Niesman, Cindy S.
A study examined the effect of extreme marital discord, involving abuse of the mother, on maternal parenting style and level of maternal stress. It was hypothesized that battered women experience a higher level of maternal stress and choose an authoritarian parenting style as a consequence of marital discord. Subjects were 30 mothers of children…
Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.
Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…
Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice
A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the Five-Factor model of personality (Openness, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the five personality factors qua variables and in patterns qua clusters related differently to diverse parenting cognitions and practices, supporting the multidimensional, modular, and specific nature of parenting. Maternal personality in the normal range, a theoretically important but empirically neglected factor in everyday parenting, has meaning in studies of parenting, child development, and family process. PMID:21443335
Azak, Schale; Raeder, Sabine
This study investigated trajectories of maternal parenting behavior across the infants' first 18 months of life in relation to maternal depression. Furthermore, predictors of the quality of the mother-infant relationship at 18 months were examined. Participants consisted of three types of mother-infant dyads: mothers with comorbid depression and anxiety (n=19), mothers with depression (n=7) and nondepressed mothers (n=24). Maternal behaviors and the quality of relationship were rated on a global scale (NICHD) from video-taped mother-infant interactions. Maternal behaviors rated at six, 12 and 18 months were collapsed into a composite variable maternal style. The quality of the relationship captured as dyadic mutuality was rated at 18 months. Comorbid and depressed mothers showed lower quality in maternal style compared with the nondepressed mothers at six months. Over the follow-up the comorbid mothers were lower in maternal style compared to the nondepressed mothers, but the comorbid mothers increased significantly in maternal style despite elevated depression symptoms. Mean maternal style and infant cognitive skills predicted the quality in relationship at 18 months suggesting that the mother-toddler relationship depends on contributions from the mother and the child. Higher growth in maternal style despite of depression symptoms among comorbid mothers was interpreted against the background that the majority of the comorbid mother-infant dyads received several treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Meadows, Sarah O.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,176) are used to examine family structure transitions and maternal parenting stress. Using multilevel modeling, we found that mothers who exit coresidential relationships with biological fathers or enter coresidential relationships with nonbiological fathers reported higher levels of…
Dempsey, Jack; McQuillin, Samuel; Butler, Ashley M; Axelrad, Marni E
This study examines the impact of maternal depression on reductions in children's behavior problems severity following implementation of the Brief Behavioral Intervention-a brief, manualized parent management training treatment. The parents of 87 children aged 2-6 years of age received parent management training at a metropolitan hospital. Parents of participants completed measures of externalizing behavior and maternal depression. The association between pre-post treatment change in externalizing behavior and maternal depression was examined using an autoregressive cross-lagged model. Results showed that self-reported maternal depressive symptoms at pre-treatment negatively influenced the overall magnitude of reduction of reported externalizing behaviors in children following treatment. Results indicate that aspects of family functioning not specifically targeted by parent management training, such as maternal depression, significantly affect treatment outcomes. Clinicians providing parent management training may benefit from assessing for maternal depression and modifying treatment as indicated.
Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison
The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.
Associations between family functioning and children's stress hormone levels are explored, by examining how aspects of the interparental relationship (parents' marital satisfaction and parent conflict styles), the mother-child relationship (maternal involvement and warmth) and maternal emotional functioning (depression, anxiety and self-esteem)…
Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice
A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play)…
Beck, Audrey N.; Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 1,975) to examine the association between mothers' partnership changes and parenting behavior during the first 5 years of their children's lives. We compare coresidential with dating transitions and recent with more distal transitions. We also examine interactions between…
Zalewski, Maureen; Cyranowski, Jill M; Cheng, Yu; Swartz, Holly A
Independently, maternal depression and maternal history of childhood abuse confer risk for impaired parenting. These associations may be compounded when depressed mothers with histories of childhood abuse are faced with the challenge of parenting offspring who themselves struggle with mental health problems. This study examined the relationships among maternal history of childhood abuse, maternal depression, and parenting style in the context of parenting a psychiatrically ill child, with an emphasis on examining maternal emotional abuse and neglect. We hypothesized that maternal childhood emotional abuse would be associated with maladaptive parenting strategies (lower levels of maternal acceptance and higher levels of psychological control), independent of maternal depression severity and other psychosocial risk factors. Ninety-five mother-child dyads (children ages 7-18) were recruited from child mental health centers where children were receiving treatment for at least one internalizing disorder. Participating mothers met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder. Mothers reported on their own childhood abuse histories and children reported on their mothers' parenting. Regression analyses demonstrated that maternal childhood emotional abuse was associated with child reports of lower maternal acceptance and greater psychological control, controlling for maternal depression severity, and other psychosocial risk factors. When treating psychiatrically ill children, it is important for a child's clinician to consider mothers' childhood abuse histories in addition to their history of depression. These mothers appear to have additional barriers to effective parenting. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gerdes, Alyson C; Hoza, Betsy; Arnold, L Eugene; Pelham, William E; Swanson, James M; Wigal, Timothy; Jensen, Peter S
Possible mediators of the relation between maternal depressive symptomatology and parenting behavior were examined for 96 children with ADHD and their mothers drawn from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) as part of an add-on investigation conducted by two of the six MTA sites. General cognitions (i.e., maternal locus of control and self-esteem) and parenting-specific factors (i.e., maternal parenting efficacy and parenting stress) were examined as possible mediators. Findings provide initial support that maternal parenting stress, as well as maternal locus of control and self-esteem mediate the relation between maternal depressive symptomatology and parenting behavior. This provides support for the argument that some families of children with ADHD may benefit from an expanded version of parent management training that includes sessions directly targeting affective and cognitive factors in parents, similar to treatment programs used to treat childhood conduct problems.
Crandall, AliceAnn; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Day, Randal D; Riley, Anne W
Prior research links poor maternal emotion regulation to maladaptive parenting and child behaviors, but little research is available on these relationships during the adolescent period. We use structural equation modeling to assess the influence of poor maternal emotion regulation, measured as emotional reactivity and distancing, on adolescent behaviors (measured as aggression and prosocial behaviors) among 478 adolescents (53 % female; baseline age 10-13 years) and their mothers over a 5 year period. We also tested the possible mediating roles of family functioning and parenting behaviors between maternal emotion regulation and adolescent behaviors. Results indicated that higher baseline maternal emotional distancing and reactivity were not directly predictive of adolescents' behaviors, but they were indirectly related through family functioning and parenting. Specifically, indulgent parenting mediated the relationship between maternal emotional reactivity and adolescent aggression. Maternal-reported family functioning significantly mediated the relationship between maternal emotional distancing and adolescent aggression. Family functioning also mediated the relationship between emotional distancing and regulation parenting. The results imply that poor maternal emotion regulation during their child's early adolescence leads to more maladaptive parenting and problematic behaviors during the later adolescent period. However, healthy family processes may ameliorate the negative impact of low maternal emotion regulation on parenting and adolescent behavioral outcomes. The implications for future research and interventions to improve parenting and adolescent outcomes are discussed.
Buehler, Cheryl; O’Brien, Marion; Swartout, Kevin M.; Zhou, Nan
The authors used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364) to examine maternal work hour status and parenting (sensitivity and learning opportunities) from infancy through middle childhood. Work hour status was conceptualized as nonemployment, part time, and full time. Adjusting for covariates, mothers employed part time had higher sensitivity scores and higher provision of child learning opportunity scores than did mothers who were not employed, and these differences characterized families during early childhood rather than middle childhood. Mothers’ provision of child learning opportunities was greater when employed full time (vs. part time) during early childhood. In addition to child age, mothers’ ethnic minority status and partner status moderated the association between maternal work hour status and mothers’ parenting. In general, the findings supported ideas forwarded by role expansionist theory. PMID:25530631
Taiwan society is today typified by low birth rates amongst Taiwanese and a rising number of children born to immigrant and trans-cultural marriage families. Unhealthy behavior and anxiety on the part of pregnant women increase postpartum depression and complications and negatively affect neonatal heath. Such may further negatively impact upon romantic feelings between the new parents and the nascent parent-child relationship. New parenting education is a proactive and innovative strategy that may be used to improve maternal and child health. Therefore, it is worthy to explore how best to achieve cost-effective education interventions. First, the importance of new parenting education and its influence factors must be understood. Factors of women's health and nursing responsibilities potentially addressed by new parenting education include pregnancy complications, fetal death and malformation, accidents and traumas during childhood and adolescence, childhood obesity, and pediatric health-care delivery systems. It is the responsibility of nursing professionals to collect and interpret information on health promotion, disease prevention and childcare in cooperation with other disciplines. Nurses are also responsible to participate in family education and services that target new parents. Therefore, nursing professionals participate in planning and intervention actions related to health promotion, develop support group and counseling centers, collect and organize relevant information, and develop family education and health promotion models. Achieving preventive health service goals while maintaining family competencies and empowerment is an essential aspect of the parenthood mission and vision.
Liu, Chien-Chi; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Yeh, Yen-Po; Hsieh, Yeu-Sheng
This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of maternal confidence and maternal competence to maternal parenting stress during newborn care. Maternal role development is a cognitive and social process influenced by cultural and family contexts and mother and child characteristics. Most knowledge about maternal role development comes from western society. However, perceptions of the maternal role in contemporary Taiwanese society may be affected by contextual and environmental factors. A prospective correlational design was used to recruit 372 postpartum Taiwanese women and their infants from well-child clinics at 16 health centres in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria for mothers were gestational age >37 weeks, ≥18 years old, and healthy, with infants maternal confidence, maternal competence and self-perceived maternal parenting stress. After controlling for maternal parity and infant temperament, high maternal confidence and competence were associated with low maternal parenting stress. Maternal confidence influenced maternal parenting stress both directly and indirectly via maternal competence. To assist postpartum women in infant care programmes achieve positive outcomes, nurses should evaluate and bolster mothers' belief in their own abilities. Likewise, nurses should not only consider mothers' infant care skills, but also mothers' parity and infant temperament. Finally, it is crucial for nurses and researchers to recognize that infant care programmes should be tailored to mothers' specific maternal characteristics. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Ohashi, J P
There is a need to study the maternal role beyond the child's first year of life. This investigation, using a framework of Locke's expectancy theory, describes the expectations, surprises, values, and satisfactions experienced by 102 mothers of teens. Content analysis of written narratives describing surprises encountered by these mothers is also presented. Data were collected by questionnaire. Findings offer support for Locke's theory in two ways: (1) expectation for role was less important than value attainment in predicting the level of maternal role satisfaction, and (2) encountering at least one positive surprise was associated with a higher level of maternal role satisfaction. These variables are offered as a useful nursing approach to the assessment of the parenting experience. Knowledge of the satisfactions reported may be encouraging to mothers anticipating this stage of life.
Sinai, Dana; Tikotzky, Liat
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the links between infants' sleep and their parents' sleep and to assess the links between infant/parent sleep and parenting stress. Furthermore, we explored whether the links between sleep and parenting stress are moderated by maternal leave status. Participants were 50 families with an infant between the ages of 4-5 months. Half of the mothers were on maternity leave while the others returned to work. Parents completed daily sleep logs about infants' and their own sleep for 4 consecutive nights. Each parent also completed the Parenting Stress Index. Infant sleep was associated with sleep of both mothers and fathers, but the correlations with maternal sleep were stronger. Parental perceptions of their infant's sleep as problematic were associated with higher parenting stress. Poorer infant and maternal sleep patterns were associated with parenting stress only in families with mothers on maternity leave, probably because these mothers need to provide intensive caregiving "around the clock" without sufficient opportunities to rest. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jago, Russell; Davison, Kirsten K; Thompson, Janice L; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Fox, Kenneth R
To examine whether parenting styles or practices were associated with children's television (TV) viewing. A total of 431 parent-child dyads (10- to 11-year-old children) from Bristol, United Kingdom, were included. Child and parent TV viewing were self-reported and categorized as 4 hours/day. Children reported maternal parenting style (authoritarian, authoritative, or permissive). Child-reported maternal and paternal sedentary restriction scores were combined to create a family-level restriction score. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether child TV viewing was predicted by parenting style or family restriction. A greater proportion of children with permissive mothers watched >4 hours of TV per day, compared with children with authoritarian or authoritative mothers (P = .033). A greater proportion of children for whom both parents demonstrated high restriction watched 4 hours (vs 4 hours of TV per day was 5.2 times higher for children with permissive (versus authoritative) mothers (P = .010). Clinicians need to talk directly with parents about the need to place limitations on children's screen time and to encourage both parents to reinforce restriction messages.
Ryckebusch, Jenna-Lyn; Miller, Heather; Fulmer, Kimberly; Fontanez, Mary; Ellis, Trisha; DiBlasi, Francis Paul; Carey, Brandi; Chambliss, Catherine
This study examines attitudes about maternal employment by comparing the responses of married parents from single versus two-paycheck families. Participants in this study were 138 mothers and 120 fathers given the Beliefs About the Consequences of Maternal Employment for Children Scale (BACMEC), which assesses views about maternal employment.…
Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.
The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy. Each of the maternal resources predicted rejecting parenting during early childhood in structural equation models that controlled for toddler difficu...
Pereira, Jessica; Vickers, Kristin; Atkinson, Leslie; Gonzalez, Andrea; Wekerle, Christine; Levitan, Robert
Objective: Maternal maltreatment history and current parenting stress are associated with parenting difficulties. However, researchers have not investigated the mechanism by which these variables are interlinked. We hypothesized that parenting stress mediates the relation between history of maltreatment and parenting behavior. Methods: We assessed…
Leerkes, Esther M; Su, Jinni; Calkins, Susan D; O'Brien, Marion; Supple, Andrew J
The extent to which indices of maternal physiological arousal (skin conductance augmentation) and regulation (vagal withdrawal) while parenting predict infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems directly or indirectly via maternal sensitivity was examined in a sample of 259 mothers and their infants. Two covariates, maternal self-reported emotional risk and Adult Attachment Interview attachment coherence were assessed prenatally. Mothers' physiological arousal and regulation were measured during parenting tasks when infants were 6 months old. Maternal sensitivity was observed during distress-eliciting tasks when infants were 6 and 14 months old, and an average sensitivity score was calculated. Attachment disorganization was observed during the Strange Situation when infants were 14 months old, and mothers reported on infants' behavior problems when infants were 27 months old. Over and above covariates, mothers' arousal and regulation while parenting interacted to predict infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems such that maternal arousal was associated with higher attachment disorganization and behavior problems when maternal regulation was low but not when maternal regulation was high. This effect was direct and not explained by maternal sensitivity. The results suggest that maternal physiological dysregulation while parenting places infants at risk for psychopathology.
Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.
The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy.…
Gerdes, Alyson C.; Hoza, Betsy; Arnold, L. Eugene; Pelham, William E.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy; Jensen, Peter S.
Possible mediators of the relation between maternal depressive symptomatology and parenting behavior were examined for 96 children with ADHD and their mothers drawn from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) as part of an add-on investigation conducted by two of the six MTA sites. General cognitions (i.e., maternal locus of…
Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.
Tested a model linking maternal/family characteristics to child cognitive and psychosocial competence in African-American 6- to 9-year olds in rural single-mother-headed households. Found that maternal education, religiosity, and financial resources were linked with parenting style, mother-child relationship, and maternal school involvement.…
Alizadeh Maralani, Fatemeh; Mirnasab, Mirmahmoud; Hashemi, Touraj
The link between inappropriate parenting style and both bullying and victimization is well documented. However, it is not clear as to which kind of parenting style is associated with victimization. Furthermore, no studies have yet been conducted regarding the role of parental stress in bullying and victimization. This study aimed to examine the role of parenting styles and maternal stress in pupils' bullying and victimization. A total of 300 primary school pupils, enrolled in fourth and fifth grades, participated in the study. Initially, 100 noninvolved pupils were randomly selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. Then using a screening method, 100 bully pupils and 100 victimized peers were selected. Olweus Bullying Scale and teacher nomination were administered for screening these pupils. Baumrind Parenting Style Questionnaire and revised version of Abidin Parental Stress Index (short form) were also applied to all pupils in the study. Data were analyzed using discriminant function analysis. The findings showed that (a) with regard to parenting styles, significant differences were found among groups. Authoritarian parenting style could significantly predict pupils' bullying behavior, whereas victimization was predictable in families with permissive parenting style. In addition, noninvolved pupils were predicted to have authoritative parenting style. (b) Considering maternal stress, significant differences were observed across groups. Parents of bullies and victims were predicted to have higher maternal stress than noninvolved pupils. The implications of the study in relation to the role of mothers in bullying and victimization are discussed.
Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.
The authors examined the relations among intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal harsh intrusive parenting. Using a cross-lagged, autoregressive path model, they sought to clarify the directionality of the relations among these 3 variables over the first 2 years of the child's life. The results indicated that,…
Reck, C; Zietlow, A-L; Müller, M; Dubber, S
Research investigating maternal bonding and parenting stress in the course of postpartum depression is lacking. Aim of the study was to investigate the development and potential mediation of both constructs in the course of postpartum depression. n = 31 mothers with postpartum depression according to DSM-IV and n = 32 healthy controls completed the German version of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index at two measuring times: acute depression (T1) and remission (T2). At T1, the clinical group reported lower bonding and higher parenting stress. Bonding was found to partially mediate the link between maternal diagnosis and parenting stress. Furthermore, the clinical group reported lower bonding and higher parenting stress averaged over both measurement times. However, at T2, the clinical group still differed from the controls even though they improved in bonding and reported less parenting stress. A significant increase of bonding was also observed in the control group. Maternal bonding seems to buffer the negative impact of postpartum depression on parenting stress. The results emphasize the need for interventions focusing on maternal bonding and mother-infant interaction in order to prevent impairment of the mother-child relationship.
Topham, Glade L; Page, Melanie C; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka; Harrist, Amanda W
The purpose of the study was to test the moderating influence of two risk factors, maternal depression and socio-economic status (SES), on the association between authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and child obesity. Correlational, cross-sectional study. Parenting style was measured with the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ). Maternal depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). BMI-for-age percentile was used to categorize children by weight status (children with BMI-for-age > or = 95th percentile were classified as obese). SES was computed from parent education and occupational status using the four-factor Hollingshead index. Rural public schools in a mid-western state in the USA. One hundred and seventy-six mothers of first-grade children (ninety-one boys, eighty-five girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Both maternal depression and SES were found to moderate the permissive parenting style/child obesity association, but not the authoritarian/child obesity association. For depressed mothers, but not for non-depressed mothers, more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity. Similarly more permissive parenting was predictive of child obesity among higher SES mothers, but not for lower SES mothers. Maternal depression and SES interact with permissive parenting style to predict child obesity. Future research should examine the relationship among these variables using a longitudinal design.
Bergmann, Sarah; Schlesier-Michel, Andrea; Wendt, Verena; Grube, Matthias; Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Gausche, Ruth; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M
Maternal obesity has been shown to be a risk factor for obesity in children and may also affect children's psychosocial outcomes. It is not yet clear whether there are also psycho-emotional mechanisms explaining the effects of maternal weight on young children's weight and psychosocial development. We aimed to evaluate whether maternal body mass index (BMI), mother-child emotional availability (EA), and maternal parenting stress are associated with children's weight and psychosocial development (i.e., internalizing/externalizing symptoms and social competence) and whether these predictors interact with each other. This longitudinal study included three assessment points (~11 months apart). The baseline sample consisted of N = 194 mothers and their children aged 5-47 months (M = 28.18, SD = 8.44, 99 girls). At t 1, we measured maternal weight and height to calculate maternal BMI. We videotaped mother-child interactions, coding them with the EA Scales (fourth edition). We assessed maternal parenting stress with the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) short form. At t 1 to t 3, we measured height and weight of children and calculated BMI-SDS scores. Children's externalizing and internalizing problems (t 1-t 3) and social competence (t 3, N = 118) were assessed using questionnaires: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL 1.5-5), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ: prosocial behavior), and a checklist for behavioral problems at preschool age (VBV 3-6: social-emotional competence). By applying structural equation modeling (SEM) and a latent regression analysis, we found maternal BMI to predict higher BMI-SDS and a poorer psychosocial development (higher externalizing symptoms, lower social competence) in children. Higher parenting stress predicted higher levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and lower social competence. Better maternal EA was associated with higher social competence. We found parenting stress to serve as a mediator in the association between
Bergmann, Sarah; Schlesier-Michel, Andrea; Wendt, Verena; Grube, Matthias; Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Gausche, Ruth; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M.
Introduction: Maternal obesity has been shown to be a risk factor for obesity in children and may also affect children's psychosocial outcomes. It is not yet clear whether there are also psycho-emotional mechanisms explaining the effects of maternal weight on young children's weight and psychosocial development. We aimed to evaluate whether maternal body mass index (BMI), mother–child emotional availability (EA), and maternal parenting stress are associated with children's weight and psychosocial development (i.e., internalizing/externalizing symptoms and social competence) and whether these predictors interact with each other. Methods: This longitudinal study included three assessment points (~11 months apart). The baseline sample consisted of N = 194 mothers and their children aged 5–47 months (M = 28.18, SD = 8.44, 99 girls). At t1, we measured maternal weight and height to calculate maternal BMI. We videotaped mother–child interactions, coding them with the EA Scales (fourth edition). We assessed maternal parenting stress with the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) short form. At t1 to t3, we measured height and weight of children and calculated BMI–SDS scores. Children's externalizing and internalizing problems (t1–t3) and social competence (t3, N = 118) were assessed using questionnaires: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL 1.5–5), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ: prosocial behavior), and a checklist for behavioral problems at preschool age (VBV 3–6: social-emotional competence). Results: By applying structural equation modeling (SEM) and a latent regression analysis, we found maternal BMI to predict higher BMI–SDS and a poorer psychosocial development (higher externalizing symptoms, lower social competence) in children. Higher parenting stress predicted higher levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and lower social competence. Better maternal EA was associated with higher social competence. We found parenting stress to serve as
Full Text Available Introduction: Maternal obesity has been shown to be a risk factor for obesity in children and may also affect children’s psychosocial outcomes. It is not yet clear whether there are also psycho-emotional mechanisms explaining the effects of maternal weight on young children’s weight and psychosocial development. We aimed to evaluate whether maternal body mass index (BMI, mother-child emotional availability (EA and maternal parenting stress are associated with children’s weight and psychosocial development (i.e. internalizing/externalizing symptoms and social competence and whether these predictors interact with each other. Methods: This longitudinal study included 3 assessment points (approx. 11 months apart. The baseline sample consisted of N=194 mothers and their children aged 5 to 47 months (M=28.18, SD=8.44, 99 girls. At t1, we measured maternal weight and height to calculate maternal BMI. We videotaped mother-child interactions, coding them with the Emotional Availability Scales (4th edition. We assessed maternal parenting stress with the Parenting Stress Index (PSI short form. At t1 to t3, we measured height and weight of children and calculated BMI-SDS scores. Children’s externalizing and internalizing problems (t1-t3 and social competence (t3, N=118 were assessed using questionnaires: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL1, 5-5, Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ: prosocial behavior and a checklist for behavioral problems at preschool age (VBV 3-6: social-emotional competence. Results: By applying structural equation modeling (SEM and a latent regression analysis, we found maternal BMI to predict higher BMI-SDS and a poorer psychosocial development (higher externalizing symptoms, lower social competence in children. Higher parenting stress predicted higher levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and lower social competence. Better maternal EA was associated with higher social competence. We found parenting stress to
Greeson, Megan R; Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah I; Beeble, Marisa; Adams, Adrienne E; Sullivan, Cris
Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) has negative consequences for children's well-being and behavior. Much of the research on parenting in the context of IPV has focused on whether and how IPV victimization may negatively shape maternal parenting, and how parenting may in turn negatively influence child behavior, resulting in a deficit model of mothering in the context of IPV. However, extant research has yet to untangle the interrelationships among the constructs and test whether the negative effects of IPV on child behavior are indeed attributable to IPV affecting mothers' parenting. The current study employed path analysis to examine the relationships among IPV, mothers' parenting practices, and their children's externalizing behaviors over three waves of data collection among a sample of 160 women with physically abusive partners. Findings indicate that women who reported higher levels of IPV also reported higher levels of behavior problems in their children at the next time point. When parenting practices were examined individually as mediators of the relationship between IPV and child behavior over time, one type of parenting was significant, such that higher IPV led to higher authoritative parenting and lower child behavior problems [corrected]. On the other hand, there was no evidence that higher levels of IPV contributed to more child behavior problems due to maternal parenting. Instead, IPV had a significant cumulative indirect effect on child behavior via the stability of both IPV and behavior over time. Implications for promoting women's and children's well-being in the context of IPV are discussed.
Steeger, Christine M; Gondoli, Dawn M; Morrissey, Rebecca A
We examined maternal avoidant coping as a mediator between maternal parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Three years of self-report data were collected from 173 mothers, beginning when mothers' adolescents were in 6th grade and aged 11-13 years. Utilizing longitudinal path analysis, results indicated that avoidant coping at time two mediated the association between parenting stress at time one and depressive symptoms at time three. Additionally, the reverse direction of effects was examined, revealing that the relation between parenting stress and avoidant coping was unidirectional, while the relation between avoidant coping and depressive symptoms was bidirectional. Our results suggest that during early adolescence, mothers who experience more stress in the parenting role are more likely to engage in higher levels of avoidant coping when faced with parenting problems. In turn, a mother's long-term avoidant reactions to parenting problems may predict increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, our findings of a bidirectional relation between avoidant coping and depressive symptoms suggest that prior levels of depression might serve as a barrier to efficient and effective coping. The present study may inform preventive intervention efforts aimed at decreasing the use of avoidance in response to parenting stressors by increasing adaptive parental coping with stressors, and providing appropriate support and resources for parents.
Radesky, Jenny; Leung, Christy; Appugliese, Danielle; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C; Rosenblum, Katherine L
Qualities of the parent-child relationship have not been explored as predictors of parent mobile device use during parent-child activities. In 195 mother-child dyads enrolled in an ongoing cohort study, maternal mental representations of their child (ability to reflect on their child's characteristics, emotional state, and their parenting role) were evaluated through the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI), a validated semistructured interview. WMCI scale scores were examined as predictors of active maternal mobile device use during parent-child eating encounters (videotaped home mealtimes and a structured laboratory-based protocol) in multivariate logistic regression models. Children were aged 5.9 years (SD: 0.7), mothers were aged 31.5 years (SD: 7.4), and 73.3% of mothers were of white non-Hispanic race/ethnicity. During the family mealtime, 47 (24.1%) mothers actively used a mobile device at least once, whereas during the structured eating protocol, 44 (22.6%) mothers used a device. Controlling for maternal race/ethnicity, education level, and child's sex, WMCI subscales were associated with device use during home mealtimes (higher Child Difficulty) and the eating protocol (higher Child Difficulty and lower Richness of Perceptions and Caregiving Sensitivity). Maternal mental representations of their child were significantly associated with using mobile devices during eating encounters. More research studies are needed to understand directionality and longer-term associations between mobile device use and parent-child relationship characteristics.
Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N.
Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albeit U.S.-born only, report more parenting stress than white mothers due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian parenting values. The black-white gap increases from kindergarten to third grade, and in third grade, U.S.-born black mothers’ higher stress than white mothers’ persists after controlling for structural and parenting factors. Hispanic and Asian mothers, albeit foreign-born only, report more stress than white mothers at both ages due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian values. Despite structural disadvantages, American Indian mothers report less stress. PMID:24026535
Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N
Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albeit U.S.-born only, report more parenting stress than white mothers due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian parenting values. The black-white gap increases from kindergarten to third grade, and in third grade, U.S.-born black mothers' higher stress than white mothers' persists after controlling for structural and parenting factors. Hispanic and Asian mothers, albeit foreign-born only, report more stress than white mothers at both ages due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian values. Despite structural disadvantages, American Indian mothers report less stress.
Morawska, A; Sanders, M R
The often intense nature of the conflict between parents and their toddlers requires better understanding of what happens during this stage of development and how difficulties can be prevented from escalating in the future. Clarification of the nature of family and parenting factors related to toddler behaviour allows better capacity for intervention development and tailoring to individual families. A total of 126 mothers of toddlers completed a self-report assessment battery, examining child behaviour, parenting style and confidence, as well as broader family adjustment measures. The study found that maternal confidence and dysfunctional parenting were interrelated and were also predicted best by parenting variables, in contrast to socio-demographic and child variables. Maternal confidence also mediated the relationships between family income and toddler behaviour. Parenting style and confidence are important modifiable factors to target in parenting interventions. The implications for the development, implementation and delivery of parenting interventions are discussed.
Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L; Thomas, David G; Kennedy, Tay S; Grant, Stephanie L; Valtr, Tabitha
Theoretical models linking maternal nutrition, depressive symptomatology, and parenting are underdeveloped. However, existing literature suggests that iron status and depressive symptomatology interact in relation to problematic parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive). Therefore, in the current study the authors investigate these interactive relations in a sample of breastfeeding mothers (n = 105) interviewed at three months postpartum. Participants completed questionnaires (from December 2008 to January 2011) regarding their depressive symptomatology and parenting styles. Iron status (i.e., hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptors, and serum ferritin concentrations) was assessed from blood samples. Significant interactions were found between iron status and depressive symptomatology in relation to authoritarian parenting style (low warmth, high punishment and directiveness). For those women with hemoglobin below 14.00 g/dL, depressive symptomatology was positively related to authoritarian parenting style (p parenting. Dietary interventions may help to eliminate relations between depressive symptoms and problematic parenting.
Zalewski, Maureen; Stepp, Stephanie D; Scott, Lori N; Whalen, Diana J; Beeney, Joseph F; Hipwell, Alison E
Maternal borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms are associated with poorer parenting. However, most studies conducted are with young children. In the current study, the authors examined associations between maternal BPD symptoms and parenting in an urban community sample of 15-to 17-year-old girls (n = 1,598) and their biological mothers. Additionally, the authors tested the impact of adolescent temperament on these associations. Mothers reported on their own psychopathology and their daughters' temperament. Adolescent girls reported on mothers' parenting methods in terms of psychological and behavioral control. Results demonstrated that maternal BPD symptoms were associated with aspects of psychological and behavioral control, even after controlling for maternal depression and alcohol use severity. After examining specific BPD components that may account for these associations, the authors found that affective/behavioral dysregulation, but not interpersonal dysregulation or identity disturbance, uniquely accounted for parenting. Adolescent temperament did not moderate these associations. BPD symptoms, particularly affective/behavioral dysregulation, are important targets when conducting parenting interventions.
Treyvaud, Karli; Rogers, Susan; Matthews, Jan; Allen, Beverley
Parents experiencing early parenting difficulties often seek support through parenting programs. Characteristics of mothers seeking parenting support and information at an early parenting center in Victoria, Australia and the relationships between these factors and parenting behavior were explored using an observational measure of parent-child interaction. Participants were 43 mothers and children attending a 5-day residential parenting program at the Queen Elizabeth Centre. Maternal and sociodemographic data as well as an observational mother-child interaction task from the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Parent Child Interaction Teaching scale were completed and scored on the first day of the program. Certain maternal factors and experiences were associated with observed parenting behavior. Poorer maternal sleeping quality, unplanned pregnancy and preterm birth were all associated with less optimal parenting behavior in certain domains. Findings are discussed with reference to the impact of past experiences around pregnancy and birth as well as the current context and well-being of mothers attending early parenting centers. Copyright © 2010 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Morawska, Alina; Basha, Allison; Adamson, Michelle; Winter, Leanne
This study examined the relationship between microanalytic coding and global rating systems when coding maternal parenting behaviour in two contexts. Observational data from 55 mother--child interactions with two- to four-year-old children, in either a mealtime (clinic; N?=?20 or control; N?=?20) or a playtime context (community; N?=?15), were…
Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Nan; Bell, Martha Ann
Background: Maternal executive function and household regulation both are critical aspects of optimal childrearing, but their interplay is not understood. We tested the hypotheses that (a) the link between challenging child conduct problems and harsh parenting would be strongest for mothers with poorer executive function and weakest among those…
Lee, Dohoon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara S; Notterman, Daniel; Garfinkel, Irwin
Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined the effects of the Great Recession on maternal harsh parenting. We found that changes in macroeconomic conditions, rather than current conditions, affected harsh parenting, that declines in macroeconomic conditions had a stronger impact on harsh parenting than improvements in conditions, and that mothers' responses to adverse economic conditions were moderated by the DRD2 Taq1A genotype. We found no evidence of a moderating effect for two other, less well-studied SNPs from the DRD4 and DAT1 genes.
Frick, Paul J.; And Others
In sample of 177 clinic-referred children aged 7-13, association was found between diagnosis of conduct disorder and several aspects of family functioning: maternal parenting (supervision and persistence in discipline) and parent adjustment (paternal antisocial personality disorder and paternal substance abuse). Children with oppositional defiant…
Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A
The relevance of parenting behavior to toddlers' development necessitates a better understanding of the influences on parents during parent-child interactions. Toddlers' inhibited temperament may relate to parenting behaviors, such as intrusiveness, that predict outcomes later in childhood. The conditions under which inhibited temperament relates to intrusiveness, however, remain understudied. A multimethod approach would acknowledge that several levels of processes determine mothers' experiences during situations in which they witness their toddlers interacting with novelty. As such, the current study examined maternal cortisol reactivity and embarrassment about shyness as moderators of the relation between toddlers' inhibited temperament and maternal intrusive behavior. Participants included 92 24-month-old toddlers and their mothers. Toddlers' inhibited temperament and maternal intrusiveness were measured observationally in the laboratory. Mothers supplied saliva samples at the beginning of the laboratory visit and 20 minutes after observation. Maternal cortisol reactivity interacted with inhibited temperament in relation to intrusive behavior, such that mothers with higher levels of cortisol reactivity were observed to be more intrusive with more highly inhibited toddlers. Embarrassment related to intrusive behavior as a main effect. These results highlight the importance of considering child characteristics and psychobiological processes in relation to parenting behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
The association between maternal employment status and the relations that adolescents have with their parents, siblings, and peers was investigated. Three daily reports of conflicts with family members and time spent with parents, peers, and alone were obtained from 64 tenth-grade adolescents using a telephone interviewing technique. Males, but not females, had more arguments, which were of longer duration and greater intensity, with their mothers and siblings when their mothers worked than when they did not. Female conflict behavior was unrelated to the work status of the mother. Adolescents of both sexes spent less time with their parents when their mothers worked, especially when they worked full-time, than when they were nonemployed. Adolescents with employed mothers generally spent less free time with their parents than those with nonemployed mothers. Time spent with parents in the performance of household tasks was not affected by maternal employment status. The need to take a family system perspective in order to understand fully the relationship between maternal employment and adolescent development was emphasized.
Bergemann, Annette; Riphahn, Regina T.
We study the short, medium, and longer run employment effects of a substantial change in the parental leave benefit program in Germany. In 2007, a means-tested parental leave transfer program that had paid benefits for up to two years was replaced by an earnings related transfer which paid benefits for up to one year. The reform generated winners and losers with heterogeneous response incentives. We find that the reform speeds up the labor market return of both groups of mothers after benefit...
Farris, Jaelyn R; Bert, Shannon S Carothers; Nicholson, Jody S; Glass, Kerrie; Borkowski, John G
This study assessed the secondary effects of a parent training intervention program on maternal adjustment, with a focus on understanding ways in which program efficacy differed for participants as a function of whether or not their children had behavior problems. Mothers (N = 99) of toddlers (2-3 years of age) were randomly assigned to receive one of three levels of intervention: (1) informational booklet (2) booklet + face-to-face parent training sessions, or (3) booklet + web-based parent training sessions. Findings indicated that all levels of intervention were associated with increases in maternal well-being for participants with typically developing children. Mothers of toddlers with behavior problems, however, did not benefit from receiving only the booklet but significantly benefitted from receiving either the face-to-face or web-based interventions. Findings are discussed in terms of efficient and efficacious program dissemination and the resulting implications for public policy.
Wang, Z; Deater-Deckard, K; Bell, M A
Parents who attribute child misbehavior to children's intentions and dismiss situational factors tend to show more hostility and less warmth in their parenting behavior, and are at greater risk for maltreatment. We extended this literature by investigating the role of household chaos as a moderator of the link between maternal attribution biases and parenting behaviors. The current sample included 160 mothers of 3- to7-year-old children. Mothers provided reports on their attribution biases and household chaos levels. Maternal negativity and positivity were measured using self-reports and observers' ratings. The links between attribution bias and parenting behavior were stronger in more chaotic environments, with the moderating effect of chaos being particularly strong for internal attribution bias. The findings point to the importance of social cognitive biases in the etiology of maternal behavior in family contexts that lack order and predictability.
New mothers undergo dynamic neural changes that support positive adaptation to parenting and the development of mother-infant relationships. In this article, I review important psychological adaptations that mothers experience during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. I then review evidence of structural and functional plasticity in human…
Zandiyeh, Zahra; Zare, Elaheh; Hedayati, Batool
Background: Parenting style is one of the most important and effective factors in training and growth of children and adolescents and the method that parents communicate with their children is an effective factor on family contact models. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of group training about parenting styles on maternal attitudes that were admitted to Isfahan Imam Ali (AS) health care center in 2013. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental study, which ...
Full Text Available The relationships between maternal parenting attitudes and preschoolers’ hot and cool executive functions (EF were examined. Forty-eight children aged 3 to 4 years and their mothers took part in the study. Self-report questionnaire concerning parenting attitudes was obtained from the mothers of children who performed a set of EF tasks. Additionally, both maternal and child verbal ability were controlled. It was found that maternal parenting attitudes were related only to child cool EF. Protecting attitude was positively related to child inhibitory control and autonomy support was negatively related to child set-shifting ability. Further analyses revealed that maternal autonomy support accounted for unique variance in child set-shifting, above and beyond the child’s age. On the other hand, protecting attitude accounted for unique variance in child inhibitory control, above and beyond child verbal ability. The findings provide further evidence for the importance of mother-child relationships in children’s EF development.
Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Zuroff, David C.; Koestner, Richard
This study tested Belsky's determinants of parenting, namely maternal characteristics, child characteristics, and contextual issues, namely the mother's perception of the husband as a father, husband, and person. Three hundred and seventy-nine mothers first investigated by Sears, Maccoby, and Levin completed a standardised interview to assess…
K. E. Van der Geest
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA and screen sedentary time (SST, is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of children aged 8–11 years old who completed a web-based non-standardized questionnaire (N = 4047. Since 85% of the questionnaires were filled in by mothers, parenting styles are mainly reported by mothers. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to assess the associations between parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful, and PA and SST (mean min/day. The modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations was explored. P values ≤.0125 were considered as statistically significant based on the Bonferroni correction for four primary analyses. Results The neglectful parenting style was most widely used (35.3%, while the authoritarian style was least common (14.8%. No significant association was found between parenting styles and PA level. As regards SST, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST in boys while a neglectful parenting style was significantly associated with higher SST in both boys and girls. When the mother had a medium educational level, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST while neglectful parenting was significantly associated with higher SST. Conclusions No association was found between parenting styles and PA. However, an
Van der Geest, K E; Mérelle, S Y M; Rodenburg, G; Van de Mheen, D; Renders, C M
Children's activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children's activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the modifying effect of children's gender and maternal educational level on these associations. Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of children aged 8-11 years old who completed a web-based non-standardized questionnaire (N = 4047). Since 85% of the questionnaires were filled in by mothers, parenting styles are mainly reported by mothers. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to assess the associations between parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful), and PA and SST (mean min/day). The modifying effect of children's gender and maternal educational level on these associations was explored. P values ≤.0125 were considered as statistically significant based on the Bonferroni correction for four primary analyses. The neglectful parenting style was most widely used (35.3%), while the authoritarian style was least common (14.8%). No significant association was found between parenting styles and PA level. As regards SST, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST in boys while a neglectful parenting style was significantly associated with higher SST in both boys and girls. When the mother had a medium educational level, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST while neglectful parenting was significantly associated with higher SST. No association was found between parenting styles and PA. However, an authoritative parenting style was associated with a reduction in SST
Latham, Rachel M; Mark, Katharine M; Oliver, Bonamy R
Parenting and coparenting are both important for children's adjustment, but their interaction has been little explored. Using a longitudinal design and considering two children per family, we investigated mothers' and fathers' perceptions of coparenting as moderators of associations between their coercive parenting and children's disruptive behaviour. Mothers and fathers from 106 'intact' families were included from the Twins, Family and Behaviour study. At Time 1 (M child age = 3 years 11 months, SD child age = 4.44 months) parents reported on their coercive parenting and children's disruptive behaviour via questionnaire; at Time 2 (M child age = 4 years 8 months, SD child age = 4.44 months) perceptions of coparenting and the marital relationship were collected by telephone interview. Questionnaire-based reports of children's disruptive behaviour were collected at follow-up (M child age = 5 years 11 months, SD child age = 5.52 months). Multilevel modelling was used to examine child-specific and family-wide effects. Conservative multilevel models including both maternal and paternal perceptions demonstrated that maternal perceptions of coparenting and overall coercive parenting interacted in their prediction of parent-reported child disruptive behaviour. Specifically, accounting for perceived marital quality, behavioural stability, and fathers' perceptions, only in the context of perceived higher quality coparenting was there a positive association between mother-reported overall coercive parenting and children's disruptive behaviour at follow-up. When combined with highly coercive parenting, maternal perceptions of high quality coparenting may be detrimental for children's adjustment. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Richards, M H; Duckett, E
This study examines how maternal work may shape pre- and young adolescents' daily life experience. According to the procedures of the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), 295 10-13-year-old children carried electronic pagers for 1 week and completed self-report forms in response to random signals sent every other hour. Their daily experience did not differ by maternal employment status, with the following exceptions: full-time maternal employment was associated with more time doing homework with mothers and less time in general leisure, while part-time employment was associated with more time doing sports with parents. Relative to those with nonemployed mothers, youth with part-time employed mothers reported more positive daily moods and higher self-esteem, while youth reported time with full-time employed mothers to be the friendliest. While children with employed mothers spent no less time with family, parents, friends, in class or alone, they spent more time alone with fathers.
McCabe, Jennifer E
A substantial literature has examined the association between parenting behavior and maternal psychological characteristics (i.e., personality and psychopathology). Although research has provided evidence indicating that personality and psychopathology are not independent of one another, parenting research has mainly focused on these characteristics separately. In the present study, I quantitatively integrated these literatures through meta-analytic path analysis. First, meta-analyses were conducted on articles, book chapters, and dissertations that examined associations between personality or psychopathology and warmth or control in mothers of children age 12 months or older. Using mixed-effects regression, meta-analyses revealed significant, small effect sizes suggesting that low levels of neuroticism and psychopathology and high levels of agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness were associated with adaptive parenting. Moderator analyses indicated that variability among individual studies was partially explained by report method, study design, and conceptualizations of parenting behavior. Meta-analytic path analyses showed that the observed associations between maternal personality/psychopathology and parenting behaviors as reported in the literature may be explained by variance shared among these psychological characteristics. Furthermore, some maternal psychological characteristics explained a significantly larger portion of variance in parenting behavior than others. Findings supported the proposal that maternal personality and psychopathology are not independent in the associations they demonstrate with parenting behaviors and that these areas of research can be integrated. The present study is limited by including only mothers, excluding infants, and using cross-sectional analyses. However, results have implications for future conceptualizations of maternal psychological characteristics as determinants of parenting behaviors and for the refinement
Arditti, Joyce; Burton, Linda; Neeves-Botelho, Sara
This article presents an emergent conceptual model of the features and links between cumulative disadvantage, maternal distress, and parenting practices in low-income families in which parental incarceration has occurred. The model emerged from the integration of extant conceptual and empirical research with grounded theory analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data from Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study. Fourteen exemplar family cases were used in the analysis. Results indicated that mothers in these families experienced life in the context of cumulative disadvantage, reporting a cascade of difficulties characterized by neighborhood worries, provider concerns, bureaucratic difficulties, violent intimate relationships, and the inability to meet children's needs. Mothers, however, also had an intense desire to protect their children, and to make up for past mistakes. Although, in response to high levels of maternal distress and disadvantage, most mothers exhibited harsh discipline of their children, some mothers transformed their distress by advocating for their children under difficult circumstances. Women's use of harsh discipline and advocacy was not necessarily an "either/or" phenomenon as half of the mothers included in our analysis exhibited both harsh discipline and care/advocacy behaviors. Maternal distress characterized by substance use, while connected to harsh disciplinary behavior, did not preclude mothers engaging in positive parenting behaviors.
Morrissey, Taryn W
This study examined associations between mothers' depressive symptoms and parenting behaviors related to children's nutrition and physical activity. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative study of children from infancy through kindergarten entry. Contemporaneous and lagged associations between maternal depressive symptoms and mothers' parenting behaviors were tested, controlling for background characteristics. The mediating effect of use of a physician's office or clinic as a source for routine care was tested. At each wave, between 18 and 20 % of mothers were considered as having moderate or severe depressive symptoms. These mothers were 1.3 percentage points more likely to put their infants to bed with a bottle, 2.6 percentage points less likely to have rules about the foods their children eat, and their children were 3.0 percentage points less likely to be in bed by 9:00 p.m. than mothers lacking depressive symptoms. These mothers also reported that their families ate dinner together fewer nights per week, and their children watched more television per day, than non-depressed mothers. The use of a physician's office or clinic partially mediated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and whether infants went to bed with a bottle. Interventions that identify maternal depression early may be useful in promoting healthy parenting behaviors and weight outcomes among young children.
Orgilés, Mireia; Penosa, Patricia; Morales, Alexandra; Fernández-Martínez, Iván; Espada, José P
Maternal anxiety is known to be associated with childhood separation anxiety. However, there is little research on the mediating factors of this relationship, despite the possible consequences separation anxiety might have for children's development and autonomy. The objective of this study was to analyze the possible mediating effects of 4 parenting styles (overprotective, assertive, punitive, and inhibited) on the relationship between maternal anxiety and child separation anxiety. Participants were 235 mothers with children aged 3 to 6 years, recruited from 6 preschools in the southeast of Spain. Maternal trait anxiety, maternal parenting style, and child separation anxiety were evaluated. A parallel multiple-mediation analysis revealed that the overprotective parenting style was a significant mediator of the relationship between maternal trait anxiety and child separation anxiety. In addition, mothers with higher trait anxiety scores exhibited a greater likelihood of using an overprotective, punitive, or less assertive parenting style. Younger mothers were more likely to use an overprotective parenting style, and compared with girls, boys were more exposed to the assertive style. This study provides initial evidence that parenting style acts as a mediator of the relationship between maternal anxiety and child separation anxiety.
Barnett, Melissa A.; de Baca, Tomas Cabeza; Jordan, Ashley; Tilley, Elizabeth; Ellis, Bruce J.
Background: Children and parents often rely on the support provided by non-parental adults such as extended family members. Expanding conceptualizations of social support beyond traditional nuclear family paradigms to include non-parental adults may be particularly relevant to identifying family strengths among economically disadvantaged and…
Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido
The evolution of maternal effects on offspring phenotype should depend on the extent of parent-offspring conflict and costs and constraints associated with maternal and offspring strategies. Here, we develop a model of maternal effects on offspring dispersal phenotype under parent-offspring conflict
Provides a review and integration of findings on the effects of parenting styles and maternal employment on children's academic achievement. Presents a model in which it is argued that maternal employment status has little, if any, direct effect on children's academic achievement. Suggests maternal employment affects parenting styles, which in…
Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.
The status of state maternity/parental leave laws throughout the United States is depicted in eight figures and three tables. Information is reported by state for maternity/parental leave laws, months of available leave, maternity/family illness laws, days of leave for family illness, temporary disability insurance laws, temporary disability…
Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha
The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research.
Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N.
Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albe...
Olino, Thomas M; McMakin, Dana L; Nicely, Terri A; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E; Silk, Jennifer S
Although multiple studies find that offspring of depressed mothers are at risk for depressive disorders, there is uncertainty about the specific mechanisms that are at work--particularly with respect to modifiable factors that might be targeted for early intervention. The present work examines that parenting behaviors may operate as mediators, moderators, or independent influences on the development of youth depressive symptoms. One hundred one mothers and their early adolescent children participated in positive and negative interaction tasks. Maternal and youth self-reports of youth depressive symptoms were collected at baseline, 9-month, and 18-month assessments. Maternal history of depression was significantly associated with maternal-reported, but not youth self-reported, depressive symptomatology. Maternal positive and negative interaction behaviors in positive contexts were associated with higher youth self-reported depressive symptoms. Maternal positive interaction behaviors in positive contexts and maternal negative interactive behaviors in conflict contexts were associated with higher youth self-reported depressive symptoms. We found no evidence for maternal interaction behaviors serving as a mediator and little evidence of maternal interaction behaviors serving as a moderator of the relationship between maternal and offspring depression. Low maternal positive engagement tended to be more consistently associated with maternal- and self-reported youth depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that characteristics of mother-child interactions that are associated with youth depressive symptomatology are pertinent to youth with and without a mother with a history of depression.
consumption, exercise and diet during pregnancy on birth outcomes and considers the problem of identifying the causal effect of these endogenous maternal health behaviours. The analysis controls for a wide range of covariates and exploits sibling variation in the Danish National Birth Cohort. The paper...... the ways in which child health is generated, and - for children of higher birth order - earlier children's outcomes will shape parental investments in child health....
