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Sample records for higher nacl concentration

  1. Effects of different NaCl Concentrations on germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Salinity refers to the salt content of any given system. By nature, arid .... Effect of varying concentrations of NaCl on seed germination of Amaranthus hybridus in percentages. .... Osmotic differences could explain this phenomenon where by ...

  2. Elevated NaCl concentration improves cryotolerance and developmental competence of porcine oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, L; Du, Y; Liu, Y

    2009-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure has been reported to improve the fertilizing or developmental ability of mammalian spermatozoa, oocytes and embryos. This study investigated the effect of another stress, temporarily increased NaCl concentration, on cryotolerance and developmental competence of porcine...

  3. Effect of applied voltage and initial concentration to desalting NaCl solution using electrodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubakri, Ali; Gzara, Lassaad; Dhahbi, Mahmoud; Bouguecha, Salah

    2009-01-01

    The desalination process of electrodialysis is one of membrane separation that competes with reverse osmosis for desalination of brackish water and seawater. In this work water desalination using a laboratory electrodialysis was performed and evaluated to desalting aqueous solutions containing 5000, 10000 and 20000 mg/L NaCl at different applied potential (10, 15 and 20 V) and at a constant flow rate of 3 L/min. Nine electrodialysis runs were performed. The results showed that the increasing of applied potential and decreasing of NaCl concentration have an important effect to enhance the electrodialysis performance. The efficiencies of each experiment were evaluated as function of specific power consumption with the electrical energy consumed in electrodialysis stack. It was obtained that the specific power consumption increased when the salt concentration and applied voltage increased. A laboratory electrodialysis stack containing fifteen cation exchange membranes and fifteen anion exchange membranes of 0,716 m 2 total effective area was used.

  4. Study on the spectrum of photonic crystal cavity and its application in measuring the concentration of NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yun [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing (China). Dept. of Physics; Wuxi Institute of Commerce, Wuxi (China). School of Electromechanical Technology; Xie, Xun; Hao, Jiong-Ju; Yang, Hong-Wei [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing (China). Dept. of Physics; Yang, Ze-Kun [Lanzhou Univ. (China). School of Information Science and Engineering; Xu, Zhi-Gang [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing (China). College of Agriculture

    2017-07-01

    In this article, we propose an approach to measure solution concentrations by using photonic crystal cavities. Based on the experimental data, the refractive index of a NaCl solution is proportional to the concentration. Filling the proposed photonic crystal cavity with a NaCl solution, we calculate the spectral transmission using the transfer matrix method. We found that the cavity transmittance was proportional to the refractive index of the NaCl solution, and thus we obtained a linear relationship between cavity transmittance and the concentration of the NaCl solution. The formula was found by fitting the simulation results with experimental data. Such a formula can be applied to the measurement of an unknown concentration of NaCl solution utilizing a photonic crystal cavity.

  5. DNA scanning mechanism of T4 endonuclease V. Effect of NaCl concentration on processive nicking activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruskin, E.A.; Lloyd, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    T4 endonuclease V is a pyrimidine dimer-specific endonuclease which generates incisions in DNA at the sites of pyrimidine dimers by a processive reaction mechanism. A model is presented in which the degree of processivity is directly related to the efficacy of the one-dimensional diffusion of endonuclease V on DNA by which the enzyme locates pyrimidine dimers. The modulation of the processive nicking activity of T4 endonuclease V on superhelical covalently closed circular DNA (form I) which contains pyrimidine dimers has been investigated as a function of the ionic strength of the reaction. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to separate the three topological forms of the DNA which were generated in time course reactions of endonuclease V with dimer-containing form I DNA in the absence of NaCl, and in 25, 50, and 100 mM NaCl. The degree of processivity was evaluated in terms of the mass fraction of form III (linear) DNA which was produced as a function of the fraction of form I DNA remaining. Processivity is maximal in the absence of NaCl and decreases as the NaCl concentration is increased. At 100 mM NaCl, processivity is abolished and endonuclease V generates incisions in DNA at the site of dimers by a distributive reaction mechanism. The change from the distributive to a processive reaction mechanism occurs at NaCl concentrations slightly below 50 mM. The high degree of processivity which is observed in the absence of NaCl is reversible to the distributive mechanism, as demonstrated by experiments in which the NaCl concentration was increased during the time course reaction. In addition, unirradiated DNA inhibited the incision of irradiated DNA only at NaCl concentrations at which processivity was observed

  6. Leaching of copper concentrates using NaCl and soluble copper contributed by the own concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, O.; Bernal, N.; Quiroz, R.; Fuentes, G.; Vinals, J.

    2005-01-01

    Leaching of copper concentrates using cupric chloro complexes, generated in situ by the reaction between Cu(II), aported by the soluble copper content of the concentrate, and sodium chloride in acid media was studied. The concentrate samples were obtained from mineral processing plants from Antofagasta, Chile. Chemical and mineralogical characterization from original concentrates was made. Typical variable such as a chloride concentration, soluble copper concentration, leaching time, solid percentage and temperature were studied. DRX and EDS analyzed some of the residues. the experimental results indicated that it is possible to obtain solutions having high copper content (15 to 35 g/L) and 2 to 5 g/L free acid in order to submit this solution directly to a solvent extraction stage. The leaching tests use common reactive and low cost such as sodium chloride and sulfuric acid. (Author) 16 refs

  7. Domain structure of human complement C4b extends with increasing NaCl concentration: implications for its regulatory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Ka Wai; Wright, David W; Gor, Jayesh; Swann, Marcus J; Perkins, Stephen J

    2016-12-01

    During the activation of complement C4 to C4b, the exposure of its thioester domain (TED) is crucial for the attachment of C4b to activator surfaces. In the C4b crystal structure, TED forms an Arg 104 -Glu 1032 salt bridge to tether its neighbouring macroglobulin (MG1) domain. Here, we examined the C4b domain structure to test whether this salt bridge affects its conformation. Dual polarisation interferometry of C4b immobilised at a sensor surface showed that the maximum thickness of C4b increased by 0.46 nm with an increase in NaCl concentration from 50 to 175 mM NaCl. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that the sedimentation coefficient s 20,w of monomeric C4b of 8.41 S in 50 mM NaCl buffer decreased to 7.98 S in 137 mM NaCl buffer, indicating that C4b became more extended. Small angle X-ray scattering reported similar R G values of 4.89-4.90 nm for C4b in 137-250 mM NaCl. Atomistic scattering modelling of the C4b conformation showed that TED and the MG1 domain were separated by 4.7 nm in 137-250 mM NaCl and this is greater than that of 4.0 nm in the C4b crystal structure. Our data reveal that in low NaCl concentrations, both at surfaces and in solution, C4b forms compact TED-MG1 structures. In solution, physiologically relevant NaCl concentrations lead to the separation of the TED and MG1 domain, making C4b less capable of binding to its complement regulators. These conformational changes are similar to those seen previously for complement C3b, confirming the importance of this salt bridge for regulating both C4b and C3b. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. The Effects of NaCl Concentration and Confining Pressure on Mechanical and Acoustic Behaviors of Brine-Saturated Sandstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Hua Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the mechanical behavior of rock with brine saturation, conventional triaxial experiments were carried out on sandstone for a range of confining pressures (0–60 MPa and NaCl concentrations (0–30%. As the confining pressure and NaCl concentration increased, the triaxial compressive strength, crack damage threshold, Young’s modulus, cohesion, and internal friction angle all increased. Real-time ultrasonic wave and acoustic emission (AE techniques were used to obtain the relationship between acoustic behavior and stress level during the whole triaxial compression process. During the whole deformation process, the evolution of P-wave velocity and accumulated AE count could be divided into four phases. The microstructural characteristics of brine-saturated sandstone, before and after loading, indicated that the strength enhancement mechanism may be attributed to an increase in inter-particle friction resulting from salt crystallisation around the points of contact. The angle of friction increased by more than 86% at maximum NaCl concentration compared to that for distilled water. The NaCl deposition in the pore space resulted in nonlinear strength increases for the brine-saturated sandstone specimens with increasing salinity. The present study is expected to improve the knowledge of the strength and failure mechanisms of sedimentary rock in deep saline aquifers.

  9. Ion association in concentrated NaCl brines from ambient to supercritical conditions: results from classical molecular dynamics simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collings Matthew D

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Highly concentrated NaCl brines are important geothermal fluids; chloride complexation of metals in such brines increases the solubility of minerals and plays a fundamental role in the genesis of hydrothermal ore deposits. There is experimental evidence that the molecular nature of the NaCl–water system changes over the pressure–temperature range of the Earth's crust. A transition of concentrated NaCl–H2O brines to a "hydrous molten salt" at high P and T has been argued to stabilize an aqueous fluid phase in the deep crust. In this work, we have done molecular dynamic simulations using classical potentials to determine the nature of concentrated (0.5–16 m NaCl–water mixtures under ambient (25°C, 1 bar, hydrothermal (325°C, 1 kbar and deep crustal (625°C, 15 kbar conditions. We used the well-established SPCE model for water together with the Smith and Dang Lennard-Jones potentials for the ions (J. Chem. Phys., 1994, 100, 3757. With increasing temperature at 1 kbar, the dielectric constant of water decreases to give extensive ion-association and the formation of polyatomic (NanClmn-m clusters in addition to simple NaCl ion pairs. Large polyatomic (NanClmn-m clusters resemble what would be expected in a hydrous NaCl melt in which water and NaCl were completely miscible. Although ion association decreases with pressure, temperatures of 625°C are not enough to overcome pressures of 15 kbar; consequently, there is still enhanced Na–Cl association in brines under deep crustal conditions.

  10. Inhibition of nitrate reduction by NaCl adsorption on a nano-zero-valent iron surface during a concentrate treatment for water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yuhoon; Kim, Dogun; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) has been considered as a possible material to treat water and wastewater. However, it is necessary to verify the effect of the matrix components in different types of target water. In this study, different effects depending on the sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on reductions of nitrates and on the characteristics of NZVI were investigated. Although NaCl is known as a promoter of iron corrosion, a high concentration of NaCl (>3 g/L) has a significant inhibition effect on the degree of NZVI reactivity towards nitrate. The experimental results were interpreted by a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson reaction in terms of inhibition, and the decreased NZVI reactivity could be explained by the increase in the inhibition constant. As a result of a chloride concentration analysis, it was verified that 7.7-26.5% of chloride was adsorbed onto the surface of NZVI. Moreover, the change of the iron corrosion product under different NaCl concentrations was investigated by a surface analysis of spent NZVI. Magnetite was the main product, with a low NaCl concentration (0.5 g/L), whereas amorphous iron hydroxide was observed at a high concentration (12 g/L). Though the surface was changed to permeable iron hydroxide, the Fe(0) in the core was not completely oxidized. Therefore, the inhibition effect of NaCl could be explained as the competitive adsorption of chloride and nitrate.

  11. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-01-01

    concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The

  12. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-01-01

    concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste

  13. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Roberts, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-02-28

    concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste

  14. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The

  15. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The

  16. Trace element concentrations in higher fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Ravnik, V.; Kosta, L.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of ten trace elements, As, Br, Cd, Cu, Hg, I, Mn, Se, Zn and V, have been determined in up to 27 species of higher fungi from several sites in Slovenia, Yugoslavia. Analyses were based on destructive neutron activation techniques. Data are presented and compared with the concentrations found in soils. Previously values were non-existent or scanty for these elements, so that the data represent typical levels for basidiomycetes. In addition to confirming high levels of mercury in many species, the survey also found that cadmium is accumulated to a surprising extent by most fungi, the average value being 5 ppm. Among other accumulations found was bromine by the genus Amanita, and selenium by edible Boletus. Correlation analysis between all pairs of trace elements gave values for r of from 0.75 to 0.43 for 7 pairs (Cu and Hg, 0.75; Se and As, 0.69). As well as these features of biochemical interest, the values found and the pattern of accumulation suggest potential uses of fungi in environmental studies

  17. Solubility and hydrolysis of Np(V) in dilute to concentrated alkaline NaCl solutions. Formation of Na-Np(V)-OH solid phases at 22 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Vladimir G. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Fellhauer, David; Gaona, Xavier; Dardenne, Kathy; Rothe, Joerg; Altmaier, Marcus [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal; Kalmykov, Stepan N. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-01

    The solubility of Np(V) was investigated at T=22±2 C in alkaline NaCl solutions of different ionic strength (0.1-5.0 M). The solid phases controlling the solubility at different -log{sub 10} m{sub H{sup +}}(pH{sub m}) and NaCl concentration were characterized by XRD, quantitative chemical analysis, SEM-EDS and XAFS (both XANES and EXAFS). Aqueous phases in equilibrium with Np(V) solids were investigated for selected samples within 8.9≤pH{sub m}≤10.3 by UV-vis/NIR absorption spectroscopy. In 0.1 M NaCl, the experimental solubility of the initial greenish NpO{sub 2}OH(am) solid phase is in good agreement with previous results obtained in NaClO{sub 4} solutions, and is consistent with model calculations for fresh NpO{sub 2}OH(am) using the thermodynamic data selection in NEA-TDB. Below pH{sub m}∝11.5 and for all NaCl concentrations studied, Np concentration in equilibrium with the solid phase remained constant during the timeframe of this study (∝2 years). This observation is in contrast to the aging of the initial NpO{sub 2}OH(am) into a more crystalline modification with the same stoichiometry, NpO{sub 2}OH(am, aged), as reported in previous studies for concentrated NaClO{sub 4} and NaCl. Instead, the greenish NpO{sub 2}OH(am) transforms into a white solid phase in those systems with [NaCl]≥1.0 M and pH{sub m}≥11.5, and into two different pinkish phases above pH{sub m}∝13.2. The solid phase transformation is accompanied by a drop in Np solubility of 0.5-2 log{sub 10}-units (depending upon NaCl concentration). XANES analyses of green, white and pink phases confirm the predominance of Np(V) in all cases. Quantitative chemical analysis shows the incorporation of Na{sup +} in the original NpO{sub 2}OH(am) material, with Na:Np ≤ 0.3 for the greenish solids and 0.8 ≤ Na:Np ≤ 1.6 for the white and pinkish phases. XRD data confirms the amorphous character of the greenish phase, whereas white and pink solids show well-defined but discrepant XRD patterns

  18. Leaching of copper concentrates using NaCl and soluble copper contributed by the own concentrate; Lixiviacion de concentrados de cobre utilizando NaCl y el cobre soluble aportado por el propio concentrado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, O.; Bernal, N.; Quiroz, R.; Fuentes, G.; Vinals, J.

    2005-07-01

    Leaching of copper concentrates using cupric chloro complexes, generated in situ by the reaction between Cu(II), aported by the soluble copper content of the concentrate, and sodium chloride in acid media was studied. The concentrate samples were obtained from mineral processing plants from Antofagasta, Chile. Chemical and mineralogical characterization from original concentrates was made. Typical variable such as a chloride concentration, soluble copper concentration, leaching time, solid percentage and temperature were studied. DRX and EDS analyzed some of the residues. the experimental results indicated that it is possible to obtain solutions having high copper content (15 to 35 g/L) and 2 to 5 g/L free acid in order to submit this solution directly to a solvent extraction stage. The leaching tests use common reactive and low cost such as sodium chloride and sulfuric acid. (Author) 16 refs.

  19. Flexible electromagnetic wave sensor operating at GHz frequencies for instantaneous concentration measurements of NaCl, KCl, MnCl2 and CuCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korostynska, O; Ortoneda-Pedrola, M; Mason, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2014-01-01

    A novel electromagnetic wave sensor operating at GHz frequencies for real-time chlorides concentration analysis is reported. The sensor response to deionized water, NaCl, KCl, MnCl 2  and CuCl solutions at various concentrations was tested. The sensing element, in the form of a silver pattern antenna that emits an electromagnetic field, was printed on a polyimide flexible laminate substrate to form a sensor to suit a broad range of applications, where a sensor could be placed in water reservoirs or fluid-carrying pipes for continuous analysis. The developed system confirmed the viability of using microwaves for real-time chloride solutions monitoring as the reflected signals represented by S 11  parameters were unique with clearly observed shifts in the resonant frequencies and amplitude changes when placed in direct contact with 20 µl of each solution. (paper)

  20. Swept source optical coherence tomography for in vivo growth monitoring of capsicum annuum seeds treated with different NaCl concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Park, Kibeom; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-04-01

    In this study, Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is demonstrated as a plausible optical tool for in vivo detection of plant seeds and its morphological changes during growth. The experiment was carried out on Capsicum annuum seeds that were treated with different molar concentrations of NaCl to investigate the most optimal concentration for the seed growth. The monitoring process was carried out for 9 consecutive days. The in vivo 2D OCT images of the treated seeds were obtained and compared with seeds that were grown with sterile distilled water. The obtained results confirm the feasibility of using OCT for the proposed application. Normalized A-scan analysis method is utilized for supporting the concluded results.

  1. The physiological and biochemical responses of a medicinal plant (Salvia miltiorrhiza L. to stress caused by various concentrations of NaCl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Gengmao

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is commonly known as Danshen, is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. To illustrate its physiological and biochemical responses to salt stress and to evaluate the feasibility of cultivating this plant in saline coastal soils, a factorial experiment under hydroponic conditions was arranged on the basis of a completely randomised design with three replications. Five salinity treatments (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl were employed in this experiment. The results showed that salinity treatments of <100 mM NaCl did not affect the growth of Salvia miltiorrhiza in a morphological sense, but significantly inhibit the accumulation of dry matter. Salinity treatments significantly decreased the Chl-b content but caused a negligible change in the Chl-a content, leading to a conspicuous overall decrease in the T-Chl content. The Na(+ content significantly increased with increasing hydroponic salinity but the K(+ and Ca(2+ contents were reversed, indicating that a high level of external Na(+ resulted in a decrease in both K(+ and Ca(2+ concentrations in the organs of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Salt stress significantly decreased the superoxide dismutase (SOD activity of Salvia miltiorrhiza leaves in comparison with that of the control. On the contrary, the catalase (CAT activity in the leaves markedly increased with the increasing salinity of the hydroponic solution. Moreover, the soluble sugar and protein contents in Salvia miltiorrhiza leaves dramatically increased with the increasing salinity of the hydroponic solution. These results suggested that antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes are partially involved in the adaptive response to salt stress in Salvia miltiorrhiza, thereby maintaining better plant growth under saline conditions.

  2. Titration of poly(dA-dT) . poly(dA-dT) in solution at variable NaCl concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airoldi, Marta; Boicelli, C Andrea; Cadoni, Fabio; Gennaro, Giuseppe; Giomini, Marcello; Giuliani, Anna M; Giustini, Mauro

    2004-10-05

    CD and uv absorption data showed that high molecular weight poly(dA-dT) . poly(dA-dT), at 298 K, undergoes an acid-induced transition from B-double helix to random coil in NaCl solutions of different concentrations, ranging from 0.005 to 0.600M. Similarly, titration of the polynucleotide with a strong base causes duplex-to-single strands transition. The base- and acid-induced transitions were both reversible by back-titration (with an acid or, respectively, with a base): the apparent pKa were the same in both directions. However, the number of protons per titratable site (adenine N1) required to reach half-denaturation was in great excess over the stoichiometric value; to a much larger extent, the same effect was observed also for the deprotonation of the N3H sites of thymine. Moreover, in the basic denaturation experiments, at low salt concentrations ([NaCl]acid than calculated was needed to back-titrate the base excess to half-denaturation. Both effects could be qualitatively justified on the basis of the counterion condensation theory of polyelectrolytes and considering the energy barrier created by the negatively charged phosphodiester groups to the penetration of the OH- ions inside the double helix and the screening effect of the Na+ ions on such charges, in the deprotonation experiments.

  3. El efecto de la disponibilidad de agua durante el crecimiento de Lycopersicon chilense sobre la capacidad de sus semillas para germinar a distintas temperaturas y concentraciones de manitol y NaCl Effect of water availability during the growth of Lycopersicon chilense on the capacity of their seeds to germinate at different temperatures and concentrations of manitol and NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS MALDONADO

    2002-12-01

    plantas de L. chilense producen semillas viables bajo las condiciones de déficit hídrico estudiadas. Sin embargo, la capacidad de germinar está limitada a un rango estrecho de condiciones ambientales. Se postulan algunas hipótesis para explicar su presencia en ambientes desérticos.The number of seeds produced by a plant can be limited by adverse environmental factors, which can also affect the seed development originating non-viable seeds. In the I Region, Chile we have observed that Lycopersicon chilense, a tomato species endemic to Atacama Desert, has high fruit and seed production, but a low plant recruitment. We hypothesize that this could be due to two factors: (a mother plants produce non-viable seeds because of the adverse conditions where they grow or (b seed are viable but the environmental conditions are not suitable for seed germination. We determined the germination capacity of L. chilense seeds, subjected to different temperatures and mannitol and NaCl concentration, from mother plants growing with plenty water supply (+H2O and other groups growing with water deficit (-H2O. Water supply affected the number of seeds germinated and the time needed by the seeds to germinate under different temperatures and water potential. Seeds from -H2O plants were able to germinate at lower water potentials and in shorter time than seeds from +H2O plants in the case of mannitol. The contrary occurred with NaCl, in which a higher seed germination and shorter time for germination occurred in seeds coming from +H2O plants. Seed germination of L chilense progressively decrease at water potentials lower than -0,5 MPa, being this decrease more evident with NaCl; in both cases there was a germination delay. The optimum temperature for seed germination was between 15 and 25 °C. Seeds of L. chilense did not germinate at temperatures lower than 8 °C or higher than 35 °C. Data show that although L. chilense plants produce viable seeds under the various water conditions studied

  4. [Effect of NaCl stress on ion compartmentation, photosynthesis and growth of Salicornia bigelovii Torr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Yan; Zhao, Ke-Fu

    2004-02-01

    Seedlings of Salicornia bigelovii Torr. were treated with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100, 300, 600 mmol/L). Ion contents, Na(+) subcelluar localization, photosynthetic rate, ultrastructure of chloroplast and other parameters were measured. The data showed both fresh and dry weight of whole plant of Salicornia bigelovii Torr. under salinity were higher than the control. When NaCl concentration is about 300 mmol/L Salicornia bigelovii Torr. grow strongest. The contents of Na(+) and Cl(-) and c(Na)/c(K) in shoots increased with the salinity. Both Na(+) and Cl(-) were mainly transported to shoots. Ion X-ray microanalysis indicated Na(+) was mainly compartmentalized into vacuoles. Photosynthetic rate increased with the salinity under NaCl 100-300 mmol/L, but declined under NaCl 600 mmol/L. Ultrastructure of chloroplast was destroyed by NaCl 600 mmol/L.

  5. Effect of NaCl treatments on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rong-fang; Yuan, Gao-feng; Wang, Qiao-mei

    2013-01-01

    To understand the regulation mechanism of NaCl on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts, the germination rate, fresh weight, contents of glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as myrosinase activity of broccoli sprouts germinated under 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mmol/L of NaCl were investigated in our experiment. The results showed that glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts were significantly enhanced and the activity of myrosinase was inhibited by 100 mmol/L of NaCl. However, the total glucosinolate content in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts was markedly decreased although the fresh weight was significantly increased after treatment with NaCl at relatively low concentrations (20, 40, and 60 mmol/L). NaCl treatment at the concentration of 60 mmol/L for 5 d maintained higher biomass and comparatively higher content of glucosinolates in sprouts of broccoli with decreased myrosinase activity. A relatively high level of NaCl treatment (100 mmol/L) significantly increased the content of sulforaphane in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts compared with the control. These results indicate that broccoli sprouts grown under a suitable concentration of NaCl could be desirable for human nutrition. PMID:23365011

  6. In situ AFM study on barite (0 0 1) surface dissolution in NaCl solutions at 30 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahara, Yoshihiro; Makio, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We examined barite surface dissolution behavior in NaCl solutions by AFM. • Step retreat and step splitting behavior changed with the NaCl concentration. • Etch pit formation and development differed in each NaCl solution. • Step retreat and etch pit growth rates increased with the NaCl concentration. • We assessed the effects of temperature and NaCl concentration on these rates. - Abstract: This paper reports in situ observations on barite (0 0 1) surface dissolution behavior in 0.1–0.001 M NaCl solutions at 30 °C using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The step retreating on barite (0 0 1) surfaces changed with increasing NaCl solution concentrations. In solutions with a higher NaCl concentration (⩾0.01 M), many steps showed curved or irregular fronts during the later experimental stage, while almost all steps in solutions with a lower NaCl concentration exhibited straight or angular fronts, even during the late stage. The splitting phenomenon of the initial 〈h k 0〉 one-layer steps (7.2 Å) into two half-layer steps (3.6 Å) occurred in all NaCl solutions, while that of the initial [0 1 0] one-layer steps observed only in the 0.1 M NaCl solution. The step retreat rates increased with an increasing NaCl solution concentration. We observed triangular etch pit and deep etch pit formation in all NaCl solutions, which tended to form late in solutions with lower NaCl concentrations. The deep etch pit morphology changed with increasing NaCl solution concentrations. A hexagonal form elongated in the [0 1 0] direction was bounded by the {1 0 0}, {3 1 0}, and (0 0 1) faces in a 0.001 M NaCl solution, and a rhombic form was bounded by the {5 1 0} and (0 0 1) faces in 0.01 M and 0.1 M NaCl solutions. An intermediate form was observed in a 0.005 M NaCl solution, which was defined by {1 0 0}, a curved face tangent to the [0 1 0] direction, {3 1 0}, and (0 0 1) faces: the intermediate form appeared between the hexagonal and rhombic forms in

  7. Predicting adhesion and biofilm formation boundaries on stainless steel surfaces by five Salmonella enterica strains belonging to different serovars as a function of pH, temperature and NaCl concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Juliana O; Cruz, Ellen A; Souza, Enio G F; Oliveira, Tereza C M; Alvarenga, Verônica O; Peña, Wilmer E L; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Magnani, Marciane

    2018-05-26

    This study aimed to assess the capability of 97 epidemic S. enterica strains belonging to 18 serovars to form biofilm. Five strains characterized as strong biofilm-producers, belonging to distinct serovars (S. Enteritidis 132, S. Infantis 176, S. Typhimurium 177, S. Heidelberg 281 and S. Corvallis 297) were assayed for adhesion/biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces. The experiments were conducted in different combinations of NaCl (0, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 10% w/v), pH (4, 5, 6 and 7) and temperatures (8 °C, 12 °C, 20 °C and 35 °C). Only adhesion was assumed to occur when S. enterica counts were ≥3 and biofilm formation was defined as when the counts were ≥5 log CFU/cm 2 . The binary responses were used to develop models to predict the probability of adhesion/biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces by five strains belonging to different S. enterica serovars. A total of 99% (96/97) of the tested S. enterica strains were characterized as biofilm-producers in the microtiter plate assays. The ability to form biofilm varied (P biofilm-producers, 21% (20/96), 45% (43/96), and 35% (34/96) were weak, moderate and strong biofilm-producers, respectively. The capability for adhesion/biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces under the experimental conditions studied varied among the strains studied, and distinct secondary models were obtained to describe the behavior of the five S. enterica tested. All strains showed adhesion at pH 4 up to 4% of NaCl and at 20 °C and 35 °C. The probability of adhesion decreased when NaCl concentrations were >8% and at 8 °C, as well as in pH values ≤ 5 and NaCl concentrations > 6%, for all tested strains. At pH 7 and 6, biofilm formation for S. Enteritidis, S. Infantis, S. Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg was observed up to 6% of NaCl at 35 °C and 20 °C. The predicted boundaries for adhesion were pH values biofilm formation, the predicted boundaries were pH values biofilm formation

  8. Higher milk fat content is associated with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhout, Shelley M; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Lebovic, Gerald; Chen, Yang; O'Connor, Deborah L; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2016-05-01

    Current guidelines for cow's milk consumption in children older than age 2 years suggest 1% or 2% milk to reduce the risk of obesity. Given that milk is the main dietary source of vitamin D for North American children and that vitamin D is fat soluble, we hypothesized 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration to be positively associated with the fat content of milk. The objective was to determine the relationship between the fat content of milk consumed and the serum 25(OH)D concentration; our secondary objective was to explore the role that the volume of milk consumed played in this relationship. We completed a cross-sectional study of children aged 12-72 months in the TARGetKids! research network. Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between milk fat content and child 25(OH)D, adjusted for clinically relevant covariates. The interaction between volume of milk and fat content was examined. Two thousand eight hundred fifty-seven children were included in the analysis. The fat content of milk was positively associated with 25(OH)D (p = 0.03), and the interaction between the volume of milk consumed and the milk fat content was statistically significant (p = 0.005). Children who drank 1% milk needed 2.46 cups (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.38-2.54) of milk to have a 25(OH)D concentration similar to that of children who drank 1 cup of homogenized milk (3.25% fat). Children who consumed 1% milk had 2.05 (95% CI 1.73-2.42) times higher odds of having a 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/L compared with children who consumed homogenized milk. In conclusion, recommendations for children to drink lower-fat milk (1% or 2%) may compromise serum 25(OH)D levels and may require study to ensure optimal childhood health.

  9. Effect of fluid flow, pH and tobacco extracts concentration as organic inhibitors to corrosion characteristics of AISI 1045 steel in 3.5% NaCl environment containing CO2 gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Budi Agung; Pratiwi, Vania Mitha; Ahmadi, Nafi'ul Fikri

    2018-04-01

    Corrosion become major problem in most industries. In the oil and gas company, corrosion occurs because of reaction between steel and chemical species inside crude oil. Crude oil or nature gas provide corrosive species, such as CO2, O2, H2S and so on. Fluid containing CO2 gas causes CO2 corrosion which attack steel as well as other corrosion phenomena. This CO2 corrosion commonly called as sweet environment and produce FeCO3 as corrosion products. Fluid flow factor in pipelines during the oil and gas transportation might increase the rate of corrosion itself. Inhibitor commonly use used as corrosion protection because its simplicity in usage. Nowadays, organic inhibitor become main issue in corrosion protection because of biodegradable, low cost, and environmental friendly. This research tried to use tobacco leaf extract as organic inhibitor to control corrosion in CO2 environment. The electrolyte solution used was 3.5% NaCl at pH 4 and pH 7. Weight loss test results showed that the lowest corrosion rate was reach at 132.5 ppm inhibitor, pH 7 and rotational speed of 150 rpm with corrosion rate of 0.091 mm/y. While at pH 4, the lowest corrosion rate was found at rotational speed of 150 rpm with inhibitor concentration of 265 ppm and corrosion rate of 0.327 mm/y. FTIR results indicate the presence of nicotine functional groups on the steel surface. However, based on corrosion rate, it is believed that corrosion occurs, and FeCO3 was soluble in electrolyte. Tobacco leaf extract inhibitors worked by a physisorption mechanism, where tobacco inhibitors formed thin layer on the steel surface.

  10. Nutrient concentrations in a Littorella uniflora community at higher CO2 concentrations and reduced light intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.; Pedersen, O.; Andersen, F. Ø.

    2005-01-01

    laboratory experiments with isoetid vegetation (Littorella uniflora) where water column CO2 and light could be manipulated in order to test whether (i) light and CO2 availability affect nutrient concentrations in isoetid vegetation, and (ii) if changes in light and CO2 climate affect fluxes of inorganic...... nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from sediment to water column, which potentially could result in increased growth of epiphytic algae. 3. The results showed that the standing stocks of phosphorus and nitrogen in the L. uniflora vegetation were significantly influenced by CO2 concentration and light...... intensity. Both standing stocks of P and N were significantly higher in the mesocosm treatments with high CO2 concentration than in those at low CO2 concentration. Similarly, standing stocks of P and N enhanced with increasing light intensity. 4. Measurements of nutrient fluxes both in the field...

  11. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  12. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Madenjian

    Full Text Available Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  13. Effects of dilute aqueous NaCl solution on caffeine aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Bhanita; Paul, Sandip, E-mail: sandipp@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India)

    2013-11-21

    The effect of salt concentration on association properties of caffeine molecule was investigated by employing molecular dynamics simulations in isothermal-isobaric ensemble of eight caffeine molecules in pure water and three different salt (NaCl) concentrations, at 300 K temperature and 1 atm pressure. The concentration of caffeine was taken almost at the solubility limit. With increasing salt concentration, we observe enhancement of first peak height and appearance of a second peak in the caffeine-caffeine distribution function. Furthermore, our calculated solvent accessible area values and cluster structure analyses suggest formation of higher order caffeine cluster on addition of salt. The calculated hydrogen bond properties reveal that there is a modest decrease in the average number of water-caffeine hydrogen bonds on addition of NaCl salt. Also observed are: (i) decrease in probability of salt contact ion pair as well as decrease in the solvent separated ion pair formation with increasing salt concentration, (ii) a modest second shell collapse in the water structure, and (iii) dehydration of hydrophobic atomic sites of caffeine on addition of NaCl.

  14. Effects of dilute aqueous NaCl solution on caffeine aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Bhanita; Paul, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    The effect of salt concentration on association properties of caffeine molecule was investigated by employing molecular dynamics simulations in isothermal-isobaric ensemble of eight caffeine molecules in pure water and three different salt (NaCl) concentrations, at 300 K temperature and 1 atm pressure. The concentration of caffeine was taken almost at the solubility limit. With increasing salt concentration, we observe enhancement of first peak height and appearance of a second peak in the caffeine-caffeine distribution function. Furthermore, our calculated solvent accessible area values and cluster structure analyses suggest formation of higher order caffeine cluster on addition of salt. The calculated hydrogen bond properties reveal that there is a modest decrease in the average number of water-caffeine hydrogen bonds on addition of NaCl salt. Also observed are: (i) decrease in probability of salt contact ion pair as well as decrease in the solvent separated ion pair formation with increasing salt concentration, (ii) a modest second shell collapse in the water structure, and (iii) dehydration of hydrophobic atomic sites of caffeine on addition of NaCl

  15. Electron scattering in graphene with adsorbed NaCl nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drabińska, Aneta, E-mail: Aneta.Drabinska@fuw.edu.pl; Kaźmierczak, Piotr; Bożek, Rafał; Karpierz, Ewelina; Wysmołek, Andrzej; Kamińska, Maria [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Wołoś, Agnieszka [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Pasternak, Iwona; Strupiński, Włodek [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Krajewska, Aleksandra [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-01-07

    In this work, the results of contactless magnetoconductance and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed for a graphene sample after its immersion in NaCl solution were presented. The properties of the immersed sample were compared with those of a non-immersed reference sample. Atomic force microscopy and electron spin resonance experiments confirmed the deposition of NaCl nanoparticles on the graphene surface. A weak localization signal observed using contactless magnetoconductance showed the reduction of the coherence length after NaCl treatment of graphene. Temperature dependence of the coherence length indicated a change from ballistic to diffusive regime in electron transport after NaCl treatment. The main inelastic scattering process was of the electron-electron type but the major reason for the reduction of the coherence length at low temperatures was additional, temperature independent, inelastic scattering. We associate it with spin flip scattering, caused by NaCl nanoparticles present on the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the D and D′ bands intensities for graphene after its immersion in NaCl solution. An analysis of the D, D′, and G bands intensities proved that this additional scattering is related to the decoration of vacancies and grain boundaries with NaCl nanoparticles, as well as generation of new on-site defects as a result of the decoration of the graphene surface with NaCl nanoparticles. The observed energy shifts of 2D and G bands indicated that NaCl deposition on the graphene surface did not change carrier concentration, but reduced compressive biaxial strain in the graphene layer.

  16. Electron scattering in graphene with adsorbed NaCl nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabińska, Aneta; Kaźmierczak, Piotr; Bożek, Rafał; Karpierz, Ewelina; Wysmołek, Andrzej; Kamińska, Maria; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Pasternak, Iwona; Strupiński, Włodek; Krajewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the results of contactless magnetoconductance and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed for a graphene sample after its immersion in NaCl solution were presented. The properties of the immersed sample were compared with those of a non-immersed reference sample. Atomic force microscopy and electron spin resonance experiments confirmed the deposition of NaCl nanoparticles on the graphene surface. A weak localization signal observed using contactless magnetoconductance showed the reduction of the coherence length after NaCl treatment of graphene. Temperature dependence of the coherence length indicated a change from ballistic to diffusive regime in electron transport after NaCl treatment. The main inelastic scattering process was of the electron-electron type but the major reason for the reduction of the coherence length at low temperatures was additional, temperature independent, inelastic scattering. We associate it with spin flip scattering, caused by NaCl nanoparticles present on the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the D and D′ bands intensities for graphene after its immersion in NaCl solution. An analysis of the D, D′, and G bands intensities proved that this additional scattering is related to the decoration of vacancies and grain boundaries with NaCl nanoparticles, as well as generation of new on-site defects as a result of the decoration of the graphene surface with NaCl nanoparticles. The observed energy shifts of 2D and G bands indicated that NaCl deposition on the graphene surface did not change carrier concentration, but reduced compressive biaxial strain in the graphene layer

  17. Growth and cellular ion content of a salt-sensitive symbiotic system Azolla pinnata-Anabaena azollae under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Vandna; Sharma, Naveen Kumar; Rai, Ashwani K

    2006-09-01

    Salinity, at a concentration of 10 mM NaCl affected the growth of Azolla pinnata-Anabaena azollae association and became lethal at 40 mM. Plants exposed up to 30 mM NaCl exhibited longer roots than the control, especially during the beginning of incubation. Average root number in plants exposed to 10 and 20 mM NaCl remained almost the same as in control. A further rise in NaCl concentration to 30 mM reduced the root number, and roots shed off at 40 mM NaCl. Presence of NaCl in the nutrient solution increased the cellular Na+ of the intact association exhibiting differential accumulation by individual partners, while it reduced the cellular Ca2+ level. However, cellular K+ content did not show significant change. Cellular Na+ based on fresh weight of respective individual partners (host tissues and cyanobiont) remained higher in the host tissues than the cyanobiont, while reverse was true for K+ and Ca2+ contents. The contribution of A. azollae in the total cellular ion content of the association was a little because of meagre contribution of the cyanobiont mass (19-21%). High salt sensitivity of Azolla-Anabaena complex is due to an inability of the association to maintain low Na+ and high Ca2+ cellular level.

  18. POSSIBLE RAMIFICATIONS OF HIGHER MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FILLET TISSUE OF SKINNIER FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury concentrations were found to be statistically higher in the fillet tissue of the skinnier individuals of a fish species (striped bass) that was experiencing starvation when collected from Lake Mead, which is located on the Arizona-Nevada border. This is considered a conse...

  19. Concentration and behavior of radiocesium in higher basidiomycetes in some Kanto and the Koshin districts, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Iwashima, Kiyoshi; Shibata, Hisashi.

    1990-01-01

    Concentration of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and potassium were measured in several higher fungi and in substrates, soils, woods and litters in some Kanto and the Koshin districts, Japan, following the Chernobyl accident during October to November 1989. 137 Cs concentrations in fungi were in the range of 0.7-101 Bq kg -1 · fresh. Maximum 137 Cs level in them was observed in Boletopsis leucomelas (Pers.: Fr.) Fayod. Significantly higher levels of concentration ratios of 137 Cs in fungi to substrates (e.g.; 137 Cs concentration · fresh in fungus/ 137 Cs concentration · dry in soil), 10 -1 to 10 x 10 -1 , were found nearly 10 to 1000 times as much as leaf vegetables, root crops and potatoes to substrates. It was confirmed that levels of concentration ratios of potassium were similar to those of 137 Cs. In all fungi, 134 Cs which released from the Chernobyl accident and is not present in nuclear weapons fallout was not detected. (author)

  20. Flurbiprofen concentration in soft tissues is higher after topical application than after oral administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Shuken; Kondo, Eiji; Kawaguchi, Yasuyuki; Kitamura, Nobuto; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Aim To compare tissue concentrations of flurbiprofen resulting from topical application and oral administration according to the regulatory approved dosing guidelines. Method Sixteen patients were included in this study. Each patient was randomly assigned to the topical application or oral administration group. In each group, a pair of tapes or a tablet, containing a total of 40 mg flurbiprofen, was administered twice at 16 and 2 h before the surgery. Results The flurbiprofen concentration in the fat, tendon, muscle and periosteum tissues was significantly higher (P flurbiprofen to the human body, particularly to soft tissues near the body surface. PMID:22822928

  1. Cocaine use is associated with a higher prevalence of elevated ST2 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Xander M R; Vittinghoff, Eric; Wu, Alan H B; Lynch, Kara L; Riley, Elise D

    2017-09-01

    Cocaine is a well-known risk factor for acute cardiac events, but the effects in users outside of acute events are less clear. We investigated a possible association between cocaine use and the concentration of a novel biomarker for cardiac stress and heart failure, ST2. A case-control study was conducted to compare ST2 concentrations by the presence of cocaine in patients presenting for care, but not cardiac care, at an urban safety net hospital. In samples taken from 100 cocaine-positive and 100 cocaine-negative patients, the presence of cocaine was associated with ST2 concentrations>35ng/mL. Serum concentrations of benzoylecgonine, a major cocaine metabolite, were significantly correlated with ST2 concentrations. Cocaine use is associated with subclinical cardiac stress and damage outside of acute cardiac events. This information could add to better stratification of cocaine users with elevated ST2 concentrations who may be at higher risk for developing heart failure and other cardiac complications. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum vitamin E concentrations among highly functioning hip fracture patients are higher than in nonfracture controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Christopher R; Shardell, Michelle D; Hicks, Gregory E; Orwig, Denise L; Hochberg, Marc C; Semba, Richard D; Yu-Yahiro, Janet A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Magaziner, Jay S; Miller, Ram R

    2011-03-01

    fracture patients demonstrated higher vitamin E concentrations. Thus, the relatively high degree of function among this cohort of hip fracture patients may explain their higher-than-expected vitamin E concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of NaCl on Fermentative Metabolism of Mature Green Tomatoes cv. Ailsa Craig in Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Fragkostefanakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of osmotic strength on gene expression and activity of the major enzymes of fermentative metabolism of mature green tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig has been studied by exposing fruit to brine containing 0 (water, 5 and 10 % NaCl. The fruits were surface sterilized prior to treatment to prevent the growth of microbes naturally present on the skin of the fruit. Changes in fruit expression of fermentation genes and the activity of the respective enzymes as well as physicochemical quality characteristics (soluble solid content, titratable acidity, pH and firmness were studied in both fruit and brine for 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days. Discrepancies in responses that resulted from the different salt concentrations were obtained at molecular and quality levels. The complex kinetics of solutes between the fruit and the surrounding solution due to osmotic potential has led to different responses of the tissue to fermentation. Tomato fruit showed cracking soon after storage in water; water-stored fruit had higher titratable acidity, lower soluble solid content, and higher induction of anaerobic metabolism as indicated by the expression or the activity of the fermentation enzymes compared to fruit stored in brine with 5 or 10 % NaCl. No cracking was observed in fruit stored in 5 (isotonic or 10 % NaCl (hypertonic brine, though in the latter, signs of dehydration were observed. The presence of salt in brine reduced the intensity of fermentative metabolism as indicated by the lower gene expression and enzyme activity. However, fruit stored in brine with 5 % NaCl survived longer than with 0 or 10 % NaCl. The presence of 5 % NaCl in brine caused mild changes of both the fermentative metabolism and the physicochemical characteristics and prevented fruit deterioration during storage.

  4. Putrescine production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 is reduced by NaCl via a decrease in bacterial growth and the repression of the genes involved in putrescine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Ladero, Victor; Fernandez, Maria; Martin, Maria Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-09-02

    The reduction of NaCl in food is a public health priority; high NaCl intakes have been associated with serious health problems. However, it is reported that reducing the NaCl content of cheeses may lead to an increase in the content of biogenic amines (BAs). The present work examines the effect of NaCl on the accumulation of putrescine (one of the BAs often detected at high concentration in cheese) in experimental Cabrales-like cheeses containing Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666, a dairy strain that catabolises agmatine to putrescine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. The genes responsible for this pathway are grouped in the AGDI cluster. This comprises a regulatory gene (aguR) (transcribed independently), followed by the catabolic genes that together form an operon (aguBDAC). Reducing the NaCl concentration of the cheese led to increased putrescine accumulation. In contrast, increasing the NaCl concentration of both pH-uncontrolled and pH-controlled (pH 6) cultures of L. lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 significantly inhibited its growth and the production of putrescine. Such production appeared to be inhibited via a reduction in the transcription of the aguBDAC operon; no effect on the transcription of aguR was recorded. The present results suggest that low-sodium cheeses are at risk of accumulating higher concentrations of putrescine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Forward flux sampling calculation of homogeneous nucleation rates from aqueous NaCl solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Haji-Akbari, Amir; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2018-01-28

    We used molecular dynamics simulations and the path sampling technique known as forward flux sampling to study homogeneous nucleation of NaCl crystals from supersaturated aqueous solutions at 298 K and 1 bar. Nucleation rates were obtained for a range of salt concentrations for the Joung-Cheatham NaCl force field combined with the Extended Simple Point Charge (SPC/E) water model. The calculated nucleation rates are significantly lower than the available experimental measurements. The estimates for the nucleation rates in this work do not rely on classical nucleation theory, but the pathways observed in the simulations suggest that the nucleation process is better described by classical nucleation theory than an alternative interpretation based on Ostwald's step rule, in contrast to some prior simulations of related models. In addition to the size of NaCl nucleus, we find that the crystallinity of a nascent cluster plays an important role in the nucleation process. Nuclei with high crystallinity were found to have higher growth probability and longer lifetimes, possibly because they are less exposed to hydration water.

  6. Higher aluminum concentration in Alzheimer's disease after Box-Cox data transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusina, Robert; Matěj, Radoslav; Kašparová, Lucie; Kukal, Jaromír; Urban, Pavel

    2011-11-01

    Evidence regarding the role of mercury and aluminum in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains controversial. The aims of our project were to investigate the content of the selected metals in brain tissue samples and the use of a specific mathematical transform to eliminate the disadvantage of a strong positive skew in the original data distribution. In this study, we used atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine mercury and aluminum concentrations in the hippocampus and associative visual cortex of 29 neuropathologically confirmed AD and 27 age-matched controls. The Box-Cox data transformation was used for statistical evaluation. AD brains had higher mean aluminum concentrations in the hippocampus than controls (0.357 vs. 0.090 μg/g; P = 0.039) after data transformation. Results for mercury were not significant. Original data regarding microelement concentrations are heavily skewed and do not pass the normality test in general. A Box-Cox transformation can eliminate this disadvantage and allow parametric testing.

  7. Kinetin Reversal of NaCl Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Adriana; Dehan, Klara; Itai, Chanan

    1978-01-01

    Leaf discs of Nicotiana rustica L. were floated on NaCl in the presence of kinetin or abscisic acid. On the 5th day 14CO2 fixation, [3H]leucine incorporation, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll content were determined. Kinetin either partially or completely reversed the inhibitory effects of NaCl while ABA had no effect. PMID:16660618

  8. Electrokinetic properties of tantalum oxide deposited on model substrate in NaCl and LiCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorova, M.P.; Bogdanova, N.F.; Ermakova, L.Eh.; Bobrov, P.V.

    1997-01-01

    Electrokinetic characteristics of tantalum oxide have been studied using a model system - a plane-parallel capillary in chloride solutions containing monocharge (H + , Na + , Li + ) counterions in a wide range of pH and concentrations. It is shown that position of isoelectric point (IEP) of Ta 2 O 5 depends on concentration and type of counterion, moreover, the dependence is not explained in the framework of classical notions of the influence of counterion specific adsorption on IEP position. Electrokinetic potential of Ta 2 O-5 surface at the background of diluted LiCl solutions is higher in its absolute value, than at the background of NaCl solutions according to direct lyotropic series. The results of measurements of the capillary resistance dependence on pH at the background of NaCl and LiCl solutions 10 -3 -10 -1 M are used for the calculation of efficiency and specific surface conductivity factors

  9. Combined Effects of Boron and NaCl on Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHEN Mei-nan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the combined effects of boron(Band NaCl on the growth of wheat, a pot experiment was conducted using wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn.seedlings. Boron concentrations of culture medium were set as 0, 50 mg·kg-1 and 100 mg·kg-1, and NaCl concentrations were 0, 1 g·kg-1 and 2 g·kg-1. The results showed that both boron and NaCl could significantly inhibit wheat growth. At 50 mg B·kg-1, NaCl aggravated growth inhibition caused by boron. At 100 mg B·kg-1, however, NaCl alleviated the inhibition caused by boron. The combined stress of boron and NaCl significantly increased the root to shoot ratio of wheat. NaCl inhibited the uptake of boron by wheat. It suggests that under severe boron stress, NaCl is able to alleviate boron toxicity in wheat by increasing root to shoot ratio and reducing boron uptake.

  10. Crystallographic characterization of cement pastes hydrated with NaCl; Caracterizacao cristalografica de pastas de cimento hidratadas com NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Carina Gabriela de Melo e; Martinelli, Antonio Eduardo; Melo, Dulce Maria Araujo; Melo, Marcus Antonio de Freitas; Melo, Vitor Rodrigo de Melo e [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the major current challenges faced by oil companies is the exploration of pre salt basins. Salt layers deposited upon the evaporation of ocean water and continental separation are mainly formed by NaCl and isolate immense oil reservoirs. The mechanical stability and zonal isolation of oil wells that run through salt layers must be fulfilled by cement sheaths saturated with NaCl to assure chemical compatibility between cement and salt layer. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of NaCl addition on the hydration of oil well cement slurries as well as identifying the nature of crystalline phases present in the hardened cement. To that end, cement slurries containing NaCl were mixed, hardened and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that the presence of NaCl affects the formation of hydration products by the presence of Friedel's salt. The intensity of the corresponding peaks increase as the contents of NaCl in the slurry increase. High concentrations of NaCl in Portland slurries increase the setting time of cement and the presence of Friedel's salt decreases the strength of the hardened cement. (author)

  11. NaCl Effects on In Vitro Germination and Growth of Some Senegalese Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Mahamadou; Ourèye SY, Mame

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharian regions. It contributes to man food security by providing a protein-rich diet. However, its production is limited by abiotic stresses such as salinity. This study aims to evaluate the salt tolerance of 15 cowpea cultivars, at germination stage. The seed germination process consisted of sowing them in agarified water (8 g·L−1) supplemented with 6 different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM). Results highlighted that high salt concentrations drastically reduced germination and significantly delayed the process for all varieties. A cowpea varietal effect towards the salt tolerance was noticed. Genotypes Diongoma, 58-78, and 58-191 were more salt-tolerant cultivars while Mougne and Yacine were more salt-sensitive ones as confirmed in the three groups of the dendrogram. NaCl effects on the early vegetative growth of seedlings were assessed with a tolerant (58-191) and a susceptible (Yacine) cultivar. Morphological (length and dry biomass) and physiological (chlorophyll and proline contents) parameter measurements revealed a negative effect of high (NaCl). However, 58-191 was much more salt tolerant, and the chlorophyll and proline contents were higher than those of Yacine genotype at increasing salt concentrations. PMID:25937976

  12. Polyol concentrations in Aspergillus repens grown under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelavkar, U P; Chhatpar, H S

    1993-09-01

    Na(+), K(+) and the ratio of Na(+)/K(+) were higher in cells of the halotolerant Aspergillus repens grown with 2 M NaCl than without NaCl. The osmolytes, proline, glycerol, betaine and glutamate, did not affect the Na(+)/K(+) ratio, nor the polyol content of cells under any conditions. The concentrations of polyols, consisting of glycerol, arabitol, erythritol and mannitol, changed markedly during growth, indicating that they have a crucial role in osmotic adaptation.

  13. Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration may imply higher risk of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of wheat grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, Szilvia; Puskás, Katalin; Vida, Gyula; Karsai, Ildikó; Balla, Krisztina; Komáromi, Judit; Veisz, Ottó

    2017-08-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentration not only has a direct impact on plants but also affects plant-pathogen interactions. Due to economic and health-related problems, special concern was given thus in the present work to the effect of elevated CO 2 (750 μmol mol -1 ) level on the Fusarium culmorum infection and mycotoxin contamination of wheat. Despite the fact that disease severity was found to be not or little affected by elevated CO 2 in most varieties, as the spread of Fusarium increased only in one variety, spike grain number and/or grain weight decreased significantly at elevated CO 2 in all the varieties, indicating that Fusarium infection generally had a more dramatic impact on the grain yield at elevated CO 2 than at the ambient level. Likewise, grain deoxynivalenol (DON) content was usually considerably higher at elevated CO 2 than at the ambient level in the single-floret inoculation treatment, suggesting that the toxin content is not in direct relation to the level of Fusarium infection. In the whole-spike inoculation, DON production did not change, decreased or increased depending on the variety × experiment interaction. Cooler (18 °C) conditions delayed rachis penetration while 20 °C maximum temperature caused striking increases in the mycotoxin contents, resulting in extremely high DON values and also in a dramatic triggering of the grain zearalenone contamination at elevated CO 2 . The results indicate that future environmental conditions, such as rising CO 2 levels, may increase the threat of grain mycotoxin contamination.

  14. Long-term adaptation of methanol-fed thermophilic (55°C) sulfate-reducing reactors to NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallero, M.V.G.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was operated during 273 days at increasing NaCl concentrations (0.5-12.5 g NaCl l(-1)) to assess whether the stepwise addition of the salt NaCl results in the acclimation of that sludge. The 6.5-1 thermophilic (55 degreesC), sulfidogenic

  15. Manipulating Single Microdroplets of NaCl Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utoft, Anders; Kinoshita, Koji; Bitterfield, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    fraction of S = 1.9, the saturation concentration of NaCl in aqueous solution as measured with nanograms of material (5.5 ± 0.1 M), the diffusion coefficient for water in octanol, D = (1.96 ± 0.10) × 10−6 cm2/s, and the effect of the solvent’s activity on dissolution kinetics. It is further shown...... growth are affected by changing the bathing medium from octanol to decane. A much slower loss of water-solvent and concomitant slower up-concentration of the NaCl solute resulted in a lower tendency to nucleate and slower crystal growth because much less excess material was available at the onset...... of nucleation in the decane system as compared to the octanol system. Thus, the crystal structure is reported to be dendritic for NaCl solution microdroplets dissolving rapidly and nucleating violently in octanol, while they are formed as single cubic crystals in a gentler way for solution-dissolution in decane...

  16. Visible laser induced positive ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles prepared by droplet rapid drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mao-Xu; Guo, Deng-Zhu; Xing, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Geng-Min

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NaCl nanoparticles were firstly prepared by heat induced explosion on silicon wafer. ► We found that laser induced ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles are more prominent. ► We found that water adsorption can efficiently enhance laser induced ion emissions. ► The ultra-photothermal effect in NaCl nanoparticles was observed and explained. - Abstract: A novel convenient way for the formation of sodium chloride (NaCl) nanoparticles on silicon wafer is proposed by using a droplet rapid drying method. The laser induced positive ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles with and without water treatment is demonstrated by using a laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, with laser intensity well below the plasma formation threshold. It is found that the positive ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles are obviously higher than that from microsize NaCl particles under soft 532 nm laser irradiations, and water adsorption can efficiently enhance the ion emissions from NaCl nanoparticles. The initial kinetic energies of the emitted ions are estimated as 16–17 eV. The synergy of the ultra-thermal effect in nanomaterials, the defect-mediated multiphoton processes, and the existence of intermediate states in NaCl-water interfaces are suggested as the mechanisms.

  17. Serum vitamin E concentrations among highly functioning hip fracture patients are higher than in nonfracture controls

    OpenAIRE

    D’Adamo, Christopher R.; Shardell, Michelle D.; Hicks, Gregory E.; Orwig, Denise L.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Semba, Richard D.; Yu-Yahiro, Janet A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Magaziner, Jay S.; Miller, Ram R.

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition after hip fracture is common and associated with poor outcomes and protracted recovery. Low concentrations of vitamin E have been associated with incident decline in physical function among older adults and may, therefore, be particularly important to functionally compromised patients hip fracture patients. Serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, the 2 major forms of vitamin E, were assessed in 148 female hip fracture patients 65 years or older from the Baltimore H...

  18. Higher prices at Canadian gas pumps: international crude oil prices or local market concentration? An empirical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anindya Sen

    2003-01-01

    There is little consensus on whether higher retail gasoline prices in Canada are the result of international crude oil price fluctuations or local market power exercised by large vertically-integrated firms. I find that although both increasing local market concentration and higher average monthly wholesale prices are positively and significantly associated with higher retail prices, wholesale prices are more important than local market concentration. Similarly, crude oil prices are more important than the number of local wholesalers in determining wholesale prices. These results suggest that movements in gasoline prices are largely the result of input price fluctuations rather than local market structure. (author)

  19. Effect of NaCl on seed germination in some Centaurium Hill. Species (Gentianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of high NaCl concentrations on seed germination in both light and darkness was examined in the species Centaurium pulchellum, C. erythraea, C. littorale, C. spicatum, and C. tenuiflorum. Salt tolerance was found to depend on the life history of the seeds. To be specific, seeds of all five species failed to complete germination when exposed to continuous white light if kept all the time in the presence of 100-200 mM and greater NaCl concentrations. However, when after two weeks NaCl was rinsed from the seeds and the seeds were left in distilled water under white light for an additional two weeks, all species completed germination to a certain extent. The percent of germination not only depended on NaCl concentration in the prior medium, but was also species specific. Thus, seeds of C. pulchellum, C. erythraea, and C. littorale completed germination well almost irrespective of the salt concentration previously experienced. On the other hand, seeds of C. tenuiflorum completed germination poorly if NaCl concentrations in the prior media were greater than 200 mM. When seeds after washing were transferred to darkness for an additional 14 days, they failed to complete germination if previously imbibed on media containing NaCl concentrations greater than 400 mM. However, the seeds of all species, even if previously imbibed at 800 mM NaCl, could be induced to complete germination in darkness by 1 mM gibberellic acid. .

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi mitigates nacl induced adverse effects on solanum lycopersicum l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeer, H.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of AMF on the growth and physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activities, plant growth regulators and inorganic nutrients in tomato grown under salt stress condition. Tomato plants were exposed to different concentrations of NaCl alone (0, 50 and 150 mM) and in combination with AMF (0mM+AMF, 50mM+AMF and 150mM+AMF). Spore population and colonization, growth and biomass yield, pigments, membrane stability index and malondialdehyde were negatively affected. Exposure of plants to combination of NaCl and AMF showed positive impact on the above parameters. Proline and antioxidant enzyme activity increased with increasing concentration of NaCl and further increase was observed in plants treated with NaCl in combination with AMF. Acid and alkaline phosphatase, hydrolytic enzymes and pectinase are also affected with increasing concentration of salt. However plants treated with NaCl in combination with AMF balances the above enzymatic activity. Salt stress decreases the auxin concentration in plants but application of AMF has been shown to restore the auxin content. ABA increases with salt concentration but less accumulation of ABA have been found in plants treated with AMF. Regarding the nutrient uptake, Na+ and Na;K ratio increased and P, K, Mg and Ca decreases with increasing concentration of NaCl. Enhanced accumulation of P, K, Mg, Ca and K:N ratio and less uptake of Na+ was observed in presence of AMF. The results confirm that NaCl imposes threat to the survival of tomato plants and application of AMF mitigates the negative effect to an appreciable level. (author)

  1. Targeting higher ferritin concentrations with intravenous iron dextran lowers erythropoietin requirement in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, M V; Frumkin, D; Mittal, S; Kamran, A; Fishbane, S; Michelis, M F

    2003-11-01

    Although clinical use of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) since 1989 has improved anemia in most end-stage renal disease patients, there are still many hemodialysis patients unable to maintain an adequate hematocrit (HCT) without large doses of rHuEPO. This suggests that anemia is not solely a consequence of rHuEPO deficiency, but may be due to other factors including functional iron deficiency. Since the optimal prescription for iron replacement is not yet known, we evaluated the effect of intravenous iron dextran (IVFe) infusion on serum ferritin (SFer) concentration and rHuEPO dose. Our objective was to raise and maintain serum ferritin concentrations to 2 different levels above the National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiative standard of 100 ng/ml to determine whether, and by what degree rHuEPO dose could be lowered. HD patients on i.v. rHuEPO with a SFer concentration > or = 70 ng/ml and an HCT of requirements.

  2. Approaches to analysis of data that concentrate near higher-dimensional manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, J.H.; Tukey, J.W.; Tukey, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    The need to explore structure in high-dimensional clouds of data points that may concentrate near (possibly nonlinear) manifolds of lower dimension led to the current development of three new approaches. The first is a computer-graphic system (PRIM'79) that facilitates interactive viewing and manipulation of an ensemble of points. The other two are automatic procedures for separating a cloud into more manageable pieces. One of these (BIDEC) performs successive partitioning of the cloud by use of hyperplanes; the other (Cake Maker) explores expanding sequences of neighborhoods. Both procedures provide facilities for examining the resulting pieces and the relationships among them

  3. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin secretion, is associated with higher glucose and insulin concentrations but not higher blood pressure in obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, C L; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn; Linneberg, A

    2014-01-01

    distribution. METHODS: In 103 obese men (mean age ± standard deviation: 49.4 ± 10.2 years) and 27 normal weight control men (mean age: 51.5 ± 8.4 years), taking no medication, we measured 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, fasting blood concentrations of copeptin, lipids, glucose and insulin, and determined body...... blood pressure (r = 0.11, P = 0.29), 24-h diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.11, P = 0.28), BMI (r = 0.09, P = 0.37), total body fatness percentage (r = 0.10, P = 0.33), android fat mass percentage (r = 0.04, P = 0.66) or serum triglyceride concentrations (r = 0.04; P = 0.68). In contrast, plasma copeptin......, and is associated with abnormalities in glucose and insulin metabolism, but not with higher blood pressure or an android fat distribution in obese men....

  4. Progress and challenges of engineering a biophysical CO2-concentrating mechanism into higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Benjamin D; Long, Benedict M; Förster, Britta; Nguyen, Nghiem D; Velanis, Christos N; Atkinson, Nicky; Hee, Wei Yih; Mukherjee, Bratati; Price, G Dean; McCormick, Alistair J

    2017-06-01

    Growth and productivity in important crop plants is limited by the inefficiencies of the C3 photosynthetic pathway. Introducing CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) into C3 plants could overcome these limitations and lead to increased yields. Many unicellular microautotrophs, such as cyanobacteria and green algae, possess highly efficient biophysical CCMs that increase CO2 concentrations around the primary carboxylase enzyme, Rubisco, to enhance CO2 assimilation rates. Algal and cyanobacterial CCMs utilize distinct molecular components, but share several functional commonalities. Here we outline the recent progress and current challenges of engineering biophysical CCMs into C3 plants. We review the predicted requirements for a functional biophysical CCM based on current knowledge of cyanobacterial and algal CCMs, the molecular engineering tools and research pipelines required to translate our theoretical knowledge into practice, and the current challenges to achieving these goals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Higher Leptin but Not Human Milk Macronutrient Concentration Distinguishes Normal-Weight from Obese Mothers at 1-Month Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Arnaud; Frasquet-Darrieux, Marine; Gaud, Marie-Agnès; Christin, Patricia; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Millet, Christine; Herviou, Manon; Darmaun, Dominique; Robins, Richard J; Ingrand, Pierre; Hankard, Régis

    2016-01-01

    Exclusively breastfed infants born to obese mothers have previously been shown to gain less weight by 1-month postpartum than infants of normal-weight mothers. Our hypothesis is that human milk composition and volume may differ between obese and normal-weight mothers. To compare human milk leptin, macronutrient concentration, and volume in obese and normal-weight mothers. Mother and infant characteristics were studied as secondary aims. This cross-sectional observational study compared 50 obese mothers matched for age, parity, ethnic origin, and educational level with 50 normal-weight mothers. Leptin, macronutrient human milk concentration, and milk volume were determined at 1 month in exclusively breastfed infants. Mother characteristics and infant growth were recorded. Human milk leptin concentration was higher in obese mothers than normal-weight mothers (4.8±2.7 vs. 2.5±1.5 ng.mL-1, pobese and normal-weight mothers in protein, lipid, carbohydrate content, and volume, nor in infant weight gain. Leptin concentration was higher in the milk of obese mothers than that of normal-weight mothers, but macronutrient concentration was not. It remains to be established whether the higher leptin content impacts on infant growth beyond the 1-month of the study period.

