economics and management in higher-education programs. Because the fully complex model cannot be implemented immediately – which is also confirmed by structured interviews with academics who have practical experience with benchmarking –, the final model is designed as a multi-stage model. This approach helps eliminate major barriers to the implementation of benchmarking.

  3. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)


    failure prone capacitors from the power stage. Q-Sync’s simpler electronics also result in higher efficiency because it eliminates the power required by the PCB to perform the obviated power conversions and PWM processes after line synchronous operating speed is reached in the first 5 seconds of operation, after which the PWM circuits drop out and a much less energy intensive “pass through” circuit takes over, allowing the grid-supplied AC power to sustain the motor’s ongoing operation.

  4. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  5. International indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Therese

    En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer......En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer...

  6. International Curriculums. (United States)

    Neal, Larry L.

    This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…

  7. International Illiquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malkhozov, Aytek; Mueller, Philippe; Vedolin, Andrea

    -predicted effect of funding conditions on asset prices internationally. Global illiquidity lowers the slope and increases the intercept of the international security market line. Local illiquidity helps explain the variation in alphas, Sharpe ratios, and the performance of betting-against-beta (BAB) strategies...

  8. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Concerning international relations, the different meetings in the field of nuclear safety are reported (Western european nuclear regulator association or Wenra, Nea, IAEA, northern dimension environmental partnership or N.D.E.P., nuclear safety and security group or N.S.S.G., international nuclear regulators association or I.N.R.A.). (N.C.)

  9. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas


    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  10. Active internal corrector coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Cottingham, J.; Dahl, P.


    Trim or corrector coils to correct main magnet field errors and provide higher multipole fields for beam optics purposes are a standard feature of superconducting magnet accelerator systems. This paper describes some of the design and construction features of powered internal trim coils and a sampling of the test results obtained

  11. International Students in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As the number of international students in Chinese higher education increases steadily, this volume is one of the first to focus on their many and varied experiences. With contributions focusing on such topics as intercultural adaptation, soft power and interculturality, language learning strateg...

  12. Degrees of Integrity: The Threat of Corruption in Higher Education (United States)

    Chapman, David W.; Lindner, Samira


    Corruption in higher education is the focus of growing international concern among governments, educators, students, and other stakeholders. Those working in higher education institutions now face a unique convergence of pressures that is creating a heightened threat to the integrity of the higher education enterprise worldwide. This paper draws…

  13. E-Policy and higher education: from formulation to implementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In so doing, I provide a basis for discourse about current international trends influencing e-policy in higher education. In conclusion an analysis of the government's (South Africa) e-policy and its impact on the e-policy of higher education is also provided. South African Journal of Higher Education Vol. 21 (6) 2008: pp. 643- ...

  14. Teaching Evaluation Is Very Necessary at Institutions of Higher Education (United States)

    Daren, Huang


    Government supervision over the quality of higher education by means of evaluations, examinations and verifications, or accreditations is a common international practice in terms of monitoring and controlling the quality of higher education. Many countries stipulate by law that institutions of higher education must submit to evaluation by the…

  15. Quality of higher education: organisational or educational?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan; Du, Xiangyun; Rasmussen, Palle


    Based on a study of Chinese university self-evaluation reports, this paper argues that higher education institutions are trying to manage the tensions between educational and organisational quality and the increasing and worldwide concerns about quality assurance. After 30 years of dramatic...... remain an important basis for external review. In an attempt to examine the institutional understanding of quality in higher education, the authors conducted a content analysis study of 53 self-evaluation reports written by a wide range of higher education institutions in China. This study concludes...... educational reform, China has established a nationwide evaluation system for assessing its higher education institutions. This comprehensive system includes a series of procedures for both internal self-evaluation and external peer reviewing, among which self-evaluation reports prepared by each institution...