Schuppert, H Marieke; Albers, Casper J; Minderaa, Ruud B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Nauta, Maaike H
The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress has not been examined in this group. The current study examined 101 adolescents (14-19 years old) with BPD symptoms and their mothers. Assessments were made on severity of BPD symptoms, youth-perceived maternal rearing styles, and psychopathology and parenting stress in mothers. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine potential predictors of borderline severity. No correlation was found between severity of BPD symptoms in adolescents and parenting stress. Only youth-perceived maternal overprotection was significantly related to BPD severity. The combination of perceived maternal rejection with cluster B traits in mothers was significantly related to BPD severity in adolescents. This study provides a contribution to the disentanglement of the developmental pathways that lead to BPD.
Oddi, Kate B.; Murdock, Kyle W.; Vadnais, Sarah; Bridgett, David J.; Gartstein, Maria A.
Although prominent models emphasize that maternal, child, and situational variables are associated with parenting stress, previous research has often neglected to examine associations between maternal and infant temperament characteristics and stress experienced in the parenting role. Additionally, while predictors of global parenting stress have…
Paulussen-Hoogeboom, M.C.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Peetsma, T.T.D.
This short-term longitudinal study focuses on relations between preschool-aged childrens' perceived "difficult" temperament (defined as high negative emotionality) and observed maternal sensitive responsiveness in the context of maternal parenting stress. Design. Participants were fifty-nine
Ostberg, Monica; Hagekull, Berit
This study sought to disentangle the effects of different kinds of stress on maternal ratings of child externalizing and internalizing problems, social inhibition, and social competence, with a primary focus on parenting stress. The relations were explored in a sample consisting of mothers of 436 children (Mage = 7 years) in Sweden. Half the sample had had early clinical contacts during infancy due to child regulation problems, and the rest were mothers without known such early contacts. Demographic factors, family stressors, and parenting stress were examined in stress - adjustment models. Family stressors were clinical contact during infancy, current child and parent health problems, recent negative life events, and insufficient social support. Parenting stress as a mediator of the effect of other stressors on rated child adjustment was tested as was social support as a moderator of the effect of parenting stress on adjustment. The results showed that a higher parenting stress level was associated with maternal ratings of more externalizing and internalizing behaviors, more social inhibition, and lower social competence. Other family stressors and background variables were also found to be of importance, mainly for externalizing and internalizing problems and to some extent for social competence. Social inhibition had a unique relation to parenting stress only. Parenting stress mediated effects of other stressors in twelve models, whereas social support had no moderating effect on the link between parenting stress and child adjustment. Thus, parenting stress seems to be an important overarching construct. Clinical implications are proposed. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Smith, Victoria C; Leppert, Katherine A; Alfano, Candice A; Dougherty, Lea R
Using a multi-method design, this study examined the construct validity of the Parent-Child Sleep Interactions Scale (PSIS; Alfano et al., 2013), which measures sleep-related parenting behaviors and interactions that contribute to preschoolers' sleep problems. Participants included a community sample of 155 preschoolers (ages 3-5years; 51.6% female). Primary caregivers completed the PSIS. Parenting styles and behaviors were assessed with laboratory observations and parent reports. Parent and child psychopathology and family life stress were assessed with clinical interviews and parent reports. Bivariate correlations revealed significant associations between the PSIS and a number of variables, including lower observed parental support and quality of instruction; higher observed parental intrusiveness; authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles; current maternal depressive and/or anxiety disorders and depressive symptomatology; increased stressful life events; lower marital satisfaction; and higher child depressive, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms. The patterns of association varied based on the specific PSIS scale. The PSIS demonstrates meaningful associations with parenting, maternal psychopathology, family stress, and child psychopathology and functioning. Findings suggest that the PSIS is a valid measure for assessing sleep-related parent/child behaviors and interactions among preschoolers, suited to real-world settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thompson, Ronald G; Alonzo, Dana; Hasin, Deborah S
This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime alcohol dependence using data from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime alcohol dependence. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems doubled the likelihood of alcohol dependence. Divorce and history of alcohol problems for both parents tripled the likelihood. Offspring of parental divorce may be more vulnerable to developing alcohol dependence, particularly when one or both parents have alcohol problems.
Sanders, M R; Woolley, M L
The present study examined the relationship between maternal self-efficacy, dysfunctional discipline practices and child conduct problems. Specifically, three levels of self-efficacy, global, domain and task-specific self-efficacy, were assessed in mothers of 2- to 8-year-old children with conduct problems (clinic group, n=45) and non-clinic mothers from the community (non-clinic group, n=79). Measures of global, domain and task-specific self-efficacy were completed by mothers. Clinic mothers reported significantly lower self-efficacy than non-clinic mothers for all but one of the parenting tasks assessed. Both groups of mothers reported lowest self-efficacy for similar parenting tasks. In the sample as a whole self-efficacy measures were significant predictors of maternal discipline style after controlling for other parent, child and risk factors. Of the self-efficacy variables behavioural self-efficacy was the best predictor of mothers discipline style. The findings support the importance of developing parenting strategies that enable parents to generalize their parenting skills to a diverse range of diverse parenting contexts both in the home and in the community.
Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Stein, Mark A
Given the high heritability of the disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common among parents of children with ADHD. Parental ADHD is associated with maladaptive parenting, negative parent-child interaction patterns and a diminished response to behavioural parent training. We describe our previous research demonstrating that stimulant medications for mothers with ADHD are associated with reductions in maternal ADHD symptoms. Although limited beneficial effects on self-reported parenting were also found in our study, the impact of ADHD medications on functional outcomes related to parenting and family interactions may not be sufficient for many families. Many questions remain with regard to how best to treat multiplex ADHD families in which a parent and child have ADHD. In particular, future studies are needed: (1) to evaluate how best to sequence pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment for adult ADHD and behavioural parenting interventions; (2) to determine the best approach to maintaining treatment effects over the long term for both parents and children; and (3) to identify individual predictors of treatment response.
Hirschler-Guttenberg, Yael; Feldman, Ruth; Ostfeld-Etzion, Sharon; Laor, Nathaniel; Golan, Ofer
Emotion regulation (ER) difficulties are a major concern in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Maternal temperament and parenting style have significant effects on children's ER. However, these effects have not been studied in children with ASD. Forty preschoolers with ASD and their mothers and forty matched controls engaged in fear and anger ER paradigms, micro-coded for child self- and co-regulatory behaviors and parent's regulation-facilitation. Mothers' parenting style and temperament were self-reported. In the ASD group only, maternal authoritarian style predicted higher self-regulation and lower co-regulation of anger and maternal authoritative style predicted higher self-regulation of fear. Maternal temperament did not predict child's ER. Findings emphasize the importance of maternal flexible parenting style in facilitating ER among children with ASD.
Zandiyeh, Zahra; Zare, Elaheh; Hedayati, Batool
Parenting style is one of the most important and effective factors in training and growth of children and adolescents and the method that parents communicate with their children is an effective factor on family contact models. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of group training about parenting styles on maternal attitudes that were admitted to Isfahan Imam Ali (AS) health care center in 2013. This was an experimental study, which was conducted on a random sample of 25 mothers referred to this health care center. They were divided into two groups (experimental and control). The experimental group received five sessions of group training, and the control group received a booklet about parenting styles. The used tool in this study was the Bamerind Parenting Style Questionnaire that was completed by the mothers before and after the intervention and finally, their obtained scores were compared with each other. The results of the present study showed that the mean score of attitude toward easy-going style in test group was less than the control group after intervention (P = 0.045). The mean score of attitude toward authoritative style in the experimental group was less than control group after intervention (P = 0.037) and the mean score of attitude toward authoritative style in the experimental group was more than the control group after intervention (P = 0.011). Group training can be an appropriate method in changing maternal attitudes toward parenting styles.
Zhang, Wenxin; Wei, Xing; Ji, Linqin; Chen, Liang; Deater-Deckard, Kirby
Parenting in Chinese culture has been a central topic and there have been debate on whether western-derived parenting style is applicable to Chinese cultures in terms of both behavioral profiles and their relationships with child and adolescent adjustment. This study identified the subtypes of Chinese maternal parenting style and examined their stability and changes over the transition to early adolescence. In an urban Chinese sample (N = 2173, 48% girls), four waves of longitudinal data were collected when the adolescents were in the fifth (M = 11.27 years), sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Latent profile analysis identified four subtypes of parenting style: authoritative, authoritarian, average-level undifferentiated, and strict-affectionate. Adolescents of authoritative mothers exhibited the best overall adjustment, while adolescents of authoritarian mothers showed the worst adjustment. Adolescents of strict-affectionate mothers generally adjusted as well as those of authoritative mothers, except they showed lower academic achievement. The strict-affectionate parenting represented a culture-specific subtype of parenting style in Chinese culture. Latent transition analysis revealed high stability of parenting styles during early adolescence, but transitions between subtypes were also evident. These findings highlight the importance of revisiting Chinese parenting and examining the developmental course of parenting style.
Cooklin, Amanda R; Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane R W
To investigate the association between the mother-infant relationship, defined as maternal-infant emotional attachment, maternal separation anxiety and breastfeeding, and maternal employment status at 10 months following first childbirth. Samples of employed, pregnant women, over 18 years of age and with sufficient English literacy were recruited systematically from one public and one private maternity hospital in Victoria. Data were collected by structured interview and self-report questionnaire in the third trimester, and at 3 and 10 months postpartum. Socio-demographic, employment, and breastfeeding information was collected. Participants completed standardised assessments of maternal separation anxiety and mother-to-infant emotional attachment. Of 205 eligible women, 165 (81%) agreed to participate and 129 (78%) provided complete data. A reduced odds of employment participation was independently associated with continuing to breastfeed at 10 months (OR=0.22, p=0.004) and reporting higher maternal separation anxiety (OR=0.23, p=0.01) when maternal age, education, occupational status and use of paid maternity leave and occupational status were adjusted for in analyses. Employment participation in the first 10 months postpartum is associated with lower maternal separation anxiety, and shorter breastfeeding duration. Paid parental leave has public health implications for mothers and infants. These include permitting sufficient time to protect sustained breastfeeding, and the development of optimal maternal infant attachment, reflected in confidence about separation from her infant. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.
Bridgett, David J; Kanya, Meghan J; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mayes, Linda C
Multiple lines of inquiry, including experimental animal models, have recently converged to suggest that executive functioning (EF) may be one mechanism by which parenting behavior is transmitted across generations. In the current investigation, we empirically test this notion by examining relations between maternal EF and parenting behaviors during mother-infant interactions, and by examining the role of maternal EF in the intergenerational transmission of parenting behavior. Mother-infant dyads (N = 150) in a longitudinal study participated. Mothers were administered measures of EF (working memory and inhibition), reported on the parenting they received from their parents (i.e., the infants' maternal grandparents), and were observed interacting with their 8-month-old infants. SEM findings indicated that the negative parenting mothers received from their own parents was significantly related to poorer maternal EF, and that poorer maternal EF was significantly related to subsequent engagement in more negative parenting practices (e.g., intrusiveness, displays of negativity) with their own infant. A significant indirect effect, through maternal EF, was observed between maternal report of her experiences of negative parenting received while growing up and her own use of negative parenting practices. Our findings make two contributions. First, we add to existing work that has primarily considered relations between parent EF and parenting behavior while interacting with older children by showing that maternal EF affects children, via maternal parenting behavior, beginning very early in life. Second, we provide key evidence of the role of EF in the intergenerational transmission of parenting. Additional implications of these findings, as well as important future directions, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Luz S. Porter, PhD, ARNP, FAANP, FAAN
Conclusions: The findings suggest that infant massage blended into a structured parenting program has value-added effects in decreasing parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms, but not on SAM's self-esteem, attachment, or maternal-infant interaction.
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Escher, Fabian J
What is "normal"? Maternal parenting behavior as risk and protective factor for psychopathology and identity diffusion Objectives: This study analyzes the implications of today's highly altered maternal parenting behaviors on children's development and psychological health. The relationship between maternal parenting behaviors (support, psychological control, and anxious monitoring) and delayed identity development or identity diffusion as well as internalizing or externalizing symptomatology was investigated in a sample of 732 youths (301 adolescents, 351 young adults, and 80 patients). Cluster analysis identified two types of maternal parenting behaviors: authoritative maternal behavior and dysfunctionalmaternal behavior. As expected, patients exhibited a high degree of dysfunctional maternal parenting behavior (low support, high psychological control), delayed identity development as well as elevated identity diffusion and symptomatology.Authoritative maternal parenting emerged as a protective factor in the prediction of identity diffusion and symptomatology.All three groups described a high degree of anxious maternal monitoring. The implications of changed maternal parenting behaviors on identity diffusion and symptomatology are discussed in light of societal changes and changing criteria of personality disorders in the new DSM-5.
Reti, I M; Samuels, J F; Eaton, W W; Bienvenu, O J; Costa, P T; Nestadt, G
To investigate the role of parenting in the development of adult antisocial personality traits. A total of 742 community-based subjects were assessed for adult DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder traits and for measures of parental behavior experienced as children, including by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Three fundamental dimensions of parental behavior - care, behavioral restrictiveness and denial of psychological autonomy - were derived by factor analysis from the PBI. These dimensions significantly correlated with measures of parental behavior considered influential in later antisocial behavior. Adult antisocial traits in males were associated with low maternal care and high maternal behavioral restrictiveness, and in females, antisocial traits were associated with low paternal care and high maternal denial of psychological autonomy. These dimensions did not, however, explain all variance parental behavior has on adult antisocial personality traits. Adult antisocial personality traits are associated with experiences of low parental care and maternal overprotection.
Farrell, Debi; Thomas, Amy; Johnson, Lisa; Arena, Jordan; Weiner, Stacie; Nyce, Susan; Lang, Allison; Alvazian, Casey; Szuchyt, Jamie; Cane, Susan; Gelband, Amy; Zohe, Dorothy; Chambliss, Catherine
To identify the attitudes towards maternal employment of undergraduates reared in single-parent families compared to those in dual-parent households, 717 undergraduates were surveyed. Subjects were divided into two groups based on number of household parents. Between group t-tests revealed a significant effect on the Beliefs about the Consequences…
Nordstrom, Alicia H.; Dumas, Jean E.; Gitter, Alexandra H.
This study integrates and applies theoretical models linking parent cognitions to maternal engagement in a parenting program to prevent child aggression and conduct problems. African American and European American mothers of preschoolers (N = 347) reported on their child's behavior, family demographics, and parental cognitions (i.e., parenting…
Bridgett, David J.; Laake, Lauren M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Dorn, Danielle
The current study examined the influence of maternal characteristics on the development of infant smiling and laughter, a marker of early positive emotionality (PE) and how maternal characteristics and the development of infant PE contributed to subsequent maternal parenting. One hundred fifty-nine mothers with 4-month-old infants participated.…
Stright, Anne Dopkins; Yeo, Kim Lian
This study examined the roles of children's perceptions of maternal parenting styles (warmth, psychological control, and behavioral control) and maternal involvement in school-focused parenting practices (home-based involvement, home-school conferencing, and school-based involvement) predicting children's school achievement and conduct in…
Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; d'Entremont, Marc-Robert L.
The relationship between less than optimal parenting styles, child transgressions and maternal depression were examined. It was predicted that variations in parenting styles would predict maternal depression over and above child transgressions. The present study involved approximately 68 children, their mothers and their preschool teachers.…
Mazursky-Horowitz, Heather; Felton, Julia W; MacPherson, Laura; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Cassidy, Jude; Lejuez, C W; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea
Mothers with elevated Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms demonstrate parenting deficits, as well as difficulties in emotion regulation (ER), which may further impact their ability to effectively parent. However, no empirical research has examined potential mediators that explain the relations between maternal ADHD symptoms and parenting. This prospective longitudinal study examined difficulties with ER as a mediator of the relation between adult ADHD symptoms and parenting among 234 mothers of adolescents recruited from the community when they were between the ages of nine to twelve. Maternal ratings of adult ADHD symptoms, difficulties with ER, and parenting responses to their adolescents' expressions of negative emotions were collected over the course of three years. We found that maternal ADHD symptoms were negatively associated with positive parenting responses to adolescents' negative emotions, and positively associated with harsh parenting and maternal distress reactions. Moreover, maternal ER mediated the relation between adult ADHD symptoms and harsh parenting responses, while controlling for adolescent ADHD and disruptive behavior symptoms. However, maternal ER did not mediate the relation between ADHD symptoms and positive or distressed parental responses. Thus, it appears that ER is one mechanism by which maternal ADHD symptoms are associated with harsh responses to their adolescents' expressions of negative emotion. These findings may have downstream implications for adolescent adjustment.
Steeger, Christine M.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.
We examined maternal avoidant coping as a mediator between maternal parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Three years of self-report data were collected from 173 mothers, beginning when mothers’ adolescents were in 6th grade and aged 11–13 years. Utilizing longitudinal path analysis, results indicated that avoidant coping at time two mediated the association between parenting stress at time one and depressive symptoms at time three. Additionally, the reve...
Jackson, Aurora P; Bentler, Peter M; Franke, Todd M
This three-year longitudinal study investigated whether low-wage employment was associated with improved psychological and parenting outcomes in a sample of 178 single mothers who were employed and unemployed current and former welfare recipients both before and subsequent to the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. Participation in employment predicted fewer depressive symptoms and less negative parenting style over time. Employment at time 1 was associated with a reduced likelihood of receiving welfare in the interim between times 1 and 2, less financial strain at time 2, and (through these) a decrease in mothers' depressive symptoms at time 2. Fewer depressive symptoms at time 2, in turn, predicted less negative parenting style, net of the mothers' earlier demographic, mental health, and parenting characteristics. Mothers with higher education attainment were more likely to be employed (and to earn more) at both time points. Implications of these findings for welfare policies are discussed.
Tuominen, Miia; Junttila, Niina; Ahonen, Pia; Rautava, Päivi
This study explored the parenting self-efficacy of the parents of 18-month-old children in the context of Finnish maternity and child health clinics. This parenting self-efficacy was observed in relation with the relational continuity of care and parents' experienced loneliness and depressive symptoms. The relational continuity of care was provided by a public health nurse in maternity and child health clinics. The participating parents were drawn from the STEPS study that is being carried out by the Institute for Child and Youth Research at the University of Turku. The results showed that relational continuity of care provided by the same public health nurse in the maternity and child health clinics was associated with mothers' higher emotional loneliness and with lower scores on three dimensions of parents' parenting self-efficacy. Loneliness and depressive symptoms negatively influenced parents' parenting self-efficacy - however, in the case where the family had experienced relational continuity of care, the parents' higher levels of depressive symptoms had not weakened their parenting self-efficacy beliefs. These results are discussed in terms of organizing maternity and child health clinic services. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Simonds, M P; Simonds, J F
Mothers of 182 preschool nursery school children rated their own parenting responses on a "Parent's Report" questionnaire. At the same time the mothers responded to the "Behavior Style Questionnaire" (BSQ) from which scores were determined for nine categories of temperament. On the basis of category scores the children were grouped into one of five temperament clusters i.e. easy, difficult, slow to warm up, high intermediate, low intermediate. The children's membership in BSQ clusters was independent of sex, age, birth order, and mothers employment status but there was a significantly higher ratio of "easy" children from higher socioeconomic classes I and II. Mothers of children grouped in either the "difficult" or "slow to warmup"clusters were more likely to use "guilt inducing" and "temper-detachment" parenting styles than mothers of children grouped in the "easy" cluster.
Bridgett, David J.; Kanya, Meghan J.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; Mayes, Linda C.
Multiple lines of inquiry, including experimental animal models, have recently converged to suggest that executive functioning (EF) may be one mechanism by which parenting behavior is transmitted across generations. In the current investigation, we empirically test this notion by examining relations between maternal EF and parenting behaviors during mother-infant interactions, and by examining the role of maternal EF in the intergenerational transmission of parenting behavior. Mother-infant d...
Berlin, Lisa J; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Roggman, Lori A; Green, Beth L; Robinson, JoAnn; Spieker, Susan
This study examined maternal depression, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety as moderators of Early Head Start's effects on four parenting outcomes assessed at age three. Participants (N = 947) were drawn from six sites of the Early Head Start National Research and Evaluation Project, a multi-site randomized trial. Findings suggest more positive program effects for mothers with less initial attachment avoidance or attachment anxiety. First, baseline attachment avoidance moderated Early Head Start program effects on observed maternal supportiveness, such that program mothers with lower baseline attachment avoidance were rated as more supportive of their three-year-olds than program mothers with higher baseline attachment avoidance. Second, program effects on spanking varied depending on mothers' baseline attachment anxiety.
Huth-Bocks, Alissa C; Muzik, Maria; Beeghly, Marjorie; Earls, Lauren; Stacks, Ann M
There is growing evidence that "secure-base scripts" are an important part of the cognitive underpinnings of internal working models of attachment. Recent research in middle class samples has shown that secure-base scripts are linked to maternal attachment-oriented behavior and child outcomes. However, little is known about the correlates of secure base scripts in higher-risk samples. Participants in the current study included 115 mothers who were oversampled for childhood maltreatment and their infants. Results revealed that a higher level of secure base scriptedness was significantly related to more positive and less negative maternal parenting in both unstructured free play and structured teaching contexts, and to higher reflective functioning scores on the Parent Development Interview-Revised Short Form. Associations with parent-child secure base scripts, specifically, indicate some level of relationship-specificity in attachment scripts. Many, but not all, significant associations remained after controlling for family income and maternal age. Findings suggest that assessing secure base scripts among mothers known to be at risk for parenting difficulties may be important for interventions aimed at altering problematic parental representations and caregiving behavior.
Holditch-Davis, Diane; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Burchinal, Margaret R; Goldman, Barbara Davis
We examined which components of maternal role attainment (identity, presence, competence) influenced quality of parenting for 72 medically fragile infants, controlling for maternal education and infant illness severity. Maternal competence was related to responsiveness. Maternal presence and technology dependence were inversely related to participation. Greater competence and maternal education were associated with better normal caregiving. Presence was negatively related although competence was positively related to illness-related caregiving. Mothers with lower competence and more technology dependent children perceived their children as more vulnerable and child cues as more difficult to read. Maternal role attainment influenced parenting quality for these infants more than did child illness severity; thus interventions are needed to help mothers develop their maternal role during hospitalization and after discharge. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 34:35-48, 2011. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ren, Lixin; Zhang, Xiao; Zhou, Ning; Ng, Mei Lee
Research Findings: This study examined how child negative emotionality interacted with mothers' self-reported parenting in predicting different aspects of social functioning among very young Chinese children. A total of 109 Chinese nursery children in Hong Kong participated with their parents. Maternal supportive and aversive parenting practices…
Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John A.
Objective: Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their…
Fletcher, Anne C.; Walls, Jill K.; Cook, Emily C.; Madison, Karis J.; Bridges, Tracey H.
The authors investigate whether parental use of punitive discipline and yielding to coercion varies in levels and associated child outcomes for mothers with different parenting styles. Participants were fourth-grade children (N = 370) and their mothers. Maternal parenting style was determined based on levels of responsiveness and demandingness.…
Yamagata, Shinji; Takahashi, Yusuke; Ozaki, Koken; Fujisawa, Keiko K; Nonaka, Koichi; Ando, Juko
This twin study examined the bidirectional relationship between maternal parenting behaviors and children's peer problems that were not confounded by genetic and family environmental factors. Mothers of 259 monozygotic twin pairs reported parenting behaviors and peer problems when twins were 42 and 48 months. Path analyses on monozygotic twin difference scores revealed that authoritative parenting (the presence of consistent discipline and lack of harsh parenting) and peer problems simultaneously influenced each other. Authoritative parenting reduced peer problems, and peer problems increased authoritative parenting. Neither consistent discipline nor harsh parenting alone was associated with peer problems. These results suggest that maternal authoritative parenting works protectively in regard to children's peer problems, and peer problems can evoke such effective parenting. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Bocknek, Erika London; Vallotton, Claire D; Stansbury, Kathy E; Senehi, Neda; Dalimonte-Merckling, Danielle; Lee, Young-Eun
To test the hypothesis that toddlers at highest risk for behavioral problems from the most economically vulnerable families will benefit most from maternal talk about emotions. This study included 89 toddlers and mothers from low-income families. Behavioral problems were rated at 2 time points by masters-level trained Early Head Start home visiting specialists. Maternal emotion talk was coded from a wordless book-sharing task. Coding focused on mothers' emotion bridging, which included labeling emotions, explaining the context of emotions, noting the behavioral cues of emotions, and linking emotions to toddlers' own experiences. Maternal demographic risk reflected a composite score of 5 risk factors. A significant 3-way interaction between Time 1 toddler behavior problems, maternal emotion talk, and maternal demographic risk (p = .001) and examination of slope difference tests revealed that when maternal demographic risk was greater, more maternal emotion talk buffered associations between earlier and later behavior problems. Greater demographic risk and lower maternal emotion talk intensified Time 1 behavior problems as a predictor of Time 2 behavior problems. The model explained 54% of the variance in toddlers' Time 2 behavior problems. Analyses controlled for maternal warmth to better examine the unique contributions of emotion bridging to toddlers' behaviors. Toddlers at highest risk, those with more early behavioral problems from higher demographic-risk families, benefit the most from mothers' emotion talk. Informing parents about the use of emotion talk may be a cost-effective, simple strategy to support at-risk toddlers' social-emotional development and reduce behavioral problems.
Windhorst, Dafna A; Rippe, Ralph C A; Mileva-Seitz, Viara R; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Noppe, Gerard; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; van den Akker, Erica L T; Tiemeier, Henning; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J
It has been shown that following exposure to mild perinatal adversity, children have greater susceptibility to both the negative and positive aspects of their subsequent environment. In a large population-based cohort study (N = 1,776), we investigated whether mild perinatal adversity moderated the association between maternal harsh parenting and children's hair cortisol levels, a biomarker of chronic stress. Mild perinatal adversity was defined as late preterm birth (gestational age at birth of 34-37 weeks, 6 days) or small for gestational age (birth weight between the 2.5th and 10th percentile for full term gestational age). Harsh parenting was assessed by maternal self-report at 3 years. Children's hair cortisol concentrations were measured from hair samples collected at age 6. There were no significant bivariate associations between mild perinatal adversities and harsh parenting and hair cortisol. However, mild perinatal adversities moderated the association between maternal harsh parenting and hair cortisol levels. Children with mild perinatal adversity had lower cortisol levels if parented more harshly and higher cortisol levels in the absence of harsh parenting than children who did not experience mild perinatal adversity. These results provide further evidence that mild perinatal adversity is a potential marker of differential susceptibility to environmental influences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Barlow, J; Coren, E
Mental health problems are common and there is evidence to suggest that the origins of such problems lie in infancy and childhood. In particular, there is evidence from a range of studies to suggest that maternal psychosocial health can have a significant effect on the mother-infant relationship, and that this in turn can have consequences for both the short and long-term psychological health of the child. The use of parenting programmes is increasing in the UK and elsewhere and evidence of their effectiveness in improving outcomes for children has been provided. Evidence is now required of their effectiveness in improving outcomes for mothers. The objective of this review is to address whether group-based parenting programmes are effective in improving maternal psychosocial health including anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. A range of biomedical, social science, educational and general reference electronic databases were searched including MEDLINE, EMBASE CINAHL, PsychLIT, ERIC, ASSIA, Sociofile and the Social Science Citation Index. Other sources of information included the Cochrane Library (SPECTR, CENTRAL), and the National Research Register (NRR). Only randomised controlled trials were included in which participants had been randomly allocated to an experimental and a control group, the latter being a waiting-list, no-treatment or a placebo control group. Studies had to include at least one group-based parenting programme, and one standardised instrument measuring maternal psychosocial health. A systematic critical appraisal of all included studies was undertaken using a modified version of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) published criteria. The treatment effect for each outcome in each study was standardised by dividing the mean difference in post-intervention scores for the intervention and treatment group, by the pooled standard deviation, to produce an effect size. Where appropriate the results were then combined in a meta
Innella, Nancy; McNaughton, Diane; Schoeny, Michael; Tangney, Christy; Breitenstein, Susan; Reed, Monique; Wilbur, Joellen
Although obesogenic behaviors (physical activity and/or sedentary behavior and dietary intake) are known predictors of childhood weight status, little is known about mother and child behaviors contributing to obesogenic behaviors and obesity in Hispanic preschool children, whose obesity rate is higher than in non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks. The purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to examine relationships among child temperament, maternal behaviors (feeding practices and parenting style), child obesogenic behaviors, and child weight status in 100 Hispanic preschool children. Results showed that higher scores on the negative affectivity dimension of child temperament were associated with higher scores on the dimension of permissive parenting, and permissive parenting was associated with less time spent in sedentary behaviors ( B = -3.53, confidence interval [-7.52, -0.90]). Findings can guide school nurses in developing interventions that consider child temperament and parenting style to promote nonobesogenic behavior in Hispanic preschoolers.
Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Maack, Danielle J.
Although sensitivity to the Behavioral Inhibition System within Gray’s (1970) reinforcement sensitivity theory relates to individuals’ own depressive and anxious symptomatology, less is known about how parental BIS sensitivity relates to early indicators of internalizing problems in young children. Moreover, the extent to which this parental characteristic relates to parenting behavior, and children’s internalizing problems above and beyond parenting, remains unknown. The current study assessed maternal BIS sensitivity, overprotective parenting, and toddlers’ internalizing behaviors in a sample of 91 mothers while controlling for mothers’ own internalizing symptomatology. Heightened BIS sensitivity related to both overprotective parenting and internalizing behaviors. Overprotective parenting partially mediated the relation between BIS sensitivity and children’s internalizing behaviors, although BIS sensitivity maintained a marginal relation to internalizing behaviors. Maternal BIS sensitivity and toddler internalizing behaviors may represent a shared disposition towards inhibition that is somewhat accounted for by overprotective parenting. PMID:22904590
Frazer, Andrew L; Fite, Paula J
The current study, operating from a stress-process framework, examined the interactive effects of supportive parenting practices (i.e., mothers' use of positive communication, positive parenting, and parental involvement) and maternal psychological control on mother- and child-reported child depressive symptoms in a community-recruited sample of 9-12 year-olds. Discrepancies between reports of depressive symptoms were also examined. Maternal psychological control was uniquely associated with child-, not mother-, reported depressive symptoms. Parental involvement was uniquely associated with mother-, not child-, reported depressive symptoms. Positive parent-child communication was associated with both reports of child depressive symptoms at the bivariate level, but not when unique associations were examined. Positive parenting was unrelated to either report of depressive symptoms. No interaction effects were detected. The current findings highlight the differential importance of parenting practices on child depressive symptoms, and also indicate the necessity of gathering both parent and child reports of symptomatology and family functioning.
Koblinsky, Sally A; Kuvalanka, Katherine A; Randolph, Suzanne M
This study examined the role of parenting, family routines, family conflict, and maternal depression in predicting the social skills and behavior problems of low-income African American preschoolers. A sample of 184 African American mothers of Head Start children completed participant and child measures in a structured interview. Results of regression analyses revealed that mothers who utilized more positive parenting practices and engaged in more family routines had children who displayed higher levels of total prosocial skills. Positive parenting and lower levels of maternal depressive symptoms were predictive of fewer externalizing and internalizing child behavior problems. Lower family conflict was linked with fewer externalizing problems. Implications of the study for future research and intervention are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved
Shaffer, Anne; Whitehead, Monica; Davis, Molly; Morelen, Diana; Suveg, Cynthia
In a diverse community sample of mothers (N = 108) and their preschool-aged children (M age = 3.50 years), this study conducted person-oriented analyses of maternal emotion regulation (ER) based on a multimethod assessment incorporating physiological, observational, and self-report indicators. A model-based cluster analysis was applied to five indicators of maternal ER: maternal self-report, observed negative affect in a parent-child interaction, baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and RSA suppression across two laboratory tasks. Model-based cluster analyses revealed four maternal ER profiles, including a group of mothers with average ER functioning, characterized by socioeconomic advantage and more positive parenting behavior. A dysregulated cluster demonstrated the greatest challenges with parenting and dyadic interactions. Two clusters of intermediate dysregulation were also identified. Implications for assessment and applications to parenting interventions are discussed. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.; Blair, Clancy
The current study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal parenting behaviors, and child effortful control in a diverse sample of 705 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities. Using structural equation modeling, the authors simultaneously tested whether observed sensitive parenting and/or harsh-intrusive parenting over the toddler years mediated the relationship between early IPV and later effortful control. Results suggest that parent...
Tu, Kelly M; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Buckhalt, Joseph A; El-Sheikh, Mona
Utilizing a multi-method design, the present study examined the association between maternal sleep, assessed via actigraphy and self-reports, and permissive parenting (e.g. lax, inconsistent discipline) during adolescence, as well as the extent to which this association differed by mothers' race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The sample was comprised of 234 mothers (M age = 41.76 years, SD = 6.25; 67% European-American, 31% African-American, 2% other race/ethnicities) and 237 adolescents (113 boys, 124 girls; M age = 15.80 years, SD = 0.80; 66% European-American, 34% African-American). Mothers' sleep duration (actual sleep minutes) and quality (sleep efficiency, latency, long wake episodes) were assessed using actigraphy. Mothers also reported on their sleep problems and adolescents reported on mothers' permissive parenting behaviours. Results revealed that actigraphy-based longer sleep duration and shorter sleep latency were associated with lower levels of permissive parenting. Further, mothers' race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status moderated the association between actigraphy-based sleep quality (i.e. sleep efficiency, long wake episodes) and permissive parenting. Specifically, a negative association between sleep efficiency and permissive parenting was evident only for African-American mothers. In addition, a positive association between more frequent night wakings and permissive parenting was evident only for mothers from lower socioeconomic status households. The findings highlight the benefits of longer and higher-quality sleep for reducing the risk of permissive parenting, especially among ethnic minority mothers and mothers from lower socioeconomic status households. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.
DiBlasi, Francis Paul; Fronheiser, April; Baker, Kathleen; Fontanez, Mary; Fulmer, Kim; Ryckebusch, Jenna; Ellis, Trisha; Miller, Heather; Carey, Brandi; Gorton, Laura; Chambliss, Catherine
This investigation explored parents' attitudes about the risks and benefits associated with maternal employment. The responses of husbands and wives from single paycheck versus dual paycheck families were compared. Participants in this study were 109 mothers and 96 fathers given a survey assessing their views on maternal employment. This study…
Zalewski, Maureen; Thompson, Stephanie F; Lengua, Liliana J
The purpose of this study was to examine whether parenting moderated the association between maternal depressive symptoms and initial levels and growth of preadolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms. This study used a community sample of preadolescent children (N = 214; 8-12 years old at Time 1), measuring maternal depressive symptoms and parenting at Time 1, and preadolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms at each year for 3 years. After modeling latent growth curves of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, growth factors were conditioned on maternal depressive symptoms, positive (acceptance and consistent discipline) and negative (rejection and physical punishment) parenting, and the interactions of depression and parenting. Maternal rejection moderated the relation of maternal depression with internalizing symptoms, such that high rejection exacerbated the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on initial levels of preadolescent internalizing problems. There were no significant interactions predicting externalizing problems. The findings highlight how specific parenting behaviors may alter the way in which maternal depressive symptoms confer risk for behavior problems.
Siqveland, Torill S; Olafsen, Kåre S; Moe, Vibeke
The present prospective longitudinal study aimed to investigate the long-term impact of maternal optimality assessed during pregnancy on parenting stress at infant age 12 months. In this study the concept of optimality was utilized to investigate maternal variations regarding resources during pregnancy in relation to later parenting stress, among three different groups of mothers that were recruited from substance abuse treatment, psychiatric outpatient treatment and well-baby clinics respectively. The influence of infant temperament on parenting stress was also examined. All mothers were interviewed during pregnancy. At 12 months, infant temperament (Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory; Rowe & Plomin, 1977) and stress in the parent and child domain (Parenting Stress Index; Abidin, 1955) were assessed. Results demonstrated higher levels of parenting stress among mothers in the clinical groups, compared to the non-clinical group. Furthermore, it was the maternal psychiatric optimality index in combination with child temperament characteristics (child emotionality) that contributed uniquely to stress in the parent domain, while stress in the child domain was significantly associated only with child temperament characteristics (both child emotionality and soothability). The association between maternal psychiatric optimality assessed in pregnancy, infant temperament and parenting stress when the infants were 12 months old, points to the importance of simultaneously addressing the mothers' own psychological distress, and to support positive mother-infant interactions. Each woman's individual optimality profile may be used to display needs of follow-up in order to prevent enduring effects of non-optimality on parenting stress. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Shek, D T
Chinese secondary school students (N = 429) were asked to respond to instruments measuring their perception of parents' global parenting styles and specific parenting practices. Results showed that there were significant differences between reported paternal parenting and maternal parenting characteristics, with fathers perceived as relatively less responsive, less demanding, less concerned, and more harsh. Adolescent girls' perceptions of fathers' parenting characteristics generally did not differ from those of the boys, but the girls tended to perceive their mothers as more demanding but less harsh. The present findings provide some support for the popular Chinese saying, "strict father, kind mother," but they also suggest that it requires redefinition.
Tucker, Meagan C; Rodriguez, Christina M; Baker, Levi R
Previous literature examining parent-child aggression (PCA) risk has relied heavily upon mothers, limiting our understanding of paternal risk factors. Moreover, the extent to which factors in the couple relationship work in tandem with personal vulnerabilities to impact PCA risk is unclear. The current study examined whether personal stress and distress predicted PCA risk (child abuse potential, over-reactive discipline style, harsh discipline practices) for fathers as well as mothers and whether couple functioning mediated versus moderated the relation between personal stress and PCA risk in a sample of 81 couples. Additionally, the potential for risk factors in one partner to cross over and affect their partner's PCA risk was considered. Findings indicated higher personal stress predicted elevated maternal and paternal PCA risk. Better couple functioning did not moderate this relationship but partially mediated stress and PCA risk for both mothers and fathers. In addition, maternal stress evidenced a cross-over effect, wherein mothers' personal stress linked to fathers' couple functioning. Findings support the role of stress and couple functioning in maternal and paternal PCA risk, including potential cross-over effects that warrant further inquiry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hancock, Kirsten J.; Lawrence, David; Zubrick, Stephen R.
In recent years there has been an increasing interest in overprotective parenting and the potential role it plays in child development. While some have argued that a trend towards increased parental fear and reduced opportunity for independent mobility may be linked to increasing rates of child overweight and obesity, there is limited empirical information available to support this claim. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, this study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity. A cohort of 4–5 year old children was followed up at 6–7, 8–9 and 10–11 years of age (n = 2596). Measures included a protective parenting scale administered when children were 6–7 and 8–9 years of age, child body mass index (BMI), family characteristics including household income, neighbourhood disadvantage, child's position amongst siblings, and maternal BMI, education, employment, mental health and age at first birth. International Obesity Taskforce age- and sex-specific BMI cut points were used to determine if children were in the normal, overweight or obese BMI range. There was no association between maternal protectiveness and the odds of children being overweight or obese at age 4–5, 6–7 or 8–9 years. However at age 10–11 years, a 1 standard deviation increase in maternal protectiveness was associated with a 13% increase in the odds of children being overweight or obese. The results provide evidence of a relationship between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity, however further research is required to understand the mechanism(s) that links the two concepts. PMID:24955586
Kirsten J Hancock
Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in overprotective parenting and the potential role it plays in child development. While some have argued that a trend towards increased parental fear and reduced opportunity for independent mobility may be linked to increasing rates of child overweight and obesity, there is limited empirical information available to support this claim. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, this study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity. A cohort of 4-5 year old children was followed up at 6-7, 8-9 and 10-11 years of age (n = 2596. Measures included a protective parenting scale administered when children were 6-7 and 8-9 years of age, child body mass index (BMI, family characteristics including household income, neighbourhood disadvantage, child's position amongst siblings, and maternal BMI, education, employment, mental health and age at first birth. International Obesity Taskforce age- and sex-specific BMI cut points were used to determine if children were in the normal, overweight or obese BMI range. There was no association between maternal protectiveness and the odds of children being overweight or obese at age 4-5, 6-7 or 8-9 years. However at age 10-11 years, a 1 standard deviation increase in maternal protectiveness was associated with a 13% increase in the odds of children being overweight or obese. The results provide evidence of a relationship between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity, however further research is required to understand the mechanism(s that links the two concepts.
Sarıtaş, Dilek; Grusec, Joan E; Gençöz, Tülin
Maternal hostility/rejection and warmth were considered as potential mediators of the relation between mothers' and adolescents' emotion regulation. Participants were first-year high school students living in Ankara, Turkey and their mothers (N = 365). Scales assessing emotion regulation difficulties and maternal hostility/rejection and warmth were administered to both the adolescents and their mothers. Maternal hostility/rejection, but not warmth, mediated the relation between maternal and adolescent emotion regulation. For girls there was, additionally, a direct effect of maternal emotion regulation. The different roles played by parental rejection and parental warmth in the development of adolescents' emotion regulation accord with arguments that socialization occurs in different domains and that rejection and warmth are not aspects of the same domain. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shuster, Michael M; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi
Interrelations among cultural values, parenting practices, and adolescent aggression were examined using longitudinal data collected from Chinese adolescents and their mothers. Adolescents' overt and relational aggression were assessed using peer nominations at Time 1 (7th grade) and Time 2 (9th grade). Mothers reported endorsement of cultural values (collectivism and social harmony) and parenting practices (psychological control and inductive reasoning) at Time 1. While controlling for Time 1 adolescent aggression, maternal collectivism and social harmony indirectly and longitudinally linked to adolescent aggression through maternal parenting practices. Specifically, maternal collectivism was positively related to inductive reasoning, which, in turn, negatively related to adolescent overt aggression at Time 2. Similarly, maternal social harmony negatively related to psychological control that positively predicted later adolescent relational aggression. Results of the present study shed light on mechanisms through which culture may indirectly influence adolescent aggression. Copyright Â© 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shea, Sarah E.; Coyne, Lisa W.
Maternal dysphoria predicts behavioral difficulties in preschool-aged children, and may contribute to negative child outcomes by exacerbating parenting stress. Parenting stress increases the likelihood of maladaptive parenting practices, especially when mothers face multiple contextual stressors. We explored maternal experiential avoidance (EA) as…
Gray, Peter H; Edwards, Dawn M; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Cuskelly, Monica; Gibbons, Kristen
To measure levels of parenting stress and postnatal depression in mothers of very preterm infants in comparison with mothers of infants born at term is the objective of this study. The study also aimed to explore factors associated with parenting stress in the mothers of the preterm infants. One hundred and five mothers who delivered 124 babies at ≤30 weeks gestation were enrolled together with 105 term mothers who delivered 120 babies. At one year of age (corrected for prematurity for the preterm cohort), the mothers completed the Parenting Stress Index Short Form (PSI), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Short Temperament Scale for Toddlers. The infants had neurodevelopmental assessment. The preterm and term groups were compared. Questionnaires were completed by 101 of the preterm mothers and 98 of the term mothers. The mean PSI Total Stress score was significantly higher for the preterm mothers (70.28 vs 64.52, p = 0.022), with 19% of the preterm group and 9% of the term group having high scores (p = 0.038).There was no group difference on the EPDS or measures of temperament, with disability being greater in the preterm infants. For the preterm group, maternal depression and infant temperament were independent predictors of Total Stress scores on multivariate analysis. Parenting stress in mothers of preterm infants at one year of age is significantly greater than that found in mothers of term infants. For preterm mothers, symptoms of depression and infant temperament are independent risk factors for higher levels of parenting stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yamagata, Shinji; Takahashi, Yusuke; Ozaki, Koken; Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Nonaka, Koichi; Ando, Juko
This twin study examined the bidirectional relationship between maternal parenting behaviors and children's peer problems that were not confounded by genetic and family environmental factors. Mothers of 259 monozygotic twin pairs reported parenting behaviors and peer problems when twins were 42 and 48 months. Path analyses on monozygotic twin…
Guth, Christine M.; Chambliss, Catherine
Noting that few studies have assessed the long-term correlates of maternal employment during infancy, this study assessed the quality of college-age students' current relationships with their parents as a function of the employment status of their parents during the respondents' childhood. Participating in the research were 822 college students…
Williford, Amanda P.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.
This study examined maternal parenting stress in a sample of 430 boys and girls including those at risk for externalizing behavior problems. Children and their mothers were assessed when the children were ages 2, 4, and 5. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine stability of parenting stress across early childhood and to examine…
van Aken, C.; Junger, M.; Verhoeven, M.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Dekovic, M.
The present study aimed to determine the potential moderating effects of temperamental traits on the relation between parenting and toddlers' externalizing behaviours. For that purpose, this study examined the interplay between temperament and maternal parenting behaviours in predicting the level as well as the development of toddlers'…
Shulman, Shmuel; Zlotnik, Aynat; Shachar-Shapira, Lital; Connolly, Jennifer; Bohr, Yvonne
This study examined the links between parental divorce, quality of maternal parenting, spousal relationships and middle adolescent romantic competence in 80 mother-adolescent daughter pairs (40 divorced). Mothers were asked to describe their attitudes and behaviors with regard to their daughters' romantic behavior. In addition, mothers were…
Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido
The evolution of maternal effects on offspring phenotype should depend on the extent of parent-offspring conflict and costs and constraints associated with maternal and offspring strategies. Here, we develop a model of maternal effects on offspring dispersal phenotype under parent-offspring conflict to evaluate such dependence. In the absence of evolutionary constraints and costs, offspring evolve dispersal rates from different patch types that reflect their own, rather than the maternal, optima. This result also holds true when offspring are unable to assess their own environment because the maternal phenotype provides an additional source of information. Consequently, maternal effects on offspring diapause, dispersal, and other traits that do not necessarily represent costly resource investment are more likely to maximize offspring than maternal fitness. However, when trait expression was costly, the evolutionarily stable dispersal rates tended to deviate from those under both maternal and offspring control. We use our results to (re)interpret some recent work on maternal effects and their adaptive value and provide suggestions for future work. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Wang, Z.; Deater-Deckard, K.; Bell, M.A.
Objective Parents who attribute child misbehavior to children's intentions and dismiss situational factors tend to show more hostility and less warmth in their parenting behavior, and are at greater risk for maltreatment. We extended this literature by investigating the role of household chaos as a moderator of the link between maternal attribution biases and parenting behaviors. Design The current sample included 160 mothers of 3- to7-year-old children. Mothers provided reports on their attribution biases and household chaos levels. Maternal negativity and positivity were measured using self-reports and observers’ ratings. Results The links between attribution bias and parenting behavior were stronger in more chaotic environments, with the moderating effect of chaos being particularly strong for internal attribution bias. Conclusions The findings point to the importance of social cognitive biases in the etiology of maternal behavior in family contexts that lack order and predictability. PMID:24358017
Tzoumakis, Stacy; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R
Studies have often linked parenting to children's subsequent antisocial behavior; however, the circumstances under which this might occur are less clear. The current study explores patterns in mothers' parenting practices, and associated correlates including maternal delinquency and offending, mental health, and children's physical aggression. This study is based on the first wave of the ongoing Vancouver Longitudinal Study; the objective of this prospective study is to identify the early risk and protective factors for aggression and violence from the earliest developmental periods. Parenting practices of 287 mothers with preschoolers are examined using a series of latent class analyses. Three different patterns of parenting emerged: Positive, Negative, and Intermittent. Patterns identified are associated with several key criminogenic, socio-demographic, historical, and developmental factors including current maternal adult offending, mothers' mental health, ethnicity, and frequency of children's physical aggression. Importantly, mothers who show parenting in line with the more negative classes also rely on a number of positive practices. Implications of the study suggest that parenting is influenced by mothers' immediate situations and contexts (e.g., current offending rather that past delinquency), which can be targeted for intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.