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome is concentrated in people with higher educations in Iran: an inequality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Like any other health-related disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has a differential distribution with respect to socioeconomic factors. This study aimed to estimate and decompose educational inequalities in the prevalence of IBS. METHODS Sampling was performed using a multi-stage random cluster sampling approach. The data of 1,850 residents of Kish Island aged 15 years or older were included, and the determinants of IBS were identified using a generalized estimating equation regression model. The concentration index of educational inequality in cases of IBS was estimated and decomposed as the specific inequality index. RESULTS The prevalence of IBS in this study was 21.57% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.69 to 23.44%). The concentration index of IBS was 0.20 (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.26). A multivariable regression model revealed that age, sex, level of education, marital status, anxiety, and poor general health were significant determinants of IBS. In the decomposition analysis, level of education (89.91%), age (−11.99%), and marital status (9.11%) were the three main contributors to IBS inequality. Anxiety and poor general health were the next two contributors to IBS inequality, and were responsible for more than 12% of the total observed inequality. CONCLUSIONS The main contributors of IBS inequality were education level, age, and marital status. Given the high percentage of anxious individuals among highly educated, young, single, and divorced people, we can conclude that all contributors to IBS inequality may be partially influenced by psychological factors. Therefore, programs that promote the development of mental health to alleviate the abovementioned inequality in this population are highly warranted. PMID:28171714

  7. Higher concentrations of branched-chain amino acids in breast milk of obese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Arnaud; Hankard, Régis; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Darmaun, Dominique; Boquien, Clair-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition during fetal life and early childhood is thought to play a crucial role in the risk for developing metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in the future adult and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) intake may play a role in the development of obesity. The aim of this study was to compare the breast milk amino acid profiles of obese and normal weight (control) breast-feeding mothers. Fifty obese and 50 control breast-feeding mothers were enrolled. Age and parity were similar in both groups. Breast milk samples were collected at the end of the first month of lactation. Free amino acid (FAA) concentrations in breast milk were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Comparisons between groups were performed using a two-tailed paired t test. We analyzed 45 breast milk samples from each group. Body mass index was 34.3 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) in the obese group and 21.6 ± 1.4 kg/m(2) in the control group (P milk of obese mothers (95.5 ± 38.2 μM versus 79.8 ± 30.9 μM; P = 0.037), as was tyrosine concentration (13.8 ± 7.1 μM versus 10.6 ± 5.2 μM; P = 0.016). The mature breast milk of obese mothers contained 20% more BCAA and 30% more tyrosine than breast milk of control mothers. Whether altered breast milk FAA profile affects metabolic risk in the breast-fed child remains to be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Inflammatory Radicular Cysts Have Higher Concentration of TNF-α in Comparison to Odontogenic Keratocysts (Odontogenic Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Jurisic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available TNF-α is a pleiotropic cytokine that is considered as a primary modifier of inflammatory and immune reaction in response to various inflammatory diseases and tumour. We investigated levels of TNF-α in 43 radicular cysts and 15 odontogenic keratocysts, obtained from patients undergoing surgery, under local anaesthesia, and after aspiration of cystic fluid from non-ruptured cysts. TNF-α is elevated in both cysts’ fluid, but higher values were found in radicular cysts in comparison to keratocysts. The significantly higher concentration of TNF-α was associated with smaller radicular cysts, higher protein concentration, higher presence of inflammatory cells in peri cystic tissues, and the degree of vascularisation and cysts wall thickness (Mann-Whitney U-test, p<0.05. No correlation was found based on these parameters in odontogenic keratocyst, but all cysts have detectable concentrations of TNF-α. We here for the first time present that a difference in the concentration of TNF-α exists between these two cystic types.

  9. Concentrations of persistent organochlorine compounds in human milk and placenta are higher in Denmark than in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, H.; Main, K.M.; Andersson, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    , oxychlordane (OXC), cis-heptachloroepoxide (c-HE) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) were the other main organochlorines detected. Danish samples had significantly higher concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, beta-HCH, HCB, dieldrin, c-HE and OXC than did the Finnish samples. Levels...

  10. Higher Plasma Concentration of Food-Specific Antibodies in Persons with Autistic Disorder in Comparison to Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, Vladimir; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Trajkov, Dejan; Arsov, Todor; Strezova, Ana; Ajdinski, Ljubomir; Spiroski, Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Specific IgA, IgG, and IgE antibodies to food antigens in 35 participants with autistic disorder and 21 of their siblings in the Republic of Macedonia were examined. Statistically significant higher plasma concentration of IgA antibodies against alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, casein, and gliadin were found in the children with autistic…

  11. Terahertz reflection spectroscopy of aqueous NaCl and LiCl solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Merbold, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    frequencies. Whereas both the real and imaginary part of the permittivity of NaCl increases with concentration,we see that the imaginary part of the permittivity of LiCl (related to the absorption)decreases with increasing salt concentration. We relate these changes to the behavior...

  12. Serum concentration of alpha-1 antitrypsin is significantly higher in colorectal cancer patients than in healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Holanda, Sergio; Blanco, Ignacio; Menéndez, Manuel; Rodrigo, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The association between alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency and colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently controversial. The present study compares AAT serum concentrations and gene frequencies between a group of CRC patients and a control group of healthy unrelated people (HUP). 267 CRC subjects (63% males, 72 ± 10 years old) were enlisted from a Hospital Clinic setting in Asturias, Spain. The HUP group comprised 327 subjects (67% males, mean age 70 ± 7.5 years old) from the same geographical region. Outcome measures were AAT serum concentrations measured by nephelometry, and AAT phenotyping characterization by isoelectric focusing. Significantly higher serum concentrations were found among CRC (208 ± 60) than in HUP individuals (144 ± 20.5) (p = 0.0001). No differences were found in the phenotypic distribution of the Pi*S and Pi*Z allelic frequencies (p = 0.639), although the frequency of Pi*Z was higher in CRC (21%) than in HUP subjects (15%). The only statistically significant finding in this study was the markedly higher AAT serum concentrations found in CRC subjects compared with HUP controls, irrespective of whether their Pi* phenotype was normal (Pi*MM) or deficient (Pi*MS, Pi*MZ and Pi*SZ). Although there was a trend towards the more deficient Pi* phenotype the more advanced the tumor, the results were inconclusive due to the small sample size. Consequently, more powerful studies are needed to reach firmer conclusions on this matter

  13. Utilizing NaCl to increase the porosity of electrospun materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, L.D.; Andric, T.; Freeman, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Electrospinning has emerged as a popular method for creating scaffolding materials used in tissue engineering applications to repair or replace damaged tissues. To become a viable scaffold material, however, pore sizes in electrospun materials must be increased to improve cell infiltration. Deposition of NaCl crystals during electrospinning was utilized to help overcome this obstacle. The NaCl crystals are released above the rotating collection mandrel and become incorporated into the poly(L-lactide) electrospun material. The NaCl then leaches out of the electrospun material creating larger pores: average pore diameter of 48.7 μm for PLLA-NaCl electrospinning versus 5.5 μm for PLLA alone electrospinning. Electrospun PLLA scaffolds with NaCl pores have a lower elastic modulus (8.05 MPa) and yield stress (349 kPa) and a higher yield strain (0.04) compared to their traditional counterparts (40.36 MPa, 676 kPa, and 0.0188). Decreased elastic modulus and yield stress would be beneficial to tissue engineering of elastic tissues including skin. The presence of NaCl pores did not significantly affect the cellular proliferation of MC3T3 cells but did allow for cell infiltration into the electrospun material. Therefore, the creation of large pores through NaCl leaching can significantly improve the performance of electrospun materials for tissue engineering applications by improving cellular infiltration.

  14. CO2 Fixation by Membrane Separated NaCl Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Hyun Sic; Lee, Ju Sung; Han, Junyoung

    2015-01-01

    for converting CO2 into CaCO3 requires high temperature and high pressure as reaction conditions. This study proposes a method to fixate CaCO3 stably by using relatively less energy than existing methods. After forming NaOH absorbent solution through electrolysis of NaCl in seawater, CaCO3 was precipitated...... crystal product was high-purity calcite. The study shows a successful method for fixating CO2 by reducing carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere while forming high-purity CaCO3.......Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), a major cause of global warming, have been rising due to industrial development. Carbon capture and storage (CCS), which is regarded as the most effective way to reduce such atmospheric CO2 concentrations, has several environmental and technical...

  15. Computer simulation of aqueous Na-Cl electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummer, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Soumpasis, D.M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysikalische Chemie (Karl-Friedrich-Bonhoeffer-Institut), Goettingen (Germany); Neumann, M. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    1993-11-01

    Equilibrium structure of aqueous Na-Cl electrolytes between 1 and 5 mol/l is studied by means of molecular dynamics computer simulation using interaction site descriptions of water and ionic components. Electrostatic interactions are treated both with the newly developed charged-clouds scheme and with Ewald summation. In the case of a 5 mol/l electrolyte, the results for pair correlations obtained by the two methods are in excellent agreement. However, the charged-clouds technique is much faster than Ewald summation and makes simulations at lower salt concentrations feasible. It is found that both ion-water and ion-ion correlation functions depend only weakly on the ionic concentration. Sodium and chloride ions exhibit only a negligible tendency to form contact pairs. In particular, no chloride ion pairs in contact are observed.

  16. Computer simulation of aqueous Na-Cl electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummer, G.; Soumpasis, D.M.; Neumann, M.

    1993-01-01

    Equilibrium structure of aqueous Na-Cl electrolytes between 1 and 5 mol/l is studied by means of molecular dynamics computer simulation using interaction site descriptions of water and ionic components. Electrostatic interactions are treated both with the newly developed charged-clouds scheme and with Ewald summation. In the case of a 5 mol/l electrolyte, the results for pair correlations obtained by the two methods are in excellent agreement. However, the charged-clouds technique is much faster than Ewald summation and makes simulations at lower salt concentrations feasible. It is found that both ion-water and ion-ion correlation functions depend only weakly on the ionic concentration. Sodium and chloride ions exhibit only a negligible tendency to form contact pairs. In particular, no chloride ion pairs in contact are observed

  17. Irradiation induced creep in whiskers of NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, J.A.A.

    1977-09-01

    Whiskers of NaCl have been grown and irradiated under flexion by X-rays (approximately 2x10 7 R/h) at room temperature and the residual curvature measured. Complete recovery of the initial form of the whisker within an hour's annealing at 400 0 C proves clearly that the observed deformation (creep) is due to the presence of dislocation loops. The choice of NaCl extremely simplifies the experiment and its interpretation since X-rays create point defects one by one. Moreover, this mode of irradiation, at room temperature, produces a very simple situation: perfect interstitial dislocation loops and immobile point defects which are little influenced by the applied stress. The flexion leads to a stress system which hardly differs from an uniaxial stress. One can study separately the preferential nucleation of dislocation loops and their differential growth by carrying out an irradiation under stress followed by an irradiation without stress and vice versa. It is shown that the induced creep is mostly due to the preferential nucleation of dislocation loops and is little affected by the differential growth of these loops. The nucleation period of the loops is very short: a dose of approximately 10 -5 d.p.a. is largely sufficient for the quasi completion of dislocation loops in a crystal having an impurity concentration of approximately 10 -3 [fr

  18. Trace metal concentrations are higher in cartilage than in bones of scaup and pochard wintering in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Salicki, Wieslaw; Kavetska, Katarzyna M.; Ligocki, Marek

    2007-01-01

    Bones and cartilage of two species of diving ducks: the scaup Aythya marila (n = 24) and the pochard A. ferina (n = 24) were studied. Scaup is protected in Poland where it spends only the winter, while pochard is a game bird, abundant and breeding in Poland. In winter, the two species form large flocks off the southern coast of the Baltic, particularly in the Szczecin Lagoon where they were collected for this study. The bones and cartilage (trachea) were assayed for concentrations (dry weight-based) of three essential metals: iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn); concentrations of the two toxic metals: lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were assayed as well. These hard tissues of the two species showed the following order of metal concentrations Zn > Fe > Pb > Cu > Cd. In scaup and pochard bones, the respective geometric mean concentrations of Zn, Fe, Pb, Cu, and Cd were 94.4 and 102.0; 20.2 and 24.7; 6.2 and 9.6; 0.19 and 0.26; 0.114 and 0.162 mg/kg. The levels of all the metals in cartilage (Zn 149.1 and 165.8; Fe 58.4 and 116.3; Pb 10.6 and 14.9; Cu 1.41 and 3.31; Cd 0.144 and 0.175 mg/kg, respectively) were higher than in the bones of A. marila and A. ferina. However, statistically significant differences were found in respect to the essential metals only (Zn, Fe, Cu). The inter-species comparisons showed the two species to differ in their cartilage concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd and in their bone concentrations of Pb and Cd. In each case, the pochard exhibited higher concentrations of metals. This study showed distinct differences between trace element accumulation by two heavily mineralised avian body parts: leg bones (tarsometatarsus) and cartilage (trachea). The results are in agreement with data reported by other workers who analysed trace metals in cartilaginous and bone components of the femoral head in homoiotherm vertebrates, including humans. Therefore it is important that intra- and inter-species comparisons of hard biological components be based on

  19. Higher serum concentrations of vimentin and DAKP1 are associated with aggressive breast tumour phenotypes in Ghanaian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko-Boham, Benjamin; Lomotey, Justice Tanihu; Tetteh, Emmanuel Nomo; Tagoe, Emmanuel Ayitey; Aryee, Nii Ayite; Owusu, Ewurama Ampadu; Okai, Isaac; Blay, Richard Michael; Clegg-Lamptey, Joe-Nat

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women and leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, exhibits aggressive behavior in indigenous African women evidenced by high histologic grade tumours with low hormone receptor positivity. Aggressive breast cancers grow quickly, easily metastasize and recur and often have unfavourable outcomes. The current study investigated candidate genes that may regulate tumour aggression in Ghanaian women. We hypothesize that increased expression and function of certain genes other than the widely-held view attributing breast cancer aggression in African populations to their younger population age may be responsible for the aggressive nature of tumours. Employing ELISA, we assayed for vimentin and death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) from thawed archived (stored at -80 °C) serum samples obtained from 40 clinically confirmed Ghanaian breast cancer patients and 40 apparently healthy controls. Patients' clinical records and tumour parameters matching the samples were retrieved from the database of the hospital. ANOVA was used to compare means of serum protein concentration among groups while Chi-square analysis was used for the categorical data sets with p -value ≤0.05 considered significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between protein concentration and tumour parameters. Of the 80 samples, 27 (33.8%) and 53 (66.2%) were from young (<35 years) and old (≥35 years), respectively. Vimentin and DAPK1 concentration were higher in patients than controls with higher levels in "young" age group than "old" age group. Vimentin concentration was highest in grade 3 tumours followed by grade 2 and 1 but that for DAPK1 was not significant. For vimentin, tumour area strongly correlated with tumour grade ( r  = 0.696, p  < 0.05) but weakly correlated with tumour stage ( r  = 0.420, p  < 0.05). Patient's age correlated with DAPK1 concentration ( r  = 0

  20. Ultrasound degradation of xanthan polymer in aqueous solution: Its scission mechanism and the effect of NaCl incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, H M; Annuar, M S M; Simarani, K

    2017-11-01

    Degradation of xanthan polymer in aqueous solution by ultrasonic irradiation was investigated. The effects of selected variables i.e. sonication intensity, irradiation time, concentration of xanthan gum and molar concentration of NaCl in solution were studied. Combined approach of full factorial design and conventional one-factor-at-a-time was applied to obtain optimum degradation at sonication power intensity of 11.5Wcm -2 , irradiation time 120min and 0.1gL -1 xanthan in a salt-free solution. Molecular weight reduction of xanthan gum under sonication was described by an exponential decay function with higher rate constant for polymer degradation in the salt free solution. The limiting molecular weight where fragments no longer undergo scission was determined from the function. The incorporation of NaCl in xanthan solution resulted in a lower limiting molecular weight. The ultrasound-mediated degradation of aqueous xanthan polymer chain agreed with a random scission model. Side chain of xanthan polymer is proposed to be the primary site of scission action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phase equilibria of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide simple hydrates in the presence of methanol, (methanol + NaCl) and (ethylene glycol + NaCl) aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Amir H.; Richon, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Dissociation conditions of H 2 S or CO 2 hydrate + inhibitor aqueous solution are reported. → Methanol, methanol + NaCl and EG + NaCl aqueous solutions are considered as inhibitors. → Comparisons are made between our experimental data and the corresponding literature data. - Abstract: This work aims at reporting the dissociation pressures of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide simple hydrates in the presence of methanol, (methanol + NaCl) and (ethylene glycol + NaCl) aqueous solutions at different temperatures and various concentrations of inhibitor in aqueous solution. The equilibrium results were generated using an isochoric pressure-search method. These values are compared with some selected experimental data from the literature on the dissociation conditions of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide simple hydrates in the presence of pure water to show the inhibition effects of the above mentioned aqueous solutions. Comparisons are finally made between our experimental values and the corresponding literature data. Some disagreements among the literature data and our data are found.

  2. [Effect of high magnesium ion concentration on the electron transport rate and proton exchange in thylakoid membranes in higher plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat'ev, A R; Khorobrykh, S A; Ivanov, B N

    2001-01-01

    The effects of magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport in isolated pea thylakoids were investigated in the pH range from 4.0 up to 8.0. In the absence of magnesium ions in the medium and in the presence of 5 mM MgCl2 in the experiments not only without added artificial acceptors but also with ferricyanide or methylviologen as an acceptor, this rate had a well-expressed maximum at pH 5.0. It was shown that, after depression to minimal values at pH 5.5-6.5, it gradually rose with increasing pH. An increase in magnesium ion concentration up to 20 mM essentially affected the electron transfer rate: it decreased somewhat at pH 4.0-5.0 but increased at higher pH values. At this magnesium ion concentration, the maximum rate was at pH 6.0-6.5 and the minimum, at pH 7.0. Subsequent rise upon increasing pH to 8.0 was expressed more sharply. The influence of high magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport was not observed in the presence of gramicidin D. It was found that without uncoupler, the changes in the electron transfer rate under the influence of magnesium ions correlated to the changes in the first-order rate constant of the proton efflux from thylakoids. It is supposed that the change in the ability of thylakoids to keep protons by the action of magnesium ions is the result of electrostatic interactions of these ions with the charges on the external surface of membranes. A possible role of regulation of the electron transport rate by magnesium ions in vivo is discussed.

  3. A possible NaCl pathway in the bioregenerative human life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskiy, V. I.; Gribovskaya, I. V.

    One of the ways to involve NaCl in the mass exchange of the bioregenerative human life support system (BLSS) is to grow some vegetables and leafy greens that can accumulate sodium chloride at high concentrations in their edible biomass. Lettuce, celery cabbage, chard, dill and radish plants were grown hydroponically in Knop's nutrient solution. In the first series of experiments, at the end of the growth period the plants were grown on solutions containing 2-14 g/L of NaCl for 1-5 days. It was found that the amount of sodium in edible biomass of the plants increased with NaCl concentration in the solution and with the time plants were irrigated with that solution. The content of NaCl in the biomass of leaves and edible roots was considerable—up to 10% dry matter. At the same time, the amount of water in the leaves decreased and productivity of the treatment plants was 14-28% lower than that of the control ones, grown on Knop's solution. The treatment plants contained less than half of the amount of nitrates recorded in the control ones. Expert evaluation showed that the taste of the vegetables and leafy greens of the treatment group were not inferior to the taste of the control plants. In the second series of experiments, prior to being grown on the NaCl solution, the plants were irrigated with water for 2, 4 or 6 days. It was found that lower salt status of the plants was not favorable for increased salt accumulation in their biomass. If a human consumes 30 g salad vegetables and follows a low-sodium diet (3 g/d of table salt), it may be feasible to recycle NaCl in the BLSS using vegetables and leafy greens.

  4. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Equilibrium chemical transformations in NaPO3 + NaCl melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarskaya, E.N.; Rodionov, Yu.I.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the problems of the burial of solidified radioactive wastes into different geological rock formations, in particular into massives of rock-salt, the state of molten polyphosphate-chloride mixtures (taking into account the chemical character of the interaction of their components) for a prolonged period of time. The equilibrium products of the reaction in the NaPO 3 -NaCl system were studied in melts in air in the composition range of 30-70 mole % NaCl. It was shown that with increase in the NaCl content in the mixtures, the polyphosphate gradually depolymerizes to sodium tri-, di-, and monophosphates, and the composition of the equilibrium melts is dependent only on the ratio between the components in the initial molten mixtures. The time until the equilibrium is attained is shorter, the higher is the experimental temperature

  6. Higher Anti-CMV IgG Concentrations are Associated with Worse Neurocognitive Performance During Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, Scott; Bharti, Ajay; Perez-Valero, Ignacio; Hanson, Barbara; Franklin, Donald; Woods, Steven Paul; Gianella, Sara; de Oliveira, Michelli Faria; Heaton, Robert K; Grant, Igor; Landay, Alan L; Lurain, Nell

    2018-03-01

    To determine the association of CMV infection with neurocognitive performance in HIV+ adults. Cross-sectional, observational, exploratory study. Anti-CMV IgG concentrations in blood and CMV DNA copies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in stored specimens of 80 HIV+ adults who were previously assessed with a standardized, comprehensive neurocognitive test battery. Thirty-eight were taking suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART, HIV RNA ≤ 50 copies/mL) and 42 were not taking ART. A panel of 7 soluble biomarkers were also measured by immunoassay in CSF. Anti-CMV IgG concentrations ranged from 5.2 to 46.1 U/mL. CMV DNA was detected in 7 (8.8%) blood plasma but in none of the CSF specimens. Higher anti-CMV IgG levels were associated with older age (p=0.0017), lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count (pperformance overall (p=0.059). This correlation was present in those taking suppressive ART (p=0.0049) but not in those who were not taking ART (p=0.92). Worse neurocognitive performance remained associated with higher anti-CMV IgG levels after accounting for other covariates in multivariate models (Model p=0.0038). Detectable plasma CMV DNA was associated with AIDS (p=0.05) but not with neurocognitive performance. CMV may influence neurocognitive performance in HIV+ adults taking suppressive ART. Future clinical trials of anti-CMV therapy should help determine whether the observed relationships are causal.

  7. Morphological, Physiological, and Structural Responses of Two Species of Artemisia to NaCl Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of salt stress on Artemisia scoparia and A. vulgaris “Variegate” were examined. A. scoparia leaves became withered under NaCl treatment, whereas A. vulgaris “Variegate” leaves were not remarkably affected. Chlorophyll content decreased in both species, with a higher reduction in A. scoparia. Contents of proline, MDA, soluble carbohydrate, and Na+ increased in both species under salt stress, but A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher level of proline and soluble carbohydrate and lower level of MDA and Na+. The ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ in A. vulgaris “Variegate” under NaCl stress were higher. Moreover, A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher transport selectivity of K+/Na+ from root to stem, stem to middle mature leaves, and upper newly developed leaves than A. scoparia under NaCl stress. A. vulgaris “Variegate” chloroplast maintained its morphological integrity under NaCl stress, whereas A. scoparia chloroplast lost integrity. The results indicated that A. scoparia is more sensitive to salt stress than A. vulgaris “Variegate.” Salt tolerance is mainly related to the ability of regulating osmotic pressure through the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates and proline, and the gradient distribution of K+ between roots and leaves was also contributed to osmotic pressure adjustment and improvement of plant salt tolerance.

  8. Diffusion of calcium in pure and doped NaCl; Diffusion du calcium dans NaCl pur et dope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slifkin, L; Brebec, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    We have determined, by diffusion experiments of Ca in pure and doped NaCl, the activation energy for the calcium jumps and the binding energy between calcium ion and vacancy. (authors) [French] Nous avons determine, par des mesures de diffusion du Ca dans NaCl pur et NaCl dope avec CaCl{sub 2}, l'energie d'activation relative aux sauts du calcium et l'energie de liaison lacune-calcium. (auteurs)

  9. Energy stored in irradiated NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidiard, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    Recently reported measurements of the energy stored in heavily irradiated NaCl are reviewed in the light of recent understanding of radiation-damage processes in this material. It is shown that, in the ranges of temperatures and dose rates of these experiments, the F-centres produced by the irradiation are retained principally in the form of colloids: the stored energy is thus a direct measure of the number of F-centres retained in this form. Comparison of these results with the prediction of the recently proposed theory of colloid growth shows that the predictions of the dependence of colloid growth rates upon temperature and dose rate are qualitatively correct. The dependence of stored energy dose, however, appears to require the inclusion of a thermally activated back-reaction and possible modifications to the theory are briefly discussed. However, further experiments in this range of temperatures and dose rates are necessary for more quantitative tests of the theory. This reconsideration of the data does not alter the broad conclusion as to the relative insignificance of stored energy in a natural salt formation used as a radioactive waste repository, although more extensive measurements permitting a more exact test of theory would allow better predictions to be made for such applications. (author)

  10. Effects of NaCl Replacement with Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the Quality Characteristics and Sensorial Properties of Model Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of γ-aminobutylic acid (GABA) on the quality and sensorial properties of both the GABA/NaCl complex and model meat products. GABA/NaCl complex was prepared by spray-drying, and the surface dimensions, morphology, rheology, and saltiness were characterized. For model meat products, pork patties were prepared by replacing NaCl with GABA. For characteristics of the complex, increasing GABA concentration increased the surface dimensions of the complex. However, GABA did not affect the rheological properties of solutions containing the complex. The addition of 2% GABA exhibited significantly higher saltiness than the control (no GABA treatment). In the case of pork patties, sensory testing indicated that the addition of GABA decreased the saltiness intensity. Both the intensity of juiciness and tenderness of patties containing GABA also scored lower than the control, based on the NaCl reduction. These results were consistent with the quality characteristics (cooking loss and texture profile analysis). Nevertheless, overall acceptability of the pork patties showed that up to 1.5%, patties containing GABA did not significantly differ from the control. Consequently, the results indicated that GABA has a potential application in meat products, but also manifested a deterioration of quality by the NaCl reduction, which warrants further exploration. PMID:26761294

  11. Effects of exogenous salinity (NaCl) gradient on Cd release in acidified contaminated brown soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; Rong, Yong; Mao, Li; Gao, Zhiyuan; Liu, Xiaoyu; Dong, Zhicheng

    2018-02-01

    Taking acidified Cd contaminated brown soil in Yantai as the research object, based on different exogenous salinity (NaCl) gradient (0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, 1.5%, 2% and 5%), indoor simulation experiments of Cd release were carried out after field investigation. Results showed that there was a significantly positive relation (r>0.90) between Cd release concentration/amount/ratio and exogenous salt (NaCl). Besides, the more exogenous salt (NaCl) was added; maximum release concentration/amount of Cd appeared the earlier. It was found that exogenous salt (NaCl) addition could obviously promote Cd release from acidified Cd contaminated brown soil. It was believed that this could be mainly due to the cation exchange between Cd2+ and Na+, together with the dissociation and/or complexation between Cl- and Cd2+. In addition, available adsorption sites reduction by exchange base in soil causing Cd changed from solid state to soil solution was also a probable reason.

  12. Secretory NaCl and volume flow in renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyenbach, K W

    1986-05-01

    This review attempts to give a retrospective survey of the available evidence concerning the secretion of NaCl and fluid in renal tubules of the vertebrate kidney. In the absence of glomerular filtration, epithelial secretory mechanisms, which to this date have not been elucidated, are responsible for the renal excretion of NaCl and water in aglomerular fish. However, proximal tubules isolated from glomerular fish kidneys of the flounder, killifish, and the shark also have the capacity to secrete NaCl and fluid. In shark proximal tubules, fluid secretion appears to be driven via secondary active transport of Cl. In another marine vertebrate, the sea snake, secretion of Na (presumably NaCl) and fluid is observed in freshwater-adapted and water-loaded animals. Proximal tubules of mammals can be made to secrete NaCl in vitro together with secretion of aryl acids. An epithelial cell line derived from dog kidney exhibits secondary active secretion of Cl when stimulated with catecholamines. Tubular secretion of NaCl and fluid may serve a variety of renal functions, all of which are considered here. The occurrence of NaCl and fluid secretion in glomerular proximal tubules of teleosts, elasmobranchs, and reptiles and in mammalian renal tissue cultures suggests that the genetic potential for NaCl secretion is present in every vertebrate kidney.

  13. Explosive phenomena in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    denHartog, HW; Vainshtein, DI; Matthews, GE; Williams, RT

    1997-01-01

    In heavily irradiated NaCl crystals explosive phenomena can be initiated during irradiation or afterwards when samples are heated to temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C. During irradiation of NaCl Na and Cl-2 precipitates and void structures are produced along with the accumulation of stored

  14. Determination of oxidative stress in wheat leaves as influenced by boron toxicity and NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Sajid; Saleh, Livia; Witzel, Katja; Plieth, Christoph; Mühling, Karl H

    2012-07-01

    Boron (B) toxicity symptoms are visible in the form of necrotic spots and may worsen the oxidative stress caused by salinity. Hence, the interactive effects of combined salinity and B toxicity stress on antioxidative activities (TAC, LUPO, SOSA, CAT, and GR) were investigated by novel luminescence assays and standard photometric procedures. Wheat plants grown under hydroponic conditions were treated with 2.5 μM H₃BO₃ (control), 75 mM NaCl, 200 μM H₃BO₃, or 75 mM NaCl + 200 μM H₃BO₃, and analysed 6 weeks after germination. Shoot fresh weight (FW), shoot dry weight (DW), and relative water content (RWC) were significantly reduced, whereas the antioxidative activity of all enzymes was increased under salinity compared with the control. High B application led to necrotic leaf spots but did not influence growth parameters. Following NaCl + B treatment, shoot DW, RWC, SOSA, GR, and CAT activities remained the same compared with NaCl alone, whereas the TAC and LUPO activities were increased under the combined stress compared with NaCl alone. However, shoot FW was significantly reduced under NaCl + B compared with NaCl alone, as an additive effect of combined stress. Thus, we found an adjustment of antioxidative enzyme activity to the interactive effects of NaCl and high B. The stress factor "salt" mainly produced more oxidative stress than that of the factor "high B". Furthermore, addition of higher B in the presence of NaCl increases TAC and LUPO demonstrating that increased LUPO activity is an important physiological response in wheat plants against multiple stresses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental determination of the H2O + 15 wt% NaCl and H2O + 25 wt% NaCl liquidi to 1.4 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, P.; Schmidt, C.

    2009-12-01

    1380 MPa, 12.7°C for 25 wt% NaCl. At lower pressures (except at 0.1 MPa and 15 wt%NaCl), the last solid was hydrohalite. Hydrohalite was identified based on crystal shape, its higher density and index of refraction relative to those of the liquid, and Raman spectra. For both bulk compositions, the liquidus displayed negative dP/dT slopes to ~100 MPa, and positive dP/dT slopes above that pressure. The transition from negative to positive dP/dT slopes occurred without a change of the liquidus solid (hydrohalite), which suggests a relationship to anomalous properties of the aqueous liquid. This finding is consistent with literature data for the halite liquidus of H2O + 40 wt% NaCl (Schmidt et al. 1998). Generally, addition of NaCl steepens the liquidi. The dP/dT slopes of the ice VI liquidus of the 15 and 25 wt% NaCl solutions obtained in this study are steeper than that of the ice VI melting curve of pure water (Wagner et al. 1994), but shallower than reported for a H2O + 5.5 wt% NaCl solution (Manning and Daniel 2008).

  16. Recovery of phenol of industrial wastewaters with NaCl treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serna, Iveth; Torres, Jesus; Hoyos Bibian

    2003-01-01

    A technique for phenol recovery from residual wastewater, which has been made in an empiric way in some local industries, is explored in this work. It was carried out an experimental design that takes into account the concentration of NaCl as the entrance variable and the phenol recovery percentage as the exit variable. The statistical analysis of data determined that the best operation point is 25 Celsius degrade, with a initial ph between 2 and 3, an initial concentration of 6% and 21,5% for phenol and NaCl respectively, achieving a phenol recovery of 79 % with a phenol concentration in the organic phase of 83%. Besides the experimental part some theories are exposed dealing with the separation of a no electrolyte and water by salt addition

  17. [Effects of NaCl stress on cation contents in different pumpkin cultivars' seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Xin; Chen, Gui-Lin; Ren, Liang-Yu; Wang, Peng

    2008-03-01

    With the seedlings of 19 pumpkin cultivars as test materials, this paper studied the variations of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+, SN+, K+ and SNa+, ca2+ in their shoots and roots under the stress of 300 mmol NaCl x L(-1). The results showed that after an 8-day exposure to 300 mmol NaCl x L(-1), the Na+ content in the seedlings increased significantly while the K+ content decreased, resulting in the brokenness of ion balance. The root Na+ content, shoot Na+/K+ and Na+/Ca2+ ratios, and SNa+, K+ and SNa+, Ca2+ of Cucurbita moschata (Q1) were significantly higher than those of C. maxima (H2) and C. ficifolia (H3). The variation tendency of these parameters of different pumpkin cultivars' seedlings were nearly consistent with the salt injury index of the seedlings under NaCl stress, which further proved that the strong salt-tolerance of Q1 was related to the lower values of shoot Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+, SNa+, K+ and SNa+, Ca2+, and the high contents of K+ and Ca2+, while the salt-sensitivity of H2 and H3 was related to the higher values of shoot Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+, SNa+, K+ and SNa+, Ca2+, and low contents of K+ and Ca2+ under NaCl stress.

  18. Pitting resistance and mechanism of TiN-coated Inconel 600 in 100 C NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, C.B.; Kim, J.S.; Chun, S.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    TiN films were deposited on Inconel 600 by PACVD method using a gaseous mixture of TiCl 4 , N 2 , H 2 and Ar, and their pitting resistance and mechanism in 100 C NaCl solution were investigated. Anodic polarization measurement of TiN-coated Inconel 600 was compared with that of bare Inconel 600. TiN-coated Inconel 600 has a higher E np and a lower pit depth than bare Inconel 600. It also shows a smaller pit aspect ratio due to the concentration of the corrosion in the Inconel 600 contacted with the TiN film. When the Inconel 600 has a rough surface, E np decreases and the pit density increases to a great extent. However, E corr , pit depth and pit aspect ratio are not affected. ((orig.))

  19. Thermodiffusive behaviour of NaCl and KCl aqueous solutions a model for the Na-K pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta, F.S.; Mita, D.G.; Perna, G.; Scala, G.

    1975-01-01

    In NaCl and KCl aqueous nonisothermal solutions K + inverts its sense of migration within the physiological concentration range; Na + behaves similarly at much lower concentrations. These findings are discussed in relation to solute induced modifications of water structure and of their influence on thermal diffusion. A possible evolutionary model of a thermodiffusive mechanism for the sodium potassium pump is also suggested

  20. Evaluation of Potential Effects of NaCl and Sorbic Acid on Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoleta Zeaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prophage-encoded staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA is recognized as the main cause of staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP, a common foodborne intoxication disease, caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Studies on the production of SEA suggest that activation of the SOS response and subsequent prophage induction affect the regulation of the sea gene and the SEA produced, increasing the risk for SFP. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of NaCl and sorbic acid, in concentrations relevant to food production, on SOS response activation, prophage induction and SEA production. The impact of stress was initially evaluated on steady state cells for a homogenous cell response. NaCl 2% was found to activate the SOS response, i.e., recA expression, and trigger prophage induction, in a similar way as the phage-inducer mitomycin C. In contrast, sorbic acid decreased the pH of the culture to a level where prophage induction was probably suppressed, even when combined with NaCl stress. The impact of previous physiological state of the bacteria was also addressed on cells pre-exposed to NaCl, and was found to potentially affect cell response upon exposure to further stress. The results obtained highlight the possible SFP-related risks arising from the use of preservatives during food processing.

  1. Supercooling of aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions under acoustic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Y J; Wei, B

    2006-10-14

    The supercooling capability of aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions is investigated at containerless state by using acoustic levitation method. The supercooling of water is obviously enhanced by the alkali metal ions and increases linearly with the augmentation of concentrations. Furthermore, the supercooling depends on the nature of ions and is 2-3 K larger for NaCl solution than that for KCl solution in the present concentration range: Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to reveal the intrinsic correlation between supercoolability and microstructure. The translational and orientational order parameters are applied to quantitatively demonstrate the effect of ionic concentration on the hydrogen-bond network and ice melting point. The disrupted hydrogen-bond structure determines essentially the concentration dependence of supercooling. On the other hand, the introduced acoustic pressure suppresses the increase of supercooling by promoting the growth and coalescence of microbubbles, the effective nucleation catalysts, in water. However, the dissolved ions can weaken this effect, and moreover the degree varies with the ion type. This results in the different supercoolability for NaCl and KCl solutions under the acoustic levitation conditions.

  2. Imbibition and percentage of germination of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. seeds under NaCl stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Diego

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    In Colombia cape gooseberry is often grown on salt affected soils. The present study evaluated the effect of increasing NaCl concentrations on imbibition and percentage of germination of ‘Colombia’ ecotype cape gooseberry seeds. Under controlled laboratory conditions (25/20°C day/night temperature, 80% relative humidity, and a 12 hour photoperiod, the seeds were subjected to 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM NaCl concentrations (corresponding to respective electrical conductivity levels of 0.8, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, and 12.2 dS m-1, during an evaluation period of 299 hours. A significantly lower imbibition level, expressed as 35% of the fresh weight accumulated by the control seeds, was observed in the 120 mM NaCl treatment. At the end of the experiment, respective germination percentages of 97.6% and 96.4% were recorded in the salt-free seeds and in those exposed to 30 mM NaCl. In contrast, only 62.5% of those seeds treated with 120 mM NaCl germinated. Root malformations such as lack of elongation were observed in the highest NaCl concentration treatment. Regarding its germination process, cape gooseberry can be classified as moderately tolerant to sodium. In effect, after 299 h of treatment, there was no statistical difference in imbibition level or percentage of germination between the 0, 30 and 60 mM NaCl treatments.

  3. Fragile to strong crossover at the Widom line in supercooled aqueous solutions of NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Corradini, D.; Rovere, M., E-mail: rovere@fis.uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy)

    2013-11-28

    We study by molecular dynamics simulations the dynamical properties of an aqueous solution of NaCl at a concentration of 0.67 mol/kg upon supercooling. In a previous study of the same ionic solution, we have located the liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) and determined the Widom line connected to the liquid-liquid transition. We present here the results obtained from the study of the self-intermediate scattering function in a large range of temperatures and densities approaching the LLCP. The structural relaxation is in agreement with the mode coupling theory (MCT) in the region of mild supercooling. In the deeper supercooled region the α-relaxation time as function of temperature deviates from the MCT power law prediction showing a crossover from a fragile to a strong behavior. This crossover is found upon crossing the Widom line. The same trend was found in bulk water upon supercooling and it appears almost unchanged by the interaction with ions apart from a shift in the thermodynamic plane toward lower pressures and higher temperatures. These results show that the phenomenology of supercooled water transfers from bulk to solution where the study of the supercooled region is experimentally less difficult.

  4. Liquid Scintillation counting Standardization of 22 NaCl by the CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1995-09-01

    We describe a procedure for preparing a stable solution of ''22 NaCl for liquid scintillation counting and its counting stability and spectral evolution in Insta-Gel''R is studied. The solution has been standardised in terms of activity concentration by the CIEMAT/NIST method with discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies lower than 0.4/% and an overall uncertainty of 0.35%

  5. Liquid Scintillation Counting Standardization of 22NaCl by te CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a procedure for preparing a stable solution of ''22NaCl for liquid scintillation counting and its counting stability and spectral evolution in Insta-Gel''R is studied. The solution has been standardised in terms of activity concentration by the CIEMAT/NIST method with discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies lower than 0.4 % and an overall uncertainty of 0.35 %. (Author) 4 refs

  6. Polishing large NaCl windows on a continuous polisher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, R.

    1979-01-01

    The Helios and Antares CO 2 fusion laser systems incorporate numerous large sodium chloride windows. These must be refinished periodically, making necessary a consistent and predictable polishing capability. A continuous polisher (or annular lap) which might at Kirtland's Developmental Optical Facility. Large NaCl windows had not been polished on this type of machine. The machine has proven itself capable of producing lambda/16 figures at 633 nm (HeNe) with extremely smooth surfaces on glass. Since then, we have been working exclusively on NaCl optics. Due to different polishing parameters between NaCl and glass, and the slight solubility of the pitch in the slurry, this phase presents new problems. The work on glass will be reviewed. Results on NaCl to date will be reported. The potential of this type of machine relative to prisms, thin and irregularly shaped optics will be discussed

  7. Effect of halopriming on the induction of nacl salt tolerance in different wheat genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Hussain, F.; Rehmanullah, M.; Majeed, A.

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress limiting plant growth and productivity of wide range of crops with impairing effects on germination and yield. The present study was conducted to assess the induction of salt tolerance in seven wheat genotypes (Bakhtawar-92, Bhakar-2002, Fakhar-e-Sarhad, Khyber-87, Nasir-2000, Pirsabak-2005, and Uqab-2000) at germination and seedling stage through halo-priming with NaCl. Seeds of each wheat genotype were halo-primed separately. Halo-primed seeds of each wheat genotype were subjected to 0.02 (control), 2, 4, 6 and 8 dS/m NaCl salinity under laboratory conditions. Germination percentage age varied significantly among various wheat genotypes; however, differences between different salt concentrations were non-significant. All the seedling growth characters (germination, plumule growth, fresh and dry weight of seedling and moisture contents) exhibited significant differences among wheat genotypes as well as under the applied salt concentration except for radicle growth which varied non-significantly under salt stress. Interaction between various wheat genotypes and salt concentration was also significant for all the seedling growth characters, while it was non-significant for germination percentage age. It is concluded that NaCl proved to be effective priming agents in inducing salt tolerance in the tested wheat genotypes. (author)

  8. Gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations are higher in urban forests than adjacent open areas during summer but not in winter – Exploratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa; Tervo, Peatta; Setälä, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    While the potential of plants to uptake polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is widely acknowledged, empirical evidence of the effects of this process on local atmospheric PAH concentrations and human health is tenuous. We measured gaseous PAH concentrations using passive samplers in urban tree-covered areas and adjacent open, treeless areas in a near-road environment in Finland to gain information on the ability of urban vegetation to improve air quality. The ability of urban, mostly deciduous, vegetation to affect PAHs was season dependent: during summer, concentrations were significantly higher in tree-covered areas, while in the fall, concentrations in open areas exceeded those in tree-covered areas. During winter, concentrations in tree-covered areas were either lower or did not differ from those in open areas. Results of this study imply that the commonly believed notion that trees unequivocally improve air quality does not apply to PAHs studied here. - Highlights: • Urban tree-cover increases gaseous PAH concentrations during summertime. • Elevated PAH concentrations do not clearly correspond with vegetation properties. • Tree-cover attenuates seasonal PAH concentration fluctuation. - Higher ambient gaseous PAH concentrations were detected within urban tree cover as compared to open areas during summertime.

  9. Higher Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Associate with a Faster Recovery of Skeletal Muscle Strength after Muscular Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindell K. Weaver

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to identify if serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations predict muscular weakness after intense exercise. We hypothesized that pre-exercise serum 25(OHD concentrations inversely predict exercise-induced muscular weakness. Fourteen recreationally active adults participated in this study. Each subject had one leg randomly assigned as a control. The other leg performed an intense exercise protocol. Single-leg peak isometric force and blood 25(OHD, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, interferon (IFN-γ, and interleukin-4 were measured prior to and following intense exercise. Following exercise, serum 25(OHD concentrations increased (p < 0.05 immediately, but within minutes, subsequently decreased (p < 0.05. Circulating albumin increases predicted (p < 0.005 serum 25(OHD increases, while IFN-γ increases predicted (p < 0.001 serum 25(OHD decreases. Muscular weakness persisted within the exercise leg (p < 0.05 and compared to the control leg (p < 0.05 after the exercise protocol. Serum 25(OHD concentrations inversely predicted (p < 0.05 muscular weakness (i.e., control leg vs. exercise leg peak isometric force immediately and days (i.e., 48-h and 72-h after exercise, suggesting the attenuation of exercise-induced muscular weakness with increasing serum 25(OHD prior to exercise. Based on these data, we conclude that pre-exercise serum 25(OHD concentrations could influence the recovery of skeletal muscle strength after an acute bout of intense exercise.

  10. A comparative study of functional properties of normal and wooden breast broiler chicken meat with NaCl addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Tong; Zhao, Xue; Han, Minyi; Cai, Linlin; Deng, Shaolin; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian

    2017-09-01

    The selection of broilers for augmented growth rate and breast has brought about wooden-breast (WB) muscle abnormalities, which caused substantial economic losses. The objective of this study was to compare water holding capacity, water mobility and distribution, salt-soluble protein (SSP) content, and protein profiles of normal and WB chicken meat with different additions of NaCl. Thirty WB and 30 normal chicken breasts were selected from a deboning line of a major Chinese processing plant at 2 to 3 h post mortem. Two different meat batters were formulated to 150 mg/g meat protein and different NaCl contents (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%). Results indicated that as NaCl contents increased, the cooking loss of meat batters decreased (P meat showed different protein profiles, with myosin heavy chain exhibiting a higher intensity at ≥3% salt level. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR)revealed an increased T22 and higher P22 in raw WB meat compared to normal meat (P meat batters, WB meat batters had reduced T21 and lower immobilized water proportions at low NaCl contents (meat gels. Meat gels prepared from WB had a lower proportion of water within the myofibrillar protein matrix and a greater proportion of exuded bulk water at NaCl contents meat, meat batters and gels, water distribution and mobility of WB exhibited significant differences compared to normal meat. The addition of NaCl affected water mobility and distributions in meat batters, with a level of 3% NaCl eliminating the differences between processed normal and WB meat products. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Thermoluminescence and recovery processes in pure and doped NaCl after 20 K irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, F.J.; Aguilar, M.; Jaque, F.; Agullo-Lopez, F.

    1980-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) spectra after X-ray irradiation at 20 K have been investigated for pure as well as divalent cation doped NaCl. The F-centre decay has also been determined in pure and Ca and Mg doped NaCl for comparison purposes. A clear decrease in F-centre concentration appears to correlate with glow peaks at 44 and 50 K for pure and Ca-doped samples. Main glow peak appearing at 69 K is not associated to any appreciable F-centre decay step. Below liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) all peaks show both σ and π exciton emission bands. Above LNT, the glow peaks for doped samples show the σ emission together with another band at 410 nm, whereas pure samples still present the intrinsic emission bands. (author)

  12. Direct Analysis of Proteins from Solutions with High Salt Concentration Using Laser Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Santosh; Shi, Fengjian; Archer, Jieutonne J.; Sistani, Habiballah; Levis, Robert J.

    2018-05-01

    The detection of lysozyme, or a mixture of lysozyme, cytochrome c, and myoglobin, from solutions with varying salt concentrations (0.1 to 250 mM NaCl) is compared using laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Protonated protein peaks were observed up to a concentration of 250 mM NaCl in the case of LEMS. In the case of ESI-MS, a protein solution with salt concentration > 0.5 mM resulted in predominantly salt-adducted features, with suppression of the protonated protein ions. The constituents in the mixture of proteins were assignable up to 250 mM NaCl for LEMS and were not assignable above a NaCl concentration of 0.5 mM for ESI. The average sodium adducts () bound to the 7+ charge state of lysozyme for LEMS measurements from salt concentrations of 2.5, 25, 50, and 100 mM NaCl are 1.71, 5.23, 5.26, and 5.11, respectively. The conventional electrospray measurements for lysozyme solution containing salt concentrations of 0.1, 1, 2, and 5 mM NaCl resulted in of 2.65, 6.44, 7.57, and 8.48, respectively. LEMS displays an approximately two orders of magnitude higher salt tolerance in comparison with conventional ESI-MS. The non-equilibrium partitioning of proteins on the surface of the charged droplets is proposed as the mechanism for the high salt tolerance phenomena observed in the LEMS measurements. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Effects of temperature, pH and NaCl content on in vitro putrescine and cadaverine production through the growth of Serratia marcescens CCM 303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubelová, Zuzana; Buňka, František; Taťáková, Monika; Štajnochová, Kateřina; Purevdorj, Khatantuul; Buňková, Leona

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of temperature (10, 20 and 37°C), pH (4, 5, 6, 7 and 8), and NaCl content (0, 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6% w/v) on the growth and putrescine and cadaverine production of Serratia marcescens CCM 303 under model conditions. The decarboxylase activity of S. marcescens was monitored in broth after cultivation. The cultivation medium was enriched with selected amino acids (ornithine, arginine and lysine; 0.2% w/v each) serving as precursors of biogenic amines. Levels of putrescine and cadaverine in broth were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography after pre-column derivatisation with o-phthalaldehyde reagent. S. marcescens produced higher amounts of putrescine (up to 2096.8 mg L(-1)) compared to cadaverine content (up to 343.3 mg L(-1)) in all cultivation media. The highest putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were reached during cultivation at 10-20°C, pH 5-7 and NaCl content 1-3% w/v. On the other hand, the highest BAs production of individual cell (recalculated based on a cell; so called "yield factor") was observed at 10°C, pH 4 and salt concentration 3-5% w/v as a response to environmental stress.

  14. Biodegradation testing of chemicals with high Henry’s constants – separating mass and effective concentration reveals higher rate constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Comber, Mike

    Microextraction (HS-SPME) was applied directly on the test systems to measure substrate depletion by biodegradation relative to abiotic controls. HS-SPME was also applied to determine air to water partitioning ratios. Water phase biodegradation rate constants, kwater, were up to 72 times higher than test system...

  15. Evaluation of Iron Nickel Oxide Nanopowder as Corrosion Inhibitor: Effect of Metallic Cations on Carbon Steel in Aqueous NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhry, A. U.; Mishra, Brajendra [Colorado School of Mines, Denver (United States); Mittal, Vikas [The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of iron-nickel oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}.NiO) nanopowder (FeNi) as an anti-corrosion pigment for a different application. The corrosion protection ability and the mechanism involved was determined using aqueous solution of FeNi prepared in a corrosive solution containing 3.5 wt.% NaCl. Anti-corrosion abilities of aqueous solution were determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on line pipe steel (API 5L X-80). The protection mechanism involved the adsorption of metallic cations on the steel surface forming a protective film. Analysis of EIS spectra revealed that corrosion inhibition occurred at low concentration, whereas higher concentration of aqueous solution produced induction behavior.

  16. Impact of salt stress (NaCl on growth, chlorophyll content and fluorescence of Tunisian cultivars of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaouther Zhani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is considered as the most important abiotic stress limiting crop production and plants are known to be able continuing survive under this stress by involving many mechanisms. In this content, the present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of NaCl on some physiological and biochemical parameters in five Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. cultivars: Tebourba (Tb, Somaa (Sm, Korba (Kb, Awald Haffouzz (AW and Souk jedid (Sj. Thus, an experiment of five months was carried out under greenhouse at Higher Institute of Agronomy, Chott Meriem, Tunisia and stress is induced by NaCl at 7 concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12g/l. Results showed that increasing salinity stress, for all cultivars, had a negative impact on roots (length, fresh and dry weights and leaves (number and area. Also, chlorophyll (a and b amount in addition to quantium yield (Fv/Fm decreased significantly. However, biosynthesis of proline in leaves is activated. Awlad Haffouzz and Korba cultivars succefully tolerated highest salinity level by accumulating more proline in leaves and maintaining usually higher values in all parameters in opposition to Souk jedid cultivar. Taken together, our data partly explain the mechanism used to ovoid salt stress by pepper plants when excessive in the culture medium.

  17. Higher blood harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) concentrations correlate with lower olfactory scores in essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Rios, Eileen; Pellegrino, Kathryn M; Jiang, Wendy; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Zheng, Wei

    2008-05-01

    Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), a neurotoxin, may be an environmental risk factor for essential tremor (ET). Harmane and related chemicals are toxic to the cerebellum. Whether it is through this mechanism (cerebellar toxicity) that harmane leads to ET is unknown. Impaired olfaction may be a feature of cerebellar disease. To determine whether blood harmane concentrations correlate with olfactory test scores in patients with ET. Blood harmane concentrations were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Odor identification testing was performed with the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). In 83 ET cases, higher log blood harmane concentration was correlated with lower UPSIT score (rho=-0.46, p<0.001). 25/40 (62.5%) cases with high log blood harmane concentration (based on a median split) had low UPSIT scores (based on a median split) vs. 12/43 (27.9%) ET cases with low log blood harmane concentration (adjusted odd ratios (OR) 4.04, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.42-11.50, p=0.009). When compared with the low log blood harmane tertile, the odds of olfactory dysfunction were 2.64 times higher in cases in the middle tertile and 10.95 times higher in cases in the high tertile. In 69 control subjects, higher log blood harmane concentration was not correlated with lower UPSIT score (rho=0.12, p=0.32). Blood harmane concentrations were correlated with UPSIT scores in ET cases but not controls. These analyses set the stage for postmortem studies to further explore the role of harmane as a cerebellar toxin in ET.

  18. NaCl samples for optical luminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catli, S.

    2005-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) have been used broadly for luminescence dosimetry and dating. In many cases, it has been pointed out that the decay of the OSL do not generally behave according to a simple exponential function. In this study the Infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL) intensity from NaCl samples were experimentally measured. The decay curves for this sample were fitted to some functions and it is in good agreement with the function y = α + b exp(-cx). The IRSL decay curves from NaCl using different β-doses have been obtained and investigated their dose response

  19. Cephradine as corrosion inhibitor for copper in 0.9% NaCl solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasić, Žaklina Z.; Petrović Mihajlović, Marija B.; Radovanović, Milan B.; Simonović, Ana T.; Antonijević, Milan M.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of (6R,7R)-7-[[(2R)-2-amino-2-cyclohexa-1,4-dien-1-ylacetyl]amino]-3-methyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azobicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid (cephradine) on corrosion behavior of copper in 0.9% NaCl solution was investigated. The electrochemical methods including the open circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations were used for this investigation. According to the results obtained by potentiodynamic polarization, cephradine acts as mixed type inhibitor. Also, the results obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicate that cephradine provides good copper protection in 0.9% NaCl solution. The inhibition efficiency of cephradine increases with increasing its concentration. The scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirms that a protective layer is formed on the copper surface due to the adsorption of cephradine on the active sites on the copper surface. Adsorption of cephradine in 0.9% NaCl solution follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Quantum chemical calculations are in agreement with results obtained by electrochemical measurements.

  20. Field and laboratory investigations on the effects of road salt (NaCl) on stream macroinvertebrate communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasius, B.J.; Merritt, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Short-term exposure to road salt did not significantly affect stream macro-invertebrate communities. - Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the effects of road salt (NaCl) on stream macroinvertebrates. Field studies investigated leaf litter processing rates and functional feeding group composition at locations upstream and downstream from point source salt inputs in two Michigan, USA streams. Laboratory studies determined the effects of increasing NaCl concentrations on aquatic invertebrate drift, behavior, and survival. Field studies revealed that leaves were processed faster at upstream reference sites than at locations downstream from road salt point source inputs. However, it was sediment loading that resulted in partial or complete burial of leaf packs, that affected invertebrate activity and confounded normal leaf pack colonization. There were no significant differences that could be attributed to road salt between upstream and downstream locations in the diversity and composition of invertebrate functional feeding groups. Laboratory drift and acute exposure studies demonstrated that drift of Gammarus (Amphipoda) may be affected by NaCl at concentrations greater than 5000 mg/l for a 24-h period. This amphipod and two species of limnephilid caddisflies exhibited a dose response to salt treatments with 96-h LC 50 values of 7700 and 3526 mg NaCl/l, respectively. Most other invertebrate species and individuals were unaffected by NaCl concentrations up to 10,000 mg/l for 24 and 96 h, respectively

  1. Growth, structure and magnetic properties of FePt nanostructures on NaCl(001) and MgO(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liscio, F; Maret, M; Doisneau-Cottignies, B; Makarov, D; Albrecht, M; Roussel, H

    2010-01-01

    A comparison of the structural and magnetic properties of FePt nanostructures grown at different temperatures on NaCl(001) and MgO(001) substrates is presented. A strong influence of the deposition temperature on the epitaxial growth as well as on the size distribution of FePt nanostructures grown on NaCl substrates is observed. In spite of a large lattice mismatch between FePt and NaCl, a 'cube-over-cube' growth of nanostructures with a narrow size distribution was achieved at 520 K. Moreover, the growth of FePt nanostructures on NaCl(001) is not preceded by the formation of a wetting layer as observed on MgO(001). The higher degree of L1 0 chemical ordering in FePt nanostructures grown on MgO(001) accompanied by the absence of L1 0 variants with an in-plane tetragonal c-axis indicates that the tensile epitaxial stress induced by the MgO substrate is a key factor in the formation of the L1 0 phase with an out-of-plane c-axis. Superparamagnetic behavior is revealed for the FePt nanostructures grown on NaCl(001) due to their small size and relatively poor chemical order.

  2. Impact of NaCl reduction in Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses on development and autolysis of DL-starter cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lise; Ryssel, Mia; Svendsen, Carina

    2015-01-01

    of two commercial DL-starter cultures (C1 and C2) used in the production of Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses were affected by reduced NaCl levels. Cheeses containing .... Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), distribution of bacteria as single cells or microcolonies, their viability in the cheeses and cell autolysis were monitored during ripening, as well as the impact of NaCl content and autolysis on the formation of free amino acids (FAA). Reduction of NaCl resulted in higher LAB...

  3. [Auxin synthesis by the higher fungus Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing in the presence of low concentrations of indole compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivileva, O M; Loshchinina, E A; Makarov, O E; Nikitina, V E

    2012-01-01

    The auxin formation in a submerged culture of the xylotrophic basidiomycete Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) (shiitake) is studied. Biologically active substances of an indole nature are identified, "the effect of small doses" of which lies in not only the stimulation of growth of the mycelium (indole-3-acetic acid, 2 x 10(-7)-2 x 10(-4) g/l), but also in the induction of tryptophan-independent paths of auxin biosynthesis. The above-mentioned path is realized in the presence of exogenous indole (1 x 10(-3)-1 x 10(-4) g/l), as well as while inducing the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by its microadditives (1 x 10(-5)-1 x 10(-8) g/l), and is accompanied by the formation of anthranilic acid (up to 1.5 mg/l). Induction of the generative development stage ofshiitake by indole derivatives is revealed. It was found that among the studied compounds only indoleacetamide at a concentration of an order of x 10(-4) g/l in the culture fluid of L. edodes had a pronounced stimulatory effect on the formation of shiitake's brown mycelial film.

  4. Changes in growth, carbon and nitrogen enzyme activity and mRNA accumulation in the halophilic microalga Dunaliella viridis in response to NaCl stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Nianjun; Sun, Xue

    2016-12-01

    Many species of microalga Dunaliella exhibit a remarkable tolerance to salinity and are therefore ideal for probing the effects of salinity. In this work, we assessed the effects of NaCl stress on the growth, activity and mRNA level of carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes of D. viridis. The alga could grow over a salinity range of 0.44 mol L-1 to 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, but the most rapid growth was observed at 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl, followed by 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl. Paralleling these growth patterns, the highest initial and total Rubisco activities were detected in the presence of 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl, decreasing to 37.33% and 26.39% of those values, respectively, in the presence of 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, respectively. However, the highest extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity was measured in the presence of 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl, followed by 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl. Different from the two carbon enzymes, nitrate reductase (NR) activity showed a slight change under different NaCl concentrations. At the transcriptional level, the mRNAs of Rubisco large subunit ( rbcL), and small subunit ( rbcS), attained their highest abundances in the presence of 1.00 and 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl, respectively. The CA mRNA accumulation was induced from 0.44 mol L-1 to 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, but the NR mRNA showed the decreasing tendency with the increasing salinity. In conclusion, the growth and carbon fixation enzyme of Rubisco displayed similar tendency in response to NaCl stress, CA was proved be salt-inducible within a certain salinity range and NR showed the least effect by NaCl in D. viridis.

  5. Body Temperatures During Exercise in Deconditioned Dogs: Effect of NACL and Glucose Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Usciko, H.

    2000-01-01

    Infusion of glucose (Glu) into normal exercising dogs attenuates the rise in rectal temperature (Delta-Tre) when compared with delta-Tre during FFA infusion or no infusion. Rates of rise and delta-=Tre levels are higher during exercise after confinement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if Glu infusion would attenuate the exercise-induced excess hyperthermia after deconditioning. Rectal and quadricep femoris muscle temperatures (Tmu) were measured in 7 male, mongrel dogs dogs (19.6 +/- SD 3.0 kg) during 90 minutes of treadmill exercise (3.1 +/-SD 0.2 W/kg) with infusion (30ml/min/kg) of 40% Glu or 0.9% NaCL before BC) and after confinement (AC) in cages (40 x 110 x 80 cm) for 8 wk. Mean (+/-SE body wt. were 19.6 +/- 1.1 kg BC and 19.5 +/- 1.1kg AC, exercise VO2 were not different (40.0 - 42.0 mi/min/kg-1). With NaCl AC, NaCl BC, GluAC, and GluBC: Delta-Tre were, 1.8, 1.4, 1.3 and 0.9C respectively; and Delta-Tmu were 2.3, 1.9, 1.6, and 1.4C. respectively (Pbody temperature with Glu infusion must affect avenues of heat dissipation.

  6. Nano-sized precipitated formations in irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugonyako, Anton V.

    2007-01-01

    The interest in the formation of radiation damage in alkali halides and in particular, in NaCl, is stimulated by the fact that rock-salt in stable geological formations is a prominent candidate medium for storage of high-level waste (HLW) of nuclear power plants. Since the 1950s, scientists and

  7. Women Administered Standard Dose Imatinib for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Have Higher Dose-Adjusted Plasma Imatinib and Norimatinib Concentrations Than Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsey, Sarah L; Ireland, Robin; Lang, Kathryn; Kizilors, Aytug; Ho, Aloysius; Mufti, Ghulam J; Bisquera, Alessandra; De Lavallade, Hugues; Flanagan, Robert J

    2017-10-01

    The standard dose of imatinib for the treatment of chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is 400 mg·d. A predose plasma imatinib concentration of >1 mg·L is associated with improved clinical response. This study aimed to assess the plasma imatinib and norimatinib concentrations attained in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia administered standard doses of imatinib adjusted for dose, age, sex, body weight, and response. We evaluated data from a cohort of patients treated between 2008 and 2014 with respect to dose, age, sex, body weight, and response. The study comprised 438 samples from 93 patients (54 male, 39 female). The median imatinib dose was 400 mg·d in men and in women. The plasma imatinib concentration ranged 0.1-5.0 mg·L and was below 1 mg·L in 20% and 16% of samples from men and women, respectively. The mean dose normalized plasma imatinib and norimatinib concentrations were significantly higher in women in comparison with men. This was partially related to body weight. Mixed effects ordinal logistic regression showed no evidence of an association between sex and plasma imatinib (P = 0.13). However, there was evidence of an association between sex and plasma norimatinib, with higher norimatinib concentrations more likely in women than in men (P = 0.02). Imatinib therapeutic drug monitoring only provides information on dosage adequacy and on short-term adherence; longer-term adherence cannot be assessed. However, this analysis revealed that approximately 1 in 5 samples had a plasma imatinib concentration <1 mg·L, which was suggestive of inadequate dosage and/or poor adherence and posed a risk of treatment failure. Higher imatinib exposure in women may be a factor in the increased rate of long-term, stable, deep molecular response (undetectable breakpoint cluster-Abelson (BCR-ABL) transcript levels with a PCR sensitivity of 4.5 log, MR4.5) reported in women.