  16. Valid Competency Assessment in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia


    Full Text Available The aim of the 15 collaborative projects conducted during the new funding phase of the German research program Modeling and Measuring Competencies in Higher Education—Validation and Methodological Innovations (KoKoHs is to make a significant contribution to advancing the field of modeling and valid measurement of competencies acquired in higher education. The KoKoHs research teams assess generic competencies and domain-specific competencies in teacher education, social and economic sciences, and medicine based on findings from and using competency models and assessment instruments developed during the first KoKoHs funding phase. Further, they enhance, validate, and test measurement approaches for use in higher education in Germany. Results and findings are transferred at various levels to national and international research, higher education practice, and education policy.

  17. The Faceless Masters of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katja Brøgger


    This dissertation contributes to research on international higher education reform by offering an empirical and theoretical account of the mode of governance that characterizes the Bologna Process and by demonstrating how the reform materializes and is translated in everyday working life, including......, and c) professors and managers’ translations of the Bologna Process, including the ways in which the reform processes alter professional working life in higher education organizations. The research project employs a combination of qualitative methods and materials, including interviews, observations...... of higher education despite the fact that education falls outside EU’s legislative reach. The dissertation further argues that the spread and continuous development and production of higher education standards in Europe depends on the infrastructure of the Bologna Process, which consists of an explosion...

  18. International Health (United States)

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  19. Juris International

    CERN Document Server

    A database on international trade law aimed at lawyers and legal counsel in developing and transition economies. Juris International is a multilingual collection (English, Spanish, and French) of legal information on international trade. Juris International aims to facilitate and reduce the work involved in research for business lawyers, advisers and in-house counsel, and state organizations in developing nd transition economies, by providing access to texts which have often been difficult to obtain. Its objective is to gather a large quantity of basic information at one site (favoring complete legal texts), without the need to send for the information, and consequently without excessive communication costs for users who d benefit from an efficient and cheap telecommunications network.

  20. Regulating Internalities


    Sunstein, Cass Robert; Allcott, Hunt


    This paper offers a framework for regulating internalities. Using a simple economic model, we provide four principles for designing and evaluating behaviorally-motivated policy. We then outline rules for determining which contexts reliably reflect true preferences and discuss empirical strategies for measuring internalities. As a case study, we focus on energy efficiency policy, including Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and appliance and lighting energy efficiency standards.

  1. Preventing adolescents’ externalizing and internalizing symptoms: Effects of the Penn Resiliency Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Cutuli


    Full Text Available This study reports secondary outcome analyses from a past study of the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP, a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for middle-school aged children. Middle school students (N = 697 were randomly assigned to PRP, PEP (an alternate intervention, or control conditions. Gillham et al., (2007 reported analyses examining PRP’s effects on average and clinical levels of depression symptoms. We examine PRP’s effects on parent-, teacher-, and self-reports of adolescents’ externalizing and broader internalizing (depression/anxiety, somatic complaints, and social withdrawal symptoms over three years of follow-up. Relative to no intervention control, PRP reduced parent-reports of adolescents’ internalizing symptoms beginning at the first assessment after the intervention and persisting for most of the follow-up assessments. PRP also reduced parent-reported conduct problems relative to no-intervention. There was no evidence that the PRP program produced an effect on teacher- or self-report of adolescents’ symptoms. Overall, PRP did not reduce symptoms relative to the alternate intervention, although there is a suggestion of a delayed effect for conduct problems. These findings are discussed with attention to developmental trajectories and the importance of interventions that address common risk factors for diverse forms of negative outcomes.

  2. Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education | Deepika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education. ... AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be ...

  3. Business and International Education Program (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012


    This paper presents an overview of the Business and International Education Program of the International Education Programs Service (IEPS). This program provides funds to institutions of higher education that enter into an agreement with a trade association, a business, or both for the purpose of improving business curriculum and as a means of…

  4. The internationalization of higher education: an emerging political agenda




    Given growing importance of education as a factor of internal development and in the context of globalization universities can be considered to be international economic actors playing an increasingly significant role in economic and political agenda. Universities face a lot of challenges, to wit: quality control, further privatization of higher education and for-profit education, the problem of innovations and advanced technologies, the emergence of international labour market etc. Therefore...