Provenzi, Livio; Barello, Serena; Fumagalli, Monica; Graffigna, Guendalina; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Savarese, Mariarosaria; Montirosso, Rosario
To compare maternal and paternal experiences of very preterm (VPT) birth (gestational age < 32 weeks) and the NICU stay. Qualitative study. Data collection took place at parents' homes 3 to 6 months after NICU discharge. Ten parental couples participated in the study (20 parents). All VPT infants were healthy, without any neonatal or postnatal complications or injuries. Computer-assisted content analysis was used to highlight thematic clusters from parents' narratives, which were labeled through qualitative interpretation. Two main dimensions (Adjustment Process to Preterm Birth and Parental Role Assumption) and three main thematic clusters (Facing the Unexpected, Learning to Parent, and Finally Back Home) described the parental experience. Mothers focused mostly on the Finally Back Home cluster, which was characterized by moderate levels of adjustment to preterm birth and by awareness of their own maternal roles. Fathers focused mostly on the Learning to Parent cluster, which was characterized by low to moderate levels of adjustment to preterm birth and by a limited assumption of paternal role. To our knowledge, this study is unique in that we compared mothers and fathers who experienced the VPT births of their infants and described their experiences of the NICU stay. We found that the VPT birth experience for parents involves a dynamic adjustment. Differences in maternal and paternal experiences may indicate the need for tailored supportive interventions in the NICU. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Jihui; Lam, Siu Ping; Li, Shirley Xin; Liu, Yaping; Chan, Joey Wing Yan; Chan, Michael Ho Ming; Ho, Chung Shun; Li, Albert Martin; Wing, Yun Kwok
There are contradictory findings regarding the associations of parental depression on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity of their offspring. We aimed to explore the associations of parental depression on the diurnal salivary cortisol profile in their child and adolescent offspring. A total of 189 unaffected child and adolescent offspring as determined by structured clinical interview were divided into 3 groups according to their parental history of depression, namely current parental depression (CPD, n = 27), past parental depression (PPD, n = 57), and no parental depression (NPD, n = 105). Diurnal saliva samples were collected to measure the cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol profile. CPD group had significantly higher basal cortisol level (mean ± SE = 11.9 ± 0.80 nmol/dl) than PPD group (mean ± SE = 9.7 ± 0.73 nmol/dl, post hoc p = .024) and NPD group (mean ± SE = 10.2 ± 0.52 nmol/dl, post hoc p = .031) and lower cortisol level at noon, but comparable cortisol levels in other time points. The cortisol awakening response reference to increase (AUCi) were significantly blunted in CPD group when compared with PPD and NPD (post hoc p < .01). Adjustment for potential confounding factors did not change major findings. Further analyses revealed that main influences were derived from current maternal depression. A single day of saliva sample. Current but not past (lifetime) parental depression is associated with higher basal salivary cortisol and blunted cortisol awakening response in their children and adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A; Clarke, Tana L; Raggi, Veronica L; Rooney, Mary E; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E
This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy mothers of 6-10 year old children with ADHD underwent a comprehensive assessment of adult ADHD prior to participating in an abbreviated parent training program. Before and after treatment, parenting was assessed via maternal reports and observations and child disruptive behavior was measured via maternal report. Controlling for pre-treatment levels, maternal ADHD symptomatology predicted post-treatment child disruptive behavior problems. The relation between maternal ADHD symptomatology and improvement in child behavior was mediated by change in observed maternal negative parenting. This study replicated findings linking maternal ADHD symptoms with attenuated child improvement following parent training, and is the first to demonstrate that negative parenting at least partially explains this relationship. Innovative approaches combining evidence-based treatment for adult ADHD with parent training may therefore be necessary for families in which both the mother and child have ADHD. Larger-scale studies using a full evidence-based parent training program are needed to replicate these findings.
Hsin, Amy; Felfe, Christina
This study tests the two assumptions underlying popularly held notions that maternal employment negatively affects children because it reduces time spent with parents: (1) that maternal employment reduces children's time with parents, and (2) that time with parents affects child outcomes. We analyze children's time-diary data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and use child fixed-effects and IV estimations to account for unobserved heterogeneity. We find that working mothers trade quantity of time for better "quality" of time. On average, maternal work has no effect on time in activities that positively influence children's development, but it reduces time in types of activities that may be detrimental to children's development. Stratification by mothers' education reveals that although all children, regardless of mother's education, benefit from spending educational and structured time with their mothers, mothers who are high school graduates have the greatest difficulty balancing work and child care. We find some evidence that fathers compensate for maternal employment by increasing types of activities that can foster child development as well as types of activities that may be detrimental. Overall, we find that the effects of maternal employment are ambiguous because (1) employment does not necessarily reduce children's time with parents, and (2) not all types of parental time benefit child development.
Winsler, A.; Madigan, A.L.; Aquilino, S.A.
The goal of the present study was to investigate perceived similarities and differences in parenting styles between mothers and fathers in the same family. The 56 parents of 28 preschool children independently completed the parenting styles and dimensions questionnaire (PSDQ) [Robinson, C. C., Mandleco, B., Frost Olsen, S., & Hart, C. H. (2001).…
McNamara, Kelly A.; Selig, James P.; Hawley, Patricia H.
The present work addresses the associations between self-reported maternal parenting behaviours and aggression, personality and peer regard of children (n = 119) in early childhood (ages three-six years). A k-means cluster analysis derived types of mothers based on their relative use of autonomy support and restrictive control. Outcomes included…
Davis, Alexandra N; Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P
The present study aimed to extend research on parenting and positive development of Latino youth. Participants were 207 Mexican American adolescents (M age = 10.9 years, SD = 0.83 years; 50% girls) who completed measures of their parents' supportive and firm parenting, their own endorsement of respect and traditional gender role values, and their tendency to engage in six forms of prosocial behaviors. Maternal nativity was also considered as an initial predictor of parenting, adolescents' cultural values, and adolescents' prosocial behaviors. Overall, the results demonstrated that maternal nativity was associated with traditional gender roles and specific forms of prosocial behaviors. Parenting dimensions were differentially associated with respect and traditional gender role values and prosocial behaviors. Cultural values, in turn, were associated with multiple forms of prosocial behaviors. Gender differences in the processes were also explored.
Möller, E.L.; Nikolić, M.; Majdandžić, M.; Bögels, S.M.
In this meta-analysis we investigated differential associations between maternal and paternal parenting behaviors (overcontrol, overprotection, overinvolvement, autonomy granting, challenging parenting) and anxiety and its precursors (fearful temperament, behavioral inhibition, shyness) in children
Kohlhoff, Jane; Barnett, Bryanne
This study examined predictors of parenting self-efficacy (PSE) in a sample of first-time mothers during the first year after childbirth and evaluated the effect of a brief, intensive, mother-infant residential intervention on PSE and infant behaviour. 83 primiparous women with infants aged 0-12 months admitted to a residential parent-infant program participated in a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnosis of depressive and anxiety disorders and completed questionnaires assessing psychological distress, adult attachment and childhood parenting experiences. During their residential stay, nurses recorded infant behaviour using 24-hour charts. Results showed PSE to be inversely correlated with maternal depression, maternal anxiety and attachment insecurity. Low levels of parental abuse during childhood, avoidant attachment, male infant gender and depressive symptom severity were found to predict low PSE. Major depression mediated the relation between attachment insecurity and PSE, but there were no links between PSE and infant behaviour. After the intervention, there was a significant improvement in PSE, with abusive parenting during childhood and depressive symptom severity being predictive of change. This study highlights the links between maternal psychopathology and maternal background factors such as childhood parenting experiences and attachment style in the development of postnatal PSE. Directions for future research are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Samuelson, Kristin W; Wilson, Christina K; Padrón, Elena; Lee, Suellen; Gavron, Lauren
Maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a risk factor for negative child adjustment, but it is unclear whether this association is direct (e.g., a mother's PTSD symptoms are observed, learned, and internalized by children which results in behavioral and emotional problems) or indirect, through parent-child relationship difficulties or parenting stress. We hypothesized that parenting stress and maternal emotional availability would exhibit indirect effects on relationships between maternal PTSD and children's functioning. Participants were 52 trauma-exposed mothers and their children (aged 7-12 years). Mothers completed measures of PTSD and parenting stress and reported on their children's functioning. Emotional availability was assessed through observer-rated mother-child interactions. Emotional availability was not related to PTSD or child outcomes. Parenting stress had a substantial indirect effect on the relationships between maternal PTSD and child emotion regulation, internalizing, and externalizing behaviors. Results highlight the need to target parenting stress in interventions with trauma-exposed families. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Seymour, M; Giallo, R; Cooklin, A; Dunning, M
The antecedents and consequences of maternal post-natal anxiety have received comparatively less attention than depression despite being one of the most frequently reported mental health difficulties experienced by parents following childbirth. The aim of this study was to extend emerging literature on post-natal anxiety by investigating the prevalence of maternal anxiety symptoms, and its relationship with parenting behaviours (i.e. warmth, hostility) and experiences (i.e. parenting efficacy and satisfaction) within the first post-natal year. The psychosocial risk factors for post-natal anxiety symptoms were also explored. A community sample of 224 Australian mothers of infants (aged 0-12 months) completed a self-report questionnaire. Mothers in the current sample reported significantly more symptoms of anxiety compared with a normative sample. Approximately 18% of mothers reported mild to extremely severe symptoms of anxiety, with a high proportion experiencing co-morbid depressive symptoms. Maternal anxiety was associated with low parenting warmth, involvement, efficacy and satisfaction, and high parenting hostility. Yet, co-morbid depression and anxiety was more strongly associated with these parenting behaviours and experiences than anxiety alone. A range of psychosocial risk factors (e.g. education, sleep, relationship quality) were associated with maternal post-natal anxiety symptoms, providing opportunities for early identification and targeted early intervention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kalina J. Michalska
Full Text Available Background: Well-validated models of maternal behavior in small-brain mammals posit a central role of oxytocin in parenting, by reducing stress and enhancing the reward value of social interactions with offspring. In contrast, human studies are only beginning to gain insights into how oxytocin modulates maternal behavior and affiliation. Methods: To explore associations between oxytocin receptor genes and maternal parenting behavior in humans, we conducted a genetic imaging study of women selected to exhibit a wide range of observed parenting when their children were 4-6 years old. Results: In response to child stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging, hemodynamic responses in brain regions that mediate affect, reward, and social behavior were significantly correlated with observed positive parenting. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs53576 and rs1042778 in the gene encoding the oxytocin receptor were significantly associated with both positive parenting and hemodynamic responses to child stimuli in orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Conclusions: These findings contribute to the emerging literature on the role of oxytocin in human social behavior and support the feasibility of tracing biological pathways from genes to neural regions to positive maternal parenting behaviors in humans using genetic imaging methods.
Crockenberg, Susan C; Leerkes, Esther M
Mothers (n = 92), fathers (n = 84), and their infants (60% male) participated in a longitudinal study of postpartum depression and maternal sensitivity. Mothers completed questionnaire measures of remembered parental acceptance, depressive symptoms, and infant distress to novelty and limits. Mothers and partners reported on marital aggression and avoidance. Maternal sensitivity was observed in the laboratory at 6 months. Characteristics of mothers, partners, and infants combined to predict postpartum depression and maternal sensitivity. Remembered parental rejection predicted postpartum depressive symptoms with prenatal depression controlled; self-esteem mediated this effect. Paternal acceptance buffered against postpartum depression when infants were highly reactive and when partners were aggressive. Paternal acceptance reduced the impact of postpartum depression on maternal sensitivity; having an aggressive marital partner exacerbated the effect.
Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A.; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Raggi, Veronica L.; Rooney, Mary E.; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E.
This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy…
Muñoz, José M.; Braza, Paloma; Carreras, Rosario; Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Pascual-Sagastizábal, Eider; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R.
A maternal authoritarian style has been related to the development of physical aggression during childhood and later future social problems; however, not too many studies have detected other than individual or family factors that may buffer this maternal effect. This work examines whether daycare center attendance may moderate the relationships between a mother authoritarian style and physical aggression. The study sample was 72 (40 girls) kindergarten children from Spain. Parents were asked ...
Armistead, Lisa; Goodrum, Nada; Schulte, Marya; Marelich, William; LeCroix, Rebecca; Murphy, Debra A
Nondisclosure of maternal HIV status to young children can negatively impact child functioning; however, many mothers do not disclose due to lack of self-efficacy for the disclosure process. This study examines demographic variations in disclosure self-efficacy, regardless of intention to disclose, and assesses the relationship between self-efficacy and child adjustment via the parent-child relationship among a sample of HIV+ mothers and their healthy children (N = 181 pairs). Mothers completed demographic and self-efficacy measures; children completed measures assessing the parent-child relationship and child adjustment (i.e., worry, self-concept, depression). Across demographics, few mothers reported confidence in disclosure. Results from covariance structural modeling showed mothers endorsing higher self-efficacy had children who reported better relationship quality, and, in turn, reported fewer adjustment difficulties; higher levels of disclosure self-efficacy also directly predicted fewer adjustment problems. Findings offer support for interventions aimed at providing mothers with skills to enhance confidence for disclosing their HIV status.
Butler, Jorie M; Skinner, Michelle; Gelfand, Donna; Berg, Cynthia A; Wiebe, Deborah J
To investigate the cross-sectional relationship between maternal parenting style and indicators of well-being among adolescents with diabetes. Seventy-eight adolescents (ages 11.58-17.42 years, M = 14.21) with type 1 diabetes and their mothers separately reported perceptions of maternal parenting style. Adolescents reported their own depressed mood, self-efficacy for managing diabetes, and diabetes regimen adherence. Adolescents' perceptions of maternal psychological control were associated with greater depressed mood regardless of age and gender. Firm control was strongly associated with greater depressed mood and poorer self-efficacy among older adolescents, less strongly among younger adolescents. Adolescents' perceptions of maternal acceptance were associated with less depressed mood, particularly for girls and with better self-efficacy for diabetes management, particularly for older adolescents and girls. Maternal reports of acceptance were associated only with adherence. Maternal parenting style is associated with well-being in adolescents with diabetes, but this association is complex and moderated by age and gender.
Raudino, Alessandra; Murray, Lynne; Turner, Corinne; Tsampala, Eirini; Lis, Adriana; De Pascalis, Leonardo; Cooper, Peter J
Parenting factors have been implicated in the aetiology and maintenance of child anxiety. Most research has been correlational with little experimental or longitudinal work. Cross-cultural comparison could be illuminating. A comparison of Italian and British children and their mothers was conducted. A sample of 8- to 10-year old children, 60 Italian and 49 English, completed the Spence Child Anxiety Scale. Mothers also completed two questionnaires of parenting: the Skills of Daily Living Checklist (assessing maternal autonomy granting) and the Parent-Child Interaction Questionnaire (assessing maternal intrusiveness). Parenting was assessed in two video-recorded blindly rated mother-child interaction tasks, the 'belt-buckling tasks and the 'etch-a-sketch', providing objective indices of overcontrol, warmth, lack of autonomy granting, and overprotection. There were no differences between the children in overall anxiety and specific forms of anxiety. Parenting, however, was markedly different for the two countries. Compared to English mothers, on the two questionnaires, Italian mothers were significantly less autonomy granting and more intrusive; and in terms of the observed indices, a significantly greater proportion of the Italian mothers displayed a high level of both overprotection and overcontrol, and a low level of autonomy granting. Notably, Italian mothers evidenced significantly more warmth than English mothers; and maternal warmth was found to moderate the impact of self-reported maternal intrusiveness on the level of both overall child anxiety and the level of child separation anxiety; and it also moderated the relationship between both observed maternal intrusiveness and overall child anxiety and observed maternal overprotectiveness and child separation anxiety. Although, compared to the British mothers, the Italian mothers were more likely to evidence high levels of parenting behaviours previously found to be anxiogenic, the high levels of warmth
Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, C. Alex
We conducted a detailed assessment of the maternal transfer of mercury and selenium to eggs in three bird species (n = 107 parents and n = 339 eggs), and developed predictive equations linking contaminant concentrations in eggs to those in six tissues of the mother (blood, muscle, liver, kidney, breast feathers, and head feathers). Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in each of the mother's internal tissues (R2 ≥ 0.95), but generally not with feathers. For each species, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs decreased as mercury concentrations in the mother increased. At the same maternal mercury concentration, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs differed among species, such that Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) females transferred more methylmercury to their eggs than American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) females. Selenium concentrations in eggs also were correlated with selenium concentrations in the mother's liver (R2 = 0.87). Furthermore, mercury and selenium concentrations in tern eggs were positively correlated with those in the father (R2 = 0.84). Incubating male terns had 21% higher mercury concentrations in blood compared to incubating females at the same egg mercury concentration. We provide equations to predict contaminant concentrations in eggs from each of the commonly sampled bird tissues.
Klug, Hope; Bonsall, Michael B; Alonzo, Suzanne H
Evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care have been common in many animal groups. We use a mathematical model to examine the effect of male and female life-history characteristics (stage-specific maturation and mortality) on evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care. When males and females are relatively similar - that is, when females initially invest relatively little into eggs and both sexes have similar mortality and maturation - transitions among different patterns of care are unlikely to be strongly favored. As males and females become more different, transitions are more likely. If females initially invest heavily into eggs and this reduces their expected future reproductive success, transitions to increased maternal care (paternal → maternal, paternal → bi-parental, bi-parental → maternal) are favored. This effect of anisogamy (i.e., the fact that females initially invest more into each individual zygote than males) might help explain the predominance of maternal care in nature and differs from previous work that found no effect of anisogamy on the origin of different sex-specific patterns of care from an ancestral state of no care. When male mortality is high or male egg maturation rate is low, males have reduced future reproductive potential and transitions to increased paternal care (maternal → paternal, bi-parental → paternal, maternal → bi-parental) are favored. Offspring need (i.e., low offspring survival in the absence of care) also plays a role in transitions to paternal care. In general, basic life-history differences between the sexes can drive evolutionary transitions among different sex-specific patterns of care. The finding that simple life-history differences can alone lead to transitions among maternal and paternal care suggests that the effect of inter-sexual life-history differences should be considered as a baseline scenario when attempting to understand how other
Schechter, Julia C; Brennan, Patricia A; Smith, Alicia K; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Johnson, Katrina C
Considerable animal research and available human studies suggest that psychological distress experienced by mothers during gestation is associated with later neurodevelopmental deficits in offspring; however, little research has examined potential protective factors that might mitigate this risk. The current study examined the impact of maternal prenatal psychological distress during pregnancy on cognitive outcomes in preschoolers (ages 2.5-5 years) and positive parenting as a potential protective factor. Mother-child dyads (N = 162, mean child age = 44 months, 49 % female) were recruited from a longitudinal cohort of women who had previously participated in a study of maternal mood disorders during pregnancy. Maternal prenatal distress was assessed with multiple measures collected throughout pregnancy. During a follow-up visit, mothers were interviewed about their psychological symptoms since the birth of the child, parenting behaviors were recorded during a parent-child interaction, and children's cognitive abilities were measured using the Differential Ability Scales, 2nd Edition. Maternal prenatal distress significantly predicted lower general cognitive abilities; however, this relationship was strongest for children whose mothers exhibited low levels of positive engagement and not significant when mothers exhibited high levels of positive engagement. Results suggest that positive parental engagement can protect against the detrimental effects of maternal prenatal distress on preschoolers' cognitive abilities.
Tsuchiya, Kenji; Agerbo, Esben; Mortensen, Preben Bo
of a conditional logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 947 subjects with bipolar disorder and 47,350 controls, those having experienced the parental suicide were significantly associated with an increased risk for BPD (incidence rate ratios: 1.83 [95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 3.12] for paternal suicide......, 3.44 [1.97 to 6.00] for maternal suicide), whereas the non-suicidal death of parents showed no such association. Those having experienced maternal suicide at some point before reaching 10 years of age were seven times as likely to develop bipolar disorder. LIMITATIONS: The cohort members were...
Schulte, Marya T; Armistead, Lisa; Marelich, William D; Payne, Diana L; Goodrum, Nada M; Murphy, Debra A
Mothers living with HIV (MLWH) experience stressors inherent to parenting, often within a context characterized by poverty, stigma, and/or limited social support. Our study assessed the relationship between parenting stress and child perceptions of family functioning in families with MLWH who have healthy school-age children. MLWH and their children (N = 102 pairs) completed measures addressing parenting stress and perceptions of family functioning (i.e., parent-child communication, family routines, and family cohesion). We used covariance structural modeling to evaluate the relationship between these factors, with results showing greater maternal parenting stress associated with poorer family functioning outcomes (reported by both the child and the mother). Findings offer support for the parenting stress-family functioning relationship by providing the child perspective along with the maternal perspective, and point to the need for interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of maternal parenting stress on family functioning. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, C. Alex
We conducted a detailed assessment of the maternal transfer of mercury and selenium to eggs in three bird species (n = 107 parents and n = 339 eggs), and developed predictive equations linking contaminant concentrations in eggs to those in six tissues of the mother (blood, muscle, liver, kidney, breast feathers, and head feathers). Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in each of the mother's internal tissues (R"2 ≥ 0.95), but generally not with feathers. For each species, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs decreased as mercury concentrations in the mother increased. At the same maternal mercury concentration, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs differed among species, such that Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) females transferred more methylmercury to their eggs than American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) females. Selenium concentrations in eggs also were correlated with selenium concentrations in the mother's liver (R"2 = 0.87). Furthermore, mercury and selenium concentrations in tern eggs were positively correlated with those in the father (R"2 = 0.84). Incubating male terns had 21% higher mercury concentrations in blood compared to incubating females at the same egg mercury concentration. We provide equations to predict contaminant concentrations in eggs from each of the commonly sampled bird tissues. - Highlights: • We developed predictive equations linking contaminant concentrations in eggs to those in the mother. • Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with those in the mother. • The proportion of mercury transferred to eggs decreased as mercury in the mother increased. • The proportion of mercury transferred to eggs differed among species. • Selenium concentrations in eggs also were correlated with those in the mother's liver. - We examined the maternal transfer of mercury and selenium to eggs in
Martin, Christina Gamache; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical component of the body's stress-response neurobiological system, and its development and functioning are shaped by the social environment. Much of our understanding of the effects of the caregiving environment on the HPA axis is based on (a) parenting in young children and (b) individual maternal stressors, such as depression. Yet, less is known about how parenting behaviors and maternal stressors interact to influence child cortisol regulation, particularly in older children. With an ethnically diverse sample of 199 mothers and their early adolescent children (M=11.00years; 54% female), a profile analytic approach was used to investigate how multiple phenotypes of maternal stress co-occur and moderate the relation between parenting behaviors and youths' diurnal cortisol rhythms. Latent profile analysis yielded 4 profiles: current parenting stress, concurrent parenting and childhood stress, childhood stress, and low stress. For mothers with the concurrent parenting and childhood stress profile, inconsistent discipline, poor parental supervision, and harsh caregiving behaviors each were related to flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the current parenting stress and childhood stress profiles, their use of inconsistent discipline was associated with flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the low stress profile, none of the parenting behaviors was related to their adolescents' cortisol regulation. Findings suggest that based on mothers' stress profile, parenting behaviors are differentially related to youths' diurnal cortisol rhythms. Implications for parenting interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kujawa, Autumn; Dougherty, Lea; Durbin, C Emily; Laptook, Rebecca; Torpey, Dana; Klein, Daniel N
Emotion knowledge in childhood has been shown to predict social functioning and psychological well-being, but relatively little is known about parental factors that influence its development in early childhood. There is some evidence that both parenting behavior and maternal depression are associated with emotion recognition, but previous research has only examined these factors independently. The current study assessed auditory and visual emotion recognition ability among a large sample of preschool children to examine typical emotion recognition skills in children of this age, as well as the independent and interactive effects of maternal and paternal depression and negative parenting (i.e., hostility and intrusiveness). Results indicated that children were most accurate at identifying happy emotional expressions. The lowest accuracy was observed for neutral expressions. A significant interaction was found between maternal depression and negative parenting behavior: children with a maternal history of depression were particularly sensitive to the negative effects of maladaptive parenting behavior on emotion recognition ability. No significant effects were found for paternal depression. These results highlight the importance of examining the effects of multiple interacting factors on children's emotional development and provide suggestions for identifying children for targeted preventive interventions.
Milevsky, Avidan; Schlechter, Melissa; Netter, Sarah; Keehn, Danielle
Our study examined variations in adolescent adjustment as a function of maternal and paternal parenting styles. Participants included 272 students in grades 9 and 11 from a public high school in a metropolitan area of the Northeastern US. Participants completed measures of maternal and paternal parenting styles and indices of psychological…
Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko
The authors test the hypothesis that separation from a violent husband or partner improves maternal parenting in Japan and examine how childhood abuse history (CAH), experience of domestic violence (DV), mental health problems, husband or partner's child maltreatment, and other demographic factors affect maternal parenting after such separation. A…
This article explores the degree to which mothers participate in decisions surrounding their daughters' university choices in the English higher education sector, based on a gendered PhD study involving mother and adult daughter pairings in southern England. Examples are given of how extended middle-class mothering practices are enabling their…
Purpose: evaluate 1) whether child’s externalizing problems increase or decrease within 12 months period; 2) the change of externalizing problems with respect to child gender and age, and 3) which maternal parenting stress factors and family sociodemographic characteristics can predict the increase and decrease of child’s externalizing problems. Design/methodology/approach: participants were evaluated 2 times (with the interval of 12 months) with the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1990) and ...
Stright, Anne Dopkins; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Kelley, Ken
A differential susceptibility hypothesis proposes that children may differ in the degree to which parenting qualities affect aspects of child development. Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the effects of parenting than infants with less difficult temperaments. Using latent change curve analyses to analyze data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care, the current study found that temperament moderated associations between maternal parenting styles during early childhood and children's first-grade academic competence, social skills, and relationships with teachers and peers. Relations between parenting and first-grade outcomes were stronger for difficult than for less difficult infants. Infants with difficult temperaments had better adjustment than less difficult infants when parenting quality was high and poorer adjustment when parenting quality was lower.
Almas, Alisa N.; Grusec, Joan E.; Tackett, Jennifer L.
The relations between maternal parenting characteristics, child disclosure and secrecy, and child outcomes (positive and negative strategies for coping with distress), were examined in a study of 140 children (10-12-year-olds) and their mothers. Child disclosure and secrecy were shown to be distinct but related constructs with authoritativeness…
Tooten, A.; Hall, R.A.S.; Hoffenkamp, H.N.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Bakel, van H.J.A.
Objective: Research on parental attachment representations after preterm birth is limited and inconclusive. The present study is the first in which maternal and paternal attachment representations after term, moderately and very preterm birth are compared. In addition, special attention was directed
Youn, M. J.; Leon, J.; Lee, K. J.
Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, this study employed a latent growth curve model to examine how parental involvement explains the association between maternal employment status and children's math and reading achievement growth from kindergarten through the third grade. To address this issue, three types of parental…
Liles, Brandi D.; Newman, Elana; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M.
The present study was designed to examine parenting stress, maternal depressive symptoms, and perceived child behavior problems among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy. Participants were a subsample (n = 212; 75 exposed, 137 comparison) of biological mothers who had continuous custody of their child from birth to 36 months.…
Tiggelman, D.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Schayck, C.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Sluijs, E.M.F. van
RATIONALE: Few studies have examined determinants of physical activity in patients with chronic illnesses, like asthma. The aim of this study was to examine whether baseline maternal and paternal beliefs, support and parenting were associated with changes in sport participation of adolescents with
Zhao, Siman; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li
This study examined the relations of maternal warmth, behavioral control, and encouragement of sociability to social, school, and psychological adjustment in migrant children in China. The participants were 284 rural-to-urban migrant children (M age = 11 years, 149 boys) in migrant children's schools and their mothers. Data on parenting were…
Chang, Lei; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Schwartz, David; Farver, Joann M.
The present study used a family systems approach to examine harsh parenting, maternal depressed affect, and marital quality in relation to children's externalising behaviour problems in a sample of 158 Hong Kong primary school children. At two time points, peers and teachers provided ratings of children's externalising behaviours, and mothers…
Tooten, A.; Hall, R.A.S.; Hoffenkamp, H.N.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Bakel, A.M.
Objective Research on parental attachment representations after preterm birth is limited and inconclusive. The present study is the first in which maternal and paternal attachment representations after term, moderately and very preterm birth are compared. In addition, special attention was directed
Muñoz, José M; Braza, Paloma; Carreras, Rosario; Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Pascual-Sagastizábal, Eider; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R
A maternal authoritarian style has been related to the development of physical aggression during childhood and later future social problems; however, not too many studies have detected other than individual or family factors that may buffer this maternal effect. This work examines whether daycare center attendance may moderate the relationships between a mother authoritarian style and physical aggression. The study sample was 72 (40 girls) kindergarten children from Spain. Parents were asked to complete two questionnaires focused on individual family characteristics and parenting styles. At age 5, children physical aggression was assessed by direct observation at playtime; aggression scores at 6 was obtained by a peer-rated questionnaire. A least squared multiple regression was performed after controlling for children's level of physical aggression at 5, child sex and siblings. A positive contribution of maternal authoritarian style on physical aggression was detected. Daycare center attendance appears to attenuate the effect of the mother's authoritarian style on physical aggression, only in boys.
Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Davies, Patrick T; Cicchetti, Dante; Fittoria, Michael G
The present study incorporates a person-based approach to identify spillover and compartmentalization patterns of interpartner conflict and maternal parenting practices in an ethnically diverse sample of 192 2-year-old children and their mothers who had experienced higher levels of socioeconomic risk. In addition, we tested whether sociocontextual variables were differentially predictive of theses profiles and examined how interpartner-parenting profiles were associated with children's physiological and psychological adjustment over time. As expected, latent class analyses extracted three primary profiles of functioning: adequate functioning, spillover, and compartmentalizing families. Furthermore, interpartner-parenting profiles were differentially associated with both sociocontextual predictors and children's adjustment trajectories. The findings highlight the developmental utility of incorporating person-based approaches to models of interpartner conflict and maternal parenting practices.
Hu, C C; Li, Y; Zhou, B R; Liu, C X; Li, C Y; Zhang, Y; Xu, Q; Xu, X
Objective: To explore the relationship between fathers' nursing time and maternal parenting stress of children with autism spectrum disorder(ASD). Method: Mothers of 98 ASD children who were first diagnosed in the department of Child Health Care, Children's Hospital of Fudan University during June 2015 to January 2016 were included in the ASD group, with mothers of 92 typical children from a Community Maternal and Child Health Hospital and a kindergarten in the control group. The evaluation of parenting stress, parents' nursing time and other related factors were cross-sectionally analyzed. Interview was conducted with the following tools: Parental Stress Index-Short Form(PSI-SF)for maternal parenting stress, and self-made General Parenting Information Questionnaire for nursing time of both parents and other related factors. The relationships were analyzed by Multiple Linear Regression analysis and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test. Result: Maternal parenting stress of ASD children had a significant negative correlation with father's nursing time in total score of parenting stress, PCDI domain and PD domain ( t =-2.76, -2.98, -2.79; P =0.007, 0.004, 0.006), within which PD domain also included family annual income and mothers' nursing time ( R (2)=0.22, 0.24, 0.25); while no such correlation was found in control group in terms of father's nursing time( P =0.22, 0.42, 0.06). Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test showed that in 62 (63.3%) double-income ASD families and 72(78.3%) double-income typical families, there were significant differences between ASD fathers' and ASD mothers'and typical fathers'nursing time(2.0(0.5, 2.1) vs . 3.5(2.4, 6.0) vs . 3.0(2.0, 4.7)h, t =-86.32、-49.65, all P children's families. Increasing these fathers' nursing time, as well as their enthusiasm and initiative in the family intervention could relieve maternal parenting stress and improve the intervention pattern of ASD children.
Aminabadi, Naser-Asl; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi
Objective. The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. Study design. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind�s parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children�s anxiety and beh...
Porter, Luz S; Porter, Brian O; McCoy, Virginia; Bango-Sanchez, Vivian; Kissel, Bonnie; Williams, Marjorie; Nunnewar, Sachin
This study aimed to determine whether a blended Infant Massage-Parenting Enhancement Program (IMPEP) improved maternal psychosocial health outcomes (parenting stress, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, maternal attachment) and maternal-infant interaction among substance-addicted mothers (SAMs) actively engaged in outpatient rehabilitation. Designed as a randomized, three-group controlled trial testing two levels of psychoeducational intervention (IMPEP vs. PEP) and a control group (standard care parenting resources), the study was conducted in two substance abuse centers in southeast Florida on a convenience sample of 138 recovering SAM-infant pairs. IMPEP or PEP classes were held weekly on Weeks 2-5, with data collected at baseline (Week 1), Week 6, and Week 12 via structured interviews, observation (Observation Checklist on Maternal-Infant Interaction), and self-administered questionnaires (Abidin Parenting Stress Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Muller's Maternal Attachment Inventory), analyzed descriptively and inferentially using Kruskall-Wallis analysis of variance and post hoc Wilcoxon rank sum and Mann-Whitney U tests. Both IMPEP and PEP groups had significantly increased Parenting Stress Index scores (decreased parenting stress) and decreased Beck Depression Inventory scores (decreased depressive symptoms) compared to controls at Week 12, whereas there were no clinically meaningful differences among study groups in Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Muller's Maternal Attachment Inventory, or Observation Checklist on Maternal-Infant Interaction scores. Only the IMPEP group showed significant improvements in both psychological and physical (waist-hip ratio) measures of parenting stress over time. The findings suggest that infant massage blended into a structured parenting program has value-added effects in decreasing parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms, but not on SAM's self-esteem, attachment, or maternal
Shpancer, Noam; Schweitzer, Stefanie N.
Data were collected over a 15-year span from three comparable cohorts of students at a Midwestern university about their childcare histories and current attitudes towards non-parental childcare and maternal employment. Across cohorts, a history of non-parental childcare predicted adult attitudes towards non-parental childcare and maternal…
BeLue, Rhonda; Halgunseth, Linda C; Abiero, Beatrice; Bediako, Phylicia
Minimal attention has been given to understanding parenting stress among low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with conduct problems. Maternal health and parenting hassles may serve as important risk factors for parenting stress. This study examined whether parenting hassles mediated the relations between maternal physical and mental health and parenting stress in a sample of low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with behavioral problems. The sample included 177 low-income black, Latina, and white mothers of kindergartners with behavior problems. Path analysis was employed to assess the associations between maternal mental and physical health and parenting stress, as well as the moderating role of parenting hassles in this cross-sectional study. After adjusting for covariates, we found that parenting hassles mediated the relationship between social support and parenting stress as well as maternal health and parenting stress. Findings suggest that promoting coping resources for daily parenting hassles and supporting the physical and mental health of minority mothers may have important implications for parenting children with high behavior problems.
Inhulsen, Maj-Britt Mr; Mérelle, Saskia Ym; Renders, Carry M
To examine the associations between parental feeding styles and children's dietary intakes and the modifying effect of maternal education and children's ethnicity on these associations. Cross-sectional study of parental feeding styles, assessed by the Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire, and children's dietary intakes. Multiple regression analyses were carried out to assess the associations between the parental feeding styles studied ('control', 'emotional feeding', 'encouragement to eat' and 'instrumental feeding') and children's dietary intakes (consumption of fruit, vegetables, water and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)). The modifying effect of maternal education and children's ethnicity on these associations was explored. North-western part of the Netherlands. Children aged 3-7 years (n 5926). Both 'encouragement' and 'control' were associated with higher consumption of vegetables and lower consumption of SSB, but only 'encouragement' was positively associated with fruit and water intakes. 'Instrumental feeding' showed a positive association with SSB and negative associations with fruit, vegetable and water consumption. No significant associations were found for 'emotional feeding'. Maternal educational level and children's ethnicity moderated some associations; for example, 'control' was beneficial for vegetable intake in all subgroups, whereas the association with SSB was beneficial only in highly educated mothers. The study shows that both encouraging and controlling feeding styles may improve children's dietary behaviour, while 'instrumental feeding' may have a detrimental effect. Furthermore, maternal educational level and children's ethnicity influence these associations. The study's findings could provide a basis for development of interventions to improve parental feeding styles.
Luecken, Linda J.; Hagan, Melissa J.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun
Objective Childhood parental divorce is associated with an increased risk of behavioral and physical health problems. Alterations in adrenocortical activity may be a mechanism in this relation. Parent-child relationships have been linked to cortisol regulation in children exposed to adversity, but prospective research is lacking. We examined maternal warmth in adolescence as a predictor of young adults’ cortisol stress response 15 years after parental divorce. Methods Participants included 240 youth from recently divorced families. Mother and child reports of maternal warmth were assessed at 6 time points across childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Offspring salivary cortisol was measured in young adulthood before and after a social stress task. Structural equation modeling was used to predict cortisol response from maternal warmth across early and late adolescence. Results Higher child-reported maternal warmth in early adolescence predicted higher child-reported maternal warmth in late adolescence (std. regression = .45, SE = .065, p children from divorced families, a warm mother-child relationship post-divorce and across development, as perceived by the child, may promote efficient biological regulation later in life. PMID:26465217
Luecken, Linda J; Hagan, Melissa J; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Sandler, Irwin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun
The experience of parental divorce during childhood is associated with an increased risk of behavioral and physical health problems. Alterations in adrenocortical activity may be a mechanism in this relation. Parent-child relationships have been linked to cortisol regulation in children exposed to adversity, but prospective research is lacking. We examined maternal warmth in adolescence as a predictor of young adults' cortisol stress response 15 years after parental divorce. Participants included 240 youth from recently divorced families. Mother and child reports of maternal warmth were assessed at 6 time points across childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Offspring salivary cortisol was measured in young adulthood before and after a social stress task. Structural equation modeling was used to predict cortisol response from maternal warmth across early and late adolescence. Higher child-reported maternal warmth in early adolescence predicted higher child-reported maternal warmth in late adolescence (standardized regression = 0.45, standard error = 0.065, p < .01), which predicted lower cortisol response to a challenging interpersonal task in young adulthood (standardized regression = -0.20, standard error = 0.094, p = .031). Neither mother-reported warmth in early adolescence nor late adolescence was significantly related to offspring cortisol response in young adulthood. Results suggest that for children from divorced families, a warm mother-child relationship after divorce and across development, as perceived by the child, may promote efficient biological regulation later in life. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01407120.
Maria Stella Epifanio
Full Text Available Transition to parenthood represents an important life event increasing vulnerability to psychological disorders. Postpartum depression and parenting distress are the most common psychological disturbances and a growing scientific evidence suggests that both mothers and fathers are involved in this developmental crisis. This paper aims to explore maternal and paternal experience of transition to parenthood in terms of parenting distress and risk of postpartum depression. Seventy-five couples of first-time parents were invited to compile the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in the first month of children life. Study sample reported very high levels of parenting distress and a risk of postpartum depression in 20.8% of mothers and 5.7% of fathers. No significant correlation between parenting distress and the risk of postpartum depression emerged, both in mothers than in fathers group while maternal distress levels are related to paternal one. The first month after partum represents a critical phase of parents life and it could be considered a developmental crisis characterized by anxiety, stress and mood alterations that could have important repercussions on the child psycho-physical development.
Thomas, Sharon R.; O’Brien, Kelly A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Liu, Yihao; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea
Maternal depression and parenting are robust predictors of developmental outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, methods commonly used to examine parent-child interactions in these families do not account for temporal associations between child and parent behavior that have been theorized to maintain negative child behavior. Moreover, studies examining associations between maternal depression and parenting in families of children with ADHD have not compared mothers who were currently depressed, remitted, and never clinically depressed. This study utilized sequential analysis to examine how maternal reinforcement of compliant and noncompliant child behavior differs as a function of maternal depression history. Within the 82 participating mother-child dyads, 21 mothers were currently depressed, 29 mothers had a lifetime history of depression but were in remission for at least 1 month, and 32 mothers had never been clinically depressed. 24 girls (29.6%) and 57 boys (70.4%) between the ages of 6–12 year old (M = 8.7, SD = 2.0) and were diagnosed with ADHD. Results indicated that all mothers were less likely to respond optimally than non-optimally to child compliant and noncompliant behaviors during observed parent-child interactions; however, currently depressed mothers were least likely to reinforce child compliance and responded most coercively to child noncompliance relative to the other groups. Remitted mothers in this sample were more coercive than never clinically depressed mothers, but were more likely to follow through with commands than never clinically depressed mothers. Implications for behavioral parent training programs aimed at skill development for depressed mothers of children with ADHD are discussed. PMID:25413021
Thomas, Sharon R; O'Brien, Kelly A; Clarke, Tana L; Liu, Yihao; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea
Maternal depression and parenting are robust predictors of developmental outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, methods commonly used to examine parent-child interactions in these families do not account for temporal associations between child and parent behavior that have been theorized to maintain negative child behavior. Moreover, studies examining associations between maternal depression and parenting in families of children with ADHD have not compared mothers who were currently depressed, remitted, and never clinically depressed. This study utilized sequential analysis to examine how maternal reinforcement of compliant and noncompliant child behavior differs as a function of maternal depression history. Within the 82 participating mother-child dyads, 21 mothers were currently depressed, 29 mothers had a lifetime history of depression but were in remission for at least 1 month, and 32 mothers had never been clinically depressed. 24 girls (29.6 %) and 57 boys (70.4 %) between the ages of 6-12 years old (M = 8.7, SD = 2.0) and were diagnosed with ADHD. Results indicated that all mothers were less likely to respond optimally than non-optimally to child compliant and noncompliant behaviors during observed parent-child interactions; however, currently depressed mothers were least likely to reinforce child compliance and responded most coercively to child noncompliance relative to the other groups. Remitted mothers in this sample were more coercive than never clinically depressed mothers, but were more likely to follow through with commands than never clinically depressed mothers. Implications for behavioral parent training programs aimed at skill development for depressed mothers of children with ADHD are discussed.
Behie, A M; O'Donnell, M H
Many industrialized nations are currently experiencing a decline in average secondary sex ratio (SSR) resulting in fewer boys being born relative to girls. While many potential factors may explain the decline in the birth of males relative to females, it seems most studies support the idea that male offspring are produced less often when environmental conditions are poor owing to males being more susceptible to loss in harsh environments. This study investigates the maternal factors that are associated with the sex of offspring in a cohort of the Australian population. It found that greater parental perceptions of wealth were significantly associated with an increase in the number of sons produced. These results suggest that male offspring are born at increased numbers to women with higher available resources, which may reflect the fact that male offspring are more vulnerable in poor environments.
Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice; Belsky, J.; Azuma, Hiroshi; Kwak, Keumjoo; Maital, Sharone; Painter, Kathleen M.; Varron, Cheryl; Pascual, Liliana; Toda, Sueko; Venuti, Paola; Vyt, Andre; de Galperin, Celia Zingman
A total of 467 mothers of firstborn 20-month-old children from 7 countries (103 Argentine, 61 Belgian, 39 Israeli, 78 Italian, 57 Japanese, 69 Korean, and 60 US American) completed the "Jackson Personality Inventory" (JPI), measures of parenting cognitions (self-perceptions and knowledge), and a social desirability scale. Our first…
Jackson, Aurora P.; Bentler, Peter M.; Franke, Todd M.
This three-year longitudinal study investigated whether low-wage employment was associated with improved psychological and parenting outcomes in a sample of 178 single mothers who were employed and unemployed current and former welfare recipients both before and subsequent to the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity…
Stacks, Ann M; Muzik, Maria; Wong, Kristyn; Beeghly, Marjorie; Huth-Bocks, Alissa; Irwin, Jessica L; Rosenblum, Katherine L
This study examined relationships among maternal reflective functioning, parenting, infant attachment, and demographic risk in a relatively large (N = 83) socioeconomically diverse sample of women with and without a history of childhood maltreatment and their infants. Most prior research on parental reflective functioning has utilized small homogenous samples. Reflective functioning was assessed with the Parent Development Interview, parenting was coded from videotaped mother-child interactions, and infant attachment was evaluated in Ainsworth's Strange Situation by independent teams of reliable coders masked to maternal history. Reflective functioning was associated with parenting sensitivity and secure attachment, and inversely associated with demographic risk and parenting negativity; however, it was not associated with maternal maltreatment history or PTSD. Parenting sensitivity mediated the relationship between reflective functioning and infant attachment, controlling for demographic risk. Findings are discussed in the context of prior research on reflective functioning and the importance of targeting reflective functioning in interventions.
Avitsland, Tone Lise; Faugli, Anne; Pripp, Are Hugo; Malt, Ulrik Fredrik; Bjørnland, Kristin; Emblem, Ragnhild
The aim of the study was to evaluate stress in mothers of children with feeding problems before and after gastrostomy placement, and to identify changes in child health and variables affecting maternal stress. Psychological distress and parenting stress in 34 mothers of children referred for gastrostomy were assessed using general health questionnaire (GHQ) (overall psychological distress), impact of event scale (IES) (intrusive stress related to child's feeding problems), and parenting stress index (PSI) (stress related to parenting) before, 6, and 18 months after placement of a gastrostomy. Information of child health and long-term gastrostomy complications were recorded. A semistructured interview constructed for the present study explored maternal preoperative expectations and child's quality of life. Insertion of a gastrostomy did not significantly influence vomiting or the number of children with a low weight-for-height percentile. All of the children experienced peristomal complications. Despite this, mothers' overall psychological distress was significantly reduced after 6 and 18 months, and the majority of mothers (85%) reported that their preoperative expectations were fulfilled and that the child's quality of life was improved after gastrostomy placement. Maternal concerns for the child's feeding problems, measured as intrusive stress, had effect on maternal overall psychological distress. Despite frequent stomal complications the gastrostomy significantly reduced the mothers' psychological distress and improved the child's quality of life as reported by the mother.
Martoccio, Tiffany L; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Maupin, Angela N; Robinson, Joann L
There is some evidence linking maternal depression, harsh parenting, and children's internal representations of attachment, yet, longitudinal examinations of these relationships and differences in the developmental pathways between boys and girls are lacking. Moderated mediation growth curves were employed to examine harsh parenting as a mechanism underlying the link between maternal depression and children's dysregulated representations using a nationally-representative, economically-vulnerable sample of mothers and their children (n = 575; 49% boys, 51% girls). Dysregulation representations were measured using the MacArthur Story Stem Battery at five years of age (M = 5.14, SD = 0.29). Harsh parenting mediated the association between early maternal depression and dysregulated representations for girls. Though initial harsh parenting was a significant mediator for boys, a stronger direct effect of maternal depression to dysregulated representations emerged over time. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for intervention efforts aimed at promoting early supportive parenting.
BeLue, Rhonda; Halgunseth, Linda C.; Abiero, Beatrice; Bediako, Phylicia
Objectives Minimal attention has been given to understanding parenting stress among low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with conduct problems. Maternal health and parenting hassles may serve as important risk factors for parenting stress. This study examined whether parenting hassles moderated the relations between maternal physical and mental health and parenting stress in a sample of low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with behavioral problems. Methods The sample included 177 low-income Black, Latina, and White mothers of kindergartners with behavior problems. PATH analysis was employed to assess the associations between maternal mental and physical health and parenting stress, as well as the moderating role of parenting hassles in this cross-sectional study. Results After adjusting for covariates, we found that parenting hassles mediates the relationship between social support and parenting stress as well as maternal health and parenting stress. Conclusion Findings suggest that promoting coping resources for daily parenting hassles and supporting the physical and mental health of minority mothers may have important implications for parenting children with high behavior problems. PMID:26863556
Moilanen, Kristin L; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Blaacker, Debra R
Relatively little is known about the degree to which subcomponents of self-regulation change during early to middle adolescence. This study considered familial predictors (maternal/paternal regulatory support, antagonistic parenting, and parent-child closeness) of rank-order change in behavioral, emotional and cognitive regulation and perseverance over one year. N = 452 adolescents ages 11-16 years and their parents completed questionnaires and parent-child discussion tasks (48.7% male; 69.6% white). Results indicated minimal direct effects of parenting, though maternal and paternal parenting and parent-child closeness exerted small effects that were moderated by prior levels of cognitive regulation and perseverance. Parents may contribute to the development of complex regulatory capacities that mature after foundational emotional and behavioral regulation competencies.
Singer, Lynn T; Fulton, Sarah; Kirchner, H Lester; Eisengart, Sheri; Lewis, Barbara; Short, Elizabeth; Min, Meeyoung O; Kercsmar, Carolyn; Baley, Jill E
To compare severity and determinants of stress and coping in mothers of 8-year-old very low birth weight (VLBW) and term children varying in medical and developmental risk. Three groups of mothers/infants were prospectively compared in a longitudinal study from birth to 8 years (110 high-risk VLBW, 80 low-risk VLBW, and 112 term). Maternal psychological distress, coping, parenting/marital stress, child health, and family impact were measured in the children at age 8 years. Mothers of VLBW children differed from term mothers, reporting less consensus with partners, more concern for their children's health, less parent-child conflict, and fewer years of education attained. Mothers of high-risk VLBW children experienced the greatest family and personal strains and used less denial and disengagement coping. The groups exhibited no differences in the sense of parenting competence, divorce rate, parenting/marital satisfaction, family cohesion, and psychological distress symptoms. Multiple birth, low socioeconomic status, and lower child IQ added to maternal stress. VLBW birth has long-term negative and positive impacts on maternal/family outcomes related to the infant's medical risk.