  8. Effects of electric potential, NaCl, pH and distance between electrodes on efficiency of electrolysis in landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erabee, Iqbal K; Ahsan, Amimul; Jose, Bipin; Arunkumar, T; Sathyamurthy, R; Idrus, Syazwani; Daud, N N Nik

    2017-07-03

    This study investigated the effects of different parameters on the removal efficiencies of organic and inorganic pollutants in landfill leachate treatment by electrolysis. Different parameters were considered such as the electric potential (e.g., 24, 40 and 60 V), hydraulic retention time (HRT) (e.g., 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min), sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (e.g., 1, 3, 5 and 7%), pH (e.g., 3, 7 and 9), electrodes materials [e.g., aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe)] and distance between electrodes (e.g., 1, 2 and 3 cm). The best operational condition of electrolysis was then recommended. The electric potential of 60 V with HRT of 120 min at 5% of NaCl solution using Al as anode and Fe as cathode (kept at a distance of 3 cm) was the most efficient condition which increased the removal efficiencies of various parameters such as turbidity, salinity, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and heavy metals (e.g., Zn and Mn). The higher removal percentages of many parameters, especially COD (94%) and Mn (93%) indicated that the electrolysis is an efficient technique for multi-pollutants (e.g., organic, inorganic and heavy metals) removal from the landfill leachate.

  9. Evaluation of Salt Tolerance (NaCl in Tunisian Chili Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. on Growth, Mineral Analysis and Solutes Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhani, Kaouther

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Every year, more and more land becomes non-productive due to salinity which adversely affects the productivity and quality of most crops that is why salinity becomes a concern to be studied more to understand the mechanisms included and select the tolerant genotypes. In this context, this investigation was carried out to study the impact of NaCl on growth, mineral analysis and solutes synthesis in five Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. cultivars: Tebourba (Tb, Somaa (Sm, Korba (Kb, Awald Haffouzz (Aw and Souk jedid (Sj. Thus, an experiment took place under greenhouse at Higher Institute of Agronomy, Chott Meriem, Tunisia and stress was induced during two months in water by NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 g/l. Results showed that increasing salinity stress, for all cultivars, decreases the height and biomass (dry and fresh weight of plant in addition to the relative water content. Also, a decline in K+ and Ca2+ amounts in roots and K+/Na+ ratio was recorded. However, Na+ content in roots and the biosynthesis of soluble sugars and soluble proteins in leaves increased. Awlad Haffouzz and Korba cultivars succefully tolerated highest salinity level by accumulating more K+, Ca2+ in roots and containing the highest concentrations of soluble sugars and soluble protein in their leaves contrary to Souk jedid cultivar, considered as the sensitive cultivar.

  10. NaCl and osmolarity produce different responses in organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis neurons, sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, Brian J; Browning, Kirsteen N; Stocker, Sean D

    2017-09-15

    increase in lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), adrenal SNA and ABP than equi-osmotic sorbitol (2.0 osmol l -1 ). Second, OVLT microinjection (20 nl) of 1.0 m NaCl significantly raised lumbar SNA, adrenal SNA and ABP. Equi-osmotic sorbitol did not alter any variable. Third, in vitro whole-cell recordings demonstrate that 50% (18/36) of OVLT neurons display an increased discharge to both hypertonic NaCl (+7.5 mm) and mannitol (+15 mm). Of these neurons, 56% (10/18) displayed a greater discharge response to hypertonic NaCl vs mannitol. Fourth, in vivo single-unit recordings revealed that intracarotid injection of hypertonic NaCl produced a concentration-dependent increase in OVLT cell discharge, lumbar SNA and ABP. The responses to equi-osmotic infusions of hypertonic sorbitol were significantly smaller. Lastly, icv infusion of 0.5 m NaCl produced significantly greater increases in OVLT discharge and ABP than icv infusion of equi-osmotic sorbitol. Collectively, these findings indicate NaCl and osmotic stimuli produce different responses across OVLT neurons and may represent distinct cellular processes to regulate thirst, vasopressin secretion and autonomic function. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  11. Inhibitive Behaviour of Corrosion of Aluminium Alloy in NaCl by Mangrove Tannin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solhan Yahya; Afidah Abdul Rahim; Affaizza Mohd Shah; Rohana Adnan

    2011-01-01

    Anticorrosion potential of mangrove tannins on aluminium alloys AA6061 in NaCl solution has been studied using potentiodynamic polarisation method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The study was carried out in different pH of corrosive medium in the absence and presence of various concentrations of tannin. The corrosion inhibition behaviour of the mangrove tannin on AA6061 aluminium alloy corrosion was found to be dependant on the pH of NaCl solution. Our results showed that the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing tannins concentration in chloride solution at pH 6. Treatment of aluminium alloy 6061 with all concentrations of mangrove tannins reduced the current density, thus decreased the corrosion rate. Tannins behaved as mixed inhibitors at pH 6 and reduction in current density predominantly affected in cathodic reaction. Meanwhile, at pH 12, addition of tannins shifted the corrosion potential to more cathodic potentials and a passivating effect was observed in anodic potentials. SEM studies have shown that the addition of tannins in chloride solution at pH 12 reduced the surface degradation and the formation of pits. (author)

  12. Effects of road de-icing salt (NaCl) on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzo, Domenico; Hecnar, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Vast networks of roads cover the earth and have numerous environmental effects including pollution. A major component of road runoff in northern countries is salt (mostly NaCl) used as a winter de-icing agent, but few studies of effects of road salts on aquatic organisms exist. Amphibians require aquatic habitats and chemical pollution is implicated as a major factor in global population declines. We exposed wood frog tadpoles to NaCl. Tests revealed 96-h LC50 values of 2636 and 5109 mg/l and tadpoles experienced reduced activity, weight, and displayed physical abnormalities. A 90 d chronic experiment revealed significantly lower survivorship, decreased time to metamorphosis, reduced weight and activity, and increased physical abnormalities with increasing salt concentration (0.00, 0.39, 77.50, 1030.00 mg/l). Road salts had toxic effects on larvae at environmentally realistic concentrations with potentially far-ranging ecological impacts. More studies on the effects of road salts are warranted. - Road salts have toxic effects on amphibians at environmentally realistic concentrations

  13. Effects of road de-icing salt (NaCl) on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanzo, Domenico [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, ON, P7B 5E1 (Canada); Hecnar, Stephen J. [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, ON, P7B 5E1 (Canada)]. E-mail: stephen.hecnar@lakeheadu.ca

    2006-03-15

    Vast networks of roads cover the earth and have numerous environmental effects including pollution. A major component of road runoff in northern countries is salt (mostly NaCl) used as a winter de-icing agent, but few studies of effects of road salts on aquatic organisms exist. Amphibians require aquatic habitats and chemical pollution is implicated as a major factor in global population declines. We exposed wood frog tadpoles to NaCl. Tests revealed 96-h LC50 values of 2636 and 5109 mg/l and tadpoles experienced reduced activity, weight, and displayed physical abnormalities. A 90 d chronic experiment revealed significantly lower survivorship, decreased time to metamorphosis, reduced weight and activity, and increased physical abnormalities with increasing salt concentration (0.00, 0.39, 77.50, 1030.00 mg/l). Road salts had toxic effects on larvae at environmentally realistic concentrations with potentially far-ranging ecological impacts. More studies on the effects of road salts are warranted. - Road salts have toxic effects on amphibians at environmentally realistic concentrations.

  14. Halopriming of seeds imparts tolerance to NaCl and PEG induced stress in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jisha, K C; Puthur, Jos T

    2014-07-01

    The investigation was carried out to study the effect of halopriming on NaCl and polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG-6000) induced stress tolerance potential of three Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek varieties, with varied abiotic stress tolerance potential. Halopriming is a seed priming technique in which the seeds were soaked in various salt solutions (in this study NaCl was used). The results of the study indicated that the application of stresses (both NaCl and PEG) induced retardation of growth attributes (measured in terms of shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight) and decrease in physiological attributes like total chlorophyll content, metabolites, photosynthetic and mitochondrial activity of the seedlings in all three V. radiata (L.) varieties. However, halopriming of the seeds could reduce the extent of decrease in these biological attributes. NaCl and PEG stress also caused increase in MDA content (a product of membrane lipid peroxidation) in all the varieties studied and this increase was significantly minimized under halopriming. From the present investigation it was evident that among the green gram varieties studied, Pusa Vishal, a NaCl tolerant variety showed enhanced tolerance to NaCl and PEG induced stress, when the seeds were subjected to halopriming followed by Pusa Ratna (stress sensitive variety). Pusa 9531 (drought tolerant variety) also showed positive halopriming effects but it was less significant when compared to other two varieties. It could be concluded that halopriming improved the drought and salinity stress tolerance potential of all varieties and it was significantly higher in the Pusa Vishal as compared to Pusa 9531 and Pusa Ratna.

  15. Na/Cl molar ratio changes during a salting cycle and its application to the estimation of sodium retention in salted watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongbing; Huffine, Maria; Husch, Jonathan; Sinpatanasakul, Leeann

    2012-08-01

    Using soil column experiments and data from natural watersheds, this paper analyzes the changes in Na/Cl molar ratios during a salting cycle of aqueous-soil systems. The soil column experiments involved introducing NaCl salt at various initial concentrations into multiple soil columns. At the start of a salting cycle in the column experiments, sodium was adsorbed more than chloride due to cation exchange processes. As a result, the initial Na/Cl molar ratio in column effluent was lower than 1, but increased thereafter. One-dimensional PHREEQC geochemical transport simulations also were conducted to further quantify these trends under more diverse scenarios. The experimentally determined Na/Cl molar ratio pattern was compared to observations in the annual salting cycle of four natural watersheds where NaCl is the dominant applied road deicing salt. Typically, Na/Cl molar ratios were low from mid-winter to early spring and increased after the bulk of the salt was flushed out of the watersheds during the summer, fall and early winter. The established relationship between the Na/Cl molar ratios and the amount of sodium retention derived from the column experiments and computer simulations present an alternative approach to the traditional budget analysis method for estimating sodium retention when the experimental and natural watershed patterns of Na/Cl molar ratio change are similar. Findings from this study enhance the understanding of sodium retention and help improve the scientific basis for future environmental policies intended to suppress the increase of sodium concentrations in salted watersheds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of A 516 steel using corrosive environments with varying concentrations of sodium thiosulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, F.; Arif, M.; Reza, I.; Akram, M.; Hussain, N.; Ali, L.

    2012-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of A 516 steel was studied by potentiodynamic polarization technique. Environment used for these tests was sodium chloride (5%), acetic acid (0.5%) and sodium thiosulphate with varying concentration from 0.001 M to 1 M. Surface study was also carried out using optical microscope. The potentiodynamic polarization results revealed the formation of large number of pits in the sample, which was tested in the solution containing NaCl. Pitting corrosion study of alloy A516 G-70 was also conducted to see the effect of different concentrations of thiosulfate with or without addition of NaCl and acetic acid at room temperature. It was observed that different thiosulfate concentrations did not produce any difference in the polarization behavior of the alloys, when added in 5% NaCl and 0.5% acetic acid solution. However, in the absence of NaCl and acetic acid, thiosulfate concentration 0.001 mol/l or higher did produce general corrosion and pitting in the alloy at room temperature is shown.(Orig./A.B.)

  17. A Western Diet Pattern Is Associated with Higher Concentrations of Blood and Bone Lead among Middle-Aged and Elderly Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Ding, Ning; Tucker, Katherine L; Weisskopf, Marc G; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2017-07-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of overall dietary pattern on lead concentration. Objective: We examined the association of overall dietary patterns, derived from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, with bone and blood lead concentrations. Methods: These longitudinal analyses included mostly non-Hispanic white, middle-aged-to-elderly men from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Long-term lead exposures were measured as tibia and patella lead concentrations by using K-shell-X-ray fluorescence. Short-term lead exposures were measured as blood lead concentrations by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Dietary pattern scores were derived by using factor analysis. Linear mixed-effects models were utilized to predict blood lead concentrations among 983 men, aged 44-92 y at baseline, with a total of 3273 observations (during 1987-2008). We constructed linear regression models to determine the relations between dietary patterns and bone lead concentrations among 649 participants with an age range of 49-93 y. Results: Two major dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruit, legumes, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, and seafood; and a Western dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of processed meat, red meat, refined grains, high-fat dairy products, French fries, butter, and eggs. After adjusting for age, smoking status, body mass index, total energy intake, education, occupation, neighborhood-based education and income level, men in the highest tertile of the Western pattern score (compared with the lowest) had 0.91 μg/dL (95% CI: 0.41, 1.42 μg/dL) higher blood lead, 5.96 μg/g (95% CI: 1.76, 10.16 μg/g) higher patella lead, and 3.83 μg/g (95% CI: 0.97, 6.70 μg/g) higher tibia lead. No significant association was detected with the prudent dietary pattern in the adjusted model. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the Western diet is associated with

  18. Impact of NaCl reduction in Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses on proliferation and autolysis of DL-starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Lise; Ryssel, Mia; Svendsen, Carina; Høier, Erik; Andersen, Ulf; Hammershøj, Marianne; Møller, Jean R; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-11-20

    Reduction of sodium chloride (NaCl) in cheese manufacturing is a challenge for the dairy industry. NaCl has a profound role on microbial development influencing cheese sensory and technological properties. The purpose of this work was to investigate how proliferation, distribution and autolysis of two commercial DL-starter cultures (C1 and C2) used in the production of Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses were affected by reduced NaCl levels. Cheeses containing autolysis were monitored during ripening, as well as the impact of NaCl content and autolysis on the formation of free amino acids (FAA). Reduction of NaCl resulted in higher LAB counts at the early stages of ripening, with differences between the two DL-starter cultures. The unsalted cheeses produced with C1 had retained a significantly higher number of the initial LAB counts (cfu/g) after 1 and 2 weeks of ripening (i.e. 58% and 71%), compared to the normal-salted cheeses (i.e. 22% and 21%), whereas no significant difference was found between the reduced-salt (i.e. 31% and 35%) and normal-salted cheeses. At the later stages of ripening (i.e. 7 and 11 weeks) NaCl had no significant influence. For cheeses produced with C2, a significant influence of NaCl was only found in cheeses ripened for 7 weeks, where the unsalted and reduced-salt cheeses had retained a significantly higher number of the initial LAB counts (cfu/g) (i.e. 39% and 38%), compared to the normal-salted cheeses (i.e. 21%). In the Samsoe cheeses, bacteria were organized as single cells, in groups of 2-3 cells or in groups of ≥4 cells. During ripening the decrease in the number of viable bacteria was mainly due to a reduction in the number of viable bacteria organized in groups of ≥4 cells. A negative correlation between NaCl content and PepX activity was observed. At the end of ripening the total FAA content was lower in the unsalted cheeses, compared to the reduced- and normal-salted cheeses. In conclusion, NaCl had a significant influence on

  19. Propagating particle density fluctuations in molten NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmel, F.; Hosokawa, S.; Pilgrim, W.-C.; Lorenzen, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the observation of acoustic modes in the spectra of molten NaCl measured over a large momentum transfer range using synchrotron radiation. A surprisingly large positive dispersion was deduced with a mode velocity exceeding the adiabatic value by nearly 70%. The large effect seems to be describable as a viscoelastic reaction of the liquid. Additionally, the derived dispersion resembles the Q-ω relation of the acoustic modes in liquid sodium. As an explanation for the large positive dispersion we propose that the density fluctuations in molten NaCl can be interpreted as a decoupled motion of the lighter and smaller cations on a nearly resting anionic background. These molten alkali halide measurements are the first experimental evidences for the so-called fast sound in a binary ionic liquid

  20. Tolerance of soil flagellates to increased NaCl levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    The ability of heterotrophic flagellates to survive and adapt to increasing salinities was investigated in this study. Whole soil samples were subjected to salinities corresponding to marine conditions and clonal cultures were used to perform growth and adaptation experiments at a wide range...... of different salinities (0-50 ppm). More morphotypes tolerant to elevated NaCl levels were found in road verge soil that was heavily exposed to de-icing salt than in less exposed soils, though there were fewer tolerant than intolerant morphotypes in all soils examined. Heterotrophic flagellates isolated...... on a freshwater medium from a non-exposed soil were unable to thrive at salinities above 15 ppt, and showed reduced growth rates even at low salt salinities (1-5 ppt). The findings suggest that heterotrophic soil flagellates are less tolerant to NaCl than their aquatic relatives, possibly due to their long...

  1. A lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation is associated with excess body weight and higher HOMA-IR in the presence of lower concentrations of plasma folate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Badiga, Suguna; Alvarez, Ronald D; Partridge, Edward E; Johanning, Gary L

    2013-01-01

    Identification of associations between global DNA methylation and excess body weight (EBW) and related diseases and their modifying factors are an unmet research need that may lead to decreasing DNA methylation-associated disease risks in humans. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the following; 1) Association between the degree of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) L1 methylation and folate, and indicators of EBW, 2) Association between the degree of PBMC L1 methylation and folate, and insulin resistance (IR) as indicated by a higher homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). The study population consisted of 470 child-bearing age women diagnosed with abnormal pap. The degree of PBMC L1 methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing. Logistic regression models specified indicators of EBW (body mass index-BMI, body fat-BF and waist circumference-WC) or HOMA-IR as dependent variables and the degree of PBMC L1 methylation and circulating concentrations of folate as the independent predictor of primary interest. Women with a lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation and lower plasma folate concentrations were significantly more likely to have higher BMI, % BF or WC (OR = 2.49, 95% CI:1.41-4.47, P = 0.002; OR = 2.49, 95% CI:1.40-4.51, P = 0.002 and OR = 1.98, 95% = 1.14-3.48 P = 0.0145, respectively) and higher HOMA-IR (OR = 1.78, 95% CI:1.02-3.13, P = 0.041). Our results demonstrated that a lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation is associated with excess body weight and higher HOMA-IR, especially in the presence of lower concentrations of plasma folate.

  2. NaCl stress-induced changes in the essential oil quality and abietane diterpene yield and composition in common sage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taieb Tounekti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how increasing NaCl salinity in the medium can affects the essential oils (EOs composition and phenolic diterpene content and yield in leaves of Salvia officinalis L. The protective role of such compounds against NaCl stress was also argued with regard to some physiological characteristics of the plant (water and ionic relations as well as the leaf gas exchanges. Materials and Methods: Potted plants were exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 75 and 100 mM for 4 weeks during July 2012. Replicates from each treatment were harvested after 0, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of adding salt to perform physiological measurements and biochemical analysis. Results: Sage EOs were rich in manool, viridiflorol, camphor, and borneol. Irrigation with a solution containing 100 mM NaCl for 4 weeks increased considerably 1.8-cineole, camphor and beta-thujone concentrations, whereas lower concentrations (50 and 75 mM had no effects. On the contrary, borneol and viridiflorol concentrations decreased significantly under the former treatment, while manool and total fatty acid concentrations were not affected. Leaf extracts contained also several diterpenes such as carnosic acid (CA, carnosol (CAR and 12- and #1054;-methoxy carnosic acid (MCA. The concentrations and total contents of CA and MCA increased after 3 weeks of irrigation with 75 or 100 mM NaCl. The 50 mM NaCl had no effect on these diterpenes. Our results suggest a protective role for CA against salinity stress. Conclusion: This study may provide ways to manipulate the concentration and yield of some phenolic diterpenes and EOs in sage. In fact soil salinity may favour a directional production of particular components of interest. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 208-216

  3. Temperature dependence of thermal pressure for NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra K.; Pande, Brijesh K.; Pandey, Anjani K.

    2018-05-01

    Engineering applications of the materials can be explored upto the desired limit of accuracy with the better knowledge of its mechanical and thermal properties such as ductility, brittleness and Thermal Pressure. For the resistance to fracture (K) and plastic deformation (G) the ratio K/G is treated as an indication of ductile or brittle character of solids. In the present work we have tested the condition of ductility and brittleness with the calculated values of K/G for the NaCl. It is concluded that the nature of NaCl can be predicted upto high temperature simply with the knowledge of its elastic stiffness constant only. Thermoelastic properties of materials at high temperature is directly related to thermal pressure and volume expansion of the materials. An expression for the temperature dependence of thermal pressure is formulated using basic thermodynamic identities. It is observed that thermal pressure ΔPth calculated for NaCl by using Kushwah formulation is in good agreement with the experimental values also the thermal pressure increases with the increase in temperature.

  4. Higher concentrations of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) in soil induced rice chlorosis due to inhibited active iron transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jie; Fang, Zhanqiang; Cheng, Wen; Yan, Xiaomin; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of concentrations 0, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg kg"−"1 of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) on germination, seedlings growth, physiology and toxicity mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that nZVI had no effect on germination, but inhibited the rice seedlings growth in higher concentrations (>500 mg kg"−"1 nZVI). The highest suppression rate of the length of roots and shoots reached 46.9% and 57.5%, respectively. The 1000mg kg"−"1 nZVI caused the highest suppression rates for chlorophyll and carotenoids, at 91.6% and 85.2%, respectively. In addition, the activity of antioxidant enzymes was altered by the translocation of nanoparticles and changes in active iron content. Visible symptoms of iron deficiency were observed at higher concentrations, at which the active iron content decreased 61.02% in the shoots, but the active iron content not decreased in roots. Interestingly, the total and available amounts of iron in the soil were not less than those in the control. Therefore, the plants iron deficiency was not caused by (i) deficiency of available iron in the soil and (ii) restraint of the absorption that plant takes in the available iron, while induced by (ⅲ) the transport of active iron from the root to the shoot was blocked. The cortex tissues were seriously damaged by nZVI which was transported from soil to the root, these were proved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). This current study shows that the mechanism of iron deficiency in rice seedling was due to transport of active iron from the root to the shoot blocked, which was caused by the uptake of nZVI. - Highlights: • Higher concentrations of nZVI induced iron deficiency in rice seedlings visibly. • nZVI was taken in rice seedlings and transported form root to shoot. • The pathway of active iron transport from root to shoot was inhibited. • The cortex tissues

  5. Corrosion electrochemical behaviors of silane coating coated magnesium alloy in NaCl solution containing cerium nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, F.; Li, Q.; Zhong, X.K.; Gao, H.; Dai, Y.; Chen, F.N. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University Chongqing (China)

    2012-02-15

    Sol-gel coatings cannot provide adequate corrosion protection for metal/alloys in the corrosive environments due to their high crack-forming potential. This paper demonstrates the possibility to employ cerium nitrate as inhibitor to decrease the corrosion development of sol-gel-based silane coating on the magnesium alloy in NaCl solution. Cerium nitrate was added into the NaCl solution where the silane coating coated magnesium alloy was immersed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine surface morphology of the silane coating coated magnesium alloy immersed in NaCl solutions doped and undoped with cerium nitrate. The corrosion electrochemical behaviors were investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The results showed that the introduction of cerium nitrate into NaCl solution could effectively inhibit the corrosion of the silane coating coated magnesium alloy. Moreover, the influence of concentration of cerium nitrate on the corrosion inhibition and the possible inhibiting mechanism were also discussed in detail. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Liquid Scintillation Counting Standardization of {sup 2}2NaCl by te CIEMAT/NIST method; Calibracion por Centelleo Liquido del ''22NaCl, mediante el metodo CIEMAT/NIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1995-07-01

    We describe a procedure for preparing a stable solution of ''22NaCl for liquid scintillation counting and its counting stability and spectral evolution in Insta-Gel''R is studied. The solution has been standardised in terms of activity concentration by the CIEMAT/NIST method with discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies lower than 0.4 % and an overall uncertainty of 0.35 %. (Author) 4 refs.

  7. Mixed microalgae consortia growth under higher concentration of CO2 from unfiltered coal fired flue gas: Fatty acid profiling and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Ambreen; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Manzoor, Maleeha; Jabeen, Faiza; Iqbal, Munawar; Uz Zaman, Qamar; Schenk, Peer M; Asif Tahir, M

    2018-02-01

    Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from oleaginous microalgae feedstock. Biodiesel fuel properties were studied and compared with biodiesel standards. Qualitative analysis of FAME was done while cultivating mixed microalgae consortia under three concentrations of coal fired flue gas (1%, 3.0% and 5.5% CO 2 ). Under 1% CO 2 concentration (flue gas), the FAME content was 280.3 μg/mL, whereas the lipid content was 14.03 μg/mL/D (day). Both FAMEs and lipid contents were low at other CO 2 concentrations (3.0 and 5.5%). However, mixed consortia in the presence of phosphate buffer and flue gas (PB + FG) showed higher saturated fatty acids (SFA) (36.28%) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (63.72%) versus 5.5% CO 2 concentration, which might be responsible for oxidative stability of biodiesel. Subsequently, higher cetane number (52) and low iodine value (136.3 gI 2 /100 g) biodiesel produced from mixed consortia (PB + FG) under 5.5% CO 2 along with 50 mM phosphate buffer were found in accordance with European (EN 14214) standard. Results revealed that phosphate buffer significantly enhanced the biodiesel quality, but reduced the FAME yield. This study intended to develop an integrated approach for significant improvement in biodiesel quality under surplus phosphorus by utilizing waste flue gas (as CO 2 source) using microalgae. The CO 2 sequestration from industrial flue gas not only reduced greenhouse gases, but may also ensure the sustainable and eco-benign production of biodiesel. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Influence of chloride ion concentration on the electrochemical corrosion behaviour of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AM50 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Srinivasan, P. Bala; Blawert, C.; Dietzel, W.

    2010-01-01

    The electrochemical degradation of a silicate- and a phosphate-based plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coated AM50 magnesium alloy obtained using a pulsed DC power supply was investigated using potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in NaCl solutions of different chloride ion concentrations viz., 0.01 M, 0.1 M, 0.5 M and 1 M. The surface of the PEO coated specimens after 50 h of immersion/EIS testing was examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the corrosion deterioration of PEO coated magnesium alloy in NaCl solutions was significantly influenced by chloride ion concentration. The silicate-based coating was found to offer a superior corrosion resistance to the magnesium substrate than the phosphate-based coatings in lower chloride ion concentration NaCl solutions (0.01 M and 0.1 M NaCl). On the other hand both these PEO coatings were found to be highly susceptible to localized damage, and could not provide an effective corrosion protection to Mg alloy substrate in solutions containing higher chloride concentrations (0.5 M and 1 M). The extent of localized damage was observed to be more with increase in chloride concentration in both the cases.

  9. Relationship between NaCl- and H2O2-induced cytosolic Ca2+ increases in response to stress in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghao Jiang

    Full Text Available Salinity is among the environmental factors that affect plant growth and development and constrain agricultural productivity. Salinity stress triggers increases in cytosolic free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+]i via Ca(2+ influx across the plasma membrane. Salinity stress, as well as other stresses, induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. It is well established that ROS also triggers increases in [Ca(2+]i. However, the relationship and interaction between salinity stress-induced [Ca(2+]i increases and ROS-induced [Ca(2+]i increases remain poorly understood. Using an aequorin-based Ca(2+ imaging assay we have analyzed [Ca(2+]i changes in response to NaCl and H2O2 treatments in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that NaCl and H2O2 together induced larger increases in [Ca(2+]i in Arabidopsis seedlings than either NaCl or H2O2 alone, suggesting an additive effect on [Ca(2+]i increases. Following a pre-treatment with either NaCl or H2O2, the subsequent elevation of [Ca(2+]i in response to a second treatment with either NaCl or H2O2 was significantly reduced. Furthermore, the NaCl pre-treatment suppressed the elevation of [Ca(2+]i seen with a second NaCl treatment more than that seen with a second treatment of H2O2. A similar response was seen when the initial treatment was with H2O2; subsequent addition of H2O2 led to less of an increase in [Ca(2+]i than did addition of NaCl. These results imply that NaCl-gated Ca(2+ channels and H2O2-gated Ca(2+ channels may differ, and also suggest that NaCl- and H2O2-evoked [Ca(2+]i may reduce the potency of both NaCl and H2O2 in triggering [Ca(2+]i increases, highlighting a feedback mechanism. Alternatively, NaCl and H2O2 may activate the same Ca(2+ permeable channel, which is expressed in different types of cells and/or activated via different signaling pathways.

  10. Métodos instrumentales para la determinación de NaCl en las salmueras de aceitunas

    OpenAIRE

    García García, P.; Brenes Balbuena, M.; Garrido Fernández, A.

    1991-01-01

    Aplicability of flame photometric and ion selective (sodium or chloride) methods to determinate NaCI concentration in olive brines in comparison with the official one (Volhard), which uses AgNO3, is studied. According to the results using standard solutions or fermentative olive brines without previous lye treatment, no proportional systematic or constant systematic errors are detected and the percentaje of NaCl is evaluated by them with the same accuracy as by the...

  11. NaCl salinity affects lateral root development in Plantago maritima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, M; Wenisch, J; Elzenga, JTM; Stulen, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    Root growth and morphology were assessed weekly in hydroponically-grown seedlings of the halophyte Plantago maritima L. during exposure to 0, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl for 21 d. Relative growth rate was reduced by 25% at 200 mM NaCl. The lower NaCl treatments did not affect relative growth rates.

  12. Influence of 8-aminoquinoline on the corrosion behaviour of copper in 0.1 M NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubillos, M.; Sancy, M.; Pavez, J.; Vargas, E.; Urzua, R.; Henriquez-Roman, J.; Tribollet, B.; Zagal, J.H.; Paez, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of copper in aerated 0.1 M NaCl solution in presence of 8-aminoquinoline (8-AQ), using open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM), was studied. The measurements revealed that the effect of 8-AQ is dependent on its concentration. For concentrations up to 10 -3 M, the organic compound displaces the corrosion potential following no trend and also reduces the anodic current. In contrast, for concentrations higher than 10 -3 , 8-AQ reduces markedly both, the anodic and cathodic currents and consequently, the corrosion current density of copper. After 9 days of exposure in chloride solution, containing the organic compound, potentiodynamic polarization analyses showed a significant reduction in the anodic response and a less significant reduction in the cathodic response, which is associated with a film formed at the copper surface of about 10 μm in thickness and visually observed by a colour change of the copper surface. In order to elucidate the most likely interaction between the 8-AQ molecule and the different molecular structures probably present on copper surfaces in chloride solutions, some results obtained from theoretical calculations are presented. The following molecular structures were considered: CuCl molecule, CuCl 2 - complex, and little copper clusters defect representation built as five atoms on C 4v symmetry. Thus, based on the geometric, energetic, frontier orbital, and Total Electronic Density analysis done for the optimized states found for the systems investigated, we suggest that the most probable interaction of 8-AQ proceeds above CuCl units and free copper sites.

  13. Effect of NaCl salinity on the germination and seedling growth of some medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Z; Hussain, F [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Botany

    2010-04-15

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Plantago ovata Forssk., and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were tested in 0.05 (Control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl. ANOVA revealed highly significant differences for plumule growth while germination percentage, radicle growth, seedling fresh and dry weight and moisture contents showed non-significant variation under various salt concentrations. However, the differences among the species for all the parameters studied were highly significant. The findings suggest that these medicinal species might tolerate moderate levels of salinity and can be tried for cultivation on marginal salted soils. (author)

  14. Vegetative growth performance of five medicinal plants under NaCl salt stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Z; Hussain, F [University of Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Botany

    2010-02-15

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L., Plantago ovata Forssk, and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were grown in pots containing loamy soil with 0.21(Control) 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl to see their salinity tolerance. Various concentrations of salt had a highly significant effect upon the survival %age, plant height, number of branches, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root moisture contents. Number of leaves also varied significantly. However, leaf length and shoot moisture contents exhibited non-significant differences. Differences among the test species for all the parameters under consideration were also highly significant. The findings suggest that the test species are tolerant to moderate salinity i.e., 7.5 dS/m and might be tried on saline soils to obtain some biomass. (author)

  15. vegetative growth performance of five medicinal plants under NaCl salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Hussain, F.

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Nigella sativa L., Plantago ovata Forssk, and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were grown in pots containing loamy soil with 0.21(Control) 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl to see their salinity tolerance. Various concentrations of salt had a highly significant effect upon the survival %age, plant height, number of branches, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root moisture contents. Number of leaves also varied significantly. However, leaf length and shoot moisture contents exhibited non-significant differences. Differences among the test species for all the parameters under consideration were also highly significant. The findings suggest that the test species are tolerant to moderate salinity i.e., 7.5 dS/m and might be tried on saline soils to obtain some biomass. (author)

  16. Effect of NaCl salinity on the germination and seedling growth of some medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Hussain, F.

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of Lepidium sativum L., Linum usitatissimum L., Plantago ovata Forssk., and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were tested in 0.05 (Control), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, or 15.0 dS/m concentration of NaCl. ANOVA revealed highly significant differences for plumule growth while germination percentage, radicle growth, seedling fresh and dry weight and moisture contents showed non-significant variation under various salt concentrations. However, the differences among the species for all the parameters studied were highly significant. The findings suggest that these medicinal species might tolerate moderate levels of salinity and can be tried for cultivation on marginal salted soils. (author)

  17. Superior integrin activating capacity and higher adhesion to fibrinogen matrix in buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates (PCs) compared to PRP-PCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshkar, Pezhman; Hosseini, Ehteramolsadat; Ghasemzadeh, Mehran

    2018-02-01

    Regardless of different sources, methods or devices which are applied for preparation of therapeutic platelets, these products are generally isolated from whole blood by the sedimentation techniques which are based on PRP or buffy coat (BC) separation. As a general fact, platelet preparation and storage are also associated with some deleterious changes that known as platelet storage lesion (PSL). Although these alternations in platelet functional activity are aggravated during storage, whether technical issues within preparation can affect integrin activation and platelet adhesion to fibrinogen were investigated in this study. PRP- and BC-platelet concentrates (PCs) were subjected to flowcytometry analysis to examine the expression of platelet activation marker, P-selectin as well as active confirmation of the GPIIb/IIIa (α IIb β 3 ) on day 0, 1, 3 and 5 post-storage. Platelet adhesion to fibrinogen matrix was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Glucose concentration and LDH activity were also measured by colorimetric methods. The increasing P-selectin expression during storage was in a reverse correlation with PAC-1 binding (r = -0.67; p = .001). PRP-PCs showed the higher level of P-selectin expression than BC-PCs, whereas the levels of PAC-1 binding and platelet adhesion to fibrinogen matrix were significantly lower in PRP-PCs. Higher levels of active confirmation of the GPIIb/IIIa in BC-PCs were also associated with greater concentration of glucose in these products. We demonstrated the superior capacities of integrin activation and adhesion to fibrinogen for BC-PCs compared to those of PRP-PCs. These findings may provide more advantages for BC method of platelet preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrolytic coloration of O22--doped NaCl crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Fang; Gu Hongen; Song Cuiying; Wang Na; Guo Meili; Wang Fen; Liu Jia

    2007-01-01

    O 2 2- -doped NaCl crystals are colored electrolytically by using a pointed cathode and a flat anode at various temperatures and voltages, which mainly benefit from appropriate coloration temperatures and voltages as well as anode structure of used electrolysis apparatus. Characteristic OH - , U, V 2 m , U A , V 2 , V 3 , O 2- -V a + complex, F, R 1 , R 2 and M absorption bands are observed in absorption spectra of the colored crystals. Production and conversion of color centers in electrolytic coloration is explained. Current-time curves for electrolytic colorations and their relationships with electrolytic colorations were given

  19. P2Y2 receptor knock-out mice display normal NaCl absorption in medullary thick ascending limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Delgado Marques

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Local purinergic signals modulate renal tubular transport. Acute activation of renal epithelial P2 receptors causes inhibition of epithelial transport and thus, should favor increased water and salt excretion by the kidney. So far only a few studies have addressed the effects of extracellular nucleotides on ion transport in the thick ascending limb. In the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL, basolateral P2X receptors markedly (~25% inhibit NaCl absorption. Although this segment does express both apical and basolateral P2Y2 receptors, acute activation of the basolateral P2Y2 receptors had no apparent effect on transepithelial ion transport. Here we studied, if the absence of the P2Y2 receptor causes chronic alterations in mTAL NaCl absorption by comparing basal and AVP-stimulated transepithelial transport rates. We used perfused mouse mTALs to electrically measure NaCl absorption in juvenile (35 days male mice. Using microelectrodes, we determined the transepithelial voltage (Vte and the transepithelial resistance (Rte and thus, transepithelial NaCl absorption (equivalent short circuit current, I’sc.We find that mTALs from adult wild type (WT mice have significantly lower NaCl absorption rates when compared to mTALs from juvenile WT mice. This could be attributed to significantly higher Rte values in mTALs from adult WT mice. This pattern was not observed in mTALs from P2Y2 receptor knockout (KO mice. In addition, adult P2Y2 receptor KO mTALs have significantly lower Vte values compared to the juvenile. No difference in absolute I´sc was observed when comparing mTALs from WT and KO mice. AVP stimulated the mTALs to similar increases of NaCl absorption irrespective of the absence of the P2Y2 receptor. No difference was observed in the medullary expression level of NKCC2 in between the genotypes.These data indicate that the lack of P2Y2 receptors does not cause substantial differences in resting and AVP-stimulated NaCl absorption in

  20. Measurement and modeling of CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Huang, Shengli; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    over climate change and energy security. This work is an experimental and modeling study of two fundamental properties in high pressure CO2–NaCl brine equilibrium, i.e., CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density. A literature review of the available data was presented first...

  1. The growth of hydroxyapatite on alkaline treated Ti-6Al-4V soaking in higher temperature with concentrated Ca2+/HPO42- simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, F.-H.; Hsu, Y.-S.; Lin, S.-H.; Chen, T.-M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, calcium and phosphorous ions in the simulated body fluid (SBF) was be increased to increase the rate of precipitation of hydroxyapatite (HA). The soaking temperature in concentrated calcium and phosphorous ion-SBF (CP-SBF) was increased to reduce the nucleation energy of the HA, which lead to an early precipitation to shorten the treatment process. When the metallic substrates treated with 10 M NaOH aqueous solution and subsequently heated at 600 deg. C, a thin sodium titanium oxide layer was formed on the surfaces as the linking layer for HA and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. After Ti-6Al-4V alloys treated with alkali solution, it would soak into a simulated body fluid with higher concentration of calcium and phosphorous ions (CP-SBF) to increase the possibility of nucleation of HA. When Ti-6Al-4V alloys treated with alkali solution, subsequently heated at 600 deg. C, and then soaked into CP-SBF at a temperature of 80 deg. C, it could form a dense and thick (50 μm) bone-like hydroxyapatite layer on the surface. The HA layer was appeared on the surface of the Ti-alloy at the first week soaking, which was greatly shorten the coating process. In the research, the characteristics of the coating layer will be analyzed by the results of X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR)

  2. Different Levels in Orexin Concentrations and Risk Factors Associated with Higher Orexin Levels: Comparison between Detoxified Opiate and Methamphetamine Addicts in 5 Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to explore the degree of orexin levels in Chinese opiate and methamphetamine addicts and the differences between them. The cross-sectional study was conducted among detoxified drug addicts from Mandatory Detoxification Center (MDC in five Chinese cities. Orexin levels were assayed with radioimmunoassay (RIA. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to detect differences across groups, and logistic regression was used to explore the association between orexin levels and characteristics of demographic and drug abuse. Between November 2009 and January 2011, 285 opiates addicts, 112 methamphetamine addicts, and 79 healthy controls were enrolled. At drug withdrawal period, both opiate and methamphetamine addicts had lower median orexin levels than controls, and median orexin levels in opiate addicts were higher than those in methamphetamine addicts (all above P<0.05. Adjusted odds of the above median concentration of orexin were higher for injection than “chasing the dragon” (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.2–7.9. No significant factors associated with orexin levels of methamphetamine addicts were found. Development of intervention method on orexin system by different administration routes especially for injected opiate addicts at detoxification phase may be significant and was welcome.

  3. Impaired NaCl taste thresholds in Zn deprived rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosvic, G.M.; Slotnick, B.M.; Nelson, N.; Henkin, R.I.

    1986-01-01

    Zn deficiency is a relatively common cause of loss of taste acuity in humans. In some patients replacement with exogenous Zn results in rapid reversal of the loss whereas in others prolonged treatment is needed to restore normal taste function. To study this 300 gm outbred Sprague Dawley rats were given Zn deficient diet (< 1 ppm Zn) supplemented with Zn in drinking water (0.1 gm Zn/100 gm body weight). Rats were trained in an automated operant conditions procedure and NaCl taste thresholds determined. During an initial training period and over two replications mean thresholds were 0.006% and mean plasma Zn was 90 +/- 2 μg/dl (M +/- SEM) determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Rats were then divided into two groups; in one (3 rats) Zn supplement was removed, in the other (4 rats), pair-fed with the former group, Zn supplement was continued. In 10 days NaCl thresholds in Zn deprived rats increased significantly (0.07%, p < 0.01) and in 17 days increased 13 fold (0.08%) but thresholds for pair fed, supplemented rats remained constant (0.006%). There was no overlap in response between any rat in the two groups. Plasma Zn at 17 days in Zn-deprived rats was significantly below pair-fed rats (52 +/- 13 vs 89 +/- 6 μg/dl, respectively, P < 0.01). At this time Zn-deprived rats were supplemented with Zn for 27 days without any reduction in taste thresholds. These preliminary results are consistent with previous observations in Zn deficient patients

  4. Osmotic and ionic effects of NaCl and Na2SO4 salinity on Phragmites australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagter, Majken; Bragato, Claudia; Malagoli, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Osmotic and ion-specific effects of NaCl and Na2SO4 on Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex. Steud. were investigated in a laboratory experiment by examining effects of iso-osmotic solutions of NaCl and Na2SO4 on growth, osmolality of cell sap, proline content, elemental composition and gas exchange....... Plants were supplied with a control standard nutrient solution (Ψ = -0.09 MPa) or solutions of NaCl or Na2SO4 at water potentials of -0.50, -1.09 or -1.74 MPa. Salt treatments increased root concentrations of Na and S or Cl, whereas P. australis had efficient mechanisms for exclusion of Na and S...... and partly Cl ions from the leaves. Incomplete exclusion of Cl from the leaves may affect aboveground biomass production, which was significantly more reduced by NaCl than Na2SO4. Stomatal conductance was negatively influenced by decreasing water potentials caused by NaCl or Na2SO4, implying that a non...

  5. Simulation of NaCl and KCl mass transfer during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation: a numerical solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bona

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The association of dietary NaCl with arterial hypertension has led to a reduction in the levels of this salt in cheeses. For salting, KCl has been used as a partial substitute for NaCl, which cannot be completely substituted without affecting product acceptability. In this study a sensorially adequate saline solution (NaCl/KCl was simultaneously diffused during salting of Prato cheese in brine with agitation. The simultaneous multicomponent diffusion during the process was modeled with Fick’s second generalized law. The system of partial differential equations formed was solved by the finite element method (FEM. In the experimental data concentration the deviation for NaCl was of 7.3% and for KCl of 5.4%, both of which were considered acceptable. The simulation of salt diffusion will allow control and modulation of salt content in Prato cheese, permitting the prediction of final content from initial conditions.

  6. Piriformospora indica inoculation alleviates the adverse effect of NaCl stress on growth, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, A; Razavi, S M; Ghasemi Omran, V O; Pirdashti, H

    2018-03-25

    Salinity is now an increasingly serious environmental issue that affects the growth and yield of many plants. In the present work, the influence of inoculation with the symbiotic fungus, Piriformospora indica, on gas exchange, water potential, osmolyte content, Na/K ratio and chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato plants under three salinity levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 mm NaCl) and three time periods (5, 10 and 15 days after exposure to salt) was investigated. Results indicate that P. indica inoculation improved growth parameters of tomato under salinity stress. This symbiotic fungus significantly increased photosynthetic pigment content under salinity, and more proline and glycine betaine accumulated in inoculated roots than in non-inoculated roots. P. indica further significantly improved K + content and reduced Na + level under salinity treatment. After inoculation with the endophytic fungus, leaf physiological parameters, such as water potential, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration, were all higher under the salt concentrations and durations compared with controls without P. indica. With increasing salt level and salt treatment duration, values of F 0 and qP increased but F m , F v /F m , F' v /F' m and NPQ declined in the controls, while inoculation with P. indica improved these values. The results indicate that the negative effects of NaCl on tomato plants were alleviated after P. indica inoculation, probably by improving physiological parameters such as water status and photosynthesis. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Higher Urinary Heavy Metal, Phthalate, and Arsenic but Not Parabens Concentrations in People with High Blood Pressure, U.S. NHANES, 2011–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Shiue

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Link between environmental chemicals and human health has emerged but not been completely examined in risk factors. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of different sets of urinary environmental chemical concentrations and risk of high blood pressure (BP in a national, population-based study. Data were retrieved from United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011–2012 including demographics, BP readings, and urinary environmental chemical concentrations. Analyses included chi-square test, t-test and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling. After full adjustment (adjusting for urinary creatinine, age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index, urinary cesium (OR 1.56, 95%CI 1.11–2.20, P = 0.014, molybden (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.06–2.01, P = 0.023, manganese (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.09–1.86, P = 0.012, lead (OR 1.58, 95%CI 1.28–1.96, P < 0.001, tin (OR 1.44, 95%CI 1.25–1.66, P < 0.001, antimony (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.10–1.77, P = 0.010, and tungsten (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.25–1.77, P < 0.001 concentrations were observed to be associated with high BP. People with higher urinary mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.00–1.62, P = 0.006, mono-n-butyl phthalate (OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.13–1.62, P = 0.002, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.05–1.49, P = 0.014, mono-n-methyl phthalate (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.07–1.48, P = 0.007, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.07–1.48, P = 0.009, and monobenzyl phthalate (OR 1.40, 95%CI 1.15–1.69, P = 0.002 tended to have high BP as well. However, there are no clear associations between environmental parabens and high BP, nor between pesticides and high BP. In addition, trimethylarsine oxide (OR 2.47, 95%CI 1.27–4.81, P = 0.011 and dimethylarsonic acid concentrations (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.12–1.79, P = 0.006 were seen to be associated with high BP. In sum, urinary heavy metal, phthalate, and arsenic concentrations were associated with high BP, although the

  8. Geochemical models of the precipitation of halite (NaCl) in gas fields; Modelamiento geoquimico de la precipitacion de Halita (NaCl) en yacimientos de gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombana O, Jose L; Jaramillo, Elizabeth A; Alzate E, Guillermo A

    2005-07-01

    The reservoir modeling is a tool that every day takes more importance in the petroleum industry due to multiple problems presented an also that can be afforded by it during the production of reservoir fluids from the porous media in petroleum reservoir. One of these is the formation damage which is reflected as a petrophysic properties change, caused among other factors by the scale precipitation of halite (NaCl) as a consequence of the original state alteration and thermodynamic balance disruption between the porous media and the fluids inside by the gas flow. By the gas flow over the connate water, the porous media reduce its water saturation due to water transferring from liquid to gas state. In this study, a numeric model is developed to model the formation damage for halite precipitation. The model covers one-dimensional monophasic and iso thermic gas flow and evaluates the porosity and permeability changes of porous media due to halite precipitation. The model application for different conditions of temperature, connate water salinity, water saturation,and porosity indicates the following: the biggest damage is caused to the beginning of the porous media,temperature influences considerably the water vaporization rate and therefore the amount of halite precipitation, the lower the porosity of the porous media the bigger the formation damage degree, and finally, higher salinity and water saturation for the connate water in the porous media higher the formation damage degree is reached by the gas flow.

  9. The effect of temperature and concentration on the corrosion inhibition mechanism of an amphiphilic amido-amine in CO2 saturated solution

    OpenAIRE

    Desimone, Paula Mariela; Gordillo, Gabriel Jorge; Simison, Silvia Noemi

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition mechanism of the N-[2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]ethyl]-9-octadecenamide on mild steel surface in CO2-saturated 5% NaCl solution has been studied. The inhibition efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. Adsorption of the inhibitor studied is found to follow the Frumkin adsorption isotherm. EIS results show that the mechanism of its corrosion inhibition at concentrations higher than critical micelle concentration is by forming a protective porous bi-layer. The a...

  10. Increased frequency and severity of developmental deformities in rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa) embryos exposed to road deicing salts (NaCl and MgCl2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Gareth R.; French, Susannah S.; Brodie, Edmund D.

    2013-01-01

    Road-side aquatic ecosystems in North America are annually polluted with millions of tons of road deicing salts, which threaten the survival of amphibians which live and breed in these habitats. While much is known of the effects of NaCl, little is known of the second most-commonly used deicer, MgCl 2 , which is now used exclusively in parts of the continent. Here we report that environmentally relevant concentrations of both NaCl and MgCl 2 cause increased incidence of developmental deformities in rough-skinned newt hatchlings that developed embryonically in these salts. In addition, we provide some of the first quantification of severity of different deformities, and reveal that increased salt concentrations increase both deformity frequency and severity. Our work contributes to the growing body of literature that suggests salamanders and newts are particularly vulnerable to salt, and that the emerging pollutant, MgCl 2 is comparable in its effects to the more traditionally-used NaCl. - Highlights: ► Rough-skinned newt embryos were raised in NaCl and MgCl 2 road deicing salts. ► We quantified the frequency and severity of resulting developmental deformities. ► Both salts caused increased frequency and severity of developmental deformities. ► Effects of MgCl 2 , an emerging stressor, are comparable to traditionally-used NaCl. ► Newts and salamanders may be more susceptible to road salt than frogs and toads. - Two commonly used road deicing salts, NaCl and MgCl 2 , caused increased frequency and severity of developmental deformities in rough-skinned newt embryos.

  11. Corrosion mitigation of J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution by a macrocyclic inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ambrish [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation (Southwest Petroleum University), Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Department of Chemistry, LFTS, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144402 (India); Lin, Yuanhua, E-mail: yhlin28@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation (Southwest Petroleum University), Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Obot, I.B. [Centre of Research Excellence in Corrosion, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Ebenso, Eno E. [Department of Chemistry, School of Mathematical & Physical Sciences, North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735 (South Africa); Material Science Innovation & Modelling (MaSIM) Focus Area, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735 (South Africa); Ansari, K.R.; Quraishi, M.A. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: SECM studies revealed decrease of steady current in the presence of inhibitor while it increased for 3.5% NaCl solution that acted as the conductor. - Highlights: • J55 steel protection in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO{sub 2} by HPT. • Potentiodynamic polarization curves reveal that the actions of HPT are mixed type. • The adsorption of HPT obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. • Scanning electrochemical microscopy is used to discuss the insulated and conductive surface. - Abstract: 1,2,4,7,9,10-Hexaazacyclo-pentadeca-10,15-dien-3,5,6,8-tetraone (HPT) a macrocyclic compound has been studied using electrochemical methods and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) techniques. The R{sub ct} values increased and C{sub dl} values decreased with the increase in concentration of the inhibitor. The corrosion inhibition of J55 steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution saturated with CO{sub 2} by polarization studies revealed that HPT acted as a mixed type inhibitor. The adsorption of HPT on the J55 steel surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters (K{sub ads}, ΔG°{sub ads}) were also computed and discussed.

  12. Corrosion mitigation of J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution by a macrocyclic inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ambrish; Lin, Yuanhua; Obot, I.B.; Ebenso, Eno E.; Ansari, K.R.; Quraishi, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: SECM studies revealed decrease of steady current in the presence of inhibitor while it increased for 3.5% NaCl solution that acted as the conductor. - Highlights: • J55 steel protection in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO 2 by HPT. • Potentiodynamic polarization curves reveal that the actions of HPT are mixed type. • The adsorption of HPT obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. • Scanning electrochemical microscopy is used to discuss the insulated and conductive surface. - Abstract: 1,2,4,7,9,10-Hexaazacyclo-pentadeca-10,15-dien-3,5,6,8-tetraone (HPT) a macrocyclic compound has been studied using electrochemical methods and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) techniques. The R ct values increased and C dl values decreased with the increase in concentration of the inhibitor. The corrosion inhibition of J55 steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution saturated with CO 2 by polarization studies revealed that HPT acted as a mixed type inhibitor. The adsorption of HPT on the J55 steel surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters (K ads , ΔG° ads ) were also computed and discussed.

  13. A dynamic model for the nitrification of higher concentrated wastewaters and control by experiments; Ein dynamisches Prozessmodell fuer die Nitrifikation hoeher belasteter Abwaesser und praktische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirsing, A. [Siemens AG, Anlagentechnik ANL A73, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wiesmann, U. [Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik, Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1995-07-01

    Wastewater with high ammonia concentration is produced by many industries. However, the removal of higher loaded industrial effluents still poses many questions. Dynamic modelling is helpful to understand the process of nitrification and to investigate algorithms of process control. Therefore, a dynamic model of nitrification in completely mixed reactors is proposed based on mass balances for the components ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, nitrosomonas and nitrobacter. The biological reaction rates consider oxygen limitation and substrate inhibition. The process model presented it tested by lab scale experiments using an aerated stirred tank reactor. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird ein mathematisches Prozessmodell fuer die Nitrifikation von Industrieabwaessern mit hoher Ammoniumkonzentration vorgestellt, das bislang vernachlaessigte Phaenomene wie z.B. Substratueberschusshemmung und Sauerstofflimitierung beruecksichtigt. Als theoretische Grundlage dienen Bilanzgleichungen fuer insgesamt acht Komponenten. Das Simulationsmodell wird durch den Vergleich mit experimentellen Ergebnissen aus einer Laborversuchsanlage auf seine Richtigkeit ueberprueft. In dem Beitrag werden auf diesem Modell basierende Anwendungsbeispiele behandelt. So werden die Moeglichkeiten der dynamischen Prozesssimulation zur Steigerung der Betriebsstabilitaet bei schwankenden Zulaufkonzentrationen und -volumenstroemen gezeigt. Darueber hinaus gelingt die Rekonstruktion der Umsatzraten r(O{sub 2}) und r(NH{sub 3}) aus der Sauerstoff- und Kohlendioxidkonzentration in der Abluft. (orig.)

  14. Effect of pH and chloride on the micro-mechanism of pitting corrosion for high strength pipeline steel in aerated NaCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yafei; Cheng, Guangxu; Wu, Wei; Qiao, Qiao; Li, Yun; Li, Xiufeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pitting behavior of X80 steel in aerated NaCl solutions is studied systematically. • Unique large pit morphology is observed in neutral/acidic NaCl solutions. • In low pH solutions, pit will propagate in the horizontal direction, leading to the shallow shape of pitting morphology; in high pH solutions, the pit sizes are much smaller. • Film growth, which is dependent on the pH and chloride concentration, has great influence on the cathodic reaction by affecting oxygen diffusion process. - Abstract: The pitting corrosion mechanism of high strength pipeline steel in aerated NaCl solutions with different pH and chloride content was investigated, using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The pitting behavior in alkaline solutions was found to be significantly different from that in neutral and acidic solutions. Electrochemical results and SEM images indicate that the product film formed on the steel surface results in different corrosion behavior in an alkaline solution. SEM images show that pH and chloride concentration in the bulk solution have a great influence on the pitting morphology. Unique large pit morphology due to corrosion in neutral/acidic solutions with 0.05 mol/L NaCl was observed. The relationship between solution pH and the effect of chloride concentration is also discussed

  15. Some studies about the NaCl:Ca2+ :Mn2+ and NaCl: Cd2+ :Mn2+ dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdiguel G, H.; Flores J, C.; Camarillo G, E.; Espejel P, R.; Cabrera B, E.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H.; Cruz Z, E.; Ramos B, S.; Negron, A.

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays, a great interest by counting with dosemeters of characteristics such as a high stability, of easy operation and easier production exists. Looking for a commitment with all these characteristics,a possibility to use the system NaCl: Ca 2+ :Mn 2+ and NaCl: Cd 2+ :Mn 2+ as dosemeters was studied. The studies were realized irradiating with gamma radiation from a 60 Co source. The crystals that were used as samples did not suffer any thermal treatment previous to irradiation. The supplied doses were 10, 30, 60, 100, 300, and 600 rads. 24 hours after irradiation the thermoluminescent response was obtained. In the case of the system NaCl: Ca 2+ :Mn 2+ several thermoluminescent bands were observed (BTL). Two concentrations of Mn 2+ with only one concentration of Ca 2+ (1%) were studied. For the case of the smaller concentration of Mn 2+ (0.1%) 4 BTL were observed, whereas for a greater concentration (0.3%) just 2 BTL were detected. The positions of the maximum of the BTL peaks differ for both concentrations, this possible due to what the nature of the traps for both cases differs by the type of precipitates present in the net. For the case of the system NaCl: Cd 2+ (1%) :Mn 2+ (0.1% and 0.5%) a similar situation to the previous was found, although in this case for both manganese concentrations just 2 BTL were observed; however all the peaks seem to be the superposition of several bands. Despite the apparent complexity of the thermoluminescent response, such response as function of the dose shows that both systems present a stable response to gamma radiation in the interval from 10 to 600 rads. In the case of calcium it is had a response of linear type of the Tl intensity depending on the dose, whereas for the cadmium system a supra linear response seems to exist. Nowadays, studies for determining the BTL origin being carried out. (Author)

  16. Clostridium tyrobutyricum strains show wide variation in growth at different NaCl, pH, and temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruusunen, Marjo; Surakka, Anu; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2012-10-01

    Outgrowth from Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores in milk can lead to butyric acid fermentation in cheeses, causing spoilage and economical loss to the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth of 10 C. tyrobutyricum strains at different NaCl, pH, and temperature conditions. Up to 7.5-fold differences among the maximum growth rates of different strains in the presence of 2.0% NaCl were observed. Five of 10 strains were able to grow in the presence of 3.0% NaCl, while a NaCl concentration of 3.5% was completely inhibitory to all strains. Seven of 10 strains were able to grow at pH 5.0, and up to 4- and 12.5-fold differences were observed among the maximum growth rates of different strains at pH 5.5 and 7.5, respectively. The maximum growth temperatures varied from 40.2 to 43.3°C. The temperature of 10°C inhibited the growth of all strains, while 8 of 10 strains grew at 12 and 15°C. Despite showing no growth, all strains were able to survive at 10°C. In conclusion, wide variation was observed among different C. tyrobutyricum strains in their ability to grow at different stressful conditions. Understanding the physiological diversity among the strains is important when designing food control measures and predictive models for the growth of spoilage organisms in cheese.

  17. The effect of NaCl on room-temperature-processed indium oxide nanoparticle thin films for printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Häming, M., E-mail: Marc.Haeming@yahoo.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Baby, T.T. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Garlapati, S.K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, KIT-TUD Joint Research Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Jovanka-Bontschits-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Krause, B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hahn, H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, KIT-TUD Joint Research Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Jovanka-Bontschits-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Helmholtz Institute Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Dasgupta, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry (ITCP), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4003 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The effect of NaCl ink additive on indium oxide nanoparticle thin films is analyzed. • NaCl changes the thin film morphology and its chemical structure. • NaCl decomposes the nanoparticle shell leading to lower charge transport barriers. • Explanation of the increase in field effect mobility from 1 to >12 cm{sup 2}/Vs. • Understanding of the ink drying process and the nanoparticle agglomeration behavior. - Abstract: One of the major challenges in flexible electronics industry is the fabrication of high-mobility field-effect transistors (FETs) at ambient conditions and on inexpensive polymer substrates compatible with roll-to-roll printing technology. In this context, a novel and general route towards room-temperature fabrication of printed FETs with remarkably high field-effect mobility (μ{sub FET}) above 12 cm{sup 2}/Vs has recently been developed. A detailed understanding of the chemical structure of the involved nanoparticle (NP) thin films, prepared by chemical flocculation, is essential for further optimization of the charge transport properties of such devices. In this study, we thus analyze indium oxide NP thin films with and without NaCl additive using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is demonstrated that the introduction of a sodium chloride additive to the ink leads to a strongly altered film morphology and a modification of the NP shell. The results suggest that, as a consequence of the additive, the charge-transport barriers between individual indium oxide NPs are lowered, facilitating long-range charge percolation paths despite the presence of a significant concentration of carbonaceous residues.

  18. IRSL characteristics of NaCl and KCl relative to dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanir, Guenes; Hicabi Boeluekdemir, M.; Catli, Serap; Tel, Eyyuep

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine and compare the dosimetric properties of NaCl and KCl samples using infrared-stimulated luminescence (IRSL) technique. For a material to be used as dosimeter, both the IRSL temperature dependence and the radiation dose response have critical importance. In this work the IRSL characteristics from NaCl and KCl samples were experimentally investigated as a function of temperature and laboratory radiation doses. Dosimetric properties of NaCl and KCl samples were found significantly different. The IRSL signals displayed by NaCl were found to be more stable, reliable and agreeable than those of KCl

  19. Direct synthesis of solid and hollow carbon nanospheres over NaCl crystals using acetylene by chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra Kishore, S.; Anandhakumar, S.; Sasidharan, M., E-mail: sasidharan.m@res.srmuniv.ac.in

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Hollow and solid carbon nanospheres were synthesized by CVD method. • NaCl was used as template for direct growth of carbon nanospheres. • Separation of NaCl from the mixture is made easy by dissolving in water. • The hollow carbon nanospheres exhibit high specific capacity in Li-ion batteries than the graphite anodes. - Abstract: Carbon nanospheres (CNS) with hollow and solid morphologies have been synthesised by a simple chemical vapour deposition method using acetylene as a carbon precursor. Sodium chloride (NaCl) powder as a template was used for the direct growth of CNS via facile and low-cost approach. The effect of various temperatures (500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C) and acetylene flow rates were investigated to study the structural evolution on the carbon products. The purified CNS thus obtained was characterized by various physicochemical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, and cyclicvoltametry. The synthesised hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. After 25 cycles of repeated charge/discharge cycles, the discharge and charge capacities were found to be 574 mAh/g and 570 mAh/g, respectively which are significantly higher than the commercial graphite samples.

  20. Effects of NaCl and seawater induced salinity on survival and reproduction of three soil invertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, C S; Lopes, I; Sousa, J P; Chelinho, S

    2015-09-01

    The increase of global mean temperature is raising serious concerns worldwide due to its potential negative effects such as droughts and melting of glaciers and ice caps leading to sea level rise. Expected impacts on soil compartment include floodings, seawater intrusions and use of saltwater for irrigation, with unknown effects on soil ecosystems and their inhabitants. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of salinisation on soil ecosystems due to sea level rise. The reproduction and mortality of three standard soil invertebrate species (Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus crypticus, Hypoaspis aculeifer) in standard artificial OECD soil spiked with serial dilutions of seawater/gradient of NaCl were evaluated according to standard guidelines. An increased sensitivity was observed in the following order: H. aculeifer≪E. crypticus≈F. candida consistent with the different exposure pathways: springtails and enchytraeids are exposed by ingestion and contact while mites are mainly exposed by ingestion due to a continuous and thick exoskeleton. Although small differences were observed in the calculated effect electrical conductivity values, seawater and NaCl induced the same overall effects (with a difference in the enchytraeid tests where a higher sensitivity was found in relation to NaCl). The adverse effects described in the present study are observed on soils not considered saline. Therefore, the actual limit to define saline soils (4000 μS cm(-1)) does not reflect the existing knowledge when considering soil fauna. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of tonicity on 22NaCl solution uptake by rabbit eye in vivo and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenberger, J.; Bartosova, D.; Babicky, A.