  5. Internationalization of Higher Education: A Literature Review on Competency Approach


    Chong Pui Yee


    This paper is a literature review on the internationalization of higher education focusing on staff competency in managing international students. This writing uncovered some empirical studies by researchers in a Malaysian context on the issue, challenges and expectation from both international students and university academics and administrators. International students faced great challenges in adjusting their life in Malaysia, these include different teaching and learning style, culture, la...

  6. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  7. Higher Education, Globalization and Economic Development in Virginia (United States)

    State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2010


    In early 2009, the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (SCHEV) initiated an effort to assess the status of the Commonwealth's international education programs. A survey was distributed to the public and private institutions, focusing on critical aspects of contemporary international education programs as identified by an ad hoc group of…

  8. Neo-Nationalism in Higher Education: Case of South Africa (United States)

    Lee, Jenny J.


    Given the rise of regional hubs, emerging economies are experiencing international student growth as higher education providers in their respective regions. This study examined the neo-national experiences of international students in South Africa. Neo-nationalism refers to a new nationalism based national order in the new global economy. The…

  9. Changing Higher Education Practice in Malaysia: The Conundrum of Incentives (United States)

    Wan, Chang Da; Chapman, David; Hutcheson, Sigrid; Lee, Molly; Austin, Ann; Md. Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam


    International university rankings are a widely used measure of higher education excellence. Since publication rates are an important element in most ranking systems, pushing faculty to increase their publication in top-tier international journals is viewed by many government and university officials as an important strategy for improving ratings…

  10. Accreditation and Quality Assurance in the Egyptian Higher Education System (United States)

    Schomaker, Rahel


    Purpose: This study aims to analyze the quality of the Egyptian accreditation system. With a view on the high competition in the domestic labor market as well as with regards to the international competitiveness of Egyptian graduates and the potential role of Egyptian universities in the international market for higher education, a high quality of…

  11. Trade Liberalisation, Regional Agreements and Implications for Higher Education (United States)

    Higher Education Management and Policy, 2006


    According to the OECD, the value of global annual trade in 1999 in higher education has been estimated at USD 30 billion. Australia is a major participant in international education: it is the third-largest international student destination in the English-speaking world behind the United States and the United Kingdom. In recent times, the…

  12. Transcultural Interaction and Linguistic Diversity in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    this particular area as a counterfoil to pedagogical studies of, for example, teaching or research practice in international(izing) university education, or work which concentrates on higher education policies at governmental levels. International Higher Education has emerged strongly in recent years as an area...... studies represent countries from across the globe: Australia, Austria, Canada, China (including Macau), Denmark, Germany, Iceland, Spain, UK, and USA (including Puerto Rico)...

  13. Higher- and Lower-Order Factor Analyses of the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Yuliya; Olino, Thomas M.; Klein, Daniel N.; Mackrell, Sarah V.M.; Hayden, Elizabeth P.


    The Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; Simonds & Rothbart, 2004) is a widely used parent-report measure of temperament. However, neither its lower- nor higher-order structures have been tested via a bottom-up, empirically based approach. We conducted higher- and lower-order exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) of the TMCQ in a large (N = 654) sample of 9-year-olds. Item-level EFAs identified 92 items as suitable (i.e., with loadings ≥.40) for constructing lower-order factors, only half of which resembled a TMCQ scale posited by the measure’s authors. Higher-order EFAs of the lower-order factors showed that a three-factor structure (Impulsivity/Negative Affectivity, Negative Affectivity, and Openness/Assertiveness) was the only admissible solution. Overall, many TMCQ items did not load well onto a lower-order factor. In addition, only three factors, which did not show a clear resemblance to Rothbart’s four-factor model of temperament in middle childhood, were needed to account for the higher-order structure of the TMCQ. PMID:27002124

  14. International Criminalization of International Terrorizm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Grigoryevich Volevodz


    Full Text Available Analysis and studying of the terrorism in all its facets is a complex entangled problem with less clear legal regulation that it might seem at first glance, especially after its transformation from local phenomenon into a world threat. Hitherto terrorism and actions connected to it have been criminalized by the majority of states. There are in modern criminal law whole systems of rules on criminal liability for terrorism which differs considerably from country to country. Terrorism has been criminalized in numerous international regional and universal antiterrorist legal instruments. The author notes that differences in definitions that are enshrined in them hinders international cooperation in criminal matters with respect to terrorist cases. Difficulties reside in the necessity to meet the dual criminality requirement and in the political offense exception. These difficulties can only be overcome through elaboration of a universally recognized definition of the notion of international terrorism and making it legally binding via its inclusion into a universal convention. The issue of definition of international terrorism is an important part of an efficient mutual assistance among states in fight against this crime. In this article the author accounts of actual ways of tackling by the international community of the issue of criminalization of international terrorism and of factors influencing them.