Neece, C; Baker, B
Parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) typically report elevated levels of parenting stress, and child behaviour problems are a strong predictor of heightened parenting stress. Interestingly, few studies have examined child characteristics beyond behaviour problems that may also contribute to parenting stress. The present longitudinal study examined the contribution of child social skills to maternal parenting stress across middle childhood, as well as the direction of the relationship between child social skills and parenting stress. Families of children with ID (n = 74) or typical development (TD) (n = 115) participated over a 2-year period. Maternal parenting stress, child behaviour problems and child social skills were assessed at child ages six and eight. Child social skills accounted for unique variance in maternal parenting stress above and beyond child intellectual status and child behaviour problems. As the children matured, there was a significant interaction between child social skills and behaviour problems in predicting parenting stress. With respect to the direction of these effects, a cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that early parenting stress contributed to later social skills difficulties for children, but the path from children's early social skills to later parenting stress was not supported, once child behaviour problems and intellectual status were accounted for. When examining parenting stress, child social skills are an important variable to consider, especially in the context of child behaviour problems. Early parenting stress predicted child social skills difficulties over time, highlighting parenting stress as a key target for intervention.
Hartwig, Sophie A; Robinson, Lara R; Comeau, Dawn L; Claussen, Angelika H; Perou, Ruth
This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of maternal perceptions of parenting following participation in Legacy for Children TM (Legacy), an evidence-based parenting program for low-income mothers of young children and infants. To further examine previous findings and better understand participant experiences, we analyzed semistructured focus-group discussions with predominantly Hispanic and Black, non-Hispanic Legacy mothers at two sites (n = 166) using thematic analysis and grounded theory techniques. The qualitative study presented here investigated how mothers view their parenting following participation in Legacy, allowing participants to describe their experience with the program in their own words, thus capturing an "insider" perspective. Mothers at both sites communicated knowledge and use of positive parenting practices targeted by the goals of Legacy; some site-specific differences emerged related to these parenting practices. These findings align with the interpretation of quantitative results from the randomized controlled trials and further demonstrate the significance of the Legacy program in promoting positive parenting for mothers living in poverty. This study emphasizes the importance of understanding real-world context regarding program efficacy and the benefit of using qualitative research to understand participant experiences. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Lee, Min Kyung; Baker, Sara; Whitebread, David
Research on the relationships between parental factors and children's executive function (EF) has been conducted mainly in Western cultures. This study provides the first empirical test, in a non-Western context, of how maternal EF and parenting behaviours relate to child EF. South Korean mothers and their preschool children (N = 95 dyads) completed EF tasks. Two aspects of parental scaffolding were observed during a puzzle task: contingency (i.e., adjusting among levels of scaffolding according to the child's ongoing evidence of understanding) and intrusiveness (i.e., directive, mother-centred interactions). Maternal EF and maternal contingency each accounted for unique variance in child EF, above and beyond child age, child language and maternal education. Maternal intrusiveness, however, was not significantly related to child EF. Additionally, no mediating role of parenting was found in the maternal and child EF link. However, child language was found to partially mediate the link between maternal contingency and child EF. These results complement prior findings by revealing distinctive patterns in the link between maternal EF, parenting behaviours, and child EF in the Korean context. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.
Choe, Daniel Ewon; Olson, Sheryl L; Sameroff, Arnold J
Emotional distress experienced by mothers increases young children's risk of externalizing problems through suboptimal parenting and child self-regulation. An integrative structural equation model tested hypotheses that mothers' parenting (i.e., low levels of inductive discipline and maternal warmth) would mediate adverse effects of early maternal distress on child effortful control, which in turn would mediate effects of maternal parenting on child externalizing behavior. This longitudinal study spanning ages 3, 6, and 10 included 241 children, mothers, and a subset of teachers. The hypothesized model was partially supported. Elevated maternal distress was associated with less inductive discipline and maternal warmth, which in turn were associated with less effortful control at age 3 but not at age 6. Inductive discipline and maternal warmth mediated adverse effects of maternal distress on children's effortful control. Less effortful control at ages 3 and 6 predicted smaller relative decreases in externalizing behavior at 6 and 10, respectively. Effortful control mediated effects of inductive discipline, but not maternal warmth, on externalizing behavior. Findings suggest elevated maternal distress increases children's risk of externalizing problems by compromising early parenting and child self-regulation.
Aminabadi, Naser-Asl; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina-Ghertasi
The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind's parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children's anxiety and behavior was evaluated using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and Frankl behavior scale. Significant correlation was found between maternal EQ and child behavior (r=0.330; pparenting style and child behavior. There was no significant correlation between mother's total EQ and child's total anxiety; however, some subscales of EQ and anxiety showed significant correlations. There were significant correlations between authoritarian parenting style and separation anxiety (r=0.186; pauthoritative parenting style and mother's EQ (r=0.286; pauthoritative parenting style.
Thompson, Ronald G; Alonzo, Dana; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S
Research indicates that parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increase likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. However, when experienced together, only parental alcohol abuse significantly increased odds of suicide attempt. It is unclear to what extent differences in the effect of maternal versus paternal alcohol use exist on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt risk. This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt. The sample consisted of participants from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The simultaneous effect of childhood or adolescent parental divorce and maternal and paternal history of alcohol problems on offspring lifetime suicide attempt was estimated using a logistic regression model with an interaction term for demographics and parental history of other emotional and behavioural problems. Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems nearly doubled the likelihood of suicide attempt. Divorce and history of alcohol problems for both parents tripled the likelihood. Individuals who experienced parental divorce as children or adolescents and who have a parent who abuses alcohol are at elevated risk for lifetime suicide attempt. These problem areas should become a routine part of assessment to better identify those at risk for lifetime suicide attempt and to implement early and targeted intervention to decrease such risk. [Thompson RG Jr,Alonzo D, Hu M-C, Hasin DS. The influences of parental divorce and maternal-versus-paternal alcohol abuse on offspringlifetime suicide attempt. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:408-414]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Kamerman, S B
Pregnancy and maternity are increasingly viewed as social as well as individual risks that require health protection, employment protection and security, and protection against temporary loss of income. Begun more than a century ago in Germany, paid and job-protected maternity leaves from work were established in most countries initially out of concern for maternal and child physical health. Beginning in the 1960s, these policies have expanded to cover paternity and parental leaves following childbirth and adoption as well. Moreover, they have increasingly emerged as central to the emotional and psychological well-being of children as well as to the employment and economic security of their mothers and fathers. They are modest social policies, but are clearly an essential part of any country's child and family policy. No industrialized country today can be without such provision, and the United States is a distinct laggard in these developments.
Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A
OBJECTIVE: Although maternal internalizing symptoms and parenting dimensions have been linked to reports and perceptions of children's behavior, it remains relatively unknown whether these characteristics relate to expectations or the accuracy of expectations for toddlers' responses to novel situations. DESIGN: A community sample of 117 mother-toddler dyads participated in a laboratory visit and questionnaire completion. At the laboratory, mothers were interviewed about their expectations for their toddlers' behaviors in a variety of novel tasks; toddlers then participated in these activities, and trained coders scored their behaviors. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing demographics, depressive and worry symptoms, and parenting dimensions. RESULTS: Mothers who reported more worry expected their toddlers to display more fearful behavior during the laboratory tasks, but worry did not moderate how accurately maternal expectations predicted toddlers' observed behavior. When also reporting a low level of authoritative-responsive parenting, maternal depressive symptoms moderated the association between maternal expectations and observed toddler behavior, such that, as depressive symptoms increased, maternal expectations related less strongly to toddler behavior. CONCLUSIONS: When mothers were asked about their expectations for their toddlers' behavior in the same novel situations from which experimenters observe this behavior, symptoms and parenting had minimal effect on the accuracy of mothers' expectations. When in the context of low authoritative-responsive parenting, however, depressive symptoms related to less accurate predictions of their toddlers' fearful behavior.
Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.
SYNOPSIS Objective Although maternal internalizing symptoms and parenting dimensions have been linked to reports and perceptions of children’s behavior, it remains relatively unknown whether these characteristics relate to expectations or the accuracy of expectations for toddlers’ responses to novel situations. Design A community sample of 117 mother-toddler dyads participated in a laboratory visit and questionnaire completion. At the laboratory, mothers were interviewed about their expectations for their toddlers’ behaviors in a variety of novel tasks; toddlers then participated in these activities, and trained coders scored their behaviors. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing demographics, depressive and worry symptoms, and parenting dimensions. Results Mothers who reported more worry expected their toddlers to display more fearful behavior during the laboratory tasks, but worry did not moderate how accurately maternal expectations predicted toddlers’ observed behavior. When also reporting a low level of authoritative-responsive parenting, maternal depressive symptoms moderated the association between maternal expectations and observed toddler behavior, such that, as depressive symptoms increased, maternal expectations related less strongly to toddler behavior. Conclusions When mothers were asked about their expectations for their toddlers’ behavior in the same novel situations from which experimenters observe this behavior, symptoms and parenting had minimal effect on the accuracy of mothers’ expectations. When in the context of low authoritative-responsive parenting, however, depressive symptoms related to less accurate predictions of their toddlers’ fearful behavior. PMID:21037974
Zvara, B.J.; Mills-Koonce, R.; Cox, M.
Using propensity-matched controls, the present study examines the associations between maternal report of child-directed aggression and observed parenting behavior across early childhood for women with and without childhood sexual trauma histories. The moderating role of child sex was also examined. The sample (n=204) is from a longitudinal study of rural poverty exploring the ways in which child, family, and contextual factors shape development over time. After controlling for numerous factors including child and primary caregiver covariates, findings reveal that childhood sexual trauma is related to sensitive parenting behavior and child-directed aggression. Findings further revealed that child sex moderates the relation between sexual trauma history and maternal behavior towards children. Implications for interventions for mothers with childhood sexual trauma histories and directions for future study are proposed. PMID:28450762
The question of what is genuine maternal love was posed by a mother struggling to understand and value the nature of her bond with her small baby. The question surfaced time and again in the context of this dyad's long-term parent-infant psychotherapy and has challenged me to examine my thinking and, indeed, has produced impassioned discussions within the Parent Infant Project team at The Anna Freud Centre. In this paper I will address this question through sessional material of this mother and baby and discuss issues of technique in response to it, including my countertransference and conceptualization.
Dayton, Carolyn J; Huth-Bocks, Alissa C; Busuito, Alexandra
The current study tested the hypothesis that mothers who have experienced child maltreatment and aggression within their adult relationships may be at particular risk for misinterpreting infant emotions, leading to less sensitive parenting behaviors. Participants were 120 pregnant women recruited for a larger, longitudinal study investigating the role of psychosocial and environmental risk on women and their young children. Data were collected during the third trimester of pregnancy, and when children were 1 and 2 years of age. Participants completed a projective test designed to elicit individual differences in perceptions of infant emotions and an observer-rated assessment of parenting behaviors was conducted in the family home. Using structural equation modeling, we tested associations between maternal interpersonal aggression exposure and perceptions of infant emotion and parenting behaviors. Results demonstrated that a history of child abuse and intimate partner conflict were associated with a maternal tendency to view ambiguous infant facial expressions as negative (i.e., negative attribution bias), and in turn, with less parenting sensitivity over time. Findings suggest that negative attributions of infant emotion may be 1 mechanism by which a history of trauma and violence exposure contributes to less sensitive parenting for some mothers. Implications for intervention include the need for trauma-informed clinical services and psychoeducational methods that help mothers more accurately read and respond to infant emotional expression and bids for connection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Walton, A; Flouri, Eirini
The objective of this study was to test if emotion regulation mediates the association between mothers' parenting and adolescents' externalizing behaviour problems (conduct problems and hyperactivity). The parenting dimensions were warmth, psychological control and behavioural control (measured with knowledge, monitoring and discipline). Adjustment was made for contextual risk (measured with the number of proximal adverse life events experienced), gender, age and English as an additional language. Data were from a UK community sample of adolescents aged 11-18 from a comprehensive school in a disadvantaged area. At the multivariate level, none of the parenting variables predicted hyperactivity, which was associated only with difficulties in emotion regulation, contextual risk and English as a first language. The parenting variables predicting conduct problems at the multivariate level were warmth and knowledge. Knowledge did not predict emotion regulation. However, warmth predicted emotion regulation, which was negatively associated with conduct problems. Contextual risk was a significant predictor of both difficulties in emotion regulation and externalizing behaviour problems. Its effect on conduct problems was independent of parenting and was not via its association with difficulties in emotion regulation. The findings add to the evidence for the importance of maternal warmth and contextual risk for both regulated emotion and regulated behaviour. The small maternal control effects on both emotion regulation and externalizing behaviour could suggest the importance of paternal control for adolescent outcomes.
Fouts, Hillary N; Silverman, Lisa S
The majority of adaptationist models and research related to parenting strategies have focused on extrinsic or population-level risk as predictors of parenting. However, some researchers have called for greater consideration of cultural factors as well as on intracultural variation in parenting. This study uses a biocultural approach to examine intracultural variation in environmental risk and parenting among the Bofi foragers in Central Africa. In particular, we examine 30 mothers' experiences of child loss as a predictor of variation in maternal involvement (proximity, holding, and affection) with their young children. Multivariate and univariate analyses indicate that child loss accounted for substantial variation in maternal behaviors and was predictive of maternal holding and the expression of physical affection. In sum, our findings indicate that intracultural variation in child loss is predictive of maternal involvement with young children and that a biocultural approach is useful in explaining this variation.
Kim, Minjeong; Kang, Su-Kyoung; Yee, Bangsil; Shim, So-Yeon; Chung, Mira
Father-child interactions are associated with improved developmental outcomes among infants. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has addressed the effects of paternal involvement on the neurodevelopment of infants who are less than 6 months of age, and no study has reported how maternal parenting stress mediates the relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment during early infancy. This study investigates the direct and indirect relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment at 3-4 months of age. The indirect relationship was assessed through the mediating factor of maternal parenting stress. The participants were recruited through the Sesalmaul Research Center's website from April to June 2014. The final data included 255 mothers and their healthy infants, who were aged 3-4 months. The mothers reported paternal involvement and maternal parenting stress by using Korean Parenting Alliance Inventory (K-PAI) and Parenting Stress Index (PSI), respectively. Experts visited the participants' homes to observe infant neurodevelopment, and completed a developmental examination using Korean version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II (K-ASQ II). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used for data analysis. Infants' mean ages were 106 days and girls accounted for 46.3%. The mean total scores (reference range) of the K-PAI, PSI, and the K-ASQ II were 55.5 (17-68), 45.8 (25-100), and 243.2 (0-300), respectively. Paternal involvement had a positive relationship with K-ASQ II scores (β = 0.29, p parenting stress was negatively related with K-ASQ II scores (β = -0.32, p parenting stress mediated the relationship between paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment (Z = 3.24, p parenting stress (β = -0.25, p parenting stress partially mediates that association. This result emphasizes the importance of fathers' involvement and mothers' parenting stress on early infant
Philibert, I; Bickel, J
Because residents' demands for parental leave are increasing, updated information about maternity and paternity leave policies was solicited from hospitals that are members of the Council of Teaching Hospitals (COTH) of the AAMC. A 20-item questionnaire, combining forced-choice categories and open-ended questions, was faxed to 405 COTH hospitals in October 1994; 45% responded. A total of 77% of the respondents reported having written policies for maternity and/or parental leave; in 1989, only 52% of COTH hospitals had reported having such policies. Forty-one percent of the 1994 responding hospitals offered dedicated paid maternity leave, with a mean of 42 days allowed. Twenty-five percent of the respondents offered paternity leave, and 15% offered adoption leave. It is encouraging that the majority of the teaching hospitals that responded to the survey had adopted written policies, but the 23% without written policies remain a source of concern. Well-defined policies for maternity, paternity, and adoption leave can reduce stress and foster equity both for trainees requiring leave and for their colleagues.
Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Petras, Hanno
Despite potential health risks for women and children, one in five women report alcohol use during pregnancy and a significant proportion of those who quit during pregnancy return to drinking post-delivery. This study seeks to understand the longitudinal patterns of alcohol consumption before, during pregnancy and post-delivery, and the role of maternal characteristics for purposes of informing prevention design. General growth mixture models were used to describe the average developmental patterns of maternal weekly drinking quantity at six time points, from preconception through child entering kindergarten, as well as heterogeneity in these patterns among 9100 mothers from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study representing the 2001 US national birth cohort. Four distinct classes of mothers were defined by their longitudinal alcohol consumption patterns: Low Probability Drinkers (50.3 %), Escalating Risk Drinkers (12.0 %), Escalating Low Risk Drinkers (27.4 %), and Early Parenting Quitters (10.2 %). Heterogeneous covariate associations were observed. For example, mothers who gave birth after age 36 were twice as likely to be Escalating Risk Drinkers and Escalating Low Risk Drinkers (vs Low Probability Drinkers), but not more likely to be Early Parenting Quitters, when compared to mothers who gave birth between the ages of 26 and 35. There is significant heterogeneity in maternal longitudinal alcohol use patterns during the perinatal period. Baseline maternal characteristics and behavior associated with these heterogeneous patterns provide valuable tools to identify potential risky drinkers during this critical time period and may be synthesized to tailor pre- and postnatal clinical counseling protocols.
Erzinger Andrea B.; Steiger Andrea E.
The finding that values, attitudes, and behaviour can be transmitted across generations is long standing. However, the role of fathers in this process has been underinvestigated. Furthermore, many researchers have not tested moderation effects. We extended the literature by investigating maternal and paternal transmission of harsh parenting beliefs to their children 23 years later. Furthermore, we examined the moderating role of interaction quality and included gender and socioeconomic status...
Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra
Children’s emotional and relational development can be negatively influenced by maternal substance abuse, particularly through a dysfunctional caregiving environment. Attachment Theory offers a privileged framework to analyze how drug addiction can affect the quality of adult attachment style, parenting attitudes and behaviors toward the child, and how it can have a detrimental effect on the co-construction of the attachment bond by the mother and the infant. Several studies, as a matter of f...
Taraban, Lindsay; Shaw, Daniel S.; Leve, Leslie D.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David
Marital quality and social support satisfaction were tested as moderators of the association between maternal depressive symptoms and parenting during early childhood (18--36 months) among 2 large, divergent, longitudinal samples (n = 526; n = 570). Unexpectedly, in both samples the association between maternal depressive symptoms and reduced…
Evans, Cortney A.; Nelson, Larry J.; Porter, Christin L.; Nelson, David A.; Hart, Craig H.
This study assesses the relationships between children's shy and antisocial/aggressive behaviors and maternal beliefs, and concomitant parenting behaviors. Structural equation models examined 199 mothers' perceptions of aggression and shyness in their preschool-age children (average age = 59.63 months); maternal beliefs (i.e., locus of control,…
Purpose: A study of resiliency to overweight explored how child silhouettes (maternal perception of child’s body size) related to child BMI, maternal concerns, parenting styles and practices. Methods: In a diverse, multi-state sample, 175 low-income mother-child (ages 3-11) dyads were assessed for...
Combs-Ronto, Lindsey A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Sameroff, Arnold J.
This study was a prospective 2-year longitudinal investigation of associations between negative maternal parenting and disruptive child behavior across the preschool to school transition. Our main goals were to 1) determine the direction of association between early maternal negativity and child disruptive behaviors across this important…
Murashima, Megumi; Hoerr, Sharon L.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; Kattelmann, Kendra K.; Phillips, Beatrice W.
Objective: Examine how maternal parenting behaviors in childhood, both general and feeding specific, relate to weight status and fruit and vegetable consumption in college students. Design: Retrospective surveys on maternal behaviors and assessments on the college-aged child's current anthropometric measures and dietary intakes. Participants:…
Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P J; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike
In this examination of the association between parenting style and child weight, the neglected concept of 'psychological control' has been added to the generally accepted parenting dimensions 'support' and 'behavioural control'. Also explored is whether the potential association between parenting and child weight is moderated by socio-demographic variables (child's age/ethnicity, and parent's education level). A cross-sectional study was performed among 1,665 parent-child dyads. The children's mean age was 8 years. Their height and weight were measured to calculate their body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure the three parenting dimensions. Based on these dimensions, five parenting styles were defined: the authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, neglecting and rejecting parenting style. Child BMI z-scores were regressed on parenting style, adjusting for parental BMI, child ethnicity, and parent's education level. Rejecting parenting, characterized by high psychological control, low support and low behavioural control, is the only parenting style significantly related to child BMI z-scores (β = 0.074, p parenting, this study has further elucidated the mechanisms whereby parenting may affect child weight. Demonstrating that 'rejecting parenting' is associated with a higher child weight, emphasizes the need for longitudinal studies in which parenting style is measured three-dimensionally. Potential mediating effects of parental feeding style and children's eating style, as well as age moderation, should be included in these studies.
Vollmer, Sebastian; Bommer, Christian; Krishna, Aditi; Harttgen, Kenneth; Subramanian, S V
Most existing research on the association of parental education with childhood undernutrition focuses on maternal education and often ignores paternal education. We systematically investigate differences in maternal and paternal education and their association with childhood undernutrition. One hundred and eighty Demographic and Health Surveys from 62 countries performed between 1990 and 2014 were analysed. We used linear-probability models to predict childhood undernutrition prevalences, measured as stunting, underweight and wasting, for all combinations of maternal and paternal attainment in school. Models were adjusted for demographic and socio-economic covariates for the child, mother and household, country-level fixed effects and clustering. Additional specifications adjust for local area characteristics instead of country fixed effects. Both higher maternal and paternal education levels are associated with lower childhood undernutrition. In regressions adjusted for child age and sex as well as country-level fixed effects, the association is stronger for maternal education than for paternal education when their combined level of education is held constant. In the fully adjusted models, the observed differences in predicted undernutrition prevalences are strongly attenuated, suggesting a similar importance of maternal and paternal education. These findings are confirmed by the analysis of composite schooling indicators. We find that paternal education is similarly important for reducing childhood undernutrition as maternal education and should therefore receive increased attention in the literature. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association
Kalomiris, Anne E; Kiel, Elizabeth J
In this study, we sought to determine whether the affective and physiological experience of primiparous, or first-time, motherhood is distinct from multiparous motherhood, how the child's level of inhibited temperament impacts it, and if such a temperament results in overprotective parenting behaviors. A total of 117 mothers and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in novelty tasks designed to elicit parenting behaviors and toddler's typical fear reactions. Mothers also completed a battery of questionnaires. Results suggest that primiparous mothers experienced more worry, which was associated with increased overprotective parenting behaviors. Primiparous mothers also demonstrated greater physiological (i.e., cortisol) reactivity while watching their first-born children interact with novel stimuli, but how this related to overprotective parenting was dependent on the child's level of inhibition. Specifically, primiparous mothers displayed more cortisol reactivity with their uninhibited toddlers, which indirectly linked parity to less overprotective parenting behaviors. Primiparous mothers of highly inhibited toddlers displayed greater overprotective parenting behaviors, independent of maternal cortisol reactivity. The results indicate that the transition to motherhood is a unique experience associated with greater worry and physiological reactivity and is meaningfully influenced by the toddler's temperament. Distinctions in both observed and self-reported overprotective parenting are evident through considering the dynamic interaction of these various aspects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Garcia, Aileen S.; Ren, Lixin; Esteraich, Jan M.; Raikes, Helen H.
This study was designed to examine whether parenting stress and child behavioral problems are significant predictors of parent-child conflict in the context of low-income families and how these relations are moderated by maternal nativity. The authors conducted multiple regression analyses to examine relations between teachers' report of…
McConley, Regina L; Mrug, Sylvie; Gilliland, M Janice; Lowry, Richard; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A; Bogart, Laura M; Franzini, Luisa; Escobar-Chaves, Soledad L; Franklin, Frank A
Risk factors for child obesity may be influenced by family environment, including maternal depression, family structure, and parenting quality. We tested a path model in which maternal depression and single parent status are associated with parenting quality, which relates to three risk factors for child obesity: diet, leisure, and sedentary behavior. Participants included 4,601 5th-grade children and their primary caregivers who participated in the Healthy Passages study. Results showed that associations of maternal depression and single parenthood with child BMI are mediated by parenting quality and its relation to children's leisure activity and sedentary behavior. Interventions for child obesity may be more successful if they target family environment, particularly parenting quality and its impact on children's active and sedentary behaviors.
Giallo, R; Cooklin, A; Wade, C; D'Esposito, F; Nicholson, J M
Maternal postnatal mental health difficulties have been associated with poor outcomes for children. One mechanism by which parent mental health can impact on children's outcomes is via its effects on parenting behaviour. The longitudinal relationships between maternal postnatal distress, parenting warmth, hostility and child well-being at age seven were examined for 2200 families participating in a population-based longitudinal study of Australian children. The relationship between postnatal distress and children's later emotional-behavioural development was mediated by parenting hostility, but not parenting warmth, even after accounting for concurrent maternal mental health. Postnatal distress was more strongly associated with lower parenting warmth for mothers without a past history of depression compared with mothers with a past history of depression. These findings underscore the contribution of early maternal well-being to later parenting and child outcomes, highlighting the importance of mental health and parenting support in the early parenting years. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lloyd, Adam B; Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J
The primary aim of this study was to examine a range of potential behavioral and maternal/paternal correlates of adiposity in children. Secondary aims were to examine (a) correlates of screen-time, diet and physical activity and (b) if there were differences in maternal and paternal physical activity- and dietary-related parenting practices. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using 70 families with children (59% boys (41/70), mean age 8.4 (±2.4) years). Parenting practices were measured using the Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale. Children's outcomes included: 7-day pedometry (physical activity), screen-time, percent energy from core foods (Food frequency questionnaire) and BMI z-score. Multiple regression models were generated to examine the associations between maternal and paternal parenting practices and children's variables. In the regression analyses, fathers' BMI (p parenting practices [limit setting (p = .01), reinforcement (p = .02)] and child screen-time (p = .02) were significantly associated with intake of core foods. Despite some similarities within families, three out of five parenting constructs were significantly different between mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers have different parental influences on their children's weight status and lifestyle behaviors and both should be included in lifestyle interventions targeting children. A focus on maternal parenting specifically relating to screen-time and diet, and father's physical activity parenting and weight status may support their children in developing more healthy behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Asano, Motoshi; Esaki, Kosei; Wakamatsu, Aya; Kitajima, Tomoko; Narita, Tomohiro; Naitoh, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Norio; Iwata, Nakao
The purpose of this study was to predict the outcome of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) by trainees for major depressive disorder (MDD) based on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). The hypothesis was that the higher level of care and/or lower level of overprotection score would predict a favorable outcome of CBT by trainees. The subjects were all outpatients with MDD treated with CBT as a training case. All the subjects were asked to fill out the Japanese version of the PBI before commencing the course of psychotherapy. The difference between the first and the last Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score was used to represent the improvement of the intensity of depression by CBT. In order to predict improvement (the difference of the BDI scores) as the objective variable, multiple regression analysis was performed using maternal overprotection score and baseline BDI score as the explanatory variables. The multiple regression model was significant (P = 0.0026) and partial regression coefficient for the maternal overprotection score and the baseline BDI was -0.73 (P = 0.0046) and 0.88 (P = 0.0092), respectively. Therefore, when a patient's maternal overprotection score of the PBI was lower, a better outcome of CBT was expected. The hypothesis was partially supported. This result would be useful in determining indications for CBT by trainees for patients with MDD. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Korani, M; Rea, D M; King, P F; Brown, A E
Nonresponsive maternal child-feeding interactions, such as restricting, pressurising and emotional feeding, can affect the ability of a child to self-regulate intake and increase the risk of becoming overweight. However, despite findings that South Asian and Black children living in the UK are more likely to be overweight, UK research has not considered how maternal child-feeding style might differ between ethnic groups. The present study aimed to explore variations in maternal child-feeding style between ethnic groups in the UK, taking into account associated factors such as deprivation and parenting style. Six hundred and fifty-nine UK mothers with a child who was aged 5-11 years old completed a questionnaire. Items included ethnicity and demographic data, as well as copies of the Child Feeding Questionnaire, Parental Feeding Styles Questionnaire and Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Significant differences in perceived responsibility (P = 0.002), restriction (P = 0.026), pressure to eat (P = 0.045), instrumental feeding (P = 0.000) and emotional feeding (P = 0.000) were found between the groups. Mothers from South Asian backgrounds reported higher levels of pressure to eat, emotional feeding and indulgent feeding styles, whereas mothers from Chinese backgrounds reported greater perceived responsibility and restriction. Mothers from Black and White British backgrounds were not significantly higher with respect to any behaviour. Maternal child-feeding style was also associated with deprivation and parenting style, although these did not fully explain the data. Understanding cultural factors behind maternal child-feeding style, particularly around pressurising and indulgent feeding behaviours, may play an important part in reducing levels of children who are overweight and obese in the UK. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Full Text Available Parents are expected to evolve tactics to care for eggs or offspring when providing such care increases fitness above the costs incurred by this behavior. Costs to the parent include the energetic demands of protecting offspring, delaying future fecundity, and increased risk of predation. We used cost-benefit models to test the ecological conditions favoring the evolution of parental care, using lizard populations that differ in whether or not they express maternal care. We found that predators play an important role in the evolution of maternal care because: (1 evolving maternal care is unlikely when care increases predation pressure on the parents; (2 maternal care cannot evolve under low levels of predation pressure on both parents and offspring; and (3 maternal care evolves only when parents are able to successfully defend offspring from predators without increasing predation risk to themselves. Our studies of one of the only known vertebrate species to exhibit interpopulation differences in the expression of maternal care provide clear support for some of the hypothesized circumstances under which maternal care should evolve (e.g., when nests are in exposed locations, parents are able to defend the eggs from predators, and egg incubation periods are brief, but do not support others (e.g., when nest-sites are scarce, life history strategies are "risky", reproductive frequency is low, and environmental conditions are harsh. We conclude that multiple pathways can lead to the evolution of parental care from a non-caring state, even in a single population of a widespread species.
Schuppert, H.M.; Albers, C.J.; Minderaa, R.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Nauta, M.H.
The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress
Schuppert, H. Marieke; Albers, Casper J.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paulus; Nauta, Maaike H.
The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress
Lahey, Benjamin B; Michalska, Kalina J; Liu, Chunyu; Chen, Qi; Hipwell, Alison E; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waldman, Irwin D; Decety, Jean
A failure of neural changes initiated by the estrogen surge in late pregnancy to reverse the valence of infant stimuli from aversive to rewarding is associated with dysfunctional maternal behavior in nonhuman mammals. Estrogen receptor-α plays the crucial role in mediating these neural effects of estrogen priming. This preliminary study examines associations between estrogen receptor-α gene polymorphisms and human maternal behavior. Two polymorphisms were associated with human negative maternal parenting. Furthermore, hemodynamic responses in functional magnetic resonance imaging to child stimuli in neural regions associated with social cognition fully mediated the association between genetic variation and negative parenting. This suggests testable hypotheses regarding a biological pathway between genetic variants and dysfunctional human maternal parenting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shi, Min; Murray, Jeff; Marazita, Mary L
We performed a genome wide association analysis of maternally-mediated genetic effects and parent-of-origin (POO) effects on risk of orofacial clefting (OC) using over 2,000 case-parent triads collected through an international cleft consortium. We used log-linear regression models to test indivi...... individual SNPs. For SNPs with a P-value...
Shaw, Elizabeth; Levitt, Cheryl; Wong, Sharon; Kaczorowski, Janusz
higher with home visitation programs. No randomized controlled trial evidence was found to endorse universal provision of postpartum support to improve parenting, maternal mental health, maternal quality of life, or maternal physical health. There is some evidence that high-risk populations may benefit from postpartum support.
Möller, Eline L; Nikolić, Milica; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Bögels, Susan M
In this meta-analysis we investigated differential associations between maternal and paternal parenting behaviors (overcontrol, overprotection, overinvolvement, autonomy granting, challenging parenting) and anxiety and its precursors (fearful temperament, behavioral inhibition, shyness) in children (0-5years). Two meta-analyses were conducted, one for mothers (k=28, N=5,728), and one for fathers (k=12, N=1,019). In general, associations between parenting and child anxiety were small. Associations between child anxiety and overcontrol, overprotection, and overinvolvement did not differ for mothers and fathers. Maternal autonomy granting was not significantly related to child anxiety, and no studies examined fathers' autonomy granting. A significant difference was found for challenging parenting; mothers' challenging parenting was not significantly related to child anxiety, whereas fathers' challenging parenting was related to less child anxiety. Post-hoc meta-analyses revealed that mothers' and fathers' parenting was more strongly related to children's anxiety symptoms than to child anxiety precursors. Moreover, the association between parenting and child anxiety symptoms was stronger for fathers than for mothers. In conclusion, although parenting plays only a small role in early childhood anxiety, fathers' parenting is at least as important as mothers'. Paternal challenging behavior even seems more important than maternal challenging behavior. Research is needed to determine whether challenging fathering can prevent child anxiety development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nikitopoulos, Jörg; Zohsel, Katrin; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F; Schmid, Brigitte; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Becker, Katja; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred
Insensitive and unresponsive caregiving during infancy has been linked to externalizing behavior problems during childhood and adolescence. The 7-repeat (7r) allele of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has meta-analytically been associated with a heightened susceptibility to adverse as well as supportive environments. In the present study, we examined long-term effects of early maternal care, DRD4 genotype and the interaction thereof on externalizing and internalizing psychopathology during adolescence. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, early maternal care was assessed at child's age 3 months during a nursing and playing situation. In a sample of 296 offspring, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a psychiatric interview conducted at age 15 years. Parents additionally filled out a questionnaire on their children's psychopathic behaviors. Results indicated that adolescents with the DRD4 7r allele who experienced less responsive and stimulating early maternal care exhibited more symptoms of ADHD and CD/ODD as well as higher levels of psychopathic behavior. In accordance with the hypothesis of differential susceptibility, 7r allele carriers showed fewer ADHD symptoms and lower levels of psychopathic behavior when exposed to especially beneficial early caregiving. In contrast, individuals without the DRD4 7r allele proved to be insensitive to the effects of early maternal care. This study replicates earlier findings with regard to an interaction between DRD4 genotype and early caregiving on externalizing behavior problems in preschoolers. It is the first one to imply continuity of this effect until adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khashan, Ali; Abel, Kathryn; McNamee, R.
CONTEXT: Most societies believe that a mother's psychological state can influence her unborn baby. Severe adverse life events during pregnancy have been consistently associated with an elevated risk of low birth weight and prematurity. Such events during the first trimester have also been...... associated with risk of congenital malformations. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect in offspring of antenatal maternal exposure to an objective measure of stress on risk of adverse neurodevelopment, specifically schizophrenia. We hypothesized that the strongest relationship would be to maternal exposures...... not linked with a higher risk of schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study suggests that severe stress to a mother during the first trimester may alter the risk of schizophrenia in offspring. This finding is consistent with ecological evidence from whole populations exposed to severe stressors...
Lovejoy, M C
The social interactions of depressed and nondepressed mothers and their preschool-age children were observed and mothers' perceptions of child behavior assessed. Depressed mothers, as a group, exhibited more negative behavior than controls; however, no differences were found for maternal positive behavior or contingent responding. There was a high degree of reciprocity between child and mother behavior in both groups and there was a trend for children of the depressed mothers to be more negative than the control children. The results with cognitive measures were consistent with depressive realism in perception of social interactions: Depressed mothers recalled more negative child behavior than nondepressed mothers; however, these perceptions paralleled the observed interactions. Overall, the results suggest that maternal depression is associated with negative parent-child interactions and more negative, albeit fairly accurate, perceptions of child behavior.
Many faculty and staff working in higher education lament the increasing involvement of the parents of their college-aged students. They denigrate such individuals as "helicopter" parents, and when the contact occurs in person as opposed to through the phone or email, they call them "lawn mower" parents. The whole issue of…
Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Barathi, C.
Parental Encouragement refers to the general process undertaken by the parents to initiative and directs the behaviour of the children towards high academic achievement. The present study aims to probe the relationship between Parental Encouragement and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary School Students. Survey method was employed and the…
Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia
The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers' postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers' attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers.
Full Text Available The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with the subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers’ attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th month of gestation and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress three months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress three months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers
Boyce, Lisa K.; Seedall, Ryan B.; Innocenti, Mark S.; Roggman, Lori A.; Cook, Gina A.; Hagman, Amanda M.; Jump Norman, Vonda K.
We examined the effects of our parent-child interaction focused bookmaking intervention with 89 families and their toddlers receiving early intervention services. Participating early intervention providers (N = 24) were assigned to either continue providing services as usual or participate in training to implement the bookmaking approach in their…
Cooklin, Amanda R; Giallo, Rebecca; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Crawford, Sharinne; Nicholson, Jan M
Postpartum maternal separation anxiety refers to a mothers' experience of worry and concern about leaving her child for short-term separations. The long-term effects of high maternal separation anxiety on maternal parenting behaviors and child outcomes have been not been established empirically. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prospective relationships between maternal separation anxiety during the child's first year of life, and overprotective parenting and children's social and emotional functioning at age 2-3 years. Structural equation modeling with a large representative cohort of Australian mother-child dyads (N = 3,103) indicated that high maternal separation anxiety was associated with more overprotective parenting behaviors and poorer child socioemotional functioning at age 2-3 years. Findings suggest women with high postpartum maternal separation anxiety may sustain this vigilance across the first years following birth, promoting overprotective behaviors, and resulting in increased behavior problems in their children. Support for women around negotiating separation from their children early in parenthood may prevent the establishment of a repertoire of parenting behaviors that includes unnecessarily high vigilance, monitoring, and anxiety about separation. © 2013 American Psychological Association
Handley, Elizabeth D; Michl-Petzing, Louisa C; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L
Using a developmental cascades framework, the current study investigated whether treating maternal depression via interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) may lead to more widespread positive adaptation for offspring and mothers including benefits to toddler attachment and temperament, and maternal parenting self-efficacy. The participants (N = 125 mother-child dyads; mean mother age at baseline = 25.43 years; 54.4% of mothers were African American; mean offspring age at baseline = 13.23 months) were from a randomized controlled trial of IPT for a sample of racially and ethnically diverse, socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers of infants. Mothers were randomized to IPT (n = 97) or an enhanced community standard control group (n = 28). The results of complier average causal effect modeling showed that engagement with IPT led to significant decreases in maternal depressive symptoms at posttreatment. Moreover, reductions in maternal depression posttreatment were associated with less toddler disorganized attachment characteristics, more adaptive maternal perceptions of toddler temperament, and improved maternal parenting efficacy 8 months following the completion of treatment. Our findings contribute to the emerging literature documenting the potential benefits to children of successfully treating maternal depression. Alleviating maternal depression appears to initiate a cascade of positive adaptation among both mothers and offspring, which may alter the well-documented risk trajectory for offspring of depressed mothers.
Handley, Elizabeth D.; Michl-Petzing, Louisa C.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.
Using a developmental cascades framework, the current study investigated whether treating maternal depression via interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) may lead to more widespread positive adaptation for offspring and mothers including benefits to toddler attachment and temperament, and maternal parenting self-efficacy. The participants (N=125 mother-child dyads, mean mother age at baseline=25.43 years; 54.4% of mothers were African-American; mean offspring age at baseline=13.23 months) were from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of IPT for a sample of racially and ethnically diverse, socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers of infants. Mothers were randomized to IPT (n=97) or an enhanced community standard (ECS) control group (n=28). Results of complier average causal effect (CACE) modeling showed that engagement with IPT led to significant decreases in maternal depressive symptoms at post-treatment. Moreover, reductions in maternal depression post-treatment were associated with less toddler disorganized attachment characteristics, more adaptive maternal perceptions of toddler temperament, and improved maternal parenting efficacy eight months following the completion of treatment. Our findings contribute to the emerging literature documenting the potential benefits to children of successfully treating maternal depression. Alleviating maternal depression appears to initiate a cascade of positive adaptation among both mothers and offspring, which may alter the well-documented risk trajectory for offspring of depressed mothers. PMID:28401849
Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen
We investigated mothering and mother-child interactions in adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 190 adolescents with persistent DSM-IV ADHD, 147 without persistent ADHD, and 223 without ADHD. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews for diagnosis of ADHD and other mental disorders; and reported on the Parental Bonding Instrument about mother's parenting style, the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents for interactions with mothers and home behavioral problems. The mothers also reported on their ADHD and neurotic/depressive symptoms. Our results based on both informants showed that both ADHD groups obtained less affection/care and more overprotection and control from the mothers, and perceived less family support than those without ADHD. Child's inattention and comorbidity, and maternal depression were significantly correlated with decreased maternal affection/care and increased maternal controls; child's hyperactivity-impulsivity and maternal neurotic trait were significantly correlated with maternal overprotection; and child's inattention and comorbidity, and maternal neurotic/depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with impaired mother-child interactions and less family support. Our findings suggested that, regardless of persistence, childhood ADHD diagnosis, particularly inattention symptoms and comorbidity, combining with maternal neurotic/depressive symptoms was associated with impaired maternal process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hoeve, Machteld; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R M; van der Laan, Peter H; Smeenk, Wilma
The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and mothers were linked to delinquency. A significant parenting style by sex interaction was found: neglectful parenting was related to higher levels of delinquency in males and permissive parenting was linked to delinquency in females. A long term relationship was found between fathers' neglectful parenting style and delinquency in males. Furthermore, results revealed that levels of delinquency were the lowest in families with at least one authoritative parent and highest in families with two neglectful parents, indicating that the level of delinquency was dependent on the combination of mother's and father's parenting styles. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sher-Censor, Efrat; Shulman, Cory; Cohen, Esther
This study examined the array of associations among the emotional valence and the coherence of mothers' representations of their relationship with their toddlers, mothers' reported parenting stress, and toddlers' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. To evaluate maternal representations, 55 mothers were interviewed using the Five Minute Speech Sample procedure (FMSS; Magaña et al., 1986), which was coded for criticism and positive comments (Magaňa-Amato, 1993), as well as coherence (Sher-Censor & Yates, 2015). Mothers also completed the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form (PSI; Abidin, 1997) to evaluate their parenting stress and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) to assess their toddlers' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Results indicated that parenting stress was associated with maternal criticism and fewer positive comments in the FMSS, but not with the coherence of mothers' FMSS. Parenting stress, criticism, and lower coherence in the FMSS were associated with maternal reports of externalizing behaviors. Only parenting stress and lower coherence in the FMSS were related to mothers' reports of internalizing behaviors of the child. Thus, the emotional valence and the coherence of mothers' representations of their relationship with their child and parenting stress may each constitute a distinct aspect of parenting and contribute to the understanding of individual differences in toddlers' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Implications for research and practice with families of toddlers are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina-Ghertasi
Objective. The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. Study design. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind�s parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children�s anxiety and behavior was evaluated using the Spence Children�s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and Frankl behavior scale. Results. Significant correlation was found between maternal EQ and child behavior (r=0.330; pparenting style and child behavior. There was no significant correlation between mother�s total EQ and child�s total anxiety; however, some subscales of EQ and anxiety showed significant correlations. There were significant correlations between authoritarian parenting style and separation anxiety (r=0.186; pparenting style and mother�s EQ (r=0.286; pbehavior (r = -0.81). Regression analysis revealed maternal EQ is effective in predicting child behavior (?=0.340; pbehavior in the dental setting is correlated to mother�s emotional intelligence. Emotionally intelligent mothers were found to have predominantly authoritative parenting style. Key words:Anxiety, child behavior, parenting, pediatric dentistry. PMID:22926462
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Collins, Sarah
A unified theory of behavior was applied to parent-adolescent communication about sexual intercourse to understand why some mothers speak less often with their children about not having sexual intercourse. According to the theory, parental decisions or intentions to engage in such conversations are a function of expectancies, social norms, self-concept, emotions, and self-efficacy. Data were collected from a random sample of 668 mother-adolescent dyads recruited from middle schools located in the Bronx community of New York City. Data were collected via self-administered surveys. Mother and adolescent reports on the frequency of parent-adolescent communication about sexual intercourse were obtained. Adolescents and mothers reported how often the mother had discussed 21 topics related to sexual behavior. Results supported the utility of the framework for understanding parent-adolescent communication about sexual intercourse. Significant maternal correlates included (a) expectancies about lacking knowledge, being embarrassed and encouraging children to think maturely and focus on school; (b) self-concept and perceiving that mothers who didn't talk with their children about sex were irresponsible; (c) emotions about feeling relaxed and comfortable; and (d) self-efficacy about the ease of talking with one's child. Implications for family based prevention programs are discussed.
Landry, Susan H.; Smith, Karen E.; Swank, Paul R.; Guttentag, Cathy
This study examined the optimal timing (infancy, toddler–preschool, or both) for facilitating responsive parenting and the intervention effects on maternal behaviors and child social and communication skills for children who vary in biological risk. The intervention during infancy, Playing and Learning Strategies (PALS I), showed strong changes in maternal affective–emotional and cognitively responsive behaviors and infants’ development. However, it was hypothesized that a 2nd intervention do...
Taraban, Lindsay; Shaw, Daniel S; Leve, Leslie D; Wilson, Melvin N; Dishion, Thomas J; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David
Marital quality and social support satisfaction were tested as moderators of the association between maternal depressive symptoms and parenting during early childhood (18-36 months) among 2 large, divergent, longitudinal samples (n = 526; n = 570). Unexpectedly, in both samples the association between maternal depressive symptoms and reduced parenting quality was strongest in the context of high marital quality and high social support, and largely nonsignificant in the context of low marital quality and low social support. Possible explanations for these surprising findings are discussed. Results point to the importance of accounting for factors in the broader family context in predicting the association between depressive symptoms and maternal parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Maestripieri, Dario; Higley, J Dee; Lindell, Stephen G; Newman, Timothy K; McCormack, Kai M; Sanchez, Mar M
This study investigated the effects of early exposure to variable parenting style and infant abuse on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of monoamine metabolites and examined the role of monoaminergic function in the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Forty-three infants reared by their biological mothers and 15 infants that were cross-fostered at birth and reared by unrelated mothers were followed longitudinally through their first 3 years of life or longer. Approximately half of the infants were reared by abusive mothers and half by nonabusive controls. Abused infants did not differ from controls in CSF concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylgycol (MHPG). Abused infants, however, were exposed to higher rates of maternal rejection, and highly rejected infants had lower CSF 5-HIAA and HVA than low-rejection infants. The abused females who became abusive mothers in adulthood had lower CSF 5-HIAA than the abused females who did not. A similar trend was also observed among the cross-fostered females, suggesting that low serotonergic function resulting from early exposure to high rates of maternal rejection plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse.
Radesky, Jenny; Miller, Alison L; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Appugliese, Danielle; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C
To examine associations of maternal mobile device use with the frequency of mother-child interactions during a structured laboratory task. Participants included 225 low-income mother-child pairs. When children were ∼6 years old, dyads were videotaped during a standardized protocol in order to characterize how mothers and children interacted when asked to try familiar and unfamiliar foods. From videotapes, we dichotomized mothers on the basis of whether or not they spontaneously used a mobile device, and we counted maternal verbal and nonverbal prompts toward the child. We used multivariate Poisson regression to study associations of device use with eating prompt frequency for different foods. Mothers were an average of 31.3 (SD 7.1) years old, and 28.0% were of Hispanic/nonwhite race/ethnicity. During the protocol, 23.1% of mothers spontaneously used a mobile device. Device use was not associated with any maternal characteristics, including age, race/ethnicity, education, depressive symptoms, or parenting style. Mothers with device use initiated fewer verbal (relative rate 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.63, 1.03) and nonverbal (0.61; 0.39, 0.96) interactions with their children than mothers who did not use a device, when averaged across all foods. This association was strongest during introduction of halva, the most unfamiliar food (0.67; 0.48, 0.93 for verbal and 0.42; 0.20, 0.89 for nonverbal interactions). Mobile device use was common and associated with fewer interactions with children during a structured interaction task, particularly nonverbal interactions and during introduction of an unfamiliar food. More research is needed to understand how device use affects parent-child engagement in naturalistic contexts. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andrea Camperio Ciani
Full Text Available A variety of social, developmental, biological and genetic factors influence sexual orientation in males. Thus, several hypotheses have attempted to explain the sustenance of genetic factors that influence male homosexuality, despite decreased fecundity within the homosexuals. Kin selection, the existence of maternal effects and two forms of balancing selection, sexually antagonistic selection and overdominance, have been proposed as compensatory mechanisms for reduced homosexual fecundity. Here, we suggest that the empirical support for kin selection and maternal effects cannot account for the low universal frequency and stability of the distribution of homosexuals. To identify the responsible compensatory mechanism, we analyzed fecundity in 2,100 European female relatives, i.e., aunts and grandmothers, of either homosexual or heterosexual probands who were matched in terms of age, culture and sampling strategy. Female relatives were chosen to avoid the sampling bias of the fraternal birth order effect, which occurs when indirectly sampling mothers though their homosexual sons. We observed that the maternal aunts and grandmothers of homosexual probands were significantly more fecund compared with the maternal aunts and maternal grandmothers of the heterosexual probands. No difference in fecundity was observed in the paternal female lines (grandmothers or aunts from either of the two proband groups. Moreover, due to the selective increase in maternal female fecundity, the total female fecundity was significantly higher in homosexual than heterosexual probands, thus compensating for the reduced fecundity of homosexuals. Altogether, these data support an X-linked multi-locus sexually antagonistic hypothesis rather than an autosomal multi-locus overdominance hypothesis.