    1979-01-01

    Solutions of 22 NaCl in saline or distilled water differ with respect to their ocular uptake. Studies were performed on eyes of living rabbits as well on the enucleated rabbit eyes. Chromatographic paper strips (15x2 mm) were soaked in both solutions, stretched over the cornea and left in contact for 1 min. Radioactivities of paper strips and rabbit eyes were measured and the ocular uptake of 22 Na was expressed as percentual values of the total radioactivities contained in the paper strips before their application to the corneal surface. Values of the ocular uptake of 22 NaCl solved in distilled water exceeded more than twice the values found in experiments where 22 Na solution in saline was used. The use of carrier-free 22 NaCl solutions in distilled water is recommended for the method measuring the ocular uptake hydrodynamics on basis of ocular 22 Na clearance. Uptake of 22 Na in enucleated eyes was twenty-five per cent higher in comparison with the eyes of living rabitts. (author)

  2. MAPK-mediated regulation of growth and essential oil composition in a salt-tolerant peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Wang, Wenwen; Li, Guilong; Guo, Kai; Harvey, Paul; Chen, Quan; Zhao, Zhongjuan; Wei, Yanli; Li, Jishun; Yang, Hetong

    2016-11-01

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) is an important and commonly used flavoring agent worldwide, and salinity is a major stress that limits plant growth and reduces crop productivity. This work demonstrated the metabolic responses of essential oil production including the yield and component composition, gene expression, enzyme activity, and protein activation in a salt-tolerant peppermint Keyuan-1 with respect to NaCl stress. Our results showed that Keyuan-1 maintained normal growth and kept higher yield and content of essential oils under NaCl stress than wild-type (WT) peppermint.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and qPCR results showed that compared to WT seedlings, a 150-mM NaCl stress exerted no obvious changes in essential oil composition, transcriptional level of enzymes related to essential oil metabolism, and activity of pulegone reductase (Pr) in Keyuan-1 peppermint which preserved the higher amount of menthol and menthone as well as the lower content of menthofuran upon the 150-mM NaCl stress. Furthermore, it was noticed that a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein exhibited a time-dependent activation in the Keyuan-1 peppermint and primarily involved in the modulation of the essential oil metabolism in the transcript and enzyme levels during the 12-day treatment of 150 mM NaCl. In all, our data elucidated the effect of NaCl on metabolic responses of essential oil production, and demonstrated the MAPK-dependent regulation mechanism of essential oil biosynthesis in the salt-tolerant peppermint, providing scientific basis for the economic and ecological utilization of peppermint in saline land.

  3. Washout ratio of NaCl particles by raindrops, snowflakes and fog particles obtained using the large artificial climate experiment chamber at ACEF in IES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Hitoshi; Kondo, Kunio; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Akata, Naofumi; Chikuchi, Yuki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro; Komagata, Yuuetsu

    2007-01-01

    Scavenging of NaCl particles by rainfall, snowfall and fog was examined in a large artificial climate experiment chamber in which the meteorological elements were controlled. The scavenging coefficient of Na by rainfall and snowfall were obtained using Na concentrations in air and precipitation. The washout ratio of Na by fog was also measured using Na concentrations in air and fog water. The scavenging coefficients by snowfall were found to be larger than those by rainfall, and showed that the removal efficiency of the former was higher than that of the latter. The coefficients by both rainfall and snowfall increased linearly with precipitation intensity. When the average diameters of fog droplets were the same, the washout ratio of Na by fog increased with fog liquid water content. On the other hand, when liquid water contents were the same, the washout ratio decreased with increasing average diameter of fog droplets. The washout ratio of Na by fog exponentially increased with the total surface area of fog droplets. (author)

  4. Passivity of alloy C-22 in NaCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Martin A.; Carranza, Ricardo M.

    2004-01-01

    Alloy C-22 has been proposed as the corrosion resistant barrier of high-level waste nuclear containers. This alloy must be resistant to corrosion in multi-ionic solutions for a period of time as long as 10,000 years. The aim of the present work was to study the corrosion behavior of alloy C-22 in NaCl solutions. General and crevice corrosion were studied by means of electrochemical techniques. Open circuit potential was measured over the time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out at open circuit and passivity potentials, as well as cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves. Corrosion rates obtained by EIS measurements were acceptable for a waste nuclear container ( P ) values increased with open circuit potential and polarization time at constant potential. This was attributed to an increase in oxide film thickness and its aging respectively. The passive oxide form on alloy C-22 at the studied conditions presented a n-type semiconductor behavior in the passive potential range. Repassivation potential values (E R1 ) were determined for alloy C-22 at the studied conditions using PCA probes. (author) [es

  5. Accurate thermoelastic tensor and acoustic velocities of NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcondes, Michel L., E-mail: michel@if.usp.br [Physics Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 05508-090 (Brazil); Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States); Shukla, Gaurav, E-mail: shukla@physics.umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States); Minnesota supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States); Silveira, Pedro da [Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States); Wentzcovitch, Renata M., E-mail: wentz002@umn.edu [Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States); Minnesota supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 55455 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Despite the importance of thermoelastic properties of minerals in geology and geophysics, their measurement at high pressures and temperatures are still challenging. Thus, ab initio calculations are an essential tool for predicting these properties at extreme conditions. Owing to the approximate description of the exchange-correlation energy, approximations used in calculations of vibrational effects, and numerical/methodological approximations, these methods produce systematic deviations. Hybrid schemes combining experimental data and theoretical results have emerged as a way to reconcile available information and offer more reliable predictions at experimentally inaccessible thermodynamics conditions. Here we introduce a method to improve the calculated thermoelastic tensor by using highly accurate thermal equation of state (EoS). The corrective scheme is general, applicable to crystalline solids with any symmetry, and can produce accurate results at conditions where experimental data may not exist. We apply it to rock-salt-type NaCl, a material whose structural properties have been challenging to describe accurately by standard ab initio methods and whose acoustic/seismic properties are important for the gas and oil industry.

  6. Influence of Rhizobacterium Inoculation on NaCl Salinity Tolerance in Pusa Sukomal and RC101 Varieties of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhna Chaturvedi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in cowpea plants. In the present study, the effect of rhizobacterium strains BR2 and BR3 on the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. varieties—Pusa Sukomal and RC101—tolerance to 0, 25, 50, and 75 mM concentrations of NaCl salinity was evaluated. The rate of growth, in general, was high in plants irrigated with 25 mM NaCl saline water as compared to control, and thereafter, the growth reduced with increase in salinity concentrations. The results revealed that treating the seeds with rhizobacteria accompanied by NaCl salinity increased growth parameters of the cowpea plant as compared to the seeds irrigated with sodium chloride alone. Treatment with rhizobacteria mitigated the harmful effect of NaCl, and the growth was significantly better than the plants growing in saline water without rhizobacterium inoculation. The overall performance of Pusa Sukomal with BR3 strain was found to be better than the other combinations tested. Flowering in field plants started within 45 days of sowing, and the seeds in plants irrigated with saline water, in the presence of rhizobacterium, were found to be healthy as compared to control seeds. Seed protein profile was analyzed by SDS PAGE gel studies.

  7. Radiation damage studies on synthetic NaCl crystals and natural rock salt for waste disposal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaffky, R.W.; Swyler, K.J.; Levy, P.W.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation damage studies are being made on synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt crystals from various localities, including potential repository sites. Measurements are being made with equipment for recording the radiation induced F-center and colloid particle absorption bands during irradiation with 1.5 MeV electrons at various temperatures. A technique has been developed to resolve the overlapping F-center and colloid bands. The resulting spectra and curves of absorption vs. dose provide information on colloid particle size and concentration, activation energies for processes occurring during colloid formation, and additional data suggesting that both strain and radiation induced dislocations contribute to the colloid formation process

  8. Effect of mycorrhiza symbiosis on the Nacl salinity in Sorghum bicolor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine mycorrhizal symbiosis on the Nacl salinity tolerance in Sorghum bicolor (aspydfyd cultivar), an experiment with two factors was done in Damghan Islamic Azad University laboratory (Iran) in 2007. The first factor with two levels (mycorihizal and non-mycorihizal) and second factor with six levels Nacl ...

  9. Application of mutation breeding technique for producing NaCl tolerant plants of banana in tissue culture and greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedadi, C.; Rahimi, M.; Naserian, B.; Rahmani, E.; Neshan, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: To study of possibility to induce salt tolerant clones in banana by using mutation technique, an experiment was conducted with factorial (gamma irradiation and salt concentration factors) in a CRD design. In this research, plantlets of banana cv. Dwarf Cavendish were produced by subculture of irradiated shoot tips. It deserves to mention that consequent subculturing was aimed at getting rid of chimera. Next, these explants were transferred to MS medium containing 2.5 mg. l- 1 BAP and NaCl concentrations of 0, 6, 7, 8, 9 g.l -1 for 2 months .Then, living buds were transferred to medium without salt. After one month, we repeated the first stage. All living buds rooted and were transferred to potted soil. Acclimatized plants were irrigated weekly with above NaCl solution. Other irrigation was done with salt-free water. There was also a negative relation between salt concentration and survival - proliferation. In second salinity stress, salt had no significant difference on survival percentage. No-significant difference of effect salt on survival in second salinity stress was observed. (author)

  10. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Influence of Ca and Pb impurities on the bulk optical strength of ultrapure NaCl and KCl crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, An V.; Voszka, R.; Kovalev, Valerii I.; Faĭzullov, F. S.; Janszky, J.

    1987-06-01

    A significant increase (by a factor of about 3) of the bulk damage threshold in the case of interaction of CO2 laser radiation pulses with ultrapure NaCl and KCl crystals grown in a reactive atmosphere was observed on introduction of divalent metal ions Ca and Pb in concentrations of 10-5-10-6 mol/mol. Impurities were introduced in concentrations of 10-8-10-3 and 2×10-7-10-4 mol/mol into the melts of KCl and NaCl, respectively. The concentration of other impurities (including OH) did not exceed ~10-6 mol/mol. A physical model was developed to account for the observed dependence on the basis of an analogy between a system of colloidal particles and F centers in a crystal and a liquid-vapor system.

  11. Adsorption of small NaCl clusters on surfaces of silicon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amsler, Maximilian; Alireza Ghasemi, S; Goedecker, Stefan; Neelov, Alexey; Genovese, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    We have studied possible adsorption geometries of neutral NaCl clusters on the disordered surface of a large silicon model tip used in non-contact atomic force microscopy. The minima hopping method was used to determine low energy model tip configurations as well as ground state geometries of isolated NaCl clusters. The combined system was treated with density functional theory. Alkali halides have proven to be strong structure seekers and tend to form highly stable ground state configurations whenever possible. The favored adsorption geometry for four Na and four Cl atoms was found to be an adsorption of four NaCl dimers due to the formation of Cl-Si bonds. However, for larger NaCl clusters, the increasing energy required to dissociate the cluster into NaCl dimers suggests that adsorption of whole clusters in their isolated ground state configuration is preferred.

  12. NaCl responsive taste cells in the mouse fungiform taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, R; Horio, N; Murata, Y; Yasumatsu, K; Shigemura, N; Ninomiya, Y

    2009-03-17

    Previous studies have demonstrated that rodents' chorda tympani (CT) nerve fibers responding to NaCl can be classified according to their sensitivities to the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) blocker amiloride into two groups: amiloride-sensitive (AS) and -insensitive (AI). The AS fibers were shown to respond specifically to NaCl, whereas AI fibers broadly respond to various electrolytes, including NaCl. These data suggest that salt taste transduction in taste cells may be composed of at least two different systems; AS and AI ones. To further address this issue, we investigated the responses to NaCl, KCl and HCl and the amiloride sensitivity of mouse fungiform papilla taste bud cells which are innervated by the CT nerve. Comparable with the CT data, the results indicated that 56 NaCl-responsive cells tested were classified into two groups; 25 cells ( approximately 44%) narrowly responded to NaCl and their NaCl response were inhibited by amiloride (AS cells), whereas the remaining 31 cells ( approximately 56%) responded not only to NaCl, but to KCl and/or HCl and showed no amiloride inhibition of NaCl responses (AI cells). Amiloride applied to the basolateral side of taste cells had no effect on NaCl responses in the AS and AI cells. Single cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) experiments indicated that ENaC subunit mRNA was expressed in a subset of AS cells. These findings suggest that the mouse fungiform taste bud is composed of AS and AI cells that can transmit taste information differently to their corresponding types of CT fibers, and apical ENaCs may be involved in the NaCl responses of AS cells.

  13. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2013-09-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl) intake separately, and their interaction, on MUN and UUN, on the relationship between UUN and MUN, on renal recycling of urea, and on urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract. Twelve second-parity cows (body weight of 645±37 kg, 146±29 d in milk, and a milk production of 34.0±3.28 kg/d), of which 8 were previously fitted with a rumen cannula, were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein. The experiment had a split-plot arrangement with dietary crude protein (CP) content as the main plot factor [116 and 154 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)] and dietary NaCl content as the subplot factor (3.1 and 13.5 g of Na/kg of DM). Cows were fed at 95% of the average ad libitum feed intake of cows receiving the low protein diets. Average MUN and UUN were, respectively, 3.90 mg of N/dL and 45 g of N/d higher for the high protein diets compared with the low protein diets. Compared with the low NaCl diets, MUN was, on average, 1.74 mg of N/dL lower for the high NaCl diets, whereas UUN was unaffected. We found no interaction between dietary content of protein and NaCl on performance characteristics or on MUN, UUN, urine production, and renal clearance characteristics. The creatinine clearance rate was not affected by dietary content of protein and NaCl. Urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract, expressed as a fraction of plasma urea entry rate, was negatively related to dietary protein, whereas it was not affected by dietary NaCl content. We found no interaction between dietary protein and NaCl content on plasma urea entry rate and gastrointestinal urea entry rate or their ratio. The relationship between MUN and UUN was significantly affected by the class variable

  14. Experimental study of formation and dynamics of cavitation bubbles and acoustic flows in NaCl, KCl water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybkin, K. A.; Bratukhin, Yu. K.; Lyubimova, T. P.; Fatallov, O.; Filippov, L. O.

    2017-07-01

    The acoustic flows and the phenomena associated with them arising under the action of ultrasound of different power on distilled water and aqueous solutions of a mixture of NaCl and KCl salts of various concentrations are studied experimentally. It is found that in the distilled water, under the action of ultrasound, the appearance of inertial and non-inertial cavitation bubbles takes place, then the formation of stable clusters, the distance between which depends on the power of the ultrasound source is observed. Experiments show that an increase in the mass concentration of salts in water leads to the decrease in the average diameter of the arising inertial cavitation bubbles and to the gradual decrease in their number, up to an almost complete disappearance at nearly 13% of the concentration of the salt mixture in the water.

  15. Rootstock Effect on the Tolerance of cv. Hass Avocado Plants to Nacl Stress Efecto del Portainjerto en la Tolerancia de Plantas de Palto cv. Hass al Estrés por NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Castro V

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The avocado tree (Persea americana Mill. is one of the species most sensitive to salinity. Since the root system of this species is particularly affected by this type of stress, it is crucial to find a rootstock that is tolerant to saline water irrigation. Plant material from the cv. Hass was grafted on five rootstocks to find possible candidates: the clonal ‘Duke 7’, ‘Nabal’, ‘Degania 117’,’Mexicola’, and ‘Zutano’ seedlings. One year-old plants were placed in 55 L pots; river sand was used as substrate, and the plants were fertilized with a modified Hoagland solution. Vegetative growth and internal nutrient content were compared with control plants with 30 mg L-1 of Cl-, and plants treated with 200 mg L-1 Cl- for 130 days using NaCl in the nutrient solution (5.64 mM. No interaction between NaCl and the rootstocks for the vegetative growth variables was detected neither in K+ internal foliar or root content nor Ca+2 root. With regard to the carbon assimilation rate, the Nabal rootstock showed the highest rates under the NaCl treatment by retaining the highest chloride concentration in the roots and greatly limiting the concentration found in the leaves of the cv. Hass cultivar. It is therefore a promising rootstock for salt tolerance.El palto (Persea americana Mill. es una de las especies más sensibles a la salinidad, debido a que su sistema radical es particularmente afectado por este estrés, es importante identificar un portainjerto tolerante al riego con agua salina. Para encontrar posibles candidatos se utilizó material vegetal del cv. Hass injertado sobre cinco portainjertos, el clonal Duke 7 y los provenientes de semilla, Nabal, Degania 117, Mexícola y Zutano. Plantas de 1 año de edad fueron colocadas en macetas de 55 L, con arena de río como sustrato y fertilizadas con una solución Hoagland modificada. Durante 130 días se comparó el crecimiento vegetativo y los contenidos internos de nutrientes en plantas

  16. Geochemical models of the precipitation of halite (NaCl) in gas fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombana O, Jose L; Jaramillo, Elizabeth A; Alzate E, Guillermo A

    2005-01-01

    The reservoir modeling is a tool that every day takes more importance in the petroleum industry due to multiple problems presented an also that can be afforded by it during the production of reservoir fluids from the porous media in petroleum reservoir. One of these is the formation damage which is reflected as a petrophysic properties change, caused among other factors by the scale precipitation of halite (NaCl) as a consequence of the original state alteration and thermodynamic balance disruption between the porous media and the fluids inside by the gas flow. By the gas flow over the connate water, the porous media reduce its water saturation due to water transferring from liquid to gas state. In this study, a numeric model is developed to model the formation damage for halite precipitation. The model covers one-dimensional monophasic and iso thermic gas flow and evaluates the porosity and permeability changes of porous media due to halite precipitation. The model application for different conditions of temperature, connate water salinity, water saturation,and porosity indicates the following: the biggest damage is caused to the beginning of the porous media,temperature influences considerably the water vaporization rate and therefore the amount of halite precipitation, the lower the porosity of the porous media the bigger the formation damage degree, and finally, higher salinity and water saturation for the connate water in the porous media higher the formation damage degree is reached by the gas flow.

  17. Proteomic changes in Debaryomyces hansenii upon exposure to NaCl stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Hébraud, Michel; Chambon, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    The proteome of the highly NaCl-tolerant yeast Debaryomyces hansenii was investigated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE), and 47 protein spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) followed by mass spectrometry (MS...... 7% and 4% of the rate in medium without NaCl. In addition, the number of protein spots detected on 2D gels prepared from cells exposed to 8% and 12% (w/v) NaCl exceeded less than 28% of the number of protein spots detected on 2D gels prepared from cells without added NaCl. Several proteins were...

  18. Concentrations of higher dicarboxylic acids C5–C13 in fresh snow samples collected at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch during CLACE 5 and 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sieg

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of freshly fallen snow were collected at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch (Switzerland in February and March 2006 and 2007, during the Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiments (CLACE 5 and 6. In this study a new technique has been developed and demonstrated for the measurement of organic acids in fresh snow. The melted snow samples were subjected to solid phase extraction and resulting solutions analysed for organic acids by HPLC-MS-TOF using negative electrospray ionization. A series of linear dicarboxylic acids from C5 to C13 and phthalic acid, were identified and quantified. In several samples the biogenic acid pinonic acid was also observed. In fresh snow the median concentration of the most abundant acid, adipic acid, was 0.69 μg L−1 in 2006 and 0.70 μg L−1 in 2007. Glutaric acid was the second most abundant dicarboxylic acid found with median values of 0.46 μg L−1 in 2006 and 0.61 μg L−1 in 2007, while the aromatic acid phthalic acid showed a median concentration of 0.34 μg L−1 in 2006 and 0.45 μg L−1 in 2007. The concentrations in the samples from various snowfall events varied significantly, and were found to be dependent on the back trajectory of the air mass arriving at Jungfraujoch. Air masses of marine origin showed the lowest concentrations of acids whereas the highest concentrations were measured when the air mass was strongly influenced by boundary layer air.

  19. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margrete Meltzer, Helle, E-mail: helle.margrete.meltzer@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Lise Brantsaeter, Anne [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Borch-Iohnsen, Berit [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Ellingsen, Dag G. [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Alexander, Jan [Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Thomassen, Yngvar [National Institute of Occupational Health, PO Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Stigum, Hein [Division of Epidemiology, Department of Chronic Diseases, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Ydersbond, Trond A. [Statistics Norway, P.Box 8131 Dep, N-0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-07-15

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L) and 84 had iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L and Hb<120 g/L). The low ferritin group had increased blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd but normal concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb. In multiple regression models, ferritin emerged as the main determinant of Mn, Co and Cd (p<0.001), while no significant associations with Cu, Zn and Pb were found. Adjusted r{sup 2} for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110{<=}Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

  20. Study on the deterioration process of a chromium-free conversion coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy in NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Ming; Wu Shusen; An Ping; Luo Jirong

    2006-01-01

    The morphology of a chromium-free conversion coating for AZ91D magnesium alloy was observed with an Atomic Force Microscopy. The results showed the uniform conversion coating has a relatively smooth appearance with shallow valleys. The EDX results indicated that the compositions of the coating were mainly compounds of Mg, Al, Mn, P, Ca and O. The XRD result showed that the coating contained amorphous materials and a small quantity of crystalline compound. The pitting product of the coating in NaCl water solution mainly composed of Mg, Cl, Mn, P, Ca and O. The corrosion behavior of the samples in NaCl solution was also studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which was characterized by one capacitive loop and one inductive loop. Based upon study on both a mathematical model for Faradic admittance of coating in NaCl solution and EIS, it could be considered that the inductive loop was caused by the adsorption of Cl anion and the appearance of pitting corrosion. A degradation mechanism of the coating in NaCl solution is set forth: dissolution velocity of the Cl - adsorption regions of the coating is higher than those non-adsorption regions, for Cl - anions are selective adsorption at some regions of coating surface. When the adsorption regions of coating layer are penetrated by dissolution, the pitting comes into being. The degradation mechanism of conversion coating and the mathematical model are consistent with the EIS results, polarization measurement results and coating's corrosion test results

  1. A density model based on the Modified Quasichemical Model and applied to the (NaCl + KCl + ZnCl2) liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouzilleau, Philippe; Robelin, Christian; Chartrand, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A model for the density of multicomponent inorganic liquids. ► The density model is based on the Modified Quasichemical Model. ► Application to the (NaCl + KCl + ZnCl 2 ) ternary liquid. ► A Kohler–Toop-like asymmetric interpolation method was used. - Abstract: A theoretical model for the density of multicomponent inorganic liquids based on the Modified Quasichemical Model has been presented previously. By introducing in the Gibbs free energy of the liquid phase temperature-dependent molar volume expressions for the pure components and pressure-dependent excess parameters for the binary (and sometimes higher-order) interactions, it is possible to reproduce, and eventually predict, the molar volume and the density of the multicomponent liquid phase using standard interpolation methods. In the present article, this density model is applied to the (NaCl + KCl + ZnCl 2 ) ternary liquid and a Kohler–Toop-like asymmetric interpolation method is used. All available density data for the (NaCl + KCl + ZnCl 2 ) liquid were collected and critically evaluated, and optimized pressure-dependent model parameters have been found. This new volumetric model can be used with Gibbs free energy minimization software, to calculate the molar volume and the density of (NaCl + KCl + ZnCl 2 ) ternary melts.

  2. Relative transcription of Listeria monocytogenes virulence genes in liver pâtés with varying NaCl content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Thorsen, Line; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    three liver pâtés with reduced NaCl content of which one also has been supplied with organic acids (Ca-acetate and Ca-lactate). The three strains (EGD-e: reference strain; O57: more NaCl sensitive; 6896: more NaCl tolerant) were selected out of twelve strains based on their growth in BHI broth adjusted......B for both O57 and 6896 were significantly higher when the strains were grown in BHI compared to the standard liver pâté. Reducing the NaCl content of the standard liver pâté did not change relative transcription levels of prfA, inlA, sigB or clpC (except for prfA in O57 and sigB in 6896). However......, the presence of Ca-acetate and Ca-lactate induced relative transcription of the stress response gene, clpC, for all three strains. This study demonstrates that relative microbial gene transcription can be measured in complex food matrices and points to the need for designing experimental set-ups in real food...

  3. The Effect of WNK4 on the Na+-Cl- Cotransporter Is Modulated by Intracellular Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazúa-Valenti, Silvana; Chávez-Canales, María; Rojas-Vega, Lorena; González-Rodríguez, Xochiquetzal; Vázquez, Norma; Rodríguez-Gama, Alejandro; Argaiz, Eduardo R; Melo, Zesergio; Plata, Consuelo; Ellison, David H; García-Valdés, Jesús; Hadchouel, Juliette; Gamba, Gerardo

    2015-08-01

    It is widely recognized that the phenotype of familial hyperkalemic hypertension is mainly a consequence of increased activity of the renal Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) because of altered regulation by with no-lysine-kinase 1 (WNK1) or WNK4. The effect of WNK4 on NCC, however, has been controversial because both inhibition and activation have been reported. It has been recently shown that the long isoform of WNK1 (L-WNK1) is a chloride-sensitive kinase activated by a low Cl(-) concentration. Therefore, we hypothesized that WNK4 effects on NCC could be modulated by intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl(-)]i), and we tested this hypothesis in oocytes injected with NCC cRNA with or without WNK4 cRNA. At baseline in oocytes, [Cl(-)]i was near 50 mM, autophosphorylation of WNK4 was undetectable, and NCC activity was either decreased or unaffected by WNK4. A reduction of [Cl(-)]i, either by low chloride hypotonic stress or coinjection of oocytes with the solute carrier family 26 (anion exchanger)-member 9 (SLC26A9) cRNA, promoted WNK4 autophosphorylation and increased NCC-dependent Na(+) transport in a WNK4-dependent manner. Substitution of the leucine with phenylalanine at residue 322 of WNK4, homologous to the chloride-binding pocket in L-WNK1, converted WNK4 into a constitutively autophosphorylated kinase that activated NCC, even without chloride depletion. Elimination of the catalytic activity (D321A or D321K-K186D) or the autophosphorylation site (S335A) in mutant WNK4-L322F abrogated the positive effect on NCC. These observations suggest that WNK4 can exert differential effects on NCC, depending on the intracellular chloride concentration. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  4. Cow allergen (Bos d2) and endotoxin concentrations are higher in the settled dust of homes proximate to industrial-scale dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D' Ann L; McCormack, Meredith C; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Diette, Gregory B; McKenzie, Shawn E; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2016-01-01

    Airborne contaminants produced by industrial agricultural facilities contain chemical and biological compounds that can impact the health of residents living in close proximity. Settled dust can be a reservoir for these contaminants and can influence long-term exposures. In this study, we sampled the indoor- and outdoor-settled dust from 40 homes that varied in proximity to industrial-scale dairies (ISD; industrial-scale dairy, a term used in this paper to describe a large dairy farm and adjacent waste sprayfields, concentrated animal feeding operation or animal feeding operation, that uses industrial processes) in the Yakima Valley, Washington. We analyzed settled dust samples for cow allergen (Bos d2, a cow allergen associated with dander, hair, sweat and urine, it is a member of the lipocalin family of allergens associated with mammals), mouse allergen (Mus m1; major mouse allergen, a mouse urinary allergen, in the lipocalin family), dust mite allergens (Der p1 (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus 1) and Der f1 (Dermatophagoides farinae 1)), and endotoxin (a component of the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, which can be found in air and dust and can produce a strong inflammatory response). A concentration gradient was observed for Bos d2 and endotoxin measured in outdoor-settled dust samples based on proximity to ISD. Indoor-settled dust concentrations of Bos d2 and endotoxin were also highest in proximal homes. While the associated health effects of exposure to cow allergen in settled dust is unknown, endotoxin at concentrations observed in these proximal homes (100 EU/mg) has been associated with increased negative respiratory health effects. These findings document that biological contaminants emitted from ISDs are elevated in indoor- and outdoor-settled dust samples at homes close to these facilities and extend to as much as three miles (4.8 km) away.

  5. Etude de l'effet du stress salin (NaCl) chez deux variétés de tomate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La germination, les paramètres de croissance ainsi que les paramètres biochimiques, sont comparés chez deux variétés de tomate (Campbell 33 et Mongal) soumises à des concentrations croissantes de NaCl. (0,17, 50, 85 et 130 mM). Le pourcentage de germination des graines diminue avec l'augmentation de la salinité ...

  6. Activation of PKA in cell requires higher concentration of cAMP than in vitro: implications for compartmentalization of cAMP signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschinski, Andreas; Zaccolo, Manuela

    2017-10-26

    cAMP is a ubiquitous second messenger responsible for the cellular effects of multiple hormones and neurotransmitters via activation of its main effector, protein kinase A (PKA). Multiple studies have shown that the basal concentration of cAMP in several cell types is about 1 μM. This value is well above the reported concentration of cAMP required to half-maximally activate PKA, which measures in the 100-300 nM range. Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain this apparent discrepancy including inaccurate measurements of intracellular free cAMP, inaccurate measurement of the apparent activation constant of PKA or shielding of PKA from bulk cytosolic cAMP via localization of the enzyme to microdomains with lower basal cAMP concentration. However, direct experimental evidence in support of any of these models is limited and a firm conclusion is missing. In this study we use multiple FRET-based reporters for the detection of cAMP and PKA activity in intact cells and we establish that the sensitivity of PKA to cAMP is almost twenty times lower when measured in cell than when measured in vitro. Our findings have important implications for the understanding of compartmentalized cAMP signalling.

  7. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margrete Meltzer, Helle; Lise Brantsaeter, Anne; Borch-Iohnsen, Berit; Ellingsen, Dag G.; Alexander, Jan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Stigum, Hein; Ydersbond, Trond A.

    2010-01-01

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin 2 for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110≤Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

  8. Corrosion behavior of duplex polyaniline/epoxy coating on mild steel in 3% NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Milica M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior and thermal stability of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on mild steel and on mild steel with electrochemically deposited polyaniline (PANI film were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The aim of the paper was to present new findings on the corrosion protection of mild steel by a duplex PANI/-epoxy coating in 3% NaCI solution and to determine the effect of thin PANI film on the protective properties of the coating. PANI film was deposited electrochemically on mild steel from an aqueous solution of 0.5 mol dm"3 sodium benzoate and 0.1 mol dm"3 aniline at a constant current density of 1.5 mA cm"2. Non-pigmented epoxy coatings on mild steel and on mild steel with PANI film were obtained by cathodic electrode position at constant voltage and stirring conditions. The resin concentration in the electrode position bath was 10 wt.% solid dispersion in water at pH 5.7. The applied voltage was 250 V, the temperature 26°C and the deposition time 3 min. It was shown that thin PANI film could be used to modify the surface of mild steel prior to epoxy coating deposition, due to the increased corrosion protection of a duplex PANI/epoxy coating comparing to an epoxy coating on mild steel in 3% NaCl solution.

  9. PROPRIEDADES EMULSIONANTES E SOLUBILIDADE DA CASEÍNA BOVINA: 2. EFEITO DA ADIÇÃO DE NaCl EMULSIFYING PROPERTIES AND SOLUBILITY OF CASEIN: 2. EFFECTS OF THE NaCl ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Jardim DUARTE

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da adição de NaCl sobre algumas propriedades funcionais da caseína e de seus hidrolisados trípticos, foi estudado em dois valores de pH (4,0 e 5,0. Para tal, foi adicionado um teor de 0,02M do sal às soluções-tampão empregadas no preparo das amostras. Foram determinadas a solubilidade protéica, a capacidade emulsificante (EC, o índice de atividade emulsificante (EAI e a estabilidade das emulsões (ES, e o raio médio dos glóbulos de gordura (R foi calculado. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que, nos dois valores de pH estudados, a adição de NaCl levou a um aumento significativo da solubilidade e da EC da caseína e de todos os hidrolisados trípticos. Por outro lado, diminuiu os valores de EAI da caseína e elevou os dos hidrolisados, tendo sido observado o oposto para o tamanho dos glóbulos de gordura. Com relação à ES, a da caseína apresentou ligeiro aumento no pH 5,0, enquanto que apenas alguns hidrolisados trípticos tiveram a sua ES elevada em pH 4,0 ou 5,0.The effect of the NaCl addition on the emulsifying properties of casein and tryptic casein hydrolysates was studied in two pH values (4,0 e 5,0. A 0.02 M concentration of salt was added to the buffer solutions used for preparing the samples. The protein solubility, the emulsifying capacity (EC, the emulsifying activity index (EAI and the emulsion stability (ES were determined. The mean radius (R of fat droplets was also calculated. The results showed that the addition of NaCl increased the solubility and the EC of casein and casein hydrolysates, in both pH values. However, this salt addition reduced the EAI of casein and increased that of the hydrolysates.The opposite was observed relating to the R of fat droplets. Regarding the ES, that of casein presented little increase in pH 5.0, and the same result was obtained for only some hydrolysates in pH 5.0 or 4.0.

  10. Higher Concentrations of BCAAs and 3-HIB Are Associated with Insulin Resistance in the Transition from Gestational Diabetes to Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Andersson-Hall

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Determine the metabolic profile and identify risk factors of women transitioning from gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. 237 women diagnosed with GDM underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, anthropometrics assessment, and completed lifestyle questionnaires six years after pregnancy. Blood was analysed for clinical variables (e.g., insulin, glucose, HbA1c, adiponectin, leptin, and lipid levels and NMR metabolomics. Based on the OGTT, women were divided into three groups: normal glucose tolerance (NGT, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, and T2DM. Results. Six years after GDM, 19% of subjects had T2DM and 19% IGT. After BMI adjustment, the IGT group had lower HDL, higher leptin, and higher free fatty acid (FFA levels, and the T2DM group higher triglyceride, FFA, and C-reactive protein levels than the NGT group. IGT and T2DM groups reported lower physical activity. NMR measurements revealed that levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs and the valine metabolite 3-hydroxyisobyturate were higher in T2DM and IGT groups and correlated with measures of insulin resistance and lipid metabolism. Conclusion. In addition to well-known clinical risk factors, BCAAs and 3-hydroxyisobyturate are potential markers to be evaluated as predictors of metabolic risk after pregnancy complicated by GDM.

  11. Regeneration of plantlets under NaCl stress from NaN3 treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... plant regeneration under NaCl stressed conditions was assessed in some sugarcane ( ... cell is a useful work for the establishment of pure form of ... balance. The relative water contents (RWC) were calculated .... J. Life Sci.

  12. Swelling/deswelling of polyacrylamide gels in aqueous NaCl solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swelling kinetics of water-swollen polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels (WSG) was investigated in various ... parameter, χ, were calculated and found to decrease with increase in [NaCl]. Collective ..... in other words, increase in hydrophilicity.

  13. Influence of NaCl on Biochemical Parameters of Two Cultivars of Stevia rebaudiana Regenerated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharuti Rathore

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity occupies a prominent place among the soil problems that threaten the sustainability of agriculture over a vast area in the world. It affects plant morpho-physiology and ultimately leads to reduction in productivity. It is essential to test important medicinal plants for their salinity tolerance as research efforts aim to explore economic benefits under saline conditions. Keeping in view the importance of Stevia and salinity, present study had been designed to investigate the effect of salinity on biochemical parameters in two Stevia genotypes. Two node microcuttings were subjected to MS media supplemented with different NaCl concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 mM. Chlorophyll amount was observed to be decreased as compared to sugars, proline and phenols with increased salt concentrations.

  14. Investigation of Fumed Silica/Aqueous NaCl Superdielectric Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Jenkins

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A constant current charge/discharge protocol which showed fumed silica filled to the point of incipient wetness with aqueous NaCl solution to have dielectric constants >108 over the full range of dielectric thicknesses of 0.38–3.9 mm and discharge times of 0.25–>100 s was studied, making this material another example of a superdielectric. The dielectric constant was impacted by both frequency and thickness. For time to discharge greater than 10 s the dielectric constant for all thicknesses needed to be fairly constant, always >109, although trending higher with increasing thickness. At shorter discharge times the dielectric constant consistently decreased, with decreasing time to discharge. Hence, it is reasonable to suggest that for time to discharge >10 s the dielectric constant at all thicknesses will be greater than 109. This in turn implies an energy density for a 5 micron thick dielectric layer in the order of 350 J/cm3 for discharge times greater than 10 s.

  15. Investigation of Fumed Silica/Aqueous NaCl Superdielectric Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Natalie; Petty, Clayton; Phillips, Jonathan

    2016-02-20

    A constant current charge/discharge protocol which showed fumed silica filled to the point of incipient wetness with aqueous NaCl solution to have dielectric constants >10⁸ over the full range of dielectric thicknesses of 0.38-3.9 mm and discharge times of 0.25->100 s was studied, making this material another example of a superdielectric. The dielectric constant was impacted by both frequency and thickness. For time to discharge greater than 10 s the dielectric constant for all thicknesses needed to be fairly constant, always >10⁸, although trending higher with increasing thickness. At shorter discharge times the dielectric constant consistently decreased, with decreasing time to discharge. Hence, it is reasonable to suggest that for time to discharge >10 s the dielectric constant at all thicknesses will be greater than 10⁸. This in turn implies an energy density for a 5 micron thick dielectric layer in the order of 350 J/cm³ for discharge times greater than 10 s.

  16. Glycine Betaine and Proline Production in Eucalyptus Plant under NaCl Harassing Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, T. M.; Bano, A.; Ashraf, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out to study the production of Proline and Betaine by applying Abscisic acid (ABA) treatment under NaCl and water stressed conditions. The seeds of four provenances of Eucalyptus camaldulesnis were obtained from the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Provenance I), Punjab Forest Research Institute, Faisalabad (Provenance II), Bio-saline Research Station-I, Lahore (Provenance III) and Bio-saline Research Station-II of Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad (Provenance 1V). It was observed that Proline and Betaine accumulation increased significantly in all the provenances with increase in drought or salt stress, ABA alone and in combination with drought. Provenance II and III species remained successful in maintaining higher Proline and Betaine accumulation as compared to Provenances I and IV. From the results it can be concluded that ABA treatment remains successful in enhancing Proline and Betaine production and maintaining the physiological parameters necessary to enhance plant growth both under salt and in combination with drought condition. (author)

  17. Effect of salts (NaCl and Na2CO3) on callus and suspension culture of Stevia rebaudiana for Steviol glycoside production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratibha; Sharma, Satyawati; Saxena, Sanjay

    2014-03-01

    Steviol glycosides are natural non-caloric sweeteners which are extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana plant. Present study deals the effect of salts (NaCl and Na2CO3) on callus and suspension culture of Stevia plant for steviol glycoside (SGs) production. Yellow-green and compact calli obtained from in vitro raised Stevia leaves sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l(-1) NAA and different concentrations of NaCl (0.05-0.20%) and Na2CO3 (0.0125-0.10%) for 2 weeks, and incubated at 24 ± 1 °C and 22.4 μmol m(-2) s(-1) light intensity provided by white fluorescent tubes for 16 h. Callus and suspension biomass cultured on salts showed less growth as well as browning of medium when compared with control. Quantification of SGs content in callus culture (collected on 15th day) and suspension cultures (collected at 10th and 15th days) treated with and without salts were analyzed by HPLC. It was found that abiotic stress induced by the salts increased the concentration of SGs significantly. In callus, the quantity of SGs got increased from 0.27 (control) to 1.43 and 1.57% with 0.10% NaCl, and 0.025% Na2CO3, respectively. However, in case of suspension culture, the same concentrations of NaCl and Na2CO3 enhanced the SGs content from 1.36 (control) to 2.61 and 5.14%, respectively, on the 10th day.

  18. Effects of NaCl, pH, and Potential on the Static Creep Behavior of AA1100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Quanhe; Quesnel, David J.

    2013-03-01

    The creep rates of AA1100 are measured during exposure to a variety of aggressive environments. NaCl solutions of various concentrations have no influence on the steady-state creep behavior, producing creep rates comparable to those measured in lab air at room temperature. However, after an initial incubation period of steady strain rate, a dramatic increase of strain rate is observed on exposure to HCl solutions and NaOH solutions, as well as during cathodic polarization of specimens in NaCl solutions. Creep strain produces a continuous deformation and elongation of the sample surface that is comparable to slow strain rates at crack tips thought to control the kinetics of crack growth during stress corrosion cracking (SCC). In this experiment, we separate the strain and surface deformation from the complex geometry of the crack tip to better understand the processes at work. Based on this concept, two possible explanations for the environmental influences on creep strain rates are discussed relating to the anodic dissolution of the free surface and hydrogen influences on deformation mechanisms. Consistencies of pH dependence between corrosion creep and SCC at low pH prove a creep-involved SCC mechanism, while the discrepancies between corrosion creep behavior and previous SCC results at high pH indicate a rate-limit step change in the crack propagation of the SCC process.

  19. Blood haemoglobin concentrations are higher in smokers and heavy alcohol consumers than in non-smokers and abstainers-should we adjust the reference range?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2009-01-01

    The blood haemoglobin concentration is one of the most frequently used laboratory parameters in clinical practice. There is evidence that haemoglobin levels are influenced by tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on haemoglobin.......001) and women (r = 0.08, p = 0.05). In non-smokers, alcohol consumption > 14 drinks/week and more than seven drinks/week for men and women, respectively, increased mean haemoglobin by 1.3% in men and by average 1.9% in women compared with those consuming a parts per thousand currency sign14 and less than...... small changes in haemoglobin do not justify the use of separate reference ranges in smokers and alcohol consumers....

  20. EPR spectroscopy on irradiated nickel tetracyanide in NaCl host lattice: mechanism for the simultaneous formation of reduced and oxidized species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga de Araujo, M.; Pinhal, Nelson Moreira; Vugman, Ney Vernon

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidized and reduced Ni 2+ complexes produced by X-ray irradiation on single crystals of NaCl doped with [Ni(CN) 4 ] 2- is studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance at room temperature. The interdependent generation of these two complexes is attributed to migration of the charge compensating vacancy from the reduced to the oxidized complex in a reversible reaction. At higher X-ray doses, there is a predominant formation of the reduced complex

  1. 乙炔提浓装置高级炔管线堵塞原因浅析%Analysis on causes of higher acetylene pipe blocking of acetylene concentration system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢全兵

    2011-01-01

    Causes of higher alkyne pipe blocking of acetylene concentration system in the natural gas-based acetylene production plant were found out by analyzing higher alkyne gas component concentration variation. Corresponding measures were proposed to prevent higher alkyne polymerization in the pipe and thus prolong the equipment operation cycle.%通过对高级炔气体组分含量变化进行分析,找出天然气制乙炔装置乙炔浓缩系统高级炔管线堵塞的原因,并提出了防止高级炔气体在管线内聚合、延长装置运行周期的措施.

  2. Experimental measurements of thermoelectric and electrochemical potentials in sandstones saturated with NaCl electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinov, E.; Jackson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of the self-potential (SP) have been used to characterize subsurface flow in numerous settings, including volcanoes, earthquake zones, and geothermal fields. Thermoelectric (TE) and electrochemical (EC) potentials contribute to the measured SP if gradients in temperature and/or concentration are present, yet few experimental measurements of EC and TE potentials in natural porous media have been reported. Each is the sum of a diffusion and exclusion potential: the former arises when ions of contrasting mobility migrate at different rates down a temperature or concentration gradient; the latter arises when there is a temperature or concentration gradient across an electrically charged porous medium in which co-ions of the same polarity have been excluded from the pore-space. Here we report measurements of the SP arising from temperature or concentration gradients across clean (clay-free) sandstone samples saturated with NaCl electrolyte over the salinity range 5x10-5 to 1M. Electrical potentials are measured using non-polarizing Ag/AgCl electrodes, and temperature or salinity gradients are induced by placing the saturated samples in contact with electrolyte reservoirs of contrasting temperature or concentration. Our experimental methodology accounts for the temperature- and concentration-dependent electrode response. We find that the TE potential responds linearly to the applied temperature difference, allowing a TE potential coupling coefficient to be determined; the value of this decreases as the electrolyte concentration increases, from +0.056mV/K at 10-4 M to -0.126mV/K at 1M. The EC potential increases as the concentration ratio increases, from a minimum of 1.8mV at a salinity ratio of 1.13, to a maximum of 24.8mV at salinity ratio of 102, before decreasing to 19.5mV at salinity ratio of 103. In both cases, at high values of concentration (>0.01M) the measured potential is diffusion dominated, while at lower concentration the exclusion potential is

  3. Effect of higher minimum inhibitory concentrations of quaternary ammonium compounds in clinical E. coli isolates on antibiotic susceptibilities and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet-Bataillon, S; Branger, B; Cormier, M; Bonnaure-Mallet, M; Jolivet-Gougeon, A

    2011-10-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are cationic surfactants used as preservatives and environmental disinfectants. Limited data are available regarding the effect of QACs in the clinical setting. We performed a prospective cohort study in 153 patients with Escherichia coli bacteraemia from February to September 2008 at University Hospital in Rennes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics and QACs alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) were determined by the agar dilution method. The capacity of biofilm production was assayed using the Crystal Violet method, and mutation frequencies by measuring the capacity of strains to generate resistance to rifampicin. Logistic regression analysis showed that one of the significant factors related to low MICs for ADBAC (≤16 mg/L) and DDAC (≤8 mg/L), was cotrimoxazole susceptibility (odds ratio: 3.72; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-11.24; P=0.02 and OR: 3.61; 95% CI: 1.56-7.56; PAntibiotic susceptibility to cotrimoxazole was strongly associated with susceptibility to amoxicillin and nalidixic acid (PE. coli isolates and antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impacts of different salt source and concentrations on germination and seedling growth of many pumpkin seeds used as rootstoch in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadashpour Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different salt sources (C Cl2, NaCl, and KCl and concentrations, as measured by electrical conductivity, (0, "control", 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 dS m-1 on seed germination and seedling growth of “Ferro”, “Obez”, “RS 841” and “Strong Tosa F1” pumpkin varieties used as rootstock were investigated in this study. The results showed that germination rate, root length, shoot length, fresh root weight, dry root weight, fresh shoot weight and dry shoot weights tend to decrease when the electrical conductivity of the solution is higher than 5 dS m-1, independent of salt sources and in all of the varieties. Three days after seeding, a germination ratio of 5 % was obtained from RS 841 variety in all salt source and concentrations, while a germination ratio over 50 % was obtained in “Strong Tosa” variety for the same conditions except CaCl2 salt source. Nevertheless, seeds germinated in medium having high concentrations of CaCl2 had lower germination rate and poor seedling growth, compared to media having the same concentrations of NaCl and KCl. It was concluded that all of the varieties studied were more sensitive to the concentrations prepared using CaCl2 than that of the KCl, and NaCl.

  5. Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretts, Amanda M; Follis, Jack L; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Ngwa, Julius S; Wojczynski, Mary K; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Varga, Tibor V; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Houston, Denise K; Lahti, Jari; Ericson, Ulrika; van den Hooven, Edith H; Mikkilä, Vera; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Rice, Kenneth; Renström, Frida; North, Kari E; McKeown, Nicola M; Feitosa, Mary F; Kanoni, Stavroula; Smith, Caren E; Garcia, Melissa E; Tiainen, Anna-Maija; Sonestedt, Emily; Manichaikul, Ani; van Rooij, Frank JA; Dimitriou, Maria; Raitakari, Olli; Pankow, James S; Djoussé, Luc; Province, Michael A; Hu, Frank B; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Keller, Margaux F; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Rotter, Jerome I; Hofman, Albert; Graff, Misa; Kähönen, Mika; Mukamal, Kenneth; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ordovas, Jose M; Liu, Yongmei; Männistö, Satu; Uitterlinden, André G; Deloukas, Panos; Seppälä, Ilkka; Psaty, Bruce M; Cupples, L Adrienne; Borecki, Ingrid B; Franks, Paul W; Arnett, Donna K; Nalls, Mike A; Eriksson, Johan G; Orho-Melander, Marju; Franco, Oscar H; Lehtimäki, Terho; Dedoussis, George V; Meigs, James B; Siscovick, David S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that meat intake is associated with diabetes-related phenotypes. However, whether the associations of meat intake and glucose and insulin homeostasis are modified by genes related to glucose and insulin is unknown. Objective: We investigated the associations of meat intake and the interaction of meat with genotype on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in Caucasians free of diabetes mellitus. Design: Fourteen studies that are part of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium participated in the analysis. Data were provided for up to 50,345 participants. Using linear regression within studies and a fixed-effects meta-analysis across studies, we examined 1) the associations of processed meat and unprocessed red meat intake with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations; and 2) the interactions of processed meat and unprocessed red meat with genetic risk score related to fasting glucose or insulin resistance on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Results: Processed meat was associated with higher fasting glucose, and unprocessed red meat was associated with both higher fasting glucose and fasting insulin concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders [not including body mass index (BMI)]. For every additional 50-g serving of processed meat per day, fasting glucose was 0.021 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.011, 0.030 mmol/L) higher. Every additional 100-g serving of unprocessed red meat per day was associated with a 0.037-mmol/L (95% CI: 0.023, 0.051-mmol/L) higher fasting glucose concentration and a 0.049–ln-pmol/L (95% CI: 0.035, 0.063–ln-pmol/L) higher fasting insulin concentration. After additional adjustment for BMI, observed associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant. The association of processed meat and fasting insulin did not reach statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Observed associations were not modified by genetic

  6. Evolution of nitrate and nitrite during the processing of dry-cured ham with partial replacement of NaCl by other chloride salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteros, Mónica; Aristoy, María-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2012-07-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are commonly added to dry-cured ham to provide protection against pathogen microorganisms, especially Clostridium botulinum. Both nitrate and nitrite were monitored with ion chromatography in dry-cured hams salted with different NaCl formulations (NaCl partially replaced by KCl and/or CaCl(2), and MgCl(2)). Nitrate, that is more stable than nitrite, diffuses into the ham and acts as a reservoir for nitrite generation. A correct nitrate and nitrite penetration was detected from the surface to the inner zones of the hams throughout its processing, independently of the salt formulation. Nitrate and nitrite achieved similar concentrations, around 37 and 2.2 ppm, respectively in the inner zones of the ham for the three assayed salt formulations at the end of the process, which are in compliance with European regulations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using petrographic techniques to evaluate the induced effects of NaCl, extreme climatic conditions, and traffic load on Spanish road surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Pérez-Fortes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The asphalt surface layer is the most exposed to weather and traffic conditions on roads, especially those subjected to winter maintenance. Therefore, a deep knowledge of the mechanisms which can damage this layer is necessary to improve its design, construction and long-term use. With this purpose, two types of asphalt mixtures used on roads from NW Spain were subjected to durability tests (freezing-thaw and thermal-stress with a saturated NaCl solution. After the durability tests, a wheel tracking test was performed on the samples, and the resultant material was analyzed by optical polarized light and fluorescence microscopy. This analysis showed that the binder-aggregate low adhesion was the main responsible of the asphalt mixture damage. This damage was concentrated in the aggregates because the binder acted as an impermeable wall. Consequently, the NaCl solution penetrated and degraded the aggregates quickly and strongly.

  8. Using petrographic techniques to evaluate the induced effects of NaCl, extreme climatic conditions, and traffic load on Spanish road surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Fortes, A.F.; Varas-Muriel, M.J.; Castiñeiras, P.

    2017-01-01

    The asphalt surface layer is the most exposed to weather and traffic conditions on roads, especially those subjected to winter maintenance. Therefore, a deep knowledge of the mechanisms which can damage this layer is necessary to improve its design, construction and long-term use. With this purpose, two types of asphalt mixtures used on roads from NW Spain were subjected to durability tests (freezing-thaw and thermal-stress) with a saturated NaCl solution. After the durability tests, a wheel tracking test was performed on the samples, and the resultant material was analyzed by optical polarized light and fluorescence microscopy. This analysis showed that the binder-aggregate low adhesion was the main responsible of the asphalt mixture damage. This damage was concentrated in the aggregates because the binder acted as an impermeable wall. Consequently, the NaCl solution penetrated and degraded the aggregates quickly and strongly. [es

  9. The soluble receptor for vitamin B12 uptake (sCD320) increases during pregnancy and occurs in higher concentration in urine than in serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abuyaman, Omar; Andreasen, Birgitte H; Kronborg, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cellular uptake of vitamin B12 (B12) demands binding of the vitamin to transcobalamin (TC) and recognition of TC-B12 (holoTC) by the receptor CD320, a receptor expressed in high quantities on human placenta. We have identified a soluble form of CD320 (sCD320) in serum and here we...... gestational weeks 17-41. sCD320, holoTC, total TC and complex formation between holoTC and sCD320 were measured by in-house ELISA methods, while creatinine was measured on the automatic platform Cobas 6000. Size exclusion chromatography was performed on a Superdex 200 column. RESULTS: Median (range) of serum...... was around two fold higher than in serum. Urinary sCD320/creatinine ratio correlated with serum sCD320 and reached a peak median level of 53 (30-101) pmol/mmol creatinine (week 35). sCD320 present in serum and urine showed the same elution pattern upon size exclusion chromatography. CONCLUSION: We report...

  10. Simulation of water movement and NaCl transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xun; Zheng Zhihong; Yang Zeping

    2008-01-01

    Modeling of water flow and solute transport in the near-field of a high-level radioactive waste repository with TOUGH2 is done. The results show that salt accumulation in buffer material is not so significant, precipitation does not occur throughout the period covered by our simualtions. Further more, the changeable law of volumetric water content, liquid velocity and dissolved concentration of sodium chloride with simulated time or distance are attained, which is the base of understanding evolvement of near-field. (authors)

  11. Proteins associated with adaptation of cultured tobacco cells to NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.K.; Handa, A.K.; Hasegawa, P.M.; Bressan, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Cultured tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Wisconsin 38) adapted to grow in medium containing high levels of NaCl or polyethylene glycol (PEG) produce several new or enhanced polypeptide bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyarylamide gel electrophoresis. The intensities of some of the polypeptide bands increase with increasing levels of NaCl adaptation, while the intensities of other polypeptide bands are reduced. Synthesis of 26-kilodalton polypeptide(s) occurs at two different periods during culture growth of NaCl adapted cells. Unadapted cells also incorporate 35 S into a 26-kilodalton polypeptide during the later stage of culture growth beginning at midlog phase. The 26-kilodalton polypeptides from adapted and unadapted cells have similar partial proteolysis peptide maps and are immunologically cross-reactive. During adaptation to NaCl, unadapted cells synthesize and accumulate a major 26-kilodalton polypeptide, and the beginning of synthesis corresponds to the period of osmotic adjustment and culture growth. From their results, the authors suggest an involvement of the 26-kilodalton polypeptide in the adaptation of cultured tobacco cells to NaCl and water stress. 38 references, 11 figures, 2 tables

  12. Irreversible dilation of NaCl contaminated lime-cement mortar due to crystallization cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubelli, B.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Huinink, H.P.; Groot, C.J.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of damage occurring in NaCl contaminated materials has not been clarified yet. Apart from crystallization pressure, other hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause of decay. Irreversible dilation has been observed in a few cases but has never been studied in a more systematic way. The aim of the research is to contribute to the modeling of this phenomenon. In the present paper the effect of NaCl on the hydric and hygric behavior of a lime-cement mortar is extensively studied. The results indicate that NaCl influences the hydric and hygric dilation behavior of the material. The material contaminated with NaCl shrinks during dissolution and dilates during crystallization of the salt. This dilation is irreversible and sufficient to damage the material after few dissolution/crystallization cycles. This behavior is not restricted to NaCl, but is observed in the presence of other salts as well (NaNO 3 and KCl). Outcomes of electron microscopy studies suggest that salts causing irreversible dilation tend to crystallize as layers on the pore wall

  13. The initial stages of NaCl dissolution: Ion or ion pair solvation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes, Jiri; Michaelides, Angelos

    2009-03-01

    The interaction of water with rock salt (NaCl) is important in a wide variety of natural processes and human activities. A lot is known about NaCl dissolution at the macroscopic level but we do not yet have a detailed atomic scale picture of how salt crystals dissolve. Here we report an extensive series of density functional theory, forcefield and molecular dynamics studies of water clusters at flat and defective NaCl surfaces and NaCl clusters. The focus is on answering seemingly elementary questions such as how many water molecules are needed before it becomes favorable to extract an ion or a pair of ions from the crystal or the cluster. It turns out, however, that the answers to these questions are not so straightforward: below a certain number of water molecules (˜ 12) solvation of individual ions is less costly and above this number solvation of ion pairs is favored. These results reveal a hitherto unknown complexity in the NaCl dissolution process born out of a subtle interplay between water-water and water-ion interactions.

  14. Effect of Salt Stress (NaCl on Germination and Early Seedling Parameters of Three Pepper Cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloui Hassen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major environmental problem that lead to a deterioration of agricultural land and, as a result, to a reduction in crop productivity worldwide. This research tested the effect of different salinity levels on germination and early seedling growth of three pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cultivars which were "Beldi", "Baklouti" and "Anaheim Chili". Experimental treatment included 7 concentrations of NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 g/l. Results indicated that all investigate traits were affected by salt stress. Salt stress affected on germination parameters and radicle and plumule length. Fresh weight and dry weight of evaluated seedlings was also affected. "Anaheim Chili" cultivar was shown to be the most restraint cultivar to salt stress in comparison to "Beldi" and "Baklouti" cultivars.

  15. Electrokinetic desalination of sandstones for NaCl removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben V.

    2012-01-01

    of reliable methods to remove the damaging salts in order to stop the decay. Electrokinetic desalination of fired clay bricks have previously shown efficient in laboratory scale and in the present work the method is tested for desalination of Cotta and Posta sandstones, which both have lower porosity than...... each stone, but electroosmosis in the poultices may have caused suction/pressure over the interface between stone and poultice causing the differences in poultice water content. The transport numbers for Cl− and Na+ differed in the two stones and were highest in the most porous Cotta sandstone in spite...... of similar high pore water concentrations and the same applied electric current. The hypotheses is that a layered structure of the sandstones could be the cause for this, as the electric current may preferentially flow in certain paths through the stone, which are thus desalinated first. After...

  16. Optimization of catholyte concentration and anolyte pHs in two chamber microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Logan, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrogen production rate in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) using a non-buffered saline catholyte (NaCl) can be optimized through proper control of the initial anolyte pH and catholyte NaCl concentration. The highest hydrogen yield of 3

  17. Ab initio interionic potentials for NaCl by multiple lattice inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuo; Chen Nanxian

    2002-01-01

    Based on the Chen-Moebius lattice inversion and a series of pseudopotential total-energy curves, a different method is presented to derive the ab initio interionic pair potentials for B1-type ionic crystals. Comparing with the experimental data, the static properties of B1- and B2-type NaCl are well reproduced by the interionic potentials. Moreover, the phase stability of B1-NaCl has been described by the energy minimizations from the global deformed and disturbed states. The molecular-dynamics simulations for the molten NaCl indicate that the calculated mean-square displacements, radial distribution function, and diffusion coefficients gain good agreements with the experimental results. It can be concluded that the inversion pair potentials are valid over a wide range of interionic separations for describing the structural properties of B1-type ionic crystals

  18. Proteomic analysis of the response to NaCl stress of Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Li, Pei-Zhao; Sun, Jin-Wei; Huo, Gui-Cheng; Liu, Li-Bo

    2014-11-01

    Lactobacillus bulgaricus is commonly used in dairy products as a starter culture. Its viability during freeze-drying is of commercial interest. Here a significant (p bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was achieved during freeze-drying when it was prestressed with 2 % (w/v) NaCl for 2 h in the late growth phase. To understand the mechanism of this stress-related viability improvement in L. bulgaricus, protein synthesis was analyzed by 2D difference gel electrophoresis. Nine protein spots were significantly altered by NaCl and were subsequently identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. The functions of the proteins included stress-related protein synthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, nucleotide biosynthesis, sugar metabolism, transport systems, and vitamin biosynthesis. These findings provide a considerable background regarding the NaCl stress response of L. bulgaricus.

  19. Neutralization of Hydroxide Ion in Melt-Grown NaCl Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterson, Dumas A.

    1961-01-01

    Many recent studies of solid-state phenomena, particularly in the area of crystal imperfections, have involved the use of melt-grown NaCl single crystals. Quite often trace impurities in these materials have had a prominent effect on these phenomena. Trace amounts of hydroxide ion have been found in melt-grown NaCl crystals. This paper describes a nondestructive method of neutralizing the hydroxide ion in such crystals. Crystals of similar hydroxide content are maintained at an elevated temperature below the melting point of NaCl in a flowing atmosphere containing. dry hydrogen chloride. Heat treatment is continued until an analysis of the test specimens shows no excess hydroxide ion. A colorimetric method previously described4 is used for this analysis.

  20. Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation Ability of NaCl and Sea Salt Aerosol Particles at Cirrus Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert; Kaufmann, Julia; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Ullrich, Romy; Leisner, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    In situ measurements of the composition of heterogeneous cirrus ice cloud residuals have indicated a substantial contribution of sea salt in sampling regions above the ocean. We have investigated the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of sodium chloride (NaCl) and sea salt aerosol (SSA) particles at cirrus cloud temperatures between 235 and 200 K in the Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere aerosol and cloud chamber. Effloresced NaCl particles were found to act as ice nucleating particles in the deposition nucleation mode at temperatures below about 225 K, with freezing onsets in terms of the ice saturation ratio, Sice, between 1.28 and 1.40. Above 225 K, the crystalline NaCl particles deliquesced and nucleated ice homogeneously. The heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency was rather similar for the two crystalline forms of NaCl (anhydrous NaCl and NaCl dihydrate). Mixed-phase (solid/liquid) SSA particles were found to act as ice nucleating particles in the immersion freezing mode at temperatures below about 220 K, with freezing onsets in terms of Sice between 1.24 and 1.42. Above 220 K, the SSA particles fully deliquesced and nucleated ice homogeneously. Ice nucleation active surface site densities of the SSA particles were found to be in the range between 1.0 · 1010 and 1.0 · 1011 m-2 at T < 220 K. These values are of the same order of magnitude as ice nucleation active surface site densities recently determined for desert dust, suggesting a potential contribution of SSA particles to low-temperature heterogeneous ice nucleation in the atmosphere.

  1. The specific ion effect on emulsions, foam and gels of a seed protein concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawal, O.S.

    2008-05-01

    Protein concentrate was prepared from the seeds of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and the influences of selected Hofmeister salts on some functional properties of the protein concentrate were investigated. The results indicate that kosmotropic salts (Na 2 SO 4 , NaCl, NaBr) had improved water absorption capacities over the chaotropic salts (NaI, NaClO 4 , NaSCN) and generally, the reduction in water absorption capacity followed the Hofmeister trend: Na 2 SO 4 > NaCl > NaBr > NaI > NaClO 4 > NaSCN. However, the reverse was observed for the foaming and emulsification properties. The least gelation concentration (LGC) was used as the index of gelation properties and the results showed that LGC were higher in kosmotropic salts than in chaotropic salts. Generally, increases in salt concentration reduced the water absorption capacity, the surfactant properties as well as the gelation property. The findings would provide insight into the understanding of the structure property relations of the protein concentrate. (author)

  2. Effect of NaCl and KCl on irradiated diploid yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirtaev, K.G.; Lobachevskij, P.N.; Lyu Gvan Son

    1984-01-01

    Irradiated dipload yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae kept in NaCl and KCl solutions died more readily than nonirradiated cells: the death rate was a functaon of radiation Jose and temperature of exposure. It was suggested that the radiation-induced injury to mass cell structures was responsible for the death rate. It was shown that the postirradiataon recovery of cells from radiation damages proceeded in KCl solution two-three times slower than mn water, and it was inhibited completely in NaCl solution

  3. Low-field NMR determination of water distribution in meat batters with NaCl and polyphosphate addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jun-Hua; Deng, Ya-Min; Jia, Na; Li, Ru-Ren; Cao, Jin-Xuan; Liu, Deng-Yong; Li, Jian-Rong

    2016-06-01

    The objective was to elucidate the influence of NaCl and polyphosphates in the stage of protein swelling on the water-holding capacity (WHC) of meat batter. The meat batters were formulated with salt in different ways by adding established amounts of only NaCl, only polyphosphates, jointly adding NaCl and polyphosphates, and a control without any salt. An increase (pwater retention was found when a combination of NaCl and polyphosphates was used. A high textural parameter was observed in the two treatments with NaCl, but not in the group with only polyphosphate. For the polyphosphate group, T22 was lower (pwater, particularly with polyphosphate, but polyphosphate could not be an equal substitute for NaCl given its resulting lowest textural properties and poor microstructure. By presenting different hydration states in the protein swelling stage, the meat batter qualities were differentiated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Water Content, Temperature and NaCl on CO2 Corrosion of Carbon Steel (A106B in Iraqi Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Ahmed Jafar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to determine the corrosion rate of carbon steel (A 106 GradeB as flow line in crude oil production with CO2 content employing three Iraqi crude oil (Kirkuk crude oil, Halfaya crude oil, and Rumalia crude oil with identical produced water (brine [1%NaCl,2%NaCl, and 3%NaCl]. Experiments were performed in an autoclave test apparatus, crude oilproduced water mixtures, water cuts were (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 100%, and temperature (20, 40, 60°C. For all experiments, CO2 partial pressure was maintained at 4bar and rotational speed 500 rpm. The corrosion rates were determined by the weight loss method. The results revealed that the corrosion rate of carbon steel increased by increasing water cut and temperature, but decreased with increasing salt concentration for all types of crude oil. Rumaila crude oil exhibited the highest corrosion rate and Kirkuk crude oil exhibits the lowest corrosion rate while Halfaya crude oil exhibits a moderate corrosion rate.