  15. Internationalization or globalization of higher education (United States)

    Rezaei, Habibolah; Yousefi, Alireza; Larijani, Bagher; Dehnavieh, Reza; Rezaei, Nima; Adibi, Peyman


    INTRODUCTION: Studies about globalization and internationalization demonstrate different attitudes in explaining these concepts. Since there is no consensus among Iranian specialists about these concepts, the purpose of this study is to explain the concepts of internationalization and globalization in Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a systematic review done in the first half of 2016. To explain the concept of globalization and internationalization, articles in Scientific Information D atabase, Magiran database, and Google Scholar were searched with the keywords such as globalization, scientific exchange, international cooperation, curriculum exchange, student exchange, faculty exchange, multinational cooperation, transnational cooperation, and collaborative research. Articles, used in this study, were in Persian and were devoted to internationalization and globalization between 2001 and 2016. The criterion of discarding the articles was duplicity. RESULTS: As many as 180 Persian articles were found on this topic. After discarding repetitive articles, 64 remained. Among those, 39 articles mentioned the differences between globalization and internationalization. Definitions of globalization were categorized in four categories, including globalization, globalizing, globalization of higher education, and globalizing of higher education. Definitions about internationalization were categorized in five categories such as internationalization, internationalization of higher education, internationalization of the curriculum, internationalization of curriculum studies, and internationalization of curriculum profession. CONCLUSION: The spectrum of the globalization of higher education moves from dissonance and multipolarization to unification and single polarization of the world. One end of the spectrum, which is unification and single polarization of the world, is interpreted as globalization. The other side of the spectrum, which is dissonance and

  16. Internationalization or globalization of higher education. (United States)

    Rezaei, Habibolah; Yousefi, Alireza; Larijani, Bagher; Dehnavieh, Reza; Rezaei, Nima; Adibi, Peyman


    Studies about globalization and internationalization demonstrate different attitudes in explaining these concepts. Since there is no consensus among Iranian specialists about these concepts, the purpose of this study is to explain the concepts of internationalization and globalization in Iran. This study is a systematic review done in the first half of 2016. To explain the concept of globalization and internationalization, articles in Scientific Information D atabase, Magiran database, and Google Scholar were searched with the keywords such as globalization, scientific exchange, international cooperation, curriculum exchange, student exchange, faculty exchange, multinational cooperation, transnational cooperation, and collaborative research. Articles, used in this study, were in Persian and were devoted to internationalization and globalization between 2001 and 2016. The criterion of discarding the articles was duplicity. As many as 180 Persian articles were found on this topic. After discarding repetitive articles, 64 remained. Among those, 39 articles mentioned the differences between globalization and internationalization. Definitions of globalization were categorized in four categories, including globalization, globalizing, globalization of higher education, and globalizing of higher education. Definitions about internationalization were categorized in five categories such as internationalization, internationalization of higher education, internationalization of the curriculum, internationalization of curriculum studies, and internationalization of curriculum profession. The spectrum of the globalization of higher education moves from dissonance and multipolarization to unification and single polarization of the world. One end of the spectrum, which is unification and single polarization of the world, is interpreted as globalization. The other side of the spectrum, which is dissonance and multipolarization, is interpreted as globalizing. The definition of

  17. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity......., or dimension of variation. The dilemmas in question were chosen for the way they capture key themes in the field of International Studies (IR) as well as central aspects of the ‘international’ itself (ir). The six Blocks are: • Block 1: Co-operation or conflict? Introducing international relations • Block 2...