Rudy, Duane; Grusec, Joan E
Mothers and children between the ages of 7 and 12, from individualist (Western European) and collectivist (Egyptian, Iranian, Indian, and Pakistani) backgrounds, completed assessments of children's self-esteem, maternal authoritarianism, and mothers' thoughts and feelings about their children. Collectivist mothers endorsed authoritarian parenting more than did individualist mothers but did not feel or think more negatively about their children, and collectivist children were not lower in self-esteem. Within both groups, maternal negative affect and cognition were associated with lower self-esteem in children. However, maternal authoritarianism was associated with maternal negative emotion and cognition only in the individualist group. The results suggest that maternal negative thoughts and feelings, associated with authoritarianism in individualist but not collectivist groups, may be more detrimental to children's self-esteem than is authoritarianism in and of itself. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
Barrett, Jennifer; Wonch, Kathleen E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Ali, Nida; Steiner, Meir; Hall, Geoffrey B; Fleming, Alison S
We examined how individual differences in mood and anxiety in the early postpartum period are related to brain response to infant stimuli during fMRI, with particular focus on regions implicated in both maternal behavior and mood/anxiety, that is, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and the amygdala. At approximately 3 months postpartum, 22 mothers completed an affect-rating task (ART) during fMRI, where their affective response to infant stimuli was explicitly probed. Mothers viewed/rated four infant face conditions: own positive (OP), own negative (ON), unfamiliar positive (UP), and unfamiliar negative (UN). Mood and anxiety were measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDPS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Version (STAI-T); maternal factors related to parental stress and attachment were also assessed. Brain-imaging data underwent a random-effects analysis, and cluster-based statistical thresholding was applied to the following contrasts: OP-UP, ON-UN, OP-ON, and UP-UN. Our main finding was that poorer quality of maternal experience was significantly related to reduced amygdala response to OP compared to UP infant faces. Our results suggest that, in human mothers, infant-related amygdala function may be an important factor in maternal anxiety/mood, in quality of mothering, and in individual differences in the motivation to mother. We are very grateful to the staff at the Imaging Research Center of the Brain-Body Institute for their contributions to this project. This work was supported by an Ontario Mental Health Foundation operating grant awarded to Alison Fleming and a postdoctoral fellowship awarded to Jennifer Barrett.
Santos, Eduardo S A; Bueno, Pedro P; Gilbert, James D J; Machado, Glauco
The intensity of biotic interactions varies around the world, in such a way that mortality risk imposed by natural enemies is usually higher in the tropics. A major role of offspring attendance is protection against natural enemies, so the benefits of this behaviour should be higher in tropical regions. We tested this macroecological prediction with a meta-regression of field experiments in which the mortality of guarded and unguarded broods was compared in arthropods. Mortality of unguarded broods was higher, and parental care was more beneficial, in warmer, less seasonal environments. Moreover, in these same environments, additional lines of defence further reduced offspring mortality, implying that offspring attendance alone is not enough to deter natural enemies in tropical regions. These results help to explain the high frequency of parental care among tropical species and how biotic interactions influence the occurrence of parental care over large geographic scales. Finally, our findings reveal that additional lines of defences - an oftentimes neglected component of parental care - have an important effect on the covariation between the benefits of parental care and the climate-mediated mortality risk imposed by natural enemies. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.
Lamela, Diogo; Jongenelen, Inês; Morais, Ana; Figueiredo, Bárbara
Both depressive and somatic symptoms are significant predictors of parenting and coparenting problems. However, despite clear evidence of their co-occurrence, no study to date has examined the association between depressive-somatic symptoms clusters and parenting and coparenting. The current research sought to identify and cross-validate clusters of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms and nonspecific somatic symptoms, as well as to test whether clusters would differ on parenting and coparenting problems across three independent samples of mothers. Participants in Studies 1 and 3 consisted of 409 and 652 community mothers, respectively. Participants in Study 2 consisted of 162 mothers exposed to intimate partner violence. All participants prospectively completed self-report measures of depressive and nonspecific somatic symptoms and parenting (Studies 1 and 2) or coparenting (Study 3). Across studies, three depression-somatic symptoms clusters were identified: no symptoms, high depression and low nonspecific somatic symptoms, and high depression and nonspecific somatic symptoms. The high depression-somatic symptoms cluster was associated with the highest levels of child physical maltreatment risk (Study 1) and overt-conflict coparenting (Study 3). No differences in perceived maternal competence (Study 2) and cooperative and undermining coparenting (Study 3) were found between the high depression and low somatic symptoms cluster and the high depression-somatic symptoms cluster. The results provide novel evidence for the strong associations between clusters of depression and nonspecific somatic symptoms and specific parenting and coparenting problems. Cluster stability across three independent samples suggest that they may be generalizable. The results inform preventive approaches and evidence-based psychotherapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Qiuwei; Huang, Ruiping; Yu, Bin; Cao, Fang; Wang, Huiyan; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Hong; Zhu, Ziqiang
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on fetal insulin resistance or β-cell function in Chinese pregnant women with GDM. Maternal fasting blood and venous cord blood samples (reflecting fetal condition) were collected in 65 well-controlled Chinese GDM mothers (only given dietary intervention) and 83 control subjects. The insulin, glucose and proinsulin concentrations of both maternal and cord blood samples were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (an indicator of fetal β-cell function) were calculated in maternal and cord blood respectively. Both maternal and fetal levels of insulin, proinsulin and HOMA-IR but not proinsulin-to-insulin ratios were significantly higher in the GDM group than in the control group (maternal insulin, 24.8 vs. 15.4 µU/mL, P = 0.004, proinsulin, 23.3 vs. 16.2 pmol/L, P = 0.005, and HOMA-IR, 5.5 vs. 3.5, P = 0.041, respectively; fetal: insulin, 15.1 vs. 7.9 µU/mL, Pinsulin ratios was significantly correlated to maternal HOMA-IR (r = 0.307, P = 0.019), in the pregnant women with GDM. Fetal insulin resistance was higher in Chinese pregnant women with GDM than control subjects, and correlated with maternal insulin resistance.
Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra
Children's emotional and relational development can be negatively influenced by maternal substance abuse, particularly through a dysfunctional caregiving environment. Attachment Theory offers a privileged framework to analyze how drug addiction can affect the quality of adult attachment style, parenting attitudes and behaviors toward the child, and how it can have a detrimental effect on the co-construction of the attachment bond by the mother and the infant. Several studies, as a matter of fact, have identified a prevalence of insecure patterns among drug-abusing mothers and their children. Many interventions for mothers with Substance Use Disorders have focused on enhancing parental skills, but they have often overlooked the emotional and relational features of the mother-infant bond. Instead, in recent years, a number of protocols have been developed in order to strengthen the relationship between drug-abusing mothers and their children, drawing lessons from Attachment Theory. The present study reviews the literature on the adult and infant attachment style in the context of drug addiction, describing currently available treatment programs that address parenting and specifically focus on the mother-infant bond, relying on Attachment Theory.
Pinto, Ricardo J; Correia-Santos, Patrícia; Levendosky, Alytia; Jongenelen, Inês
Studies of the effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on parenting have usually not examined the role of the maternal perceptions, either its stress or maternal satisfaction, on the mothers' and children's mental health functioning. The present study aimed to assess whether maternal satisfaction, parenting stress, and social support are significantly associated with women's psychological functioning. The study also assessed whether maternal perceptions of the role of parenting were significantly associated with children's emotional well-being and social behavior. The sample included 160 mothers, 79 (49.4%) who were living with the aggressors and 81 (50.6%) in shelters, and their children ( n = 61). The findings suggested that high levels of maternal satisfaction and perception of social support were significantly negatively associated with women's posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychological distress, whereas parenting stress was significantly positively associated with these outcomes. Maternal satisfaction was the only parenting variable that predicted both maternal mental health and children's emotional and behavioral problems, suggesting that it is a protective factor for both mothers and children. This study suggests that increasing maternal satisfaction with parenting and reducing parenting stress might promote better adjustment for both women and children victims of IPV.
Abar, Beau; Carter, Kermit L; Winsler, Adam
This study explored relations between religiosity, both parent and student, and maternal parenting style and student academic self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American youth attending a parochial college. Eighty-five students completed self-report survey measures of religiosity, self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior. Participants also completed youth report measures of parental religiosity and perceived maternal parenting style. Correlational analyses show authoritative parenting to be associated with high levels of academic performance and study skills. Additional correlations revealed that highly religious students tend to perform well academically, study better, and engage in fewer risk behaviors than youth less committed to religion. Although no direct relations were observed between parenting style and student religiosity, maternal parenting style was found to moderate relations between parental and student religiosity. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to the population studied.
Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Albrecht, Erin C.; Kemp, Christine J.
Lower levels of parent-child affective flexibility indicate risk for children's problem outcomes. This short-term longitudinal study examined whether maternal depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of dyadic affective flexibility and positive affective content in mother-child problem-solving interactions at age 3.5?years…
Mokrova, Irina L.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart
Children who develop persistence in the preschool years are likely to function more effectively during the transition into school. In this study of 231 3-year-old children and their mothers, we examined the relations among family social status, maternal values of self-direction, quality of parenting, and children's persistence in challenging…
Rodriguez, G.; Rodrigo Lopez, M.J.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Triana, B.
This study investigated to what extent mothers' conceptions of the parenting role drive mother–child collaborative behaviour as well as expert ratings on maternal practices. It also investigated whether there is any direct link between mother and child behaviours and expert ratings. Self-report
Shi, Min; Murray, Jeffrey C; Marazita, Mary L; Munger, Ronald G; Ruczinski, Ingo; Hetmanski, Jacqueline B; Wu, Tao; Murray, Tanda; Redett, Richard J; Wilcox, Allen J; Lie, Rolv T; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Wu-Chou, Yah Huei; Chen, Philip K; Wang, Hong; Ye, Xiaoqian; Yeow, Vincent; Chong, Samuel S; Shi, Bing; Christensen, Kaare; Scott, Alan F; Patel, Poorav; Cheah, Felicia; Beaty, Terri H
We performed a genome wide association analysis of maternally-mediated genetic effects and parent-of-origin effects on risk of orofacial clefting using over 2,000 case-parent triads collected through an international cleft consortium. We used log-linear regression models to test individual SNPs. For SNPs with a p-value <10−5 for maternal genotypic effects, we also applied a haplotype-based method, TRIMM, to extract potential information from clusters of correlated SNPs. None of the SNPs were significant at the genome wide level. Our results suggest neither maternal genome nor parent of origin effects play major roles in the etiology of orofacial clefting in our sample. This finding is consistent with previous genetic studies and recent population-based cohort studies in Norway and Denmark, which showed no apparent difference between mother-to-offspring and father-to-offspring recurrence of clefting. We, however, cannot completely rule out maternal genome or parent of origin effects as risk factors because very small effects might not be detectable with our sample size, they may influence risk through interactions with environmental exposures or may act through a more complex network of interacting genes. Thus the most promising SNPs identified by this study may still be worth further investigation. PMID:22419666
Murphy, Debra A.; Marelich, William D.; Herbeck, Diane M.; Payne, Diana L.
The influence of parenting skills on adolescent outcomes among children affected by maternal HIV/AIDS (N = 118, M age = 13) was investigated. Among families with more frequent family routines, over time adolescents showed lower rates of aggression, anxiety, worry, depression, conduct disorder, binge drinking, and increased self-concept. Among…
Baker, Claire; Kuhn, Laura
Structural equation models were used to examine pathways from maternal depression and early parenting to children's executive function (EF) and externalizing behaviours in the first nationally representative study to obtain direct assessments of children's kindergarten EF skills (i.e., the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of…
Liu, Lisa L.; Lau, Anna S.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Dinh, Khanh T.; Kim, Su Yeong
Associations among neighborhood disadvantage, maternal acculturation, parenting and conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents. Adolescents (54% female, 46% male) ranged from 12 to 15 years of age (mean age = 13.0 years). Multilevel modeling was employed to test the hypothesis that the association between…
Full Text Available Curse is an appellative genre, a clichéd verbal proverb that is uttered in belief, that with the assistance of supernatural forces, God or demon, through the magical properties of words, evil will come upon an individual. It is examined through the context of the ideal motherhood discourse in the tradition culture of the XIX and the first half of the XX century, in view that it was perceived to be an idiosyncrasy of female demeanor. Maternity as a cultural construct in the traditional culture of Serbia is based upon the ideal motherhood discourses as a gift from god, as an innate role for women, an inherent instinct for caring towards others, as an unconditional motherly love. In practice, normative regulations and the concrete actions of a mother are not in complete concurrence, mothers love is not an objective fact, it can be present or not, vary in intensity, it can be selective, but it will depend on the personal history and cultural construct. Through such a focal point, motherly curse is perceived as a form of behavior that can be signified as anti-maternity. In the conceptualization of a parental curse, from one viewpoint, the manner of usual behavior of women that has no real implications on the life of the child is legitimized, and on the other hand, it is believed that a mothers curse has the most potent magical effect and is delivered up to the ninth generation. Parental curse and the ritual of "cursing" do not include a black magic connotation, and were considered a legitimate social mechanism through which evil was countered with evil i.e. the transgressor was being punished in cases where there existed no formal mechanism of punishment. Through such actions, the community, or family are re-imposing order in the social relations, synchronously sending a message that reaffirms the correct matrix of behavior and moral values of the community.
Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Ferro, Valentino; Gallucci, Marcello; Parodi, Cinzia; Astengo, Marina
While the association between anxiety and postpartum depression is well known, few studies have investigated the relationship between these two states and parenting stress. Furthermore, a number of studies have found that postpartum depression affects mother-infant emotion regulation, but there has been only one study on anxiety and emotion regulation and no studies at all on parenting stress and emotion regulation. Therefore, the primary aim of our study is to identify, in a community sample of 71 mothers, the relationship between maternal depression, anxiety, and parenting stress. The second aim is to examine the relationship between anxiety, postpartum depression, and parenting stress and mother-infant emotion regulation assessed at 3 months. Mother-infant interaction was coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver and Engagement Phases (ICEP) using a microanalytic approach. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) were administered to the mothers to assess depression, anxiety, and parenting stress, respectively. Analysis revealed correlations between anxiety and depression, showing that parenting stress is associated with both states. In a laboratory observation, depression was correlated with both negative maternal states and negative dyadic matches as well as infant positive/mother negative mismatches; anxiety was correlated with both negative maternal states and infant negative states as well as mismatches involving one of the partners having a negative state. Multiple regression analysis showed that anxiety is a greater predictor than depression of less adequate styles of mother-infant emotion regulation. Parenting stress was not shown to predict such regulation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Singla, Daisy R; Kumbakumba, Elias; Aboud, Frances E
support, were also assessed as potential mediators. Baseline assessments were done in January, 2013, and endline assessments were done in November, 2013, 3 months after completion of the programme. Ethics approval was received from Mbarara and McGill universities. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01906606. Between December, 2012, and January, 2013, 13 communities (194 dyads) were randomly assigned to receive intervention, and 12 communities (154 dyads) were assigned to a waitlist control. 319 dyads completed baseline measures (171 in the intervention group and 148 in the control group), and 291 dyads completed endline measures (160 in the intervention group and 131 in the control group). At endline, children in the intervention group had significantly higher cognitive scores (58·90 vs 55·65, effect size 0·36, 95% CI 0·12-0·59) and receptive language scores (23·86 vs 22·40, 0·27, 0·03-0·50) than did children in the control group. Mothers in the intervention group reported significantly fewer depressive symptoms (15·36 vs 18·61, -0·391, 95% CI -0·62 to -0·16) than did mothers in the control group. However, no differences were found in child growth between groups. The 12 session integrated parenting intervention delivered by non-professional community members improved child development and maternal wellbeing in rural Uganda. Because this intervention was largely managed and implemented by a local organisation, using local community members and minimal resources, such a programme has the potential to be replicated and scaled up in other low-resource, village-based settings. Plan Uganda via Plan Finland (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) and Plan Australia (Australian Aid). Copyright © 2015 Singla et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Vega-Trejo, Regina; Head, Megan L; Jennions, Michael D; Kruuk, Loeske E B
The impact of environmental conditions on the expression of genetic variance and on maternal effects variance remains an important question in evolutionary quantitative genetics. We investigate here the effects of early environment on variation in seven adult life history, morphological, and secondary sexual traits (including sperm characteristics) in a viviparous poeciliid fish, the mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki. Specifically, we manipulated food availability during early development and then assessed additive genetic and maternal effects contributions to the overall phenotypic variance in adults. We found higher heritability for female than male traits, but maternal effects variance for traits in both sexes. An interaction between maternal effects variance and rearing environment affected two adult traits (female age at maturity and male size at maturity), but there was no evidence of trade-offs in maternal effects across environments. Our results illustrate (i) the potential for pre-natal maternal effects to interact with offspring environment during development, potentially affecting traits through to adulthood and (ii) that genotype-by-environment interactions might be overestimated if maternal-by-environment interactions are not accounted for, similar to heritability being overestimated if maternal effects are ignored. We also discuss the potential for dominance genetic variance to contribute to the estimate of maternal effects variance.
Doan, Stacey N; Tardif, Twila; Miller, Alison; Olson, Sheryl; Kessler, Daniel; Felt, Barbara; Wang, Li
Parenting strategies involving psychological control are associated with increased adjustment problems in children. However, no research has examined the extent to which culture and psychological control predict children's stress physiology. We examine cultural differences in maternal psychological control and its associations with children's cortisol. Chinese (N = 59) and American (N = 45) mother-child dyads participated in the study. Mothers reported on psychological control. Children's cortisol was collected during a stressor and two indices of Area Under the Curve (AUC) were computed: AUCg which accounts for total output, and AUCi, which captures reactivity. Results indicate that Chinese mothers reported higher levels of psychological control and Chinese children had higher levels of AUCg than their American counterparts. Across both cultures, psychological control was significantly associated with increased cortisol levels as indexed by AUCg. There were no associations for AUCi. Finally, mediation analyses demonstrated that psychological control fully explained cultural differences in children's cortisol stress response as indexed by AUCg. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Barlow, Jane; Coren, Esther; Stewart-Brown, Sarah
The purpose of this study was to determine whether group-based parenting programmes are effective in improving maternal psychosocial health. Data sources used were English and non-English language articles published between January 1970 and July 2000, retrieved using a keyword search of a number of biomedical, social science, educational, and general reference electronic databases. Two independent reviewers selected the relevant abstracts and articles. Only controlled trials were included in which participants had been randomly allocated to an experimental and a control group, the latter being a waiting-list, no-treatment or a placebo control group. Studies had to include at least one group-based parenting programme and one standardised instrument measuring maternal psychosocial health. Means, standard deviations, and information regarding study quality were selected from the included studies by two independent reviewers. The treatment effect for each outcome in each study was standardised by dividing the mean difference in post-intervention scores for the intervention and treatment group, by the pooled standard deviation, to produce an effect size. The results were then combined in a meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. A total of 23 studies met all the inclusion criteria and 17 of these provided sufficient data with which to calculate effect sizes. Fifteen of these studies provided data on the five main outcomes of interest: depression, anxiety/stress, self-esteem, social support, and relationship with partner. The meta-analyses show statistically significant results favouring the intervention group for depression (-0.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.4 to -0.1), anxiety/stress (-0.5, 95% CI = -0.7 to -0.3), self-esteem (-0.4, 95% CI = -0.6 to -0.1), and relationship with partner (-0.4, 95% CI = -0.7 to -0.2). However, the meta-analysis of the social support data showed no evidence of effectiveness (-0.04, 95% CI = -0.3 to 0.2). Follow-up data were
Juul, Sarah H; Hendrix, Cassandra; Robinson, Brittany; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A; Johnson, Katrina C
A history of childhood trauma is associated with increased risk for psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood and, for those who have children, impairments in parenting and increased risk of negative outcomes in offspring. Physiological and behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In the current study, maternal history of childhood trauma was hypothesized to predict differences in maternal affect and HPA axis functioning. Mother-infant dyads (N = 255) were assessed at 6 months postpartum. Mothers were videotaped during a 3-min naturalistic interaction, and their behavior was coded for positive, neutral, and negative affect. Maternal salivary cortisol was measured six times across the study visit, which also included an infant stressor paradigm. Results showed that childhood trauma history predicted increased neutral affect and decreased mean cortisol in the mothers and that cortisol mediated the association between trauma history and maternal affect. Maternal depression was not associated with affective measures or cortisol. Results suggest that early childhood trauma may disrupt the development of the HPA axis, which in turn impairs affective expression during mother-infant interactions in postpartum women. Interventions aimed at treating psychiatric illness in postpartum women may benefit from specific components to assess and treat trauma-related symptoms and prevent secondary effects on parenting.
Inhulsen, Maj-Britt Mr; Mérelle, Saskia Ym; Renders, Carry M
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between parental feeding styles and children's dietary intakes and the modifying effect of maternal education and children's ethnicity on these associations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of parental feeding styles, assessed by the Parental Feeding Style
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on fetal insulin resistance or β-cell function in Chinese pregnant women with GDM. MEASUREMENTS: Maternal fasting blood and venous cord blood samples (reflecting fetal condition were collected in 65 well-controlled Chinese GDM mothers (only given dietary intervention and 83 control subjects. The insulin, glucose and proinsulin concentrations of both maternal and cord blood samples were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and the proinsulin-to-insulin ratios (an indicator of fetal β-cell function were calculated in maternal and cord blood respectively. RESULTS: Both maternal and fetal levels of insulin, proinsulin and HOMA-IR but not proinsulin-to-insulin ratios were significantly higher in the GDM group than in the control group (maternal insulin, 24.8 vs. 15.4 µU/mL, P = 0.004, proinsulin, 23.3 vs. 16.2 pmol/L, P = 0.005, and HOMA-IR, 5.5 vs. 3.5, P = 0.041, respectively; fetal: insulin, 15.1 vs. 7.9 µU/mL, P<0.001, proinsulin, 25.8 vs. 15.1 pmol/L, P = 0.015, and HOMA-IR, 2.8 vs. 1.4, P = 0.017, respectively. Fetal HOMA-IR but not proinsulin-to-insulin ratios was significantly correlated to maternal HOMA-IR (r = 0.307, P = 0.019, in the pregnant women with GDM. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal insulin resistance was higher in Chinese pregnant women with GDM than control subjects, and correlated with maternal insulin resistance.
Full Text Available Whereas the effects of maternal parenting quality during infants’ 2nd year on later executive function (EF have been studied extensively, less is known about the impact of maternal parenting quality during the 1st year. The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal parenting during infants’ 1st year predicted EF performance at 2 and 3 years of age in a Chinese sample. Data were collected from 96 mother-infant dyads (42 males when the infants were 6, 9, 25, and 38 months old. Cognitive development as a control variable was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II at 6 months. At 9 months, three aspects of maternal parenting quality (sensitivity, mind-mindedness, and encouragement of autonomy were assessed with MBQS, mind-mindedness coding system, and encouragement of autonomy coding schema within a 15-min mother–infant interaction. Three aspects of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, and delay EF were measured at 25 and 38 months with age-appropriate tasks. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that maternal mind-mindedness had a more important effect than did the encouragement of autonomy and maternal sensitivity during infants’ preverbal period. More precisely, maternal mind-mindedness at 9 months predicted inhibitory control at 2 and 3 years, and maternal encouragement of autonomy predicted performance on delay EF tasks at 3 years, maternal sensitivity had no observed effect on children’s EF. This study suggests that maternal parenting quality during the 1st year (maternal mind-mindedness and encouragement of autonomy, but not maternal sensitivity impacts later EF development.
Eo, Yong-Sook; Kim, Ji-Soo
To promote child development, parenting stress, and maternal-child interactions among mothers of various nationalities must be understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate maternal-child interactions according to the mother's nationality among married immigrant mothers from the Philippines, Vietnam, and Korea. This study employed a descriptive, cross-sectional design. Inclusion criteria were mothers who had children of preschool age. A total of 348 mothers were interviewed: 142 Korean mothers, 84 immigrant mothers from the Philippines, and 122 immigrant mothers from Vietnam. Parenting stress ( p maternal-child interactions ( p = .023) differed according to the mother's nationality. By delineating the nurturing characteristics of each country, the results of this study can help immigrant mothers develop maternal-child relationships that aid culturally congruent adjustment to their new culture. The characteristics of maternal-child interactions according to the mother's nationality may inform parent education in multicultural societies.
Natsuaki, Misaki N; Ge, Xiaojia; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Conger, Rand D; Scaramella, Laura V; Reid, John B; Reiss, David
Using a longitudinal, prospective adoption design, the authors of this study examined the effects of the environment (adoptive parents' depressive symptoms and responsiveness) and genetic liability of maternal depression (inferred by birth mothers' major depressive disorder [MDD]) on the development of fussiness in adopted children between 9 and 18 months old. The sample included 281 families linked through adoption, with each family including 4 individuals (i.e., adopted child, birth mother, adoptive father and mother). Results showed that adoptive mothers' depressive symptoms when their child was 9 months old were positively associated with child fussiness at 18 months. A significant interaction between birth mothers' MDD and adoptive mothers' responsiveness indicated that children of birth mothers with MDD showed higher levels of fussiness at 18 months when adoptive mothers had been less responsive to the children at 9 months. However, in the context of high levels of adoptive mothers' responsiveness, children of birth mothers with MDD did not show elevated fussiness at 18 months. Findings are discussed in terms of gene-environment interactions in the intergenerational risk transmission of depression.
Lutenbacher, M; Hall, L A
Although recent evidence implies linkages among depression or depressive symptoms, self-esteem, history of childhood abuse, and parenting attitudes, the evidence does not clearly elucidate the relationships among these variables. To investigate the relationships among maternal psychosocial factors (history of childhood abuse, everyday stressors, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms) and parenting attitudes of low-income, single mothers who have young children. Secondary analyses of data from in-home interviews with 206 low-income, single mothers from a southeastern United States urban area were conducted. A variety of scales, including the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI), were used to measure maternal psychosocial factors. Using the AAPI, a Modified Parenting Attitudes Measure (MPAM), and subscales, a three-stage regression procedure was used to test the model. For stages 1 and 2, everyday stressors were the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Childhood sexual abuse, everyday stressors, low self-esteem, and control variables accounted for 58% of variance in depressive symptoms. In the third stage for the AAPI, only control variables were retained except in the Lack of Empathy subscale, where depressive symptoms and control variables accounted for 16% of the variance. The third stage for the MPAM yielded, by subscale: Only control variables predicted Corporal Punishment Beliefs; depressive symptoms were the strongest predictor for the total MPAM (19% of variance) and of the Inappropriate Emotional Expectations subscale (17%); and childhood physical abuse was the only predictor of Role Reversal. Depressive symptoms mediated the effects of childhood abuse, everyday stressors, and self-esteem and provided the linkage between these variables and at-risk parenting attitudes. Self-esteem decreased as everyday stressors increased but did not directly affect parenting attitudes. A relationship was not found between childhood abuse and low self-esteem. This study
Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Medrano, Rosalinda; Elwan, Deena; Mehta, Kala; Christensen, Vibeke Brix; Wojcicki, Janet M
Childhood obesity is increasing especially in Latinos and early intervention is essential to prevent later obesity complications. Latino children (n = 201) recruited at two San Francisco hospitals were assessed at birth including infant anthropometrics and feeding practices and followed to age 9 with annual anthropometric assessments. We evaluated the relationship between perinatal risk factors and obesity at age 9 and chronic obesity (obesity at both 5 and 9 years). Higher birthweight [odds ratio (OR) 2.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-5.81] and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.18) were associated with increased risk for obesity at 9 years. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20) was associated with chronic obesity. Additionally, prenatal depression symptoms were protective (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.11-0.94) against chronic obesity. We found no association between maternal age and education, exclusive breastfeeding at 4-6 weeks, rapid infant weight gain, and obesity or chronic obesity. Perinatal risk factors for obesity including higher birthweight and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI persisted until age 9, whereas, other variables significant at age 5 in our cohort and other populations including exclusive breastfeeding and rapid infant weight gain were no longer associated with increased risk.
Sikiö, Riitta; Siekkinen, Martti; Holopainen, Leena; Silinskas, Gintautas; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
The aim of this study was to examine the role of mothers' (language minority mothers, LM, n = 49, and Finnish-speaking mothers, MP, n = 368) parenting styles and maternal help with their children's homework in the children's (mean age 11.43 years) literacy skills at fourth grade in Finland. In addition, the moderating effect of a child's gender on…
Full Text Available Proper development of a seed requires coordinated exchanges of signals among the three components that develop side by side in the seed. One of these is the maternal integument that encloses the other two zygotic components, i.e., the diploid embryo and its nurturing annex, the triploid endosperm. Although the formation of the embryo and endosperm contains the contributions of both maternal and paternal parents, maternally and paternally derived alleles may be expressed differently, leading to a so-called parent-of-origin or imprinting effect. Currently, the nature of how genes from the maternal and zygotic genomes interact to affect seed development remains largely unknown. Here, we present a novel statistical model for estimating the main and interaction effects of quantitative trait loci (QTLs that are derived from different genomes and further testing the imprinting effects of these QTLs on seed development. The experimental design used is based on reciprocal backcrosses toward both parents, so that the inheritance of parent-specific alleles could be traced. The computing model and algorithm were implemented with the maximum likelihood approach. The new strategy presented was applied to study the mode of inheritance for QTLs that control endoreduplication traits in maize endosperm. Monte Carlo simulation studies were performed to investigate the statistical properties of the new model with the data simulated under different imprinting degrees. The false positive rate of imprinting QTL discovery by the model was examined by analyzing the simulated data that contain no imprinting QTL. The reciprocal design and a series of analytical and testing strategies proposed provide a standard procedure for genomic mapping of QTLs involved in the genetic control of complex seed development traits in flowering plants.
Chen, Xinyin; Chang, Lei; He, Yunfeng; Liu, Hongyun
This 2-year longitudinal study examined, in a sample of Chinese children (initial M age=11 years), the moderating effects of the peer group on relations between maternal supportive parenting and social and school adjustment. Data were collected from multiple sources including peer assessments, teacher ratings, school records, and maternal reports.…
Dr. Daisy R Singla, PhD; Elias Kumbakumba, MMed; Prof. Frances E Aboud, PhD
Background: Parenting interventions have been implemented to improve the compromised developmental potential among 39% of children younger than 5 years living in low-income and middle-income countries. Maternal wellbeing is important for child development, especially in children younger than 3 years who are vulnerable and dependent on their mothers for nutrition and stimulation. We assessed an integrated, community-based parenting intervention that targeted both child development and maternal...
Feldman, Ruth; Gordon, Ilanit; Schneiderman, Inna; Weisman, Omri; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna
Animal studies have demonstrated that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) plays a critical role in processes of parent-infant bonding through mechanisms of early parental care, particularly maternal grooming and contact. Yet, the involvement of OT in human parenting remains poorly understood, no data are available on the role of OT in the development of human fathering, and the links between patterns of parental care and the OT response have not been explored in humans. One hundred and twelve mothers and fathers engaged in a 15-min play-and-contact interaction with their 4-6-month-old infants and interactions were micro-coded for patterns of parental touch. Results showed that baseline levels of plasma and salivary OT in mothers and fathers were similar, OT levels in plasma and saliva were inter-related, and OT was associated with the parent-specific mode of tactile contact. Human mothers who provided high levels of affectionate contact showed an OT increase following mother-infant interaction but such increase was not observed among mothers displaying low levels of affectionate contact. Among fathers, only those exhibiting high levels of stimulatory contact showed an OT increase. These results demonstrate consistency in the neuroendocrine basis of human parental interactions with those seen in other mammals. The findings underscore the need to provide opportunities for paternal care to trigger the biological basis of fatherhood and suggest that interventions that permit social engagement may be recommended in conditions of diminished maternal-infant contact, such as prematurity or postpartum depression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Feldman, Ruth; Vengrober, Adva; Eidelman-Rothman, Moranne; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna
The current study examined biomarkers of stress in war-exposed young children and addressed maternal and child factors that may correlate with children's stress response. Participants were 232 Israeli children aged 1.5-5 years, including 148 children exposed to continuous war. Similarly, 56 were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 92 were defined as exposed-no-PTSD. Child cortisol (CT) and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), biomarkers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary arms of the stress response, were measured at baseline, following challenge, and at recovery. Maternal CT and sAA, PTSD symptoms, and reciprocal parenting, and child negative emotionality and regulatory strategies were assessed. Differences between war-exposed children and controls emerged, but these were related to child PTSD status. Children with PTSD exhibited consistently low CT and sAA, exposed-no-PTSD displayed consistently high CT and sAA, and controls showed increase in CT following challenge and decrease at recovery and low sAA. Exposed children showed higher negative emotionality; however, whereas exposed-no-PTSD children employed comfort-seeking strategies, children with PTSD used withdrawal. Predictors of child CT included maternal CT, PTSD symptoms, low reciprocity, and negative emotionality. Findings suggest that high physiological arousal combined with approach strategies may be associated with greater resilience in the context of early trauma.
Greene, Carolyn A; Chan, Grace; McCarthy, Kimberly J; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J
Young children are at significant risk of exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), and vulnerable to exposure-related psychopathology, yet few studies investigate the effects of exposure to IPV on children under the age of 5 years. The current study investigated the role of maternal PTSD symptoms and parenting strategies in the relationship between mothers' IPV experiences and psychopathology in their young children, ages 3-6 years in a community-based cohort of 308 mother-child dyads at high risk for family violence. Data were collected from 2011 to 2014. IPV history and maternal PTSD symptoms were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Children's symptoms were assessed with a developmentally-sensitive psychiatric interview administered to mothers. Punitive/restrictive parenting was independently-coded from in-depth interviews with mothers about their disciplinary practices. Hypothesized direct and indirect pathways between physical and psychological IPV, maternal PTSD, maternal parenting style, and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms were examined with mediation models. Results indicated that neither physical nor psychological IPV experienced by mothers was directly associated with children's symptoms. However, both types of victimization were associated with maternal PTSD symptoms. Examination of indirect pathways suggested that maternal PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between mothers' psychological and physical IPV experiences and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms and mothers' restrictive/punitive parenting mediated the relationship between mothers' psychological IPV and children's externalizing symptoms. In addition, there was a path from maternal physical IPV to child externalizing symptoms through both maternal PTSD symptoms and restrictive/punitive parenting. Findings highlight the importance of supporting parents in recovering from the sequelae of their own traumatic experiences, as their ensuing mental health
Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Altenburger, Lauren E; Lee, Meghan A; Bower, Daniel J; Kamp Dush, Claire M
The goal of this study was to identify determinants of maternal gatekeeping at the transition to parenthood. Participants included 182 different-gender dual-earner couples. During pregnancy, expectant parents completed questionnaires regarding their psychological functioning, attitudes, and expectations, and at 3 months postpartum questionnaires regarding maternal gatekeeping behavior and gate closing attitudes. SEM analyses revealed that mothers were more likely to close the gate to fathers when mothers held greater perfectionistic expectations for fathers' parenting, had poorer psychological functioning, perceived their romantic relationship as less stable, and had higher levels of parenting self-efficacy. In contrast, fathers with lower parenting self-efficacy appeared to elicit greater maternal gate closing behavior. Mothers who engaged in greater gate opening behavior were more religious. Maternal gatekeeping may be more strongly associated with maternal expectations and psychological functioning than with maternal traditional gender attitudes. Fathers' characteristics are less predictive of maternal gatekeeping than mothers' characteristics.
van Vugt, Eveline; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin
Children born to mothers who were younger than average at their first childbirth are at increased risk for future persistent delinquent behaviour, but explanations for this remain unclear. Our aim was to identify possible family and parenting variables that may help explain this relationship. We hypothesised that parental stress, large number of children in the home, low socioeconomic status (including neighbourhood problems) and poor parenting would account for the link between early first motherhood and their offspring's delinquency. Four hundred and sixty-two boys were selected from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a longitudinal study of a random sample of school boys in Pittsburgh, initially assessed half-yearly and then annually from 7 to 19 years of age, using self-reporting and other reporting methods. Indirect effect models were used to test relationships between variables. Higher levels of parental stress, poorer parent-child communication and caring for a larger number of children all mediated the relationship between maternal youth and persistent delinquency by their boys, but only explained about 20% of it. At least partial explanations of the relationship between a mother's age at first childbirth and persistent delinquency in her male offspring suggest that future research should test whether early interventions with younger mothers to decrease their sense of stress in parenting and improve their capacity for communication with their child(ren) may help to prevent persistent delinquency in their boys. Programmes designed to help young women make more informed and planned decisions about their pregnancies should also be evaluated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Vicente, Sónia; Veríssimo, Manuela; Diniz, Eva
The first year of motherhood is a period of growth and adaptation in women's lives with several challenges such as identifying the baby's needs and giving appropriate answers, so that mother and baby get to know each other and form a strong bond. Infant massage is one of the approaches that make an important contribution to the psychological and physiological wellbeing of both baby and mother, helping to form a harmonious relationship. This longitudinal study assessed the benefits of infant massage in the relationship between mother and baby, from birth to 12 months old. Comprising 194 dyads of mothers and their babies the subjects were divided into two groups of 97 dyads each. The Experimental group (EG) comprised mothers who undertook infant massage in a postnatal program with a physical therapist once a week. The Control group (CG) comprised mothers who did not attend any postnatal program and did not perform infant massage. Self-reported measures of attitudes concerning motherhood (CAQ-P), experience associated to motherhood (WBPB), parental satisfaction (PSS) and maternal separation anxiety (MSAS) were evaluated. Results showed that mothers in the experimental group were better adapted to motherhood, had greater confidence in their abilities and received more support from their mothers and husbands than mothers in the control group and were therefore more confident in their abilities. The EG group experienced a stronger relationship with their babies and described it as more positive than mothers in the control group. This longitudinal study suggests that mothers who learned how to perform infant massage had more positive attitudes towards the experience of motherhood in helping to increase the level of knowledge, regulation and proximity in the dyad. These findings can in turn help mothers to develop strategies that enable them to better cope with motherhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cleveland, Michael J.; Reavy, Racheal; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Turrisi, Rob; White, Helene R.
Positive parenting behaviors and parental modeling of alcohol use are consistent predictors of offspring’s alcohol use. Recent research extends these findings to emerging adult children and confirms continued parental influence beyond adolescence. This paper examines how maternal warmth and supervision moderate the effects of mother’s heavy alcohol use on their offspring’s alcohol use among a sample of non-college-attending emerging adults. Three-way interactions were used to examine if these moderating effects differed between emerging adults who lived at home and those with other living arrangements. Separate analyses within gender were used to further examine these associations. Participants were 245 emerging adults between ages 18–22 years with no post-secondary education (59% female) who were selected from a national probability-based Internet panel. Path analyses indicated that, regardless of living arrangements, male emerging adults who were more likely to witness their mother getting drunk were themselves more likely to engage in risky drinking. However, among female emerging adults, similarity between mothers’ and daughters’ drunkenness was strongest among participants who resided with their family and also reported low levels of maternal warmth. This study extends previous research by indicating that the effects of maternal modeling of heavy alcohol use on emerging adults’ heavy alcohol use depend upon several factors, including the gender of the child and the family context. Implications of the study findings are discussed in terms of expanding the scope of a parent-based intervention (PBI) to all emerging adults, including those who do not attend colleges or universities. PMID:24583277
Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Pancsofar, Nadya; Willoughby, Mike; Odom, Erica; Quade, Alison; Cox, Martha
This study investigated the contribution of child characteristics and parenting environment to the relationship between family SES/demographic characteristics and maternal language to infants.1157 children were drawn from a representative sample of 1292 infants born to mothers in rural Appalachian counties and rural counties in southern minority U.S. communities. Mothers and their 6-8 month old babies were videotaped at home while talking about a wordless picture book. Mothers' language output and complexity were analyzed. Child temperament, age, and parenting environment (knowledge of child development and observed mother-child engagement) were predictors of maternal language. Furthermore, their inclusion reduced the magnitude of the association between demographic characteristics and maternal language. Tests of mediation suggested that the parenting environment partially mediates the relationship between SES/demographic characteristics and maternal language. Findings are discussed with respect to identifying proximal processes that explain how SES may exert its influence on the language of young children.
Abar, Beau; Carter, Kermit L.; Winsler, Adam
This study explored relations between religiosity, both parent and student, and maternal parenting style and student academic self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American youth attending a parochial college. Eighty-five students completed self-report survey measures of religiosity, self-regulation, academic…
Foster, Sarah E.; Zalot, Alecia A.; Jones, Deborah J.
The current study examined the main and interactive effects of three family context variables, maternal smoking, positive parenting behavior, and the quality of the mother's relationship with another adult or family member who assists with parenting (i.e., coparent), and adolescent smoking among African American youth from single mother homes. The…
Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet; Zur, Hana
This study, guided by the Family Systems Theory, examines the direct effect of maternal use of corporal punishment on children's adjustment difficulties. Also, it explores whether corporal punishment serves as a mediating factor in the relationship between several maternal characteristics, marital relationships, and children's adjustment difficulties. A total of 2,447 Arab mothers completed anonymous, structured, self-report questionnaires. The use of corporal punishment was generally strongly supported by the Arab mothers in our sample. A greater likelihood of using corporal punishment was found among mothers of boys rather than girls, among mothers with lower perceived self-efficacy to discipline children, and among mothers with a lower perception of their husbands' participation in child-related labor. In addition, the higher a mother's reports on disagreement with her husband about discipline methods and the stronger her level of maternal stress, the more likely she was to use corporal punishment. Corporal punishment also mediated the association between the above mentioned factors and child adjustment difficulties. Furthermore, a husband's emotional support and family socioeconomic status were directly associated to children's adjustment difficulties. The results of the current study emphasize the need to observe children's development within the context of their family systems and to consider the mutual influences of different subsystems such as marital relationships and mother-child interactions. Prevention and intervention programs should raise parents' awareness concerning the harmful effects of corporal punishment and take into account the impact of dynamic transactions of parental conflicts and disagreements regarding discipline methods on child outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Leilei; Li, Zhi; Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Zhang, Jianxin; Belsky, Jay
Although depressive symptoms are common during adolescence, little research has examined gene-environment interaction on youth depression. This study chose the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, tested the interaction between a functional polymorphism resulting amino acid substitution of valine (Val) to methionine (Met) in the proBDNF protein at codon 66 (Val66Met), and maternal parenting on youth depressive symptoms in a sample of 780 community adolescents of Chinese Han ethnicity (aged 11-17, M = 13.6, 51.3 % females). Participants reported their depressive symptoms and perceived maternal parenting. Results indicated the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism significantly moderated the influence of maternal warmth-reasoning, but not harshness-hostility, on youth depressive symptoms. Confirmatory model evaluation indicated that the interaction effect involving warmth-reasoning conformed to the differential-susceptibility rather than diathesis-stress model of person-X-environment interaction. Thus, Val carriers experienced less depressive symptoms than Met homozygotes when mothering was more positive but more symptoms when mothering was less positive. The findings provided evidence in support of the differential susceptibility hypothesis of youth depressive symptoms and shed light on the importance of examining the gene-environment interaction from a developmental perspective.
Swain, James E; Ho, S Shaun; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Morelen, Diana; Dayton, Carolyn J; Muzik, Maria
Parental responses to their children are crucially influenced by stress. However, brain-based mechanistic understanding of the adverse effects of parenting stress and benefits of therapeutic interventions is lacking. We studied maternal brain responses to salient child signals as a function of Mom Power (MP), an attachment-based parenting intervention established to decrease maternal distress. Twenty-nine mothers underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging brain scans during a baby-cry task designed to solicit maternal responses to child's or self's distress signals. Between scans, mothers were pseudorandomly assigned to either MP (n = 14) or control (n = 15) with groups balanced for depression. Compared to control, MP decreased parenting stress and increased child-focused responses in social brain areas highlighted by the precuneus and its functional connectivity with subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, which are key components of reflective self-awareness and decision-making neurocircuitry. Furthermore, over 13 weeks, reduction in parenting stress was related to increasing child- versus self-focused baby-cry responses in amygdala-temporal pole functional connectivity, which may mediate maternal ability to take her child's perspective. Although replication in larger samples is needed, the results of this first parental-brain intervention study demonstrate robust stress-related brain circuits for maternal care that can be modulated by psychotherapy.
Muser, Heather M.
The context and experiences of student-parents is an important topic for higher education. Educators need to know who these adult students are and where they come from. Due to the additional responsibilities that student-parents carry, educators are challenged by the fact that most of these adult students are enrolled in higher education on a…
Van der Geest, K. E.; Mérelle, S. Y. M.; Rodenburg, G.; Van de Mheen, D.; Renders, C. M.
Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the ...
Chambers, J; Power, K; Loucks, N; Swanson, V
A shortened form of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) (Pederson, 1994) was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders held in custody in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental control. Parental care was not a distinguishing factor in offending patterns, although high paternal control was linked with a younger age of first arrest. When interactions of paternal and maternal parenting styles were examined, young offenders who perceived poor parenting (i.e. neglectful parenting or affectionless control) from both parents had the highest levels of psychological distress overall. Copyright 2001 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.
Rodriguez, M. L.; Dumont, K.; Mitchell-Herzfeld, S. D.; Walden, N. J.; Greene, R.
Objectives: This paper examines the effectiveness of the Healthy Families New York (HFNY) home visiting program in promoting parenting competencies and preventing maladaptive parenting behaviors in mothers at risk for child abuse and neglect. Methods: The study used microlevel observational assessments of mother-child interactions in the third…
Leung, Candice Y.-W.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lai, Beatrice P.-Y.
The relations among maternal concern and restrictiveness, self-evaluated academic competence, and life satisfaction were explored in a short-term longitudinal study of 346 7th-grade students (126 males and 220 females) in Hong Kong. The authors found that perceived maternal concern, academic competence, and life satisfaction significantly declined…
Kaczynski, Karen J; Lindahl, Kristin M; Malik, Neena M; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe
Parenting was examined as a mediator of associations between marital and child adjustment, and parent gender was examined as a moderator of associations among marital, parental, and child functioning in 226 families with a school-age child (146 boys). Parenting fully mediated associations between marital conflict and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Parent gender did not moderate associations when data from the full sample or families with girls only were evaluated. Parent gender did moderate associations when families with boys were evaluated, with the association between marital conflict and parenting stronger for fathers than mothers. A trend suggested fathers' parenting may be more strongly related to internalizing behavior and mothers' parenting may be more strongly related to externalizing behavior in boys. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Fedele, David A; Mullins, Larry L; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Carpentier, Melissa Y
This preliminary investigation aimed to longitudinally examine parenting capacity variables, namely parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress and their relation to child adjustment in mothers of children on treatment for cancer. As part of a larger study, biological mothers (N=22) completed measures of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, parenting stress, and child adjustment at Time 1 and a follow-up time point. Analyses were conducted to determine whether (1) levels of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress declined from Time 1 to follow-up and (2) if Time 1 parenting capacity variables were associated with child adjustment at follow-up. Results revealed that parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress declined from Time 1 to follow-up, and levels of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress at Time 1 were significantly related to child adjustment at follow-up. Collectively, the preliminary findings of this study indicate that mothers of children with cancer evidence improved parenting capacity over time. Furthermore, it seems that Time 1 parenting capacity variables are significantly related to later child adjustment.