  5. Corrosion Prevention of Steel Reinforcement in 7.5% NaCl Solution using Pure Magnesium Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer Murthy, Yogesh; Gandhi, Sumit; Kumar, Abhishek

    2018-03-01

    The current work investigates the performance of pure Magnesium on corrosion prevention of steel reinforcements by way of sacrificial anoding. Two set of six steel reinforcements were tested for half-cell potential, weight loss, anode efficiency and tensile strength for each of the sacrificial anodes in a high chloride atmosphere of 7.5% NaCl in tap water. Significant reduction in weight of anode was observed during the initial 12 days. The reduction in weight of steel reinforcements tied with anodes was found to be negligible, while that of reinforcements without anodes was significantly higher. Five distinct zones of corrosion were observed during the test. The tensile strength of steel cathodically protected by Mg alloy anodes was found less affected. It could be concluded that pure Mg anode provides an effective way of corrosion mitigation.

  6. Growth, chlorophyll fluorescence and mineral nutrition in the halophyte Tamarix gallica cultivated in combined stress conditions: Arsenic and NaCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, Dhouha Belhaj; Duarte, Bernardo; Bankaji, Insaf; Caçador, Isabel; Sleimi, Noomene

    2015-08-01

    Trace metal elements can cause various environmental and health issues due to their accumulation and integration in the food chain. In the present study, we determined the major toxic effects of arsenic on physiological behaviour of plants. For this propose, several combinations of high salinity and arsenic (As) concentrations were applied to the halophytic shrub, Tamarix gallica, by growing for three months with an irrigation solution supplemented with different concentrations of As (0, 200, 500 and 800M) with and without 200mM NaCl. The effect of the combined stress conditions on growth, physiological patterns and biochemical parameters were also assessed. The results demonstrated that T. gallica is a tolerant plant regarding arsenic. The photosynthesis apparatus Fo, Fm and Fv fluorescence, as well as Fv/Fm were not affected by As nor by As combined with salt. Likewise, pigment and nutrient (K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) contents were not affected either. However, the study results revealed that As adversely and significantly influenced the growth with increasing the concentration of As. Despite shoots growth reduction, the present research demonstrates that T. gallica is able to cope with high external concentrations of As (under 500μM) alone or in combination with NaCl. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0 - 24 h under 200 ...

  8. Over-expression of Arabidopsis DnaJ (Hsp40) contributes to NaCl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... levels of DnaJ in their transgenic sense lines exhibited tolerance to NaCl stress. Under 120 mM ... polymerase chain reaction; RT-PCR, reverse transcriptase –. PCR; CTAB ..... Engineering salt tolerance in plants. Curr. Opin.

  9. Response of Eucalyptus occidentais to water stress induced by NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, C.

    1978-01-01

    Eucalyptus occidentalis plants were exposed to NaCl in their culture solution for various time. Determination of cytokinin, abscisic acid, /sup 14/C leucine incorporation of E. occidentalis, a xerophyte, does not differ from the response of mesophytes to such treatments. 13 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  10. The effect of NaCl substitution by KCl on telemea cheese properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai ANGHELOIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial or total substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride on the chemical composition, texture profile and sensory properties of Telemea cheese during 28 days of ripening at 4°C was evaluated in the current study. Telemea cheese was ripened in 4 different brine solutions (20%, wt/wt made from different NaCl:KCl ratios as follows: (NaCl (A, KCl (B, 1NaCl:1KCl (C and 1NaCl:2KCl (D. The physicochemical properties of Telemea cheese (dry matter, fat, protein, ash, pH, total nitrogen (TN, water soluble nitrogen (WSN and ripening degree values were determined after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of ripening. Dry matter, pH and ripening degree values were significantly (p < 0.05 affected during ripening. The results of this study indicated that replacing 66% NaCl with KCl influenced the texture profile and sensorial characteristics of Telemea cheese.

  11. Growth responses of NaCl stressed rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... Growth responses of NaCl stressed rice (Oryza sativa. L.) plants ... 2008), which is a real threat to human's food security. Existed situation may ..... content and composition of essential oil and minerals in black cumin. (Nigella ...

  12. Effect of NaCl salinity on nitrate uptake in Plantago maritima L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, Michael; Posthumus, F.S; Elzenga, J.T.M.; Stulen, I.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of plants to NaCl salinity reduces the rate of nitrate net uptake by the roots. Previous studies showed that this effect was due to a reduced nitrate influx, which could only partially be explained by a lower demand of nitrate for growth. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that

  13. PLASMA-MEMBRANE LIPID ALTERATIONS INDUCED BY NACL IN WINTER-WHEAT ROOTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSOUR, MMF; VANHASSELT, PR; KUIPER, PJC

    A highly enriched plasma membrane fraction was isolated by two phase partitioning from wheat roots (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vivant) grown with and without 100 mM NaCl. The lipids of the plasma membrane fraction were extracted and characterized. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were

  14. The effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of NaCl priming with KNO3 on the germination traits and seedling growth of four Helianthus annuus L. cultivars under salinity conditions. Seeds of four spring sunflower (Armawireski, Airfloure, Alestar and Ismailli) were primed with KNO3 (-1.0 M Pa) for 24 h in ...

  15. Effects of NaCl stress on seed germination, early seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of salt stress on seed germination, early seedling growth and some physiological characteristics were evaluated for four cauliflower species in seven treatments of salinity including 0 (control), 34, 68, 102, 136, 170 and 204 mM NaCl in a three replicated randomized completely block design (RCBD). This result shows ...

  16. AFM of metallic nano-particles and nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaynutdinov, R; Vainshtein, DI; Hak, SJ; Tolstikhina, A; Den Hartog, HW

    2003-01-01

    AFM investigations are reported for heavily, electron irradiated NaCl crystals in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode-with an UHV AFM/STM Omicron system. To avoid chemical reactions between the radiolytic Na and oxygen and water, the irradiated samples were cleaved and prepared for the

  17. Irreversible dilation of NaCl contaminated lime-cement mortar due to crystallization cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Groot, C.J.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of damage occurring in NaCl contaminated materials has not been clarified yet. Apart from crystn. pressure, other hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause of decay. Irreversible dilation has been obsd. in a few cases but has never been studied in a more systematic way. The

  18. Effect of NaCl on Asparagus Quality, Production and Mineral Leaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruistum, van G.; Poll, J.T.K.; Meijer, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the incidence of Fusarium oxysporum and F. redolens on asparagus roots was reduced by field applications of NaCl. F. oxysporum and F. redolens are important diseases in asparagus crops causing physiological rust (brown discoloration on the harvested spears), reduced

  19. The release of stored energy in heavily irradiated NaCl explosive reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vainshtein, D.; Bemt, M. van den; Seinen, J.; Datema, H.C.; Hartog, H.W. den

    1995-01-01

    During irradiation of NaCl with ionizing radiation at moderate temperatures (50-150 degrees C) irregular structures of very fine Na and Cl nano-precipitates are formed. The increase of the temperature to a value between 50 and 250 degrees C might induce explosive reactions between radiolytic Na and

  20. Heteroepitaxial strain in alkali halide thin films: KCl on NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1999-01-01

    We have pet-formed Monte Carlo simulations of the properties of a NaCl (001) surface covered by full or partial layers of KCl, for coverages up to 5 monolayers (ML). A wide variety of structures of the film is found. For integer ML coverages we find the continuous, so-called floating mode rumple ...

  1. Color kinetics and acrylamide formation in NaCl soaked potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Bustos, Oscar; Mery, Domingo

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of color development in blanched and blanched-NaCl impregnated potato slices during frying by using the dynamic method and also to evaluate the effect of NaCl in reducing acrylamide formation in potato chips. The measurement of color was done b...

  2. Plasma glucose level in elective surgical patients administered with 5% dextrose in 0.45% NaCl in comparison with those receiving lactated Ringer's solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saringcarinkul, Ananchanok; Kotrawera, Kriengsak

    2009-09-01

    To determine the effect of dextrose containing solution (5% dextrose in 0.45% NaCl) compared to non-dextrose containing solution (lactated Ringer's solution) on plasma glucose level in elective surgical patients. A prospective randomized double-blind control trial was conducted on 60 patients aged 18-60, with ASA physical status I to II, who were scheduled for elective surgery at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Thailand between October; 2007 and September; 2008. The patients received either lactated Ringer's solution (Group L), or 5% dextrose in 0.45% NaCl (Group D) in the morning of the operation day. Blood glucose levels were determined before intravenous fluid administration (T0), at the beginning (T1), after the 1st hr (T2), and at the end of surgery (T3). Mean duration of preoperative fast was almost 11 hrs in both groups; however, none of the patients had preoperative hypoglycemia. The blood sugar levels were significantly higher in the patients receiving 5% dextrose solution compared to the patients receiving lactated Ringer's solution at the beginning, after the 1st hr and at the end of surgery (p-value = 0.06, 0.018 and 0.036 respectively). There were some patients having hyperglycemia after receiving 5% dextrose in 0.45% NaCl during surgery. However, none of the average plasma glucose values in either group was considered as hyperglycemia. Though they fasted many hours before surgery, no patients were found to have hypoglycemia. The large volume of lactate Ringer's solution had minimal effect on the blood sugar levels compared to the levels in 5% dextrose in 0.45% NaCl group. Therefore, lactate Ringer's solution is probably the alternative choice of intravenous fluid for perioperative maintenance and can be used as replacement in healthy patients undergoing elective surgery.

  3. Inhibitory effect of konjac glucomanan on pitting corrosion of AA5052 aluminium alloy in NaCl solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kegui; Yang, Wenzhong; Xu, Bin; Chen, Yun; Yin, Xiaoshuang; Liu, Ying; Zuo, Huanzhen

    2018-05-01

    A natural carbohydrate polymer, konjac glucomanan, has been extracted from commercial product and studied as a green corrosion inhibitor for AA5052 aluminium alloy in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution by high-performance gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, electrochemical measurement and surface characterization techniques. The results of GPC measurements suggest the weight-average molecular weight and the number-average molecular weight of KGM with 98.2% purity are 1.61 × 10 5  g/mol and 1.54 × 10 5  g/mol, respectively. Potentiodynamic polarization curves show konjac glucomanan behaves as a mixed-type inhibitor with dominant anodic effect and that its maximum efficiency at 200 ppm is 94%. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies reveal the resistance of oxide film is approximately two orders of magnitude greater than the resistance of adsorbed inhibitor layer and that they both increase with KGM concentration. Moreover, in-situ electrochemical noise (EN) detection demonstrates that the growth and propagation stages of the pitting corrosion germinating on metal surface are blocked by polysaccharide additive, which is confirmed by the surface analysis of aluminium alloy using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy. At last, it is found that the addition of KGM makes it harder for water droplet containing NaCl to wet the metallic substrate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Acid-base behavior of the gaspeite (NiCO3(s)) surface in NaCl solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Jiménez, Adrián; Mucci, Alfonso; Pokrovsky, Oleg S; Schott, Jacques

    2010-08-03

    Gaspeite is a low reactivity, rhombohedral carbonate mineral and a suitable surrogate to investigate the surface properties of other more ubiquitous carbonate minerals, such as calcite, in aqueous solutions. In this study, the acid-base properties of the gaspeite surface were investigated over a pH range of 5 to 10 in NaCl solutions (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 M) at near ambient conditions (25 +/- 3 degrees C and 1 atm) by means of conventional acidimetric and alkalimetric titration techniques and microelectrophoresis. Over the entire experimental pH range, surface protonation and electrokinetic mobility are strongly affected by the background electrolyte, leading to a significant decrease of the pH of zero net proton charge (PZNPC) and the pH of isoelectric point (pH(iep)) at increasing NaCl concentrations. This challenges the conventional idea that carbonate mineral surfaces are chemically inert to background electrolyte ions. Multiple sets of surface complexation reactions (i.e., ionization and ion adsorption) were formulated within the framework of three electrostatic models (CCM, BSM, and TLM) and their ability to simulate proton adsorption and electrokinetic data was evaluated. A one-site, 3-pK, constant capacitance surface complexation model (SCM) reproduces the proton adsorption data at all ionic strengths and qualitatively predicts the electrokinetic behavior of gaspeite suspensions. Nevertheless, the strong ionic strength dependence exhibited by the optimized SCM parameters reveals that the influence of the background electrolyte on the surface reactivity of gaspeite is not fully accounted for by conventional electrostatic and surface complexation models and suggests that future refinements to the underlying theories are warranted.

  5. Higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea are independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about the relation of modifiable dietary factors to circulating homocysteine concentrations, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. We investigated the hypothesis that intakes of nutrients and foods are associated with serum homocysteine concentration in a group of young Japanese women. This cross-sectional study included 1050 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 22 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum homocysteine concentrations were measured. Adjustment was made for survey year, region, municipality level, current smoking, current alcohol drinking, dietary supplement use, physical activity, body mass index, energy intake, and intakes of other nutrients or foods. After adjustment for nondietary confounding factors, intakes of all B vitamins (folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and riboflavin) were inversely associated with homocysteine concentration. However, only vitamin B-6 remained significant after further adjustment for other B vitamins. Marine-origin n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake showed an inverse association, but this was not independent of intakes of B vitamins. For foods, pulses, fish and shellfish, and vegetables were independently and inversely associated with homocysteine concentration, but these associations disappeared after adjustment for intakes of other foods. Conversely, an inverse association for dairy products and a positive association for green and oolong tea remained even after adjustment for other foods. To conclude, in a group of young Japanese women, higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea were independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurements of Neuronal Soma Size and Estimated Peptide Concentrations in Addition to Cell Abundance Offer a Higher Resolution of Seasonal and Reproductive Influences of GnRH-I and GnIH in European Starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorin, Nelson; Calisi, Rebecca M

    2015-08-01

    Hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in vertebrate reproduction, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH-I) and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), can vary in the abundance of immunoreactive cells as a function of the reproductive status and nest box occupation of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). While using the abundance of cells as an indicator of the activity of neurohormones is informative, incorporating information on cell size (readily observed using immunohistochemistry) can offer a more detailed understanding of environmentally-mediated changes in hormonal dynamics. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the size of cells' somas and the estimated concentration of peptides in cells immunoreactive (ir) for GnRH-I and GnIH would vary throughout the breeding season and as a function of nest-box status (resident or not). In the absence of a direct assay of protein, we estimated an index of the concentration of hypothalamic peptides via the relative optical density (i.e., the difference between the mean optical density and the optical density of background staining). In support of our hypothesis, we found that GnRH-I- and GnIH-ir soma size and peptide concentration changed both in males and females throughout the breeding season. Somas were largest and estimated peptide concentration was highest mid-season when compared with earlier in the season or to the non-breeding period. For nest-box residents, GnIH-ir soma size and peptide concentration were higher during the middle of the breeding season than earlier in the breeding season, although residence in the nest box was not related to GnRH-I-ir variables. Our results confirm that previously reported changes in cell abundance mimic changes we see in GnRH-I and GnIH-ir soma size and our proxy for peptide concentration. However, investigating changes in the soma of GnRH-I-ir cells revealed a peak in size during the middle of the breeding season, a change not evident when solely examining data on the

  7. Comparative assessment of image quality for coronary CT angiography with iobitridol and two contrast agents with higher iodine concentrations: iopromide and iomeprol. A multicentre randomized double-blind trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achenbach, Stephan [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); Paul, Jean-Francois [Centre Chirurgical Marie Lannelongue, Department of Radiology, Le Plessis Robinson (France); Laurent, Francois [University of Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux, U1045, Bordeaux (France); CHU de Bordeaux, Service d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France); Becker, Hans-Christoph [University Hospital Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Rengo, Marco [Sapienza - University of Rome, ICOT Hospital, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy); Caudron, Jerome [University Hospital of Rouen, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); Leschka, Sebastian [Saint Gallen Hospital, Department of Radiology, Saint Gallen (Switzerland); Vignaux, Olivier [Cochin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Knobloch, Gesine [La Charite, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Benea, Giorgio [Ospedale del Delta, Ferrara (Italy); Schlosser, Thomas [Elisabeth-Krankenhaus Hospital, Essen (Germany); Andreu, Jordi [Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Cabeza, Beatriz [Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Jacquier, Alexis [La Timone Adult Hospital, Department of Radiology, Marseille (France); Souto, Miguel [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Revel, Didier [Louis Pradel Hospital, Department of Radiology, Lyon (France); Qanadli, Salah Dine [University of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Cademartiri, Filippo [Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Department of Radiology, Monastier di Treviso (Italy); Collaboration: X-ACT Study Group

    2017-02-15

    To demonstrate non-inferiority of iobitridol 350 for coronary CT angiography (CTA) compared to higher iodine content contrast media regarding rate of patients evaluable for the presence of coronary artery stenoses. In this multicentre trial, 452 patients were randomized to receive iobitridol 350, iopromide 370 or iomeprol 400 and underwent coronary CTA using CT systems with 64-detector rows or more. Two core lab readers assessed 18 coronary segments per patient regarding image quality (score 0 = non diagnostic to 4 = excellent quality), vascular attenuation, signal and contrast to noise ratio (SNR, CNR). Patients were considered evaluable if no segment had a score of 0. Per-patient, the rate of fully evaluable CT scans was 92.1, 95.4 and 94.6 % for iobitridol, iopromide and iomeprol, respectively. Non-inferiority of iobitridol over the best comparator was demonstrated with a 95 % CI of the difference of [-8.8 to 2.1], with a pre-specified non-inferiority margin of -10 %. Although average attenuation increased with higher iodine concentrations, average SNR and CNR did not differ between groups. With current CT technology, iobitridol 350 mg iodine/ml is not inferior to contrast media with higher iodine concentrations in terms of image quality for coronary stenosis assessment. (orig.)

  8. Effect of Short Term NaCl Stress on Cultivars of S. lycopersicum: A Comparative Biochemical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitali Roy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a crop plant with high fruit nutritive value and other useful properties. The cultivation of this species is dependent on many environmental factors, e.g. temperature, salinity, nutrients etc, affecting the yield and reproductive potential of the plant. Salinity in soil or water is of increasing importance to agriculture because it causes stress to crop plants. Plants exposed to an excess amount of salts such as NaCl undergo osmotic stress, water deficit and ionic imbalances and can increase production of reactive oxygen species(ROS. Higher plants possess very efficient enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative defense mechanisms that allow the scavenging of ROS and protection of cellular components from oxidative damage. Studies were conducted to investigate the effect of short term salinity stress on some physiological alterations in three tomato cultivars Pusa Ruby(PR, Punjab Keshari (PK and Ailsa Craig(AC. Some biochemical parameters (anthocyanin and carotenoeid content, polyamines, proline, cysteine, peroxidase and malondialdehyde were set and applied at two month old stage of tomato plants. Three tomato cultivars were grown in 0.5xMS for 2 months and at this stage, they were treated with 0 and 200mM NaCl for a short period of six hours in hydroponic conditions. The genotypes exhibited different responses in terms of different osmoprotectant, antioxidant, and pigment level. The relationships among the salinity and accumulation of these compounds in leaf were then determined. It was concluded that, tomato cultivars under study responded differently showing their sensitivity or tolerance to salinity stress. Among three cultivars PK appeared to be more tolerant genotype than the other two cultivars PR and AC. PK could rapidly evolve physiological and antioxidant mechanisms to adapt to salt and manage the oxidative stress. The research was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications.

  9. Effect of NaCl on thermophilic (55°C) methanol degradation in sulfate reducing granular sludge reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallero, M.V.G.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of NaCl on thermophilic (55degreesC) methanol conversion in the presence of excess of sulfate (COD/SO42-=0.5) was investigated in two 6.5L lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors inoculated with granular sludge previously not adapted to NaCl
    The effect of NaCl on thermophilic

  10. Effect of NaCl on the hydric and hygric dilation behaviour of lime-cement mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Huinink, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of damage due to NaCl crystallization has not been clarified yet. Apart from crystallization pressure, other hypotheses have been proposed to explain the decay. Irreversible dilation during NaCl crystallization has been observed in a few cases but has never been studied in a systematic

  11. Characteristics of injury and recovery of net NO3- transport of barley seedlings from treatments of NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobus, G.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The nature of the injury and recovery of nitrate uptake (net uptake) from NaCl stress in young barley (Hordeum vulgare L, var CM 72) seedlings was investigated. Nitrate uptake was inhibited rapidly by NaCl, within 1 minute after exposure to 200 millimolar NaCl. The duration of exposure to saline conditions determined the time of recovery of NO3- uptake from NaCl stress. Recovery was dependent on the presence of NO3- and was inhibited by cycloheximide, 6-methylpurine, and cerulenin, respective inhibitors of protein, RNA, and sterol/fatty acid synthesis. These inhibitors also prevented the induction of the NO3- uptake system in uninduced seedlings. Uninduced seedlings exhibited endogenous NO3- transport activity that appeared to be constitutive. This constitutive activity was also inhibited by NaCl. Recovery of constitutive NO3- uptake did not require the presence of NO3-.

  12. NaCl stress impact on the key enzymes in glycolysis from Lactobacillus bulgaricus during freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Sun, Jinwei; Qi, Xiaoxi; Liu, Libo

    2015-01-01

    The viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in freeze-drying is of significant commercial interest to dairy industries. In the study, L.bulgaricus demonstrated a significantly improved (p enzymes in glycolysis during 2% NaCl stress were studied. NaCl stress significantly enhanced (p enzymes (phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase) decreased during freeze-drying, and NaCl stress were found to improve activities of these enzymes before and after freeze-drying. However, a transcriptional analysis of the corresponding genes suggested that the effect of NaCl stress on the expression of the pfk2 gene was not obvious. The increased survival of freeze-dried cells of L. bulgaricus under NaCl stress might be due to changes in only the activity or translation level of these enzymes in different environmental conditions but have no relation to their mRNA transcription level.

  13. The Salty Scrambled Egg: Detection of NaCl Toward CRL 2688

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highberger, J. L.; Thomson, K. J.; Young, P. A.; Arnett, D.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2003-08-01

    NaCl has been detected toward the circumstellar envelope of the post-AGB star CRL 2688 using the IRAM 30 m telescope, the first time this molecule has been identified in a source other than IRC +10216. The J=7-->6, 11-->10, 12-->11, and 18-->17 transitions of NaCl at 1, 2, and 3 mm have been observed, as well as the J=8-->7 line of the 37Cl isotopomer. The J=12-->11 line was also measured at the ARO 12 m telescope. An unsuccessful search was additionally conducted for AlCl toward CRL 2688, although in the process new transitions of NaCN were observed. Both NaCl and NaCN were found to be present in the AGB remnant wind, as suggested by their U-shaped line profiles, indicative of emission arising from an optically thin, extended shell-like source of radius ~10"-12". These data contrast with past results in IRC +10216, where the distribution of both molecules is confined to within a few arcseconds of the star. A high degree of excitation is required for the transitions observed for NaCl and NaCN; therefore, these two species likely arise in the region where the high-velocity outflow has collided with the remnant wind. Here the effects of shocks and clumping due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities have raised the densities and temperatures significantly. The shell source is thus likely to be clumpy and irregular. The chemistry producing the sodium compounds is consequently more complex than simple LTE formation. Abundances of NaCl and NaCN, relative to H2, are f~1.6×10-10 and ~5.2×10-9, respectively, while the upper limit to AlCl is f<2×10-9. These values differ substantially from those in IRC +10216, where AlCl has an abundance near 10-7. The NaCl observations additionally indicate a chlorine isotope ratio of 35Cl/37Cl=2.1+/-0.8 in CRL 2688, suggestive of s-process enhancement of chlorine 37.

  14. Calculation of inelastic helium atom scattering from H2/ NaCl(001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruch, L.W.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Traeger, F.

    2011-01-01

    The one-phonon inelastic low energy helium atom scattering theory is adapted to cases where the target monolayer is a p(1 × 1) commensurate square lattice. Experimental data for para-H2/NaCl(001) are re-analyzed and the relative intensities of energy loss peaks in the range 6 to 9 meV are determi......The one-phonon inelastic low energy helium atom scattering theory is adapted to cases where the target monolayer is a p(1 × 1) commensurate square lattice. Experimental data for para-H2/NaCl(001) are re-analyzed and the relative intensities of energy loss peaks in the range 6 to 9 me...

  15. Evaluation of NaCl Salinity Stress Using Three Different Laboratory Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Laleh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different salinity levels of NaCl on germination of safflower (cv. Esfahan 24 seeds under three different incubation methods, a factorial experiment was carried out based on a complete randomize design with three replications. Salinity levels were 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 dSm-1 (NaCl and incubation methods were sandwich method, and using petri dishes with open or closed doors. The results showed that among investigated traits, including germination percentage and rate, length, fresh and dry weight of root and shoot, salinity had the highest negative correlation with germination percentage. There was not a significant difference in germination percentage between 5 dSm-1 and control, but increasing salinity levels to 10, 15 and 20 dSm-1 led to 13, 23.50 and 39.74 % reduction in germination percentage, respectively, compared to control (P

  16. Effect of Acacia Gum, NaCl, and Sucrose on Physical Properties of Lotus Stem Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Balmeet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences in east Asian part of the world pave the way for consumption of lotus stem starch (LSS) in preparations such as breakfast meals, fast foods, and traditional confectioneries. The present study envisaged the investigation and optimization of additives, that is, acacia gum, sodium chloride (NaCl), and sucrose, on water absorption (WA), water absorption index (WAI), and water solubility index (WSI) of LSS employing response surface methodology (RSM). Acacia gum resulted in increased water uptake and swelling of starch; however, NaCl reduced the swelling power of starch by making water unavailable to starch and also due to starch-ion electrostatic interaction. Sucrose restricted the water absorption by binding free water and decreased amylose leaching by building bridges with starch chains and thus forming rigid structure. PMID:26904639

  17. Reaction of metal oxides with molten mixtures NaPO3+NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarskaya, E.N.; Mityakhina, V.S.; Rodionov, Yu.I.; Silin, M.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    By methods of solubility determination and paper chromatography it is shown, that Fe 2 O 3 solution in NaPO 3 +NaCl melts in the air relizes due to its chemical interaction with solvent resulting in formation of iron and sodium binary di- and monophosphates depending on melt-solvent initial composition, its attainment of equilibrium state and experiment temperature. It is established, that oxides increased solubility in melts with NaCl initial content ∼30 mol.% is specified by sodium tri- and tricyclophosphates presence in the melts. On this basis of NGR-spectroscopy data the presence of iron, europium, tin and sodium binary di- and monophosphates in some chloride-polyphosphate melts is confirmed

  18. Short-pulse CO2-laser damage studies of NaCl and KCl windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newnam, B.E.; Nowak, A.V.; Gill, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    The damage resistance of bare surfaces and the bulk interior of NaCl and KCl windows was measured with a short-pulse CO 2 laser at 10.6 μm. Parametric studies with 1.7-ns pulses indicated that adsorbed water was probably the limiting agent on surface thresholds in agreement with previous studies at long pulsewidths. Rear-surface thresholds up to 7 J/cm 2 were measured for polished NaCl windows, whereas KCl surfaces damaged at approximately 60% of this level. The breakdown electric-field thresholds of exit surfaces were only 50% of the value of the bulk materials. The pulsewidth dependence of surface damage from 1 to 65 ns, in terms of incident laser fluence, increased as t/sup 1/3/

  19. Radiation induced color center and colloid formation in synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, P.W.; Swyler, K.J.; Klaffky, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    F-center and colloid particle formation has been studied in synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt crystals with apparatus for making optical absorption measurements during irradiation. F-center and colloid formation are functions of temperature, dose, dose rate, strain applied prior to irradiation and numerous other factors. Many of the observed properties are in accord with the Jain-Lidiard theory for radiation induced F-center and colloid growth above room temperature

  20. MARINATED WITH EFFECT OF NaCl AND SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE BROMATOLOGICAL PROPERTIES ON THE MEAT GOAT

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Peña F.; Daniel Salvador Duran O; Luis Carlos Baleta M.

    2014-01-01

    Goat meat has all the significant nutritional characteristics by consumers to be an excellent alternative supply; therefore, this study proposes the use of a mixture of NaCl, sodium tripolyphosphate, laurel and rosemary extracts as marginalisers agents using maceration technique marinade as facilitator system and applying vacuum packaging and storage at refrigeration of an overall strategy of modernization. In the finished product bromatologic variables pH, fat, protein, water holding c...

  1. Combinations of nisin with salt (NaCl) to control Listeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effect of combinations of nisin with salt (NaCl) to control Listeria monocytogenes on sheep natural sausage casings. Casings were inoculated with 3.0 x 105 cfu/g final inocula of L. monocytogenes, stored at 6°C in different solutions of nisin at 0, 100, 150 and 200 ìg/g. Each combined with salt at 0, 4, ...

  2. A thermoluminescence study of Z2-centres in terbium-doped NaCl crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.N.; Ahmed, I.M.; Pandaraiah, N.; Rao, U.V.S.; Babu, V.H.

    1983-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL), optical absorption are used to correlate thermal annealing of Z 2 -centres with TL peak occurring around 110 0 C in terbium-doped NaCl crystals. The TL glow peak occurring around 190 0 C is attributed to the thermal annealing of F-centres. The thermal activation parameters are calculated for both Z 2 - and F-centre peaks. (author)

  3. Influence of NaCl salinity on growth analysis of strawberry cv. Camarosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mirdehghan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of salinity effect on growth analysis of strawberry, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan in 2010. This study was carried out RCBD design with 4 replications to determine the influence of salinity (30, 60, 90 Mmol and control with distilled water on strawberry growth analysis. Results indicated that relative growth rate (RGR, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area ratio (LAR and dry matter accumulation were decreased with increasing salinity. The lowest RGR, CGR and LAR were observed in 90 Mmol NaCl salinity. Results also indicated that maximum dry matter accumulations were observed in 1050, 1200 and 1400 degree days in 30, 60 and 90 Mmol NaCl salinity, respectively. Water salinity more than 30 Mmol NaCl L-1 will decreased fresh fruit yield more than 50 percent in hydroponics strawberry production. Dry mass partitioning in NaCl-stressed plants was in favor of crown and petioles and at expense of root, stem and leaf whereas leaf, stem and root DM progressively declined with an increase in salinity.

  4. Charging induced emission of neutral atoms from NaCl nanocube corners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceresoli, Davide; Zykova-Timan, Tatyana; Tosatti, Erio

    2008-01-01

    Detachment of neutral cations/anions from solid alkali halides can in principle be provoked by donating/subtracting electrons to the surface of alkali halide crystals, but generally constitutes a very endothermic process. However, the amount of energy required for emission is smaller for atoms located in less favorable positions, such as surface steps and kinks. For a corner ion in an alkali halide cube the binding is the weakest, so it should be easier to remove that atom, once it is neutralized. We carried out first principles density functional calculations and simulations of neutral and charged NaCl nanocubes, to establish the energetics of extraction of neutralized corner ions. Following hole donation (electron removal) we find that detachment of neutral Cl corner atoms will require a limited energy of about 0.8 eV. Conversely, following the donation of an excess electron to the cube, a neutral Na atom is extractable from the corner at the lower cost of about 0.6 eV. Since the cube electron affinity level (close to that a NaCl(100) surface state, which we also determine) is estimated to lie about 1.8 eV below vacuum, the overall energy balance upon donation to the nanocube of a zero-energy electron from vacuum will be exothermic. The atomic and electronic structure of the NaCl(100) surface, and of the nanocube Na and Cl corner vacancies are obtained and analyzed as a byproduct

  5. Recuperación de fenol de aguas residuales industriales por tratamiento con NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveth Serna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se explora una técnica para la recuperación de fenol de aguas residuales que hasta el momento se ha realizado en forma empírica en algunas industrias locales. Se realizó un diseño experimental donde se tomó la concentración de NaCl como variable de entrada del proceso y el porcentaje de recuperación de fenol como variable de salida. El análisis estadístico de los datos muestra que la concentración de NaCl es una variable de suma importancia en el proceso. Se determinó que el mejor punto de operación está a 25º C, con un pH inicial entre 2 y 3, una concentración inicial de fenol de 6% y concentración inicial de NaCl de 21,5%, logrando una recuperación del fenol del 79 % con una concentración de fenol en la fase orgánica del 83 %. Además de la parte experimental, en el trabajo se exponen algunas teorías desarrolladas acerca de la separación de una solución de no electrolito y agua por adición de sal.

  6. Reactions of metal oxides with molten NaPO3 + NaCl mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarskaya, E.N.; Mityakhina, V.S.; Rodionov, Yu.I.; Silin, M.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    We consider the dissolution mechanism for iron (III), europium(III), and tin(IV) oxides in molten NaPO 3 + NaCl that are responsible for the peak solubilities. We chose Fe 2 O 3 as the basic material since this occurs in large amounts around damaged metal structures in rock salt mines in a proposed zone for storing vitrified radioactive wastes. Solubility measurement and paper chromatography show that Fe 2 O 3 dissolves in molten NaPO 3 + NaCl in air by reaction with the solvent to give double iron and sodium diphosphates and monophosphates in accordance with the initial solution-in-the-melt composition, the degree of equilibration, and the temperature. The elevated solubilities for initial NaCl contents close to 30 mole % are due to sodium triphosphates and tricyclophosphates present in these melts. Moessbauer spectroscopy confirms that double iron, europium and tin diphosphates and monophosphates containing sodium occur in these chloride-polyphosphate melts

  7. The equation of state of B2-type NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, S

    2010-01-01

    The equation of state (EOS) of B2-type NaCl has been investigated to 270 GPa and 3000 K using the first-principles molecular dynamics method and high-pressure experiments in a diamond anvil cell. We used the high-pressure experimental data to determine the compressibility at room temperature, and used the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the projector augmented-wave method (PAW) in simulations to calculate the thermal pressure. A Vinet EOS fitted to the room temperature data yielded an isothermal bulk modulus of B T0 = 39.25 GPa and a pressure derivative of B T0 ' = 4.72. The high-temperature data from the first-principles calculations were fitted to the thermal pressure EOS. The resulting calculated parameters of the thermal pressure, αB T (V 0 ,T) and (δB T /δT) V , were 3.28 x 10 -3 (GPa/K) and 4.3 x10 -4 (GPa/K), respectively. A small volume dependence of the thermal pressure of B2-type NaCl was revealed from the analysis of our data. A significant temperature dependence of the calculated Grueneisen parameters was confirmed. This indicates that the conventional approach using the Mie-Grueneisen approximation is likely to have a significant uncertainty in determining the EOS for B2-type NaCl, and that an intrinsic anharmonicity should be considered to analyze the EOS.

  8. Salinity tolerance in barley (hordeum vulgare l.): effects of varying NaCl, K/sup +/ Na/sup +/ and NaHCO/sub 3/ levels on cultivars differing in tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, K.

    2011-01-01

    Although barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is regarded as salt tolerant among crop plants, its growth and plant development is severely affected by ionic and osmotic stresses in salt-affected soils. To elucidate the tolerance mechanism, growth and ion uptake of three barley cultivars, differing in salt tolerance, were examined under different levels of NaCl, K/sup +/ Na/sup +/ and NaHCO/sub 3/ in the root medium. The cultivars differed greatly in their responses to varying root medium conditions. Plant growth was more adversely affected by NaHCO/sub 3/ than NaCl. In general, biomass yields were comparable under control and 100 mM NaCl. However, growth of all three cultivars was significantly inhibited by NaHCO/sub 3/ even at low concentration (10 mM). Improved K/sup +/ supply in saline medium increased K/sup +/ uptake and growth of less tolerant cultivars. K/sup +/ uptake was more adversely affected by NaHCO/sub 3/ than NaCl salinity. Selective K/sup +/ uptake and lower Cl/sup -/ in shoots seemed to be associated with the growth responses. K application would help better growth of these cultivars on K-deficient saline-sodic soils and under irrigation with poor quality water having high Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) and/or Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR). (author)

  9. Effects of temperature, pH and NaCl on protease activity in digestive tract of young turbot, Scophthalmus maximus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Muyan; Zhang, Xiumei; Gao, Tianxiang; Chen, Chao

    2006-09-01

    The protease activity in digestive tract of young turbot Scophthalmus maximum was studied, and the optimal pH, temperature and NaCl concentration were determined for different portions of the fish's internal organs. The optimal activity in the fish's stomach was at pH of 2.2, while that in the intestinal extracts was within the alkaline range from 9.5 to 10.0. In hepatopancreas, the optimal pH was in low alkalinity at 8.5. The optimal reaction temperature was above 40°C in stomach, intestine and hepatopancreas. With increasing temperature, the pH value increased in stomach, while in the intestine, an opposite tendency was observed due to combined effect of pH and temperature. NaCl concentration showed inhibitory impact on protein digestion in hepatopancreas. The main protease for protein digestion in turbot seemed to be pepsin. Moreover, the maximum protease activity in different segments of intestine existed in the hindgut.

  10. Effect of temperature and ionic strength on volumetric and acoustic properties of solutions of urea alkyl derivatives in aqueous NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowiak, Joanna; Wawer, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Urea and its alkyl derivatives in aqueous NaCl solutions were studied. • The density and the speed of sound were measured for presented systems. • The strongest impact of NaCl on obtained quantities is noticed for apparent molar compression. • Bigger hydrophobic character of the solute results in bigger changes of calculated quantities with concentration. • The geometry of the solute is a crucial condition for hydrophobic hydration to happen. - Abstract: The present work was undertaken to study volumetric and acoustic properties for diluted solutions of tetramethylurea in pure water and for urea, n-propylurea, n-butylurea and tetramethylurea in 0.5 or 1 mol · dm −3 aqueous solutions of sodium chloride. This paper presents measured values of densities and sound velocities at T = (288.15, 298.15 and 308.15) K. From these data the apparent molar volumes, V Φ , adiabatic compressibilities, κ S , and apparent molar adiabatic compressions, K S,Φ , were obtained. The values of apparent molar volumes for infinite dilution and limited apparent adiabatic compressions were calculated from extrapolation of the concentration dependence. Further, the corresponding transfer data as well as hydration number of urea and its derivatives in the studied systems were estimated. The obtained parameters are discussed in terms of various solute-solvent and solute-cosolute interactions

  11. Construction of TSL lector equipment with spectral resolution for the determination of thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) properties of NaCl: Tl+ induced by UV-visible radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Romero, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    A revision of physical models of thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) in crystals induced by both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation is presented. Particular emphasis is given to the connection of TSL with other thermally stimulated processes and physico-chemical phenomena because basic information on physical mechanics for TSL can be obtained through them. Glow curves of TSL induced by UV-visible radiation in NaCl: Tl + were measured. Additionally, the following spectrums were obtained for the same samples: optical absorption, excitation, fluorescent emission, and TSL emission. An optical absorption peak was correlated with the Thallium ion concentration. With respect to the TSL emission spectrums, some peaks associated to Thallium dimmers were at 298 and at 480 nm; others which were attributed to NaCl intrinsic properties were at 365, 430, 450 and 525 nm. Also TSL glow curves were studied as a function of the Thallium ion concentration (0.8 ppm to 14.8 ppm). They were de convoluted so as to calculate the activation energy, the frequency factor and the kinetic order for each separate TSL peak. Anomalous values were observed for some frequency factors. A method and TSL lector equipment to obtain TSL emission spectra were developed. (Author)

  12. Measurement and Modeling of Setschenow Constants for Selected Hydrophilic Compounds in NaCl and CaCl2 Simulated Carbon Storage Brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burant, Aniela; Lowry, Gregory V; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2017-06-20

    Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), a climate change mitigation strategy, along with unconventional oil and gas extraction, generates enormous volumes of produced water containing high salt concentrations and a litany of organic compounds. Understanding the aqueous solubility of organic compounds related to these operations is important for water treatment and reuse alternatives, as well as risk assessment purposes. The well-established Setschenow equation can be used to determine the effect of salts on aqueous solubility. However, there is a lack of reported Setschenow constants, especially for polar organic compounds. In this study, the Setschenow constants for selected hydrophilic organic compounds were experimentally determined, and linear free energy models for predicting the Setschenow constant of organic chemicals in concentrated brines were developed. Solid phase microextraction was employed to measure the salting-out behavior of six selected hydrophilic compounds up to 5 M NaCl and 2 M CaCl 2 and in Na-Ca-Cl brines. All compounds, which include phenol, p-cresol, hydroquinone, pyrrole, hexanoic acid, and 9-hydroxyfluorene, exhibited log-linear behavior up to these concentrations, meaning Setschenow constants previously measured at low salt concentrations can be extrapolated up to high salt concentrations for hydrophilic compounds. Setschenow constants measured in NaCl and CaCl 2 brines are additive for the compounds measured here; meaning Setschenow constants measured in single salt solutions can be used in multiple salt solutions. The hydrophilic compounds in this study were selected to elucidate differences in salting-out behavior based on their chemical structure. Using data from this study, as well as literature data, linear free energy relationships (LFERs) for prediction of NaCl, CaCl 2 , LiCl, and NaBr Setschenow constants were developed and validated. Two LFERs were improved. One LFER uses the Abraham solvation parameters, which include

  13. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  14. Inhibition of Corrosion of Carbon Steel in 3.5% NaCl Solution by Myrmecodia Pendans Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atria Pradityana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitor is a substance that is added to the corrosive media to inhibit corrosion rate. Organic inhibitors are preferred to inorganic ones since they are environmentally friendly. One of the organic compounds which is rarely reported as a corrosion inhibitor is Myrmecodia Pendans. The organic compounds can be adsorbed on the metal surface and block the active surface to reduce the rate of corrosion. In this study, the used pipe was carbon steel API 5L Grade B with 3.5% NaCl solution as the corrosion medium. The objective of this research was to analyze the inhibition mechanism Myrmecodia Pendans towards carbon steel in a corrosion medium. Concentration variations of extract Myrmecodia Pendans were 0–500 ppm. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR was used for chemical characterization of Myrmecodia Pendans. Polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS were used to measure the corrosion rate and behaviour. From the electrochemical measurements, it was found that the addition of 400 mg/L inhibitor gave the highest inhibition efficiency. Myrmecodia Pendans acted as a corrosion inhibitor by forming a thin layer on the metal surface.

  15. Curcuminoid Compounds Isolated from Curcuma domestica Val. as Corrosion Inhibitor Towards Carbon Steel in 1 % NaCl Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandias, D.; Bundjali, B.; Wahyuningrum, D.

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in 1 % NaCl solution by curcuminoids has been studied at 27 degree Celsius using weight loss and electrochemical method. The determination of corrosion inhibition efficiency (% eff) utilising weight loss method at the concentration of 80 ppm showed the best result of 78.70 % for third isolated fraction. Further determination utilising Tafel method showed the following results: raw pure extract of curcuminoid gave 89.88 % at 50 ppm; the first isolated fraction gave 46.50 % at 80 ppm; the second isolated fraction gave 44.83 % at 30 ppm; and the third isolated fraction gave 92.44 % at 70 ppm. Based on the analysis of Tafel extrapolation curve, the raw pure extract and the third fraction of curcuminoid acted as anodic inhibitor, whereas the first and the second fraction performed as cathodic inhibitors. The evaluations of synergism parameter (S θ ) indicate that the enhancement in inhibition efficiency towards raw pure extract was caused by the presence of second and third fractions as cathodic and anodic inhibitors. The contribution of steric hindrance of methoxy groups in curcuminoid structure causes the decrease in curcuminoid activity to be adsorbed on the electrode (carbon steel) surface. (author)

  16. Does stimulation of NaCl secretion in in vitro perfused rectal gland tubules of Squalus acanthias increase membrane capacitance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, R; Thiele, I; Warth, R; Bleich, M

    1998-07-01

    NaCl secretion in rectal gland tubules (RGT) of Squalus acanthias requires the activation of Cl– channels in the luminal membrane. The RGT and its mechanism of activation are an early evolutionary paradigm of exocrine secretion. The respective Cl– channels probably resemble the shark equivalent of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Activation of these Cl– channels occurs via cAMP. It has been hypothesized that the activation of CFTR occurs via exocytosis or inhibited endocytosis. To examine this question directly by electrical measurements we have performed whole-cell patch-clamp analyses of in vitro perfused RGT. NaCl secretion was stimulated by a solution (Stim) containing forskolin (10 µmol/l), dibutyryl-cAMP (0.5 mmol/l) and adenosine (0.5 mmol/l). This led to the expected strong depolarization and an increase in membrane conductance (G m). The membrane capacitance (C m) was measured by a newly devised two-frequency synchronous detector method. It was increased by Stim significantly from 5.00±0.22 to 5.17±0.21 pF (n=50). The increase in C m correlated with the increase in G m with a slope of 51 fF/nS. Next the effect of furosemide (500 µmol/l) was examined in previously stimulated RGT. Furosemide was supposed to inhibit coupled Na+2Cl–K+ uptake and to reduce cell volume but not membrane trafficking of Cl– channels. Furosemide reduced G m slightly (due to the fall in cytosolic Cl– concentration) and C m to the same extent by which Stim had increased it. Both changes were statistically significant, and the slope of ΔC m/ΔG m was similar to that caused by Stim. Inhibitors of microtubules or actin (colchicine, phalloidin and cytochalasin D added at 10 µmol/l to the pipette solution and dialysed for >10 min) did not alter cell voltage, G m or C m, nor did these inhibitors abolish the stimulatory effect of cAMP. These data suggest that the small C m changes observed with Stim reflect a minor cell volume increase and an

  17. A new automated NaCl based robust method for routine production of gallium-68 labeled peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Michael K.; Mueller, Dirk; Baum, Richard P.; Leonard Watkins, G.; Breeman, Wouter A.P.

    2013-01-01

    A new NaCl based method for preparation of gallium-68 labeled radiopharmaceuticals has been adapted for use with an automated gallium-68 generator system. The method was evaluated based on 56 preparations of [ 68 Ga]DOTATOC and compared to a similar acetone-based approach. Advantages of the new NaCl approach include reduced preparation time ( 97%), and specific activity (>40 MBq nmole −1 [ 68 Ga]DOTATOC) and is well-suited for clinical production of radiopharmaceuticals. - Highlights: ► A NaCl based automated production of Ga-68-radiopharmaceuticals is described. ► Using 5 M NaCl for pre-purification of 68Ga eliminates the need for organic solvents. ► The method provides for high efficiency, specific activity, and radiochemical purity. ► The new method eliminates the need for the quality control by gas chromatography

  18. Investigation of electrochemical corrosion behavior in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution of boronized dual-phase steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayali, Yusuf; Anaturk, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion behaviors in a 3.5% NaCl solution of boronized Dual-Phase (DP) steels were examined. ► The martensite ratio increased with an increase in the intercritical annealing temperature. ► The corrosion resistance decreased with increase of the martensite ratio. ► The boride layer increased the corrosion resistance of DP steel 2–3-fold. ► The superior properties of DP steel as well as poor corrosion properties were improved by the boriding process. - Abstract: In this study, corrosion behaviors of boronized and non-boronized dual-phase steel were investigated with Tafel extrapolation and linear polarization methods in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Microstructure analyses show that the boride layer on the dual-phase steel surface had a flat and saw smooth morphology. It was detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis that the boride layer contained FeB and Fe 2 B phases. The amount of martensite increases with an increase in the intercritical annealing temperature. Both the amount of martensite and the morphology of the phase constituents have an influence on the corrosion behavior of dual-phase steel. A higher corrosion tendency was observed with an increased amount of martensite. The corrosion resistance of boronized dual-phase steel is higher compared with that of dual-phase steel

  19. Partial molar volumes of L-alanine, DL-serine, DL-threonine, L-histidine, glycine, and glycylglycine in water, NaCl, and DMSO aqueous solutions at T 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Quan; Li Zhifen; Wang Baohuai

    2006-01-01

    The apparent molar volumes of L-alanine, DL-serine, DL-threonine, L-histidine, glycine, and glycylglycine in water and in the aqueous solutions of NaCl and DMSO with various concentrations at T = 298.15 K have been measured by the precise vibrating-tube digital densimeter. The calculated partial molar volumes at infinite dilution have been used to obtain corresponding transfer volumes from water to various solutions. The experimental results show that the standard partial molar volumes of the above amino acids and peptide at the dilute DMSO aqueous solutions are very close to those in water. However, the volumes show several types of variations with the increase of the concentrations of DMSO due to different types of side chain of amino acids, which should be discussed specifically. The NaCl changes considerably the infinite dilution standard partial molar volumes of the above amino acids and peptide in the aqueous solutions. The infinite dilution standard partial molar volumes of the each amino acids and peptide increase with the concentrations of NaCl. The experimental results have been rationalized by a cosphere overlap model

  20. Effects of temperature and NaCl on the formation of 3-MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein during deep-fat frying of potato chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu Hua; Muhamad, Halimah; Abas, Faridah; Lai, Oi Ming; Nyam, Kar Lin; Tan, Chin Ping

    2017-03-15

    The effects of frying duration, frying temperature and concentration of sodium chloride on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters and glycidyl esters (GEs) of refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein during deep-fat frying (at 160°C and 180°C) of potato chips (0%, 1%, 3% and 5% NaCl) for 100min/d for five consecutive days in eight systems were compared in this study. All oil samples collected after each frying cycle were analyzed for 3-MCPD esters, GEs, free fatty acid (FFA) contents, specific extinction at 232 and 268 nm (K 232 and K 268 ), p-anisidine value (pAV), and fatty acid composition. The 3-MCPD ester trend was decreasing when the frying duration increased, whereas the trend was increasing when frying temperature and concentration of NaCl increased. The GEs trend was increasing when the frying temperature, frying duration and concentration of NaCl increased. All of the oil qualities were within the safety limit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis of NaCl Single Crystals with Defined Morphologies as Templates for Fabricating Hollow Nano/micro-structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, B.B.; Jin, P.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    . These naturally abundant NaCl single crystal templates are water-soluble, environmentally-friendly and uniform in both geometry and size, and hence are ideal for preparing high quality hollow nano/micro structures. The new approach may have the potential to replace the conventional hard or soft template...... approaches. Furthermore, this work has revealed the formation mechanism of nano/micron NaCl crystals with different sizes and geometries....

  2. Evaluation of Effect of Silicon on NaCl Tolerance in Annual Medicago scutellata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Azizi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Salinity is one of the most important stress resulting depletion of vegetation in large areas of the world including some regions of Iran. Reduction of plant growth due to salinity occurs with a range of mechanisms, including low external water potential, ion toxicity and interfere with the uptake. Silicon (Si is the second most abundant element in soil and could efficiently mitigate the effects of various biotic and abiotic stresses, such as drought, heavy metal toxicity and salinity on plants. Medicago scutellata is an important leguminous forage crop throughout the world that could increase soil nitrogen content via reduction of atmospheric nitrogen. To our knowledge, no study have examined the interaction of salinity and Si nutrition in Medicago scutellata or how the beneficial effects of Si in salt-stressed M. scutellata plants (if any are exerted. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of silicon nutrition on salt tolerance of Medicago scutellata. Materials and Methods Seeds of alfalfa (Medicago scutellata L. were sterilized with a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution and were incubated in a moistened paper towel. Then, they germinated in the dark at 255  C for 48 h. Healthy seedlings of uniform sizes were selected for hydroponic culture (Hoagland solution in a 10×15×15 cm plastic pots. A factorial experiment carried out based on a completely randomized design with two factors. The first factor was salinity, including 0 and 100 mM NaCl and the second was silicon nutrition, including 0, 0.75 and 1.5 m.M sodium silicate. The pH of the nutrient solution was adjusted daily at 6.4  0.2 and nutrient solution was refreshed weekly. During the experiment, maximum and minimum air temperatures were 30ºC and 21ºC respectively, and the mean relative humidity was 67%. Four weeks after exerting the treatments, plants were harvested and used for the assessment of growth parameters and chemical analyses

  3. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  4. Proteomic and Physiological Analyses Reveal Putrescine Responses in Roots of Cucumber Stressed by NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major environmental constraint that threatens agricultural productivity. Different strategies have been developed to improve crop salt tolerance, among which the effects of polyamines have been well reported. To gain a better understanding of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. responses to NaCl and unravel the underlying mechanism of exogenous putrescine (Put alleviating salt-induced damage, comparative proteomic analysis was conducted on cucumber roots treated with NaCl and/or Put for 7 days. The results showed that exogenous Put restored the root growth inhibited by NaCl. 62 differentially expressed proteins implicated in various biological processes were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The four largest categories included proteins involved in defense response (24.2%, protein metabolism (24.2%, carbohydrate metabolism (19.4% and amino acid metabolism (14.5%. Exogenous Put up-regulated most identified proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, implying an enhancement in energy generation. Proteins involved in defense response and protein metabolism were differently regulated by Put, which indicated the roles of Put in stress resistance and proteome rearrangement. Put also increased the abundance of proteins involved in amino acid metabolism. Meanwhile, physiological analysis showed that Put could further up-regulated the levels of free amino acids in salt stressed-roots. In addition, Put also improved endogenous polyamines contents by regulating the transcription levels of key enzymes in polyamine metabolism. Taken together, these results suggest that Put may alleviate NaCl-induced growth inhibition through degradation of misfolded/damaged proteins, activation of stress defense, and the promotion of carbohydrate metabolism to generate more energy.

  5. Evaluation of the corrosion behavior of the al-356 alloy in NaCl solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Vásquez Rendón

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular metals are a new class of materials with promising applications and a unique combination of physical, chemical and mechanical properties. The Al-356 alloy is used to manufacture metal foams from NaCl preforms. Despite the usefulness of these materials, their performance may be affected by corrosion due to residual salt. This paper reports the study of the behavior of the Al-356 alloy in chloride solutions by electrochemical techniques in rotating disk electrode. The cathodic reaction of oxygen reduction is the crucial stage of process dissolution of the material, which shows that is the oxygen transport which limits the corrosion process.

  6. Mini-review: regulation of the renal NaCl cotransporter by hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Vega, Lorena; Gamba, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The renal thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter, NCC, is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule. The activity of this cotransporter is critical for regulation of several physiological variables such as blood pressure, serum potassium, acid base metabolism, and urinary calcium excretion. Therefore, it is not surprising that numerous hormone-signaling pathways regulate NCC activity to maintain homeostasis. In this review, we will provide an overview of the most recent evidence on NCC modulation by aldosterone, angiotensin II, vasopressin, glucocorticoids, insulin, norepinephrine, estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, and parathyroid hormone. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Corrosion monitoring of the AA2024 alloy in NaCl solutions by electrochemical noise measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aballe, A.; Bethencourt, M.; Botana, F.J.; Marcos, M.; Rodriguez-Chacon, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The behaviour of the AA2024 alloy against corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution has been monitored. In this environment the alloy can be easily damaged under small anodic polarizations. Linear Polarization, electrochemical impedance, spectroscopy and electrochemical noise measurement have been used as experimental techniques. Data from ENM have been analyzed using statistical parameters and Chaos Theory. The results here obtained suggest that ENM is particularly useful to monitored systems that can be modified using other electrochemical techniques. (Author) 11 refs

  8. AFM of metallic nano-particles and nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl

    OpenAIRE

    Gaynutdinov, R; Vainshtein, DI; Hak, SJ; Tolstikhina, A; Den Hartog, HW

    2003-01-01

    AFM investigations are reported for heavily, electron irradiated NaCl crystals in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode-with an UHV AFM/STM Omicron system. To avoid chemical reactions between the radiolytic Na and oxygen and water, the irradiated samples were cleaved and prepared for the experiments in UHV At the surface of freshly cleaved samples, we have observed sodium nano-precipitates with shapes, which depend on the irradiation dose and the volume fraction of the radiolytic Na...

  9. The europium and praseodymium hydrolysis in a 2M NaCl environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez R, M.; Lopez G, H.; Solache R, M.; Rojas H, A.

    1998-01-01

    It was studied the europium and praseodymium hydrolysis in a 2M NaCl ion force environment at 303 K, through two methods: this one extraction with dissolvents (lanthanide-water-NaCl-dibenzoylmethane) in presence of a competitive ligand (diglycolic acid) and that one direct potentiometric titration, of soluble species, followed by a computer refining. The values of one or another techniques of the first hydrolysis constants obtained were similar, which demonstrates that the results are reliable. The set of data obtained on the stability constants of hydrolysis products allowed to draw up the distribution diagrams of chemical species, as europium as praseodymium in aqueous environment. (Author)

  10. Crevice corrosion resistance of high alloyed materials in 3.5 % NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alar, Vesna; Stojanovic, Ivan; Simunovic, Vinko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of applied torque on the corrosion behaviour of W.-Nr. 1.4404 and 1.4462 stainless steels and W.-Nr. 2.4605 and 2.4858 nickel alloys with crevices were investigated using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization method. Crevice corrosion (material-to-polytetrafluoroethylene) was tested in 3.5 % NaCl solution at 22 C. The corroded surface was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate similar trends in susceptibility to crevice corrosion with increasing torque. Among the four specimens, the W.-Nr. 1.4404 is the most susceptible to crevice corrosion. (orig.)

  11. Corrosion behaviour of Mg-Cu and Mg-Mo composites in 3.5% NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budruk Abhijeet, S.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Gupta, M.

    2008-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of pure magnesium, Mg-Cu (0.3, 0.6, and 1 vol.%) and Mg-Mo (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 vol.%) composites has been studied in 3.5% NaCl solution by weight loss and polarisation methods. Corrosion rates determined by weight loss method were considerably higher than that determined by polarisation method. The corrosion rate increased with increasing volume fraction of reinforcement in Mg-Cu and Mg-Mo composites. At the same volume fraction of reinforcement, molybdenum reinforced composite corroded faster than copper reinforced composite. The galvanic current density between Mg-Cu and Mg-Mo couples has been experimentally measured using zero resistance ammeter technique. The experimentally observed galvanic current densities were in close agreement with those obtained using mixed potential theory analysis. SEM observation of corroded samples confirmed microgalvanic activity at the matrix/reinforcement interfaces. The poor corrosion resistance of composites has been attributed to microgalvanic effects between the matrix and reinforcements and inferior quality of surface films

  12. Corrosion Behaviour of Heat - Treated Al-6063/ SiCp Composites Immersed in 5 wt% NaCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth ALANEME

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of SiC volume percent and temper conditions (namely, as-cast, solutionized, and artificial age hardening at 180°C and 195°C on the corrosion behaviour of Al (6063 composites and its monolithic alloy immersed in 5wt% NaCl solution has been investigated. Al (6063 - SiC particulate composites containing 6, 12 and 15 volume percent SiC were produced by premixing the SiC particles with borax additive and then adopting two step stir casting. Mass loss and corrosion rate measurements were utilized as criteria for evaluating the corrosion behaviour of the composites. The results show that the corrosion susceptibility of the Al (6063 - SiCp composites was higher than that of the monolithic alloy, and for most cases the corrosion rate of the composites increased with increase in volume percent of SiC. However, it was discovered that the nature of the passive films formed on the composites was sufficiently stable to reduce significantly the corrosion rate of the composites after 13days of immersion. This trend was observed to be consistent for all heat-treatment conditions utilized.

  13. Indian women with higher serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 are significantly less likely to be infected with carcinogenic or high-risk (HR types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrika J Piyathilake

    2010-01-01

    , type of fuel used for cooking and smoking status.Results: Women with higher concentrations of serum folate (>6 ng/mL and vitamin B12 (>356 pg/mL were at lower risk of being positive for HR-HPVs compared to those with serum folate ≤6 ng/mL and serum vitamin B12 ≤ 356 pg/mL (odds ratio = 0.26; 95% confidence interval: 0.08–0.89; P = 0.03.Conclusions: These results demonstrated that improving folate and vitamin B12 status in Indian women may have a beneficial impact on the prevention of CC. Micronutrient based interventions for control of HR-HPV infections may represent feasible alternatives to vaccine based approaches to HPV disease prevention, which are currently unaffordable for use in resource limited areas in rural India.Keywords: folate, vitamin B12, human papillomavirus, cervical cancer

  14. Susceptibility of dry-cured tuna to oxidative deterioration and biogenic amines generation: I. Effect of NaCl content, antioxidant type and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseiro, L C; Santos, C; Gonçalves, H; Serrano, C; Aleixo, C; Partidário, A; Lourenço, A R; Dias, M Abreu; da Ponte, D J B

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess lipid oxidation and biogenic amine (BA) development in "muxama", a dry-cured tuna muscle product, as affected by salt content, antioxidant type and ageing time. Overall, BA contents decreased with NaCl level (2785.1mgkg -1 , 1148.1mgkg -1 and 307.7mgkg -1 ) and increased with ageing time (366.2mgkg -1 , 1711.8mgkg -1 and 2959.2mgkg -1 in the final product (T0), and after 1 (T1) and 3 (T3) months of ageing, respectively). Regardless of the test conditions, the most concentrated BA was always tyramine. For the ageing periods considered in the present study, malondialdehyde formation was affected by the NaCl level, with the saltiest samples exhibiting lower content. Rosemary and sage extracts represented promising technological options for preserving muxama from oxidation and to minimize the presence of a fishy flavour and odour, but this treatment may cause the colour to lose some of its redness and become less appealing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Polymorphism 1936A > G in the AKAP10 gene (encoding A-kinase-anchoring protein 10) is associated with higher cholesterol cord blood concentration in Polish full-term newsborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łoniewska, Beata; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Clark, Jeremy Simon; Kordek, Agnieszka; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    A-Kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) coordinate the specificity of protein kinase A signaling by localizing the kinase to subcellular sites. The 1936G (V646) AKAP10 allele has been associated with adults with low cholinergic/vagus nerve sensitivity and with newborns with increased blood pressure. Decreased activity of the parasympathetic system is associated with risk of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to answer the question of whether 1936A > G AKAP10 polymorphism is associated with metabolic changes in full-term newborns that are predictive factors for the metabolic phenotype in adulthood. The study included 114 consecutive healthy Polish newborns born after the end of the 37 th week of gestation to healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies. At birth, cord blood of neonates was obtained for isolation of genomic DNA and cholesterol as well as triglyceride concentration. The cholesterol level in homozygotes GG was significantly higher than that in 1936A variant carriers (AG + AA, recessive mode of inheritance). Our results demonstrate a possible association between the 1936G AKAP10 variant and the total cholesterol level in the cord blood of the Polish newborn population.

  16. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique and X-ray microanalysis provide direct evidence of contrasting Na+ transport ability from root to shoot in salt-sensitive cucumber and salt-tolerant pumpkin under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bo; Huang, Yuan; Sun, Jingyu; Xie, Junjun; Niu, Mengliang; Liu, Zhixiong; Fan, Molin; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-12-01

    Grafting onto salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock can increase cucumber salt tolerance. Previous studies have suggested that this can be attributed to pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. However, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the transport of Na(+) in salt-tolerant pumpkin and salt-sensitive cucumber plants under high (200 mM) or moderate (90 mM) NaCl stress. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique showed that pumpkin roots exhibited a higher capacity to extrude Na(+), and a correspondingly increased H(+) influx under 200 or 90 mM NaCl stress. The 200 mM NaCl induced Na(+)/H(+) exchange in the root was inhibited by amiloride (a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter inhibitor) or vanadate [a plasma membrane (PM) H(+) -ATPase inhibitor], indicating that Na(+) exclusion in salt stressed pumpkin and cucumber roots was the result of an active Na(+)/H(+) antiporter across the PM, and the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter system in salt stressed pumpkin roots was sufficient to exclude Na(+) X-ray microanalysis showed higher Na(+) in the cortex, but lower Na(+) in the stele of pumpkin roots than that in cucumber roots under 90 mM NaCl stress, suggesting that the highly vacuolated root cortical cells of pumpkin roots could sequester more Na(+), limit the radial transport of Na(+) to the stele and thus restrict the transport of Na(+) to the shoot. These results provide direct evidence for pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. NaCl islands decorated with 2D or 3D 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaonan; Silly, Fabien

    2010-01-01

    The formation of PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride) nanostrutures on Au(1 1 1)-(22x√(3)) covered with NaCl islands has been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Atomically resolved STM images show that NaCl grows as (1 0 0)-terminated layers on Au(1 1 1)-(22x√(3)). Local atomic hexagonal packing has also been observed in the NaCl(1 0 0) layer. At submonolayer NaCl coverage, PTCDA forms two-dimensional islands on the Au(1 1 1) surface and nucleate preferentially at the NaCl island step edges. When the Au surface is fully covered with NaCl layers, PTCDA molecules form three-dimensional molecular clusters decorating the step edges of NaCl layers.