  18. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.


    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  19. International collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    In the wake of the demise of the US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) project last year which empoverished both US and world science, some rapid scene shifting is going on. The SSC may be dead, but the underlying physics quest lives on. In the US, the 'future vision' subpanel of the High Energy Physics Advisory Board (HEPAP) is at work formulating its recommendations. On the international front, the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) at a special meeting in Vancouver in January drafted a statement

  20. A Tax for Higher Education (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie


    Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to…

  1. Transparency International

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M. (Michel)


    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the

  2. International Entomology (United States)

    Pests and diseases of plants in agriculture are a shared international problem. Yet some of the very places that pest invaders come from often lack the institutional structure and organization necessary to help in understanding the biology of the pest or disease. Strengthening entomology by stimulat...

  3. International safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.; Ha Vinh Phuong


    Since the start of the post-war era, international safeguards were considered essential to ensure that nuclear materials should not be diverted to unauthorised uses. In parallel, it was proposed to set up an international atomic energy agency within the United Nations through which international cooperation in nuclear matters would be channelled and controlled. Created in 1957, the IAEA was authorized to administer safeguards in connection with any assistance it provided as well as at the request of Member State and of any party to bilateral or multilateral arrangements in its ambit. Today, there are two international treaties requiring that its parties should accept Agency safeguards unilaterally, the Latin America Tlatelolco Treaty of 1967, and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), operative since 1970, which requires in particular that non-nuclear weapon states should accept Agency safeguards on its peaceful nuclear activities. Thus while NPT covers peaceful nuclear activities indiscriminately in a country, the Agency's original safeguards system is applied according to specific agreements and to given facilities. A basic conflict has now emerged between commercial interests and the increasing wish that transfer of nuclear equipment and know-how should not result in proliferation of military nuclear capacity; however, serious efforts are currently in progress to ensure universal application of IAEA safeguards and to develop them in step with the uses of nuclear energy. (N.E.A.) [fr


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm McVicar


    Full Text Available Given growing importance of education as a factor of internal development and in the context of globalization universities can be considered to be international economic actors playing an increasingly significant role in economic and political agenda. Universities face a lot of challenges, to wit: quality control, further privatization of higher education and for-profit education, the problem of innovations and advanced technologies, the emergence of international labour market etc. Therefore internationalization of higher education determines the necessity to reform and adapt universities around the globe.

  5. Gerontechnology in higher engineering education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietsema, J.; Graafmans, J.; Taipale, V.; Charness, N.


    This paper is based on experiences with designing an educational programme on gerontechnology at Eindhoven University of Technology (TUE) and designing and developing various international gerontechnology courses. There are two major goals for education in gerontechnology: (1) creation of a

  6. International mathematical olympiad


    Hanjš, Ž.


    Today mathematical competitions are very popular with primary and secondary school students and there are many countries all around the world where they are regularly organised. There are several rounds and a lot of students are included, especially at the beginning rounds. The best students from the previous round have the right to continue on the higher level of competition. The final level for the secondary school student competitors is the International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO). The te...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovici (Barbulescu Adina


    Full Text Available The paper aims at analyzing the dynamics of in Romanian higher education graduates in the 2006-2010 period, both in Romania and by the Romanian development regions. After highlighting the importance of human capital and its education, the paper analyzes the dynamics of Romanian higher education graduates in the targeted period, at both of the above-mentioned levels. The conclusions reveal that, during the analysed period: 2006-2010, the number of female, and, respectively, male higher education graduates, as well as the total number of higher education graduates, continuously increased in the 2006-2010 period at the whole country level and registered an increase trend, as well, by the eight development regions of Romania in the 2006-2010 period, with very few exceptions in some years of the period, in some of the the eight development regions of Romania. Therefore, the Romanian higher education system must correlate the graduates number with the number of work places in the Romanian economy, and take into account the necessities imposed by the participation at international competition.