Kerns, Caroline E; Pincus, Donna B; McLaughlin, Katie A; Comer, Jonathan S
Environmental contributions are thought to play a primary role in the familial aggregation of anxiety, but parenting influences remain poorly understood. We examined dynamic relations between maternal anxiety, maternal emotion regulation (ER) during child distress, maternal accommodation of child distress, and child anxiety. Mothers (N=45) of youth ages 3-8 years (M=4.8) participated in an experimental task during which they listened to a standardized audio recording of a child in anxious distress pleading for parental intervention. Measures of maternal and child anxiety, mothers' affective states, mothers' ER strategies during the child distress, and maternal accommodation of child anxiety were collected. Mothers' resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during the recording was also acquired. Higher maternal negative affect and greater maternal ER switching (i.e., using multiple ER strategies in a short time without positive regulatory results) during child distress were associated with child anxiety. Sequential mediation modeling showed that maternal anxiety predicted ineffective maternal ER during child distress exposure, which in turn predicted greater maternal accommodation, which in turn predicted higher child anxiety. Findings support the mediating roles of maternal ER and accommodation in linking maternal and child anxiety, and suggest that ineffective maternal ER and subsequent attempts to accommodate child distress may act as mechanisms underlying the familial aggregation of anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Frederiksen, Hanne; Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla
to obtain more knowledge about the distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in pregnant rats and pups after perinatal exposure, the presented study was designed. The data show response and distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal rat plasma, pools of amniotic fluids, placenta......, whole-body fetuses, and in fetal liver after dosing of dams with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day from gestational day 7 to 21. After cesarean section of dams, the fluids and tissues were collected, deconjugated, and purified by solid-phase extraction, and ethyl paraben and butyl paraben...... were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Markedly higher levels of ethyl paraben compared to butyl paraben were found in all fluids and tissues. Both ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal plasma, livers, and whole-body tissues from fetus seemed to be saturated after dosing...
Claudia, C; Ju, X; Mejia, G; Jamieson, L
This study aimed to test the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and parental-reported experience of dental caries in Indigenous Australian children. Data were from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC); a population-based cohort study in Australia. Participants were 1,687 Indigenous Australian children aged 5 or less. Biological, social and behavioural variables were tested using log-linear modelling with binomial regression to determine the association with parental-reported experience of dental caries. Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods were used for multiple imputation of missing data. Overall 25.8% of Indigenous Australian children had dental caries as reported by a carer. In the multivariable model, increased prevalence of parental-reported caries was significantly associated with low maternal education levels (RR=1.60, 95%CI 1.17,2.20) and high sugar consumption (RR= 1.60, 95%CI 1.26,2.02). In the group of children whose mothers smoked tobacco during pregnancy, the association with parent-reported dental caries approached the threshold of significance, but was not significantly associated with caries status in children (RR=1.19, 95%CI 0.99,1.43). After multiple imputation, the most significant association was evident in children of the least educated mothers (RR=1.57, 95%CI 1.25,1.95), breastfeeding more than 12 months (RR=1.26, 95%CI 1.01,1.56), sweet intake more than 30% (RR=1.42, 95%CI 1.15,1.74) and 20-30% (RR=1.29 95%CI 1.04,1.59) and residing in outer regional (RR=1.56, 95%CI 1.19,2.05) or inner regional locations (RR=1.50, 95%CI 1.19,1.88). Mothers' tobacco smoking status showed a weak association with parent-reported dental decay (RR=1.42, 95%CI 1.20,1.68). This study suggests there is a weak association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and prevalence of parentally-reported dental caries in Indigenous Australian children. Copyright© 2016 Dennis Barber Ltd
Hayes, Lisa J; Goodman, Sherryl H; Carlson, Elizabeth
Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal parenting quality as potential moderators of this predicted association. Among women with histories of major depressive episodes, maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at multiple times during pregnancy and the first year postpartum, maternal parenting quality was measured at three months postpartum, and attachment disorganization was assessed at 12 months postpartum. Results revealed that infants classified as disorganized had mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy compared to infants classified as organized. Maternal parenting quality moderated this association, as exposure to higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was only associated with higher rates of infant disorganized attachment when maternal parenting at three months was less optimal. These findings suggest that enhancing maternal parenting behaviors during this early period in development has the potential to alter pathways to disorganized attachment among infants exposed to antenatal maternal depressive symptoms, which could have enduring consequences for child wellbeing.
Hussen, Hozan I; Persson, Martina; Moradi, Tahereh
The incidence of type 1 diabetes in children is increasing in Sweden, as is the prevalence of maternal overweight/obesity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if maternal overweight/obesity increases the risk of type 1 diabetes in offspring of parents with and without diabetes, and of different ethnicities. The study cohort comprised 1,263,358 children, born in Sweden between 1992 and 2004. Children were followed from birth until diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, emigration, death or end of follow-up in 2009, whichever occurred first. First trimester maternal BMI was calculated (kg/m(2)). Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CI for type 1 diabetes in the offspring. The risk of type 1 diabetes was increased in offspring of parents with any type of diabetes regardless of parental ethnicity. High first trimester maternal BMI was associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes only in offspring of parents without diabetes (IRR 1.33 [95% CI 1.20, 1.48]). Increasing incidence of type 1 diabetes in children with non-diabetic parents may partly be explained by increasing prevalence of maternal overweight/obesity.
Buzatto Bruno A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard females whereas minors sneak copulations. Furthermore, variation in dung beetle population density has different fitness consequences for each male morph, and theory predicts that higher population density might select for a higher frequency of minors and/or greater expenditure on weaponry in majors. Because adult dung beetles provide offspring with all the nutritional resources for their development, maternal effects strongly influence male phenotype. Results Here we tested whether female O. taurus are capable of perceiving population density, and responding by changing the phenotype of their offspring. We found that mothers who were reared with other conspecifics in their pre-mating period produced major offspring that had longer horns across a wider range of body sizes than the major offspring of females that were reared in isolation in their pre-mating period. Moreover, our results indicate that this maternal effect on male weaponry does not operate through the amount of dung provided by females to their offspring, but is rather transmitted through egg or brood mass composition. Finally, although theory predicts that females experiencing higher density might produce more minor males, we found no support for this, rather the best fitting models were equivocal as to whether fewer or the same proportions of minors were produced. Conclusions Our study describes a new type of maternal effect in dung beetles, which probably allows females to respond to population density adaptively
Rodriguez, Christina M.
Although considerable research has investigated parenting stress and children's externalizing behavior problems, comparatively less has considered parenting stress in relation to children's internalizing difficulties. Even less research on parenting stress has incorporated children's report of their internalizing symptoms or the potential…
Peters, Sarah; Calam, Rachel; Harrington, Richard
Background: The effectiveness of parent management training (PMT) as a treatment for child behaviour problems is reduced by high attrition rates. One difficulty with engaging mothers is that, by definition, PMT is directed at the parent, yet many parents believe the "cause" of the problem lies within the child. Hence the model of therapy offered…
Arnott, B.; Brown, A.
The importance of warm and democratic parenting styles for optimal social, emotional and cognitive outcomes in children over the age of five is well established. However, there is a dearth of literature exploring variations in parenting styles during infancy, despite many popular parenting books aimed at this period. The primary aim of this study…
Mowen, Thomas J.; Schroeder, Ryan D.
Contemporary research suggests authoritative parenting is the most effective parenting style in deterring juvenile delinquency. Some research has found there are differences in parenting style between racial groups due to structural disadvantage faced by marginalized individuals. Yet, relatively little is known about how racial differences in…
Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Buchanan, Christy M.; McDonald, Richard M.
Traditional conceptualizations of parenting style assume certain associations between parenting practices/philosophies and parental warmth. This study examines whether those links are similar for European American and African American adolescents. Two hundred and ninety-eight early adolescents and their mothers reported on discipline and control…
Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Kurukkan, Abidha
The purpose of the study is to investigate the relation between parenting style and goal orientation among boys and girls in higher secondary schools of Kerala. Four types of parenting style and five categories of goal orientation. The sample comprised of 467 girls and 365 boys from higher secondary school in Kerala who were selected through…
McLearn, Kathryn Taaffe; Minkovitz, Cynthia S; Strobino, Donna M; Marks, Elisabeth; Hou, William
The prevalence of maternal depressive symptoms and its associated consequences on parental behaviors, child health, and development are well documented. Researchers have called for additional work to investigate the effects of the timing of maternal depressive symptoms at various stages in the development of the young child on the emergence of developmentally appropriate parenting practices. For clinicians, data are limited about when or how often to screen for maternal depressive symptoms or how to target anticipatory guidance to address parental needs. We sought to determine whether concurrent maternal depressive symptoms have a greater effect than earlier depressive symptoms on the emergence of maternal parenting practices at 30 to 33 months in 3 important domains of child safety, development, and discipline. Secondary analyses from the Healthy Steps National Evaluation were conducted for this study. Data sources included a self-administered enrollment questionnaire and computer-assisted telephone interviews with the mother when the Healthy Steps children were 2 to 4 and 30 to 33 months of age. The 30- to 33-month interview provided information about 4 safety practices (ie, always uses car seat, has electric outlet covers, has safety latches on cabinets, and lowered temperature on the water heater), 6 child development practices (ie, talks daily to child while working, plays daily with child, reads daily to child, limits child television and video watching to or = 3 daily routines, and being more nurturing), and 3 discipline practices (ie, uses more reasoning, uses more harsh punishment, and ever slapped child on the face or spanked the child with an object). The parenting practices were selected based on evidence of their importance for child health and development, near complete data, and sample variability. The discipline practices were constructed from the Parental Response to Misbehavior Scale. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed using a 14-item
Osrin, David; Das, Sushmita; Bapat, Ujwala; Alcock, Glyn A; Joshi, Wasundhara; More, Neena Shah
The communities who live in urban informal settlements are diverse, as are their environmental conditions. Characteristics include inadequate access to safe water and sanitation, poor quality of housing, overcrowding, and insecure residential status. Interventions to improve health should be equity-driven and target those at higher risk, but it is not clear how to prioritise informal settlements for health action. In implementing a maternal and child health programme in Mumbai, India, we had conducted a detailed vulnerability assessment which, though important, was time-consuming and may have included collection of redundant information. Subsequent data collection allowed us to examine three issues: whether community environmental characteristics were associated with maternal and newborn healthcare and outcomes; whether it was possible to develop a triage scorecard to rank the health vulnerability of informal settlements based on a few rapidly observable characteristics; and whether the scorecard might be useful for future prioritisation. The City Initiative for Newborn Health documented births in 48 urban slum areas over 2 years. Information was collected on maternal and newborn care and mortality, and also on household and community environment. We selected three outcomes-less than three antenatal care visits, home delivery, and neonatal mortality-and used logistic regression and classification and regression tree analysis to test their association with rapidly observable environmental characteristics. We developed a simple triage scorecard and tested its utility as a means of assessing maternal and newborn health risk. In analyses on a sample of 10,754 births, we found associations of health vulnerability with inadequate access to water, toilets, and electricity; non-durable housing; hazardous location; and rental tenancy. A simple scorecard based on these had limited sensitivity and positive predictive value, but relatively high specificity and negative
Lucassen, Nicole; Kok, Rianne; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Lambregtse-Van den Berg, Mijke P; Tiemeier, Henning
We investigated the association between mothers' and fathers' harsh parenting and sensitive parenting practices and child's executive functions (EF) in early childhood in 607 families. We focused on three broad dimensions of child EF: Emergent metacognition, inhibitory self-control, and flexibility measured with the parent-reported Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version. Less sensitive parenting of the mother and harsher parenting of the father were related to lower scores of emergent metacognition and inhibitory self-control. Parenting was not associated with child flexibility. This study extends previous research on the association between parenting and EF by the focus on the role of the father and demonstrates independent effects of mother and father on child EF. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Pekcanlar Akay, Aynur; Hiz Kurul, Semra; Ozek, Handan; Cengizhan, Sevay; Emiroglu, Neslihan; Ellidokuz, Hulya
The goal of this study was to investigate how the disease and treatment of epilepsy affected the psychological profile (depression and anxiety) of mothers whose children had epilepsy, as well as these mothers' attitudes towards their children and their family relationships. Both the case and control groups consisted of 50 children and their mothers. All mothers were asked to complete the Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Parental Attitude Research Instrument and Family Assessment Device. Mothers whose children had epilepsy scored significantly higher in depression and state anxiety compared to the mothers of the control group. The mothers of children diagnosed with epilepsy also failed to develop supportive and friendly relationships with their children. In addition, these mothers scored significantly higher in the Attitude of Hostility and Rejection, Marital Discordance and Authoritarian Attitude as compared to the mothers of the control group. This cross-sectional study demonstrated that, for the mothers of children who had epilepsy, the illness might have an adverse effect on their lives and their family relationships. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wagner, Shannon L; Cepeda, Ivan; Krieger, Dena; Maggi, Stefania; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E
Child executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory) are key to success in school. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, is known to affect cognition; however, there is limited information about how child cortisol levels, parenting factors and child care context relate to executive functions in young children. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between child cortisol, parenting stress, parent coping, and daycare quality in relation to executive functions in children aged 3-5 years. We hypothesized that (1) poorer executive functioning would be related to higher child cortisol and higher parenting stress, and (2) positive daycare quality and positive parent coping style would buffer the effects of child cortisol and parenting stress on executive functions. A total of 101 children (53 girls, 48 boys, mean age 4.24 years ±0.74) with complete data on all measures were included. Three saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected at the child's daycare/preschool in one morning. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - Revised (ECERS-R) was used to measure the quality of daycare. It was found that children with poorer executive functioning had higher levels of salivary cortisol, and their parents reported higher parenting stress. However, parent coping style and quality of daycare did not modulate these relationships. Identifying ways to promote child executive functioning is an important direction for improving school readiness.
Wagner, Shannon L.; Cepeda, Ivan; Krieger, Dena; Maggi, Stefania; D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E.
Child executive functions (cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, working memory) are key to success in school. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, is known to affect cognition; however, there is limited information about how child cortisol levels, parenting factors and child care context relate to executive functions in young children. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between child cortisol, parenting stress, parent coping, and daycare quality in relation to executive functions in children aged 3–5 years. We hypothesized that (1) poorer executive functioning would be related to higher child cortisol and higher parenting stress, and (2) positive daycare quality and positive parent coping style would buffer the effects of child cortisol and parenting stress on executive functions. A total of 101 children (53 girls, 48 boys, mean age 4.24 years ±0.74) with complete data on all measures were included. Three saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected at the child’s daycare/preschool in one morning. Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale – Revised (ECERS-R) was used to measure the quality of daycare. It was found that children with poorer executive functioning had higher levels of salivary cortisol, and their parents reported higher parenting stress. However, parent coping style and quality of daycare did not modulate these relationships. Identifying ways to promote child executive functioning is an important direction for improving school readiness. PMID:26335047
Rhee, Kyung E; Boutelle, Kerri N; Jelalian, Elissa; Barnes, Richard; Dickstein, Susan; Wing, Rena R
To examine the relationship between parent feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat), general parenting behaviors (acceptance, psychological control, firm control), and aberrant child eating behaviors (emotional eating and excessive snacking) among overweight and normal weight children. Overweight and normal weight children between 8 and 12 years old and their mothers (n = 79, parent-child dyads) participated in this study. Mothers completed surveys on parent feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire) and child eating behaviors (Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire). Children reported on their mothers' general parenting behaviors (Child Report of Parent Behavior Inventory). Parent and child height and weight were measured and demographic characteristics assessed. Logistic regression models, stratified by child weight status and adjusting for parent BMI, were used to determine which parenting dimensions and feeding practices were associated with child emotional eating and snacking behavior. Overweight children displayed significantly more emotional eating and excessive snacking behavior than normal weight children. Mothers of overweight children used more restrictive feeding practices and psychological control. Restrictive feeding practices were associated with emotional eating in the overweight group (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI, 1.02, 1.56) and excessive snacking behavior in the normal weight group (OR = 1.13, 95 % CI, 1.01, 1.26). When examining general parenting, firm control was associated with decreased odds of excessive snacking in the overweight group (OR = 0.51, 95 % CI, 0.28, 0.93). Restrictive feeding practices were associated with aberrant child eating behaviors in both normal weight and overweight children. Firm general parenting however, was associated with decreased snacking behavior among overweight children. Longitudinal studies following children from infancy are needed to better understand the direction of these
Barbot, Baptiste; Crossman, Elizabeth; Hunter, Scott R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Luthar, Suniya S.
This study examines longitudinally the bidirectional influences between maternal parenting (behaviors and parenting stress) and mothers' perceptions of their children's adjustment, in a multivariate approach. Data was gathered from 361 low-income mothers (many with psychiatric diagnoses) reporting on their parenting behavior, parenting stress and their child's adjustment, in a two-wave longitudinal study over 5 years. Measurement models were developed to derive four broad parenting constructs (Involvement, Control, Rejection, and Stress) and three child adjustment constructs (Internalizing problems, Externalizing problems, and Social competence). After measurement invariance of these constructs was confirmed across relevant groups and over time, both measurement models were integrated in a single crossed-lagged regression analysis of latent constructs. Multiple reciprocal influence were observed between parenting and perceived child adjustment over time: Externalizing and internalizing problems in children were predicted by baseline maternal parenting behaviors, while child social competence was found to reduce parental stress and increase parental involvement and appropriate monitoring. These findings on the motherhood experience are discussed in light of recent research efforts to understand mother-child bi-directional influences, and their potential for practical applications. PMID:25089759
Cheung, Cecilia S.; McBride-Chang, Catherine
A measure of academic parenting practices was developed through parent and teacher interviews and subsequently administered to 91 Hong Kong Chinese fifth graders, who also rated their mothers' restrictiveness and concern, school motivation, and self-perceived academic competence. Children's actual school grades were obtained from school records.…
Nomaguchi, Kei M.; Milkie, Melissa A.
Do adults' perceptions of their mothers' and fathers' parenting practices in childhood vary by their mothers' employment status? Among adults in the Survey of Midlife Development in United States who lived with 2 biological parents until the age of 16 years (N = 2,246), those who had employed mothers during most or all of their childhood reported…
Elgar, Frank J.; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Brownridge, Douglas A.
This study examined parental behaviors as mediators in links between depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers and child adjustment problems. Participants were 4,184 parents and 6,048 10- to 15-year-olds enrolled in the 1998 and 2000 cycles of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Mothers and fathers self-reported…
Van der Geest, K E; Mérelle, S Y M; Rodenburg, G; Van de Mheen, D; Renders, C M
BACKGROUND: Children's activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children's activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the
Van Der Geest, K. E.; Mérelle, S. Y. M.; Rodenburg, G.; Van De Mheen, D.; Renders, C. M.
Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the
Nelson, David A.; Coyne, Sarah M.
Many studies point to the importance of social information processing mechanisms in understanding distinct child behaviors such as aggression. However, few studies have assessed whether parenting might be related to such mechanisms. This study considers how aversive forms of parenting (i.e., corporal punishment, psychological control) as well as…
Hoeve, Machteld; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Smeenk, Wilma
The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and…
Stright, Anne Dopkins; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Kelley, Ken
A differential susceptibility hypothesis proposes that children may differ in the degree to which parenting qualities affect aspects of child development. Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the effects of parenting than infants with less difficult temperaments. Using latent change curve analyses to analyze data from the…
Babinski, Dara E; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Wymbs, Brian T; Sibley, Margaret H; Derefinko, Karen J; Kuriyan, Aparajita B
This study describes the parenting and psychopathology of mothers with ADHD of adolescents with ADHD (MCA), non-ADHD mothers of adolescents with ADHD (CA), and non-ADHD mothers of adolescents without ADHD (COMP). Two sets of pairwise comparisons: (a) COMP versus CA and (b) CA versus MCA were conducted. We hypothesized that CA would experience greater distress in parenting and psychopathology compared with COMP and that MCA would experience even more impairment compared with CA. Few differences emerged in comparisons of CA and COMP, with the exception of CA reporting greater parent-adolescent conflict and internalizing problems. In contrast, differences consistently emerged in comparisons of MCA and CA showing more difficulty for MCA in parenting and psychopathology. These findings underscore the need for treatments that address parental ADHD when adolescent ADHD is the intended target. © The Author(s) 2012.
Keller, Isabel S; Salzburger, Walter; Roth, Olivia
Parental care, while increasing parental fitness through offspring survival, also bears cost to the care-giving parent. Consequentially, trade offs between parental care and other vitally important traits, such as the immune system seem evident. In co-occurring phases of parental care and immunological challenges negative consequences through a resource allocation trade off on both the parental and the offspring conditions can be predicted. While the immune system reflects parental stress conditions, parental immunological investments also boost offspring survival via the transfer of immunological substances (trans-generational immune priming). We investigated this relationship in the mouthbrooding East African cichlid Astotatilapia burtoni. Prior to mating, females were exposed to an immunological activation, while others remained immunologically naïve. Correspondingly, the immunological status of females was either examined directly after reproduction or after mouthbrooding had ceased. Offspring from both groups were exposed to immunological challenges to assess the extent of trans-generational immune priming. As proxy for immune status, cellular immunological activity and gene expression were determined. Both reproducing and mouthbrooding females allocate their resources towards reproduction. While upon reproduction the innate immune system was impeded, mouthbrooding females showed an attenuation of inflammatory components. Juveniles from immune challenged mouthbrooding females showed downregulation of immune and life history candidate genes, implying a limitation of trans-generational plasticity when parents experience stress during the costly reproductive phase. Our results provide evidence that both parental investment via mouthbrooding and the rise of the immunological activity upon an immune challenge are costly traits. If applied simultaneously, not only mothers seem to be impacted in their performance, but also offspring are impeded in their ability to
Schechter, Daniel S.; Moser, Dominik A.; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane; Stenz, Ludwig; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Aue, Tatjana; Adouan, Wafae; Cordero, María I.; Suardi, Francesca; Manini, Aurelia; Sancho Rossignol, Ana; Merminod, Gaëlle; Ansermet, Francois; Dayer, Alexandre G.; Rusconi Serpa, Sandra
Prior research has shown that mothers with Interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (IPV-PTSD) report greater difficulty in parenting their toddlers. Relative to their frequent early exposure to violence and maltreatment, these mothers display dysregulation of their hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA-axis), characterized by hypocortisolism. Considering methylation of the promoter region of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 as a marker for HPA-axis functioning, with less methylation likely being associated with less circulating cortisol, the present study tested the hypothesis that the degree of methylation of this gene would be negatively correlated with maternal IPV-PTSD severity and parenting stress, and positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) activity in response to video-stimuli of stressful versus non-stressful mother–child interactions. Following a mental health assessment, 45 mothers and their children (ages 12–42 months) participated in a behavioral protocol involving free-play and laboratory stressors such as mother–child separation. Maternal DNA was extracted from saliva. Interactive behavior was rated on the CARE-Index. During subsequent fMRI scanning, mothers were shown films of free-play and separation drawn from this protocol. Maternal PTSD severity and parenting stress were negatively correlated with the mean percentage of methylation of NR3C1. Maternal mPFC activity in response to video-stimuli of mother–child separation versus play correlated positively to NR3C1 methylation, and negatively to maternal IPV-PTSD and parenting stress. Among interactive behavior variables, child cooperativeness in play was positively correlated with NR3C1 methylation. Thus, the present study is the first published report to our knowledge, suggesting convergence of behavioral, epigenetic, and neuroimaging data that form a psychobiological signature of parenting-risk in the context of early life stress and PTSD
Daniel Scott Schechter
Full Text Available Prior research has shown that mothers with Interpersonal Violence-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (IPV-PTSD report greater difficulty in parenting their toddlers. Relative to their frequent early exposure to violence and maltreatment, these mothers display dysregulation of their hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA-axis, characterized by hypocortisolism. Considering methylation of the promoter region of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 as a marker for HPA-axis functioning, with less methylation likely being associated with less circulating cortisol, the present study tested the hypothesis that the degree of methylation of this gene would be negatively correlated with maternal IPV-PTSD severity and parenting stress, and positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC activity in response to video-stimuli of stressful versus non-stressful mother-child interactions. Following a mental health assessment, 45 mothers and their children (ages 12-42 months participated in a behavioral protocol involving free-play and laboratory stressors such as mother-child separation. Maternal DNA was extracted from saliva. Interactive behavior was rated on the CARE-Index. During subsequent fMRI scanning, mothers were shown films of free-play and separation drawn from this protocol. Maternal PTSD severity and parenting stress were negatively correlated with the mean percentage of methylation of NR3C1. Maternal mPFC activity in response to video-stimuli of mother-child separation versus play correlated positively to NR3C1 methylation, and negatively to maternal IPV-PTSD and parenting stress. Among interactive behavior variables, child cooperativeness in play was positively correlated with NR3C1 methylation. Thus, the present study is the first published report to our knowledge, suggesting convergence of behavioral, epigenetic, and neuroimaging data that form a psychobiological signature of parenting-risk in the context of early life stress
Metherel, Adam H; Kitson, Alex P; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Lacombe, R J Scott; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Alashmali, Shoug M; Lin, Lin; Bazinet, Richard P
Maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) supplies the developing fetus during pregnancy; however, the mechanisms are unclear. We utilized pregnant rats to determine rates of DHA accretion, tissue unesterified DHA uptake and whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion. Female rats maintained on a DHA-free, 2% α-linolenic acid diet were either:1) sacrificed at 56 days for baseline measures, 2) mated and sacrificed at 14-18 days of pregnancy or 3) or sacrificed at 14-18 days as age-matched virgin controls. Maternal brain, adipose, liver and whole body fatty acid concentrations was determined for balance analysis, and kinetic modeling was used to determine brain and liver plasma unesterified DHA uptake and whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion rates. Total liver DHA was significantly higher in pregnant (95±5 μmol) versus non-pregnant (49±5) rats with no differences in whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion rates. However, liver uptake of plasma unesterified DHA was 3.8-fold higher in pregnant animals compared to non-pregnant controls, and periuterine adipose DHA was lower in pregnant (0.89±0.09 μmol/g) versus non-pregnant (1.26±0.06) rats. In conclusion, higher liver DHA accretion during pregnancy appears to be driven by higher unesterified DHA uptake, potentially via DHA mobilization from periuterine adipose for delivery to the fetus during the brain growth spurt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gardner, Christie; Epkins, Catherine C.
Background: Rumination and anxiety sensitivity are posited cognitive vulnerabilities in the development and/or maintenance of depression and anxiety and have only been examined separately in youth. Objective: We examined the relation between rumination and anxiety sensitivity in girls, after controlling for other girl, maternal, and parenting…
Sallee, Margaret W.
Based on interviews with 18 parents who were enrolled in higher education and student affairs master's programs and also employed on college and university campuses, this article explores the ways that student parents navigate their academic, familial, and professional responsibilities. Using role conflict theory as a theoretical guide, this study…
The clinical impression that phobic patients perceive their parents as being uncaring and overprotective was investigated in a controlled study of eighty-one phobic patients. Those assigned to a social phobic group scored both parents as less caring and as overprotected, while those assigned to an agoraphobic group differed from controls only in reporting less maternal care. Intensity of phobic symptoms in the pooled sample was examined in a separate analysis. Higher agoraphobic scores were associated with less maternal care and less maternal overprotection, while higher social phobic scores were associated with greater maternal care and greater maternal overprotection.
... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...
Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika
There is widespread concern about young girls displaying 'grown up' or sexualized behaviours, as well as experiencing body image and appearance concerns that were previously thought to only impact much older girls. The present study examined the influence of three maternal attributes, self-objectification, materialism and parenting style, on sexualized behaviours and appearance concerns in young girls. A sample of 252 Australian mothers of 5-8year old girls reported on the behaviours and appearance concerns observed in their daughters and also completed measures of their own self-objectification, materialism and parenting style. It was found that a significant proportion of young girls were engaging with 'teen' culture, using beauty products and expressing some degree of appearance concern. Maternal self-objectification was related to daughters' engagement in teen culture, use of beauty products and appearance concern. Maternal materialism was related to girls' engagement in teen culture and appearance concern, while an authoritative parenting style was negatively related to girls' use of beauty products. The findings suggest that maternal self-objectification and materialism play a role in the body image and appearance concerns of young girls, and in so doing, identify these maternal attributes as novel potential targets for intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tsuchiya, Kenji; Agerbo, Esben; Mortensen, Preben Bo
of a conditional logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 947 subjects with bipolar disorder and 47,350 controls, those having experienced the parental suicide were significantly associated with an increased risk for BPD (incidence rate ratios: 1.83 [95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 3.12] for paternal suicide......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that early parental death may be associated with the emergence of bipolar disorder in later life. However, it remains unknown whether this association applies specifically to parental death due to suicide or only to early parental death. The present study...... were born in 1960 or later and were first admitted to or had first contact with Danish psychiatric facilities between 1981 and 1998 with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, and fifty age-matched controls per case were extracted. The effects of the deaths of relatives were estimated by means...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the characteristic extensive tubulointerstitial fibrosis, Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN is usually considered a non-inflammatory disease. Methods We examined a marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP, in the offspring of patients with BEN, a population at risk for BEN, prior to development of established disease to determine if an inflammatory process could be identified in the early stages of the disease. In 2003/04, 102 adult offspring whose parents had BEN and a control group of 99 adult offspring of non-BEN patients were enrolled in this prospective study. This cohort was re-examined yearly for four consecutive years. Levels of serum CRP were measured in years 3 and 4 and compared between groups. The data were analyzed with mixed models. Results Compared to controls, offspring of BEN parents had statistically higher CRP levels in two consecutive years, suggestive of early inflammatory reactivity. Whenever the mother was affected by BEN (both parents, or mother only, serum CRP was significantly increased, but not if only the father had BEN. CRP was inversely related to kidney cortex width but not to markers or renal function. Conclusion Early stages of BEN may involve inflammatory processes. The observation of a maternal involvement supports the concept of fetal programming, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other chronic kidney diseases.
Moilanen, Kristin L.; Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.
The purpose of the present study was to explore the degree to which short-term longitudinal change in adolescent self-regulation was attributable to maternal parenting and mother-child relationship quality. A total of 821 mother-adolescent dyads provided data in the 1992 and 1994 waves of the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of…
Pruitt, Megan M.; Willis, Kelcie; Timmons, Lisa; Ekas, Naomi V.
This study utilized a daily diaries method to explore the global factors that impact daily general affect and daily parenting interactions of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder. Eighty-three mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder between the ages of 3 and 13 years completed global assessments of maternal depressive…
Hirschler-Guttenberg, Yael; Feldman, Ruth; Ostfeld-Etzion, Sharon; Laor, Nathaniel; Golan, Ofer
Emotion regulation (ER) difficulties are a major concern in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Maternal temperament and parenting style have significant effects on children's ER. However, these effects have not been studied in children with ASD. Forty preschoolers with ASD and their mothers and forty matched controls engaged in fear and…
Farris, Jaelyn; Burke Lefever, Jennifer E.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.
Research Findings: This study investigated the joint influence of maternal cognitive readiness to parent and children's self-esteem on children's academic achievement and behavioral adjustment in the classroom at age 10. Participants were 153 adolescent mothers and their firstborn children. Findings indicated that low levels of prenatal maternal…
Kaufman, Michelle R; Harman, Jennifer J; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Orkis, Jennifer; Ainslie, Robert
Despite marked improvements over the last few decades, maternal mortality in Tanzania remains among the world's highest at 454 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Many factors contribute to this disparity, such as a lack of attendance at antenatal care (ANC) services and low rates of delivery at a health facility with a skilled provider. The Wazazi Nipendeni (Love me, parents) social and behavioral change communication campaign was launched in Tanzania in 2012 to improve a range of maternal health outcomes, including individual birth planning, timely ANC attendance, and giving birth in a healthcare facility. An evaluation to determine the impact of the national Wazazi Nipendeni campaign was conducted in five purposively selected regions of Tanzania using exit interviews with pregnant and post-natal women attending ANC clinics. A total of 1708 women were interviewed regarding campaign exposure, ANC attendance, and individual birth planning. Over one third of interviewed women (35.1%) reported exposure to the campaign in the last month. The more sources from which women reported hearing the Wazazi Nipendeni message, the more they planned for the birth of their child (β = 0.08, p = .001). Greater numbers of types of exposure to the Wazazi Nipendeni message was associated with an increase in ANC visits (β = 0.05, p = .004). Intervention exposure did not significantly predict the timing of the first ANC visit or HIV testing in the adjusted model, however, findings showed that exposure did predict whether women delivered at a health care facility (or not) and whether they tested for HIV with a partner in the unadjusted models. The Wazazi Nipendeni campaign shows promise that such a behavior change communication intervention could lead to better pregnancy and childbirth outcomes for women in low resource settings. For outcomes such as HIV testing, message exposure showed some promising effects, but demographic variables such as age and socioeconomic status
Cvikl, Barbara; Haubenberger-Praml, Gertraud; Drabo, Petra; Hagmann, Michael; Gruber, Reinhard; Moritz, Andreas; Nell, Andrea
A low level of education and the migration background of parents are associated with the development of caries in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a higher educational level of parents can overcome risks for the development of caries in immigrants in Vienna, Austria. The educational level of the parents, the school type, and the caries status of 736 randomly selected twelve-year-old children with and without migration background was determined in this cross sectional study. In children attending school in Vienna the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was determined. For statistical analysis, a mixed negative-binomial-model was used. The caries status of the children with migration background was significantly worse compared to that of the native Viennese population. A significant interaction was found between migration background and the educational level of the parents (p = 0.045). No interaction was found between the school type and either the migration background (p = 0.220) or the education level of the parents (p = 0.08). In parents with a higher scholarly education level, migration background (p education level, however, migration background and school type had no significant association with DMFT values. These data indicate that children with a migration background are at higher risk to acquire caries than other Viennese children, even when the parents have received a higher education.
Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bell, Martha Ann
Do physiological and behavioral performance indicators of effortful cognitive self-regulation converge additively or interactively in their statistical prediction of individual differences in harsh parenting? To answer this question, we examined heart rate (HR) and electroencephalography alpha (α) reactivity during executive function (EF) tasks, along with observed and self-reported indicators of harsh parenting. A socioeconomically diverse sample of 115 mothers with 3- to 7-year-old children completed questionnaires and a laboratory visit. Three quarters of the mothers showed typical patterns of task reactivity that were interpretable (i.e., increases in HR and decreases in α). Among them, we found no evidence to suggest that variance in harsh parenting was associated with magnitude of HR or α reactivity independently. Instead, the physiological variables interacted to enhance the EF statistical effect. EF explained one third of the variance in harsh parenting among mothers showing the largest α decreases when accompanied by modest to moderate (rather than substantial) HR increases. Physiological indicators can clarify the role and estimation of the strength of the effect of direct behavioral measures of cognitive regulation in the etiology of harsh parenting behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An
Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest) and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children's weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.
Sheryl O. Hughes
Full Text Available Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children’s weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children’s weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.
Anna Maria Jankowska
Full Text Available Background The present research examined the mediating role of self-efficacy in the association between perceived maternal and paternal parental attitudes and health behaviours of males and females in emerging adulthood. Parental attitudes shape children’s self-esteem, positive self-image, and self-competence. This may affect their physical health and health behaviours throughout their lives. Participants and procedure A total of 147 (mean age: 19.70, SD = 0.85, 68.7% females participants took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires measuring health behaviours, perceived parental attitudes, and self-efficacy: the Inventory of Health Behaviours, the Retrospective Assessment of Parental Attitude, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Results We found that that female participants exhibited healthier eating habits but lower self-efficacy than male participants did. Accepting and autonomy granting maternal and paternal parental attitudes predicted a positive health attitude (of both male and female participants, preventive behaviours (of male participants, and healthy eating habits (of male participants. As predicted, emerging adults’ self-efficacy mediated the relationship between their health behaviours and perceived parental attitudes. However, the mediation patterns were different for female and male participants. Conclusions The quality of perceived parental attitudes and self-efficacy are important for health-related lifestyle choices among emerging adults. Mothers and fathers may play different roles in the formation of health behaviours.
McCloskey, K; Ponsonby, A-L; Collier, F; Allen, K; Tang, M L K; Carlin, J B; Saffery, R; Skilton, M R; Cheung, M; Ranganathan, S; Dwyer, T; Burgner, D; Vuillermin, P
Excess adiposity and adiposity-related inflammation are known risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults; however, little is known regarding the determinants of adiposity-related inflammation at birth. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and newborn adiposity and inflammation. Paired maternal (28-week gestation) and infant (umbilical cord) blood samples were collected from a population-derived birth cohort (Barwon Infant Study, n = 1074). Data on maternal comorbidities and infant birth anthropomorphic measures were compiled, and infant aortic intima-media thickness was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound. In a selected subgroup of term infants (n = 161), matched maternal and cord lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and maternal soluble CD14 were measured. Analysis was completed by using pairwise correlation and linear regression. Because of their non-normal distribution, pathology blood measures were log transformed prior to analysis. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with increased birth weight (mean difference 17.8 g per kg m -2 , 95% CI 6.6 to 28.9; p = 0.002), newborn mean skin-fold thickness (mean difference 0.1 mm per kg m -2 , 95% CI 0.0 to 0.1; p pregnancy BMI, 95% CI 0.6 to 7.7%, p = 0.02), but not cord blood soluble CD14. Inclusion of maternal hsCRP as a covariate attenuated the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI and both newborn skin-fold thickness and cord blood hsCRP. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI is associated with increased newborn adiposity and inflammation. These associations may be partially mediated by maternal inflammation during pregnancy. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Raudino, Alessandra; Murray, Lynne; Turner, Corinne; Tsampala, Eirini; Lis, Adriana; De Pascalis, Leonardo; Cooper, Peter J.
Background: Parenting factors have been implicated in the aetiology and maintenance of child anxiety. Most research has been correlational with little experimental or longitudinal work. Cross-cultural comparison could be illuminating. A comparison of Italian and British children and their mothers was conducted. Methods: A sample of 8- to 10-year…
Shuster, Michael M.; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi
Interrelations among cultural values, parenting practices, and adolescent aggression were examined using longitudinal data collected from Chinese adolescents and their mothers. Adolescents' overt and relational aggression were assessed using peer nominations at Time 1 (7th grade) and Time 2 (9th grade). Mothers reported endorsement of cultural…
Besnard, Therese; Verlaan, Pierrette; Davidson, Marilyne; Vitaro, Frank; Poulin, Francois; Capuano, France
Empirical evidence suggests that children's disruptive behaviour (CDB) and quality of parenting influence one another bidirectionally. However, few studies have considered the separate contribution of the mother--child and father--child relationships to disruptive behaviours within a longitudinal context. Against this background, the reciprocal…
Gonzalez, Andrea; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S.
Objective: Research suggests that early life adversity may affect subsequent parenting. Animal studies investigating mechanisms of transmission have focused on biological factors; whereas research in humans has emphasized cognitive and psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that neuropsychological and physiological factors would act as mediators…
Hoeve, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Gerris, J.R.M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Smeenk, W.
The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers’ and mothers’ parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a
Hoeve, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Laan, P.H. van der; Smeenk, W.H.
The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers’ and mothers’ parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14–22), followed across two measurement waves with a
Tramonte, L.; Gauthier, A.H.; Willms, D.
Problems with inattention, physical aggression, and poor cognitive skills when children enter school can have long-term negative effects on their development. In this study, we address the issues of whether and how parental engagement and guidance are related to children’s behavioral and cognitive
Mazza, Julia Rachel; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Booij, Linda; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard; Lambert, Jean; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Côté, Sylvana
Poverty is a well-established risk factor for behavior problems, yet our understanding of putative family mediators during early childhood (i.e., before age 5 years) is limited. The present study investigated whether the association between poverty and behavior problems during early childhood is mediated simultaneously by perceived parenting,…
Moreira, Helena; Carona, Carlos; Silva, Neuza; Nunes, Joana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
Mindful parenting has been described as a set of parental practices or skills that seek to enhance moment-to-moment awareness in the parent-child relationship. Although it has been suggested that adopting a mindful approach in parenting may foster positive parent-child relationships and promote the psychological functioning of children and parents, little is known about the factors that may be associated with this parental skill. In this study, we aimed to examine whether attachment-related anxiety and avoidance were associated with mindful parenting through self-compassion. The sample included 290 mothers of school-aged children and adolescents recruited in school settings, who completed self-reported measures of adult attachment (Experiences in Close Relationships - Relationships Structures), self-compassion (Self-compassion Scale), and mindful parenting (Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale). Structural equation modelling was used to test the proposed mediation model and to ascertain direct and indirect effects among study variables. Whereas attachment avoidance had a direct effect on mindful parenting, attachment anxiety was indirectly associated with mindful parenting through self-compassion. Specifically, higher levels of anxiety were associated with lower self-compassion, which, in turn, was associated with lower levels of mindful parenting. Higher levels of avoidance were directly associated with lower levels of mindful parenting. These results demonstrate that mothers' attachment dimensions play an important role in their levels of mindful parenting, although through different pathways. Interventions aimed at promoting mindful parenting skills should attempt to promote parents' self-compassion and consider parents' levels of attachment insecurity. The results underline the important role of mothers' attachment on levels of mindful parenting and evidence different pathways through which attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance are associated with
DeJesus, Jasmine M; Gelman, Susan A; Viechnicki, Gail B; Appugliese, Danielle P; Miller, Alison L; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C
Though parental modeling is thought to play a critical role in promoting children's healthy eating, little research has examined maternal food intake and maternal food talk as independent predictors of children's food intake. The present study examines maternal food talk during a structured eating protocol, in which mothers and their children had the opportunity to eat a series of familiar and unfamiliar vegetables and desserts. Several aspects of maternal talk during the protocol were coded, including overall food talk, directives, pronoun use, and questions. This study analyzed the predictors of maternal food talk and whether maternal food talk and maternal food intake predicted children's food intake during the protocol. Higher maternal body mass index (BMI) predicted lower amounts of food talk, pronoun use, and questions. Higher child BMI z-scores predicted more first person pronouns and more wh-questions within maternal food talk. Mothers of older children used fewer directives, fewer second person pronouns, and fewer yes/no questions. However, maternal food talk (overall and specific types of food talk) did not predict children's food intake. Instead, the most robust predictor of children's food intake during this protocol was the amount of food that mothers ate while sitting with their children. These findings emphasize the importance of modeling healthy eating through action and have implications for designing interventions to provide parents with more effective tools to promote their children's healthy eating. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Halevi, Galit; Djalovski, Amir; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Yirmiya, Karen; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Koren, Lee; Feldman, Ruth
While chronic early stress increases child susceptibility to psychopathology, risk and resilience trajectories are shaped by maternal social influences whose role requires much further research in longitudinal studies. We examined the social transmission of risk by assessing paths leading from war-exposure to child symptoms as mediated by 3 sources of maternal social influence; stress physiology, synchronous parenting, and psychiatric disorder. Mothers and children living in a zone of continuous war were assessed in early childhood (1.5-5 years) and the current study revisited families in late (9-11years) childhood (N = 177; N = 101 war-exposed; N = 76 controls). At both time-points, maternal and child's salivary cortisol (SC), social behavior, and externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed. In late childhood, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were also measured and mother and child underwent psychiatric diagnosis. The social transmission model was tested against 2 alternative models; 1 proposing direct impact of war on children without maternal mediation, the other predicting late-childhood symptoms from early childhood variables, not change trajectories. Path analysis controlling for early childhood variables supported our conceptual model. Whereas maternal psychopathology was directly linked with child symptoms, defining direct mediation, the impact of maternal stress hormones was indirect and passed through stress contagion mechanisms involving coupling between maternal and child's HCC and SC. Similarly, maternal synchrony linked with child social engagement as the pathway to reduced symptomatology. Findings underscore the critical role of maternal stress physiology, attuned behavior, and well-being in shaping child psychopathology amid adversity and specify direct and indirect paths by which mothers stand between war and the child. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Bifulco, Antonia; Moran, Patricia; Jacobs, Catherine; Bunn, Amanda
An intergenerational study examined mothers' insecure attachment style using the Attachment Style Interview (ASI; Bifulco et al., 2002a) in relation to her history of partner relationships, her parenting competence, and depression or anxiety disorder in her offspring. The sample comprised 146 high-risk, mother-adolescent offspring pairs in London, who were recruited on the basis of the mothers' psychosocial vulnerability for depression. Retrospective, biographical, and clinical interviews were undertaken independently with mother and offspring. A path model was developed, which showed that mothers' insecure attachment style had no direct link to either recalled child neglect/abuse or currently assessed disorder in their adolescent and young adult offspring. The connections appeared to be indirect, through the quality of relationships in the family system: mothers' insecure attachment and their partners' problem behavior accounted for variance in mothers' incompetent parenting as rated by interviewers. These variables predicted her neglect/abuse of the child, which was the only variable directly associated with internalizing disorder in her offspring. Mother's lifetime depression did not add to the model. It is argued that an ecological approach (emphasizing social adversity and different role domains) and a lifespan approach (emphasizing a history of adverse relationships a different life stages) is important in understanding the mechanisms by which parental insecure attachment style influences transmission of risk to the next generation.
Challacombe, Fiona L; Salkovskis, Paul M; Woolgar, Matthew; Wilkinson, Esther L; Read, Julie; Acheson, Rachel
Maternal mental illness is associated with negative effects on the infant and child. Increased attention has been paid to the effects of specific perinatal disorders on parenting and interactions as an important mechanism of influence. OCD can be a debilitating disorder for the sufferer and those around them. Although OCD is a common perinatal illness, no previous studies have characterized parenting and mother infant interactions in detail for mothers with OCD. 37 mothers with postpartum OCD and a 6 month old infant were compared with 37 community control dyads on a variety of measures of psychological distress and parenting. Observed mother-infant interactions were assessed independently. Obsessions and compulsions were reported in both groups, although they did not cause interference in the control group. Mothers with OCD were troubled by their symptoms for a mean of 9.6 hours/day. Mothers with OCD were less confident, reported more marital distress and less social support than healthy peers and were less likely to be breastfeeding. Infant temperament ratings did not differ. Mothers with OCD were rated as less sensitive in interactions than the comparison group, partly attributable to levels of concurrent depression. Maternal postpartum OCD is a disorder that can affect experiences of parenting and mother-infant interactions although this may not be driven by OCD symptoms. Longitudinal studies are required to assess the trajectory and impact of maternal difficulties as the infant develops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Uehara, Ritei; Shinohara, Ryoji; Akiyama, Yuka; Ichikawa, Kaori; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Matsuura, Kencho; Yamazaki, Yoshihisa; Yamagata, Zentaro
Objectives The use of maternal and child health-related information is an issue faced by the "Healthy parents and children 21" campaign, a national campaign to improve the health standards of mothers and children in Japan. This study described the current situation and issues faced by municipalities across Japan that use this information.Methods Data across municipalities selected for the current survey of promoting the "Healthy parents and children 21" campaign in 2013 were analyzed in this study. First, we chose prefectures where collected and analyzed maternal and child health-related information was provided by the municipalities. Then, we divided the municipalities according to those prefectures where the municipalities regularly reported the maternal and child health-related information and those that did not report it regularly. Finally, the characteristics about maternal and child health in those municipalities were investigated.Results Of the 47 prefectures analyzed, 35 prefectures (74.5%) collected and analyzed maternal and child health-related information provided by the municipalities. The 35 prefectures included 1,242 municipalities, of which 700 (56.4%) regularly reported maternal and child health-related information, and 542 (43.6%) did not report it regularly. The proportion of municipalities, where information about smoking during pregnancy, immunization, or low birth weight in infants was positively used, was significantly lower among municipalities that did not regularly report maternal and child health-related information than among those that regularly reported it (P<0.001). The proportion of municipalities that coordinated projects on prevention of child abuse or low birth weight in infants with the prefectures was significantly lower among municipalities that did not regularly report maternal and child health-related information than among those that regularly reported it.Conclusion Among municipalities that did not regularly report
Wei, Chiaying; Swan, Anna J; Makover, Heather B; Kendall, Philip C
Evidence suggests the important role of (a) parenting behaviors and (b) parental psychopathology in the development and maintenance of youth anxiety. Using a multi-informant approach, the current study examined the association of maternal autonomy granting and maternal symptoms (i.e., anxiety and depression) with youth anxiety among mothers and 88 youth (ages of 6-17) diagnosed with a principal anxiety disorder. Results from the generalized estimating equations (GEE) analyses indicated that mothers reported higher youth anxiety symptoms compared to youth self-reports. Youth-perceived maternal autonomy granting was inversely associated with youth anxiety, and maternal self-reported anxiety and depressive symptoms significantly moderated this relationship: As mothers reported higher anxiety and depressive symptoms, the inverse association between parental autonomy granting and youth anxiety weakened. The interaction between parenting behavior and parental psychopathology significantly influenced youth anxiety symptoms, which presents important clinical implications to integrate into parenting work in the treatment of youth anxiety disorders.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parent-of-origin effects have been found to influence the mammalian brain and cognition and have been specifically implicated in the development of human social cognition and theory of mind. The experimental design in this study was developed to detect parent-of-origin effects on theory of mind, as measured by the 'Reading the mind in the eyes' (Eyes task. Eyes scores were also entered into a principal components analysis with measures of empathy, social skills and executive function, in order to determine what aspect of theory of mind Eyes is measuring. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Maternal and paternal influences on Eyes scores were compared using correlations between pairs of full (70 pairs, maternal (25 pairs and paternal siblings (15 pairs. Structural equation modelling supported a maternal influence on Eyes scores over the normal range but not low-scoring outliers, and also a sex-specific influence on males acting to decrease male Eyes scores. It was not possible to differentiate between genetic and environmental influences in this particular sample because maternal siblings tended to be raised together while paternal siblings were raised apart. The principal components analysis found Eyes was associated with measures of executive function, principally behavioural inhibition and attention, rather than empathy or social skills. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the results suggest a maternal influence on Eye scores in the normal range and a sex-specific influence acting to reduce scores in males. This influence may act via aspects of executive function such as behavioural inhibition and attention. There may be different influences acting to produce the lowest Eyes scores which implies that the heratibility and/or maternal influence on poor theory of mind skills may be qualitatively different to the influence on the normal range.