  18. NaCl islands decorated with 2D or 3D 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Xiaonan [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL-9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Silly, Fabien, E-mail: Fabien.silly@cea.fr [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL-9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); CEA, IRAMIS, SPCSI, Nanostructures and Organic Semiconductors Laboratory, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); UPMC, IPCM, UMR CNRS 7201, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2010-01-15

    The formation of PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride) nanostrutures on Au(1 1 1)-(22x{radical}(3)) covered with NaCl islands has been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Atomically resolved STM images show that NaCl grows as (1 0 0)-terminated layers on Au(1 1 1)-(22x{radical}(3)). Local atomic hexagonal packing has also been observed in the NaCl(1 0 0) layer. At submonolayer NaCl coverage, PTCDA forms two-dimensional islands on the Au(1 1 1) surface and nucleate preferentially at the NaCl island step edges. When the Au surface is fully covered with NaCl layers, PTCDA molecules form three-dimensional molecular clusters decorating the step edges of NaCl layers.

  19. Thermoluminescence analysis of co-doped NaCl at low temperature irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.m [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas, IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Furetta, C. [Touro University Rome, Circne Gianicolense 15-17, 00153 Rome (Italy); Flores J, C.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    The thermoluminescent response and kinetics parameters of NaCl, doubly activated by Ca-Mn and Cd-Mn ions, exposed to gamma radiation are analyzed. The doped NaCl samples were irradiated at relative low temperature, i.e. at the liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) and at dry ice temperature (DIT), and the glow curves obtained after 2 Gy of gamma irradiation were analyzed using the computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD). An evident variation in the glow curve structure after LNT and DIT was observed. It seems that different kinds of trapping levels are activated at relative low temperature. The original two prominent peaks in compositions A (Ca,Mn) and B (Ca,Mn) have been changed in only one main peak with satellites in the low temperature side of the glow curves. In compositions C (Cd,Mn) and D (Cd,Mn), low temperature peaks become stronger and prominent than the high temperature peaks; this effect could be explained considering that the trapping probability for low temperature traps, the one very close to the conduction band, is enhanced by low temperatures during irradiation.

  20. Computer simulation of radiation damage in NaCl using a kinetic rate reaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soppe, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    Sodium chloride and other alkali halides are known to be very susceptible to radiation damage in the halogen sublattice when exposed to ionizing radiation. The formation of radiation damage in NaCl has generated interest because of the relevance of this damage to the disposal of radioactive waste in rock salt formations. In order to estimate the long-term behaviour of a rock salt repository, an accurate theory describing the major processes of radiation damage in NaCl is required. The model presented in this paper is an extended version of the Jain-Lidiard model; its extensions comprise the effect of impurities and the colloid nucleation stage on the formation of radiation damage. The new model has been tested against various experimental data obtained from the literature and accounts for several well known aspects of radiation damage in alkali halides which were not covered by the original Jain-Lidiard model. The new model thus may be expected to provide more reliable predictions for the build-up of radiation damage in a rock salt nuclear waste repository. (Author)

  1. NaCl protects against Cd and Cu-induced toxicity in the halophyte Atriplex halimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankaji, I.; Sleimi, N.; Gómez-Cadenas, A.; Pérez-Clemente, R.M.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the extent of Cd- and Cu-induced oxidative stress and the antioxidant response triggered in the halophyte species Atriplex halimus after metallic trace elements exposure. Plants were treated for one month with Cd2+ or Cu2+ (400 µM) in the absence or presence of 200 mM NaCl in the irrigation solution. The interaction between salinity and heavy metal stress was analyzed in relation to plant growth, tissue ion contents (Na+, K+ and Mg2+), oxidative damage and antioxidative metabolism. Data indicate that shoot and root weight significantly decreased as a consequence of Cd2+- or Cu2+-induced stress. Metallic stress leads to unbalanced nutrient uptake by reducing the translocation of K+ and Mg2+ from the root to the shoot. The levels of malondialdehyde increased in root tissue when Cd, and especially Cu, were added to the irrigation solution, indicating that oxidative damage occurred. Results showed that NaCl gave a partial protection against Cd and Cu induced toxicity, although these contaminants had distinct influence on plant physiology. It can be concluded that salinity drastically modified heavy metal absorption and improved plant growth. Salinity also decreased oxidative damage, but differently in plants exposed to Cd or Cu stress.

  2. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  3. Expression of an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) peroxidase gene in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana enhances resistance to NaCl and H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, K; Xiao, G Z; Guo, W E; Yuan, J B; Li, J; Chao, Y H; Han, L B

    2016-05-23

    Peroxidases (PODs) are enzymes that play important roles in catalyzing the reduction of H2O2 and the oxidation of various substrates. They function in many different and important biological processes, such as defense mechanisms, immune responses, and pathogeny. The POD genes have been cloned and identified in many plants, but their function in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is not known, to date. Based on the POD gene sequence (GenBank accession No. L36157.1), we cloned the POD gene in alfalfa, which was named MsPOD. MsPOD expression increased with increasing H2O2. The gene was expressed in all of the tissues, including the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers, particularly in stems and leaves under light/dark conditions. A subcellular analysis showed that MsPOD was localized outside the cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis with MsPOD exhibited increased resistance to H2O2 and NaCl. Moreover, POD activity in the transgenic plants was significantly higher than that in wild-type Arabidopsis. These results show that MsPOD plays an important role in resistance to H2O2 and NaCl.

  4. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH CAIR GARAM BAHAN BAKU 30˚ Be UNTUK PENGASINAN IKAN GABUS RENDAH NACl DAN MENGANDUNG Mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilawati Nilawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pengasinan merupakan metode pengawetan yang sudah lama dengan menggunakan garam krosok namun pengasinan dengan  limbah cair garam 30˚ Be belum banyak dilakukan. Keuntungan dengan metode ini akan menghasilkan produk ikan asin yang rendah NaCl dan tinggi kandungan Mg. Penelitian ini menggunakan 1 variabel yaitu konsentrasi limbah cair garam 30˚ Be  yaitu B0 (0 persen- kontrol, B10 (10 persen. B20 (20 persen, B30 (30 persen,  B40(40 persen, B50 (50 persen  dan kontrol  B100 (100 persen  serta kontrol pembanding penggaraman kering dengan garam bahan baku G100 (100 persen atau dikenal garam krosok. Hasil penelitian diperoleh kandungan NaCl murni pada pemakaian larutan 30˚ Be sebanyak 10 persen  sebesar 6,952 persen. Dan pada konsentrasi limbah cair garam 30˚ Be dengan konsentrasi   50 persen diperoleh kndungan NaCl murni sebesar 15,478 persen, namun untuk kontrol yang menggunakan garam krosok maka NaCl nya paling tinggi, sedangkan kontrol dengan 100 persen larutan 30˚ Be kandungan NaCl murninya sampai 25,134 persen, yang menggunakan garam bahan baku  kandungan NaCl sebesar 43,864 persen.  Perlakuan yang terbaik diperoleh pada pemakaian larutan garam 30˚ Be pada konsentrasi 40 persen. Kandungan Magnesium pada     penelitian ini berkisar antara 0,387 Sampai  3,444  persen.  Perlakuan mulai konsentrasi 30 persen keatas   penampakan ikan asin putih kecoklatan , empuk, bersih, namun kalau dibawah 30 persen penampakannya kecoklatan muda, daging liat agak keras namun NaCl nya rendah

  5. Impact of low-concentrated acidic electrolysed water obtained by membrane electrolysis on the decontamination of meat microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brychcy Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of acidic electrolysed water (AEW treatment on inactivation of pure bacterial cultures inoculated onto the surface of agarised media and surface microbiota of pork meat were examined. Low-concentrated AEW (low concentration of sodium chloride and low current electrolysis was generated by electrolysis (5 or 10 min of 0.001% or 0.01% NaCl solution. The number of viable microorganisms was determined using a plate count method. The effect of AEW on bacterial cell morphology were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. After treatment with AEW, a significant, about 3.00 log reduction of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Micrococcus luteus populations was observed. In the AEW treatment of pork, the highest reduction of total number of microorganisms (2.1 log reduction, yeast and moulds (2.5-2.6 log reduction, and psychrotrophs (more than 1 log reduction was observed after spraying with 0.001% NaCl subjected to 10 min electrolysis. SEM revealed disruption and lysis of E. coli and S. aureus cells treated with AEW, suggesting a bactericidal effect. Higher available chlorine concentration (0.37-8.45 mg/L, redox potential (863.1-1049.8 mV, and lower pH (2.73-3.70 had an influence on the shape of bacteria and the number of breaks in the bacterial membrane.

  6. Enhanced oxidative stress in the jasmonic acid-deficient tomato mutant def-1 exposed to NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelsaad, Ibrahim; Renault, Sylvie

    2018-04-21

    Jasmonic acid (JA) has been mostly studied in responses to biotic stresses, such as herbivore attack and pathogenic infection. More recently, the involvement of JA in abiotic stresses including salinity was highlighted; yet, its role in salt stress remained unclear. In the current study, we compared the physiological and biochemical responses of wild-type (WT) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv Castlemart and its JA-deficient mutant defenseless-1 (def-1) under salt stress to investigate the role of JA. Plant growth, photosynthetic pigment content, ion accumulation, oxidative stress-related parameters, proline accumulation and total phenolic compounds, in addition to both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities, were measured in both genotypes after 14 days of 100 mM NaCl treatment. Although we observed in both genotypes similar growth pattern and sodium, calcium and potassium levels in leaves under salt stress, def-1 plants exhibited a more pronounced decrease of nitrogen content in both leaves and roots and a slightly higher level of sodium in roots compared to WT plants. In addition, def-1 plants exposed to salt stress showed reactive oxygen species (ROS)-associated injury phenotypes. These oxidative stress symptoms in def-1 were associated with lower activity of both enzymatic antioxidants and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Furthermore, the levels of the non-enzymatic ROS scavengers proline and total phenolic compounds increased in both genotypes exposed to salt stress, with a higher amount of proline in the WT plants. Overall the results of this study suggest that endogenous JA mainly enhanced tomato salt tolerance by maintaining ROS homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of NaCl upon an Al-Si casting alloy hipoeutec; Efecto del NaCl sobre una aleacion de Al-Si hipoeutectica vaciada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Delgado, E.J.; Ortega de la Rosa, R. [Istituto Tecnologico de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico)]. E-mail: enriquemartinez_1999@yahoo.com; rubin_ortega_2002@yahoo.com.mx; Cisneros Guerrero, M.A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Saltillo, Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)]. E-mail: cisneros@its.mx; Haro Rodriguez, S. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico)]. E-mail: haros907@hotmail.com

    2009-10-15

    This work, comprehends the study about the effect of NaCl kind Halite upon the morphology of eutectic Silicon and porosity in a cast hipoeutectic Al-Si alloy. The melting was carried out in two furnaces, the first to combustion of LP gas in graphite crucible to increase the content of Si in the alloy from 0.13 to 5% wt using metallic silicon with a purity of 99.35% wt, and the second of electric resistances in the same kind of crucible to control the temperature at 750 degrees Celsius. The melting material was casting into molds of sand shell. To add the salt into the metallic bath, two techniques were used; one with injection by means of Argon gas and the other on by gravity, both cases three quantities of salt were used, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5% wt respectively, powdered and preheated at 150 degrees Celsius during 60 min. The obtained samples were analyzed metallographily evidencing the modification of the eutectic Si, presenting the best results the samples with 1.5 and 2.5% wt of salt added by gravity. Too was obtained effect of Salt upon the degassing of bath metallic, where the simples with 1.5% wt presented the best results. Finally, by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy, the precipitates present were characterized in the samples. [Spanish] Este trabajo comprende el estudio del efecto del NaCl tipo Halita sobre la morfologia del Si eutectico y la porosidad en una aleacion fundida Al-Si hipoeutectica. La fusion se llevo a cabo en dos hornos, el primero a combustion con gas LP en crisol de grafito con la finalidad de incrementar el contenido de Si en la aleacion de 0.13 a 5% en peso, utilizando silicio metalico con una pureza de 99.35%, y el segundo de resistencias electricas en el mismo tipo de crisol para controlar la temperatura a 750 grados Celsios. El material fundido fue vaciado en modelos de arena. La sal se anadio al bano metalico a 0.5, 1.5 y 2.5% en peso, respectivamente, pulverizada y precalentada a 150 grados Celsios durante 60 min, mediante dos

  8. Magnetoplastic effect in irradiated NaCl and LiF crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'shitz, V.I.; Darinskaya, E.V.; Kazakova, O.L.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of low x-ray irradiation doses (≅10 2 rad) on the magnetoplastic effect - the detachment of dislocations from paramagnetic centers under the action of an external magnetic field B - in alkali-halide crystals has been investigated. The measurements were performed on LiF crystals and three types of NaCl crystals, differing in impurity content. The dependence of the mean free path l of the dislocations on the rotational frequency ν of a sample in a magnetic field was especially sensitive to low irradiation doses. In unirradiated crystals this dependence is a single-step dependence and is characterized by a critical frequency ν c ∝B 2 above which the magnetoplastic effect is not observed. The frequency ν c depends only on the type of paramagnetic centers, and not on their density. Even the lowest irradiation dose employed ( c2 , that is insensitive to the irradiation dose, and that corresponds to the appearance of magnetically sensitive stoppers of a new type under irradiation. The initial critical frequency ν c1 , as a rule, also varies with the dose, reflecting the change in state of the impurity complexes (Ca in NaCl and Mg in LiF). Specifically, it is shown for NaCl(Ca) crystals that as the irradiation dose increases, the frequency ν c1 increases, gradually approaching the value ν c2 , so that by the time the dose is ≅300 rad, the dependence l(ν) once again becomes a single-step dependence, dropping sharply only for ν≥ν c2 . It is shown that the addition of a small number of Ni atoms to a NaCl crystal makes the Ca complexes radiation resistant, and the critical frequency ν c1 corresponding to them initially equals ν c2 for crystals with no Ni. The recombination kinetics of radiation defects in the case in which the samples are irradiated under a tungsten lamp was investigated. A possible physical model of the observed dependences is discussed

  9. Lithium fluxes indicate presence of Na-Cl cotransport (NCC) in human lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauf, Peter K; Chimote, Ameet A; Adragna, Norma C

    2008-01-01

    During regulatory volume decrease (RVD) of human lens epithelial cells (hLECs) by clotrimazole (CTZ)-sensitive K fluxes, Na-K-2Cl cotransport (NKCC) remains active and K-Cl cotransport (KCC) inactive. To determine whether such an abnormal behavior was caused by RVD-induced cell shrinkage, NKCC was measured in the presence of either CTZ or in high K media to prevent RVD. NKCC transports RbCl + NaCl, and LiCl + KCl; thus ouabain-insensitive, bumetanide-sensitive (BS) or Cl-dependent (ClD) Rb and Li fluxes were determined in hyposmotic high NaCl media with CTZ, or in high KCl media alone, or with sulfamate (Sf) or nitrate as Cl replacement at varying Rb, Li or Cl mol fractions (MF). Unexpectedly, NKCC was inhibited by 80% with CTZ (IC(50) = 31 microM). In isosmotic (300 mOsM) K, Li influx was approximately 1/3 of Rb influx in Na, 50% lower in Sf, and bumetanide-insensitive (BI). In hypotonic (200 mOsM) K, only the ClD but not BS Li fluxes were detected. At Li MFs from 0.1-1, Li fluxes fitted a bell-shaped curve maxing at approximately 0.6 Li MF, with the BS fluxes equaling approximately 1/4 of the ClD-Li influx. The difference, i.e. the BI/ClD Li influx, saturated with increasing Li and Cl MFs, with K(ms) for Li of 11 with, and 7 mM without K, and of approximately 46 mM for Cl. Inhibition of this K-independent Li influx by thiazides was weak whilst furosemide (<100 microM) was ineffective. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blots verified presence of both NKCC1 and Na-Cl cotransport (NCC). In conclusion, in hyposmotic high K media, which prevents CTZ-sensitive K flux-mediated RVD in hLECs, NKCC1, though molecularly expressed, was functionally silent. However, a K-independent and moderately thiazide-sensitive ClD-Li flux, i.e. LiCC, likely occurring through NCC was detected operationally and molecularly. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The salicylic acid effect on the tomato (lycopersicum esculentum Mill. germination, growth and photosynthetic pigment under salinity stress (NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahba Zahra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a serious environmental problem that has negative effect on plant growth, production and photosynthesis. Fresh and dry plant weights decreases with salinity treatments. The very important role of salicylic acid (SA in response to different stress and modification and decline damages due to stresses has established in different studies. In this research tomato seeds planted in pots containing perlite in a growth chamber under controlled conditions of 27±2°c and 23±2°c temperature , 16h lightness and 8h darkness respectively, 15 Klux light intensity and 75% humidity; NaCl concentration of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM and salicylic acid concentration of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM were used in the form of factorial experiment in a complete randomized design (CRD. Results show that germination was decreased with salinity increasing. At low levels of salinity, SA leads to decrease in germination and had no effect in high levels of salinity. The length of shoot were not effected by salinity but decrease with increase in SA concentration. Low salinity concentrations led to significant increase in root length and high concentrations don’t have significant difference with control. SA also had no effect on it. The highest amount of a, b, c and total chlorophyll and carotenoid was show in 50 mM salinity levels.

  11. Highly porous open cell Ti-foam using NaCl as temporary space holder through powder metallurgy route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Nidhi; Mondal, D.P.; Dutta Majumdar, J.; Badkul, Anshul; Jha, A.K.; Khare, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► NaCl crystals has been used as space holder. ► Variation of NaCl:Ti ratio varies porosity (65–80%). ► NaCl is cubic but the cells are spherical. ► Two types of pores: micro and macro pores are obtained. ► Foams are suitable for bones scaffolds and engineering applications. - Abstract: Open cell Titanium-foam (Ti-foam) with varying porosities (65–80%) was prepared using sodium chloride (NaCl) particles as space holder through powder metallurgy route. In order to ensure sufficient handling strength in cold compacted pallets, 2 wt.% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solutions (5 wt.% PVA in water) was mixed with the mixture of Ti and NaCl powders prior to cold compaction. After sintering, NaCl salt was removed by dissolving it in hot water. Detailed Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction studies of the prepared Ti-foams were conducted to examine any physical and chemical changes in the phase constituents. The micro-architectural characteristics, density vis-a-vis porosity, and compressive deformation behavior of the synthesized foams were evaluated to examine their suitability as biomaterial and engineering applications

  12. Métodos instrumentales para la determinación de NaCl en las salmueras de aceitunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García García, P.

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Aplicability of flame photometric and ion selective (sodium or chloride methods to determinate NaCI concentration in olive brines in comparison with the official one (Volhard, which uses AgNO3, is studied. According to the results using standard solutions or fermentative olive brines without previous lye treatment, no proportional systematic or constant systematic errors are detected and the percentaje of NaCl is evaluated by them with the same accuracy as by the reference. However, when the flame photometric or sodium ion-selective methods are used to determine this compound in Spanish olive brines, there is a deviation in comparison with the values obtained by the official one (Volhard that is correlated with the combine acidity concentration of the solution. This fact is due to the presence of sodium organic salts, called combined acidity, that are formed during the lye treatment or "cocido" that these fruits are given before fermentation. Nevertheless, is does not represent any problem as there is a good correlation between such combined acidity and the magnitude of the deviation, that permit to calculate the corresponding correction factor. In addition these problems can be solved using the chloride selective ion method.

    Se estudia la aplicación de la fotometría de llama y el empleo de electrodos selectivos de iones cloruro o sodio, para la determinación de la concentración de NaCl en las salmueras de aceitunas de mesa, comparándolos con el actualmente utilizado de valoración de nitrato de plata (Volhard. De acuerdo con los resultados, la utilización de los mismos a soluciones patrones o de aceitunas en salmuera no da lugar a errores sistemáticos porporcionales ni constantes, pudiéndose analizar dicho compuesto con la misma precisión que con el procedimiento de referencia. Sin embargo, cuando se analizan las correspondientes a las elaboradas al estilo español, los valores que se obtienen con la fotometría de

  13. Effects of ion concentration on the hydrogen bonded structure of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Effects of ion concentration on the hydrogen bonded structure of water in the vicinity of ions in aqueous NaCl solutions. A NAG. 1. , D CHAKRABORTY and A CHANDRA*. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016. 1. Present address: Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering,.

  14. Degradation of Remazol Red in batik dye waste water by contact glow discharge electrolysis method using NaOH and NaCl electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksono, Nelson; Putri, Dita Amelia; Suminar, Dian Ratna

    2017-03-01

    Contact Glow Discharge Electrolysis (CGDE) method is one of Plasma Electrolysis technology which has been approved to degrade organic waste water because it is very productive in producing hydroxyl radical. This study aims to degrade Remazol Red by CGDE method and evaluate important parameters that have influent in degradation process of Remazol Red in Batik dye waste water in batch system. The kind of electrolyte (acid and base) and the addition of metal ion such as Fe2+ have affected Remazol Red degradation percentage. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra were used to monitor the degradation process. The result of study showed that percentage degradation was 99.97% which obtained by using NaCl 0.02 M with addition Fe2+ 20 ppm, applied voltage 700 volt, anode depth 0.5 cm, initial concentration of Remazol Red 250 ppm and the temperature of solutions was maintained 50-60 ˚C.

  15. Effect of hydroxyl group position at imine structure on corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 0.5 m NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Yusairie; Dzolin, Syaidah Athirah; Bahron, Hadariah; Halim, Nurul Huda Abdul

    2017-12-01

    Corrosion is inherent for mild steel and it can be retarded through many approaches including electrodeposition of inert inhibitors in the form of organic molecules. Salicylideneaniline (L1) and 4-hydroxybenzalaniline (L2) were electrodeposited on mild steel using cyclic voltammetry (CV) using 0.1 M inhibitor concentration in 0.3 M NaOH. The scanning potential range for coating via CV was set from 0 - 2 V and back to 0 V for five cycles. A yellow film was observed covering the surface of the mild steel. The corrosion behavior of coated and uncoated mild steel was studied using Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) in 0.5 M NaCl. Both coated mild steel specimens showed better corrosion resistance than the uncoated, with L1 providing a better inhibition protection with the inhibition efficiency of 80.51 %.

  16. An Investigative Study on the Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on E.Coli K12 in Various Sodium Chloride Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levard, C.; Mitra, S.; Badireddy, A.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    growth and toxicity. No significant toxicity was noted until concentrations of 1-10 ppm for Ag+ and 10-100 ppm for AgNPs. In all NaCl concentrations, Ag+ is more toxic than for AgNPs. In addition, we noted that AgNPs in the .5 M of NaCl had the largest toxicity compared to the other salt concentrations and can be explained by the high Cl/Ag ratio. The concentrations for which toxicity has been observed are fewer orders of magnitude higher than the predicted Ag-NPs concentration released in natural waters in the next years.

  17. Optically stimulated luminescence of natural NaCl mineral from Dead Sea exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman L, J.; Cruz Z, E.; Pina L, Y. I.; Marcazzo, J.

    2016-10-01

    Luminescence properties such as radioluminescence, thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence have been studied on natural sodium chloride (NaCl) for dosimetric purposes in retrospective dosimetry (Timar-Gabor et al., 2013; Druzhyna et al., 2016). In this work, the optically stimulated luminescence (Cw-OSL) emissions of natural salt minerals, collected from Dead Sea in summer of 2015, were studied. The Cw-OSL dose response of natural salt was analyzed in the range between 0.2 and 10 Gy gamma dose of "6"0Co. Samples exposed at 3 Gy exhibited good repeatability with a variation coefficient of 4.6%. The thermal stability of the Cw-OSL response was analyzed to different temperatures from 50 up to 250 degrees Celsius using a heating rate of 5 degrees Celsius. The results showed that the natural Dead Sea salt minerals could be applied as natural dosimeter of gamma radiation. (Author)

  18. Optically stimulated luminescence of natural NaCl mineral from Dead Sea exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman L, J.; Cruz Z, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Pina L, Y. I. [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marcazzo, J., E-mail: jesus.roman@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco - UNICEN, Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina)

    2016-10-15

    Luminescence properties such as radioluminescence, thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence have been studied on natural sodium chloride (NaCl) for dosimetric purposes in retrospective dosimetry (Timar-Gabor et al., 2013; Druzhyna et al., 2016). In this work, the optically stimulated luminescence (Cw-OSL) emissions of natural salt minerals, collected from Dead Sea in summer of 2015, were studied. The Cw-OSL dose response of natural salt was analyzed in the range between 0.2 and 10 Gy gamma dose of {sup 60}Co. Samples exposed at 3 Gy exhibited good repeatability with a variation coefficient of 4.6%. The thermal stability of the Cw-OSL response was analyzed to different temperatures from 50 up to 250 degrees Celsius using a heating rate of 5 degrees Celsius. The results showed that the natural Dead Sea salt minerals could be applied as natural dosimeter of gamma radiation. (Author)

  19. Temperature dependence of volume thermal expansion for NaCl and KCl crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhenghua

    2005-01-01

    A new relation for predicting volume thermal expansion of alkali halides at high temperatures is derived based on the assumption that the two different diffusional driving force models presented, respectively, by Sharma and Sharma (Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 29 (1991) 637) and Singh (J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63 (2002) 1935) are equivalent. The input parameters needed for the calculation are the volume thermal expansion coefficient and the isothermal Anderson-Gruneisen parameter, both at room temperature and zero pressure, which are available from the literature. The tests on NaCl and KCl crystals demonstrate that the agreement between the calculated results obtained by this relation and the corresponding experimental data is very good. The applicability of the relation as well as some thermodynamic relationships included in its derivation is discussed

  20. Metallic Na formation in NaCl crystals with irradiation of electron or vacuum ultraviolet photon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owaki, Shigehiro [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan). Coll. of Integrated Arts and Sciences; Koyama, Shigeko; Takahashi, Masao; Kamada, Masao; Suzuki, Ryouichi

    1997-03-01

    Metallic Na was formed in NaCl single crystals with irradiation of a variety of radiation sources and analyzed the physical states with several methods. In the case of irradiation of 21 MeV electron pulses to the crystal blocks, the optical absorption and lifetime measurement of positron annihilation indicated appearance of Na clusters inside. Radiation effects of electron beam of 30 keV to the crystals in vacuum showed the appearance of not only metallic Na but atomic one during irradiation with Auger electron spectroscopy. Intense photon fluxes in vacuum ultraviolet region of synchrotron radiation were used as another source and an analyzing method of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed the metallic Na layered so thick that bulk plasmon can exist. (author)

  1. MARINATED WITH EFFECT OF NaCl AND SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE BROMATOLOGICAL PROPERTIES ON THE MEAT GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Peña F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Goat meat has all the significant nutritional characteristics by consumers to be an excellent alternative supply; therefore, this study proposes the use of a mixture of NaCl, sodium tripolyphosphate, laurel and rosemary extracts as marginalisers agents using maceration technique marinade as facilitator system and applying vacuum packaging and storage at refrigeration of an overall strategy of modernization. In the finished product bromatologic variables pH, fat, protein, water holding capacity, tenderness and moisture during the days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 were evaluated in chilled storage. The results showed that the treatment is marinated improves water retention, protein retention and raises the pH of the product from the first day of storage because we can say that the application of the marinating process by mashing influences bromatological significantly on properties of meat goat breed Santander , becoming an alternative to industrialization

  2. Analysis of luminescence from common salt (NaCl) for application to retrospective dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spooner, N.A.; Smith, B.W.; Williams, O.M.; Creighton, D.F.; McCulloch, I.; Hunter, P.G.; Questiaux, D.G.; Prescott, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL), Optically-Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and Infrared-Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) emitted from a set of 19 salt (NaCl) samples were studied for potential application to retrospective dosimetry. TL emission spectra revealed intense TL emissions from most samples, centred on 590 nm; UV and blue emissions were also found. Significant thermally-induced sensitivity changes were observed and TL, OSL and IRSL growth curves were measured. Pulse anneal analysis was performed, as was quantitative imaging of the TL, OSL and IRSL to assess sample heterogeneity. Kinetic analysis found lifetimes at 20 °C of the 200 °C and 240 °C TL peaks to be 0.6 ka and 4 ka respectively; sufficient for application to retrospective dosimetry.

  3. Stress corrosion cracking of 350 maraging steel in 3.5 Wt. % NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.; Hussain, T.; Tauqir, A.; Hashmi, F.H.; Khan, A.Q.

    1993-01-01

    Stress corrosion behavior of 350 maraging steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was investigated. The results suggest that the steel is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking as the time to failure was always considerably shorter, as compared to those in air at the same stress level. The fracture mode was nearly intergranular and occasionally transgranular. There was no definite trend for the different modes of failure. The strain rate effect was also considered and the results show that the stress corrosion cracks were absent at strain rate high than 1.97 x 10/sup -4/S/sup -1/ and lower than 1.29 x 10/sup -7/S/sup -1/. The critical strain rate range was found to be between 6.4 x 10/sup -7/ to 3.24 x10/sup -5/S /sup -1/. (author)

  4. Manipulating Single Microdroplets of NaCl Solutions: Solvent Dissolution, Microcrystallization, and Crystal Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utoft, Anders; Kinoshita, Koji; Bitterfield, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    that the same Epstein−Plesset (EP) model, which was originally developed for diffusion-controlled dissolution and uptake of gas, and successfully applied to liquid-in-liquid dissolution, can now also be applied to describe the diffusion-controlled uptake of water from a water-saturated environment using...... of nucleation in the decane system as compared to the octanol system. Thus, the crystal structure is reported to be dendritic for NaCl solution microdroplets dissolving rapidly and nucleating violently in octanol, while they are formed as single cubic crystals in a gentler way for solution-dissolution in decane....... These new techniques and analyses can now also be used for any other system where all relevant parameters are known. An example of this is control of drug/hydrogel/emulsion particle size change due to solvent uptake....

  5. The study of some physico-chemical properties of melt KCl - NaCl mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtech Špeťuch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the surface tension of the melt mixture of salts NaCl and KCl at temperatures 750, 800 and 850 °C by maximum bubble pressure method. Some difference between measured values of the surface tension as dependence on the method of calculation was observed. This difference results from the diameter of used capillary and does not depend on the temperature. The differences between experimentally measured values of surface tension and literary sources are trivial. The experimental results are in accordance with the literature data confirming unsuitability of maximum bubble pressure method for measurement of the melt density. The experimental result will be used as a base for the study of melt salts ternary systems. On the other side maximum bubble pressure method is the most suitable method for measurement of surface tension of melt salts, but it is unsuitable for measurement of the melt density.

  6. Spontaneous nano-gap formation in Ag film using NaCl sacrificial layer for Raman enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyungchan; Jeon, Wook Jin; Kim, Youngho; Choi, Jae-Young; Yu, Hak Ki

    2018-03-01

    We report the method of fabrication of nano-gaps (known as hot spots) in Ag thin film using a sodium chloride (NaCl) sacrificial layer for Raman enhancement. The Ag thin film (20-50 nm) on the NaCl sacrificial layer undergoes an interfacial reaction due to the AgCl formed at the interface during water molecule intercalation. The intercalated water molecules can dissolve the NaCl molecules at interfaces and form the ionic state of Na+ and Cl-, promoting the AgCl formation. The Ag atoms can migrate by the driving force of this interfacial reaction, resulting in the formation of nano-size gaps in the film. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity of Ag films with nano-size gaps has been investigated using Raman reporter molecules, Rhodamine 6G (R6G).

  7. High salt inclusion reduces concentrate intake without major effects on renal function in young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Blanco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beef producers prefer to feed concentrates on an ad libitum basis to increase the flexibility of their work. Including salt, which is a self-limiting supplement, could control or reduce concentrate intake without increasing the workforce. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of including 10%NaCl in the concentrate on intake, growth, blood ions (sodium, potassium and chlorine, renal function (through creatinine and urea concentrations in blood, and daytime behaviour of bulls over 6 weeks. Bulls consuming the control concentrate (Control bulls had greater weight gain (P<0.05 and concentrate intake (P<0.001 than those consuming the concentrate with 10%NaCl (10%NaCl bulls. Lower plasma sodium concentration was found in Control bulls after 6 weeks (P<0.05, while potassium concentration was lower after 4 (P<0.05 and 6 weeks (P<0.01. Blood urea did not differ between the groups, and creatinine only differed at week 4 (P<0.01. Control bulls spent less time eating hay (P<0.001 and more time idling (P<0.01 during daylight hours. In conclusion, the inclusion of 10%NaCl in the concentrate for short periods could be used to reduce concentrate intake without major effects on renal function; however, a concomitant decrease in weight gain should be expected.

  8. A new automated NaCl based robust method for routine production of gallium-68 labeled peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael K.; Mueller, Dirk; Baum, Richard P.; Watkins, G. Leonard; Breeman, Wouter A. P.

    2017-01-01

    A new NaCl based method for preparation of gallium-68 labeled radiopharmaceuticals has been adapted for use with an automated gallium-68 generator system. The method was evaluated based on 56 preparations of [68Ga]DOTATOC and compared to a similar acetone-based approach. Advantages of the new NaCl approach include reduced preparation time ( 97%), and specific activity (> 40 MBq nmole−1 [68Ga]DOTATOC) and is well-suited for clinical production of radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:23026223

  9. Corrosion Behavior in 3.5% NaCl Solutions of γ-TiAl Processed by Electron Beam Melting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiful Hossain Seikh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the corrosion behavior of γ-TiAl alloy produced by electron beam melting (EBM process in 3.5% NaCl solution was reported. The study has been performed using potentiodynamic polarization resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques and complemented by scanning electron microscopy investigations. All measurements were carried out after different periods of alloy exposure in the chloride solutions and at different temperatures. The results showed that the EBM produced γ-TiAl alloy has excellent corrosion resistance confirmed by the high values of polarization resistance and the low values of corrosion current and corrosion rate. With increase in immersion time, the corrosion potential moved to a higher positive value with a decrease in corrosion current and corrosion rate, which suggests an improvement in corrosion resistance. On the other hand, the increase of temperature was found to significantly increase the corrosion of the processed γ-TiAl alloy.

  10. A surface complexation model of YREE sorption on Ulva lactuca in 0.05-5.0 M NaCl solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoll, Alison M.; Schijf, Johan

    2012-11-01

    We present distribution coefficients, log iKS, for the sorption of yttrium and the rare earth elements (YREEs) on BCR-279, a dehydrated tissue homogenate of a marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, resembling materials featured in chemical engineering studies aimed at designing renewable biosorbents. Sorption experiments were conducted in NaCl solutions of different ionic strength (0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 M) at T = 25 °C over the pH range 2.7-8.5. Distribution coefficients based on separation of the dissolved and particulate phase by conventional filtration (3 kDa) using an existing pH-dependent model. Colloid-corrected values were renormalized to free-cation concentrations by accounting for YREE hydrolysis and chloride complexation. At each ionic strength, the pH dependence of the renormalized values is accurately described with a non-electrostatic surface complexation model (SCM) that incorporates YREE binding to three monoprotic functional groups, previously characterized by alkalimetric titration, as well as binding of YREE-hydroxide complexes (MOH2+) to the least acidic one (pKa ∼ 9.5). In non-linear regressions of the distribution coefficients as a function of pH, each pKa was fixed at its reported value, while stability constants of the four YREE surface complexes were used as adjustable parameters. Data for a single fresh U. lactuca specimen in 0.5 M NaCl show generally the same pH-dependent behavior but a lower degree of sorption and were excluded from the regressions. Good linear free-energy relations (LFERs) between stability constants of the YREE-acetate and YREE-hydroxide solution complex and surface complexes with the first and third functional group, respectively, support their prior tentative identifications as carboxyl and phenol. A similar confirmation for the second group is precluded by insufficient knowledge of the stability of YREE-phosphate complexes and a perceived lack of YREE binding in 0.05 M NaCl; this issue awaits further study. The results

  11. Tolerancia de plantas de feijoa (Acca sellowiana [Berg] Burret a la salinidad por NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casierra-Posada Fánor Ernesto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Los efectos de la salinidad por NaCl sobre la producción y la distribución de la biomasa, la toma de agua y el área foliar total fueron investigados en plantas de feijoa (Acca sellowiana [Berg] Burret cultivadas en materas con suelo bajo condiciones de invernadero, durante ocho meses. Los tratamientos con la sal comenzaron 60 d después del transplante. El NaCl fue agregado en diferentes concentraciones: 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 mM de NaCl en el suelo. Estas concentraciones correspondieron a conductividades eléctricas de 2,8; 4,6; 6,1; 8,4 y 11,1 dS· m-1, respectivamente. Para evitar el choque osmótico, el tratamiento salino fue impuesto progresivamente, aumentando la concentración de sal cada semana hasta alcanzar la

  12. Extracting Tenebrio molitor protein while preventing browning: effect of pH and NaCl on protein yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, L.; Boekel, van T.; Lakemond, C.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of insects as an alternative protein source for food applications was investigated by studying the effect of pH and NaCl on extraction yield of water-soluble proteins from Tenebrio molitor, while preventing browning due to polyphenol oxidation. Minimum protein solubility (29.6%) was at

  13. Effect of NaCl Priming on Seed Germination of Tunisian Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Under Salinity Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souguir, Maher

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one major problem of increasing production in crop growing areas throughout the world. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of NaCl priming on seed germination of Tunisian fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. under salinity conditions. Seeds of fenugreek were primed with NaCl (4g/l for 36 h in continuous 25°C. Experimental factors were included 2 priming treatments (NaCl and non-priming as control and five salinity solution (4,6,8,10 and 12 gl-1. Results showed that seed priming increased final germination percentage, germination speed and radicle length over the non-primed treatment. At the lowest levels of salinity, there were no notable differences between primed and non-primed seeds, but with increasing salinity levels, primed seeds showed the better performance than non-primed seeds. These results indicated that NaCl priming significantly improved seed performance under salinity conditions.

  14. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: NaCl and temperature-time profile effects and kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Capuano, E.; Nguyen, H.T.; Mogol, B.A.; Kocadagli, T.; Goncuoglu Tas, N.; Hamzalioglu, A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Gokmen, V.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of recipe and temperature–time on the formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during biscuit baking. Baking experiments were performed with biscuits of two different recipes, with and without NaCl, at 180 °C, 190 °C and 200 °C.

  15. Rhizospheric salt tolerant bacteria improving plant growth in single and mixed culture inoculations under NaCl stress (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afrasayab, S.; Hasnain, S.

    2005-01-01

    Salt tolerant bacterial strains isolated from rhizosphere of Mazus plant (inhabitant of salt range) were used singly (ST -1; ST -2; ST -3; ST -4) and in mixed combinations (ST -1,3,4; ST -2,3,4) to improve the growth to Tricticum aestivum in the pot experiments. Growth and yield of T. aestivum var. Inqlab-91 plants exposed to NaCl stress (0.75% NaCl) was markedly affected. Na/sup +//K/sup +/ ratios in shoots and roots were profoundly increased under NaCl stress. Bacterial inoculations improved plant growth under salt stress. Bacterial combinations ST - 1,3,4 and ST -2,3,4 were more effective in stimulating growth and showed prominent results as compared to their pure cultures. Mono and mixed bacterial inoculations improved yield parameters of wheat. ST -1,3,4 mixed culture inoculation maximally improved yield under salt stress. Generally bacterial inoculations resulted in increase in Na/sup +//K/sup +/ ratios in shoots and roots under salt free and salt stress conditions. Overall ST -1,3,4 mixed inoculation yielded promising results under NaCl stress, hence 168 rRNA gene sequence analysis of its pure cultures was obtained for their identification to genus level. (author)

  16. Densities of L-Glutamic Acid HCl Drug in Aqueous NaCl and KCl Solutions at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryshetti, Suresh; Raghuram, Noothi; Rani, Emmadi Jayanthi; Tangeda, Savitha Jyostna

    2016-04-01

    Densities (ρ ) of (0.01 to 0.07) {mol}{\\cdot } {kg}^{-1} L-Glutamic acid HCl (L-HCl) drug in water, and in aqueous NaCl and KCl (0.5 and 1.0) {mol}{\\cdot } {kg}^{-1} solutions have been reported as a function of temperature at T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K and atmospheric pressure. The accurate density (ρ ) values are used to estimate the various parameters such as the apparent molar volume (V_{2,{\\upphi }}), the partial molar volume (V2^{∞}), the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient (α 2), the partial molar expansion (E2^{∞}), and Hepler's constant (partial 2V2^{∞}/partial T2)P. The Cosphere overlap model is used to understand the solute-solvent interactions in a ternary mixture (L-HCl drug + NaCl or KCl + water). Hepler's constant (partial 2V2^{∞}/partial T2)_P is utilized to interpret the structure-making or -breaking ability of L-HCl drug in aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions, and the results are inferred that L-HCl drug acts as a structure maker, i.e., kosmotrope in aqueous NaCl solutions and performs as a structure breaker, i.e., chaotrope in aqueous KCl solutions.

  17. Ultrasonic cavitation erosion of Ti in 0.35% NaCl solution with bubbling oxygen and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D G; Wang, J D; Chen, D R; Liang, P

    2015-09-01

    The influences of oxygen and nitrogen on the ultrasonic cavitation erosion of Ti in 0.35%NaCl solution at room temperature, were investigated using a magnetostrictive-induced ultrasonic cavitation erosion (CE) facility and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The roles of oxygen and nitrogen in the composition and the electronic property of the passive film on Ti, were studied by Mott-Schottky plot and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the mass loss of Ti in 0.35%NaCl solution increased with increasing cavitation time. Bubbling oxygen can evidently increase the resistance of ultrasonic cavitation erosion comparing with bubbling nitrogen. XPS results showed that the thickness of the passive film on Ti in 0.35%NaCl solution in the case of bubbling oxygen for 3 weeks, was about 7 nm, and the passive film was mainly composed of TiO2 with an anatase structure. While TiO2 with a rutile structure was found to be the major component of the passive film on Ti in 0.35%NaCl solution in the case of bubbling nitrogen for 3 weeks, and the film thickness was 5 nm. The results extracted from Mott-Schottky plot showed that the passive film on Ti in the case of bubbling oxygen had more donor density than the passive film on Ti in the case of bubbling nitrogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural and optical properties of a NaCl single crystal doped with CuO nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addala, S.; Bouhdjer, L.; Halimi, O.; Boudine, B.; Sebais, M.; Chala, A.; Bouhdjar, A.

    2013-01-01

    A cupric oxide (CuO) nanocrystal-doped NaCl single crystal and a pure NaCl single crystal are grown by using the Czochralski (Cz) method. A number of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption in the UV—visible range, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy are used to characterize the obtained NaCl and NaCl:CuO crystals. It is observed that the average radius of CuO crystallites in NaCl:CuO crystal is about 29.87 nm, as derived from the XRD data analysis. Moreover, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy results confirm the existence of the monoclinic CuO phase in NaCl crystal. UV—visible absorption measurements indicate that the band gap of the NaCl:CuO crystal is 434 nm (2.85 eV), and it shows a significant amount of blue-shift (ΔE g = 1 eV) in the band gap energy of CuO, which is due to the quantum confinement effect exerted by the CuO nanocrystals. The PL spectrum of the NaCl:CuO shows a broad emission band centred at around 438 nm, which is consistent with the absorption measurement. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  19. Systematic UHV-AFM experiments on Na nano-particles and nano-structures in NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugonyako, A.V.; Turkin, A.A.; Gaynutdinov, R.; Vainshtein, D.I.; Hartog, H.W. den; Bukharaev, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Results of systematic AFM (atomic force microscopy) experiments on heavily and moderatly irradiated NaCl samples are presented. The sodium nanoparticles and structures of nanoparticles are poduced in sodium chloride during irradiation. The AFM images of the nanoparticles have been obtained in ultra

  20. Mice with targeted disruption of the acyl-CoA binding protein display attenuated urine concentrating ability and diminished renal aquaporin-3 abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langaa, Stine; Bloksgaard, Maria; Bek, Signe

    2012-01-01

    epithelial cells. Here we show that ACBP is widely expressed in human and mouse kidney epithelium with the highest expression in the proximal convoluted tubules. To elucidate the role of ACBP in the renal epithelium, mice with targeted disruption of the ACBP gene (ACBP(-/-)) were used to study water and Na......Cl balance as well as urine concentrating ability in metabolic cages. Food intake and urinary excretion of Na(+) and K(+) did not differ between ACBP(-/-) and (+/+) mice. Water intake and diuresis were significantly higher at baseline in ACBP(-/-) mice compared to that of (+/+) mice. Subsequent to 20h water...... deprivation, ACBP(-/-) mice exhibited increased diuresis, reduced urine osmolality, elevated hematocrit and higher relative weight loss compared to (+/+) mice. There were no significant differences in plasma concentrations of renin, corticosterone and aldosterone between mice of the two genotypes. At baseline...

  1. Thermoluminescence and F centers of manganese doped NaCl and NaCl-CKl crystals exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somera, L.; Cruz Z, E.; Roman L, J.; Hernandez A, J. M.; Murrieta S, H.

    2015-10-01

    Alkali halides crystals doped with rare earths or transition metals have been widely studied due to the luminescence properties. In particular, NaCl and KCl single crystals present thermally stimulated luminescence (Tl) after gamma irradiation. The NaCl and the NaCl KCl mixed crystal doped with manganese (MnCl 2 ) impurity were grown by using the Czochralski method. The emission characteristic of Mn 2+ was observed at 543 nm. The crystals were exposed between 0.02 and 10 kGy gamma dose from 60 Co irradiator. Optical absorption at room temperature shows the peaked band at 452 nm corresponding to the manganese impurity. The F bands, was ascribed to the electron trapped in the anion vacancy in the lattice, were obtained at 452 nm and 455 nm belonging to NaCl:Mn and NaCl KCl:Mn, respectively. The F band increases as the doses increase and it was bleaching by the UV light at 470 nm. The glow curves of the samples show the first glow peak between 92-103 degrees C, while the second main peak was observed at 183 degrees C for the undoped NaCl and at 148 and 165 degrees C for the NaCl:Mn and NaCl-KCl:Mn, respectively. The main peak was slowly bleaching when the irradiated sample was illuminated with F (470 nm) light. Optical bleaching confirms that the F center has an important participation in the thermoluminescent response. The glow curves structure from the thermal bleaching suggests the participation of different kind of traps. Also, the kinetics parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and the kinetic order (b) were investigated. (Author)

  2. Thermoluminescence and F centers of manganese doped NaCl and NaCl-CKl crystals exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somera, L.; Cruz Z, E.; Roman L, J. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Hernandez A, J. M.; Murrieta S, H., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.mx [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Alkali halides crystals doped with rare earths or transition metals have been widely studied due to the luminescence properties. In particular, NaCl and KCl single crystals present thermally stimulated luminescence (Tl) after gamma irradiation. The NaCl and the NaCl KCl mixed crystal doped with manganese (MnCl{sub 2}) impurity were grown by using the Czochralski method. The emission characteristic of Mn{sup 2+} was observed at 543 nm. The crystals were exposed between 0.02 and 10 kGy gamma dose from {sup 60}Co irradiator. Optical absorption at room temperature shows the peaked band at 452 nm corresponding to the manganese impurity. The F bands, was ascribed to the electron trapped in the anion vacancy in the lattice, were obtained at 452 nm and 455 nm belonging to NaCl:Mn and NaCl KCl:Mn, respectively. The F band increases as the doses increase and it was bleaching by the UV light at 470 nm. The glow curves of the samples show the first glow peak between 92-103 degrees C, while the second main peak was observed at 183 degrees C for the undoped NaCl and at 148 and 165 degrees C for the NaCl:Mn and NaCl-KCl:Mn, respectively. The main peak was slowly bleaching when the irradiated sample was illuminated with F (470 nm) light. Optical bleaching confirms that the F center has an important participation in the thermoluminescent response. The glow curves structure from the thermal bleaching suggests the participation of different kind of traps. Also, the kinetics parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and the kinetic order (b) were investigated. (Author)

  3. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    This entry summarizes the main theoretical contributions and empirical findings in relation to concentrated ownership from a law and economics perspective. The various forms of concentrated ownership are described as well as analyzed from the perspective of the legal protection of investors......, especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control....

  4. Electrochemical corrosion response of a low carbon heat treated steel in a NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, W.R.; Peixoto, L.C.; Garcia, L.R.; Garcia, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, State University of Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    Dual-phase (DP) steels are produced from a specific heat treatment procedure and have recently emerged as a potential class of engineering materials for a number of structural and automobile applications. Such steels have high strength-to-weight ratio and reasonable formability. The present study aims to investigate the effects of four different and conventional heat treatments (i.e., hot rolling, normalizing, annealing, and intercritical annealing) on the resulting microstructural patterns and on the electrochemical corrosion behavior. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel plots were carried out on heat treated steel samples in a 0.5 M NaCl solution at 25 C with neutral pH. An equivalent circuit analysis was also used to provide quantitative support for the discussions. The normalizing and the annealing heat treatments have provided the highest and the lowest corrosion resistances, respectively. The intercritical annealing and as-received (hot rolled) low carbon steel samples have shown similar corrosion behavior. Although a deleterious effect on the corrosion resistance has been verified for DP steel due to the residual stress from the martensite formation, it combines good mechanical properties with intermediate electrochemical corrosion resistance. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Interfacial free energy of the NaCl crystal-melt interface from capillary wave fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Jorge; MacDowell, Luis G; Sanz, Eduardo

    2015-04-07

    In this work we study, by means of molecular dynamics simulations, the solid-liquid interface of NaCl under coexistence conditions. By analysing capillary waves, we obtain the stiffness for different orientations of the solid and calculate the interfacial free energy by expanding the dependency of the interfacial free energy with the solid orientation in terms of cubic harmonics. We obtain an average value for the solid-fluid interfacial free energy of 89 ± 6 mN m(-1) that is consistent with previous results based on the measure of nucleation free energy barriers [Valeriani et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 194501 (2005)]. We analyse the influence of the simulation setup on interfacial properties and find that facets prepared as an elongated rectangular stripe give the same results as those prepared as squares for all cases but the 111 face. For some crystal orientations, we observe at small wave-vectors a behaviour not consistent with capillary wave theory and show that this behavior does not depend on the simulation setup.

  6. Thermal behaviour of the thermoluminescent dosemeter CaSO4: Dy + NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio Filho, J.

    1988-01-01

    Thermoluminescent materials are widely applied in radiation dosimetry. Nevertheless to obtain a good degree of reliability, it is necessary to subject the materials to an adequate thermal treatment, before and after irradiation, conveniently controlling temperature, heating time and cooling rate. It has been observed that the TLD CaSO 4 : Dy + NaCl loses 10% of its sensivity after each utilization cycle with the thermal treatment usually recomended. This fact establishes a severe limitation in works requiring a good measurement precision. Several alternative procedures, which overcome this limitation, have been studied. Two of the procedures yielded excellent results, with a coefficient of variation of 1 to 1.3%. One of them consist of two heating cycles at 300 0 C during 15 and three hours respectively, before irradiation, followed by a heating cycle at 100 0 C during 15 minutes, after irradiation. In a second procedure the material is heated at 300 0 C during three hours, pre-irradiation, followed by a heating cycle at 100 0 C. during 15 minutes, after irradiation. In all cases the heating cycle are followed by fast cooling periods. (author) [pt

  7. Hygroscopic Behavior of Multicomponent Aerosols Involving NaCl and Dicarboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Jing, Bo; Guo, Yu-Cong; Zhang, Yun-Hong; Ge, Mao-Fa

    2016-02-25

    Atmospheric aerosols are usually complex mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds. The hygroscopicity of mixed particles is closely related to their chemical composition and interactions between components, which is still poorly understood. In this study, the hygroscopic properties of submicron particles composed of NaCl and dicarboxylic acids including oxalic acid (OA), malonic acid (MA), and succinic acid (SA) with various mass ratios are investigated with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) system. Both the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) method and extended aerosol inorganics model (E-AIM) are applied to predict the water uptake behaviors of sodium chloride/dicarboxylic acid mixtures. For NaCl/OA mixed particles, the measured growth factors were significantly lower than predictions from the model methods, indicating a change in particle composition caused by chloride depletion. The hygroscopic growth of NaCl/MA particles was well described by E-AIM, and that of NaCl/SA particles was dependent upon mixing ratio. Compared with model predictions, it was determined that water uptake of the NaCl/OA mixture could be enhanced and could be closer to the predictions by addition of levoglucosan or malonic acid, which retained water even at low relative humidity (RH), leading to inhibition of HCl evaporation during dehydration. These results demonstrate that the coexisting hygroscopic species have a strong influence on the phase state of particles, thus affecting chemical interactions between inorganic and organic compounds as well as the overall hygroscopicity of mixed particles.

  8. Migration rates of brine inclusions in single crystals of NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    Rock-salt deposits have been considered as a possible medium for the permanent storage of high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuel. Brine inclusions present in natural salt can migrate toward the waste if the temperature and the temperature gradients in the vicinity of the radioactive waste are large enough. This migration is due to the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the salt-brine interface, ion diffusion through the brine droplet, and the precipitation of salt at the cold side of the salt brine interface. In order to quantify the problem, the migration rate of these brine inclusions must be estimated under various repository conditions. This paper estimates migration rates for all-liquid brine inclusions in single crystals of NaCl by utilizing recent data for brines and the model of Anthony and Cline [T.R. Anthony and H.E. Cline, J. Appl. Phys., 42, pp. 3380-387 (1971)]. The predictions are compared with experimentally measured migration rates. 4 figures, 6 tables

  9. Importance of van der Waals interaction on structural, vibrational, and thermodynamic properties of NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Michel L.; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.; Assali, Lucy V. C.

    2018-05-01

    Thermal equations of state (EOS) are essential in several scientific domains. However, experimental determination of EOS parameters may be limited at extreme conditions, therefore, ab initio calculations have become an important method to obtain them. Density functional theory (DFT) and its extensions with various degrees of approximations for the exchange and correlation (XC) energy is the method of choice, but large errors in the EOS parameters are still common. The alkali halides have been problematic from the onset of this field and the quest for appropriate DFT functionals for such ionic and relatively weakly bonded systems has remained an active topic of research. Here we use DFT + van der Waals functionals to calculate vibrational properties, thermal EOS, thermodynamic properties, and the B1 to B2 phase boundary of NaCl with high precision. Our results reveal a remarkable improvement over the performance of standard local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation functionals for all these properties and phase transition boundary, as well as great sensitivity of anharmonic effects on the choice of XC functional.

  10. Volumetric properties of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B1) in dilute HCl and in aqueous NaCl solutions at (283.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayranci, Guler; Sahin, Melike; Ayranci, Erol

    2007-01-01

    Apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B 1 ) were determined from accurately measured density and sound velocity data in water and in aqueous NaCl solutions at (283.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K. These volume and compressibility data were extrapolated to zero concentration using suitable empirical or theoretical equations to determine the corresponding infinite dilution values. Apparent molar expansibilities at infinite dilution were determined from slopes of apparent molar volume vs. temperature plots. Ionization of both ascorbic acid and thiamine hydrochloride were suppressed using sufficiently acidic solutions. Apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution for ascorbic acid and thiamine hydrochloride were found to increase with temperature in acidic solutions and in the presence of co-solute, NaCl. Apparent molar expansibility at infinite dilution were found to be constant over the temperature range studied and were all positive, indicating the hydrophilic character of the two vitamins studied in water and in the presence of co-solute, NaCl. Apparent molar isentropic compressibilities of ascorbic acid at infinite dilution were positive in water and in the presence of co-solute, NaCl, at low molalities. Those of thiamine hydrochloride at infinitive dilution were all negative, consistent with its ionic nature. Transfer apparent molar volumes of vitamins at infinite dilution from water solutions to NaCl solutions at various temperatures were determined. The results were interpreted in terms of complex vitamin-water-co-solute (NaCl) interactions

  11. Synergistic and individual effect of glomus etunicatum root colonization and acetyl salicylic acid on root activity and architecture of tomato plants under moderate nacl stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanzanfar, B.; Cheng, Z.; Ahmad, I.; Khan, A. R.; Hanqiang, L.; Haiyan, D.; Fang, C.

    2015-01-01

    A pot based experiment in plastic tunnel was conducted to investigate the changes in root morphology and root activity of the tomato plants grown under moderate NaCl stress (100 mM), pretreated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus AMF (Glomus etunicatum) root colonization and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) as salinity ameliorative agents. The results revealed that both AMF and ASA treatments significantly enhanced the fresh root weight and root morphological parameters; net length, surface area, volume, mean diameter, nodal count and number of tips to different extents as compared to those of sole salinity treatment at 90 days after transplantation. Both treatments; AMF alone and in combination with ASA significantly enhanced the root activity level in terms of triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction (2.37 and 2.40 mg g /sup -1/ h /sup -1/ respectively) as compared to the sole salinity treatment (0.40 mg g /sup -1/ h /sup -1/ ) as well as the salt free control (1.69 mg g /sup -1/ h /sup -1/) On the other hand, ASA treatment alone also uplifted root activity (1.53 mg g /sup -1/ h /sup -1/ ) which was significantly higher than that of sole salt treatment. It was inferred that under moderate saline conditions (100 mM NaCl), AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and ASA (individually or in combination) confer protective effect on plant growth by enhanced root activity and improved root architecture. Therefore, synergistic use of AMF (G. etunicatum) and ASA can be eco-friendly and economically feasible option for tomato production in marginally salt affected lands and suggests further investigations. (author)

  12. NaCl islands decorated with 2D or 3D 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Xiaonan; Silly, Fabien

    2010-01-01

    The formation of PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride) nanostrutures on Au(1 1 1)-(22 x root 3) covered with NaCl islands has been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Atomically resolved STM images show that NaCl grows as (1 0 0)-terminated layers on Au(1 1 1)-(22 x

  13. Elliptical concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2006-10-10

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators.

  14. Growth and luminescent properties of the Ce, Pr doped NaCl single crystals grown by the modified micro-pulling-down method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Yuui, E-mail: y-yokota@tagen.tohoku.ac.j [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University/2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University/2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Nikl, Martin [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic/6253, Prague (Czech Republic); Yoshikawa, Akira [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University/2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University/2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    We have investigated luminescent properties of nondope, Ce and Pr doped NaCl [nondope NaCl, Ce:NaCl, Pr:NaCl] single crystals grown by a modified micro-pulling-down method with a removable chamber system. Nondope, Ce 1% and Pr 1% doped NaCl crystals with a single phase of NaCl structure were obtained and the crystals indicated general crystal quality by the X-ray rocking curve measurement. For the nondope NaCl and Pr:NaCl crystals, the transmittance spectra indicated almost more than 60% in the wavelength from 200 to 800 nm and an absorption of Ce{sup 3+} ion was observed in the transmittance spectrum of Ce:NaCl crystal. The emission spectrum originated from Ce{sup 3+} 5d-4f transition appeared around 300 nm in the photoluminescence spectrum and the decay time was 19.7 ns.

  15. Growth and luminescent properties of the Ce, Pr doped NaCl single crystals grown by the modified micro-pulling-down method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Yuui; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Nikl, Martin; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated luminescent properties of nondope, Ce and Pr doped NaCl [nondope NaCl, Ce:NaCl, Pr:NaCl] single crystals grown by a modified micro-pulling-down method with a removable chamber system. Nondope, Ce 1% and Pr 1% doped NaCl crystals with a single phase of NaCl structure were obtained and the crystals indicated general crystal quality by the X-ray rocking curve measurement. For the nondope NaCl and Pr:NaCl crystals, the transmittance spectra indicated almost more than 60% in the wavelength from 200 to 800 nm and an absorption of Ce 3+ ion was observed in the transmittance spectrum of Ce:NaCl crystal. The emission spectrum originated from Ce 3+ 5d-4f transition appeared around 300 nm in the photoluminescence spectrum and the decay time was 19.7 ns.

  16. Concentration risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.

  17. Stabilization of the Serum Lithium Concentration by Regulation of Sodium Chloride Intake: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Sumiya, Kenji; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    To avoid fluctuation of the serum lithium concentration (CLi), sodium chloride (NaCl) intake was regulated in oral alimentation. A 62-year-old woman was hospitalized and orally administered 400 mg of lithium carbonate a day to treat her mania. Her CLi was found to be 0.75-0.81 mEq/L. Vomiting made it difficult for the patient to ingest meals orally, and therefore parenteral nutrition with additional oral intake of protein-fortified food was initiated. On day 22, parenteral nutrition was switched to oral alimentation to enable oral intake of food. The total NaCl equivalent amount was decreased to 1.2 g/d, and the CLi increased to 1.15 mEq/L on day 26. Oral alimentation with semi-solid food blended in a mixer was immediately initiated. Although the total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 4.5-5.0 g/d, her CLi remained high at 1.14-1.17 mEq/L on days 33 and 49, respectively. We investigated oral administration of NaCl (1.8 g/d) on day 52. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 6.3-6.8 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 1.08-0.97 mEq/L on days 63 and 104, respectively. After the start of the orally administered NaCl, her diet was changed to a completely blended diet on day 125. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 9.0-14.5 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 0.53 mEq/L on day 152; therefore, the oral administration of NaCl was discontinued on day 166. The CLi was found to be 0.70-0.85 mEq/L on days 176 and 220.

  18. Global transcriptome profiling of Salicornia europaea L. shoots under NaCl treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinbiao; Zhang, Meiru; Xiao, Xinlong; You, Jinjin; Wang, Junru; Wang, Tao; Yao, Yinan; Tian, Changyan

    2013-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits agriculture productivity worldwide. Salicornia europaea is well adapted to extreme saline environments with more than 1,000 mM NaCl in the soil, so it could serve as an important model species for studying halophilic mechanisms in euhalophytes. To obtain insights into the molecular basis of salt tolerance, we present here the first extensive transcriptome analysis of this species using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. A total of 41 and 39 million clean reads from the salt-treated (Se200S) and salt-free (SeCKS) tissues of S. europaea shoots were obtained, and de novo assembly produced 97,865 and 101,751 unigenes, respectively. Upon further assembly with EST data from both Se200S and SeCKS, 109,712 high-quality non-redundant unigenes were generated with a mean unigene size of 639 bp. Additionally, a total of 3,979 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between the Se200S and SeCKS libraries, with 348 unigenes solely expressed in Se200S and 460 unigenes solely expressed in SeCKS. Furthermore, we identified a large number of genes that are involved in ion homeostasis and osmotic adjustment, including cation transporters and proteins for the synthesis of low-molecular compounds. All unigenes were functionally annotated within the COG, GO and KEGG pathways, and 10 genes were validated by qRT-PCR. Our data contains the extensive sequencing and gene-annotation analysis of S. europaea. This genetic knowledge will be very useful for future studies on the molecular adaptation to abiotic stress in euhalophytes and will facilitate the genetic manipulation of other economically important crops.