  8. Developing a Credit Recognition System for Chinese Higher Education Institutions (United States)

    Li, Fuhui


    In recent years, a credit recognition system has been developing in Chinese higher education institutions. Much research has been done on this development, but it has been concentrated on system building, barriers/issues and international practices. The relationship between credit recognition system reforms and democratisation of higher education…

  9. TBAL: Technology-Based Active Learning in Higher Education (United States)

    Ghilay, Yaron; Ghilay, Ruth


    In many institutions of higher education worldwide, faculty members manage lessons based on information transfer whereas their students become passive listeners. According to international research, passive learning has disadvantages mainly because students do not engage in the lesson. The study introduces a new model for higher education called…

  10. A Thematic Review of Blended Learning in Higher Education (United States)

    Pima, John Marco; Odetayo, Michael; Iqbal, Rahat; Sedoyeka, Eliamani


    This article reviews the international literature on blended learning in view of establishing its thematic trends in higher education. The systematic review through PRISMA, sought to answer three research questions: First, how have publications evolved from 2000 to 2016 in blended learning in higher education? Secondly, what themes are frequently…

  11. Adapting Higher Education through Changes in Academic Work (United States)

    Courtney, Kathy


    Internationally, changes to academic work are a response to the massification of higher education and a changed and changing higher education context. The majority of these adjustments involve a casualisation of academic work, widely characterised as being of a de-skilling nature, alongside the emergence of new, as well as changing, roles that…

  12. Trade in Higher Education Services in Malaysia: Key Policy Challenges (United States)

    Tham, Siew Yean


    In recent years, Malaysia has emerged as an unexpected contender in the world market for international students in higher education. Recognizing this sector as a potential new source of growth and export revenue, Malaysia aims to become a regional hub for higher education. In view of this, the objectives of this paper are to profile the pattern of…

  13. Web 2.0 in Dutch Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim


    Westera, W. (2008). Web 2.0 in Dutch Higher Education. In J. Armstrong & T. Franklin (Eds.), A Review of Current and Developing International Practice in the Use of Social Networking (Web 2.0) in Higher Education (pp. 61-71). Bristol: Clex.

  14. Internal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushima, Jun; Hayashi, Youjiro; Ueda, Masayuki.


    The present invention relates to an internal pump. A water hole allowing communication between internal and external circumferences of a stretch tube is provided at the portion of the stretch tube corresponding to a position where an end face of a nozzle portion of a motor case and an end face of a diffuser are joined with each other so that hot filtered water inside a pressure container which has entered from where the end face of the nozzle portion of the motor case and the end face of the diffuser are joined with each other is combined with the purged water so that it can be sent back to the pressure container again. (author) figs

  15. International safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The system of international safeguards carried out by the IAEA is designed to verify that governments are living up to pledges to use nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes under the NPT (Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons) and similar agreements. The film illustrates the range of field inspections and analytical work involved. It also shows how new approaches are helping to strengthen the system

  16. Transcultural Interaction and Linguistic Diversity in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume presents the current state of the art for research on the sociolinguistic consequences of the internationalization of higher education for university students. Its focus on “the student experience” for an increasingly mobile university student population is intended to foreground...... this particular area as a counterfoil to pedagogical studies of, for example, teaching or research practice in international(izing) university education, or work which concentrates on higher education policies at governmental levels. International Higher Education has emerged strongly in recent years as an area...

  17. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  18. Sleep duration and RSA suppression as predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. (United States)

    Cho, Sunghye; Philbrook, Lauren E; Davis, Elizabeth L; Buss, Kristin A


    Although the conceptual interplay among the biological and clinical features of sleep, arousal, and emotion regulation has been noted, little is understood about how indices of sleep duration and parasympathetic reactivity operate jointly to predict adjustment in early childhood. Using a sample of 123 toddlers, the present study examined sleep duration and RSA reactivity as predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Parents reported on children's sleep duration and adjustment. RSA reactivity was assessed via children's responses to fear-eliciting stimuli and an inhibitory control challenge. Findings demonstrated that greater RSA suppression to both types of tasks in combination with longer sleep duration was concurrently associated with less internalizing. In contrast, greater RSA augmentation to an inhibitory control task in the context of shorter sleep duration predicted more externalizing 1 year later. The significance of duration of toddlers' sleep as well as the context in which physiological regulatory difficulties occurs is discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. International perspectives on the profile of highly talented international business professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heugten, Petronella; Heijne-Penninga, Marjolein; Robbe, Patricia; Jaarsma, Debbie


    There is a global demand for talented managers and leaders. To meet this demand, higher education institutions are developing talent programs. However, international perception of talent is diffuse. In this study, our profile of highly talented international business professionals was

  20. Extended inflation from higher dimensional theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Kolb, E.W.; Vadas, S.L.; Wang, Yun.