Sharp, Gemma C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Richmond, Rebecca C; Fraser, Abigail; Simpkin, Andrew; Suderman, Matthew; Shihab, Hashem A; Lyttleton, Oliver; McArdle, Wendy; Ring, Susan M; Gaunt, Tom R; Davey Smith, George; Relton, Caroline L
Background: Evidence suggests that in utero exposure to undernutrition and overnutrition might affect adiposity in later life. Epigenetic modification is suggested as a plausible mediating mechanism. Methods: We used multivariable linear regression and a negative control design to examine offspring epigenome-wide DNA methylation in relation to maternal and offspring adiposity in 1018 participants. Results: Compared with neonatal offspring of normal weight mothers, 28 and 1621 CpG sites were differentially methylated in offspring of obese and underweight mothers, respectively [false discovert rate (FDR)-corrected P-value maternal obesity and underweight relate to. A positive association, where higher methylation is associated with a body mass index (BMI) outside the normal range, was seen at 78.6% of the sites associated with obesity and 87.9% of the sites associated with underweight. Associations of maternal obesity with offspring methylation were stronger than associations of paternal obesity, supporting an intrauterine mechanism. There were no consistent associations of gestational weight gain with offspring DNA methylation. In general, sites that were hypermethylated in association with maternal obesity or hypomethylated in association with maternal underweight tended to be positively associated with offspring adiposity, and sites hypomethylated in association with maternal obesity or hypermethylated in association with maternal underweight tended to be inversely associated with offspring adiposity. Conclusions: Our data suggest that both maternal obesity and, to a larger degree, underweight affect the neonatal epigenome via an intrauterine mechanism, but weight gain during pregnancy has little effect. We found some evidence that associations of maternal underweight with lower offspring adiposity and maternal obesity with greater offspring adiposity may be mediated via increased DNA methylation. PMID:25855720
Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Pancsofar, Nadya; Willoughby, Mike; Odom, Erica; Quade, Alison; Cox, Martha
This study investigated the contribution of child characteristics and parenting environment to the relationship between family SES/demographic characteristics and maternal language to infants.1157 children were drawn from a representative sample of 1292 infants born to mothers in rural Appalachian counties and rural counties in southern minority U.S. communities. Mothers and their 6–8 month old babies were videotaped at home while talking about a wordless picture book. Mothers' language outpu...
Wang, Qiuwei; Huang, Ruiping; Yu, Bin; Cao, Fang; Wang, Huiyan; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Hong; Zhu, Ziqiang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on fetal insulin resistance or β-cell function in Chinese pregnant women with GDM. MEASUREMENTS: Maternal fasting blood and venous cord blood samples (reflecting fetal condition) were collected in 65 well-controlled Chinese GDM mothers (only given dietary intervention) and 83 control subjects. The insulin, glucose and proinsulin concentrations of both maternal and cord blood samples were measur...
This article employs the concept of cultural capital to examine the ways in which social difference in terms of gender are played out in parental involvement in children's schooling and higher education choice. The intention has been to provide an in-depth analysis of the ways in which Chinese mothers and fathers are involved in the process.…
Schlechter, Melissa; Milevsky, Avidan
The purpose of the current study is to determine the interconnection between parental level of education, psychological well-being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescents. Participants included 439 college freshmen from a mid-size state university in the northeastern USA. A survey, including indices of…
Noting that previous study of child rearing patterns among Chinese parents has ignored the importance of the instrument measuring parenting style, this study used an instrument incorporating Chinese concepts of parenting and based on well-established parenting concepts to examine differences in the child rearing attitudes of mothers and…
Li, Y; Townend, J; Rowe, R; Brocklehurst, P; Knight, M; Linsell, L; Macfarlane, A; McCourt, C; Newburn, M; Marlow, N; Pasupathy, D; Redshaw, M; Sandall, J; Silverton, L; Hollowell, J
To explore and compare perinatal and maternal outcomes in women at 'higher risk' of complications planning home versus obstetric unit (OU) birth. Prospective cohort study. OUs and planned home births in England. 8180 'higher risk' women in the Birthplace cohort. We used Poisson regression to calculate relative risks adjusted for maternal characteristics. Sensitivity analyses explored possible effects of differences in risk between groups and alternative outcome measures. Composite perinatal outcome measure encompassing 'intrapartum related mortality and morbidity' (intrapartum stillbirth, early neonatal death, neonatal encephalopathy, meconium aspiration syndrome, brachial plexus injury, fractured humerus or clavicle) and neonatal admission within 48 hours for more than 48 hours. Two composite maternal outcome measures capturing intrapartum interventions/adverse maternal outcomes and straightforward birth. The risk of 'intrapartum related mortality and morbidity' or neonatal admission for more than 48 hours was lower in planned home births than planned OU births [adjusted relative risks (RR) 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.81]. Adjustment for clinical risk factors did not materially affect this finding. The direction of effect was reversed for the more restricted outcome measure 'intrapartum related mortality and morbidity' (RR adjusted for parity 1.92, 95% CI 0.97-3.80). Maternal interventions were lower in planned home births. The babies of 'higher risk' women who plan birth in an OU appear more likely to be admitted to neonatal care than those whose mothers plan birth at home, but it is unclear if this reflects a real difference in morbidity. Rates of intrapartum related morbidity and mortality did not differ statistically significantly between settings at the 5% level but a larger study would be required to rule out a clinically important difference between the groups. © 2015 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John
Sonneveldt, Emily; DeCormier Plosky, Willyanne; Stover, John
A number of data sets show that high parity births are associated with higher child mortality than low parity births. The reasons for this relationship are not clear. In this paper we investigate whether high parity is associated with lower coverage of key health interventions that might lead to increased mortality. We used DHS data from 10 high fertility countries to examine the relationship between parity and coverage for 8 child health intervention and 9 maternal health interventions. We also used the LiST model to estimate the effect on maternal and child mortality of the lower coverage associated with high parity births. Our results show a significant relationship between coverage of maternal and child health services and birth order, even when controlling for poverty. The association between coverage and parity for maternal health interventions was more consistently significant across countries all countries, while for child health interventions there were fewer overall significant relationships and more variation both between and within countries. The differences in coverage between children of parity 3 and those of parity 6 are large enough to account for a 12% difference in the under-five mortality rate and a 22% difference in maternal mortality ratio in the countries studied. This study shows that coverage of key health interventions is lower for high parity children and the pattern is consistent across countries. This could be a partial explanation for the higher mortality rates associated with high parity. Actions to address this gap could help reduce the higher mortality experienced by high parity birth.
Martin, Christina Gamache; Fisher, Philip A; Kim, Hyoun K
Child maltreatment prevention programs typically identify at-risk families by screening for risk with limited consideration of how risk might vary by ethnicity. In this study, longitudinal data from mothers who participated in a randomized clinical trial of a home-visitation, child maltreatment prevention program (N = 262) were examined to determine whether risk for harsh parenting differed among mothers who identified themselves as Spanish-speaking Latinas (n = 64), English-speaking Latinas (n = 102), or non-Latina Caucasians (n = 96). The majority of the participants were first-time mothers (58.4%), and the average age of all participants was 23.55 years (SD = 6.04). At the time of their infants' births, the Spanish-speaking Latina mothers demonstrated higher SES risk, whereas the English-speaking Latina and non-Latina Caucasian mothers demonstrated higher psychosocial risk. Three years later, the English-speaking Latina and non-Latina Caucasian mothers reported harsher parenting behaviors than the Spanish-speaking Latina mothers. The need for prevention programs to consider how risk and protective factors differ by ethnic group membership when identifying at-risk mothers is discussed.
Lattka, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold; Zeilinger, Sonja; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Klopp, Norman; Ring, Susan M.; Steer, Colin D.
Fetal supply with long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) during pregnancy is important for brain growth and visual and cognitive development and is provided by materno–fetal placental transfer. We recently showed that maternal fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotypes modulate the amounts of LC-PUFA in maternal blood. Whether FADS genotypes influence the amounts of umbilical cord fatty acids has not been investigated until now. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of maternal and child FADS genotypes on the amounts of LC-PUFA in umbilical cord venous plasma as an indicator of fetal fatty acid supply during pregnancy. A total of eleven cord plasma n-6 and n-3 fatty acids were analysed for association with seventeen FADS gene cluster SNP in over 2000 mothers and children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. In a multivariable analysis, the maternal genotype effect was adjusted for the child genotype and vice versa to estimate which of the two has the stronger influence on cord plasma fatty acids. Both maternal and child FADS genotypes and haplotypes influenced amounts of cord plasma LC-PUFA and fatty acid ratios. Specifically, most analysed maternal SNP were associated with cord plasma levels of the precursor n-6 PUFA, whereas the child genotypes were mainly associated with more highly desaturated n-6 LC-PUFA. This first study on FADS genotypes and cord fatty acids suggests that fetal LC-PUFA status is determined to some extent by fetal fatty acid conversion. Associations of particular haplotypes suggest specific effects of SNP rs498793 and rs968567 on fatty acid metabolism. PMID:22877655
Nisreen A Alwan
Full Text Available Iron deficiency is common during pregnancy. Experimental animal studies suggest that it increases cardiovascular risk in the offspring.To examine the relationship between maternal pregnancy dietary and supplement iron intake and hemoglobin, with offspring's arterial stiffness (measured by carotid-radial pulse wave velocity, endothelial function (measured by brachial artery flow mediated dilatation, blood pressure, and adiposity (measured by body mass index, test for mediation by cord ferritin, birth weight, gestational age, and child dietary iron intake, and for effect modification by maternal vitamin C intake and offspring sex.Prospective data from 2958 mothers and children pairs at 10 years of age enrolled in an English birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study for Parents and Children (ALSPAC, was analysed.2639 (89.2% mothers reported dietary iron intake in pregnancy below the UK reference nutrient intake of 14.8 mg/day. 1328 (44.9% reported taking iron supplements, and 129 (4.4% were anemic by 18 weeks gestation. No associations were observed apart from maternal iron intake from supplements with offspring systolic blood pressure (-0.8 mmHg, 99% CI -1.7 to 0, P = 0.01 in the sample with all relevant data observed, and -0.7 mmHg, 99% CI -1.3 to 0, P = 0.008 in the sample with missing data imputed.There was no evidence of association between maternal pregnancy dietary iron intake, or maternal hemoglobin concentration (which is less likely to be biased by subjective reporting with offspring outcomes. There was a modest inverse association between maternal iron supplement intake during pregnancy with offspring systolic blood pressure at 10 years.
Veenstra-van Schie, Monique Theodora Maria; Coenen, Kelly; Koopman, Hendrik Maria; Versteegh, Florens Gerard Adriaan
We explored the differences in the perceived HRQoL between children with asthma from Moroccan and Dutch descent and their parents. In total 33 children (aged 6-18 years) from Moroccan (16) and Dutch descent (17) and their parents participated. All children were currently under treatment in a general hospital in the Netherlands. Generic and asthma specific HRQoL were assessed (DUX-25, DISABKIDS, PAQLQ). Significant differences were found on the DUX-25 subscales physical, emotional and home functioning. Children and parents from Dutch descent reported a lower HRQoL. The findings of this study are contrary with previous research. Results can be explained by the individualistic-collectivistic dimension, socially desirability, language and the feeling of miscomprehension. If this explanation makes sense health care workers have to invest in a good relationship with especially immigrant children and their parents, so they will have enough confidence to talk more openly about their physical as well as their psycho-social complaints.
Hillegers, Manon H. J.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Nolen, Willem A.; Drexhage, Hemmo A.
Background: Studies are inconsistent as to whether patients with bipolar disorder are more frequently affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Aim: To study the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in offspring of bipolar patients. Method: In 1998 140 children (age 12-21 years) of bipolar parents were
Maljaars, Jarymke; Boonen, Hannah; Lambrechts, Greet; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse
Parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face specific challenges in parenting, but concrete parenting behavior has never been properly investigated in these families. This exploratory questionnaire study compared parenting behaviors among mothers of children and adolescents with ASD (n = 552) and without ASD (n = 437) and examined…
Neece, C.; Baker, B.
Background: Parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) typically report elevated levels of parenting stress, and child behaviour problems are a strong predictor of heightened parenting stress. Interestingly, few studies have examined child characteristics beyond behaviour problems that may also contribute to parenting stress. The…
McMahon, Camilla M.; Solomon, Marjorie
Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham & Elliott, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents reported that social skills were less important. Additionally, adolescents reported that they engaged in social skills more frequently than parents reported them to be engaging in social skills. Parents, but not adolescents, reported...
Van Hees, Valérie; Roeyers, Herbert; De Mol, Jan
This study examined how 34 senior students and first-year college students with autism spectrum disorder, their mothers (n = 34) and fathers (n = 26) navigate the higher education transition, and how this context impacts on dynamics in the parent-child relationships. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed based on grounded theory and dyadic analysis principles. Both parties were confronted with an abundance of challenges and experienced strong feelings of ambivalence, stress and anxiety. Differences in perspectives occurred regarding the construction of adulthood, the acquisition of autonomy, disclosure and subscribing to support services. These differences caused tensions in the parent-child relationship, hindering the transformation of the relationship into an adult-like mutual relationship. Clinical implications are extrapolated on the basis of these findings.
Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.; Brown, Anita; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Simons, Ronald L.
Using an ecological risk-protection perspective, explores functional changes in single African American mothers (N=96) receiving government assistance. Examines links among maternal employment, mothers' physical and psychological health, and children's attributions about causes of poverty. Maternal psychological distress was linked with children's…
Chan, Priscilla T; Doan, Stacey N; Tompson, Martha C
The present study examined stress generation in a developmental and family context among 171 mothers and their preadolescent children, ages 8-12 years, at baseline (Time 1) and 1-year follow-up (Time 2). In the current study, we examined the bidirectional relationship between children's depressive symptoms and dependent family stress. Results suggest that children's baseline level of depressive symptoms predicted the generation of dependent family stress 1 year later. However, baseline dependent family stress did not predict an increase in children's depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, we examined whether a larger context of both child chronic strain (indicated by academic, behavioral, and peer stress) and family factors, including socioeconomic status and parent-child relationship quality, would influence the stress generation process. Although both chronic strain and socioeconomic status were not associated with dependent family stress at Time 2, poorer parent-child relationship quality significantly predicted greater dependent family stress at Time 2. Child chronic strain, but neither socioeconomic status nor parent-child relationship quality, predicted children's depression symptoms at Time 2. Finally, gender, maternal depression history, and current maternal depressive symptoms did not moderate the relationship between level of dependent family stress and depressive symptoms. Overall, findings provide partial support for a developmental stress generation model operating in the preadolescent period.
Ahmad, Ikhlas; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart
Although the effects of important parenting dimensions, such as responsiveness and psychological control, are well documented among Western populations, research has only recently begun to systematically identify psychological processes that may account for the cross-cultural generalization of these effects. A first aim of this study was to examine whether perceived maternal responsiveness and psychological control would relate differentially to teacher ratings of adolescent adjustment in a vertical-collectivist society (i.e., Jordan). The most important aim of this study was to examine, on the basis of self-determination theory, whether these associations would be accounted for by perceived satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Results in a large sample of Jordanian adolescents (N = 545) showed that perceived maternal psychological control and responsiveness yielded, respectively, a positive and negative association with teacher-rated problems, whereas psychological control was negatively related to teacher-rated adjustment. Further, these 2 parenting dimensions related to adjustment and problems via perceived satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy and competence (but not relatedness). The findings are discussed in light of the ongoing debate between universalistic and relativistic perspectives on parenting and adolescent adjustment.
Hans TEMRIN; Johanna NORDLUND; Mikael RYING; Birgitta S. TULLBERG
In an evolutionary perspective individuals are expected to vary the degree of parental love and care in relation to the fitness value that a child represents. Hence, stepparents are expected to show less solicitude than genetically related parents, and this lack of genetic relatedness has been used to explain the higher frequencies of child abuse and homicide found in stepfamilies.However, other factors than non-genetic relatedness may cause this over-representation in stepfamilies. Here we use a 45-year data set of parental child homicides in Sweden to test two hypotheses related to the higher incidence in stepfamilies: 1) adults in different types of family differ in their general disposition to use violence, and 2) parents are more likely to kill stepchildren than genetically related children. Of the 152 perpetrators in biparental families there was an overrepresentation of perpetrators in stepfamilies (n=27) compared with the general population. We found support for the first hypothesis in that both general and violent crime rates were higher in stepfamilies, both in the general population and among perpetrators of child homicide. However, we found no support for the second hypothesis because of the 27 perpetrators in stepfamilies the perpetrator killed a genetically related child in 13 cases, a stepchild in 13 cases and both types of children in one case. Moreover, out of the 12 families where the perpetrator lived with both stepchildren and genetic children, there was no bias towards killing stepchildren. Thus, we found no evidence for an effect of non-genetic relatedness per se [Current Zoology 57 (3): 253-59, 2011].
Hans TEMRIN, Johanna NORDLUND, Mikael RYING, Birgitta S. TULLBERG
Full Text Available In an evolutionary perspective individuals are expected to vary the degree of parental love and care in relation to the fitness value that a child represents. Hence, stepparents are expected to show less solicitude than genetically related parents, and this lack of genetic relatedness has been used to explain the higher frequencies of child abuse and homicide found in stepfamilies. However, other factors than non-genetic relatedness may cause this over-representation in stepfamilies. Here we use a 45-year data set of parental child homicides in Sweden to test two hypotheses related to the higher incidence in stepfamilies: 1 adults in different types of family differ in their general disposition to use violence, and 2 parents are more likely to kill stepchildren than genetically related children. Of the 152 perpetrators in biparental families there was an overrepresentation of perpetrators in stepfamilies (n=27 compared with the general population. We found support for the first hypothesis in that both general and violent crime rates were higher in stepfamilies, both in the general population and among perpetrators of child homicide. However, we found no support for the second hypothesis because of the 27 perpetrators in stepfamilies the perpetrator killed a genetically related child in 13 cases, a stepchild in 13 cases and both types of children in one case. Moreover, out of the 12 families where the perpetrator lived with both stepchildren and genetic children, there was no bias towards killing stepchildren. Thus, we found no evidence for an effect of non-genetic relatedness per se [Current Zoology 57 (3: 253–259, 2011].
Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia
The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal expe...
de Vente, W.; Majdandžić, M.; Colonnesi, C.; Bögels, S.M.
Parents' fear of negative child evaluation (FNCE) by others has been proposed as a mechanism explaining the intergenerational transmission of social anxiety. Parents' FNCE may result in child social anxiety through various learning processes, including those associated with parenting. To test these
Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others
This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…
Meredith, Stephens; Richard, Blight
This study investigates the involvement of parents in early literacy in Japanese and Australian primary schools. While both schools valued support from parents in the education process, different cultural expectations are evident in each system. A number of significant areas are discussed, including traditional domestic situations in Japan, changing work cultures in Australia, education and maternal duties, higher expectations in Japan, parents supporting homework activities, parents supporti...
Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Oshino, Shingo; Ishii, Genki; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko
The effects of the affectionless control (AC) parenting style on personality traits were studied in 414 Japanese healthy subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which comprises care and protection factors, and personality traits were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory, which has seven dimensions. Parental rearing was classified into four types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and AC (low care/high protection). Males with maternal AC showed significantly higher harm avoidance (HA) scores and lower scores of persistence and cooperativeness than those with maternal optimal parenting. Females with maternal AC showed significantly higher HA scores and lower self-directedness scores than those with maternal optimal parenting. Paternal AC was not significantly related to any personality score. In females, the interaction between paternal rearing and maternal rearing was significant; the effect of maternal AC on HA scores was strongest when combined with paternal neglectful parenting. The present study suggests that the AC type parenting by mothers is associated with specific personality traits, especially high HA, in healthy subjects.
Parker, G; Lipscombe, P
While maternal overprotection appears associated with several neurotic and psychotic disorders, little is known about determinants of such a parental characteristic. Several hypotheses have been tested in a large nonclinical sample. Maternal and cultural factors seemed of greater relevance than characteristics in the child. Overprotective mothers gave evidence of marked maternal preoccupations before having children, of showing a capacity to be overprotective after the active stage of mothering, and of having personality characteristics of high anxiety, obsessionality and a need to control. Maternal overprotection appears associated with low, rather than with high maternal care. This has important primary prevention and treatment implications.
Prady, Stephanie L; Kiernan, Kathleen; Fairley, Lesley; Wilson, Sarah; Wright, John
Ethnic minority children in the United Kingdom often experience health disadvantage. Parenting influences children's current and future health, but little is known about whether parenting behaviours and mother's perception of her infant vary by ethnicity. Using the Born in Bradford (BiB) birth cohort, which is located in an ethnically diverse and economically deprived UK city, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of mother's self-reported parenting confidence, self-efficacy, hostility and warmth, and infant temperament at six months of age. We examined responses from women of Pakistani (N = 554) and White British (N = 439) origin. Pakistani mothers reported feeling more confident about their abilities as a parent. Significantly fewer Pakistani women adopted a hostile approach to parenting, an effect that was attenuated after adjustment for socioeconomic status and mental health. Overall, women with more self-efficacious, warm and less hostile parenting styles reported significantly fewer problems with their infant's temperaments. Of women with higher self-efficacy parenting styles, Pakistani mothers were significantly more likely than White British mothers to report more problematic infant temperaments, although absolute differences were small. It is unlikely that the ethnic variation seen in children's cognitive and behavioural outcomes in childhood is attributable to differences in parenting or infant characteristics reported at six months.
Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks as parents of healthy and disabled children younger than 7 years old in Iran (Arak. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 120 parents of healthy children and 120 parents of disabled children with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. T-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between parents of healthy and disabled children based on studied variables including child age, parent age, child gender, parent education, family economic status, history of trauma and seizure in children was applied to perform the role of parents. Results: There was a significant difference of parent role in both groups of parents. There was observed a significant relationship between role of healthy children's parents and age of child (r=0.21, P=0.016, but not observed in disabled children's parents. In healthy children, there was no significant correlation between parent's role and maternal age. In contrast, in disabled children, there was found a significant difference (P= 0.04 with correlation coefficient of -0.18 representing the inverse relationship. Moreover, no relationship was found between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks in the group of disabled children (P>0.05. Conclusion The performance of tasks of parenting role in two groups of parents of healthy children and disabled ones in four areas of primary care, education, leisure and improving cognitive level had significant difference. This difference in the area of improving the cognitive level was higher. Due to complications of disability, parents of these children pay more attention to other areas of care except of improving cognitive level. Therefore presence of disabled child has negative effect on the balance of the
Kim, Pilyoung; Mayes, Linda; Feldman, Ruth; Leckman, James F; Swain, James E
Parenting behaviors and parent-infant emotional bonding during the early postpartum months play a critical role in infant development. However, the nature and progression of parental thoughts and their relationship with interactive behaviors have received less research. The current study investigated the trajectory of parental thoughts and behaviors among primiparous mothers ( n = 18) and fathers ( n = 15) and multiparous mothers ( n = 13) and fathers ( n = 13), which were measured at the first and third postpartum month. At the third postpartum month, the relationship between parental thoughts and parental interactive behaviors also was tested. Mothers and fathers showed high levels of preoccupations and caregiving thoughts during the first postpartum month that significantly declined by the third postpartum month. In contrast, positive thoughts about parenting and the infant increased over the same time interval. Mothers presented higher levels of preoccupations and positive thoughts than did fathers, and first-time parents reported more intense preoccupations than did experienced parents. Although maternal sensitivity was inversely related to maternal anxious thoughts, paternal sensitivity was predicted by higher levels of anxious as well as caregiving and positive thoughts.
Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Kamata, Mitsuhiro
The effect of parental rearing on interpersonal sensitivity was studied in 469 Japanese volunteers. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which consists of the factors of care and protection, and interpersonal sensitivity was measured by the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). In male subjects, higher IPSM scores were related to higher scores of paternal protection (P < .01) and maternal protection (P < .05). In female subjects, higher IPSM scores were related to higher scores of maternal protection (P < .001). The present study suggests that in both males and females, interpersonal sensitivity is increased by high protection of the same-sex parents and that in males there is an additional effect of high maternal protection.
Power calculations for likelihood ratio tests for offspring genotype risks, maternal effects, and parent-of-origin (POO) effects in the presence of missing parental genotypes when unaffected siblings are available.
Rampersaud, E; Morris, R W; Weinberg, C R; Speer, M C; Martin, E R
Genotype-based likelihood-ratio tests (LRT) of association that examine maternal and parent-of-origin effects have been previously developed in the framework of log-linear and conditional logistic regression models. In the situation where parental genotypes are missing, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been incorporated in the log-linear approach to allow incomplete triads to contribute to the LRT. We present an extension to this model which we call the Combined_LRT that incorporates additional information from the genotypes of unaffected siblings to improve assignment of incompletely typed families to mating type categories, thereby improving inference of missing parental data. Using simulations involving a realistic array of family structures, we demonstrate the validity of the Combined_LRT under the null hypothesis of no association and provide power comparisons under varying levels of missing data and using sibling genotype data. We demonstrate the improved power of the Combined_LRT compared with the family-based association test (FBAT), another widely used association test. Lastly, we apply the Combined_LRT to a candidate gene analysis in Autism families, some of which have missing parental genotypes. We conclude that the proposed log-linear model will be an important tool for future candidate gene studies, for many complex diseases where unaffected siblings can often be ascertained and where epigenetic factors such as imprinting may play a role in disease etiology.
During its time in office, the UK's Labour government gave a strong message that having caring responsibilities for a young child should not be seen as a barrier to engaging in education and training. Its widening participation strategy included a specific commitment to increasing the number of mature students in higher education (HE)--students…
McMahon, Camilla M.; Solomon, Marjorie
Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham and Elliott in The social skills rating system, American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents…
Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.
Early social withdrawal and protective parenting predict a host of negative outcomes, warranting examination of their development. Mothers' accurate anticipation of their toddlers' fearfulness may facilitate transactional relations between toddler fearful temperament and protective parenting, leading to these outcomes. Currently, we followed 93…
Chronis, Andrea M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Williams, Stephanie Hall; Baumann, Barbara L.; Kipp, Heidi; Jones, Heather A.; Rathouz, Paul J.
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for adverse outcomes such as substance abuse and criminality, particularly if they develop conduct problems. Little is known about early predictors of the developmental course of conduct problems among children with ADHD, however. Parental psychopathology and parenting …
Chen, Fu Mei; Lin, Hsiao Shih; Li, Chun Hao
This study was intended to examine the relationship among children's emotionality, parental meta-emotion, and parent-child attachment. The sample consisted of 546 5th and 6th grade children and their mothers. The test instruments used in this study were the Emotionality subscale of the EAS Temperament Survey (mothers' ratings only), the Parental…
Hummel, Alexandra C; Kiel, Elizabeth J
In early childhood, parents play an important role in children's socioemotional development. As such, parent training is a central component of many psychological interventions for young children (Reyno & McGrath, 2006). Maternal depressive symptoms have consistently been linked to maladaptive parenting behaviors (e.g., disengagement, intrusiveness), as well as to lower parent training efficacy in the context of child psychological intervention, suggesting that mothers with higher symptomatology may be less able to be adapt their behavior according to situational demands. The goal of the current study was to examine both maternal and child factors that may influence maternal behavioral adaptability. Ninety-one mothers and their toddlers ( M = 23.93 months, 59% male) participated in a laboratory visit during which children engaged in a variety of novelty episodes designed to elicit individual differences in fear/withdrawal behaviors. Mothers also completed a questionnaire battery. Maternal behavioral adaptability was operationalized as the difference in scores for maternal involvement, comforting, and protective behavior between episodes in which mothers were instructed to refrain from interaction and those in which they were instructed to act naturally. Results indicated that when children displayed high levels of negative affect in the restricted episodes, mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms were less able to adapt their involved behavior because they exhibited low rates of involvement across episodes regardless of instruction given. The current study serves as an intermediary step in understanding how maternal depressive symptoms may influence daily interactions with their children as well as treatment implementation and outcomes, and provides initial evidence that maternal internalizing symptoms may contribute to lower behavioral adaptability in the context of certain child behaviors due to consistent low involvement.
Hoffman, Lois Wladis
Maternal employment is a part of modern family life, a response to changes such as smaller families and more efficient household management. Not only does maternal employment meet parents' needs, but it is a pattern better suited for socializing the child for the adult role s/he will occupy. (Author/GC)
Azad, Meghan B; Becker, Allan B; Kozyrskyj, Anita L
Perinatal programming is an emerging theory for the fetal origins of chronic disease. Maternal asthma and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are two of the best-known triggers for the perinatal programming of asthma, while the potential role of maternal diabetes has not been widely studied. To determine if maternal diabetes is associated with child asthma, and if so, whether it modifies the effects of ETS exposure and maternal asthma. We studied 3,574 Canadian children, aged 7-8 years, enrolled in a population-based birth cohort. Standardized questionnaires were completed by the children's parents, and data were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. Asthma was reported in 442 children (12.4%). Compared to those without asthma, asthmatic children were more likely to have mothers (P = 0.003), but not fathers (P = 0.89), with diabetes. Among children without maternal history of diabetes, the likelihood of child asthma was 1.4-fold higher in those exposed to ETS (adjusted odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.73), and 3.6-fold higher in those with maternal asthma (3.59; 2.71-4.76). Among children born to diabetic mothers, these risks were amplified to 5.7-fold (5.68; 1.18-27.37) and 11.3-fold (11.30; 2.26-56.38), respectively. In the absence of maternal asthma or ETS, maternal diabetes was not associated with child asthma (0.65, 0.16-2.56). Our findings suggest that maternal diabetes may contribute to the perinatal programming of child asthma by amplifying the detrimental effects of ETS exposure and maternal asthma. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Apetroaia, Adela; Hill, Claire; Creswell, Cathy
High levels of parental anxiety are associated with poor treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Associated parental cognitions and behaviours have been implicated as impediments to successful treatment. We examined the association between parental responsibility beliefs, maternal anxiety and parenting behaviours in the context of childhood anxiety disorders. Anxious and non-anxious mothers of 7-12 year old children with a current anxiety disorder reported their parental responsibility beliefs using a questionnaire measure. Parental behaviours towards their child during a stressor task were measured. Parents with a current anxiety disorder reported a greater sense of responsibility for their child's actions and wellbeing than parents who scored within the normal range for anxiety. Furthermore, higher parental responsibility was associated with more intrusive and less warm behaviours in parent-child interactions and there was an indirect effect between maternal anxiety and maternal intrusive behaviours via parental responsibility beliefs. The sample was limited to a treatment-seeking, relatively high socio-economic population and only mothers were included so replication with more diverse groups is needed. The use of a range of stressor tasks may have allowed for a more comprehensive assessment of parental behaviours. The findings suggest that parental anxiety disorder is associated with an elevated sense of parental responsibility and may promote parental behaviours likely to inhibit optimum child treatment outcomes. Parental responsibility beliefs may therefore be important to target in child anxiety treatments in the context of parental anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Herraiz-Serrrano, Cristina; Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; Beato-Fernández, Luis; Latorre-Postigo, José Miguel; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Vaz-Leal, Francisco J
The aim of the study was to identify the relationship between perceived rearing styles and the clinical expression of Eating Disorders (ED). One hundred and ninety-six patients diagnosed of an ED and 127 healthy student as controls selected from the Nursing College were evaluated for general psychopathology (STAI, BDI II, RSE), and for abnormal eating attitudes (EAT, EDI-II, BITE). The EMBU (‘my memories of upbringing’) was administered for the assessment of perceived parental rearing styles and was used a questionnaire to assess familial variables. In relation to the control group, patients with ED perceived greater rejection, overprotection and less warmth than the controls. Patients who perceived greater paternal favoritism, maternal overprotection and low paternal emotional warmth, showed higher levels of anxiety. Paternal affection and maternal attitudes of rejection, overprotection and favoritism were related to lower self-esteem. Regarding abnormal eating attitudes, body dissatisfaction inversely correlated with paternal emotional care and maternal favoritism. The EDI subscales: ineffectiveness, perfectionism and ascetism were associated to parental rejection. Maternal rejection also related with drive for thinness, interoceptive awareness and impulse regulation. Perceived emotional warmth was related with perfectionism. Bulimia subscale and BITE scores were inversely associated to paternal overprotection and affection, and scored significantly higher in paternal favoritism and rejection from both parents. Perceived parental bonding is different in the various subtypes of EDs. Patients diagnosed of Bulimia Nervosa or Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified perceived greater rejection, less affection and a greater overprotection than Anorexia Nervosa patients and controls.
Thompson, Darcy A; Polk, Sarah; Cheah, Charissa S L; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Johnson, Susan L; Chrismer, Marilyn Camacho; Tschann, Jeanne M
To explore maternal beliefs about television (TV) viewing and related parenting practices in low-income Mexican-origin mothers of preschoolers. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 low-income Mexican-origin mothers of preschoolers. Interviews were audio recorded and analyzed using a theoretically based thematic analytic approach. Mothers described strong beliefs about the positive and negative impact of TV content. Mothers emphasized the educational value of specific programming. Content restrictions were common. Time restrictions were not clearly defined; however, many mothers preferred short versus long episodes of viewing. Mothers spoke positively about family viewing and the role of TV viewing in enabling mothers to accomplish household tasks. These findings have implications for intervening in this population. Interventionists should consider the value mothers place on the educational role of TV viewing, the direct benefit to mothers of viewing time, the lack of clear time limits, and the common practice of family co-viewing. © The Author(s) 2015.
Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Ge, Xiaojia; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Conger, Rand D.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reid, John B.; Reiss, David
Using a longitudinal, prospective adoption design, this study examined the effects of the environment (adoptive parents’ depressive symptoms and responsiveness) and genetic liability of maternal depression (inferred by birth mothers’ major depressive disorder [MDD]) on the development of fussiness between 9 and 18 months of age in adopted children. The sample included 281 families linked through adoption, with each family including four individuals (i.e., adopted child, birth mother, adoptive...
Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida M; Andersen, Andreas; Eriksson, Mia; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter
Previous studies have suggested that girls may have lower maternal measles antibody levels than boys. Girls might therefore be more likely to contract measles infection before the normal age of measles vaccination at 9 months of age. In connection with a clinical trial of different measles vaccination strategies, we collected pre-measles vaccination blood samples at 4.5 months of age from two subgroups of children. Samples from these children were used to assess possible differences in maternal antibody levels for boys and girls. At 9 months of age another subgroup of children was sampled before the normal measles vaccination; these samples were used to assess the frequency of subclinical measles infection among boys and girls. We determined measles-specific antibody levels for 812 children at 4.5 months of age and for 896 children at 9 months of age. At 4.5 months of age girls were less likely to have protective maternal antibody levels, the male-female ratio for protective antibody level being 1.23 (1.00-1.51). Among children sampled at 9 months of age, girls were more likely to have protective levels, the female-male ratio for having protective antibody levels being 1.65 (0.98-2.78) (p=0.054) and the geometric mean titre was significantly higher for girls (p=0.007). Children who lived in houses with known measles cases were more likely to have protective levels at 9 months of age even though they had not reported measles infection. Since we had excluded children with known measles infection, girls may have been more likely to have had subclinical measles infection. Combining clinical and possible subclinical measles infection, girls tended to be more likely than boys to contract measles infection before 9 months of age, the RR being 1.36 (0.97-1.90). Girls lost maternal measles antibodies more rapidly than boys and well before 9 months of age. They may be more likely to contract subclinical measles infection before the current age of measles vaccination.
Pease, Anna; Ingram, Jenny; Blair, Peter S; Fleming, Peter J
Qualitative interviews with mothers of babies at higher risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) were carried out to understand their views and decision-making process on the infant sleep environment and safe sleep messages. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted between February and November 2014 in deprived areas of Bristol, UK. Mothers were asked about their decision-making for the infant sleep environment and safe sleep messages including infant sleep position, co-sleeping, smoking, dummy use, feeding and disrupted routines. The interviews were transcribed, coded and thematic analysis carried out. Participants were invited based on an algorithm developed in a previous SIDS case control study that identified an increased risk of SIDS from four demographic characteristics: young maternal age, smoking during pregnancy, three or more children, and a measure of deprivation. The presence of three, or more characteristics led to being invited to take part in the qualitative study. Factors influencing mothers' adherence to the safe sleep messages included previous experience and the credibility of the advice given. They described disrupted routines that led to risky scenarios with a belief that occasional risks were acceptable. Where circumstances made following the advice more difficult they found alternative strategies to reduce the risk, including the use of movement monitors, regular checking and a belief that lighter maternal sleep in the presence of a baby was protective. Safer sleep messages should be tailored to fit with the lived realities of mothers, especially those at higher risk. The traditional list of 'do's' and 'don'ts' was not well accepted by this group. Interventions that seek to influence this higher-risk group should acknowledge mothers' own protective instincts and consider their beliefs and understanding behind the safer sleep messages if they are to be effective and encourage this group to change.
Jago, Russell; Davison, Kirsten K; Brockman, Rowan; Page, Angie S; Thompson, Janice L; Fox, Kenneth R
The objective of this study was to determine whether parenting styles and practices are associated with children's physical activity. Cross-sectional survey of seven hundred ninety-two 10- to 11-year-old UK children in Bristol (UK) in 2008-2009 was conducted. Accelerometer-assessed physical activity and mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (mean MVPA) and mean counts per minute (mean CPM) were obtained. Maternal parenting style and physical activity parenting practices were self-reported. In regression analyses, permissive parenting was associated with higher mean MVPA among girls (+6.0 min/day, pparents. Maternal logistic support was associated with mean CPM for girls (+36.2 counts/min, p=0.001), while paternal logistic support was associated with boys' mean MVPA (+4.0 min/day, p=0.049) and mean CPM (+55.7 counts/min, p=0.014). Maternal permissive parenting was associated with higher levels of physical activity than authoritative parenting, but associations differed by child gender and type of physical activity. Maternal logistic support was associated with girls' physical activity, while paternal logistic support was associated with boys' physical activity. Health professionals could encourage parents to increase logistic support for their children's physical activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sigal, John J; Perry, J Christopher; Robbins, James M; Gagné, Marie-Anik; Nassif, Edgard
To test the hypothesis that differences between sicker and not-so-sick women in their preoccupation with their illness and parenting behavior can explain why some investigators find that children of breast cancer patients fare better than controls and other investigators find the reverse. Forty-two women with metastasized breast cancer (sicker mothers) and 45 women with a first occurrence of nonmetastasized breast cancer (not-so-sick mothers) rated the degree of their preoccupation with the disease, their parenting behavior, mood, and social supports and the emotional and behavioral symptoms in one of their children. Their 12- to 18-year-old children rated their mothers' parenting behavior, their own emotional and behavioral symptoms, and their self-esteem. Sicker mothers reported relatively less preoccupation. They, and their children, reported less poor parenting and fewer externalizing symptoms in the children. Regression analyses revealed further differences between the groups. Less preoccupation with their illness and less poor parenting behavior by sicker mothers may explain why their children seem to fare better then those of not-so-sick mothers. Formulations concerning families of breast cancer patients should include consideration of the effect of the mothers' perception of the severity of their illness.
Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Phan, Jenny M.; Lubach, Gabriele R.; Crispen, Heather R.; Coe, Christopher L.
The concept of fetal programming is based on the idea that the developmental trajectory of infants is adjusted in response to in utero conditions. In species with extended parental care, these prenatally derived tendencies are further substantiated by behavioral attributes of the mother during the postnatal period. We investigated the stability of…
Thissen, A.J.A.M.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Altink, M.E.; Oosterlaan, J.; Buitelaar, J.
Objective: The authors examined parent-of-origin effects in transmission of ADHD and neuropsychological functioning. Proof of these effects can identify more etiologically homogeneous ADHD subgroups and facilitate genetic studies. Method: The authors included 238 ADHD and 147 control families. ADHD
BACKGROUND: Children born to parents with lower income and education are at risk for obesity and later-life risk of common chronic diseases, and epigenetics has been hypothesised to link these associations. However, epigenetic targets are unknown. We focus on a cluster of well c...
Bradley, Robert H.; Corwyn, Robert F.
This study used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to examine relations between parenting, self-control, and externalizing behavior from infancy through 5th grade. Results indicate that self-control measured during middle childhood mediates relations between…
The purpose of this study was to examine if childhood parenting behaviors, under both general and feeding specific situations, related to college students’ weight status, waist circumference (WC), and fruit and vegetable (FV) intakes. U.S. college students (n equals 424, 66 percent female, 18-24 yr,...
McMahon, Camilla M.; Solomon, Marjorie
Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham & Elliott, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents reported that social skills were less important. Additionally, adolescents reported that they engaged in social skills more frequently than parents reported them to be engaging in social skills. Parents, but not adolescents, reported a discrepancy between importance and engagement, such that the importance of social skills was rated higher than the frequency of adolescent engagement in social skills. These results suggest that social skills interventions for individuals with ASD may need to target awareness of social skill importance and accurate monitoring of social skill engagement. PMID:26077952
Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.
The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...
Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Shibuya, Naoshi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Kamata, Mitsuhiro
The effects of dysfunctional parenting styles on interpersonal sensitivity were studied in 640 Japanese volunteers. Interpersonal sensitivity was assessed by the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM), and perceived parental rearing was evaluated by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), which is consisted of care and protection factors. Parental rearing was classified into 4 types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and affectionless control (low care/high protection). Males with paternal affectionless control showed higher total IPSM scores than those with paternal optimal parenting (p = 0.022). Females with maternal affectionate constraint (p = 0.001), neglectful parenting (p = 0.022), and affectionless control (p = 0.003) showed higher total IPSM scores than those with maternal optimal parenting. In males and females, dysfunctional parenting styles by the opposite-sex parents did not affected total IPSM scores. The present study suggests that in both males and females interpersonal sensitivity is increased by dysfunctional parenting styles by the same-sex parents.
Philbrook, Lauren E.; Teti, Douglas M.
In keeping with transactional conceptualizations of infant sleep development (Sadeh et al., 2010), the present study examined longitudinal, bidirectional linkages between bedtime parenting (direct observations of parenting practices and quality) and infant sleep across the first six months postpartum. In doing so, we also drew from Darling and Steinberg's (1993) conceptual model to examine parenting quality as a moderator of linkages between specific bedtime practices and infant sleep. Multilevel model analyses revealed that the strongest increases in infant nighttime sleep across the first six months occurred among infants of mothers who engaged in low levels of nursing at bedtime. Within-person linkages between mothers' emotional availability (EA) at bedtime, infant distress, and infant sleep were found, such that at time points when mothers were more emotionally available, infants were less distressed and slept more throughout the night. Several moderating effects of maternal EA on linkages between parenting practices and infant sleep were obtained that were consistent with predictions from Darling and Steinberg (1993). Higher maternal EA in combination with less close contact at bedtime was associated with more infant sleep across the night on average, and higher EA in combination with fewer arousing bedtime activities predicted more rapid increases in infant sleep with age. Finally, there was evidence of infant-driven effects, as higher infant nighttime distress predicted lower EA at subsequent time points. Results showcased the complex, reciprocal interplay between parents and infants in the development of infant sleep patterns and parenting behavior during the first six months postpartum. PMID:27010601
... Educators Search English Español Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services KidsHealth / For Parents / Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services What's in this article? Giving Birth at ...
Rossin-Slater, Maya; Wüst, Miriam
find that larger obligations are associated with higher new-partner fertility among both parents. The maternal fertility response is consistent with a positive income-fertility relationship, while the paternal fertility response may reflect increased demand for new offspring as a result of reduced...
Paulson, Sharon E.
Explores the relation of maternal employment and attitudes toward maternal employment to adolescent achievement. Examines parenting characteristics that mediate relations between maternal employment factors and achievement. Subjects were 240 ninth graders and their parents. Findings were that maternal employment did not influence adolescent…
Damsgaard, Camilla T; Papadaki, Angeliki; Jensen, Signe M; Ritz, Christian; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Hlavaty, Petr; Saris, Wim H M; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Andersen, Malene R; Stender, Steen; Larsen, Thomas M; Astrup, Arne; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F
Dietary strategies to improve early cardiovascular markers in overweight children are needed. We investigated the effect of dietary protein and glycemic index (GI) on cardiovascular markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) scores in 5- to 18-y-old children of overweight/obese parents from 8 European centers. Families were randomized to 1 of 5 diets consumed ad libitum: high protein (HP) or low protein (LP) combined with high GI (HGI) or low GI (LGI), or a control diet. At 6 centers, families received dietary instruction (instruction centers); at 2 centers, free foods were also provided (supermarket centers). Diet, anthropometry, blood pressure, and serum cardiovascular markers (lipid profile, glucose regulation, and inflammation) were measured in 253 children at baseline, 1 mo, and/or 6 mo. Protein intake was higher in the HP groups (19.9 ± 1.3% energy) than in the LP groups at 6 mo (16.8 ± 1.2% energy) (P = 0.001). The GI was 4.0 points lower (95% CI: 2.1, 6.1) in the LGI compared with the HGI groups (P pressure (P children, particularly in those undergoing most intensive intervention.
Full Text Available Maternal well-being is assumed to be associated with well-being of individual family members, optimal parenting practices, and positive developmental outcomes for children. The objective of this study was to examine the interplay between maternal well-being, parent-child activities, and the well-being of 5- to 7-year-old children. In a sample of N = 291 mother-child dyads, maternal life satisfaction, the frequency of shared parent-child activities, as well as children’s self-regulation, prosocial behavior, and receptive vocabulary were assessed using several methods. Data were collected in a special study of the Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP, a representative longitudinal survey of private households in Germany. Using structural equation modeling, significant positive direct and indirect relations between maternal life satisfaction, frequency of shared parent-child activities, children’s self-regulation, prosocial behavior, and receptive vocabulary were found. The more satisfied the mother was, the more she shared activities with her child and the more the child acted prosocially. Furthermore, the higher the frequency of shared parent-child activities, the higher the child scored in all three analyzed indicators of children’s well-being: self-regulation, prosocial behavior, and receptive vocabulary. The current study supports the assumption of maternal well-being as the basis of positive parenting practices and child well-being.
Markowitz, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
This study uses data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study on Early Child Care to examine the effects of maternal employment on maternal mental and overall health, self-reported parenting stress, and parenting quality. These outcomes are measured when children are 6 months old. Among mothers of 6-month-old infants, maternal work hours are positively associated with depressive symptoms and parenting stress and negatively associated with self-rated overall health. However, maternal employment is not associated with quality of parenting at 6 months, based on trained assessors’ observations of maternal sensitivity. PMID:23645972
Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Kamata, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shibuya, Naoshi; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Enokido, Masanori
There have been few studies which examined the developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability of depression. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of parental rearing on sociotropy and autonomy, the personality vulnerability factors in the cognitive theory of depression. The subjects were 416 healthy subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), which has care and protection factors, and sociotropy and autonomy were assessed by the Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale. In males, neither sociotropy nor autonomy was affected by paternal rearing or maternal rearing. In females, higher levels of sociotropy were related to higher maternal protection (β=0.308, poverprotection increases sociotropy with gender specificity in parents and recipients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Does the efficacy of parent-child training depend on maternal symptom improvement? Results from a randomized controlled trial on children and mothers both affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Häge, Alexander; Alm, Barbara; Banaschewski, Tobias; Becker, Katja; Colla, Michael; Freitag, Christine; Geissler, Julia; von Gontard, Alexander; Graf, Erika; Haack-Dees, Barbara; Hänig, Susann; Hennighausen, Klaus; Hohmann, Sarah; Jacob, Christian; Jaite, Charlotte; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Kappel, Viola; Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra; Poustka, Luise; Retz, Wolfgang; Rösler, Michael; Schneider-Momm, Katja; Sobanski, Esther; Vloet, Timo D; Warnke, Andreas; Jans, Thomas
Multimodal treatment of children with ADHD often includes parent-child training (PCT). However, due to the high heritability, parents of children with ADHD are frequently also affected by the disorder, which is likely to constitute a significant barrier to successful treatment of the child. This secondary analysis of our randomized controlled multicentre AIMAC trial (ADHD in mothers and children) investigates whether children's outcomes following parent-child training in combination with maternal ADHD treatment depend on maternal symptom improvement. In a first step focusing on treatment of maternal ADHD, 144 mothers of mother-child dyads were randomized to multimodal ADHD treatment (group psychotherapy plus methylphenidate) or clinical management (mainly supportive counselling). After 12 weeks (T2), a 12-week PCT program (T2-T3) for all mother-child dyads was added to treat children's ADHD. Maternal symptomatology (CAARS-O:L; SCL-90-R) and children's externalizing symptoms (ADHD-ODD Scale, SDQ) were repeatedly assessed (T1 = baseline, T2, T3). Effects of changes in maternal symptomatology (T1-T2) on the change in children's symptom scores (T1-T3) were analysed using a general linear model, controlling for baseline scores, study centre, and maternal treatment group. 125 mother-child dyads were analysed. Mothers showed significant improvements in ADHD symptoms and overall psychopathology [CAARS-O:L ADHD index: mean - 3.54, SE 0.74 p < 0.0001; SCL-90-R Global Severity (GS): mean - 11.03, SE 3.90, p = 0.0056]. Although children's externalizing symptoms improved significantly (ADHD-ODD Scale: mean - 4.46, SE 0.58, p < 0.0001), maternal improvement had no effect on children's outcomes after Bonferroni-Holm correction for multiple testing. The findings do not support our hypothesis that children's outcomes following PCT for ADHD depend on maternal symptom improvements.Trial register CCT-ISRCTN73911400.
Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Mensah, Fiona K; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M
The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal parenting is in determining these outcomes. Longitudinal data were from a large nationally representative Australian cohort of 5,000 children, aged 0 to 1, 2 to 3, and 4 to 5 years of age. Participants were 354 children with LTM perinatal risk born at 33 to 36 weeks, with birth weight 1,501 to 2,499 grams, or born between the first and 10th percentiles for gestational age; and 2,461 children in the normal birth weight, term comparison group. Child mental health was measured by mother-report on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Parenting irritability, warmth, self-efficacy, maternal separation anxiety, and overprotective parenting were measured when children were 0 to 1 and 2 to 3 years of age. Parents in the LTM perinatal risk group were more likely to experience parenting difficulties on one of eight parenting measures (irritable parenting at age 0-1 year) when adjusting for socio-demographic differences (odds ratio = 1.43; 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.95, p parenting, pathway to psychological risk in children born with LTM perinatal risk. Copyright Â© 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barken, Sidsel Svennekjær; Skibsted, L.; Jensen, Lars Nimb
consent, quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed on the five cases where we received blood from both parents and tissue from fetuses. In four cases the origin of the triploidy was paternal and in one maternal, in accordance with previous findings in type I and type II...... triploidies. Finding triploidy is possible by risk assessment (ultrasound and double test), and thereby women may have the opportunity for early termination of pregnancy Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
Bille, C.; Skytthe, A.; Vach, W.
BACKGROUND: Some malformations are clearly associated with older maternal age, but the effect of older age of the father is less certain. The aim of this study is to determine the degree to which maternal age and paternal age independently influence the risk of having a child with oral clefts....... In a joint analysis, both maternal and paternal ages were associated with the risk of cleft lip with or without cleft palate, but the contribution of each was dependent on the age of the other parent. In the analysis of cleft palate only, the effect of maternal age disappeared, leaving only paternal age...... as a risk factor. CONCLUSION: Both high maternal age and high paternal age were associated with cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Higher paternal age but not maternal age increased the risk of cleft palate only....
McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Daniels, Lynne; Jansen, Elena
Establishing healthy eating habits early in life is one important strategy to combat childhood obesity. Given that early maternal child feeding practices have been linked to child food intake and weight, identifying the maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices is important in order to understand the determinants of childhood obesity; this was the overall aim of the current review. Academic databases were searched for studies examining the relationship between maternal child feeding practices and parenting, personal characteristics and psychopathology of mothers with preschoolers. Papers were limited to those published in English, between January 2000 and June 2012. Only studies with mothers of normally developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years were included. There were no restrictions regarding the inclusion of maternal nationality or socioeconomic status (SES). Seventeen eligible studies were sourced. Information on the aim, sample, measures and findings of these was summarised into tables. The findings of this review support a relationship between maternal controlling parenting, general and eating psychopathology, and SES and maternal child feeding practices. The main methodological issues of the studies reviewed included inconsistency in measures of maternal variables across studies and cross-sectional designs. We conclude that the maternal correlates associated with maternal child feeding practices are complex, and the pathways by which maternal correlates impact these feeding practices require further investigation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to paediatric vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of paediatric vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged Results An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20–4.43 and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.72. The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children. A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Conclusion Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination. Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination.
Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Suor, Jennifer H; Skibo, Michael A
Cognitive models of parenting give emphasis to the central role that parental cognitions may play in parental socialization goals. In particular, dual process models suggest that parental attribution styles affect the way parents interpret caregiving situations and enact behaviors, particularly within the realm of discipline. Although research has documented the negative behavioral repercussions of dysfunctional child-centered responsibility biases, there is heterogeneity in the level of these associations. Research has also demonstrated that parental working memory capacity may serve as an individual difference factor in influencing caregiving behaviors. Thus, our first aim was to document how maternal working memory capacity may moderate the association between mother's dysfunctional child-oriented attributions and use of harsh discipline. In addition, from an ecological perspective, a second aim was to examine how socioeconomic risk may further potentiate the impact of maternal working memory. To accomplish these aims, a socioeconomically diverse sample of 185 mothers and their 3-year old children were recruited to participate in a laboratory-based research assessment. Findings revealed that lower maternal working memory capacity may operate as a risk factor for attributional biases and harsh discipline, and higher working memory may serve as a protective factor in this relationship. Socioeconomic risk further moderated these findings. Results suggest that the moderating role of working memory may be particularly pronounced under conditions of socioeconomic risk. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Rabinowitz, Jill A.; Drabick, Deborah A.G.; Reynolds, Maureen D.; Clark, Duncan B.; Olino, Thomas M.
Temperamental flexibility and lower positive parenting are associated with internalizing and externalizing problems; however, youth varying in flexibility may be differentially affected by positive parenting in the prediction of symptoms. We examined whether children's flexibility moderated prospective relations between maternal and paternal positive parenting and youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms during adolescence. Participants (N =775, 71% male) and their caregivers completed measures when youth were 10-12 and 12-14 years old. Father positive parenting interacted with child flexibility to predict father-reported internalizing and externalizing problems. Consistent with the diathesis-stress model, children lower in flexibility experienced greater symptoms than children higher in flexibility in lower positive parenting contexts. Among children lower in flexibility, lower paternal positive parenting was associated with greater internalizing and externalizing symptoms compared to higher paternal positive parenting. However, among youth higher in flexibility, symptom levels were similar regardless of whether youth experienced lower or higher paternal positive parenting. PMID:26834305
Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.
Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664
Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Papadaki, Angeliki; Jensen, Signe Marie
Dietary strategies to improve early cardiovascular markers in overweight children are needed. We investigated the effect of dietary protein and glycemic index (GI) on cardiovascular markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) scores in 5- to 18-y-old children of overweight/obese parents from 8 European...
Perkembangan Praimplantasi Embrio Mencit dengan Materi Genetik yang Berasal dari Parental, Maternal, dan Inti Sel Somatik (PRE-IMPLANTATION DEVELOPMENT OF MOUSE EMBRYO WITH GENETIC MATERIAL DERIVED FROM PARENTAL, MATERNAL AND SOMATIC CELL NUCLEUS
Full Text Available Cloned embryo and parthenogenetic embryo are a potential source of stem cells for regenerativemedicine. Stem cells derived from those embryos are expected to overcome the ethical issues to the use offertilization embryos for therapeutic purposes. The pre-implantation development is a critical step fordeveloping embryos reach the blastocyst stage. The objectives in vivo of this research are to produce mousecloned embryo, parthenogenetic embryo, and fertilized embryo and to study stages of in vitro pre-implantation development culture. In vivo fertilized embryos, mouse oocytes, and cumulus cells were usedin this study. Treatment was performed on female mice superovulated with PMSG and hCG injections.Two-cell stage of in vivo fertilized embryos were collected on the second day post hCG injection. Clonedembryos were produced through Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT, which included enucleation, nucleartransfer and artificial activation. Parthenogenetic embryos were produced with artificial activationtechnique. The result of the research indicated that SCNT application was able to produce cloned embryos which could develop to blastocyst stage (3,2%. In addition, artificial activation of oocytes could produceparthenogenetic embryos which were able to develop up to the blastocyst stage (8,6%. In conclusion,efficiency level of parthenogenetic embryos that is able to reach the blastocyst stage was higher than in thecloned embryos. Fertilized embryos shows a better development and more efficient compared to in vitrocloned embryos and parthenogenetic embryos cultures.
Shin, Dong-Won; Stein, Mark A
We sought to determine if maternal depression contributed to the use of corporal punishment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The data were gathered through chart review of clinic-referred children with ADHD and their mothers who were evaluated at a psychiatric clinic located in a large academic medical center in Seoul, Korea. Daily records kept by parents and 13 items from the Physical Assault of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC) were used to assess corporal punishment. Ninety-one children with ADHD and their mothers were included in this study. Mothers who used corporal punishment showed significantly higher scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (t = -2.952, df = 89, p corporal punishment in ADHD children (Nagelkerke R2 = 0.102, p corporal punishment with children with ADHD. Assessment and management of the maternal depression should be an important focus of evaluation of children with ADHD.
Full Text Available Parental differential treatment is an important feature of non-shared family environment which contributes to the development of behavioural differences between siblings growing up in the same family. To investigate the frequency, direction, and patterns of parental differential treatment of siblings in Slovene families, mothers and fathers of 93 sibling-pairs in early/middle childhood provided self-reports in a two-wave longitudinal study. Most of the parents reported on low levels of differential treatment, predominantly expressing somewhat more affection and control towards the older than towards the younger sibling. Over a one-year time period, the average frequency of parental differential treatment did not change significantly, whereas the stability was estimated as moderate for maternal and low for paternal assessments. Maternal and paternal self-ratings were moderately correlated. However, the mothers reported on somewhat higher levels of differential control and (only in wave 1 affection than the fathers. Nearly half of the families were characterized by a congruent pattern of parental differential treatment indicating that both parents showed more affection and control towards the older of the two siblings. A complementary family pattern reflecting an opposite direction of maternal and paternal differential treatment emerged in approximately a quarter of the participating families.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal mental and physical health is associated with maternal testosterone and cortisol levels, parenting of very low birth weight infants, physical exercise, and White vs non-White race. A total of 40 mothers of very low birth weight infants were recruited from a neonatal intensive care unit at a University Hospital in the Southeast United States. Data were collected through a review of medical records, standardized questionnaires, and biochemical measurement. Maternal mental and physical health status using questionnaires as well as maternal testosterone and cortisol levels using an enzyme immunoassay were measured four times (birth, 40 weeks postmenstrual age [PMA], and 6 and 12 months [age of infant, corrected age]. General linear models showed that higher testosterone levels were associated with greater depressive symptoms, stress, and poorer physical health at 40 weeks PMA, and at 6 and 12 months. High cortisol levels were associated with greater anxiety at 40 weeks PMA; however, with better mental and physical health at 40 weeks PMA, and 6 and 12 months. Physical activity was associated with lower maternal perceived stress at 12 months. Maternal health did not differ by race, except anxiety, which was higher in White than non-White mothers after birth. As very low birth weight infants grew up, maternal physical health improved but mental health deteriorated. Testosterone and cortisol levels were found to be positively correlated in women but testosterone was more predictive of maternal mental and physical health than cortisol. Indeed testosterone consistently showed its associations with maternal health. Maternal stress might be improved through regular physical exercise.
Li, Y; Townend, J; Rowe, R; Brocklehurst, P; Knight, M; Linsell, L; Macfarlane, A; McCourt, C; Newburn, M; Marlow, N; Pasupathy, D; Redshaw, M; Sandall, J; Silverton, L; Hollowell, J
Objective To explore and compare perinatal and maternal outcomes in women at ‘higher risk’ of complications planning home versus obstetric unit (OU) birth. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting OUs and planned home births in England. Population 8180 ‘higher risk’ women in the Birthplace cohort. Methods We used Poisson regression to calculate relative risks adjusted for maternal characteristics. Sensitivity analyses explored possible effects of differences in risk between groups and alternative outcome measures. Main outcome measures Composite perinatal outcome measure encompassing ‘intrapartum related mortality and morbidity’ (intrapartum stillbirth, early neonatal death, neonatal encephalopathy, meconium aspiration syndrome, brachial plexus injury, fractured humerus or clavicle) and neonatal admission within 48 hours for more than 48 hours. Two composite maternal outcome measures capturing intrapartum interventions/adverse maternal outcomes and straightforward birth. Results The risk of ‘intrapartum related mortality and morbidity’ or neonatal admission for more than 48 hours was lower in planned home births than planned OU births [adjusted relative risks (RR) 0.50, 95% CI 0.31–0.81]. Adjustment for clinical risk factors did not materially affect this finding. The direction of effect was reversed for the more restricted outcome measure ‘intrapartum related mortality and morbidity’ (RR adjusted for parity 1.92, 95% CI 0.97–3.80). Maternal interventions were lower in planned home births. Conclusions The babies of ‘higher risk’ women who plan birth in an OU appear more likely to be admitted to neonatal care than those whose mothers plan birth at home, but it is unclear if this reflects a real difference in morbidity. Rates of intrapartum related morbidity and mortality did not differ statistically significantly between settings at the 5% level but a larger study would be required to rule out a clinically important difference between
van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf
Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016
Cribb, Victoria L; Jones, Louise R; Rogers, Imogen S; Ness, Andrew R; Emmett, Pauline M
To examine the associations between maternal education level and diet in 10-year-old children. Three-day diet diaries (child completed with parental help) were collected. Height and weight were measured in research clinics. Maternal education level was derived from a questionnaire completed during pregnancy and classified into low, medium or high. One-way ANOVA was undertaken to compare maternal education groups for nutrient intakes and the Kruskal-Wallis test used for food consumption. Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), Bristol, UK. Children (n 7474) who provided dietary data at age 10 years. A large proportion (60 %) of the sample was classified as plausible reporters, with under-reporting accounting for 36 %. No clear differences were found for intakes of energy or macronutrients between maternal education groups for plausible reporters. However, there were marked differences in micronutrient intakes especially for vitamin C, retinol equivalents and folate, highlighting lower diet quality with lower maternal education level. Intakes of fruit and vegetables showed a positive gradient with increasing maternal education (57 % v. 79 % consumed fresh fruit in low and high educational groups, respectively). A trend towards higher intake in the lower educated group was shown for less healthy foods (meat pies P children's diet at 10 years was related to maternal education level. Lower maternal education was associated with less healthy food choices that could be detrimental to health. Further research is needed to establish if these associations can be explained by other socio-economic factors.
Morrissey, Taryn W; Dagher, Rada K
Maternal depressive symptoms negatively impact mothers' parenting practices and children's development, but the evidence linking these symptoms to children's obesity is mixed. We use a large sample to examine contemporaneous and lagged associations between maternal depressive symptoms and children's BMI, obesity and food consumption, controlling for background characteristics. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a longitudinal study of children from infancy through kindergarten in the USA, were collected at four waves from 2001 to 2007, when children were 9 months, 2 years, 4 years and 5½years of age, through surveys, child assessments and observations. A sub-sample of children from the ECLS-B is used (n 6500). Between 17 % and 19 % of mothers reported experiencing depressive symptoms; 17 % to 20 % of children were obese. Maternal depressive symptoms were associated with a small decrease in the likelihood her child was obese (0·8 percentage points) and with lower consumption of healthy foods. The duration of maternal depressive symptoms was associated with higher BMI (0·02 sd) among children whose parents lacked college degrees. Results indicate that mothers' depressive symptoms have small associations with children's food consumption and obesity. Among children whose parents lack college degrees, persistent maternal depressive symptoms are associated with slightly higher child BMI. Findings highlight the need to control for depression in analyses of children's weight. Interventions that consider maternal depression early may be useful in promoting healthy weight outcomes and eating habits among children.
Moghaddam Hoseini V
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.486.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.893.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.
Stern, Yael S; Maltman, Nell; Roberts, Megan Y
This study examined the relationship between mothers' pragmatics and child language in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and non-ASD language delay (LD) mother-child dyads. Participants consisted of 20 dyads of mothers and their toddlers aged 24 to 48 months, with ASD (n = 10) or non-ASD LD (n = 10). Groups were matched on child chronological age, language, and cognition. Maternal pragmatic language was qualified based on the degree of pragmatic violations during a semistructured interview, and was examined in relation to both child language, as measured by the Preschool Language Scale-4 and maternal use of language facilitation strategies during play. Lower rates of maternal pragmatic violations were associated with higher expressive language scores in children with ASD, and with higher receptive language scores for children with non-ASD LD. Within ASD dyads, maternal pragmatic violations were negatively related to mothers' use of linguistic expansions. These findings indicate that parental pragmatics likely contribute to early language learning, and that the effects of maternal pragmatics on early language in ASD may be indirect (e.g., through parents' use of facilitative strategies). Parent-mediated language interventions for ASD should therefore consider parent pragmatics, especially given that pragmatic differences have been identified in unaffected family members of individuals with ASD.
Tse, Wai S; Siu, Angela F Y; Wong, Tracy K Y
This study aims to explore the interrelationship among maternal oxytocin (OT) responsiveness, maternal mental health, maternal parenting behavior, and mental health of children under a free-play interaction. 61 mother-child dyads were recruited for the study. Maternal mental health problem and parenting self-efficacy were measured using self-reported questionnaires. The mental health problems of children were also evaluated using a mother-reported questionnaire. Furthermore, salivary OT was collected before and after a standardized 10min free-play interaction. Parenting behaviors, including eye gaze and touch, were measured during the free-play interaction. Maternal OT responsiveness was significantly associated with less maternal mental health problem, touch frequency, and mental health problem of children but not with parenting self-efficacy. In the multivariate linear regression analysis that considers maternal OT responsiveness and maternal and children's mental health problems, maternal OT responsiveness was not associated with the mental health problems of children. This result suggested that maternal mental health problem played a mediational role between maternal OT responsiveness and the mental health problem of children. Results supported the assertion that maternal OT responsiveness contributed to the increased risk of maternal mental health problems and, subsequently, the risk of mental health problems of their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Antúnez, Zayra; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a common disorder in preschool children. Evidence indicates that maternal and paternal psychopathology, particularly aggressive behavior and anxious and depressed symptoms, contributes to the development of this disorder. The latest research also suggests that ODD symptoms may exacerbate the mental health problems of parents. Our aim was to establish the existence of a reciprocal association between paternal and maternal psychopathology (aggression, depression, and anxiety) and child ODD at ages 3 and 8, using a longitudinal design in a community sample of preschoolers. The sample included 331 children evaluated at ages 3 and 8 through questionnaires and a semistructured diagnostic interview with parents. Parents also informed about their own psychopathology. At 3 years of age, higher levels of ODD symptoms in girls were concurrently associated with maternal anxious and depressed symptoms and paternal aggressive behavior, and higher levels of ODD symptoms in boys were concurrently associated with maternal aggressive behavior. Longitudinally, for boys, higher levels of maternal anxious and depressed symptoms at child age 3 predicted increases in ODD symptoms from 3 to 8 years of age. In addition, higher levels of ODD symptoms in boys aged 3-8 years predicted increases in fathers' anxious and depressive symptoms. Children with ODD should be evaluated and treated promptly, but efforts should be extended to their parents. Mothers' and fathers' mental health must be explored because the psychopathologies of children and parents reciprocally affect each other. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Monn, Amy R; Narayan, Angela J; Kalstabakken, Amanda W; Schubert, Erin C; Masten, Ann S
There is mounting evidence that maternal executive function (EF) plays a critical role in parenting behavior. However, the majority of the research on this topic has been conducted in low-risk samples. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether individual differences in maternal EF are associated with parenting behavior in the high-risk, high adversity context of family homelessness. The study included 94 mothers and their children, ages 4 to 6 years, living in emergency homeless shelters. Mothers completed a battery of "hot" and "cool" EF tasks as well as a self-report questionnaire of perceived stress. Parenting measures were based on observed parent-child interactions that were later coded for harsh and positive parenting practices. Results indicated that hot EF in mothers was related to positive parenting. The relation between maternal planning ability, assessed by a cool EF task, and harsh parenting was also significant, but only for mothers reporting higher levels of stress. These findings add to a growing body of research suggesting that the influence of EF and other forms of cognitive control on parenting need to be interpreted within the context of environmental stress and adversity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Lin, Wan-Chien; Chang, Shin-Yow; Chen, Yi-Ting; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Chen, Yi-Hua
Recently, studies have begun emphasizing paternal involvement during the perinatal period and its impact on maternal health. However, most studies have assessed maternal perception and focused on adolescents or minority groups in Western countries. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between paternal involvement and maternal postnatal depression and anxiety, along with the effects of maternal job status in the Asian society of Taiwan. This study recruited pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy as well as their partners on prenatal visits from July 2011 to September 2013 at four selected hospitals in metropolitan areas of Taipei, Taiwan. In total, 593 parental pairs completed the first interview and responded to the follow-up questionnaires until 6 months postpartum. Self-reported data were collected, and multiple logistic regression models were used for analyses. Lower paternal childcare and nursing frequency was independently associated with an increased risk of maternal postpartum depression (adjusted odds ratio (OR) =4.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.34-13.98), particularly among unemployed mothers. Furthermore, among unemployed mothers, the risk of postnatal anxiety was 3.14 times higher in couples with fathers spending less time with the child, compared with couples with fathers spending more time (95% CI=1.10-8.98). However, no significant findings were obtained for employed mothers. The high prevalence of maternal postnatal emotional disturbances warrants continual consideration. Higher paternal involvement in childcare arrangements should be emphasized to aid in ameliorating these maternal emotional disturbances, particularly among unemployed mothers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fletcher, Anne C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Buchanan, Christy M.; Weymouth, Bridget B.
Grounded in a dual-risk, biosocial perspective of developmental psychopathology, this study examined the role of higher vagal suppression in providing young adolescents protection from four parenting stressors. It was expected that lower vagal suppression would increase youth vulnerability to the deleterious effects of these parenting stressors. Depressive symptoms were examined as a central marker of socioemotional difficulties during early adolescence. The four parenting stressors examined were interparental hostility, maternal use of harsh discipline, maternal inconsistent discipline, and maternal psychological control. Participants were 68 young adolescents (Grade 6) and their mothers. Greater vagal suppression provided protection (i.e., lower depressive symptoms) from interparental hostility, harsh discipline, and maternal psychological control for boys but not for girls. PMID:27979628
Fletcher, Anne C; Buehler, Cheryl; Buchanan, Christy M; Weymouth, Bridget B
Grounded in a dual-risk, biosocial perspective of developmental psychopathology, this study examined the role of higher vagal suppression in providing young adolescents protection from four parenting stressors. It was expected that lower vagal suppression would increase youth vulnerability to the deleterious effects of these parenting stressors. Depressive symptoms were examined as a central marker of socioemotional difficulties during early adolescence. The four parenting stressors examined were interparental hostility, maternal use of harsh discipline, maternal inconsistent discipline, and maternal psychological control. Participants were 68 young adolescents (Grade 6) and their mothers. Greater vagal suppression provided protection (i.e., lower depressive symptoms) from interparental hostility, harsh discipline, and maternal psychological control for boys but not for girls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that girls may have lower maternal measles antibody levels than boys. Girls might therefore be more likely to contract measles infection before the normal age of measles vaccination at 9 months of age. METHODS: In connection with a clinical trial...... of different measles vaccination strategies, we collected pre-measles vaccination blood samples at 4.5 months of age from two subgroups of children. Samples from these children were used to assess possible differences in maternal antibody levels for boys and girls. At 9 months of age another subgroup...... of children was sampled before the normal measles vaccination; these samples were used to assess the frequency of subclinical measles infection among boys and girls. RESULTS: We determined measles-specific antibody levels for 812 children at 4.5 months of age and for 896 children at 9 months of age. At 4...
Volling, Brenda L; Mahoney, Annette; Rauer, Amy J
Religion is important to most U.S. families, but is often overlooked in research on children's development. This study examined parental religious beliefs about the sanctification of parenting, parental disciplinary strategies, and the development of young children's conscience in a sample of 58 two-parent families with a preschool child. Fathers were more punitive and used less induction when disciplining their children than did mothers. Maternal and paternal reports of the sanctification of parenting were positively related to positive socialization/praise and the use of induction. When mothers and fathers in the family were both using induction, children had higher scores on moral conduct. Parents' use of positive socialization combined with a belief in the sanctification of parenting predicted children's conscience development.
Windle, Michael; Windle, Rebecca C
This study used prospective data from 706 young adults to evaluate the impact of parental divorce and family history of alcoholism (FH+) on the outcomes of offspring alcohol problems, marijuana use, and interpersonal relationships with parents. Assessments of parental divorce were based on parent reports, and young adult outcomes were collected from an offspring cohort (n = 706; X age = 33.25 years; females = 53%) via computer-based individual interviews (CAPI and ACASI). Family history of alcohol disorders for parents was based on assessments by mothers, fathers, and young adults. Parental divorce significantly predicted marijuana use but not alcohol problems. Maternal, but not paternal, alcoholism also significantly predicted marijuana use. Two-way interactions indicated that sex moderated several of the relationships. For example, among those with divorced parents, daughters reported higher levels of conflict with fathers than sons, and sons reported lower levels of maternal support than daughters. Paternal alcoholism was also associated with higher levels of alcohol problems among sons relative to daughters. There was also a significant 2-way interaction between divorce status and maternal alcoholism indicating that young adults who experienced both maternal alcoholism and parental divorce had the highest levels of marijuana use. These findings highlight the role that parental divorce and FH+ have on alcohol problems, marijuana use, and interpersonal relationships in young adulthood, and how sex may moderate some of these more nuanced relationships. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Michelle L. Blumfield
Full Text Available The prenatal environment can influence development of offspring blood pressure (BP, which tracks into adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether maternal pregnancy dietary intake is associated with the development of child BP up to age four years. Data are from 129 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Women and Their Children’s Health study. Maternal diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire at 18 to 24 weeks and 36 to 40 weeks, with a reference period of the previous three months. Child systolic and diastolic BP were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months, using an automated BP monitor. Using mixed-model regression analyses adjusted for childhood growth indices, pregnancy intakes of percentage of energy (E% polyunsaturated fat (β coefficient 0.73; 95% CI 0.003, 1.45; p = 0.045, E% omega-6 fatty acids (β coefficient 0.89; 95% CI 0.09, 1.69; p = 0.03 and protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C ratio (β coefficient −14.14; 95% CI −27.68, −0.60; p = 0.04 were associated with child systolic BP trajectory up to 4 years. Child systolic BP was greatest at low proportions of dietary protein (<16% of energy and high carbohydrate (>40% of energy intakes. There may be an ideal maternal macronutrient ratio associated with optimal infant BP. Maternal diet, which is potentially modifiable, may play an important role in influencing offspring risk of future hypertension.
Paulson, Sharon E.; Sputa, Cheryl L.
Explores differences in maternal and paternal parenting styles and involvement, the differences between parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and involvement, and changes in parenting style and involvement between the adolescents' 9th and 12th grade years. Subjects were 244 ninth graders from the Southeast and Midwest. Discusses…
Chambers, Julie; Power, Kevin; Loucks, Nancy; Swanson, Vivien
The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental…
Passchier, J.; Darlington, A.S.; Verhulst, F.C.; De Winter, A.F.; Ormel, J.; Hunfeld, J.A.
Investigating possible psychosocial predictors of unexplained chronic pain in adolescents is crucial in understanding its development and prevention. A general population sample of adolescents (n = 2230) from the TRAILS cohort study was investigated longitudinally to assess the influence of maternal
Darlington, A-S. E.; Verhulst, F. C.; De Winter, A. F.; Ormel, J.; Passchier, J.; Hunfeld, J. A. M.
Investigating possible psychosocial predictors of unexplained chronic pain in adolescents is crucial in understanding its development and prevention. A general population sample of adolescents (n = 2230) from the TRAILS cohort study was investigated longitudinally to assess the influence of maternal
Philbrook, Lauren E; Teti, Douglas M
In keeping with transactional conceptualizations of infant sleep development (Sadeh, Tikotzky, & Scher, 2010), the present study was an examination of longitudinal, bidirectional linkages between bedtime parenting (through direct observations of parenting practices and quality) and infant sleep across the first 6 months postpartum. In doing so, we also drew from Darling and Steinberg's (1993) conceptual model to examine parenting quality as a moderator of linkages between specific bedtime practices and infant sleep. Multilevel model analyses revealed that the strongest increases in infant nighttime sleep across the first 6 months occurred among infants of mothers who engaged in low levels of nursing at bedtime. Within-person linkages between mothers' emotional availability (EA) at bedtime, infant distress, and infant sleep were found, such that at time points when mothers were more emotionally available, infants were less distressed and slept more throughout the night. Several moderating effects of maternal EA on linkages between parenting practices and infant sleep were obtained that were consistent with predictions from Darling and Steinberg (1993). Higher maternal EA in combination with less close contact at bedtime was associated with more infant sleep across the night on average, and higher EA in combination with fewer arousing bedtime activities predicted more rapid increases in infant sleep with age. Finally, there was evidence of infant-driven effects, as higher infant nighttime distress predicted lower EA at subsequent time points. Results showcased the complex, reciprocal interplay between parents and infants in the development of infant sleep patterns and parenting behavior during the first 6 months postpartum. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Shorer, Maayan; David, Ravit; Schoenberg-Taz, Michal; Levavi-Lavi, Ifat; Phillip, Moshe; Meyerovitch, Joseph
To examine the role of parenting style in achieving metabolic control and treatment adherence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Parents of 100 adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed assessments of their parenting style and sense of helplessness. Parents and patients rated patient adherence to the treatment regimen. Glycemic control was evaluated by HbA(1c) values. An authoritative paternal parenting style predicted better glycemic control and adherence in the child; a permissive maternal parenting style predicted poor adherence. A higher sense of helplessness in both parents predicted worse glycemic control and lesser adherence to treatment. Parental sense of helplessness was a significant predictor of diabetes control after correcting for other confounders (patient age, sex, and treatment method). An authoritative nonhelpless parenting style is associated with better diabetes control in adolescents. Paternal involvement is important in adolescent diabetes management. These results have implications for psychological interventions.
Viana, Andres G; Welsh, Janet A
This study examined correlates and predictors of parenting stress among internationally adopting (IA) mothers with the goal of expanding the knowledge base on the experiences of adoptive parents. One hundred and forty-three IA mothers completed pre-adoption (Time 0) and six months post-adoption (Time 1) surveys with questions regarding child-, parent-, and family-related characteristics. Mother reports of higher depression symptoms, higher expectations of child developmental and behavioral/emotional problems, and a greater number of children in the family at pre-adoption were significantly related to higher parenting stress six months post-adoption. In contrast, mother reports of higher expectations for child acceptance and higher perceived social support at pre-adoption were significantly related to lower parenting stress six months post-adoption. Higher maternal depression symptoms, higher expectations of child behavior/emotional problems, and a greater number of children in the family at pre-adoption together accounted for 22% of the variance in parenting stress six months post-adoption. Concurrent higher maternal depression symptoms and higher reports of child behavioral/emotional problems predicted higher parenting stress six months post-adoption over and above pre-adoption predictors, and accounted for an additional 33% of the variance. Results and directions for future research are discussed from a transactional perspective, with particular emphasis on the importance of pre-adoptive information for adoption research and practice.
Full Text Available The maternity pay is an important social security institute, both for children that arrive in a new family and for the mother, which receives financial support while she is away from her labor activity, as well as for the State, which keeps its constitutive element "people" in constant renewal. The present article seeks to make an analysis of this benefit since its very beginning, until the latest innovations made by law for the reception of different forms of family. The article searches to treat, punctually, of the new figure of maternity pay and its grant in case of preeminent receiver's death, and consequently receipt by the surviving spouse or partner. Then, the study criticizes up this legislative expansion, made so narrowly, without analyzing the factual reality of new family structures, emphasizing the question of the one- parent families. Thereby, the article pursuit to point that there is no constitutional or legal basis for refuse a interpretation based on the principle of equality, supporting, consequently, the one-parent families and any relative who be responsible for the very first cares with the child.
Arellano, Paula A. Errazuriz; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Thakar, Dhara A.
This longitudinal study examined whether mothers' depressive symptomatology predicted parenting practices in a sample of 199 mothers of 3-year-old children with behavior problems who were assessed yearly until age 6. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher overreactivity and laxness and lower warmth when children were 6…
Lauritzen, Lotte; Eriksen, S E; Hjorth, Mads Fiil
between boys and girls. Mother-infant pairs (n 103) completed a randomised controlled trial with FO (1·5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA) or olive oil (OO) supplements during the first 4 months of lactation; forty-seven mother-infant pairs with high fish intake were followed-up for 4 months as the reference group. We also......Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) in infancy may have long-term effects on lifestyle disease risk. The present follow-up study investigated whether maternal fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affected growth and blood pressure in adolescents and whether the effects differed...
Ganpule, A; Yajnik, C S; Fall, C H D; Rao, S; Fisher, D J; Kanade, A; Cooper, C; Naik, S; Joshi, N; Lubree, H; Deshpande, V; Joglekar, C
Bone mass is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies have highlighted associations between maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and bone mass in the offspring. We hypothesized that maternal calcium intakes and circulating micronutrients during pregnancy are related to bone mass in Indian children. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nutritional status was measured at 18 and 28 wk gestation in 797 pregnant rural Indian women. Measurements included anthropometry, dietary intakes (24-h recall and food frequency questionnaire), physical workload (questionnaire), and circulating micronutrients (red cell folate and plasma ferritin, vitamin B12, and vitamin C). Six years postnatally, total body and total spine bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the children (n = 698 of 762 live births) and both parents. Both parents' DXA measurements were positively correlated with the equivalent measurements in the children (P pregnancy (milk, milk products, pulses, non-vegetarian foods, green leafy vegetables, fruit) had higher total and spine bone mineral content and BMD, and children of mothers with higher folate status at 28 wk gestation had higher total and spine BMD, independent of parental size and DXA measurements. Modifiable maternal nutritional factors may influence bone health in the offspring. Fathers play a role in determining their child's bone mass, possibly through genetic mechanisms or through shared environment.
Care and overprotection appear to reflect the principal dimensions underlying parental behaviours and attitudes. In previous studies of neurotically depressed patients and of a non-clinical group, subjects who scored their parents as lacking in care and/or overprotective had the greater depressive experience. The present study of another non-clinical group (289 psychology students) replicated those findings in regard to trait depression levels. In addition, associations between those parental dimensions and trait anxiety scores were demonstrated. Multiple regression analyses established that 9-10% of the variance in mood scores was accounted for by scores on those parental dimensions. Low maternal care scores predicted higher levels of both anxiety and depression, while high maternal overprotection scores predicted higher levels of anxiety but not levels of depression. Maternal influences were clearly of greater relevance than paternal influences.
Paulson, Sharon E.
Compared adolescents' and parents' perceptions of maternal and paternal demandingness, responsiveness, and parental involvement with schooling. Found that adolescents' reports of parenting correlated only moderately with parents' reports. Adolescents', but not parents', reports of parenting predicted students' achievement outcome, with parental…
Goodman, Janice H
Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) has been shown to negatively influence mother-infant interaction; however, little research has explored how fathers and father-infant interaction are affected when a mother is depressed. This study examined the influence of maternal PPD on fathers and identified maternal and paternal factors associated with father-infant interaction in families with depressed as compared with nondepressed mothers. A convenience sample of 128 mother-father-infant triads, approximately half of which included women with significant symptoms of PPD at screening, were recruited from a screening sample of 790 postpartum women. Mothers and fathers completed measures of depression, marital satisfaction, and parenting stress at 2 to 3 months' postpartum and were each videotaped interacting with their infants. Results indicate that maternal PPD is associated with increased paternal depression and higher paternal parenting stress. Partners of depressed women demonstrated less optimal interaction with their infants, indicating that fathers do not compensate for the negative effects of maternal depression on the child. Although mother-infant interaction did not influence father-infant interaction, how the mother felt about her relationship with the infant did, even more so than maternal depression. The links between maternal PPD, fathers, and father-infant interaction indicate a need for further understanding of the reciprocal influences between mothers, fathers, and infants. Copyright © 2008 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Hughes, Sheryl O.; Power, Thomas G.; O’Connor, Teresia M.; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An
Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (...
Slattery, W.; Antonucci, C.; Myers, R. J.
The National Science Foundation funded project K-12 Students, Teachers, Parents, Administrators and Higher Education Faculty: Partners Helping Rural Disadvantaged Students Stay on the Pathway to a Geoscience Career is a research-based proof of concept track 1 pilot project that tests the effectiveness of an innovative model for simultaneous K-12 teacher professional development, student learning and workforce development. The project builds a network of science experiences designed to keep eighth and ninth grade students from the Ripley, Union, Lewis, Huntington (RULH) Ohio school district on the path to a geoscience career. During each summer of the ongoing two-year project teams of RULH students, parents, teachers, administrators and college faculty traveled to the facilities of the New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium at Sandy Hook, New Jersey to study science from an Earth system perspective. Teachers had the opportunity to engage in professional development alongside their students. Parents participated in the science activities alongside their children. Administrators interacted with students, parents and their teachers and saw them all learning science in an engaging, collaborative setting. During the first academic year of the project professional development was provided to RULH teachers by a team of university scientists and geoscience educators from the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), a National Science Foundation funded project. Teachers selected for professional development were from science disciplines, mathematics, language arts and civics. The teachers selected, taught and assessed ESSEA Earth system science modules to all eighth and ninth grade students, not just those that were selected to go on the summer trips to New Jersey. In addition, all ninth grade RULH students had the opportunity to take a course that includes Earth system science concepts that will earn them both high school and college science credits. Professional
Gao, J; Li, Y; Cai, Y; Chen, J; Shen, Y; Ni, S; Wei, Y; Qiu, Y; Zhu, X; Liu, Y; Lu, C; Chen, C; Niu, Q; Tang, C; Yang, Y; Wang, Q; Cui, W; Xia, J; Liu, T; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Guo, Z; Pan, J; Chen, H; Luo, Y; Sun, L; Xiao, X; Chen, Q; Zhao, X; He, F; Lv, L; Guo, L; Liu, L; Li, H; Shi, S; Flint, J; Kendler, K S; Tao, M
In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China? Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview. Factor analysis of the PBI revealed three factors for both mothers and fathers: warmth, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. Lower warmth and protectiveness and higher authoritarianism from both mother and father were significantly associated with risk for recurrent MD. Parental warmth was positively correlated with parental protectiveness and negatively correlated with parental authoritarianism. When examined together, paternal warmth was more strongly associated with lowered risk for MD than maternal warmth. Furthermore, paternal protectiveness was negatively and maternal protectiveness positively associated with risk for MD. Although the structure of received parenting is very similar in China and Western countries, the association with MD is not. High parental protectiveness is generally pathogenic in Western countries but protective in China, especially when received from the father. Our results suggest that cultural factors impact on patterns of parenting and their association with MD.
Gao, J.; Li, Y.; Cai, Y.; Chen, J.; Shen, Y.; Ni, S.; Wei, Y.; Qiu, Y.; Zhu, X.; Liu, Y.; Lu, C.; Chen, C.; Niu, Q.; Tang, C.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Q.; Cui, W.; Xia, J.; Liu, T.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Guo, Z.; Pan, J.; Chen, H.; Luo, Y.; Sun, L.; Xiao, X.; Chen, Q.; Zhao, X.; He, F.; Lv, L.; Guo, L.; Liu, L.; Li, H.; Shi, S.; Flint, J.; Kendler, K. S.; Tao, M.
Background In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China? Method Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview. Results Factor analysis of the PBI revealed three factors for both mothers and fathers: warmth, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. Lower warmth and protectiveness and higher authoritarianism from both mother and father were significantly associated with risk for recurrent MD. Parental warmth was positively correlated with parental protectiveness and negatively correlated with parental authoritarianism. When examined together, paternal warmth was more strongly associated with lowered risk for MD than maternal warmth. Furthermore, paternal protectiveness was negatively and maternal protectiveness positively associated with risk for MD. Conclusions Although the structure of received parenting is very similar in China and Western countries, the association with MD is not. High parental protectiveness is generally pathogenic in Western countries but protective in China, especially when received from the father. Our results suggest that cultural factors impact on patterns of parenting and their association with MD. PMID:21943491
Maxwell, Seth D; Fineberg, Anna M; Drabick, Deborah A; Murphy, Shannon K; Ellman, Lauren M
Maternal stress during pregnancy has been linked to premorbid abnormalities associated with depression (e.g., difficult temperament, cognitive deficits) in offspring. However, few studies have looked across developmental periods to examine maternal stress during pregnancy and offspring depression during adolescence and whether these associations differ by sex. The current study used data from 1711 mother-offspring dyads (offspring sex: 49.8% male) in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Maternal narratives collected during pregnancy were qualitatively coded for stress-related themes by independent raters. Latent class analysis (LCA) identified distinct subgroups of offspring based on exposure to maternal prenatal stress and other developmental factors from the prenatal, childhood, and adolescent periods that have been associated with depression and/or maternal prenatal stress. LCA identified subgroups that were compared to determine whether and to what extent they differed on adolescent depressive symptoms. LCA revealed a subgroup of "high-risk" individuals, characterized by maternal factors during pregnancy (higher ambivalence/negativity and lower positivity towards the pregnancy, higher levels of hassles, lower maternal education and higher maternal age at birth, higher pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring developmental factors (decreased cognitive functioning during childhood and adolescence, lower perceived parental support during adolescence, and higher levels of maternal depression during adolescence). High-risk females exhibited elevated conduct symptoms and higher birth order, while high-risk males exhibited decreased internalizing symptoms and lower birth order. Both high-risk males and females reported elevated depressive symptoms during adolescence relative to their "low-risk" counterparts.
The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) an...
Kawabata, Yoshito; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Tseng, Wan-Ling; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Crick, Nicki R.
How does parenting affect relational aggression in children? The goal of the present series of meta-analyses based on 48 studies (28,097 children) was to analyze and integrate the findings on the associations between various types of parenting behaviors and relational aggression, and to identify potential substantive and methodological factors…
Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Alexatou, Olga; Kousaiti, Savvina; Gkretsi, Elisavet; Vasios, George; Sampani, Anastasia; Tolia, Maria; Kiortsis, Dimitrios N; Giaginis, Constantinos
The present retrospective study was conducted on 1482 women in order to evaluate whether their pre-pregnancy adherence to the Mediterranean diet may affect maternal gestational weight gain (GWG). For this purpose, the study population was classified according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations concerning GWG. Pre-pregnancy adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with 11 food patterns groups based on their contribution in the Mediterranean diet pyramid. Women with high adherence to the Mediterranean diet were more frequently characterised by GWG inside the IOM recommendations. In multivariate analysis, women with low Mediterranean diet adherence were almost twice at risk in presenting deflection from recommended GWG regardless of various confounding factors. These findings suggested that high pre-pregnancy adherence to the Mediterranean diet may be associated with reduced risk for GWG outside the IOM recommendations. However, larger prospective studies are strongly recommended in order for more precise conclusions to be drawn.
Browne, Dillon T; Meunier, Jean Christophe; O'Connor, Thomas G; Jenkins, Jennifer M
Significant relationships have been demonstrated between parental personality and parenting toward individual children, but there is little research exploring the relationship between parental personality and differential parenting (DP). The present study examined the relationship between the Big Five personality dimensions and differential positivity and negativity in parenting (observed and self-report measures). The analyses are based on a sample of 867 children nested within 381 families. Using multilevel modeling and controlling for child age, gender, birth order, behavior, and family socioeconomic status analyses revealed that maternal and paternal agreeableness were inversely related to reports of differential positivity. Agreeableness predicted observed differential negativity, and the relationship was curvilinear (at both high and low levels of agreeableness, differential negativity was higher). Finally, mothers with the most openness to experience exhibited the highest levels of reported differential negativity. The findings suggest that parental personality is a modest yet important influence to consider when conceptualizing the sources of DP. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Graziela de Sá Machado Araújo
Full Text Available A hallmark of imprinted genes in mammals is the occurrence of parent-of-origin-dependent asymmetry of DNA cytosine methylation (5mC of alleles at CpG islands (CGIs in their promoter regions. This 5mCpG asymmetry between the parental alleles creates allele-specific imprinted differentially methylated regions (iDMRs. iDMRs are often coupled to the transcriptional repression of the methylated allele and the activation of the unmethylated allele in a tissue-specific, developmental-stage-specific and/or isoform-specific fashion. iDMRs function as regulatory platforms, built through the recruitment of chemical modifications to histones to achieve differential, parent-of-origin-dependent chromatin segmentation states. Here, we used a comparative computational data mining approach to identify 125 novel constitutive candidate iDMRs that integrate the maximal number of allele-specific methylation region records overlapping CGIs in human methylomes. Twenty-nine candidate iDMRs display gametic 5mCpG asymmetry, and another 96 are candidate secondary iDMRs. We established the maternal origin of the 5mCpG imprints of one gametic (PARD6G-AS1 and one secondary (GCSAML iDMRs. We also found a constitutively hemimethylated, nonimprinted domain at the PWWP2AP1 promoter CGI with oocyte-derived methylation asymmetry. Given that the 5mCpG level at the iDMRs is not a sufficient criterion to predict active or silent locus states and that iDMRs can regulate genes from a distance of more than 1 Mb, we used RNA-Seq experiments from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project and public archives to assess the transcriptional expression profiles of SNPs across 4.6 Mb spans around the novel maternal iDMRs. We showed that PARD6G-AS1 and GCSAML are expressed biallelically in multiple tissues. We found evidence of tissue-specific monoallelic expression of ZNF124 and OR2L13, located 363 kb upstream and 419 kb downstream, respectively, of the GCSAML iDMR. We hypothesize that the GCSAML
Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Muñoz, Lorena
Self-regulation can be developed through parent-child interactions and has been related to developmental outcomes, e.g., such as educational achievement. This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in maternal restrictive control, self-regulation (i.e., behavior and emotion regulation) and school achievement and relations among these variables in Germany and Chile. Seventy-six German and 167 Chilean fourth graders, their mothers, and their teachers participated. Mothers and teachers rated children's behavior regulation with a subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children reported their use of emotion regulation strategies on the Questionnaire for the Measurement of Stress and Coping. Mothers rated maternal restrictive control by answering the Parenting Practice Questionnaire. School achievement was assessed by grades for language and mathematics. Results showed higher behavior regulation of German children in comparison to Chilean children and a higher preference of restrictive parental control in Chilean mothers than in German mothers. Regression analyses revealed positive relations between children's behavior regulation and school achievement in Germany and in Chile. Further, in both cultural contexts, maternal restrictive control was related negatively to behavior regulation and positively to anger-oriented emotion regulation. In sum, the study showed the central function of behavior regulation for school achievement underlining negative relations of maternal restrictive control with children's self-regulation and school achievement in diverse cultural contexts. Culturally adapted interventions related to parenting practices to promote children's behavior regulation may assist in also promoting children's school achievement. PMID:27303318
Louis, Andrea; And Others
An Australian study of 110 mother-infant dyads and 85 mother-toddler dyads in which the mothers were mentally ill evaluated the effectiveness of the Mother and Child Risk Observation (MACRO). Results found that MACRO offers a convenient framework for assessing risk and interpreting the impact of maternal mental illness upon children. (Author/CR)
Thackeray, Lisa A.; Eatough, Virginia
Background: The predominant focus of extant literature exploring maternal experience of developmental disability has been stress, adaptation, efficacy of interventions and the burden of care. Most studies involve mothers of children, with scant attention given to what life is like later. This study qualitatively explores the experience of mothers…
Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Spinelli, Maria; Poehlmann, Julie; Bolt, Daniel
This prospective longitudinal study examined predictors of parenting stress trajectories over time in a sample of 125 mothers and their preterm infants. Infant (multiple birth, gestational age, days hospitalized, and neonatal health risks) and maternal (socioeconomic, education, depressive symptoms, social support, and quality of interaction during infant feeding) characteristics were collected just prior to infant hospital discharge. Parenting stress and maternal interaction quality during play were measured at 4, 24, and 36 months corrected age. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze infant and maternal characteristics as predictors of parenting stress scores and change over time. Results indicated significant variability across individuals in parenting stress at 4 months and in change trajectories. Mothers of multiples and infants with more medical risks and shorter hospitalization, and mothers with lower education and more depressive symptoms, reported more parenting stress at 4 months of age. Parenting stress decreased over time for mothers of multiples and for mothers with lower education more than for mothers of singletons or for mothers with higher educational levels. Changes in parenting stress scores over time were negatively associated with maternal behaviors during mother–infant interactions. Results are interpreted for their implications for preventive interventions. PMID:24188086