  19. Global transcriptome profiling of Salicornia europaea L. shoots under NaCl treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbiao Ma

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits agriculture productivity worldwide. Salicornia europaea is well adapted to extreme saline environments with more than 1,000 mM NaCl in the soil, so it could serve as an important model species for studying halophilic mechanisms in euhalophytes. To obtain insights into the molecular basis of salt tolerance, we present here the first extensive transcriptome analysis of this species using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000.A total of 41 and 39 million clean reads from the salt-treated (Se200S and salt-free (SeCKS tissues of S. europaea shoots were obtained, and de novo assembly produced 97,865 and 101,751 unigenes, respectively. Upon further assembly with EST data from both Se200S and SeCKS, 109,712 high-quality non-redundant unigenes were generated with a mean unigene size of 639 bp. Additionally, a total of 3,979 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected between the Se200S and SeCKS libraries, with 348 unigenes solely expressed in Se200S and 460 unigenes solely expressed in SeCKS. Furthermore, we identified a large number of genes that are involved in ion homeostasis and osmotic adjustment, including cation transporters and proteins for the synthesis of low-molecular compounds. All unigenes were functionally annotated within the COG, GO and KEGG pathways, and 10 genes were validated by qRT-PCR.Our data contains the extensive sequencing and gene-annotation analysis of S. europaea. This genetic knowledge will be very useful for future studies on the molecular adaptation to abiotic stress in euhalophytes and will facilitate the genetic manipulation of other economically important crops.

  20. Study of constraints in using household NaCl salt for retrospective dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashmawy, M.

    2018-05-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of 5 different household NaCl salts and one analytical salt were determined to investigate the possible factors that affect the reliability of using household salt for retrospective dosimetry. Salts' TL sensitivities were found to be particle-size dependent and approached saturation at the largest size, whereas for salts that have the same particle size, the TL sensitivity depended on their origin. TL dependence on the particle size interprets significant variations in TL response reported in the literature for the same salt patch. The first TL readout indicated that all salts have similar glow curves with one distinctive peak. Typical second TL readout at two different doses showed a dramatic decrease in TL sensitivity associated with a significant change in the glow curve structure possessing two prominent peaks. Glow curve deconvolution (GCD) of the first TL readout for all salts yielded 6 individual glow peaks of first-order kinetics, whereas in GCD of second TL readouts, 5 individual glow peaks of second-order kinetics were obtained. Similarities in the glow curve structures of the first and second TL readouts suggest that additives such as KIO3 and MgCO3 have no effect on the TL process. Fading effect was evaluated for the salt of highest TL sensitivity, and it was found that the integral TL intensity decreased gradually and lost 40% of its initial value over 2 weeks, after which it remained constant. Results conclude that a household salt cannot be used for retrospective dosimetry without considering certain constraints such as the salt's origin and particle size. Furthermore, preparedness for radiological accidents and accurate dose reconstructions require that most of the commonly distributed household salt brands should be calibrated in advance and stored in a repository to be recalled in case of accidents.

  1. Continuous modification of AK11 silumin with multicomponent salt on base of NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pezda

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sodium belongs to the most effective modifying agents. The sodium can be brought into metal bath in metallic form or in form of chemical compounds comprising sodium, the most often in form of NaF. In the both above mentioned cases action of sodium is of very short duration, (what constitutes its main disadvantage, as lasting for about 15-20 minutes, mainly due to its evaporation from metal bath.Prolongation of modifying agent’s action can be accomplished due to technology of continuous introduction of sodium to metal bath. That technology is based on continuous electrolysis of sodium salt, occurring directly in melting pot with liquid alloy. Application of solid electrolyte – conducting sodium ions (ionic conductance – and simultaneously maintaining solid state of aggregation in melting and superheating temperature of alloy, i.e. 600÷800°C is indispensable for such process. Suitable sodium salt which is placed in retort produced from solid electrolyte shall undergo dissociation, and next electrolysis, in result of applied direct current. Sodium ions arisen during the dissociation of sodium salts and electrolysis are “conveyed” through retort walls made from solid electrolyte. In contact with liquid alloy as cathode, sodium ions pass to atomic state, modifying the alloy. The paper discusses results of initial study concerning process of continuous modification of AK11 silumin with use of multicomponent sodium salt on base of NaCl, shows results of tensile strength Rm and measurement of voltage drop for the alloy in solid state. Values of those parameters have confirmed obtained modification effect of investigated alloys. Assurance of stable run of continuous modification process brings about necessity of a further research aimed at optimization of parameters of the process.

  2. Corrosion study of API 5L x-series pipeline steels in 3.5% NaCl solution under varying conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.; Qureshi, M.I.; Farooq, M.U.; Khan, M.I.

    2003-01-01

    Pipelines provide convenient and efficient means for mass transportation of variety of fluids, such as oil and gas, over varying distances. In the last two decades or so, pipeline designers focused mainly on the usage of larger sizes and higher operating pressures for achieving higher transportation efficiency. This has been accomplished through the provision of steels with progressive increase in yield strength coupled with good weldability and sufficient toughness to restrict crack propagation. In addition to higher strength and toughness, developing pipeline technologies have required improved resistance to corrosion, which has been tried with specific alloy additions and special control over non-metallic inclusions. Corrosion investigations were carried out on various grades of pipeline steels (API 5L X-46, X-52, X-56, X-60 and X- 70) under varying environmental conditions. This paper describes the results pertaining to corrosion behavior of the steels in 3.5% NaCl solutions in stagnant, turbulent and deaerated conditions. It was found that all grades corrode in this solution and their corrosion potentials and corrosion currents are in close vicinity of each other. Turbulent solutions, however, have shown an increase in corrosion rates whereas deaeration has revealed a relative decrease in aggressivity of the electrolyte. (author)

  3. Anti-corrosion film formed on HAl77-2 copper alloy surface by aliphatic polyamine in 3 wt.% NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yinzhe; Yang, Dong; Zhang, Daquan, E-mail: zhdq@sh163.net; Wang, Yizhen; Gao, Lixin

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Properties of ADDD meet environment-friendly requirements. • ADDD’s inhibition efficiency is better than BTA at the low concentration. • ADDD adsorbs on the copper alloy surface by via the N atom in its amino group using flat mode. - Abstract: The corrosion inhibition of a polyamine compound, N-(4-amino-2, 3-dimethylbutyl)-2, 3-dimethylbutane-1, 4-diamine (ADDD), was investigated for HAl77-2 copper alloy in 3 wt.% NaCl solution. Electrochemical measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques were employed for this research. The results show that ADDD strongly suppresses the corrosion of HAl77-2 alloy. The inhibition efficiency of ADDD is 98.6% at 0.5 mM, which is better than benzotriazole (BTAH) at the same concentration. Polarization curves indicate that ADDD is an anodic type inhibitor. Surface analysis suggests that a protective film is formed via the interaction of ADDD and copper. FT-IR reveals that the inhibition mechanism of ADDD is dominated by chemisorption onto the copper alloy surface to form an inhibition film. Furthermore, quantum chemical calculation and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations methods show that ADDD adsorbs on HAl77-2 surface via amino group in its molecule.

  4. Effects of Ge-132 and GeO2 on seed germination and seedling growth of Oenothera biennis L. under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Hou, Long-Yu; Li, Qing-Mei; Jiang, Ze-Ping; Gao, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Bo

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of β-carboxyethyl germanium sequioxide (Ge-132) and germanium dioxide (GeO 2 ) on improving salt tolerance of evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), seed germination, seedling growth, antioxidase and malondialdehyde (MDA) were observed under treatments of various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 μM) of Ge in normal condition and in 50 mM NaCl solution. The results showed that both Ge-132 and GeO 2 treatments significantly increased seed germination percentage and shoot length in dose-dependent concentrations but inhibited early root elongation growth. 5-30 μM Ge-132 and 10, 20 μM GeO 2 treatments could significantly mitigate even eliminate harmful influence of salt, representing increased percentage of seed germination, root length, ratio between length of root and shoot, and decreased shoot length. These treatments also significantly decreased peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities and MDA content. The mechanism is likely that Ge scavenges reactive oxygen species - especially hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) - by its electron configuration 4S 2 4P 2 so as to reduce lipid peroxidation. This is the first report about the comparison of bioactivity effect of Ge-132 and GeO 2 on seed germination and seedling growth under salt stress. We conclude that Ge-132 is better than GeO 2 on promoting salt tolerance of seed and seedling.

  5. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  6. Coloration dependence in the thermoluminescence properties of the double doped NaCl single crystals under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Mejorada, G.; Gelover-Santiago, A.L.; Frias, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the behaviour of calcium manganese doped NaCl single crystals under gamma irradiation is reported. Various single crystals of NaCl doped with Ca and Mn have been irradiated at different doses with ionising radiation. The production of defects has been correlated to the increase in the intensity of the thermo luminescent glow curve as a function of doses. The glow curves intensity as a function of doses shows the potential use of these materials as dosimeters. Optical properties of such crystals after irradiation with gamma rays have also been studied; results have shown their potentiality as a good detector and optical store memory devices. Since the creations of colour centres by photons with energy less than the band gap energy has been detected also in ns 2 -ion doped alkali halides. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. 24-Epibrassinolide ameliorates the adverse effect of salt stress (NaCl on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibn Maaouia-Houimli Samira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the role of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL in inducing plant tolerance to salinity. Seedlings of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. were grown in the presence of 70 mM NaCl and were sprayed with 10-6 M EBL at 7 days after transplantation and were sampled at 28 day. The plants exposed to NaCl exhibited a significant decline in relative growth rate, net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency. However, the follow up treatment with EBL significantly improved the above parameters. EBL treated plants had greater relative growth rate compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of EBL increased photosynthesis by increasing stomatal conductance in both control and salt stressed plants and may have contributed to the enhanced growth. The water use efficiency was improved because CO2 assimilation is more important than the transpiration.

  8. Laboratory studies of galvanic corrosion. III. Effect of velocity in NaCl and substitute ocean water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfeld, F.; Kenkel, J.V.

    1977-01-01

    The galvanic corrosion behavior of 4340 steel coupled to Type 304 stainless steel, Cu, Ti-6Al-4V, Al 2024, Al 6061, and zinc has been studied in 3.5 percent NaCl and ASTM substitute ocean water as a function of velocity using a rotating galvanic couple electrode holder. For steel coupled to Type 304 stainless steel, Cu or Ti, the galvanic current generally increases proportional to the square root of the rotation speed in both media. The increase is, however, smaller in the substitute ocean water. For couples involving Al alloys and Zn, the galvanic current has a more complicated dependence on velocity in substitute ocean water than in 3.5 percent NaCl

  9. Radiation inactivation of angiotensin-converting enzyme in solutions. Communication 3. The effect of NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlova, M.A.; Kost, O.A.; Nikol'skaya, I.I.; Troshina, N.N.; Binevskij, P.V.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of 0-0.15 M NaCl on the dose response of angiotensin-converting enzyme is described. The data represented at three-dimensional surfaces demonstrate the existence of special areas where definite mechanisms of dose response are predominant. In acidic and alkaline media, the regions of high values of enzyme activation can be emphasized; moreover, the oscillations of enzyme activity can also be detected. At pH 7.5, when angiotensin-converting enzyme conformation is less rigid, activation peaks on the three-dimensional surface are less pronounced indicating the decreasing effect of NaCl on dose response at this pH value [ru

  10. Reduction of activity concentration of radiocesium in meat by preparation of heat-pressure bowling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, P.; Kunova, V.

    2006-01-01

    The meat (Sus stroma) was salted (5 g NaCl to 100 g meat) before preparation by heat pressure bowling - 15 minutes. There was reached drop of activity concentration of radiocesium about 50 % (from 42.7 % to 58.3 %). The meat had activity concentration of radiocesium 106 Bq · kg -1 . The activity concentration of radiocesium was reduced on average to 53 Bq · kg -1 . The activity concentration of 137 Cs was measured by gamma-spectrometry. (authors)

  11. Effect of gamma radiation on different explants of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) to induce NaCl tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Rosati, A.

    1997-01-01

    Clonal lines tolerant to NaCl were obtained by combining in vitro culture and gamma radiation in two Peruvian varieties 'Amarillo de Quillabamba' and 'Nemanete'. The most suitable explants were pedicel sections and leaf blades. Embryogenic callus was induced on basal MS basal medium containing 0.5 ppm 2,4-D. The embryogenic calli were irradiated with 5 Gy from a 137 Cs source. Several putative mutants appeared to be stable. (author). 9 refs, 3 tabs

  12. Persaingan Tanaman Jagung (Zea Mays) dan Rumput Teki (Cyperus Rotundus) pada Pengaruh Cekaman Garam (NaCl)

    OpenAIRE

    Pranasari, Rizka Amalia; Nurhidayati, Tutik; Purwani, Kristanti Indah

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan Zea mays yang bersaing dengan Cyperus rotundus pada pengaruh cekaman garam (NaCl).Metode yang digunakan replacement series menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 3 ulangan. Dengan perlakuan cekaman garam (NaCl) 0ppm, 500ppm, 1000ppm, dan 1500ppm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada kultur tunggal terjadi persaingan intraspesies antara Zea mays maupun Cyperus rotundus sedangkan pada kultur campuran terjadi persaingan interspesies ant...

  13. Effect of gamma radiation on different explants of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) to induce NaCl tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Rosati, A [Biology Dept., National Agriculture Univ., La Molina, Lima (Peru)

    1997-07-01

    Clonal lines tolerant to NaCl were obtained by combining in vitro culture and gamma radiation in two Peruvian varieties `Amarillo de Quillabamba` and `Nemanete`. The most suitable explants were pedicel sections and leaf blades. Embryogenic callus was induced on basal MS basal medium containing 0.5 ppm 2,4-D. The embryogenic calli were irradiated with 5 Gy from a {sup 137}Cs source. Several putative mutants appeared to be stable. (author). 9 refs, 3 tabs.

  14. WATER EXTRACT OF PURPLE SWEET POTATO TUBERS REDUCES BLOOD PRESSURE 0F HYPERTENSIVE RATS INDUCED BY NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE JAWI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Compliance of hypertensive patients to take medication is one of many determinant factors to achieve successful treatment. Side effects and the expensive price of drugs are the causes of the incompliance of patients taking the medication. Utilization of herbal medicine is a new hope to resolve the issue. Purple sweet potato tuber is a plant part that expected has beneficial effect in lowering blood pressure because it contains anthocyanins which are antioxidants and can preserve endothelial function. To prove these hypothesis, a study was conducted with randomized control group pre and post-test design. The  study was done on 20 adult male Wistar rats that were divided into two groups of 10 rats.  Both groups of rats were made hypertensive by administering high doses of NaCl. Control group of rats given only NaCl alone for 14 days. Treatment group were given NaCl and water extract of purple sweet potato tuber with a dose of 4 cc per day for 14 days. Before treatment and during treatment, blood pressure were taken everyday with special sphygmomanometer. The results indicate a significant difference in blood pressure between the control group with treatment (P = 0.0001. In the treatment group, it was observed that there was a significant decrease in blood pressure compared to the control group (P=0.0001. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that administration of purple sweet potato tuber water extract may lower high blood pressure of rats induced by NaCl.

  15. Systematic UHV-AFM experiments on Na nano-particles and nano-structures in NaCl

    OpenAIRE

    Sugonyako, A.V.; Turkin, A.A.; Gaynutdinov, R.; Vainshtein, D.I.; Hartog, H.W. den; Bukharaev, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Results of systematic AFM (atomic force microscopy) experiments on heavily and moderatly irradiated NaCl samples are presented. The sodium nanoparticles and structures of nanoparticles are poduced in sodium chloride during irradiation. The AFM images of the nanoparticles have been obtained in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode with an Omicron UHV AFM/STM system. The sizes and arrangements of the observed particles depend on the irradiation conditions. The melting behaviour of the...

  16. The Cathodic Behavior of Ti(III) Ion in a NaCl-2CsCl Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Jiao, Shuqiang; Hu, Liwen; Guo, Zhancheng

    2016-02-01

    The cathodic behavior of Ti(III) ions in a NaCl-2CsCl melt was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and square wave voltammetry with a tungsten electrode being the working electrode at different temperatures. The results show that the cathodic behavior of Ti(III) ion consists of two irreversible steps: Ti3+ + e = Ti2+ and Ti2+ + 2 e = Ti. The diffusion coefficient for the Ti(III) ion in the NaCl-2CsCl eutectic is 1.26 × 10-5 cm2 s-1 at 873 K (600 °C), increases to be 5.57 × 10-5 cm2 s-1 at 948K (675°C), and further rises to 10.8 × 10-5 cm2 s-1 at 1023 (750 °C). Moreover, galvanostatic electrolysis performed on a titanium electrode further presents the feasibility of electrodepositing metallic titanium in the molten NaCl-2CsCl-TiCl3 system.

  17. Fatty acids, essential oil, and phenolics modifications of black cumin fruit under NaCl stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgou, Soumaya; Bettaieb, Iness; Saidani, Moufida; Marzouk, Brahim

    2010-12-08

    This research evaluated the effect of saline conditions on fruit yield, fatty acids, and essential oils compositions and phenolics content of black cumin (Nigella sativa). This plant is one of the most commonly found aromatics in the Mediterranean kitchen. Increasing NaCl levels to 60 mM decreased significantly the fruits yield by 58% and the total fatty acids amount by 35%. Fatty acids composition analysis indicated that linoleic acid was the major fatty acid (58.09%) followed by oleic (19.21%) and palmitic (14.77%) acids. Salinity enhanced the linoleic acid percentage but did not affect the unsaturation degree of the fatty acids pool and thus the oil quality. The essential oil yield was 0.39% based on the dry weight and increased to 0.53, 0.56, and 0.72% at 20, 40, and 60 mM NaCl. Salinity results on the modification of the essential oil chemotype from p-cymene in controls to γ-terpinene/p-cymene in salt-stressed plants. The amounts of total phenolics were lower in the treated plants. Salinity decreased mainly the amount of the major class, benzoics acids, by 24, 29, and 44% at 20, 40, and 60 mM NaCl. The results suggest that salt treatment may regulate bioactive compounds production in black cumin fruits, influencing their nutritional and industrial values.

  18. CT-guided lung biopsy: incidence of pneumothorax after instillation of NaCl into the biopsy track

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billich, Christian; Brenner, Gerhard; Schmidt, Stefan A.; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Pauls, Sandra [University of Ulm, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Ulm (Germany); Muche, Rainer [University of Ulm, Institute of Biometrics, Ulm (Germany); Krueger, Stefan [University of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine, Ulm (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether instillation of NaCl 0.9% solution into the biopsy track reduces the incidence of pneumothoraces after CT-guided lung biopsy. A total of 140 consecutive patients with pulmonary lesions were included in this prospective study. All patients were alternatingly assigned to one of two groups: group A in whom the puncture access was sealed by instillation of NaCl 0.9% solution during extraction of the guide needle (n = 70) or group B for whom no sealing was performed (n = 70). CT-guided biopsy was performed with a 18-G coaxial system. Localization of lesion (pleural, peripheral, central), lesion size, needle-pleural angle, rate of pneumothorax and alveolar hemorrhage were evaluated. In group A, the incidence of pneumothorax was lower compared to group B (8%, 6/70 patients vs. 34%, 24/70 patients; P < 0.001). All pneumothoraces occurred directly post punctionem after extraction of the guide needle. One patient in group A and eight patients in group B developed large pneumothoraces requiring chest tube placement (P = 0.01). The frequency of pneumothorax was independent of other variables. After CT-guided biopsy, instillation of NaCl 0.9% solution into the puncture access during extraction of the needle significantly reduces the incidence of pneumothorax. (orig.)

  19. Chemistry of Frozen NaCl and MgSO4 Brines - Implications for Surface Expression of Europa's Ocean Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. V.; Hodyss, R. P.; Choukroun, M.; Vu, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    The composition of Europa's subsurface ocean is a critical determinant of its habitability, but current analysis of the ocean composition is limited to its expression on the Europan surface. While there is observational evidence indicating that ocean materials make their way to the surface, our understanding of the chemical processes that can alter this material under Europan surface conditions is limited. We present experimental data on the chemistry of mixed solutions of NaCl and MgSO4 as they are frozen to 100 K, replicating the conditions that may occur when subsurface ocean fluids are emplaced onto Europa's surface. Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to study the formation of salts during the freezing process, and the interaction of ions in the frozen brines. Our data indicate that mixed aqueous solutions of NaCl and MgSO4 form Na2SO4 and MgCl2 preferentially when frozen, rather than making NaCl and MgSO4 precipitates. The detection of epsomite (MgSO4Ÿ•7H2O) on Europa's surface may therefore imply an ocean composition relatively low in sodium, unless radiolytic chemistry converts MgCl2 to MgSO4 as suggested by Hand and Brown 2013 (ApJ 145 110). These results have important implications for the interpretation of remote sensing data of Europa's surface.

  20. CT-guided lung biopsy: incidence of pneumothorax after instillation of NaCl into the biopsy track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billich, Christian; Brenner, Gerhard; Schmidt, Stefan A.; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Pauls, Sandra; Muche, Rainer; Krueger, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether instillation of NaCl 0.9% solution into the biopsy track reduces the incidence of pneumothoraces after CT-guided lung biopsy. A total of 140 consecutive patients with pulmonary lesions were included in this prospective study. All patients were alternatingly assigned to one of two groups: group A in whom the puncture access was sealed by instillation of NaCl 0.9% solution during extraction of the guide needle (n 70) or group B for whom no sealing was performed (n = 70). CT-guided biopsy was performed with a 18-G coaxial system. Localization of lesion (pleural, peripheral, central), lesion size, needle-pleural angle, rate of pneumothorax and alveolar hemorrhage were evaluated. In group A, the incidence of pneumothorax was lower compared to group B (8%, 6/70 patients vs. 34%, 24/70 patients; P < 0.001). All pneumothoraces occurred directly post punctionem after extraction of the guide needle. One patient in group A and eight patients in group B developed large pneumothoraces requiring chest tube placement (P 0.01). The frequency of pneumothorax was independent of other variables. After CT-guided biopsy, instillation of NaCl 0.9% solution into the puncture access during extraction of the needle significantly reduces the incidence of pneumothorax. (orig.)

  1. Corrosion behavior of novel imitation-gold copper alloy with rare earth in 3.5% NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.L.; Li, Z.; Zhu, A.Y.; Luo, L.Y.; Liang, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → The design alloy has better anti-tarnish property than that of H7211 alloy during salt-spray test. → The corrosion rate of design alloy is much lower than that of H7211 alloy as immersed in NaCl solution. → In the low frequency region, the capacitive behavior normally faded and diffusion process had a key role. → In the medium frequency region, the Bode pattern showed a capacitive behavior. -- Abstract: A novel imitation-gold copper alloy with rare earth was designed and prepared. The corrosion behavior of the alloy immersed in 3.5% NaCl solution and its anti-tarnish property in the salt spray for different days has been studied. The designed alloy (CuZnAlNiMeRe) has more excellent anti-tarnish property and lower corrosion rate than those of currency coinage materials of H7211 alloy (used in China). A uniform and compact of corrosion film has been formed after the designed alloy immersed in 3.5% NaCl solution. The corrosion current densities I corr of the alloy decreased while the polarization resistance R p increased with time. The capacitance of the corrosion product film C film of the alloy decreased while the charge transfer resistance R ct . The Warburg diffusion impedance W R and the resistance of the equivalent circuit R increased with time.

  2. Luminescence of BaCl2:Eu2+ particles dispersed in the NaCl host excited by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushak, A.S.; Savchyn, P.V.; Vistovskyy, V.V.; Demkiv, T.M.; Dacyuk, J.R.; Myagkota, S.V.; Voloshinovskii, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    BaCl 2 :Eu 2+ microcrystals embedded in the NaCl host have been obtained in the NaCl–BaCl 2 (1 mol%)–EuCl 3 (0.02 mol%) crystalline system. The influence of the annealing conditions on the formation of such particles has been studied. In particular, long-term annealing (at 200 °S during 100 h) promotes the microcrystals formation in the NaCl–BaCl 2 –Eu crystalline system. The subsequent heat treatment (annealed at 600 °S during 72 h and quenched to room temperature) is shown to lead to the destruction of the majority of these particles. The luminescent-kinetic properties of BaCl 2 :Eu 2+ microcrystals have been studied upon the ultra-violet excitation by the synchrotron radiation. The X-ray excited luminescence has been measured in order to estimate the distribution of europium ions between microcrystals and the NaCl host. The excitation mechanisms of Eu 2+ ions in the NaCl–BaCl 2 –Eu crystalline system are discussed. - Highlights: ► The formation of BaCl 2 :Eu 2+ microcrystals of 1–100 μm size embedded in the NaCl host is revealed. ► Annealing at 600 °C leads to the destruction of significant number of embedded microcrystals. ► The luminescent parameters of microcrystals is similar to ones of single crystal analogs.

  3. Effects of prior cold work on corrosion and corrosive wear of copper in HNO3 and NaCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Songbo; Li, D.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of prior cold work on corrosion and corrosive wear behavior of copper in 0.1 M HNO 3 and 3.5% NaCl solutions, respectively, were investigated using electrochemical tests, electron work function measurements, and sliding corrosive wear tests with and without cathodic protection. Optical microscope and SEM were employed to examine the microstructure and worn surfaces. It was shown that, in general, the prior cold work raised the corrosion rate, but the effect differed in different corrosive media. In both the solutions, pure mechanical wear decreased with an increase in cold work. The prior cold work had a significant influence on the corrosive wear of copper, depending on the corrosive solution and the applied load. In the 0.1 M HNO 3 solution, the ratio of the wear loss caused by corrosion-wear synergism to the total wear loss increased with the cold work and became saturated when the cold work reached a certain level. In the 3.5% NaCl solution, however, this ratio decreased initially and then became relatively stable with respect to the cold work. It was observed that wear of copper in the 3.5% NaCl solution was larger than that in 0.1 M HNO 3 solution, although copper showed lower corrosion rate in the former solution. The experimental observations and the possible mechanisms involved are discussed

  4. Direct measurement of CO2 solubility and pH in NaCl hydrothermal solutions by combining in-situ potentiometry and Raman spectroscopy up to 280 °C and 150 bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truche, Laurent; Bazarkina, Elena F.; Berger, Gilles; Caumon, Marie-Camille; Bessaque, Gilles; Dubessy, Jean

    2016-03-01

    The in-situ monitoring of aqueous solution chemistry at elevated temperatures and pressures is a major challenge in geochemistry. Here, we combined for the first time in-situ Raman spectroscopy for concentration measurements and potentiometry for pH measurement in a single hydrothermal cell equipped with sampling systems and operating under controlled conditions of temperature and pressure. Dissolved CO2 concentration and pH were measured at temperatures up to 280 °C and pressures up to 150 bar in the H2O-CO2 and H2O-CO2-NaCl systems. A Pitzer specific-ion-interaction aqueous model was developed and confirmed the accuracy and consistency of the measurements, at least up to 250 °C. The revised Pitzer parameters for the H2O-CO2-NaCl system were formatted for the Phreeqc geochemical software. Significant changes with respect to the Pitzer.dat database currently associated with Phreeqc were observed. The new model parameters are now available for further applications. The Raman and pH probes tested here may also be applied to field monitoring of hydrothermal springs, geothermal wells, and oil and gas boreholes.

  5. Aqueous solutions of proline and NaCl studied by differential scanning calorimetry at subzero temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Jørgensen, Bo; Nielsen, Jette

    1997-01-01

    The hydration properties of proline are studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in aqueous solutions during freezing to -60 degrees C and subsequent heating to +20 degrees C. The concentration of proline in the freeze concentrated solution was estimated to approximately 50 wt% (w/w) in...... plants and insects living under water stress conditions is discussed. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V....

  6. Effect of Repair Welding on Electrochemical Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of TIG Welded AA2219 Aluminum Alloy in 3.5 Wt Pct NaCl Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, A.; Sreekumar, K.; Raja, V. S.

    2010-12-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of AA2219 aluminum alloy in the as-welded (AW) and repair-welded (RW) conditions was examined and compared with that of the base metal (BM) in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution using the slow strain rate technique (SSRT). The reduction in ductility was used as a parameter to evaluate the SCC susceptibility of both BM and welded joints. The results show that the ductility ratio ( ɛ NaCl/( ɛ air)) of the BM was close to one (0.97) and reduced to 0.9 for the AW joint. This value further reduced to 0.77 after carrying out one repair welding operation. However, the RW specimen exhibited higher ductility than the single-weld specimens even in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution. SSRT results obtained using pre-exposed samples followed by post-test metallographic observations clearly showed localized pitting corrosion along the partially melted zone (PMZ), signifying that the reduction in ductility ratio of both the AW and RW joints was more due to mechanical overload failure, caused by the localized corrosion and a consequent reduction in specimen thickness, than due to SCC. Also, the RW joint exhibited higher ductility than the AW joint both in air and the environment, although SCC index (SI) for the former is lower than that of the latter. Fractographic examination of the failed samples, in general, revealed a typical ductile cracking morphology for all the base and welded joints, indicating the good environmental cracking resistance of this alloy. Microstructural examination and polarization tests further demonstrate grain boundary melting along the PMZ, and that provided the necessary electrochemical condition for the preferential cracking on that zone of the weldment.

  7. Efecto del NaCl en plántulas de curarí (Tabebuia serratifolia en condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Ramírez

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del cloruro de sodio (NaCl durante la germinación y el desarrollo inicial de las plántulas de curarí (Tabebuia serratifolia, en condiciones de laboratorio. Las semillas se colocaron en cinco concentraciones de NaCl: 2, 4, 6, 8 y 10 dS m-1, y en agua destilada (testigo, con una conductividad eléctrica entre 0,02 y 0,04 dS m-1. Se empleó un diseño experimental completamente al azar, con cinco repeticiones, y se aplicó un análisis de varianza. Se determinó el porcentaje de germinación (PG y la tasa de germinación (TG; y se midió la longitud del tallo (LT, la longitud de la raíz (LR, el área cotiledonal (AC, la biomasa fresca (BF y la biomasa seca (BS. La concentración de NaCl mostró efectos significativos para las variables PG, TG, BS, LT, LR y AC. Se obtuvo un 79,6 % de germinación y una TG de 1,66 días, cuando las semillas se sometieron a 6 dS m-1 de NaCl. Las concentraciones de 8 y 10 dS m-1 disminuyeron significativamente el PG, la LT y el AC de las plántulas, y retardaron la TG. Se concluye que las plántulas de curarí mostraron tolerancia a la condición salina del NaCl hasta 6 dS m-1, por lo que esta especie se puede utilizar con fines agroforestales en los sistemas de producción agropecuaria, así como en la recuperación de áreas que presenten problemas moderados de salinidad.

  8. Corrosion Behavior of High Pressure Die Cast Al-Ni and Al-Ni-Ca Alloys in 3.5% NaCl Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthanari, Srinivasan; Jang, Jae Cheol; Shin, Kwang Seon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this investigation corrosion behavior of newly developed high-pressure die cast Al-Ni (N15) and Al-Ni-Ca (NX1503) alloys was studied in 3.5% NaCl solution. The electrochemical corrosion behavior was evaluated using open circuit potential (OCP) measurement, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization results validated that NX1503 alloy exhibited lower corrosion current density (i{sub corr}) value (5.969 μA/cm{sup 2}) compared to N15 (7.387 μA/cm{sup 2}). EIS-Bode plots revealed a higher impedance (|Z|) value and maximum phase angle value for NX1503 than N15 alloy. Equivalent circuit curve fitting analysis revealed that surface layer (R{sub 1}) and charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) values of NX1503 alloy was higher compared to N15 alloy. Immersion corrosion studies were also conducted for alloys using fishing line specimen arrangement to simultaneously measure corrosion rates from weight loss (P{sub W}) and hydrogen volume (P{sub H}) after 72 hours and NX1503 alloy had lower corrosion rate compared to N15 alloy. The addition of Ca to N15 alloy significantly reduced the Al{sub 3}Ni intermetallic phase and further grain refinement may be attributed for reduction in the corrosion rate.

  9. Influence of partial replacement of NaCl with KCl on profiles of volatile compounds in dry-cured bacon during processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haizhou; Zhuang, Hong; Zhang, Yingyang; Tang, Jing; Yu, Xiang; Long, Men; Wang, Jiamei; Zhang, Jianhao

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on the formation of volatile compounds in bacons during processing using a purge and trap dynamic headspace GC/MS system. Three substitutions were 0% KCl (I), 40% KCl (II), and 70% KCl (III). The profiles of the volatile compounds significantly changed during processing, particularly during the drying/ripening. At the end of process, the bacons from substitution III formed significantly higher levels of lipid-derived volatiles, such as straight chain aldehydes, hydrocarbons than bacons from substitution I and II, whereas the latter formed higher levels of volatiles from amino acid degradation such as 3-methylbutanal. There were very few differences in volatile formation between 0% and 40% KCl application. These results suggest that K(+) substitution of Na(+) by more than 40% may significantly change profiles of volatiles in finished dry-cured bacons and therefore would result in changes in the product aroma and/or flavour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Role of Concentration and Solvent Character in the Molecular Organization of Humic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Klučáková

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The molecular organization of humic acids in different aqueous solutions was studied over a wide concentration range (0.01–10 g·dm−3. Solutions of humic acids were prepared in three different media: NaOH, NaCl, and NaOH neutralized by HCl after dissolution of the humic sample. Potentiometry, conductometry, densitometry, and high resolution ultrasound spectrometry were used in order to investigate conformational changes in the humic systems. The molecular organization of humic acids in the studied systems could be divided into three concentration ranges. The rearrangements were observed at concentrations of ~0.02 g·dm−3 and ~1 g·dm−3. The first “switch-over point” was connected with changes in the hydration shells of humic particles resulting in changes in their elasticity. The compressibility of water in the hydration shells is less than the compressibility of bulk water. The transfer of hydration water into bulk water increased the total compressibility of the solution, reducing the ultrasonic velocity. The aggregation of humic particles and the formation of rigid structures in systems with concentrations higher than 1 g·dm−3 was detected.

  11. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  12. Effect of different brine concentrations and ripening period on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheeses made from pasteurized milk (65°C for 30 min) were ripened in 11, 14 and 17 g 100 ml-1 NaCl for 90 days at 7±1°C. Some physicochemical and biochemical analyses were carried out during storage time. The effects of brine concentrations on total solids, protein, ash, salt, pH, and WSN values were found to be ...

  13. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  14. The europium and praseodymium hydrolysis in a 2M NaCl environment; La hidrolisis del europio y del praseodimio en un medio 2M de NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez R, M.; Lopez G, H.; Solache R, M.; Rojas H, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de quimica, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    It was studied the europium and praseodymium hydrolysis in a 2M NaCl ion force environment at 303 K, through two methods: this one extraction with dissolvents (lanthanide-water-NaCl-dibenzoylmethane) in presence of a competitive ligand (diglycolic acid) and that one direct potentiometric titration, of soluble species, followed by a computer refining. The values of one or another techniques of the first hydrolysis constants obtained were similar, which demonstrates that the results are reliable. The set of data obtained on the stability constants of hydrolysis products allowed to draw up the distribution diagrams of chemical species, as europium as praseodymium in aqueous environment. (Author)

  15. Electrochemical behaviour of brass in chloride solution concentrations found in eccrine fingerprint sweat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, John W., E-mail: jwb13@le.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, George Porter Building, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Lieu, Elaine [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Corrosion of brass in NaCl concentrations found in eccrine sweat was investigated. • Concentrations < 0.2 M produce a layer of mainly zinc oxide after 24 h. • A concentration of 0.2 M enables active corrosion of brass at room temperature. • 0.2 M NaCl gives both zinc and copper dissolution. • 24-h immersion of brass in 0.2 M NaCl gives an oxide film thickness of 1.3 nm. - Abstract: In this work, the corrosion properties of α phase brass immersed in concentrations of aqueous NaCl solutions that are typically found in eccrine fingerprint sweat and range between 0.01 M and 0.2 M have been analysed. Analysis methods employed were electrochemical techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical profiling. For NaCl concentrations <0.2 M, active corrosion did not occur although, after a period of 24 h, a passivating layer of mainly zinc oxide formed. At a concentration of 0.2 M active corrosion did occur, with measured corrosion potentials consistent with both brass and copper dissolution. A 1 h contact time at this concentration (0.2 M) resulted in the formation of a zinc oxide passivating layer with the surface ratio of zinc oxide to copper oxide increasing with time. Film thickness was calculated to be of the order of 1.3 nm after 24 h contact. Formation of oxide layers on brass by fingerprint sweat as observed here may well have implications for the successful investigation of crime by the visualisation of corrosion fingerprint ridge patterns or the reduction of hospital environmental contamination by hand contact with brass objects such as door handles or taps.

  16. Sol-gel transitions and liquid crystal phase transitions in concentrated aqueous suspensions of colloidal gibbsite platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, M.C.D.; Byelov, D.V.; Petukhov, A.V.; de Winter, D.A.M.; Verkleij, A.J.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of the sol-gel transitions and liquid crystal phase transitions in aqueous suspensions of positively charged colloidal gibbsite platelets at pH 4-5 over a wide range of particle concentrations (50-600 g/L) and salt concentrations (10-4-10-1 M NaCl). A

  17. Corrosion protection of AISI 1018 steel using Co-doped TiO_2/polypyrrole nanocomposites in 3.5% NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladan, Magaji; Basirun, Wan Jeffrey; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Rahman, Fariza Abdul

    2017-01-01

    A polypyrrole nanocomposites (PPy NTCs) have been effectively synthesized in the presence of TiO_2 and Co-doped TiO_2 nanoparticles (NPs) by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy revealed a tube shape structure of the PPy. The TEM results confirmed that the nanocomposite size of Co-doped TiO_2/PPy NTCs was smaller than TiO_2/PPy NTCs thereby increasing the interaction between the PPy nanotube and the AISI steel surface. The corrosion performance of the coatings was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements in 3.5% NaCl solution. The EIS results show that the log |Z| of AISI 1018 coated with Co-doped TiO_2/PPy NTCs and TiO_2/PPy NTCs reached about 8.2 and 6.0 respectively after 30 days of exposure in 3.5% NaCl solution. This is likely due to the increased surface area of the PPy synthesized in the presence of Co-doped TiO_2 NPs. The EIS results are confirmed by the potentiodynamic polarization and open circuit potential values of the Co-doped TiO_2/PPy which indicated little changes between 1 and 30 days of exposure which confirms the protection ability of this coating. . It is evident that the presence of Co-doped TiO_2 NPs can enhance the resistance against corrosion at the steel/electrolyte interface. - Highlights: • Polymerization of pyrrole monomer in the presence of Co-doped TiO_2 decreases the size of the polypyrrole nanotube (PPy NT). • The corrosion protection increases with the increase in PPy NT dispersion. • The corrosion resistance of steel coated with Co-doped TiO_2/PPy NTCs is considerably higher. • TiO_2/PPy with Co doping reduces the charge transfer across the electrolyte/AISI 1018 steel interface.

  18. Corrosion protection of AISI 1018 steel using Co-doped TiO{sub 2}/polypyrrole nanocomposites in 3.5% NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladan, Magaji, E-mail: ladanmagaji@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 (Malaysia); Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University Kano (Nigeria); Basirun, Wan Jeffrey, E-mail: jeff@um.edu.my [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 (Malaysia); Institute of Nanotechnology and Catalysis (NanoCat), University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 (Malaysia); Kazi, Salim Newaz; Rahman, Fariza Abdul [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 (Malaysia)

    2017-05-01

    A polypyrrole nanocomposites (PPy NTCs) have been effectively synthesized in the presence of TiO{sub 2} and Co-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy revealed a tube shape structure of the PPy. The TEM results confirmed that the nanocomposite size of Co-doped TiO{sub 2}/PPy NTCs was smaller than TiO{sub 2}/PPy NTCs thereby increasing the interaction between the PPy nanotube and the AISI steel surface. The corrosion performance of the coatings was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements in 3.5% NaCl solution. The EIS results show that the log |Z| of AISI 1018 coated with Co-doped TiO{sub 2}/PPy NTCs and TiO{sub 2}/PPy NTCs reached about 8.2 and 6.0 respectively after 30 days of exposure in 3.5% NaCl solution. This is likely due to the increased surface area of the PPy synthesized in the presence of Co-doped TiO{sub 2} NPs. The EIS results are confirmed by the potentiodynamic polarization and open circuit potential values of the Co-doped TiO{sub 2}/PPy which indicated little changes between 1 and 30 days of exposure which confirms the protection ability of this coating. . It is evident that the presence of Co-doped TiO{sub 2} NPs can enhance the resistance against corrosion at the steel/electrolyte interface. - Highlights: • Polymerization of pyrrole monomer in the presence of Co-doped TiO{sub 2} decreases the size of the polypyrrole nanotube (PPy NT). • The corrosion protection increases with the increase in PPy NT dispersion. • The corrosion resistance of steel coated with Co-doped TiO{sub 2}/PPy NTCs is considerably higher. • TiO{sub 2}/PPy with Co doping reduces the charge transfer across the electrolyte/AISI 1018 steel interface.

  19. Crosslinked Spondia purpurea gum: NaCl and p H effects on the gel absorption capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, Joao Batista A.; Feitosa, Judith P.A.; Paula, Regina C.M.; Paula, Haroldo C.B.

    1999-01-01

    Exudate gum from Spondia purpurea tree was cross linked with epichlorohydrin and its swelling behaviour as a function of Na Cl concentration and pH was investigated. Preliminary structural study was carried out by C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The gum was found to absorb 35 time its own weight in water. Swelling increased with pH, being maximal in the pH range 8-10. The equilibrium water content was found to decrease with increasing Na Cl concentration. (author)

  20. Long Term Corrosion Experiment of Steel Rebar in Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete in NaCl Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Asmara, Y. P.; Siregar, J. P.; Tezara, C.; Nurlisa, Wan; Jamiluddin, J.

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on an experimental investigation to identify the effects of fly ash on the electrochemical process of concrete during the curing time. A rebar was analysed using potentiostat to measure the rest potential, polarization diagram, and corrosion rate. Water-to-cement ratio and amount of fly ash were varied. After being cured for 24 hours at a temperature of 65°C, the samples were immersed in 3.5% of NaCl solution for 365 days for electrochemical measurement. Measurements of ...

  1. Electrochemical Behavior of Sn-9Zn- xTi Lead-Free Solders in Neutral 0.5M NaCl Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghong; Chen, Chuantong; Jiu, Jinting; Nagao, Shijo; Nogi, Masaya; Koga, Hirotaka; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Gong; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2018-05-01

    Electrochemical techniques were employed to study the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Sn-9Zn- xTi ( x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 wt.%) lead-free solders in neutral 0.5M NaCl solution, aiming to figure out the effect of Ti content on the corrosion properties of Sn-9Zn, providing information for the composition design of Sn-Zn-based lead-free solders from the perspective of corrosion. EIS results reveal that Ti addition was involved in the corrosion product layer and changed electrochemical interface behavior from charge transfer control process to diffusion control process. The trace amount of Ti addition (0.05 wt.%) can refine the microstructure and improve the corrosion resistance of Sn-9Zn solder, evidenced by much lower corrosion current density ( i corr) and much higher total resistance ( R t). Excess Ti addition (over 0.1 wt.%) led to the formation of Ti-containing IMCs, which were confirmed as Sn3Ti2 and Sn5Ti6, deteriorating the corrosion resistance of Sn-9Zn- xTi solders. The main corrosion products were confirmed as Sn3O(OH)2Cl2 mixed with small amount of chlorine/oxide Sn compounds.

  2. Corrosion behavior and pitting susceptibility of in-situ Ti-based metallic glass matrix composites in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K. K.; Lan, A. D.; Yang, H. J.; Han, P. D.; Qiao, J. W.

    2017-11-01

    The Ti62Zr12V13Cu4Be9, Ti58Zr16V10Cu4Be12, Ti46Zr20V12Cu5Be17, and Ti40Zr24V12Cu5Be19 metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) were prepared by copper mould casting. The corrosion resistance and the pitting susceptibility of Ti-based MGMCs were tested on their cross-sectional areas in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions by potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The composites with lower Ti contents (Ti40Zr24V12Cu5Be19 and Ti46Zr20V12Cu5Be17) exhibit a low resistance to the chloride induced pitting and local corrosion. The preferential dissolution of amorphous matrix is explained by the high chemical reactivity of beryllium element compared to that of stable dendrites and by the detected lower Ti and V contents. However, fairly good passivity was found in the composite with higher Ti contents (Ti62Zr12V13Cu4Be9). XPS measurements revealed that protective Ti-enriched oxide film was formed on the composite surface, additionally, lower content of beryllium element in amorphous matrix hinder the selective corrosion of amorphous matrix. The assessment of experimental observation leads to a proposed corrosion mechanism involving selective dissolution of amorphous matrix and chloride induced pitting process.

  3. The Electrochemical Stability in NaCl Solution of Nanotubes and Nanochannels Elaborated on a New Ti-20Zr-5Ta-2Ag Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Constantin Manole

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotubular and nanochannels structures were fabricated via anodizing on a new alloy Ti-20Zr-8Ta-2Ag. A continuous coating of connected tubes/channels can be observed in the SEM micrographs forming tubular structures with diameters in hundreds of nm, as well as smaller tubes, with diameters in tens of nm. In the case of nanochannels structure, the diameters are smaller and wall thicknesses significantly thinner than in nanotubes. Wettability measurements indicate a decrease of contact angles in both cases of nanotubes and nanochannels, but the increase of hydrophilic character is more significant in the case of nanochannels. The Tafel procedure and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests performed in NaCl 0.9% solution indicate a better stability for the nanostructured surfaces compared to untreated alloy, the surface with nanochannels offering higher corrosion resistance. Spectral UV-VIS determination has confirmed Ag metallic presence, opening the door for applications not only in tissue engineering but for water splitting and the photoreduction of CO2 as well.

  4. Efeito do NaCI sobre o crecimento ea multiplicação in vitro de bananeira The effect of NaCl on the growth and multiplication of bananeira (MUSA SP in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Elizabeth Costa de Macêdo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A salinidade dos solos é um importante fator de estresse, ocorrendo em regiões semi-áridas e áridas do Nordeste brasileiro, onde a bananeira é cultivada. O efeito de diferentes concentrações de cloreto de sódio (NaCl foi estudado sobre a multiplicação e o crescimento in vitro de brotos de bananeira da variedade "Grand Naine", visando a uma posterior seleção in vitro. Brotos de bananeira foram inoculados em meio de cultura MS (Murashige & SKoog na ausência de T0=0 (controle e na presença de três tratamentos contendo NaCl: T1= 50mM; T2=75mM e T3=100mM e subcultivados cinco vezes nos seus respectivos tratamentos. Os subcultivos foram realizados a cada 30 dias e observado o número de brotos multiplicados por broto inoculado em cada tratamento, a altura e o número de folhas dos brotos inoculados e a produção de matéria fresca aos 0; 30; 60; 90; 120 e 150 dias após a exposição ao sal. Os resultados mostraram que a adição de NaCl ao meio de cultura afetou a multiplicação in vitro, e que o aumento da concentração do sal é proporcional à diminuição do número de brotos produzidos. A multiplicação in vitro de brotos de bananeira foi reduzida em cerca de 80% na dose de 50mM e em cerca de 90% nas doses de 75 e 100mM. Nos tratamentos submetidos a 75 e 100 mM de NaCl, houve redução do número de folhas e também no crescimento dos brotos iniciais e na produção de matéria fresca. A melhor dose de NaCl entre as testadas e sob as condições experimentais utilizadas, para a realização de uma posterior seleção, foi 50mM por ter apresentado efeitos intermediários nos caracteres avaliados.Soil salinity is an important factor of stress that occurs in many semi-arid and arid regions of Brazil where the bananeira is cultivated. The effect of different sodium chloride (NaCl concentrations, in vitro, on the growth and shoot multiplication derived from explants of "Grand Naine" variety was studied. The shoot-tips of the

  5. Chemical alteration of calcium silicate hydrates in saline groundwater. Mechanism of sorption of Na on C-S-H and effect of NaCl on leaching of Ca from C-S-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Fujita, Tomonari

    2004-01-01

    In the concept for TRU waste disposal in Japan, cement is a potential waste packaging and backfilling material and is expected to provide chemical containment. In the presence of some reactive ions in a saline groundwater, the chemical properties of cement materials should be affected. In this study, the mechanism of sorption of sodium (Na) on C-S-H and the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on dissolution of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) are discussed by measuring the sorption isotherm of sodium onto C-S-H gel (Ca/Si = 0.65-1.2). Based on the experimental results, it is showed that sodium sorbs by substitution for Ca in C-S-H phases and leaching of Ca from C-S-H is enhanced in NaCl solution ( -1 mol dm -3 ). The results of sorption experiments are reasonably well modelled by the ion-exchange model assuming some calcium sites with different ion-exchange log K values. It is also suggested that the dissolution of C-S-H can be modelled reasonably well by considering the effect of ionic strength on activity coefficients of aqueous species for high Ca/Si ratio of C-S-H, and the effect of exchange of sodium with calcium of C-S-H on leaching of Ca becomes obvious for lower Ca/Si ratio of C-S-H. (author)

  6. Evaluation of extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam seeds obtained with NaCl and their effects on water treatment - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.9605

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jurca Seolin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several natural coagulants have been studied for use in water treatment. The seed of Moringa oleifera Lam, for example, is a natural coagulant whose extract has been mentioned as effective not only for removing color, turbidity, and compounds with absorption at UV-254 nm, but also for significantly reducing the amount of sludge and bacteria in wastewaters. Therefore, the present study (1 evaluated the molecular weight of the extract of Moringa oleifera seed utilizing electrophoresis, and (2 compared the efficiency of different extracts obtained, using solutions of NaCl (0.01 M, 0.1 M and 1 M, distilled water, and Moringa oleifera Lam seed, acting as a natural coagulant in order to obtain drinking water. The tests were performed in Jar Test, and the effectiveness of the process was assessed regarding the removal of color, turbidity and UV-254 nm. It was observed that the molecular weight found in this study is consistent with literature data. Moreover, the highest removal efficiency of color, turbidity, and UV-254 nm occurred with 1M NaCl solution, with coagulant concentration between 100 and 300 mg L-1. The results obtained evidenced that the seed of Moringa oleifera Lam is a great alternative for use as a coagulant in drinking water treatment systems. 

  7. Thermophysical properties of biodiesel and related systems. Part I. Vapour–liquid equilibrium at low pressures of binary and ternary systems involving methanol, ethanol, glycerol, water and NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneral, Josamaique G.; Benazzi, Tassio; Mazutti, Marcio A.; Voll, Fernando A.P.; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Corazza, Marcos L.; Guirardello, Reginaldo; Vladimir Oliveira, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimental vapour–liquid equilibrium data of multicomponent mixtures of biodiesel-related systems. ► Othmer-type ebulliometer in the pressure range of 6.7 to 66.7 kPa. ► Experimental data satisfactorily represented by the UNIQUAC model. -- Abstract: Experimental vapour–liquid equilibrium data of several binary mixtures (methanol + glycerol), (ethanol + glycerol) and (glycerol + water) and ternary (methanol + glycerol + water), (ethanol + glycerol + water) and (water + glycerol + NaCl) were obtained over the pressure range of 6.7 kPa to 66.7 kPa through an Othmer-type ebulliometer, allowing the construction of temperature – mass fraction and pressure – temperature diagrams. It is shown that the systems without NaCl were satisfactorily represented by the UNIQUAC model with good agreement between theory and experimental results. It was observed that alcohol concentrations lower than 10 wt% increase the phase transition temperature. The systems investigated show positive deviations in relation to Raoult’s law. Results presented in this work may be relevant in process design towards efficient recovering of components in the biodiesel down-stream processes

  8. Solute concentration affects bradykinin-mediated increases in renal prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenser, T.V.; Davis, E.S.; Rapp, N.S.; Davis, B.B.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of solute concentration on the bradykinin-mediated increase in inner medullary slice prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis were investigated. PG content was determined by specific RIA. Bradykinin stimulation was prevented by the addition of the following solutes to Krebs buffer: 1.0 M urea, 0.5 or 1.0 M NaCl, 0.5 or 1.0 M mannitol, 1.0 M urea plus 0.5 M NaCl, or 1.0 M mannitol plus 0.5 M NaCl. By contrast, basal PGE2 synthesis was increased by 1.0 M mannitol or by 1.0 M mannitol plus 0.5 M NaCl, but decreased by 1.0 M urea. Urea elicited a concentration-dependent, reversible inhibition of bradykinin stimulation, with 0.01 M urea being the lowest effective concentration. By contrast, basal PGE2 synthesis was only reduced at a urea concentration greater than 0.6 M. Arachidonic acid-mediated increases in both PGE2 and PGF2 alpha synthesis were not prevented by 1.0 M urea. The latter suggests that neither PG endoperoxide synthetase nor PG endoperoxide E isomerase are inhibited by urea. The data indicate that different hypertonic solutions have different effects on basal PG production, but all inhibit bradykinin stimulation

  9. Combined effect of salt concentration and pressure gradients across charged membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, Juana; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2002-01-01

    The combined effect of both concentration and pressure differences on electrical potential (Deltaphi) for two ion-exchanger membranes, one positively charged (AE) and another negatively charged (CE), measured with the membranes in contact with NaCl solutions was studied. Results show a linear dep...

  10. Effect of NaCl induced floc disruption on biological disintegration of sludge for enhanced biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Kaliappan, S; Adish Kumar, S; Yeom, Ick Tae; Rajesh Banu, J

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the influence of NaCl mediated bacterial disintegration of waste activated sludge (WAS) was evaluated in terms of disintegration and biodegradability of WAS. Floc disruption was efficient at 0.03 g/g SS of NaCl, promoting the shifts of extracellular proteins and carbohydrates from inner layers to extractable--soluble layers (90 mg/L), respectively. Outcomes of sludge disintegration reveal that the maximum solubilization achieved was found to be 23%, respectively. The model elucidating the parameter evaluation, explicates that floc disrupted--bacterially disintegrated sludge (S3) showed superior biodegradability of about 0.23 (gCOD/gCOD) than the bacterially disintegrated (S2) and control (S3) sludges of about 0.13 (gCOD/gCOD) and 0.05 (gCOD/gCOD), respectively. Cost evaluation of the present study affords net profits of approximately 2.5 USD and -21.5 USD in S3 and S2 sludge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Corrosion control of copper in 3.5 wt.% NaCl Solution by Domperidone: Experimental and Theoretical Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dan; Xiang, Bin; Liang, Yuanpeng; Song, Shan; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Domperidone has good inhibition effect for copper in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. • Domperidone acts as an anodic type inhibitor. • The SEM and AFM analyses support the weight loss, polarization, and EIS data. • Molecular dynamics (MD) method simulates the adsorption model of domperidone on Cu surface. • The adsorption of domperidone on copper surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. - Abstract: Inhibition of copper corrosion in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by domperidone was investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results revealed that domperidone was an anodic inhibitor with a maximum achievable inhibition efficiency of 94.2%. The results of SEM and AFM studies further confirmed the inhibition action of domperidone. Quantum chemical calculation and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation showed that the domperidone molecule could be adsorbed on copper surface through the imidazolidinone ring, benzene ring and N atom of hexaheterocyclic. Adsorption of domperidone was found to follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm

  12. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed particles composed of NaCl and water-soluble organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water-soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray elemental microanalysis. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of sodium malonate and sodium glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles.

  13. Corrosion mechanism of Al, Al–Zn and Al–Zn–Sn alloys in 3 wt.% NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khireche, S.; Boughrara, D.; Kadri, A.; Hamadou, L.; Benbrahim, N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We elaborate Al–5Zn–xSn sacrificial anodes (x = 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4%). • Increasing Sn amount does activate Al alloys. • The anode dissolution in NaCl initiates at precipitations where Sn is enriched. • Sn enhances uniform attack on the surface of the Al alloy. • Al–Zn–Sn anodes perform better than the Al–Zn anode. - Abstract: The effect of zinc and tin addition to pure aluminum was investigated in 3 wt.% NaCl solution. The corrosion behavior of the elaborated samples (Al, Al–Zn and Al–Zn–Sn) was studied by open circuit potential, Tafel plot and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. For the microstructure characterization, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy were used. The aluminum activation increases in the following order: Al < Al–5Zn < Al–5Zn–0.1Sn < Al–5Zn–0.2Sn < Al–5Zn–0.4Sn. The impedance measurements and the microscopic observations confirmed the great activity of Al–Zn and Al–Zn–Sn compared to pure Al. The segregation at the grain boundaries leads to intergranular corrosion

  14. Inhibition effect of 4-amino-antipyrine on the corrosion of copper in 3 wt.% NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Song; Chen Wen; Luo Hongqun [Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li Nianbing, E-mail: linb@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4-Amino-antipyrine (AAP) has inhibition behaviour for copper corrosion in 3.0 wt.% NaCl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AAP acted as a mixed-type inhibitor with anodic predominance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption of AAP on the copper surface obeys the Langmuir isotherm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum chemical calculations were applied to explain the experimental results. - Abstract: The effect of 4-amino-antipyrine (AAP) on the corrosion of copper in 3.0 wt.% NaCl was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarisation, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results revealed that AAP acts as a mixed-type inhibitor with more pronounced effect on anodic domain and the inhibition efficiency decreases with increasing the temperature. The adsorption of AAP was found to obey the Langmuir isotherm. Surface characterisation was performed using scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Quantum chemical calculations show that AAP has large negative charge in nitrogen and oxygen atoms, which facilitates the adsorption of AAP on the copper surface.

  15. Influence of immersion freezing in NaCl solutions and of frozen storage on the viscoelastic behavior of mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribero, G G; Rubiolo, A C; Zorrilla, S E

    2007-06-01

    The freezing of Mozzarella cheese by immersion in NaCl solutions may be an innovative procedure for the dairy industry because it combines conveniently salting and freezing processes. In this work, the influence of this type of freezing method and of the frozen storage of samples on the viscoelastic behavior of Mozzarella cheese was studied. Slabs (2 x 10 x 10 cm(3)) were immersed in 23% w/w NaCl solutions (control samples: 4 degrees C, 90 min; frozen samples: -15 degrees C, 180 min). Half of the frozen samples were immediately thawed at 4 degrees C . The other half was stored at -20 degrees C for 2 mo and then was thawed at 4 degrees C (frozen-stored samples). Samples were stored at 4 degrees C and assayed at 1, 7, 14, 20, 27, 34, and 41 d. Rheological tests were carried out in oscillatory mode (parallel-plate geometry, diameter: 20 mm, gap: 1 mm, frequency: 1 Hz). Strain sweeps were run (0.001 immersion freezing of Mozzarella cheese affects some of the studied parameters, the differences observed between frozen and frozen-stored samples with control samples were small. Therefore, it was considered that the immersion freezing might be useful for the manufacture and commercialization of Mozzarella cheese.

  16. Luminescence properties of common salt (NaCl available in Nigeria for use as accident dosimeter in radiological emergency situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Ayobami Ademola

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a radiological accident or attack, it is important to assess and quantify radiation dose to the population. This could be done using materials in the vicinity that are sensitive to ionizing radiation. Common salt (NaCl is known to be a sensitive thermoluminescence (TL phosphor. Luminescence properties of common salt (NaCl used in Nigeria were investigated using an automated luminescence reader Risø TL/OSL-DA-15, with attention focused more on the Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL. Strong radiation-induced TL and OSL signals were observed. The TL peaks occurred at about 100 °C, 240 °C and 280 °C. The dose response of both the TL and OSL signals showed a linear relationship. From the OSL pulse anneal curve with TL curve, a preheat temperature of 190 °C for 10 s was found adequate for the OSL measurements. There was no significant difference in the OSL decay for stimulation temperatures of 100 and 120 °C. Fading experiment over a storage period of 14 days showed about 13 and 3% decrease in the OSL signal of sample 1 and sample 2, respectively. The ratios of measured to given dose for dose recovery test were within ±19% of unity. Within the limit of error the samples could be used as a complementary emergency dosimeter in radiological accident situation.

  17. Gene Transcription and Virulence Potential of Listeria monocytogenes Strains After Exposure to Acidic and NaCl Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Jespersen, Lene

    2009-01-01

    transcription were observed both after exposure to shock (six genes) and after long-term adaptation to stress (18 genes). In the shock experiments, a transient induction of clpC and clpE was seen for both strains, while transient induction of sigB, inlA, and inlB was observed for strain 4140 only; actA was only...... induced in EGD-e after NaCl shock. The longterm stress experiments were included to imitate the stress conditions encountered by L. monocytogenes when present in food products. Long-term adaptation of EGD-e to acidic stress induced transcription of iap and repressed flaA, while genes related to stress......Gene transcription and virulence potential of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes, EGD-e and 4140, were compared by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and in a Caco-2 in vitro model after exposure to acidic (pH 5.5) and NaCl (4.5% w=v) stress. Strain-dependent differences in gene...

  18. Influence of chloride ion concentration on the corrosion behavior of Al-bearing TRIP steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Taib Heakal, F.; Tantawy, N.S.; Shehta, O.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Systematic increase of chloride concentration has a critical influence on TRIP steel corrosion. → TRIP microalloyed with Nb and Cr showed lower corrosion rate and smaller threshold Cl - value. → Increasing Al content by 220 times in the TRIP deteriorates its corrosion behavior. → Impedance results and surface examinations confirmed the obtained results. - Abstract: The effect of a systematic increase of chloride ion concentration on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of two types of Al-bearing TRIP steels (T 1 and T 2 ) was studied in aqueous NaCl solutions. Several electrochemical techniques were used comprising open circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Chloride concentration has a critical influence on the corrosion rate of the two tested steel samples. For both steels the corrosion rate first increased with increasing chloride content up to a certain critical concentration (CC), and then decreased in solution with chloride level higher than the threshold value. TRIP steel T 1 microalloyed with Nb and Cr as compared to steel T 2 not containing these two elements, exhibited lower corrosion rate and smaller CC value, indicating better corrosion resistance to chloride attack, albeit the Al content in T 2 is 220 times higher than that in T 1 . This is because Nb alloyed with TRIP steel likely enhances the formation on the surface of a stable rust layer enriched with other passivating elements Al, Cu, Cr and Ni, which has higher corrosion resistance and hence improve greatly the passive performance of the TRIP sample. The ac impedance data are in good agreement with the OCP and dc polarization measurements. Surface examinations via scanning electron microscope confirmed well the obtained results.

  19. Influence of chloride ion concentration on the corrosion behavior of Al-bearing TRIP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Taib Heakal, F., E-mail: fakihaheakal@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Tantawy, N.S. [Chemistry Department, Girl' s College for Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Shehta, O.S. [Physical Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza (Egypt)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} Systematic increase of chloride concentration has a critical influence on TRIP steel corrosion. {yields} TRIP microalloyed with Nb and Cr showed lower corrosion rate and smaller threshold Cl{sup -} value. {yields} Increasing Al content by 220 times in the TRIP deteriorates its corrosion behavior. {yields} Impedance results and surface examinations confirmed the obtained results. - Abstract: The effect of a systematic increase of chloride ion concentration on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of two types of Al-bearing TRIP steels (T{sub 1} and T{sub 2}) was studied in aqueous NaCl solutions. Several electrochemical techniques were used comprising open circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Chloride concentration has a critical influence on the corrosion rate of the two tested steel samples. For both steels the corrosion rate first increased with increasing chloride content up to a certain critical concentration (CC), and then decreased in solution with chloride level higher than the threshold value. TRIP steel T{sub 1} microalloyed with Nb and Cr as compared to steel T{sub 2} not containing these two elements, exhibited lower corrosion rate and smaller CC value, indicating better corrosion resistance to chloride attack, albeit the Al content in T{sub 2} is 220 times higher than that in T{sub 1}. This is because Nb alloyed with TRIP steel likely enhances the formation on the surface of a stable rust layer enriched with other passivating elements Al, Cu, Cr and Ni, which has higher corrosion resistance and hence improve greatly the passive performance of the TRIP sample. The ac impedance data are in good agreement with the OCP and dc polarization measurements. Surface examinations via scanning electron microscope confirmed well the obtained results.