    The possibility is considered that higher dimensional theories may, upon reduction to four dimensions, allow extended inflation to occur. Two separate models are analayzed. One is a very simple toy model consisting of higher dimensional gravity coupled to a scalar field whose potential allows for a first-order phase transition. The other is a more sophisticated model incorporating the effects of non-trivial field configurations (monopole, Casimir, and fermion bilinear condensate effects) that yield a non-trivial potential for the radius of the internal space. It was found that extended inflation does not occur in these models. It was also found that the bubble nucleation rate in these theories is time dependent unlike the case in the original version of extended inflation

  1. Extended inflation from higher-dimensional theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Kolb, E.W.; Vadas, S.L.; Wang, Y.


    We consider the possibility that higher-dimensional theories may, upon reduction to four dimensions, allow extended inflation to occur. We analyze two separate models. One is a very simple toy model consisting of higher-dimensional gravity coupled to a scalar field whose potential allows for a first-order phase transition. The other is a more sophisticated model incorporating the effects of nontrivial field configurations (monopole, Casimir, and fermion bilinear condensate effects) that yield a nontrivial potential for the radius of the internal space. We find that extended inflation does not occur in these models. We also find that the bubble nucleation rate in these theories is time dependent unlike the case in the original version of extended inflation

  2. Internalized homophobia in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Yanykin


    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to empirically verify that the combination of negative attitudes of LGB people towards homosexuality in general and to their own personal characteristics associated with a gay orientation has a negative impact on their self-esteem. Design. To test this hypothesis we adapted and standardized the Russian version of the personal homonegativity scale (Mayfield, 2001. Using the adapted measure, we studied how personal homonegativity affects the self-esteem of LGB people. We explored the reliability and validity of the adapted measure with 92 gay respondents aged over 21. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-scale structure — the method was proved. The modified measure includes ten statements divided into two scales: Homonegativity (internalized homophobia; Cronbach’s alpha =0.96 and Acceptance of one’s own homosexuality (Cronbach alpha’s = 0.88. The results indicated that the adapted measure was suitable for assessing internalized homonegativity among gay individuals in Russia. Results. More than a half of the respondents (55.4 % had a rather low level of internalized homophobia which was related to fewer neurotic symptoms and emotional discomfort in comparison with other respondents. However, a higher level of internalized homophobia in remaining respondents (44.6 % was related to a more positive emotional acceptance of their own homosexuality and to a higher level of self-esteem. Conclusion. The results of the analyses of the original hypothesis were confirmed only partially. Internalized homophobia of LGB people appeared to adversely affect the severity of neurotic symptoms and subjective well-being.

  3. Strategic Planning for Higher Education. (United States)

    Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.


    The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

  4. Effective Communication in Higher Education (United States)

    Howard, Melissa


    The intent for this paper is to show that communication within the higher education field is a current problem. By looking first at the different styles, forms, and audiences for communication, the reader will hopefully gain perspective as to why this is such a problem in higher education today. Since the Millennial generation is the newest set of…

  5. Women in Higher Education Administration. (United States)

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    Two papers are presented that examine the barriers to women in academic decision making and identify a variety of effective strategies for improving the status of women in higher education administration. "Strategies for Advancing Women in Higher Education Administration," by Garry D. Hays, proposes that commitment to increasing the…

  6. The Marketing of Higher Education. (United States)

    Brooker, George; Noble, Michael


    Formal college and university marketing programs are challenging to develop and implement because of the complexity of the marketing mix, the perceived inappropriateness of a traditional marketing officer, the number of diverse groups with input, the uniqueness of higher education institutions, and the difficulty in identifying higher education…

  7. Higher Education and Ethical Value (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu


    The purpose of this study is to explore the importance of ethical value in higher education as well as the relevance between ethical value and higher education. In order to examine the study logically, three research questions are addressed: First, what is value, ethical value, and Asiatic ethical value? Second, for whom and what is higher…

  8. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip


    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  9. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education (United States)

    Flavin, Michael


    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally…

  10. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan


    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  11. Learning Entrepreneurship in Higher Education (United States)

    Taatila, Vesa P.