  20. The effect of temperature and concentration on the corrosion inhibition mechanism of an amphiphilic amido-amine in CO2 saturated solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desimone, M.P.; Gordillo, G.; Simison, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Behaviour of N-[2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]ethyl]-9-octadecenamide (AAOA) as CO 2 corrosion inhibitor. → The adsorption of the AAOA corrosion inhibitor obeys a Frumkin adsorption isotherm. → The inhibition efficiency of the AAOA depends on temperature and concentration. → There is a change in the adsorption mode of the inhibitor with concentration. → AAOA is mainly physi- or chemisorbed for low or high concentrations, respectively. - Abstract: The corrosion inhibition mechanism of the N-[2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]ethyl]-9-octadecenamide on mild steel surface in CO 2 -saturated 5% NaCl solution has been studied. The inhibition efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. Adsorption of the inhibitor studied is found to follow the Frumkin adsorption isotherm. EIS results show that the mechanism of its corrosion inhibition at concentrations higher than critical micelle concentration is by forming a protective porous bi-layer. The activation energy, thermodynamic parameters and electrochemical results reveal a change in the adsorption mode of the inhibitor studied: the inhibitor could primarily be physically adsorbed at low concentrations, while chemisorption is favoured as concentration increases.

  1. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and varying concentrations of sodium chloride in brine on the liquid retention of fish (Pollachius virens L.) muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsli, Magnus; Ofstad, Ragni; Böcker, Ulrike; Jessen, Flemming; Einen, Olai; Mørkøre, Turid

    2016-03-15

    Negative health effects associated with excessive sodium (Na) intake have increased the demand for tasty low-Na products (<2% NaCl) rather than traditional heavily salted fish products (∼20% NaCl). This study investigates the causes of improved yield and liquid retention of fish muscle brined with a combination of salt (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ). Water characteristics and microstructure of saithe (Pollachius virens L.) muscle brined in solutions of NaCl and NaHCO3 or NaCl alone were compared using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) T2 relaxometry, microscopy, salt content, liquid retention and colorimetric measurements. Saithe muscle was brined for 92 h in 0, 30, 60, 120 or 240 g kg(-1) NaCl or the respective solutions with added 7.5 g kg(-1) NaHCO3 . NaHCO3 inclusion improved the yield in solutions ranging from 0 to 120 g kg(-1) NaCl, with the most pronounced effect being observed at 30 g kg(-1) NaCl. The changes in yield were reflected in water mobility, with significantly shorter T2 relaxation times in all corresponding brine concentrations. Salt-dependent microstructural changes were revealed by light microscopy, where NaHCO3 supplementation resulted in greater intracellular space at 30 and 60 g kg(-1) NaCl. Sodium bicarbonate addition to low-salt solutions can improve yield and flesh quality of fish muscle owing to altered water mobility and wider space between the muscle cells. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Ownership concentration and bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Kitakogelu Ozili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether ownership concentration influences bank profitability in a developing country context. We focus on bank ownership concentration measured as the amount of direct equity held by a majority shareholder categorised into: high ownership concentration, moderate ownership concentration and disperse ownership. We find that banks with high ownership concentration have higher return on assets, higher net interest margin and higher recurring earning power while banks with dispersed ownership have lower return on assets but have higher return on equity. Also, higher cost efficiency improves the return on assets of widely-held banks and the return on equity of banks with moderate ownership. The findings have implications. JEL: Code: G3, G34, G31, Keywords: Corporate governance, Ownership structure, Agency theory, Profitability, Firm performance, Banks, Return on asset, Return on equity

  3. Elevated sodium chloride concentrations enhance the bystander effects induced by low dose alpha-particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Wei; Zhu Lingyan; Jiang Erkang; Wang Jun; Chen Shaopeng; Bao Linzhi; Zhao Ye; Xu An; Yu Zengliang [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu Lijun [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)], E-mail: ljw@ipp.ac.cn

    2007-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that high NaCl can be genotoxic, either alone or combined with irradiation. However, little is known about the relationship between environmental NaCl at elevated conditions and radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). RIBE, which has been considered as non-targeted bystander responses, has been demonstrated to occur widely in various cell lines. In the present study, RIBE under the elevated NaCl culture condition was assessed in AG 1522 cells by both the induction of {gamma}-H2AX, a reliable marker of DNA double-strand break (DSB) for the early process (<1 h post irradiation), and the generation of micronuclei (MN), a sensitive marker for relative long process of RIBE. Our results showed that in the absence of irradiation, NaCl at elevated concentration such as 8.0, 9.0 and 10.0 g/L did not significantly increase the frequency of {gamma}-H2AX foci-positive cells and the number of foci per positive cell comparing with that NaCl at a normal concentration (6.8 g/L). However, with 0.2 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiation, the induced fraction of {gamma}-H2AX foci-positive cells and the number of induced {gamma}-H2AX foci per positive cell were significantly increased in both irradiated and adjacent non-irradiated regions. Similarly, the induction of MN by 0.2 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiation also increased with the elevated NaCl concentrations. With N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, the induced fraction of foci-positive cells was effectively inhibited both in 0.2 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiated and adjacent non-irradiated regions under either normal or elevated NaCl conditions. These results suggested that the cultures with elevated NaCl medium magnified the damage effects induced by the low dose {alpha}-particle irradiation and nitric oxide generated by irradiation was also very important in this process.

  4. G eobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Dan; Call, Douglas; Wang, Aijie; Cheng, Shaoan; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Summary: An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G.sulfurreducensPCA and Geobacter metallireducensGS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290±29Am-3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189±44Am-3) or the type strains (<70Am-3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50mM PBS and 650mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158±4Am-3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50mM PBS (220±4Am-3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147±19Am-3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  5. G eobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Dan

    2014-07-16

    © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Summary: An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G.sulfurreducensPCA and Geobacter metallireducensGS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290±29Am-3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189±44Am-3) or the type strains (<70Am-3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50mM PBS and 650mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158±4Am-3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50mM PBS (220±4Am-3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147±19Am-3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  6. Yield, Quality, and Nutrient Concentrations of Strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. cv. 'Sonata') Grown with Different Organic Fertilizer Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Bhaniswor; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Petersen, Karen Koefoed

    2015-06-17

    Four combinations of two solid organic fertilizers (Monterra Malt and chicken manure) applied before planting and two liquid organic fertilizers (broad bean and Pioner Hi-Fruit/K-Max) given through drip irrigation (fertigation) were compared with inorganic fertilization regarding growth, yield, nutrient concentration, and fruit quality of strawberries. Broad bean fertigation combined with Monterra Malt resulted in a similar fruit yield as inorganic fertilizer and a higher yield than Monterra Malt combined with Pioner; however, total soluble solids, firmness, and titratable acid were improved with Pioner fertigation, although these parameters were more affected by harvest time than the applied fertilizers. The concentrations of most nutrients in fruits and leaves were higher in inorganically fertigated plants. The reductions in fruit yield in three of four treatments and fruit weight in all organic treatments may be due to a combination of the following conditions in the root zone: (1) high pH and high NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio; (2) high EC and/or high NaCl concentration; (3) cation imbalance; and (4) nutrient deficiency.

  7. Molecular dynamics study of interfacial confinement effects of aqueous NaCl brines in nanoporous carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wander, M. C. F.; Shuford, K. L.

    2010-12-09

    In this paper, studies of aqueous electrolyte solutions in contact with a family of porous carbon geometries using classical molecular dynamics simulations are presented. These simulations provide an atomic scale depiction of ion transport dynamics in different environments to elucidate power of aqueous electrolyte supercapacitors. The electrolyte contains alkali metal and halide ions, which allow for the examination of size trends within specific geometries as well as trends in concentration. The electrode pores are modeled as planar graphite sheets and carbon nanotubes with interstices ranging from one to four nanometers. Ordered layers form parallel to the carbon surface, which facilitates focused ion motion under slightly confining conditions. As a result, the ion’s diffusivities are enhanced in the direction of the slit or pore. Further confining the system leads to decreased ion diffusivities. The ions are fully hydrated in all but the smallest slits and pores with those sizes showing increased ion pairing. There is strong evidence of charge separation perpendicular to the surface at all size scales, concentrations, and ion types, providing a useful baseline for examining differential capacitance behavior and future studies on energy storage. These systems show promise as high-power electrical energy storage devices.

  8. The chemistry of Pu in concentrated aqueous NaCl solution: Effects of alpha self-radiolysis and the interaction between hypochlorite and dioxoplutonium(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashalidis, I. (Inst. fuer Radiochemie, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany)); Kim, J.I. (Inst. fuer Radiochemie, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany) Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgungstechnik, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)); Lierse, C. (Inst. fuer Radiochemie, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany)); Sullivan, J.C. (Chemistry Div., Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The reactions between dioxoplutonium(VI) and hypochlorite in aqueous solution produce the species PuO[sub 2](OH)(ClO) and PuO[sub 2](ClO)[sub 2]. The results of spectrophotometric observations are presented and the data used to calculate values of log K=14.0 at pH=6.7 and 14.5 at pH=8.4 for the former complex and a value of 10.3 for the latter. The possible participation of 6d orbitals in these reactions is noted. (orig.)

  9. Inhibition of Nitrate Reduction by NaCl Adsorption on a Nano-Zero-Valent Iron Surface during a Concentrate Treatment for Water Reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Yuhoon; Kim, Dogun; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) has been considered as a possible material to treat water and wastewater. However, it is necessary to verify the effect of the matrix components in different types of target water. In this study, different effects depending on the sodium chloride (Na...

  10. Glomus etunicatum root inoculation and foliar application of acetyl salicylic acid induced nacl tolerance by regulation of nacl and lenhx1 gene expression and improved photosynthetic performance in tomato seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazanfar, B.; Chihui, C.; Liu, H.; Ahmad, I.; Khan, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Salinity stress hampers plant growth and cause significant yield losses thus induction of salinity stress tolerance in crop plants is one of major goals of agriculture research. Arbuscular mycorhizae fungi Glomus etunicatum and acetyl salicylic acid were tested for induction of NaCl stress tolerance in tomato seedlings, cultivar No. 4. The seedlings were inoculated with Glomus etunicatum and exogenously sprayed with acetyl salicylic acid (0.30 mM) followed by salinity stress (150 mM). It was observed that both Glomus etunicatum and acetyl salicylic acid (singly or in combination) were significantly effective to minimize the injurious effects of salinity by improving root morphological parameters (length, diameter, surface area, volume and number of tips, nodes, bifurcations and connections), photosynthetic parameters (net photosynthesis Pn, stomatal conductance Gs) and chlorophyll contents compared to sole salinity treatment. The bio-inoculant Glomus etunicatum and chemical ameliorator acetyl salicylic acid also notably improved vegetative (fresh and dry weights) and reproductive growth (percent seedlings with flower buds and opened flowers, number of flower buds and opened flowers per seedling) of the plants as compared to the sole salinity treatment. The studied salt responsive genes (LeNHX1 and NaCl) were also regulated to different extents in seedling roots and leaves which was consistent with enhanced salinity stress tolerance. From these observations it is suggested that the individual or synergetic use of the AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and acetyl salicylic acid can be useful for tomato cultivation in the marginally salinity effected soils and warrants further investigations. (author)

  11. Effective Phytoextraction of Cadmium (Cd) with Increasing Concentration of Total Phenolics and Free Proline in Cannabis sativa (L) Plant Under Various Treatments of Fertilizers, Plant Growth Regulators and Sodium Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ayaz; Hadi, Fazal; Ali, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The comparative effect of fertilizers (NPK), plant growth regulators (GA3, IAA, Zeatin) and sodium chloride (NaCl) on Cd phytoaccumulation, proline and phenolics production in Cannabis sativa was evaluated. Proline and phenolices were correlated with Cd contents in plant. Cd significantly reduced the plant growth. Fertilizers application (in combination) most significantly increased the growth (19 cm root and 47 cm shoot) on Cd contaminated soil. All treatments increased the Cd contents in plant tissues. This increase was highly significant in fertilizers treated plants (1101, 121 and 544 ppm in roots, stem and leaves respectively). Significantly positive correlation was found between Cd concentration and dry biomass of root (R2=0.7511) and leaves (R2=0.5524). All treatments significantly increased the proline and total phenolics and maximum was recorded in NaCl treated plants followed by fertilizers. Proline was higher in roots while phenolics in leaves. The correlation between proline and phenolics was positive in leaf (R2=0.8439) and root (R2=0.5191). Proline and phenolics showed positive correlation with Cd concentration in plant. Conclusively, fertilizers in combination seem to be the better option for Cd phytoextraction. Further investigation is suggested to study the role of phenolics and proline in Cd phytoextraction.

  12. Effect of the partial NaCl substitution by other chloride salts on the volatile profile during the ripening of dry-cured lacón

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, R.; Munekata, P.E.; Cittadini, A.; Lorenzo, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    The influence of three salting treatments (treatment II: 50% NaCl-50% KCl; III: 45% NaCl-25% KCl-20% CaCl2-10% MgCl2; IV: 30% NaCl-50% KCl-15% CaCl2-5% MgCl2) on the formation of volatile compounds throughout the process was studied and compared to those of a control “lacón” (treatment I: 100% NaCl). There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing, particularly during the dry-ripening stage. The most abundant chemical family in all the formulations, in the final product was hydrocarbons followed by aldehydes. The total volatile compound release was more intense in the control “lacóns” (1164 AU×106 ·g–1dry matter) than in “lacóns” from formulations II, III and IV (817–891 AU×106 ·g−1dry matter). The “lacóns” from formulation I showed the highest amounts of aldehydes. The “lacóns” from formulations I and II presented the highest amounts of hydrocarbons. The main conclusion is that the replacement of NaCl produces changes in the volatile profile and could be affect the aroma of “lacón”. (Author)

  13. Assessing Cyberbullying in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This project aims to expose information educators to various aspects of cyberbullying for the purpose of policy development in an environment of higher education. The preponderance of nation-wide research on cyberbullying is concentrated on adolescents; such efforts in college campuses are limited to individual endeavors. Cyberbullying research on…

  14. Photovoltaic static concentrator analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, G.; Luque, A.; Molledo, A. G.

    1984-12-01

    Ray tracing is the basis of the present analysis of truncated bifacial compound parabolic concentrators filled with a dielectric substance, which are of interest in photovoltaic applications where the bifacial cells allow higher static concentrations to be achieved. Among the figures of merit for this type of concentrator, the directional intercept factor plays a major role and is defined as the ratio of the power of the collector to that at the entry aperture, in a lossless concentrator illuminated by light arriving from a given direction. A procedure for measuring outdoor, full size panels has been developed, and a correction method for avoiding the effect of unwanted diffuse radiation during the measurements is presented.

  15. Porphyrins as Corrosion Inhibitors for N80 Steel in 3.5% NaCl Solution: Electrochemical, Quantum Chemical, QSAR and Monte Carlo Simulations Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of the corrosion of N80 steel in 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution saturated with CO2 by four porphyrins, namely 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin (HPTB, 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl-21H,23H-porphyrin (T4PP, 4,4′,4″,4‴-(porphyrin-5,10,15,20-tetrayltetrakis(benzoic acid (THP and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin (TPP was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, potentiodynamic polarization, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency, η% increases with increasing concentration of the inhibitors. The EIS results revealed that the N80 steel surface with adsorbed porphyrins exhibited non-ideal capacitive behaviour with reduced charge transfer activity. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements indicated that the studied porphyrins acted as mixed type inhibitors. The SECM results confirmed the adsorption of the porphyrins on N80 steel thereby forming a relatively insulated surface. The SEM also confirmed the formation of protective films of the porphyrins on N80 steel surface thereby protecting the surface from direct acid attack. Quantum chemical calculations, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR were also carried out on the studied porphyrins and the results showed that the corrosion inhibition performances of the porphyrins could be related to their EHOMO, ELUMO, ω, and μ values. Monte Carlo simulation studies showed that THP has the highest adsorption energy, while T4PP has the least adsorption energy in agreement with the values of σ from quantum chemical calculations.

  16. Effect of substrate temperature on corrosion performance of nitrogen doped amorphous carbon thin films in NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khun, N.W. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liu, E., E-mail: MEJLiu@ntu.edu.s [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2009-07-01

    Nitrogen doped amorphous carbon (a-C:N) thin films were deposited on p-Si substrates by DC magnetron sputtering at varying substrate temperature from room temperature (RT) to 300 {sup o}C. The bonding structure, surface morphology and adhesion strength of the a-C:N films were investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-scratch testing. The corrosion behavior of the a-C:N films was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization test in a 0.6 M NaCl solution. The results indicated that the corrosion resistance of the films depended on the sp{sup 3}-bonded cross-link structure that was significantly affected by the substrate temperature.

  17. Corrosion behavior of aluminum doped diamond-like carbon thin films in NaCl aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, N W; Liu, E

    2010-07-01

    Aluminum doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:Al) thin films were deposited on n-Si(100) substrates by co-sputtering a graphite target under a fixed DC power (650 W) and an aluminum target under varying DC power (10-90 W) at room temperature. The structure, adhesion strength and surface morphology of the DLC:Al films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-scratch testing and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The corrosion performance of the DLC:Al films was investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization testing in a 0.6 M NaCl aqueous solution. The results showed that the polarization resistance of the DLC:Al films increased from about 18 to 30.7 k(omega) though the corrosion potentials of the films shifted to more negative values with increased Al content in the films.

  18. Effect of substrate temperature on corrosion performance of nitrogen doped amorphous carbon thin films in NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, N.W.; Liu, E.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen doped amorphous carbon (a-C:N) thin films were deposited on p-Si substrates by DC magnetron sputtering at varying substrate temperature from room temperature (RT) to 300 o C. The bonding structure, surface morphology and adhesion strength of the a-C:N films were investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-scratch testing. The corrosion behavior of the a-C:N films was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization test in a 0.6 M NaCl solution. The results indicated that the corrosion resistance of the films depended on the sp 3 -bonded cross-link structure that was significantly affected by the substrate temperature.

  19. Slow positron beam study of corrosion behavior of AM60B magnesium alloy in NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.; Zhu, Z.J.; Wang, J.J.; Wu, Y.C.; Zhai, T.; Song, G.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Positron annihilation is a sensitive tool to characterize the corrosion layer. • The interfacial voids promoted the formation of Mg(OH) 2 corrosion layer. • Mg(OH) 2 precipitated during early corrosion stage provided a temporary protection. - Abstract: The corrosion behavior of super vacuum die-cast AM60B magnesium alloys immersed in a 5 wt% NaCl solution was investigated by slow positron beam technique, XRD, XPS, SEM and potentiodynamic polarization tests. The XRD and XPS results indicated that Mg(OH) 2 was main corrosion product in the salt solution. With prolonging the immersion time, a significant decrease of Doppler-broadened annihilation line-width parameter near the surface after corrosion was observed and interpreted that the pre-existing interfacial voids between oxide film and matrix might promote the formation of Mg(OH) 2 corrosion layer. Polarization tests found that Mg(OH) 2 could provide a temporary protection.

  20. KANDUNGAN NATRIUM (Na DAN GARAM (NaCl DALAM IKAN ASIN KERING MENTAH DAN GORENG DI PASAR ANYAR BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Yuniati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui kandungan natrium (Na dan garam (NaCl dalam 10 jenis ikan asin kering yang beredar di Pasar Anyar Bogor. Analisis natrium dilakukan terhadap ikan asin mentah, setelah dicuci, dan setelah digoreng dengan menggunakan flamefometer. Analisis garam dilakukan dengan titrasi argentometri terhadap ikan asin mentah. Hasil analisis menunjukkan, kandungan Na dan garam dalam ikan asin sangat beragam besarnya berturut-turut berkisar antara 0,3-8,1% dan 5,7-21,2%. Ikan asin yang mempunyai kadar Na dan garam tinggi adalah ikan sepat, peda putih dan gabus. Jumlah air dalam ikan asin juga bervariasi, berkisar antara 10,3-46,8%. pencucian dan penggorengan dapat menurunkan kadar garam ataupun natrium sebesar 37,4%.

  1. Re-evaluation of the fludrocortisone test: duration, NaCl supplementation and cut-off limits for aldosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Christina; Bergenfelz, Anders; Larsson, Johanna; Nerbrand, Christina; Valdemarsson, Stig; Wihl, Anders; Isaksson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of secondary hypertension. Thus, the aims of this study were: (1) to clarify whether the fludrocortisone suppression test (FST), which confirms autonomous aldosterone secretion, is reliable when carried out during a shorter period of time and (2) to confirm the importance of NaCl supplementation. The cut-off limits already obtained for aldosterone in healthy subjects during the FST were applied in hypertensive patients with a high aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR). The healthy subjects were allocated to three groups. Fludrocortisone was administered 4 times daily over 4 days and sodium chloride was supplemented in 3 different doses. The result was applied in 24 hypertensive patients, in 24 healthy subjects (10 women (23-38 years old) and 14 men (23-58 years old)) and in 24 patients with hypertension and high ARR (16 women (45-74 years old) and 8 men (56-73 years old)). Blood pressure, aldosterone, renin, potassium and sodium were measured. After three days of FST, there was a significant decrease in the serum level of aldosterone in the healthy subjects, regardless of high or low sodium chloride supplementation (p<0.001). The decrease in serum aldosterone was significantly less pronounced in patients with PA than in healthy subjects and hypertensive patients without PA (p<0.001). The 95th percentile of plasma aldosterone at the end of the test was 225 pmol/L. The FST can be shortened to 3 days and a daily 500 mg NaCl supplementation is sufficient. A cut-off value for aldosterone of 225 pmol/L after 4 days with FST is appropriate.

  2. Variables affecting the acceptability of radappertized ground beef products. Effects of food grade phosphates, NaCl, fat level, and grinding methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.S.; Shults, G.W.; Mason, V.C.; Wierbicki, E.

    1977-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effect of different variables on the quality of an irradiated ground beef product. Factors studied included: different food-grade phosphates; NaCl content; fat content; and size of grind. The influence of these variables on the cooking loss (moisture retention), shear press values and sensory scores was studied. The addition of phosphates and NaCl was desirable in controlling cooking losses. The most effective phosphate was tetrasodium pyrophosphate. The addition of NaCl decreased the shear press force required to penetrate the beef patty, i.e., it tenderized the product. Phosphate addition did not affect the shear press force. Increased fat content increased the cooking losses, but did not affect the shear press force. Irradiation with sterilizing doses had a marked effect on decreasing the shear press force

  3. Composite coatings of titanium-aluminum nitride for steel against corrosion induced by solid NaCl deposit and water vapor at 600 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Li

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite coatings (Ti,AlN with different Al content were deposited on a wrought martensite steel 1Cr11Ni2W2MoV by reactive multi-arc ion plating. With the addition of Al to the coatings, the crystallographic structure of them changed from B1 NaCl to B4 ZnS, the relevant hardness and adhesive strength firstly increased then decreased and their oxidation-resistance was also dramatically improved. It was indicated that the introduction of Al was beneficial to (Ti,AlN coatings against corrosion induced by NaCl(s in wet oxygen at 600 °C as well as wet corrosion in NaCl solution at ambient temperature.

  4. Exogenous proline relieves growth inhibition caused by NaCl in petunia cells: Metabolism of L-[15M]-proline followed by 15N NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyser, J.W.; Chacon, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Exogenous proline stimulated the growth of Petunia hybrida cells on 195 mM NaCl 10-fold as compared with cells grown on 195 mM CaCl medium minus proline. L-[ 15 N]-proline was fed to cells growing on 0 and 195 mM CaCl, and its metabolism was followed by 15 N NMR analysis of cell extracts. Total proline and amino acids were determined by ninhydrin assay. Proline and primary amino acids were easily resolved in NMR spectra and the amount of 15 N-label which remained in proline was determined. Reduced catabolism of proline in cells grown on NaCl was evident. The role of exogenous proline in conferring increased NaCl tolerance in this nonhalophyte will be discussed

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis (Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate) survival under combinations of pH and NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis (Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate; potential bioterrorism agent) survival under different levels of NaCl and pH. B. thailandensis in Luria Bertani broth supplemented with NaCl (0-3%), and pH-adjusted to 4-7 was treated with gamma irradiation (0-0.5 kGy). Surviving cell counts of bacteria were then enumerated on tryptic soy agar. Data for the cell counts were also used to calculate D 10 values (the dose required to reduce 1 log CFU/mL of B. thailandensis). Cell counts of B. thailandensis were decreased (P 10 values ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 kGy, regardless of NaCl and pH level. These results indicate that low doses of gamma irradiation should be a useful treatment in decreasing the potential bioterrorism bacteria, which may possibly infect humans through foods.

  6. HIGH-RESOLUTION ROTATIONAL SPECTRUM, DUNHAM COEFFICIENTS, AND POTENTIAL ENERGY FUNCTION OF NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabezas, C.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J. L.; Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Agundez, M.; Prieto, L. Velilla; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Zuñiga, J.; Bastida, A.; Requena, A.

    2016-01-01

    We report laboratory spectroscopy for the first time of the J = 1–0 and J = 2–1 lines of Na 35 Cl and Na 37 Cl in several vibrational states. The hyperfine structure has been resolved in both transitions for all vibrational levels, which permit us to predict with high accuracy the hyperfine splitting of the rotational transitions of the two isotopologues at higher frequencies. The new data have been merged with all previous works at microwave, millimeter, and infrared wavelengths and fitted to a series of mass-independent Dunham parameters and to a potential energy function. The obtained parameters have been used to compute a new dipole moment function, from which the dipole moment for infrared transitions up to Δ v = 8 has been derived. Frequency and intensity predictions are provided for all rovibrational transitions up to J = 150 and v = 8, from which the ALMA data of evolved stars can be modeled and interpreted.

  7. HIGH-RESOLUTION ROTATIONAL SPECTRUM, DUNHAM COEFFICIENTS, AND POTENTIAL ENERGY FUNCTION OF NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas, C.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J. L. [Grupo de Espectroscopía Molecular, Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopía y Bioespectroscopía, Unidad asociada CSIC, Parque científico Uva, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belén 5, E-47011, Valladolid (Spain); Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Agundez, M.; Prieto, L. Velilla [Group of Molecular Astrophysics, ICMM, CSIC. C/Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Castro-Carrizo, A. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la la Piscine, F-38406, Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Zuñiga, J.; Bastida, A.; Requena, A. [Universidad de Murcia. Faculdad de Química, Dpto. de Química-Física, Campus Espinardo E-30100, Murcia (Spain)

    2016-07-10

    We report laboratory spectroscopy for the first time of the J = 1–0 and J = 2–1 lines of Na{sup 35}Cl and Na{sup 37}Cl in several vibrational states. The hyperfine structure has been resolved in both transitions for all vibrational levels, which permit us to predict with high accuracy the hyperfine splitting of the rotational transitions of the two isotopologues at higher frequencies. The new data have been merged with all previous works at microwave, millimeter, and infrared wavelengths and fitted to a series of mass-independent Dunham parameters and to a potential energy function. The obtained parameters have been used to compute a new dipole moment function, from which the dipole moment for infrared transitions up to Δ v = 8 has been derived. Frequency and intensity predictions are provided for all rovibrational transitions up to J = 150 and v = 8, from which the ALMA data of evolved stars can be modeled and interpreted.

  8. The scid mutation does not affect slowly repairing potentially lethal damage that is sensitive to 0.23 M NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Ikebuchi, Makoto; Fushiki, Masato; Komatsu, Kenshi.

    1996-01-01

    The repair of slowly repairing potentially lethal damage (PLD) in radiosensitive cells from the severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mouse was compared with that in Balb/c 3T3 cells with ''wild-type'' radiosensitivity and that in RD13B2 cells derived from scid cells whose sensitivity is normal because of the presence of fragments of human chromosome 8. Treatment with 0.23 M NaCl was used for fixation of slowly repairing PLD. The scid cells repaired PLD sensitive to 0.23 M NaCl to a great extent whin 3-4 h, similarly to Balb/c 3T3 and RD13B2 cells. This indicates that the scid mutation hardly affects the repair of PLD sensitive to 0.23 M NaCl. On the other hand, as reported previously, the rapidly repairing PLD that is sensitive to 0.5 M NaCl was repaired only slowly (3-4 h) in scid cells, in contrast to the rapid repair (within 1 h) seen with Balb/c 3T3 and RD13B2. This suggests that scid mutation is responsible for this repair at reduced rate. To confirm the independence of repair of 0.23 M NaCl-sensitive PLD from that of 0.5 M NaCl-sensitive PLD, both treatments with 0.23 M NaCl and 0.5 M NaCl were combined in each line. It is found that the repair of either PLD was not affected by the other treatment. The scid mutation impaired only the repair of 0.5 M NaCl-sensitive PLD. (author)

  9. Structure of formations on the NaCl monocrystal surface following simultaneous irradiation of it by hydrocarbon molecule flow and Ne/sup +/ ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derevyanchenko, A S; Palatnik, L S; Martynov, I S; Seryugin, A L; Gritsyna, V V; Koval' , A G; Kiyan, T S; Fogel' , Ya M [Khar' kovskii Gosudarstvennyi Univ. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1975-07-01

    The structure of a film growing on the surface of NaCl crystal with a simultaneous irradiation of the film with molecules of hydrocarbons and Ne ions has been investigated. At the first stage of formation the film has a net structure of graphite with an abnormally large internet distance. At the subsequent stage of growing hollow spherulites are formed in the film, their walls having the structure of the third phase of carbon - carbine and dendrites - crystals with the structure of NaCl forming inside of the growing film.

  10. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT K2 HPO4, NaCl LEVELS AND TWO DIFFERENT TEMPARATURES ON SOME EMULSION PROPERTIES OF GOAT MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARAKAYA

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Different levels of K2 HPO4 (0.00 %, 0.25 % and 0.50 % and NaCl (2.5 % and 3.0 % were added into goat meat, at the two different temperatures (11o C and 18o C in order to investigate the emulsion properties in the model emulsion system. Emulsion capacity (EK, emulsion viscocity (EV, emulsion stability ratio (ES, the ratio of separated water (ESO and oil (EYO ratio from the emulsion, and the emulsion pH were determined. K2 HPO4 and NaCl levels and the oil temperatures have significant effect (p

  11. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT K2 HPO4, NaCl LEVELS AND TWO DIFFERENT TEMPARATURES ON SOME EMULSION PROPERTIES OF GOAT MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa KARAKAYA; Hüsnü Yusuf GÖKALP; Ramazan BAYRAK

    1996-01-01

    Different levels of K2 HPO4 (0.00 %, 0.25 % and 0.50 %) and NaCl (2.5 % and 3.0 %) were added into goat meat, at the two different temperatures (11o C and 18o C) in order to investigate the emulsion properties in the model emulsion system. Emulsion capacity (EK), emulsion viscocity (EV), emulsion stability ratio (ES), the ratio of separated water (ESO) and oil (EYO) ratio from the emulsion, and the emulsion pH were determined. K2 HPO4 and NaCl levels and the oil temperatures have significant ...

  12. Effect of NaCl induced salinity on some physiological and agronomic traits of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilkis, A.; Islam, M.H.R.; Hasan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat genotypes were evaluated for salt stress at early seedling stage (solution culture) and maturity (pot culture) at Crop Physiology and Ecology Laboratory, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh. Shoot length, root length, root to shoot length ratio and seedling dry weight of 15 days old seedlings were found to be reduced at 12 dS m-1 salinity level compared to control condition. Based on seedling dry weight Shatabdi, BARI Gom 25, BARI Gom 26, BAW 1111, BAW 1146, BAW 1154 and BAW 1156 were identified as salt tolerant (STI = >0.70); BAW 1130, BAW 1135 and BAW 1142 were salt sensitive (STI = <0.60) and other ten were screened as moderately salt tolerant (STI = 0.60 to 0.70) wheat genotypes. Out of twenty genotypes, two salt tolerant (Shatabdi and BARI Gom 25) and two salt sensitive (BAW 1130 and BAW 1142) wheat genotypes were grown in pot irrigated with three levels of saline water (control, 6 dS m/sup -1/ and 12 dS m/sup -1/). Salt tolerant wheat genotypes maintained lower level of leaf Na, higher level of leaf K, greater K to Na ratio, increased level of flag leaf proline and greater flag leaf SPAD value in saline condition than the sensitive ones. Salt sensitive genotypes affected more in spikes plant-1, grains spike/sup -1/, grain dry weight spike-1, 100 grain weight and grain yield plant-1 under saline condition than salt tolerant genotypes. (author)

  13. Freezing of Apheresis Platelet Concentrates in 6% Dimethyl Sulfoxide: The First Preliminary Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yılmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Transfusion of platelet suspensions is an essential part of patient care for certain clinical indications. In this pioneering study in Turkey, we aimed to assess the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods: Seven units of platelet concentrates were obtained by apheresis. Each apheresis platelet concentrate (APC was divided into 2 equal volumes and frozen with 6% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. The 14 frozen units of APCs were kept at -80 °C for 1 day. APCs were thawed at 37 °C and diluted either with autologous plasma or 0.9% NaCl. The volume and residual numbers of leukocytes and platelets were tested in both before-freezing and post-thawing periods. Aggregation and thrombin generation tests were used to analyze the in vitro hemostatic functions of platelets. Flow-cytometric analysis was used to assess the presence of frozen treated platelets and their viability. Results: The residual number of leukocytes in both dilution groups was <1x106. The mean platelet recovery rate in the plasma-diluted group (88.1±9.5% was higher than that in the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (63±10%. These results were compatible with the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines quality criteria. Expectedly, there was no aggregation response to platelet aggregation test. The mean thrombin generation potential of postthaw APCs was higher in the plasma-diluted group (2411 nmol/L per minute when compared to both the 0.9% NaCl-diluted group (1913 nmol/L per minute and the before-freezing period (1681 nmol/L per minute. The flowcytometric analysis results for the viability of APCs after cryopreservation were 94.9% and 96.6% in the plasma and 0.9% NaCl groups, respectively. Conclusion: Cryopreservation of platelets with 6% DMSO and storage at -80 °C increases their shelf life from 7 days to 2 years. Besides the increase in hemostatic functions of platelets, the cryopreservation process also does not affect their

  14. The hydrolysis and precipitation of Pd(II) in 0.6 mol kg-1 NaCl: A potentiometric, spectrophotometric, and EXAFS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boily, Jean-Francois F.; Seward, Terry M.; Charnock, John M.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrolysis of palladium was investigated in 0.6 mol kg -1 NaCl at 298.2 K. Potentiometric titrations of solutions at various total concentrations of palladium(II) revealed that dilute (millimolar) conditions can be used to monitor the proton release due to hydrolysis reactions up to 2 protons per palladium(II) as long as the equilibration time is kept small. Spectrophotometric titrations were used to corroborate the homogeneous changes in speciation for the PdCl 3 OH 2- species and to extract its correlative molar absorption coefficients in the 210-320 nm range. The molar absorption coefficients are similar to those of PdCl42- but exhibit a broader distribution of excitation energies resulting from the blue shift of the dominant charge transfer bands due to the presence of OH-. The longer-term potentiometric titrations systematically yielded, on the other hand, precipitates which matured over a period of 6 weeks and resulted in a more extensive release of protons to the solution. Precipitation experiments at six different total palladium(II) concentrations in the 3-11 pH range showed the dominant precipitating phase as Pd(OH)1.72Cl0.28. The coordination environment of Pd in this solid was investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and yielded an average 1.75 O and 0.25 Cl per Pd atoms with a Pd-O distance of 2.0 (angstrom) and Pd-Cl of 2.1 (angstrom). Finally, the precipitation experiments showed the final products to be of larger solubility than a literature Pd(OH)2 solubility study in which the KCl media induced a solid phase transformation to Pd(OH)1.72Cl0.28. Polynuclear complexes Pdq(OH)r2q-r with q=r=[3,9] explain the combined precipitation and hydrolysis data and may represent subsets of [Pd(OH)2]n and/or [Pd(OH)1.72Cl0.28]n chains coiled into nanometer-sized spheroids previously described in the literature

  15. Thin-source concentration dependent diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, G.

    1978-01-01

    The diffusion of (Ca ++ ) in NaCl has been measured for various diffusion times and for the temperature range (575 0 to 775 0 C), using a thin-source of 45 Ca tracer, rectangular geometry, and serial sectioning. The pre-diffusion surface concentration was approximately 3 x 10 16 (Ca)-atoms/cm 2 , which, for an average penetration depth of 100 to 300 μm, produces a maximum (post-diffusion) impurity concentration comparable to or greater than the intrinsic cation vacancy concentration. The high-temperature function closely matches the D 0 (T) function obtained from low impurity concentration experiments. The lower-temperature function, combined with the sudden failure of the D(C) = D 0 (1 + [C] + 0.5[C] 2 ) function at these lower temperatures, indicates the onset of a second diffusion process, one which would operate only at extremely high impurity concentrations. This low-temperature behavior is shown to be consistent with a breakdown of the conditions assumed for vacancy equilibrium

  16. Limiting nutrient emission from a cut rose closed system by high-flux irrigation and low nutrient concentrations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, R.; Berg, van der D.

    2004-01-01

    A two-year project was aimed at decreasing nutrient emission from closed nutrient systems by using high irrigation rates in order to allow lower EC levels in the presence of accumulated Na and Cl. Experimental variables were growing media, irrigation frequencies, EC and NaCl concentrations for cut

  17. Effect of sodium chloride concentration on elemental analysis of brines by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goueguel, Christian; Singh, Jagdish P; McIntyre, Dustin L; Jain, Jinesh; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2014-01-01

    Leakage of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) or resident fluids, such as brine, is a major concern associated with the injection of large volumes of CO2 into deep saline formations. Migration of brine could contaminate drinking water resources by increasing their salinity or endanger vegetation and animal life as well as human health. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the detection of calcium and potassium in brine samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The ultimate goals were to determine the suitability of the LIBS technique for in situ measurements of metal ion concentrations in NaCl-rich solution and to develop a chemical sensor that can provide the early detection of brine intrusion into formations used for domestic or agricultural water production. Several brine samples of NaCl-CaCl2 and NaCl-KCl were prepared at NaCl concentrations between 0.0 and 3.0 M. The effect of NaCl concentration on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for calcium (422.67 nm) and potassium (769.49 nm) emission lines was evaluated. Results show that, for a delay time of 300 ns and a gate width of 3 μs, the presence of and changes in NaCl concentration significantly affect the SBR and SNR for both emission lines. An increase in NaCl concentration from 0.0 to 3.0 M produced an increase in the SNR, whereas the SBR dropped continuously. The detection limits obtained for both elements were in the milligrams per liter range, suggesting that a NaCl-rich solution does not severely limit the ability of LIBS to detect trace amount of metal ions.

  18. The effect of fatty acid surfactants on the uptake of nitric acid to deliquesced NaCl aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ammann

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface active organic compounds have been observed in marine boundary layer aerosol. Here, we investigate the effect such surfactants have on the uptake of nitric acid (HNO3, an important removal reaction of nitrogen oxides in the marine boundary layer. The uptake of gaseous HNO3 on deliquesced NaCl aerosol was measured in a flow reactor using HNO3 labelled with the short-lived radioactive isotope 13N. The uptake coefficient γ on pure deliquesced NaCl aerosol was γ=0.5±0.2 at 60% relative humidity and 30 ppb HNO3(g. The uptake coefficient was reduced by a factor of 5–50 when the aerosol was coated with saturated linear fatty acids with carbon chain lengths of 18 and 15 atoms in monolayer quantities. In contrast, neither shorter saturated linear fatty acids with 12 and 9 carbon atoms, nor coatings with the unsaturated oleic acid (C18, cis-double bond had a detectable effect on the rate of HNO3 uptake. It is concluded that it is the structure of the monolayers formed, which determines their resistance towards HNO3 uptake. Fatty acids (C18 and C15, which form a highly ordered film in the so-called liquid condensed state, represent a significant barrier towards HNO3 uptake, while monolayers of shorter-chain fatty acids (C9, C12 and of the unsaturated oleic acid form a less ordered film in the liquid expanded state and do not hinder the uptake. Similarly, high contents of humic acids in the aerosol, a structurally inhomogeneous, quite water soluble mixture of oxidised high molecular weight organic compounds did not affect HNO3 uptake. As surfactant films on naturally occurring aerosol are expected to be less structured due to their chemical inhomogeneity, it is likely that their inhibitory effect on HNO3 uptake is smaller than that observed here for the C15 and C18 fatty acid monolayers.

  19. Surface diffusivity of cleaved NaCl crystals as a function of humidity: Impedance spectroscopy measurements and implications for crack healing in rock salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelemeijer, P.J.; Peach, C.J.; Spiers, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Rock salt offers an attractive host rock for geological storage applications, because of its naturally low permeability and the ability of excavation-induced cracks to heal by fluid-assisted diffusive mass transfer. However, while diffusive transport rates in bulk NaCl solution are rapid and well

  20. Salt exclusion and mycorrhizal symbiosis increase tolerance to NaCl and CaCl2 salinity in ‘Siam Queen’ basil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on growth and nutrient uptake in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Plants were fertilized with a complete nutrient solution and exposed to no, low, or moderate levels of salinity from NaCl or CaCl2. Plants in the control and moderate salinity tre...

  1. Applicability of iron phosphate glass medium for loading NaCl originated from seawater used for cooling the stricken power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amamoto, Ippei; Kobayashi, Hidekazu; Yokozawa, Takuma; Yamashita, Teruo; Nagai, Takayuki; Kitamura, Naoto; Takebe, Hiromichi; Mitamura, Naoki; Tsuzuki, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    As the part of investigation for immobilization of the sludge as one of the radioactive wastes arising from the treatment of contaminated water at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, applicability of vitrification method has been evaluated as a candidate technique. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of NaCl as one of the main constituents of sludge, on glass formation and glass properties. Two kinds of iron phosphate glass (IPG) media in the xFe 2 O 3 -(100-x)P 2 O 5 , with x=30 and 35 (mol%) were chosen and the glass formation, structure and properties including density, coefficient of thermal expansion, glass transition temperature, onset crystallization temperature and chemical durability of NaCl-loaded IPG were studied. The results are summarized as follows. Sodium chloride, NaCl could be loaded into IPG medium as Na 2 O and Cl contents and their loading ratio could be up to 19 and 15 mol%, respectively. Majority of Cl content of raw material NaCl was thought to be volatilized during glass melting. Loading NaCl into IPG induces to de-polymerize glass network of phosphate chains, leads to decrease both glass transition and onset crystallization temperatures, and to increase coefficient of thermal expansion. NaCl-loaded IPG indicated good chemical durability in case of using 35Fe 2 O 3 - 65P 2 O 5 medium. (authors)

  2. Differentially expressed genes in Populus simonii x P. nigra in respnse to NaCl stress using cDNA-AFLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinity is an important environmental factor limiting growth and productivity of plants, and affects almost every aspect of the plant physiology and biochemistry. The objective of this study was to apply cDNA-AFLP and to identify differentially expressed genes in response to NaCl stress vs. no-stre...

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis (Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate) survival under combinations of pH and NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, Jeollabuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyoung-Hee [Department of Oral Microbiology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeollabuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon, E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.k [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, Jeollabuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis (Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate; potential bioterrorism agent) survival under different levels of NaCl and pH. B. thailandensis in Luria Bertani broth supplemented with NaCl (0-3%), and pH-adjusted to 4-7 was treated with gamma irradiation (0-0.5 kGy). Surviving cell counts of bacteria were then enumerated on tryptic soy agar. Data for the cell counts were also used to calculate D{sub 10} values (the dose required to reduce 1 log CFU/mL of B. thailandensis). Cell counts of B. thailandensis were decreased (P<0.05) as irradiation dose increased, and no differences (P>=0.05) in cell counts of the bacteria were observed among different levels of NaCl and pH. D{sub 10} values ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 kGy, regardless of NaCl and pH level. These results indicate that low doses of gamma irradiation should be a useful treatment in decreasing the potential bioterrorism bacteria, which may possibly infect humans through foods.

  4. Effects of NaCl and soaking temperature on the phenolic compounds, α-tocopherol, γ-oryzanol and fatty acids of glutinous rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammapat, Pornpisanu; Meeso, Naret; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2015-05-15

    Soaking is one of the important steps of the parboiling process. In this study, we investigated the effect of changes in different sodium chloride (NaCl) content (0%, 1.5% and 3.0% NaCl, w/v) of soaking media and soaking temperatures (30°C, 45°C and 60°C) on the phenolic compounds (α-tocopherol, γ-oryzanol) and on the fatty acids of glutinous rice, compared with unsoaked samples. Overall, the total phenolic content, total phenolic acids, γ-oryzanol, saturated fatty acid and mono-unsaturated fatty acid of the glutinous rice showed an increasing trend as NaCl content and soaking temperature increased, while α-tocopherol and polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased. Soaking at 3.0% NaCl provided the highest total phenolic content, total phenolic acids and γ-oryzanol (0.2mg GAE/g, 63.61 μg/g and 139.76 mg/100g, respectively) for the soaking treatments tested. Nevertheless, the amount of α-tocopherol and polyunsaturated fatty acid were found to be the highest (18.30/100g and 39.74%, respectively) in unsoaked rice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of NaCl on textural changes and protein and lipid degradation during the ripening stage of sufu, a Chinese fermented soybean food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.; Wang, J.H.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Sufu is made by solid state fungal fermentation (using Actinomucor elegans) of tofu, followed by salting and maturation in dressing mixtures containing salt, alcohol and various other ingredients. NaCl in dressing mixtures strongly affected the changes in textural properties and the hydrolysis of

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis ( Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate) survival under combinations of pH and NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on Burkholderia thailandensis ( Burkholderia pseudomallei surrogate; potential bioterrorism agent) survival under different levels of NaCl and pH. B. thailandensis in Luria Bertani broth supplemented with NaCl (0-3%), and pH-adjusted to 4-7 was treated with gamma irradiation (0-0.5 kGy). Surviving cell counts of bacteria were then enumerated on tryptic soy agar. Data for the cell counts were also used to calculate D10 values (the dose required to reduce 1 log CFU/mL of B. thailandensis). Cell counts of B. thailandensis were decreased ( P<0.05) as irradiation dose increased, and no differences ( P≥0.05) in cell counts of the bacteria were observed among different levels of NaCl and pH. D10 values ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 kGy, regardless of NaCl and pH level. These results indicate that low doses of gamma irradiation should be a useful treatment in decreasing the potential bioterrorism bacteria, which may possibly infect humans through foods.

  7. Effect of packing on changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility and malondialdehyde concentration in donkeys administered with ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaifa, Folashade; Ayo, Joseph O; Ambali, Suleiman F; Rekwot, Peter I

    2012-12-05

    Experiments were performed with the aim of investigating the effect of packing on erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in donkeys, and the effect of ascorbic acid (AA). Twelve apparently healthy donkeys raised under the traditional extensive system served as experimental subjects. Six donkeys administered orally with AA (200 mg/kg) and subjected to packing were used as experimental animals, whilst six others not administered with AA served as controls. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-packing from all the donkeys for the determination of MDA and EOF. At 0.3% Sodium Chloride (NaCl) concentration, the percentage haemolysis was 93.69% ± 2.21% in the control donkeys and the value was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the value of 71.31% ± 8.33%, recorded in the experimental donkeys. The post-packing MDA concentration obtained in the control donkeys was 39.62 µmol ± 4.16 µmol, and was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the value of 35.97 µmol ± 2.88 µmol recorded in the experimental donkeys. In conclusion, the increase in haemolysis obtained in the donkeys suggested that packing induced oxidative stress, which was ameliorated by AA administration.

  8. Effect of packing on changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility and malondialdehyde concentration in donkeys administered with ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folashade Olaifa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed with the aim of investigating the effect of packing on erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration in donkeys, and the effect of ascorbic acid (AA. Twelve apparently healthy donkeys raised under the traditional extensive system served as experimental subjects. Six donkeys administered orally with AA (200 mg/kg and subjected to packing were used as experimental animals, whilst six others not administered with AA served as controls. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-packing from all the donkeys for the determination of MDA and EOF. At 0.3% Sodium Chloride (NaCl concentration, the percentage haemolysis was 93.69% ± 2.21% in the control donkeys and the value was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than the value of 71.31% ± 8.33%, recorded in the experimental donkeys. The post-packing MDA concentration obtained in the control donkeys was 39.62 µmol ± 4.16 µmol, and was not significantly different (P > 0.05 from the value of 35.97 µmol ± 2.88 µmol recorded in the experimental donkeys. In conclusion, the increase in haemolysis obtained in the donkeys suggested that packing induced oxidative stress, which was ameliorated by AA administration.

  9. Experimental and petrological constraints on local-scale interaction of biotite-amphibole gneiss with H2O-CO2-(K, NaCl fluids at middle-crustal conditions: Example from the Limpopo Complex, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg G. Safonov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reaction textures and fluid inclusions in the ∼2.0 Ga pyroxene-bearing dehydration zones within the Sand River biotite-hornblende orthogneisses (Central Zone of the Limpopo Complex suggest that the formation of these zones is a result of close interplay between dehydration process along ductile shear zones triggered by H2O-CO2-salt fluids at 750–800 °C and 5.5–6.2 kbar, partial melting, and later exsolution of residual brine and H2O-CO2 fluids during melt crystallization at 650–700 °C. These processes caused local variations of water and alkali activity in the fluids, resulting in various mineral assemblages within the dehydration zone. The petrological observations are substantiated by experiments on the interaction of the Sand River gneiss with the H2O-CO2-(K, NaCl fluids at 750 and 800 °C and 5.5 kbar. It follows that the interaction of biotite-amphibole gneiss with H2O-CO2-(K, NaCl fluids is accompanied by partial melting at 750–800 °C. Orthopyroxene-bearing assemblages are characteristic for temperature 800 °C and are stable in equilibrium with fluids with low salt concentrations, while salt-rich fluids produce clinopyroxene-bearing assemblages. These observations are in good agreement with the petrological data on the dehydration zones within the Sand River orthogneisses.

  10. Effect of the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist SCH 23390 on the microstructure of ingestive behaviour in water-deprived rats licking for water and NaCl solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galistu, Adriana; D'Aquila, Paolo S

    2012-01-18

    The analysis of licking microstructure provides measures, size and number of licking bouts, which might reveal, respectively, reward evaluation and behavioural activation. Based on the different effects of the dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptor antagonists SCH 23390 and raclopride on licking for sucrose, in particular the failure of the former to reduce bout size and the ability of the latter to induce a within-session decrement of bout number resembling either reward devaluation or neuroleptics on instrumental responding, we suggested that activation of reward-associated responses depends on dopamine D1-like receptor stimulation, and its level is updated on the basis of a dopamine D2-like receptor-mediated reward evaluation. Consistent results were obtained in a study examining the effect of dopamine D2-like receptor antagonism in rats licking for NaCl solutions and water. In this study, we examined the effects of the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (0, 10, 20 and 40 μg/kg) on the microstructure of licking for water and sodium chloride solutions (0.075 M, 0.15 M, 0.3 M) in 12 h water deprived rats. Rats were exposed to each solution for 60 s either after the first lick or after 3 min that the animals were placed in the chambers. Bout size, but not bout number, was decreased at the highest NaCl concentration. SCH 23390 produced a decrease of bout number and of lick number mainly due to the decreased number of subjects engaging in licking behaviour, and failed to reduce bout size for Na Cl and water at a dose which increased the latency to the 1st lick but did not affect the intra-bout lick rate. In agreement with previous observations, these results suggest that dopamine D1-like receptors play an important role in the activation of reward-oriented responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of the partial NaCl substitution by other chloride salts on the volatile profile during the ripening of dry-cured lacón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of three salting treatments (treatment II: 50% NaCl-50% KCl; III: 45% NaCl-25% KCl-20% CaCl2-10% MgCl2; IV: 30% NaCl-50% KCl-15% CaCl2-5% MgCl2 on the formation of volatile compounds throughout the process was studied and compared to those of a control “lacón” (treatment I: 100% NaCl. There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing, particularly during the dry-ripening stage. The most abundant chemical family in all the formulations, in the final product was hydrocarbons followed by aldehydes. The total volatile compound release was more intense in the control “lacóns” (1164 AU_106·g-1dry matter than in “lacóns” from formulations II, III and IV (817-891 AUx106·g-1dry matter. The “lacóns” from formulation I showed the highest amounts of aldehydes. The “lacóns” from formulations I and II presented the highest amounts of hydrocarbons. The main conclusion is that the replacement of NaCl produces changes in the volatile profile and could be affect the aroma of “lacón”.Se estudió la influencia de tres tratamientos de salado (tratamiento II: 50 % NaCl-50 % KCl; III: 45 % NaCl-25 % KCl-20 % CaCl2-10 % MgCl2; IV: 30 % NaCl-50 % KCl-15 % CaCl2-5 % MgCl2 en la formación de compuestos volátiles durante la elaboración de lacón, en comparación con un control (tratamiento I: 100 % NaCl. Hubo una intensa formación de compuestos volátiles durante el procesado, principalmente durante la fase de secado-maduración. La familia química más abundante en el producto final fueron los hidrocarbonos, seguidos por los aldehídos. La liberación de volátiles fue más intensa en los lacones control (1164 AU_106·g-1 materia seca que en los otros lacones (817-891 AUx106· g-1 materia seca. Los lacones de la formulación I mostraron las mayores cantidades de aldehídos, y los lacones de las formulaciones I y II presentaron los mayores contenidos de hidrocarburos. La principal conclusi

  12. The mobility of Nb in rutile-saturated NaCl- and NaF-bearing aqueous fluids from 1–6.5 GPa and 300–800 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanis, Elizabeth A.; Simon, Adam; Tschauner, Oliver; Chow, Paul; Xiao, Yuming; Burnley, Pamela; Cline II, Christopher J.; Hanchar, John M.; Pettke, Thomas; Shen, Guoyin; Zhao, Yusheng (MUN); (Michigan); (CIW); (UNLV); (Bern)

    2015-08-26

    Rutile (TiO₂) is an important host phase for high field strength elements (HFSE) such as Nb in metamorphic and subduction zone environments. The observed depletion of Nb in arc rocks is often explained by the hypothesis that rutile sequesters HFSE in the subducted slab and overlying sediment, and is chemically inert with respect to aqueous fluids evolved during prograde metamorphism in the forearc to subarc environment. However, field observations of exhumed terranes, and experimental studies, indicate that HFSE may be soluble in complex aqueous fluids at high pressure (i.e., >0.5 GPa) and moderate to high temperature (i.e., >300 °C). In this study, we investigated experimentally the mobility of Nb in NaCl- and NaF-bearing aqueous fluids in equilibrium with Nb-bearing rutile at pressure-temperature conditions applicable to fluid evolution in arc environments. Niobium concentrations in aqueous fluid at rutile saturation were measured directly by using a hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC) and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) at 2.1 to 6.5 GPa and 300–500 °C, and indirectly by performing mass loss experiments in a piston-cylinder (PC) apparatus at ~1 GPa and 700–800 °C. The concentration of Nb in a 10 wt% NaCl aqueous fluid increases from 6 to 11 μg/g as temperature increases from 300 to 500 °C, over a pressure range from 2.1 to 2.8 GPa, consistent with a positive temperature dependence. The concentration of Nb in a 20 wt% NaCl aqueous fluid varies from 55 to 150 μg/g at 300 to 500 °C, over a pressure range from 1.8 to 6.4 GPa; however, there is no discernible temperature or pressure dependence. The Nb concentration in a 4 wt% NaF-bearing aqueous fluid increases from 180 to 910 μg/g as temperature increases from 300 to 500 °C over the pressure range 2.1 to 6.5 GPa. The data for the F-bearing fluid indicate that the Nb content of the fluid exhibits a dependence on temperature between 300 and 500 °C at ≥2 GPa, but there is no observed

  13. Oxygen-rich Mass Loss with a Pinch of Salt: NaCl in the Circumstellar Gas of IK Tauri and VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, S. N.; Apponi, A. J.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2007-10-01

    The NaCl molecule has been observed in the circumstellar envelopes of VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) and IK Tauri (IK Tau)-the first identifications of a metal refractory in oxygen-rich shells of evolved stars. Five rotational transitions of NaCl at 1 and 2 mm were detected toward VY CMa and three 1 mm lines were observed toward IK Tau, using the telescopes of the Arizona Radio Observatory. In both objects, the line widths of the NaCl profiles were extremely narrow relative to those of other molecules, indicating that sodium chloride has not reached the terminal outflow velocity in either star, likely a result of early condensation onto grains. Modeling the observed spectra suggests abundances, relative to H2, of f~5×10-9 in VY CMa and f~4×10-9 in IK Tau, with source sizes of 0.5" and 0.3", respectively. The extent of these sources is consistent with the size of the dust acceleration zones in both stars. NaCl therefore appears to be at least as abundant in O-rich shells as compared to C-rich envelopes, where f~(0.2-2)×10-9, although it appears to condense out earlier in the O-rich case. Chemical equilibrium calculations indicate that NaCl is the major carrier of sodium at T~1100 K for oxygen-rich stars, with predicted fractional abundances in good agreement with the observations. These measurements suggest that crystalline salt may be an important condensate for sodium in both C- and O-rich circumstellar shells.

  14. Investigation of sodalites for conditioning halide salts (NaCl and NaI): Comparison of two synthesis routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardez, Isabelle; Campayo, Lionel; Rigaud, Danielle; Chartier, Myriam; Calvet, Aurelie [CEA, Laboratoire d' Etudes des Materiaux Ceramiques pour le Conditionnement, Site de Marcoule, Batiment 208, B.P. 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Sodalites with the general formula Na{sub 8}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}X{sub 2} (where X = Cl or I) were investigated for ceramic conditioning of halide salts (NaCl and NaI). Because of the tendency of halides to volatilize at high temperature, two synthesis routes were tested to optimize the halide content in the sodalite phase. The first is based on heating at high temperature of a [nepheline NaAlSiO{sub 4} + salt] mixture prepared by a dry process. The second, performed at low temperature, consists of the reaction in aqueous media between kaolinite (Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and the salt. The present study compares these two syntheses and examines differences between chloro-sodalite and iodo-sodalite based on X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The next step will consist in sintering the resulting powder samples to obtain dense ceramics. (authors)

  15. A comparative corrosion behavior of Mg, AZ31 and AZ91 alloys in 3.5% NaCl solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of Mg, AZ31 and AZ91 has been evaluated in 3.5% NaCl solution using weight loss, electrochemical polarization and impedance measurements. Corrosion rate derived from the weight losses demonstrated the occurrence of steeply fast corrosion reaction on AZ91 alloy after three hours of immersion, indicating the start of galvanic corrosion. An increase of corrosion rate with immersion time was also observed for AZ31 but with lesser extent than AZ91 alloy. Whereas Mg metals showed a decrease of corrosion rate with immersion time, suggesting the formation of a protective layer on their surfaces. In contrast, the corrosion current density (Icorr derived from the Tafel plots, exhibited their corrosion resistances in order of Mg > AZ91 > AZ31. Electrochemical charge transfer resistance (Rct and double layer capacitance measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, are well in accordance with the measured Icorr. EIS measurements with time and microstructural examination of the corroded and uncorroded samples are helpful in elucidation of results measured by electrochemical polarization.

  16. Investigation of electrochemical reduction of GeO2 to Ge in molten CaCl2-NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Liangbin; He, Rui; Wang, Zhiyong; Peng, Junjun; Jin, Xianbo; Chen, George Z.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical reduction of solid GeO 2 has been investigated in the mixed CaCl 2 -NaCl melt at 1023 K for developing a more efficient process for preparation of Ge. Cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic electrolysis were applied to study the GeO 2 -loaded metallic cavity electrode. In addition, porous GeO 2 pellets were reduced by potentiostatic and constant cell voltage electrolysis with a graphite anode, and the electrolysis products were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, focusing on understanding the reduction mechanism and the impact of electrode potential on the product purity. It was found that the reduction of GeO 2 to Ge occurred at a potential of about -0.50 V (vs. Ag/Ag + ), but generating various calcium germanates simultaneously, whose reduction was a little more difficult and needed a potential more negative than -1.00 V. However, if the cathode potential exceeded -1.60 V, Ca (or Na) - Ge intermetallic compounds might form. These results gave an appropriate potential range between -1.10 and -1.40 V for the production of pure germanium. Rapid electrolysis of GeO 2 to pure Ge has been realized at a cell voltage of 2.5 V with a current efficiency of about 92%

  17. Characterization of corrosion resistant on NiCoCr coating layer exposed to 5%NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiarti, E.; Sundawa, R.; Desiati, R. D.; Zaini, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    Highly corrosion resistant of carbon steel coated NiCoCr was applied in corrosive of marine environtment. Carbon steel coated NiCoCr was prepared by a two step technique of NiCo electro-deposition and Cr pack cementation. The samples were exposed to 5 wt.% NaCl for 48 and 168 hours. The microstructure and corrosion product were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated NiCoCr was found to be better than that of carbon steel substrate without coating. The results showed the microstructure of 48 h corroded sample has duplex layer composed of inner α-(Ni,Co), α-Cr and outer Cr2O3, while a quite thin and continues protective oxide of Cr2O3 was observed in outer layer of 168 h corroded sample. The formation of oxide scale rich in Cr2O3 has contributed for the better corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated NiCoCr, whereas the formation of non protective oxide of iron might caused low corrosion resistance of carbon steel substrate.

  18. Corrosion Behavior of Cu40Zn in Sulfide-Polluted 3.5% NaCl Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Q. N.; Xu, N.; Bao, Y. F.; Jiang, Y. F.; Gu, W.; Yang, Z.; Zheng, Y. G.; Qiao, Y. X.

    2017-10-01

    The corrosion behavior of a duplex-phase brass Cu40Zn in clean and sulfide-polluted 3.5% NaCl solutions was investigated by conducting electrochemical and gravimetric measurements. The corrosion product films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The presence of sulfide shifted the corrosion potential of Cu40Zn toward a more negative value by 100 mV and increased the mass loss rate by a factor of 1.257 compared with the result in the clean solution. The corrosion product film in the clean solution was thin and compact; it mainly consisted of oxides, such as ZnO and Cu2O. By contrast, the film in the sulfide-polluted solution was thick and porous. It mainly contained sulfides and zinc hydroxide chloride (i.e., Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O). The presence of sulfide ions accelerated the corrosion damage of Cu40Zn by hindering the formation of protective oxides and promoting the formation of a defective film which consisted of sulfides and hydroxide chlorides.

  19. [Effects of seed priming on physiology of seed germination and seeding growth of Marsdenia tenacissima under NaCl stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xue-feng; Liu, Li; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Li, Chao; Wang, Ping-li; Yang, Sheng-chao; Hang, Yue-yu

    2015-01-01

    To offer the reference and method for salt damage in the cultivation of Marsdenia tenacissima, the seeds of M. tenacissima collected from Maguan city ( Yunnan province) were taken as the test materials to study the effects of different priming materials on improving germination and growth under high-level salt stress condition. Four different treatments, which were GA3, KNO3-KH2PO4, PEG-6000, NaCl, combined with ANOVA were applied to test the performance of germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, MDA, SOD, and CAT. The results showed that the seed germination was obviously inhibited under salt stress and the soaked seeds with different priming materials could alleviate the damage of salt stress. Under these treatments, the activities of SOD, CAT the content of soluble protein significantly increased. While the content of MDA significantly decreased. The maximum index was obtained when treated with 1.20% KNO3-KH2PO4, the germination percentage increased from 52.67% to 87.33% and the activity of SOD increased from 138.01 to 219.44 respectively. Comparing with the treatment of 1.20% KNO3-KH2PO4, the germination percentage of treating with 300 mg x L(-1) GA3 increased from 52.67% to 80.67%, while the activity of SOD increased from 138.01 to 444.61.

  20. Long Term Corrosion Experiment of Steel Rebar in Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete in NaCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Asmara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on an experimental investigation to identify the effects of fly ash on the electrochemical process of concrete during the curing time. A rebar was analysed using potentiostat to measure the rest potential, polarization diagram, and corrosion rate. Water-to-cement ratio and amount of fly ash were varied. After being cured for 24 hours at a temperature of 65°C, the samples were immersed in 3.5% of NaCl solution for 365 days for electrochemical measurement. Measurements of the half-cell potential and corrosion current density indicated that the fly ash has significant effects on corrosion behaviour of concrete. Although fly ash tends to create passivity on anodic current, it increases corrosion rate. The corrosion potential of this concrete mixture decreases compared to concrete without fly ash. From the result, it can be summarized that concrete mixture with 70% of OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement and 30% fly ash has shown the best corrosion resistance.