    Purpose: There is a constant need to produce more entrepreneurial graduates from higher education institutions. This paper aims to present and discuss several successful cases of entrepreneurial learning environments in order to suggest some important aspects that higher education institutions should consider. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  12. Feminist Research in Higher Education (United States)

    Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.


    This essay provides an overview of feminist methodology and its potential to enhance the study of higher education. Foregrounding the multiple purposes and research relationships developed through feminist research, the essay urges higher education scholars to engage feminist theories, epistemologies, and methods to inform policy, research, and…

  13. Queering Transformation in Higher Education (United States)

    Msibi, Thabo


    Transformation in higher education has tended to focus on race and sex, at the expense of other forms of discrimination. This article addresses the silencing of "queer" issues in higher education. Using queer theory as a framework, and drawing on current literature, popular media reports, two personal critical incidents and a project…

  14. Leading Change in Higher Education (United States)

    McRoy, Ian; Gibbs, Paul


    This article considers the situation in the UK higher education system and investigates specifically the leadership practice in a cluster of UK institutions as they changed their status. The research goes further to advocate a form of contextualized leadership that is relevant to higher institutions under change. (Contains 1 figure.)

  15. Higher Education: Open for Business (United States)

    Gilde, Christian, Ed.


    This book addresses a problem in higher learning, which is newly recognized in the academic spotlight: the overcommercialization of higher education. The book asks that you, the reader, think about the following: Did you go to a Coke or Pepsi school? Do your children attend a Nike or Adidas school? Is the college in your town a Dell or Gateway…

  16. Polish Higher Education: Intersectoral Distinctiveness (United States)

    Musial, Joanna


    This study analyzes degrees of differences between the private and public sectors of Polish higher education. It finds them to be strong: Polish private institutions function very differently from Polish public institutions and these differences correspond with those found in the literature on higher education elsewhere in the world. Polish…

  17. Innovations in Higher Education? Hah! (United States)

    Kirschner, Ann


    One can hardly mention higher education today without hearing the word "innovation," or its understudies "change," "reinvention," "transformation." Last summer the National Governors Association opened its meeting with a plenary session on higher education, innovation, and economic growth. But there is nothing funny about the need for innovation…

  18. Fact Book on Higher Education (United States)

    Marks, Joseph L.; Diaz, Alicia A.


    The "Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fact Book on Higher Education" is one of the nation's most comprehensive collections of comparative data on higher education. For decades, state leaders, policy-makers, researchers and journalists have used the "Fact Book" to find useful data quickly--and to learn more about…

  19. Higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Igusa, Kiyoshi


    The book is devoted to the theory of topological higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion in K-theory. The author defines the higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion based on Volodin's K-theory and Borel's regulator map. He describes its properties and generalizations and studies the relation between the higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion and other torsions used in K-theory: Whitehead torsion and Ray-Singer torsion. He also presents methods of computing higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion, illustrates them with numerous examples, and describes various applications of higher Franz-Reidemeister torsion, particularly for the study of homology of mapping class groups. Packed with up-to-date information, the book provides a unique research and reference tool for specialists working in algebraic topology and K-theory.

  20. Initiatives for Change in Korean Higher Education: Quest for Excellence of World-Class Universities (United States)

    Kang, Jean S.


    The establishment of World-Class Universities (WCUs) is noted as a paramount development in the realm of international higher education. The integration of higher education into a more international scheme has enabled for higher education institutions (HEIs) to have a broader impact on the states and their respective citizens. This study examines…